WorldWideScience

Sample records for swales

  1. Compost-amended biofiltration swale evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    From May 2009 through June 2010, Herrera Environmental Consultants conducted hydrologic : and water quality monitoring of a compost-amended biofiltration swale and a standard (control) : biofiltration swale in the median of State Route 518 for the Wa...

  2. Evaluation on Flow Discharge of Grassed Swale in Lowland Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaffa Nurhazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassed swale is an open vegetated channel designed specifically in attenuating stormwater runoff to decrease the velocity, to reduce the peak flows, and minimize the causes of flood. Therefore, the fundamental of this study is to evaluate the flow discharge of swale in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM, which has flat land surface area. There are two sites of study were involved to assess the performance of swale as stormwater quantity control, named as swale 1 and swale 2. Data collection was conducted on 100 meters of length for each swale. The velocity of swale was measured thrice by using a current meter according to the six-tenths depth method, after a rainfall event. The discharge of drainage area in UTHM was determined by the Rational Method (Qpeak, and the discharge of swales (Qswale was evaluated by the Mean-Section Method. Manning’s roughness coefficient and the infiltration rate were also determined in order to describe the characteristics of swale, which contributing factors for the effectiveness of swale. The results shown that Qswale is greater than Qpeak at swale 1 and swale 2, which according to the Second Edition of MSMA, the swales are efficient as stormwater quantity control in preventing flash flood at the campus area of UTHM.

  3. Variations of Roughness Coefficients with Flow Depth of Grassed Swale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, N.; Ahmad, N. A.; Razi, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Grassed swales are the best management practice (BMP), which has been widely used to reduce the peak flow, reduce water pollution through vegetated filtration, and improve the groundwater recharge. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) is using the approach of grassed swales recommended by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) for reducing the risk of flooding and controlling the water pollution. This paper investigates the variations of roughness coefficients with the flow depth of grassed swales in the campus of UTHM. Fieldwork was carried out on the grassed swale to collect the hydraulic data, which including the levelling work, measuring the flow depth and flow velocity of the swale. The flow depth of swale was taken at three points divided along the width of swale and the flow velocity is captured three times at each of the point. The variations of roughness coefficients of grassed swales are presented in Manning's equation, and the results reveal that the n value increases with the increasing of flow depth. Manning's coefficient value found in this study is in the range of 0.110 to 0.756, which are higher than the value proposed by the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA). The relationships of flow depth and velocity at each section of the swale are portrayed in graphs, which show that the velocity increases with the decreasing of flow depth. The outcomes of this study can be concluded that the variation of Manning's coefficient value is influenced by the swale profile, flow depth, flow velocity, and as well as the vegetation used in the grassed swale concerned.

  4. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-03-16

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  5. A very Freudian affair: Erich Fromm, Peter Swales and the future of psychoanalytic historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Despite steadfast denials by Ernest Jones, Peter Gay and Paul Roazen (among others), a recent discovery by Franz Maciejewski renders it reasonably certain that Freud had an affair with his sister-in-law, Minna Bernays. While this discovery vindicates certain claims made by the controversial Freud scholar, Peter Swales, other claims of his vis-a-vis Freud's personality and ideas are open to doubt. Meanwhile, the reception of Swales's ideas, and indeed the whole controversy about Freud's love life, provide ample confirmation of many of Erich Fromm's prescient theses about Freud's personality and the politics and historiography of psychoanalysis.

  6. Study on Storm-Water Management of Grassed Swales and Permeable Pavement Based on SWMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Xie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grassed swales and permeable pavement that have greater permeable underlying surface relative to hard-pressing surface can cooperate with the city pipe network on participating in urban storm flood regulation. This paper took Nanshan village in Jiangsu Province as an example, the storm-water management model (SWMM was used to conceptualize the study area reasonably, and the low-impact development (LID model and the traditional development model were established in the region. Based on the storm-intensity equation, the simulation scene employed the Chicago hydrograph model to synthesize different rainfall scenes with different rainfall repetition periods, and then contrasted the storm-flood-management effect of the two models under the condition of using LID facilities. The results showed that when the rainfall repetition period ranged from 0.33a to 10a (a refers to the rainfall repetition period, the reduction rate of total runoff in the research area that adopted LID ranged from 100% to 27.5%, while the reduction rate of peak flow ranged from 100% to 15.9%, and when the values of unit area were the same, the combined system (permeable pavement + grassed swales worked more efficiently than the sum of the individuals in the reduction of total runoff and peak flow throughout. This research can provide technical support and theoretical basis for urban LID design.

  7. Assessment of Biosorption Activated Media Under Roadside Swales for the Removal of Phosphorus from Stormwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff from highways is a source of pollution to surface water bodies and groundwater. Excess loadings of phosphorus in stormwater discharged to surface water bodies can result in eutrophication. Treatment of stormwater for phosphorus is necessary in order to sustain ecological and economical benefits related to aquatic resources. If phosphorus is removed, the water can be sustained for other uses, such as irrigation and industrial applications. The data presented in this paper is used to evaluate the treatment performance of a roadside biosorption activated media system with regards to the removal of total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus from highway runoff. The evaluation also compares removal efficiencies and effluent concentrations using biosorption activated media (BAM to that with sandy soil commonly found in the Florida area. The results presented in this paper indicate that BAM bio-filtration systems are a feasible treatment method for removing phosphorus from highway runoff. A discussion concerning the additional treatment and reuse of water by harvesting, as part of a Bio-filtration & Harvesting Swale System, is also presented in the paper.

  8. Three-Dimensional Investigation of a 5 m Deflected Swale along the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    KAUST Repository

    Akciz, S. O.

    2014-10-21

    Topographic maps produced from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data are useful for paleoseismic and neotectonic research because they provide submeter representation of faulting-related surface features. Offset measurements of geomorphic features, made in the field or on a remotely sensed imagery, commonly assume a straight or smooth (i.e., undeflected) pre-earthquake geometry. Here, we present results from investigation of an ∼20 cm deep and >5 m wide swale with a sharp bend along the San Andreas fault (SAF) at the Bidart fan site in the Carrizo Plain, California. From analysis of LiDAR topography images and field measurements, the swale was initially interpreted as a channel tectonically offset ∼4:7 m. Our observations from exposures in four backhoe excavations and 25 hand-dug trenchettes show that even though a sharp bend in the swale coincides with the trace of the A.D. 1857 fault rupture, the swale formed after the 1857 earthquake and was not tectonically offset. Subtle fractures observed within a surficial gravel unit overlying the 1857 rupture trace are similar to fractures previously documented at the Phelan fan and LY4 paleoseismic sites 3 and 35 km northwest of Bidart fan, respectively. Collectively, the fractures suggest that a post-1857 moderate-magnitude earthquake caused ground cracking in the Carrizo and Cholame stretches of the SAF. Our observations emphasize the importance of excavation at key locations to validate remote and ground-based measurements, and we advocate more geomorphic characterization for each site if excavation is not possible.

  9. Evaluation of site-specific factors influencing heavy metal contents in the topsoil of vegetated infiltration swales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmeyer, Nils; Huber, Maximilian; Drewes, Jörg E.; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Stormwater runoff of traffic areas is usually polluted by organic and inorganic substances and must be treated prior to discharge into groundwater. One widely used treatment method is infiltrating the runoff over the topsoil of vegetated swales. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the heavy metal contents in such topsoil layers of vegetated infiltration swales near highways, roads, and parking lots. In total, 262 topsoil samples were taken from 35 sampling sites, which varied in age, traffic volume, road design, driving style, and site-specific conditions. In the evaluation of all soil samples, the median heavy metal values of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were yielding 0.36 (mean: 1.21) mg/kg DM, 37.0 (mean: 44.5) mg/kg DM, 28.0 (mean: 61.5) mg/kg DM, 27.0 (mean: 71.9) mg/kg DM, and 120 (mean: 257) mg/kg DM, respectively. The main purpose was to evaluate the site-specific data (i.e., surrounding land use characteristics, traffic area site data, and operational characteristics). In general, heavy metal contents increased with increasing traffic volumes. However, other factors also had a notable impact. Factors such as road design (e.g., curves, crossings, and roundabouts) and grade of congestion significantly influenced the heavy metal contents. High heavy metal contents were detected for stop-and-go areas, roundabouts, crossings, and sites with traffic lights, signs, and guardrails. Findings of this study can be used to identify highly polluted traffic areas and to verify or improve standards regarding the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. - Highlights: • Correlation of contents with traffic volume, road design, and stop-and-go traffic • Increased heavy metal contents at stop-and-go sites, roundabouts, and crossings • Different soil contents and behavior of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc • Identification of factors influencing the variability of zinc in topsoil samples

  10. Laboratory based experiments to assess the use of green and food based compost to improve water quality in a Sustainable Drainage (SUDS) device such as a swale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, S M; Nnadi, E; Oyelola, O; Bennett, J; Warwick, F; Jackson, R; Lawson, D

    2012-05-01

    Many tonnes of compost are generated per year due to door step composting of both garden and kitchen waste. Whilst there are commercial outlets for the finer grade of compost (25 mm). This paper reports part of a WRAP-sponsored (Waste Resources Action Programme) study which investigated the potential for green (GC) and mixed green and food (MC) composts to be incorporated into Sustainable Drainage (SUDS) devices such as swales, and replace the topsoil (TS) onto which turf is laid or grass seed distributed. However, it is not known whether compost can replace TS in terms of pollutant remediation, both the trapping of polluted particulates and in dealing with hydrocarbons such as oil, but also from a biofilm development and activity perspective. Using laboratory based experiments utilising leaching columns and an investigation of microbiological development in the composts studied, it was found that many of the differences in performance between MC and GC were insignificant, whilst both composts performed better in terms of pollutant retention than TS. Mixed compost in particular could be used in devices where there may be oil spillages, such as the lorry park of a Motorway Service Area due to its efficiency in degrading oil. Samples of GC and MC were found to contain many of the bacteria and fungi necessary for an active and efficient biofilm which would be an argument in their favour for replacement of TS and incorporation in swales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (agricultural runoff pollution control.

  12. Swales' Cars Model and the Metaphor of Research Space: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To this end, the introductions of 59 RAs published in the Legon Journal of the Humanities from 2005 to 2010 were analyzed using the CARS model. The findings reveal that the authors of these RAs may perhaps not be exploiting Step 3 (reviewing items of previous research) under Move 1 in order to reinforce the research ...

  13. Swales' Cars Model and the Metaphor of Research Space: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    following academics for reading through drafts of the paper and offering valuable suggestions: Prof. KwesiYankah, former ... in the analysis of a variety of texts such as research articles, abstracts, and dissertations/theses ... The relative importance of Move 2 derives from its role as an indicator of the relevance of the new or ...

  14. Effect of logging on subsurface pipeflow and erosion: coastal northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer

    1992-01-01

    Abstract - Three zero-order swales, each with a contributing drainage area of about 1 ha, were instrumented to measure pipeflows within the Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed in northwestern California, USA. After two winters of data collection, the second-growth forest on two of the swales was clearcut logged. The third swale remained as an uncut control. After...

  15. Long-term hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems:a field survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed; Engström, Malin; Viklander, Maria; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the factors influencing the long-term hydraulic performance of some stormwater infiltration systems (swale and two types of permeable pavements) in Växjö, southern Sweden. The infiltration capacities of 9 permeable pavements and 2 swales sites, all with different ages ranging from 1 year to 14 years, were measured using replicate double ring infiltrometers. The sites were either constructed of swale (2), interlocking concrete pavers (ICP) filled with gravel (2), concrete g...

  16. Medical ethics: some reservations

    OpenAIRE

    Swales, J D

    1982-01-01

    In this symposium Professor Swales, a professor of medicine, argues that medical ethics cannot be separated conceptually or practically from medical practice and training generally. In direct responses two medical ethicists from America and a British GP rebut this claim. Professor Swales replies briefly to his critics.

  17. Research Article Abstracts and Introductions: A Comparative Genre-Based Study of Arabic and English in the Fields of Educational Psychology and Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Hmoud

    2013-01-01

    The genre of the research article has attracted the attention of researchers, particularly after the research conducted by Swales (1981). In 1990, Swales introduced the Create a Research Space (CARS) model which consists of three rhetorical moves (i.e. units): Move 1: creating a research territory, Move 2: establishing a niche, and Move 3:…

  18. Integrating ground-penetrating radar and borehole data from a Wadden Sea barrier island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Møller, I.; Nielsen, L. H.

    2009-01-01

    observe two prominent reflections which, in general, exhibit good continuity. The upper prominent reflection (0-2 m above present mean sea level (pmsl)) outlines swales and beach ridge flanks. In depressions (swales), this reflection has a complex signature originating from the contrasts in electrical...

  19. Changes in soil moisture and pore pressure after harvesting a forested hillslope in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth T. Keppeler; Robert R. Ziemer; Peter H. Cafferata

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - In 1987, a 0.83-ha zero-order swale was instrumented with 58 pierometers and 25 tensiometers along several hillslope transects. Through 1993, soil moisture conditions were measured by pressure transducers connected to a digital data logger recording at 15-minute intervals. In August 1989, the 100-year-old second-growth forest in the swale was felled. Logs...

  20. Research Article Introductions in Chinese and English: A Comparative Genre-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Chek Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical organisation of English and Chinese research article introductions in the field of educational psychology using (Swales, 1990) and (Swales, 2004) framework of move analysis. A corpus of 40 research articles (20 Chinese and 20 English) was selected. The English research articles, written by first-language…

  1. Venus Lander Experiment Vessel, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceramic Composites Inc. (CCI) of Millersville, MD in association with Swales Aerospace of Beltsville, MD have evaluated an innovative approach for the design of a...

  2. Soil bioengineering for control of soil erosion in a re-constructed waterway on an Alberta oil sands overburden dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, P. [Terra Erosion Control Ltd., Nelson, BC, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described the development and implementation of an erosion control prescription using a soil bioengineering approach for a waterway swale that was retrofitted into an oil sands overburden dump in Alberta. The prescription and implementation involved 29 brush sills installed across the swale, smaller diameter cuttings installed in the middle of each sill for water dispersion, trial contour fascines installed across the swale, the creation of an upstream wetland, and fertilization and broadcast seeding with a barley nurse crop. Monitoring revealed the survival and growth of the brush sills to be good, and the trial section of contour fascines proved to perform better at dispersing water than the brush sill structures alone. Repair and maintenance involved the replacement of brush sill sections that had died off, the addition of contour fascines above all the brush sills, live staking at the centre of the swale, the installation of muskeg and seed-filled burlap bags to fill in eroded areas, additional applications of soil amendments, and broadcast seeding with native grass mix. It was concluded that the brush sills result in channel erosion. When combined with accumulated organic debris, the sills cause splash erosion. The use of contour fascines, without brush sills, appears to diffuse water instead of making channels or creating splash erosion. The project was successful in preventing accelerated gully formation in the swale, and creating wildlife habitat. 13 figs.

  3. Final Environmental Assessment to Implement the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission Recommendations for Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    calyculata Leatherleaf ─ SC wetlands and bogs Cyperus lecontei Leconte’s flatsedge ─ SC sand dune swales; pond margins Echinodorus parvulus Dwarf burhead...pod CIRF to support the workload. Many BRAC actions are tied together. Not performing these actions would have a ripple effect across several other

  4. Tekstgenrer og virksomhedskommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni

    1995-01-01

    Dette working-paper tager udgangspunkt i Bhatia/Swales' genremodel og omfatter en kritisk diskussion af dennes models egnethed til genrebestemmelse af tekster inden for virksomhedskommunikation. Kan f.eks. reklamegenren betragtes som en supergenre, der dækker over en lang række tekstgenrer? Denne...

  5. A Move-Analytic Contrastive Study on the Introductions of American and Philippine Master's Theses in Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintao, Rachelle B.; Erfe, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study purports to foster the understanding of profession-based academic writing in two different cultural conventions by examining the rhetorical moves employed by American and Philippine thesis introductions in Architecture using Swales' 2004 Revised CARS move-analytic model as framework. Twenty (20) Master's thesis introductions in…

  6. Rhetorical Analysis of the Doctoral Abstracts on English Language Teaching in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Kemal Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Doctoral dissertation has an important role to embark on an academic career confidently. The case is much more challenging for the early career doctorate who strives to contribute to the wider academic community. Using Swale's IMRD model, this study analyzed the rhetorical organization of English abstracts of 147 doctoral dissertations written…

  7. A one-dimensional model of subsurface hillslope flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason C. Fisher

    1997-01-01

    Abstract - A one-dimensional, finite difference model of saturated subsurface flow within a hillslope was developed. The model uses rainfall, elevation data, a hydraulic conductivity, and a storage coefficient to predict the saturated thickness in time and space. The model was tested against piezometric data collected in a swale located in the headwaters of the North...

  8. Rhetorical Structure of Education Research Article Methods Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoya; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rhetorical move structure of the education research article genre within the framework of Swales' (1981, 1990, 2004) move analysis. A corpus of 120 systematically sampled empirical education research articles served as data input for the analysis. The results indicate that the education research article methods section…

  9. Computer-aided analysis of LANDSAT data for surveying Texas coastal zone environments. [Pass Cavallo and Port O'Conner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, S. J. (Principal Investigator); Weismiller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The study areas were Pass Cavallo and Port O'Connor. The following terrestrial and aquatic environments were discriminated: alternating beach ridges, swales, sand dunes, beach birms, deflation surfaces, land-water interface, urban, spoil areas, fresh and salt water marshes, grass and woodland, recently burned or grazed areas, submerged vegetation, and waterways.

  10. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  11. Business and Legal Case Genre Networks: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The framework of genre systems (Bazerman, 1994; Bhatia, 2004; Swales, 2004) offers an opportunity to illuminate the ways in which students enculturate into their disciplinary cultures (Berkenkotter & Huckin, 1995). To explore the ways in which genre chains are constructed through engagement in specific tasks, this study investigates two…

  12. Systematising "System": One Reviewer's Analysis of the Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one reviewer's experience of reviewing for the journal "System" over an eight-year period, 2003-2011. The paper reports on the reviews produced by the single reviewer, which have been compiled into a specific purpose--an "occluded"--corpus (Swales, 1996) of 122 reviews, comprising 93,000 words. The paper first describes the…

  13. The Generic Integrity of Newspaper Editorials: A Systemic Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansary, Hasan; Babaii, Esmat

    2005-01-01

    One fruitful line of research has been to explore the local linguistic as well as global rhetorical patterns of particular genres in order to identify their recognizable structural identity, or what Bhatia (1999: 22) calls "generic integrity". In terms of methodology, to date most genre-based studies have employed one or the other of Swales'…

  14. A Genre-Based Investigation of Discussion Sections of Research Articles in Dentistry and Disciplinary Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Outwardly the rhetorical organisation of sections of research reports in different disciplines can appear similar. Close examination, however, may reveal subtle differences. Numerous studies have drawn on the genre-based approach developed by Swales (1990, 2004) to investigate the schematic structure of sections of articles in a range of…

  15. Is the press release a genre? a study of form and content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2006-01-01

    Although using different labels, genre theorists from different traditions have generally given privilege to the communicative purpose, in this article referred to as rhetorical objective, as genre determinant (see e.g. Swales 1990; Bhatia, 1993; see also Hasan, 1989; Halliday and Martin, 1993; E...

  16. Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…

  17. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...... isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has...... peninsula. Furthermore, topography along the profile lines, primary on beach ridge summits and swale bases, was measured to be included in the interpretation of the GPR reflection data using a high-resolution GPS system. The topography-corrected GPR data allow us to interpret internal sedimentary...

  18. Inhibitor Profile of bis(n)-tacrines and N-methylcarbamates on Acetylcholinesterase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplus and Phlebotomus Papatasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    carbamates differ D.R. Swale et al. / Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 106 (2013) 85–92 89 for tick and sandfly AchE. For rBmAChE1, the loss of... carbamate acaricides, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 21 (1968) 759–767. [15] R. O’Brien, Insecticides action and metabolism, Academic Press, New York, 1967. [16] A. Li...experimental carbamate anticholinesterases originally designed for control of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. One experimental compound, 2-((2

  19. Final A Street Pond Expansion Environmental Assessment at Beale Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    EUCALYPTUS STANDS OTHER SEASONAL WETLAND PERMANENT MARSH RIPARIAN WETLANDS SEASONAL SWALE VERNAL POOL 0 1 20.5 Miles Figure 3-1 Habitat Communities Beale Air...Part B permit. Contaminated soil was identified and removed from the site. Soil vapor extraction and bioventing systems were installed within this...daytime 40 Quiet urban night time 30 Quiet rural night time 20 Rustling leaves 10 Mosquito at 3 feet Beale Air Force Base Final A Street Pond

  20. Waters without borders: Transboundary water governance and the role of the ‘transdisciplinary individual’ in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available management and vice versa (GWP, 2010). This implies that close attention should be paid to the importance of not only integrating disciplines but also integrating different levels of scale for more effective holistic management (Pollard and Du Toit, 2008... awareness of the importance of integrated approaches, transdisciplinarity and holistic water management (Arthington et al., 1992; Arthington, 1998; Swales and Harris, 1995; King et al., 2003; King and Brown, 2006; Pollard and Du Toit, 2008...

  1. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    this indicator is associated with swales or depressions. Agricultural crops and other introduced or planted species, such as alfalfa (Medicago spp... cycle is a long-term pattern of multi-year droughts alternating with years of higher-than-average rainfall. Wetlands in general are inundated or...become inundated or ERDC/EL TR-10-3 116 saturated in some years and, during drought cycles , may not inundate or saturate for several years in a

  2. Continuous Fiber Wound Ceramic Composite (CFCC) for Commercial Water Reactor Fuel. Technical progress report for period ending April 1, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Our program began on August 1, 1999. As of April 1, 2000, the progress has been in materials selection and test planning. Three subcontracts are in place (McDermott Technologies Inc. for continuous fiber reinforced ceramic tubing fabrication, Swales Aerospace for LOCA testing of tubes, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology for In Reactor testing of tubes). With regard to materials selection we visited McDermott Technologies Inc. a number of times, including on February 23, 2000 to discuss the Draft Material Selection and Fabrication Report. The changes discussed at this meeting were implemented and the final version of this report is attached (attachment 1). McDermott Technologies Inc. will produce one type of tubing: Alumina oxide (Nextel 610) fiber, a carbon coating (left in place), and alumina-yttria matrix. A potentially desirable CFCC material of silicon carbide fiber with spinel matrix was discussed. That material selection was not adopted primarily due to material availability and cost. Gamma Engineering is exploring the available tube coatings at Northwestern University as a mechanism for reducing the permeability of the tubes, and thus, will use coating as a differentiating factor in the testing of tubing in the LOCA test as well as the In-Reactor Test. The conclusion of the Material Selection and Fabrication Report lists the possible coatings under evaluation. With regard to Test Planning, the MIT and Swales Aerospace have submitted draft Test Plans. MIT is attempting to accommodate an increased number of test specimens by evaluating alternative test configurations. Swales Aerospace held a design review at their facilities on February 24, 2000 and various engineering alternatives and safety issues were addressed. The final Test Plans are not expected until just before testing begins to allow for incorporation of changes during ''dry runs.''

  3. Continuous Fiber Wound Ceramic Composite (CFCC) for Commercial Water Reactor Fuel. Technical progress report for period ending April 1, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    Our program began on August 1, 1999. As of April 1, 2000, the progress has been in materials selection and test planning. Three subcontracts are in place (McDermott Technologies Inc. for continuous fiber reinforced ceramic tubing fabrication, Swales Aerospace for LOCA testing of tubes, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology for In Reactor testing of tubes). With regard to materials selection we visited McDermott Technologies Inc. a number of times, including on February 23, 2000 to discuss the Draft Material Selection and Fabrication Report. The changes discussed at this meeting were implemented and the final version of this report is attached (attachment 1). McDermott Technologies Inc. will produce one type of tubing: Alumina oxide (Nextel 610) fiber, a carbon coating (left in place), and alumina-yttria matrix. A potentially desirable CFCC material of silicon carbide fiber with spinel matrix was discussed. That material selection was not adopted primarily due to material availability and cost. Gamma Engineering is exploring the available tube coatings at Northwestern University as a mechanism for reducing the permeability of the tubes, and thus, will use coating as a differentiating factor in the testing of tubing in the LOCA test as well as the In-Reactor Test. The conclusion of the Material Selection and Fabrication Report lists the possible coatings under evaluation. With regard to Test Planning, the MIT and Swales Aerospace have submitted draft Test Plans. MIT is attempting to accommodate an increased number of test specimens by evaluating alternative test configurations. Swales Aerospace held a design review at their facilities on February 24, 2000 and various engineering alternatives and safety issues were addressed. The final Test Plans are not expected until just before testing begins to allow for incorporation of changes during ''dry runs.''

  4. Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Luan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC and low-impact development (LID have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms.

  5. Testing sea-level markers observed in ground-penetrating radar data from Feddet, south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2012-01-01

    a number of profile lines across less than c. 60 years old berm, beach ridge and swale structures at the Feddet peninsula. The GPR images allow us to interpret internal sedimentary architecture, and here we focus especially on the identification of downlapping reflections, which are interpreted to mark...... fluctuations in past sea level due to variations in tidal effects and meteorological conditions (isostatic rebound is expected to have a minimal effect on Feddet (Hansen et al., 2011)). Comparison with existing time series of measurements of actual sea level from the Danish Maritime Safety Administration (from...

  6. Ciência na mídia: análise crítica de gênero de notícias de popularização científica Science in the news: critical genre analysis of science popularization news

    OpenAIRE

    Désirée Motta-Roth; Patrícia Marcuzzo

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta uma Análise Crítica de Gênero (proposta em MEURER, 2002; BHATIA, 2004; MOTTA-ROTH, 2005, a partir de princípios teóricos de BAKHTIN, 1986; SWALES, 2004; CHOULIARAKI; FAIRCLOUGH, 1999; HALLIDAY, 2004) de notícias de popularização da ciência (PC), enfocando o discurso reportado que populariza a ciência. Foram analisados 30 exemplares de notícias de PC dos sites BBC News e Scientific American. Ao mobilizar diferentes posições enunciativas (pesquisador, colegas e entidades, ...

  7. Influence of hydrologic modifications on Fraxinus pennsylvanica in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    We used tree-ring analysis to examine radial growth response of a common, moderately flood-tolerant species (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) to hydrologic and climatic variability for > 40 years before and after hydrologic modifications affecting two forest stands in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (USA): a stand without levees below dams and a stand within a ring levee. At the stand without levees below dams, spring flood stages decreased and overall growth increased after dam construction, which we attribute to a reduction in flood stress. At the stand within a ring levee, growth responded to the elimination of overbank flooding by shifting from being positively correlated with river stage to not being correlated with river stage. In general, growth in swales was positively correlated with river stage and Palmer Drought Severity Index (an index of soil moisture) for longer periods than flats. Growth decreased after levee construction, but swales were less impacted than flats likely because of differences in elevation and soils provide higher soil moisture. Results of this study indicate that broad-scale hydrologic processes differ in their effects on the flood regime, and the effects on growth of moderately flood-tolerant species such as F. pennsylvanica can be mediated by local-scale factors such as topographic position, which affects soil moisture.

  8. Reflexões em torno de um conceito psicolingüístico de tipo de texto Some reflections around a text type psycholinguistic concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair BONINI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de tipo de texto, após uma fase em que foi enfocado sob uma ótica cognitivista por van Dijk, com base na teoria dos esquemas cognitivos de Rumelhart, passou a ser objeto de estudo de outros pesquisadores (Adam, Swales sob novas perspectivas. Estes estudos recentes revigoraram o debate, proporcionando material teórico para a rediscussão do conceito de tipo em termos psicolingüísticos. Utilizando uma metodologia de pesquisa bibliográfica, o presente artigo pretende, assim, retomar a discussão sobre a superestrutura textual.The text type concept, after a phase in which it was focused on a cognitive view by van Dijk, based on the cognitive schemata theory of Rumelhart, became an object of study by other researchers (Adam, Swales in new perspectives. These recent studies strengthened the debate, providing theoretical material for the re-discussion of the concept of type in psycholinguistic terms. Using a methodology of bibliographic research, the present article proposes to retake a discussion about textual superstructure.

  9. Tsunami Disaster Risk Assessment and Prevention in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, H.; Harris, R. A.; Horns, D. M.; Yulianto, E.; Bunds, M. P.; Prasetyadi, C.; Emmett, C.; Hall, S.

    2016-12-01

    Java Island, Indonesia is the most populated area and one of the most tectonically active coastal nations on Earth. This island is the volcanic arc and accretionary wedge of the subduction zone of the Sunda and the Australia plate, where the Java Trench is located. However, the Java Trench hasn't had a mega or giant earthquake for at least 430 years according to historical records. Up to 30 m of slip may have accumulated on the subduction zone interface during this time, which is enough to produce a Mw 9.0 earthquake and large tsunami. One of the largest seismic gaps along the Sunda Arc is a 640 km section of the coast of west Java. The largest population center in this region is Pelabuhan Ratu, with is partially built on ridge and swale coastal plain topography. Candidate tsunami deposits were found in swales that may indicate inundation up to 1 km inland. Numerical modeling of various possible tsunami scenarios indicate that the configuration of the coastline may amplify a tsunami and cause high run-up in the most populated areas or the coast. Also, data from questionnaire surveys administered in Pelabuhan Ratu show a lack of awareness about how tsunamis threaten these communities and plans of action.

  10. Evaluation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Roadway Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Diana M; Grabowski, Marta K; Benitez, Amy C B; Schmidt, Arthur R; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-08-15

    Roadway drainage design has traditionally focused on cost-effectively managing water quantity; however, runoff carries pollutants, posing risks to the local environment and public health. Additionally, construction and maintenance incur costs and contribute to global environmental impacts. While life cycle assessment (LCA) can potentially capture local and global environmental impacts of roadway drainage and other stormwater systems, LCA methodology must be evaluated because stormwater systems differ from wastewater and drinking water systems to which LCA is more frequently applied. To this end, this research developed a comprehensive model linking roadway drainage design parameters to LCA and life cycle costing (LCC) under uncertainty. This framework was applied to 10 highway drainage projects to evaluate LCA methodological choices by characterizing environmental and economic impacts of drainage projects and individual components (basin, bioswale, culvert, grass swale, storm sewer, and pipe underdrain). The relative impacts of drainage components varied based on functional unit choice. LCA inventory cutoff criteria evaluation showed the potential for cost-based criteria, which performed better than mass-based criteria. Finally, the local aquatic benefits of grass swales and bioswales offset global environmental impacts for four impact categories, highlighting the need to explicitly consider local impacts (i.e., direct emissions) when evaluating drainage technologies.

  11. Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankaew, K.; Atwater, B.F.; Sawai, Y.; Choowong, M.; Charoentitirat, T.; Martin, M.E.; Prendergast, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent centuries provide no precedent for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, either on the coasts it devastated or within its source area. The tsunami claimed nearly all of its victims on shores that had gone 200 years or more without a tsunami disaster. The associated earthquake of magnitude 9.2 defied a Sumatra-Andaman catalogue that contains no nineteenth-century or twentieth-century earthquake larger than magnitude 7.9 (ref. 2). The tsunami and the earthquake together resulted from a fault rupture 1,500 km long that expended centuries' worth of plate convergence. Here, using sedimentary evidence for tsunamis, we identify probable precedents for the 2004 tsunami at a grassy beach-ridge plain 125 km north of Phuket. The 2004 tsunami, running 2 km across this plain, coated the ridges and intervening swales with a sheet of sand commonly 5-20 cm thick. The peaty soils of two marshy swales preserve the remains of several earlier sand sheets less than 2,800 years old. If responsible for the youngest of these pre-2004 sand sheets, the most recent full-size predecessor to the 2004 tsunami occurred about 550-700 years ago. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Thematization Strategies in the Generic Moves of Research Article Introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assef Khalili

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the heterogeneity of ideas regarding the definitions of genre, there are also common instances shared among scholars interested in particular aspects of the notion. Swales (1990 and Bhatia (1993 are primarily interested in the sociological and psychological aspects of genre's functioning and construction, respectively.. Swales analyzes the genre of 'article introduction', into four generic moves on the basis of the communicative intentions they serve, and Bhatia investigates the tactical aspects of their construction. The present paper, is an attempt to study the patterns of thematic development-based on Daneš(1974 proposed patterns-  in such generic moves. For this purpose, 12 academic papers were analyzed for their constituent generic move structures, with respect to the thematic choices and progression inside these moves. The results indicated that each move has characteristic patterns of thematic selection and progression, which must be motivated by the global discourse topic and the communicative intention of these moves, as moves of dissimilar communicative intentions had characteristic patterns of thematic selections. In the light of the result of the experiment conducted on the teachability of generic moves, it is believed that the present study can have insightful implications for writing and reading pedagogy.

  13. Dendritic Connectivity, Heterogeneity, and Scaling in Urban Stormwater Networks: Implications for Socio-Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, A.; Jovanovic, T.; Hale, R. L.; Gironas, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stormwater networks (USNs) are unique dendritic (tree-like) structures that combine both artificial (e.g., swales and pipes) and natural (e.g., streams and wetlands) components. They are central to stream ecosystem structure and function in urban watersheds. The emphasis of conventional stormwater management, however, has been on localized, temporal impacts (e.g., changes to hydrographs at discrete locations), and the performance of individual stormwater control measures. This is the case even though control measures are implemented to prevent impacts on the USN. We develop a modeling approach to retrospectively study hydrological fluxes and states in USNs and apply the model to an urban watershed in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. Using outputs from the model, we analyze over space and time the network properties of dendritic connectivity, heterogeneity, and scaling. Results show that as the network growth over time, due to increasing urbanization, it tends to become more homogenous in terms of topological features but increasingly heterogeneous in terms of dynamic features. We further use the modeling results to address socio-hydrological implications for USNs. We find that the adoption over time of evolving management strategies (e.g., widespread implementation of vegetated swales and retention ponds versus pipes) may be locally beneficial to the USN but benefits may not propagate systematically through the network. The latter can be reinforced by sudden, perhaps unintended, changes to the overall dendritic connectivity.

  14. Effects of two stormwater management methods on the quality of water in the upper Biscayne aquifer at two commercial areas in Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study is part of a continued effort to assess the effects of urban stormwater recharge on the water quality of the Biscayne aquifer in southeast Florida. In this report, the water-quality effects on shallow ground water resulting from stormwater disposal by exfiltration trench and grassy swale were investigated at two small commercial areas in Dade County, Florida. One study area (airport ) was located near the Miami International Airport and had a drainage area of about 10 acres overlying a sandy soil; the other study area ( free zone ) was located at the Miami International Free Trade Zone and had a drainage area of about 20 acres overlying limestone. The monitoring design for each study area consisted of seven sites and included water-quality sampling of the stormwater in the catch basin of the exfiltration trench, ground water from two wells 1 foot from the trench (trench wells), two wells 20 feet from the trench, and ground water from two wells at the swale from April 1985 through May 1986. Eleven water-quality variables (target variables) commonly found in high levels in urban stormwater runoff were used as tracers to estimate possible changes in ground-water quality that may have been caused by stormwater recharge. Comparison of the distribution of target variables indicated that the concentrations tended to be greater in the stormwater in the exfiltration trench than in water from the two wells 1 foot from the trench at both study areas. The concentration difference for several target variables was statistically significant at the 5-percent level. Lead, for example, had median concentrations of 23 and 4 micrograms per liter, respectively, in stormwater and water from the two trench wells at the airport study area, and 38 and 2 micrograms per liter, respectively, in stormwater and groundwater at the free zone. Similar reductions in concentrations between stormwater and water from the two trench wells were indicated for zinc at both study areas and also

  15. Factors impacting manganese transport from soils into rivers using data from Shale Hills CZO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, E.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many soils are enriched in trace elements due to atmospheric inputs from industrial sources but little is known about how long these contaminants persist in soils or the rates at which they are transferred into rivers. Modeling the movement of contaminants through the environment is complicated by the heterogeneity of soils and the variability of contaminant mobility across spatial scales. In this study, we use soil, water, and vegetation chemistry to compare rates of Mn contaminant mobilization and removal from soils at ridge, hillslope, and catchment-scales in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). The SSHCZO is a first-order, forested watershed located within the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Studies from the SSHCZO are compared to trends in long-term water quality measurements for the Susquehanna River to evaluate terrestrial inputs to the river system. At SSHCZO, we find that Mn is being removed ~7x more quickly from soils in swales than soils on convex-upward hillslopes; thus, swales are a large source of dissolved Mn to the stream. Release rates of Mn from all soils are dwarfed by rates of uptake into vegetation, consistent with the hypothesis that trees temporarily slow the removal of atmospherically-deposited Mn from the soil by accumulating Mn in plant biomass. However, elevated levels of dissolved organic carbon in soil pore waters may enhance Mn release in the swales; therefore, vegetation may first decrease then increase rates of Mn removal from soils over the long-term. Unlike the major rock-derived elements which exhibit chemostatic behavior, Mn concentrations in the stream vary widely over a large range of stream discharge rates. High Mn fluxes in the stream occur in short pulses that only weakly respond to precipitation events, suggesting that dissolved Mn loads in rivers are not solely driven by the hydrology but are rather strongly impacted by processes in the soil and stream sediments. Current

  16. A organização retórica do gênero artigo experimental em comunidades disciplinares distintas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leite Saboia da Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Com esta pesquisa, investigamos, em artigos científicos das áreas de Linguística, Geografia e Medicina, de que modo as unidades retóricas (SWALES, 1990 dos textos foram organizadas por membros experientes destas comunidades. Como objetivo central, pesquisamos se diferentes comunidades disciplinares (HYLAND, 2000 influenciam na construção dos gêneros acadêmicos partindo da hipótese de que campos disciplinares distintos constroem diferentemente os gêneros que utilizam. Para a análise dos artigos, utilizamos o modelo de organização retórica de Bernardino (2007, elaborado com base no modelo CARS (Create a Research Space proposto por Swales (1990 em sua Análise de Gêneros Textuais, para descrever a organização e a distribuição das unidades. Utilizamos também, como referencial teórico, os estudos de Swales (1990, 1992, 1998, 2004 a respeito de comunidades discursivas e do modelo CARS, o conceito sobre comunidade disciplinar de Hyland (2000 e os pressupostos teóricos de Motta-Roth (2001 e de Bernardino (2007 sobre o gênero artigo experimental (BERNARDINO, 2007. O corpus analisado é formado por seis exemplares do gênero artigo experimental, sendo dois de cada área, selecionados a partir de um levantamento aleatório em periódicos Qualis A e B. Para o reconhecimento das unidades retóricas, buscamos identificar pistas lexicais e pistas fisicamente localizadas no texto, como a marcação dos parágrafos. Os resultados apontaram para a influência das áreas disciplinares na distribuição das informações nos textos, uma vez que cada comunidade acadêmico-científica parece possuir convenções, normas, nomenclaturas e metodologias particulares para a composição de seus textos.

  17. Paddys Run Streambank Stabilization Project at the Fernald Preserve, Harrison, OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Legacy Management; Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering; Homer, John [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    The Fernald Preserve is a former uranium-processing plant that underwent extensive remediation pursuant to CERCLA and is now managed by the US DOE Office of Legacy Management. While remediation of buildings and soil contamination was completed in 2006, aquifer remediation is ongoing. Paddys Run is a second-order stream that runs to the south along the western side of the Fernald Preserve. The Paddys Run watershed encompasses nearly 41 km2 (16 mi2), including most of the Fernald site. Field personnel conducting routine site inspections in March 2014 observed that Paddys Run was migrating east via bank erosion into the “Pit 3 Swale,” an area of known surface-water contamination. The soil there was certified pursuant to site regulatory agreements and meets all final remediation levels. However, weekly surface-water monitoring is conducted from two puddles within the swale area, when water that exceeds the final remediation levels is present. Paddys Run had migrated east approximately 4 m (13 ft) in 2 years and was approximately 29 m (95 ft) from the sample location. This rapid migration threatened existing conditions that allowed for continued monitoring of the swale area and also threatened Paddys Run water quality. Therefore, DOE and regulators determined that the east bank of Paddys Run required stabilization. This was accomplished with a design that included the following components: relocation of approximately 145 m (475 ft) of streambed 9 m (30 ft) west, installation of a rock toe along the east bank, installation of two cross-vane in-stream grade-control structures, stabilization of a portion of the east bank using soil encapsulated lifts, and regrading, seeding, and planting within remaining disturbed areas. In an effort to take advantage of low-flow conditions in Paddys Run, construction was initiated in September 2014. Weather delays and subsurface flow within the Paddys Run streambed resulted in an interim shutdown of the project area in December 2014

  18. Quantifying morphological changes of cape-related shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Adams, P. N.; Parra, S. M.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2017-12-01

    The rising demand for marine resources has motivated the study of inner shelf transport processes, especially in locations with highly-developed coastlines, endangered-species habitats, and valuable economic resources. These characteristics are found at Cape Canaveral shoals, on the Florida Atlantic coast, where transport dynamics and morphological evolution are not well understood. To study morphological changes at these shoals, two sets of paired upward- and downward-pointing acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were deployed in winter 2015-2016. One set was deployed at the inner swale of Shoal E, 20 km southeast of the cape tip in 13 m depth, while the other set was located at the edge of Southeast shoal in 5 m deep. Upward-pointing velocity profiles and suspended particle concentrations were implemented in the Exner equation to quantify instantaneous rates of change in bed elevation. This computation includes changes in sediment concentration and the advection of suspended particles, but does not account for spatial gradients in bed-load fluxes and water velocities. The results of the computation were then compared to bed change rates measured directly by the downward-pointing ADCPs. At the easternmost ridge, quantified bed elevation change rates ranged from -7×10-7 to 4×10-7 m/s, and those at the inner swale ranged from -4×10-7 to 8×10-7 m/s. These values were two orders of magnitude smaller than rates measured by downward-pointing ADCPs. Moreover, the cumulative changes were two orders of magnitude larger at the ridge (-0.33 m, downward, and -0.13, m upward) than at the inner swale (cf. -6×10-3 m, downward, and 3×10-3 m, upward). These values suggest that bedform migration may be occurring at the ridge, that suspended sediments account for up to 30% of total bed changes, and that gradients in bed-load fluxes exert control on morphological change over the shoals. Despite uncertainties related to the ADCP-derived sediment concentrations, these

  19. Quantifying Hillslope to Watershed Erosional Response Following Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, S.; Pierson, F. B.; Williams, C. J.; Brooks, E. S.; Strand, E. K.; Seyfried, M. S.; Murdock, M.; Pierce, J. L.; Roehner, C.; Lindsay, K.; Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Across the western US, wildfires in sagebrush vegetation are occurring at a more frequent rate and higher severity. This has resulted in a decline of sagebrush rangeland. The changing fire regime can be attributed to invasive plant species and warming climate conditions. As the result of wildfire, protective vegetation cover is removed leaving the soil bare and exposed to erosion. Erosion following wildfire is a main concern among land managers due to the threat it poses to resources, infrastructure, and human health. Numerous studies have used artificial rainfall to assess post-fire runoff and erosion and rehabilitation treatment effectiveness. These results have found that high intensity rain events typical of summer convective storms drive post-fire erosion. The purpose of this study is to improve scientific understanding of how site-specific physical and biological attributes affect hillslope to watershed scale sediment yield on a mountainous burned sagebrush landscape. This study uses natural rainfall and a network of silt fences to quantify hillslope to watershed scale erosion response. The erosional drivers over various spatial scales were evaluated in context with vegetation recovery for a 2 year post-fire period. A network of silt fences was installed over long and short hillslope distances and in swales within the 130 ha Murphy Creek catchment in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho. We evaluated: 1) vegetation, soils, and sediment delivery across multiple spatial scales associated with 30 silt fences spanning north and south facing aspects, 2) precipitation input at two meteorological stations, and 3) watershed streamflow and sediment discharge from an existing weir. During the first and second year post-fire, the swales on both aspects produced more sediment than the short and long hillslopes. The results suggest that significant amounts of sediment and organic matter were deposited in the swales creating drifts. Sediment

  20. Field monitoring of a LID-BMP treatment train system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Wang, Xiangwen; Ti, Chaopu; Zhai, Yanyun; Field, Richard; Tafuri, Anthony N; Cai, Huihua; Yu, Shaw L

    2015-06-01

    In order to assess the urban runoff control effectiveness of a low-impact development best management practice (LID-BMP) treatment train system, a field test of selected LID-BMPs was conducted in China. The LID-BMPs selected include three grassed swales, a buffer strip, a bioretention cell, two infiltration pits, and a constructed wetland. The test site is in a campus in southern China. The LID-BMPs, connected in a series, received stormwater runoff from four tennis courts with an area of 2808 m(2) and eight basketball courts with an area of 4864 m(2). Construction of the LID-BMPs was completed in early spring of 2012, and the sampling was conducted during May of 2012 to September of 2013. During the sampling effort, besides the performance evaluations of grassed swales and the bioretention cell in controlling runoff quantity as well as quality, the emphasis was also on determining the performance of the LID-BMP treatment train system. A total of 19 storm events were monitored, with nine producing no runoff and ten producing runoff. Data collected from the ten storm events were analyzed for estimating runoff quantity (peak flow rate and total runoff volume) and quality reduction by the LID-BMPs. The sum of loads (SOL) method was used for calculating the water quality performance of LID-BMPs. Results indicated that, for peak flow rate, a bioretention cell reduction of 50-84 % was obtained, and grassed swale reduction was 17-79 %, with a runoff volume reduction of 47-80 and 9-74 %, respectively. For water quality, the bioretention cell in general showed good removal for zinc (nearly 100 %), copper (69 %), NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen) (51 %), and total nitrogen (TN) (49 %); fair removal for chemical oxygen demand (COD) (18 %); and poor removal for total suspended solids (TSS) (-11 %) and total phosphorus (TP) (-21 %). And its performance effectiveness for pollutant removal increased in the second year after 1 year of stabilizing. When considering the aggregated effect of

  1. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Spirit Rover at Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; hide

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera images at Gusev crater reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with high- to moderate-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular swales or hollows. Optically thick coatings of fine-grained ferric iron-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces and rock regions exposed by brushing or grinding show near-infrared spectral signatures consistent with the presence of mafic silicates such as pyroxene or olivine. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission, and astronomical observations captured solar transits by the martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, as well as a view of Earth from the martian surface.

  2. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  3. How ``Natural'' are inland wetlands? an example from the trail wood audubon sanctuary in Connecticut, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Robert M.; Harris, Sandra L.

    1991-09-01

    We examined the geology of a small inland wetland in Hampton, Connecticut to determine its postglacial history and to assess the severity of human impact at this remote wooded site. Using stratigraphic evidence, we dernonstrate that the present wetland was created when sediment pollution from a 19th-century railroad filled a preexisting artificial reservoir, and that the prehistoric wetland was a narrow drainage swale along Hampton Brook. This same, severely impacted wetland was interpreted by the Pulitzer Prize-winning naturalist Edwin Way Teale as a beautiful wilderness area of particular interest. These conflicting perceptions indicate that artificial wetlands can be naturally mitigated in less than a century of healing, even in the absence of deliberate management. We also point out that the “wilderness” value of the Teale wetland was in the eye of the beholder and that unseen human impacts may have improved the aesthetic experience.

  4. Análise retórica de introduções de artigos científicos da área da saúde pública

    OpenAIRE

    Ritti-Dias, Fernanda Goulart; Bezerra, Benedito Gomes

    2014-01-01

     A crescente demanda pela publicação de artigos científicos tem levado pesquisadores a preocuparem-se cada vez mais com a escrita no ambiente acadêmico. Sendo a introdução uma das seções responsáveis pela garantia de publicação do artigo e ainda pela aceitação do trabalho pela comunidade cientifica, merece, assim, especial atenção no momento de sua redação. Dessa forma, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar, por meio da aplicação do Modelo CARS (SWALES, 1990), de que modo introduções de ...

  5. Making sense of a generic label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Making sense of a generic label through linguistic context analysis: A study of genre (re)cognition among novices’ Considerable work has been done on written and spoken genres characterized by a high degree of ritualization with “predictable elements occurring in a predictable order” (Fairclough......, as in Martin, Christie and Rothery (1987) and Martin (1993), or consistency of communicative purposes as in Swales (1990) and Bhatia (1993)”. Common to these definitions are the notions of predictability and recognition of generic patterns, notions that are, however, not unproblematic. This article therefore......) that the students had studied during the course leading up to the exam. Given the lack of situated cognition (Bawarshi and Reiff, 2010: 79) of one of these genres, the students were requested to produce arguments and justification for assigning the genres presented to them to two different genre colonies...

  6. Appraisal Theory applied to the wine tasting sheet in English and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Wislocka Breit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is the application of Appraisal Theory (Martin & White, 2005 developed in the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics to wine tasting sheets. Firstly, whether this text type meets the defining requirements specified by Swales (1990 for the discursive genre will be verified. 110 tasting sheets in Spanish and English extracted from the Internet have been grouped into four corpora corresponding to the country of origin of the wine: Spain, Australia, California and New Zealand. An analysis undertaken with WordSmith Tools has demonstrated the positive polarization of all the texts and the existence of cultural differences reflected in the use of fruit-related terms, adjectives oenological terms and “oenological culturemes” (Wislocka Breit, 2012. An unforeseen result of the study was the strong contrast observed between the free and literary manner of the English and the concise style of Spanish tasting sheets.

  7. Microcomputer spacecraft thermal analysis routines (MSTAR) Phase I: The user interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teti, N.M. [Swales and Associates, Inc., Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Microcomputer Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Routines (MSTAR) software package is being developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center by Swales and Associates, Inc. (S&AI). In December 1992, S&AI was awarded a phase I Small Business Inovative Research contract fronm NASA to develop a microcomputer based thermal analysis program to replace the current SSPTA and TRASYS programs. Phase I consists of a six month effort which will focus on developing geometric model generation and visualization capabilities using a graphical user interface (GUI). The information contained in this paper encompasses the work performed during the Phase I development cycle; with emphasis on the development of the graphical user interface (GUI). This includes both the theory behind and specific examples of how the MSTAR GUI was implemented. Furthermore, this report discusses new applications and enhancements which will improve the capabilities and commercialization of the MSTAR program.

  8. How to Write an English Research Introduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is librarian analysis which collects the data from books and journal articles. Those articles and books chapters discuss about introductions in terms of their generic structures. The data collections were applied by reading, taking notes for their generic structures, and analyzing them in term of their generic structure models. Then, the data were reported using qualitative approach by describing their patterns. The results showed that there two big categories for their models, involving pattern models and free models. Pattern models dominated in this study because they have been applied seven experts, while free models have been applied by only two people. Therefore, this study suggests that if the journal, which you direct to publish your articles, doesn’t have pattern, you are recommended to apply the patterns as the following: CARS model from Swales, IPS model from Adnan (2011, Slatcher & Pennebaker, and Ball & Vincent.

  9. First Responses to Submissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    .4, 463-489. Swales, J.M. (1981): Aspects of Article Introductions. ESP Monographs No 1. Language Studies Unit, Aston University. - (1990): Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. - (1996): "Occluded genres in the academy: the case......The past 20-30 years have seen much scholarly interest in English for academic purposes, be it in the form of academic writing, academic English in general, or the various genres characteristic of academic communication in English. Over the same period of time, researchers at institutions of higher...... of the submission letter", in E. Ventola and A Mauranen (eds): Academic Writing: Intercultural and Textual Issues. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 45-58.  - and C.B. Feak (2000): English in Today's Research World: A Writer's Guide. Michigan University Press, Michigan....

  10. Helping spanish SMEs staff to develop their competence in writing business letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel González-Pueyo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the development of a website tool aimed at helping Spanish small and medium enterprises (SMEs staff to write their commercial correspondence in English. It describes the steps involved in the tool system design process, making an emphasis on the methodological criteria and rational that guided us to develop the site. In order to obtain the material, a corpus of commercial correspondence written in English was collected and later analysed, applying a genre-based approach as established by Bhatia (1993 and Swales (1990. The findings provided the move structure and strategies of each type of letter as well as the lexico-grammatical realizations of each move which later would be standardised and presented to be used systematically in the composition of letters with the same communicative purpose. This work illustrates how a genre-based approach can successfully be applied to ESP materials development.

  11. Changes in Holocene relative sea-level and coastal morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Sander, Lasse; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2015-01-01

    Changes in relative sea-level (RSL) during the Holocene are reconstructed based on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected across a raised beach ridge system on the island of Samsø, Denmark. The internal architecture of the beach ridge and swale deposits is divided into characteristic radar...... facies. We identify downlap points interpreted to mark the transition from the beachface to the upper shoreface and, thus, sea-level at the time of deposition. This new data set shows that beach steps can be preserved and resolved in GPR reflection data. This is important, as downlap points identified...... at the base of the beach steps should be corrected for beach step height in order to be used as a marker of sea-level. Identification of beach steps in combination with observed changes in dips of the interpreted beachface reflections can give information about changes in the morphodynamic conditions of beach...

  12. Air pollution damage to cell membranes in lichens. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, L.C.; Rodgers, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Downwind from field furnaces burning sulfur at the rate of 300 g/hr, SO/sub 2/ levels varied from 0.52 ppm at 10 m to 0.23 at 40 m in an open area where fumes could readily disperse but were considerably higher in an area where air movement was chanelled along a swale. The conductivity of water in which pieces of lichens were immersed following exposure to fumes from the field burners increased slightly in liches collected upwind from the burners or over 100 meters downwind, but increased considerably in specimens collected 15-30 m downwind. Leakage of electrolytes, as measured by increase in conductivity of water in which lichen pieces were immersed, was significantly higher downwind from burners in an open area than from those in a densely forested area.

  13. Tension and Conflict in the Labour Discourse Community: A Critical Genre Analysis of Labour Prime Ministers' Speeches to the TUC (1969-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ortu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Trade Unions have been the most important constituency of the British Labour Party since 1900. The relationship between the party and workers' organizations has undergone deep changes, resulting in the open confrontation that characterised the years of the latest Labour governments (1997-2010. Labour Prime Ministers' speeches to the annual conference of the Trade Union Congress form a genre on their own as they are addressed to a distinctive discourse community and respond to specific purposes (Swales 1990. They are institutionalised ways of acting semiotically (Fairclough 2003, 2006, thus aspects of the social practice of governing. This article provides a critical genre analysis of speeches by Labour Prime Ministers to the TUC from 1969 to 2007 to reveal the frictions inside the Labour discourse community.

  14. Tsunami sediments and their grain size characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulastya Putra, Purna

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of tsunami deposits are very complex as the deposition by tsunami is very complex processes. The grain size characteristics of tsunami deposits are simply generalized no matter the local condition in which the deposition took place. The general characteristics are fining upward and landward, poor sorting, and the grain size distribution is not unimodal. Here I review the grain size characteristics of tsunami deposit in various environments: swale, coastal marsh and lagoon/lake. Review results show that although there are similar characters in some environments and cases, but in detail the characteristics in each environment can be distinguished; therefore, the tsunami deposit in each environment has its own characteristic. The local geological and geomorphological condition of the environment may greatly affect the grain size characteristics.

  15. Steps towards Quantitative Assessment of the Effects of Water Sensitive Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerer, Sara Maria; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Binning, Philip John

    gardens and retention ponds. Thus the tool will help answer questions such as what is the expected reduction in potable water consumption if rainwater harvesting is implemented in a given neighborhood. The global constraints, such as restrictions on usage of nonpotable water, and local constraints...... and densification of cities, and demands for sustainability and multifunctionality. One of the solutions suggested is decentralized source control management, also known as Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD). However, previous research has shown that WSUD must be seen in a wider context than the mere retrofitting...... such as reduction in combined sewer overflow, increase in groundwater recharge, reduction in use of potable water, and increase in local recreational and property value. The tool will assess these effects for a number of different WSUD techniques, including green roofs, rainwater harvesting, swales, soakaways, rain...

  16. Gêneros introdutórios em livros acadêmicos

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Bezerra, Benedito

    2006-01-01

    Neste estudo, buscamos esclarecer, à luz da análise de gêneros de linha swalesiana, aspectos da constituição e identificação dos gêneros introdutórios em livros acadêmicos, considerando as diversas formas de sua atualização como artefato textual, sua relação com o suporte e o conjunto de propósitos comunicativos que procuram realizar. Para a análise sócio-retórica dos gêneros introdutórios, utilizamos como referencial os princípios gerais da teoria proposta por Swales (1990, 20...

  17. Spatial organization of process domains in headwater drainage basins of a glaciated foothills region with complex longitudinal profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Richard J.; Hassan, Marwan A.; Miller, Dan; Moore, R. D.

    2011-05-01

    Lithologic transitions and glaciations create complex longitudinal profiles that control contemporary erosion and deposition processes. In areas with these characteristics, traditional morphometric approaches for predicting process domains, such as area-slope plots, can be augmented by considering other predictors measured from high resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). Ordinal logistic regression was used to model the distribution of hillslope, swale, colluvial channel, and fluvial channel domains, as identified during field surveys. The study area was a glaciated region of the Rocky Mountain foothills with a complex lithostructural setting. Relationships between domains and a suite of geographic information system-derived descriptors were explored. Predictors included profile anomalies measured at the reach and basin scale using a normalized stream length-gradient (SL/k) index. Drainage area was the dominant factor controlling domains. A model with area as the only predictor was 82% accurate. Reach slope relations were not consistent. A model that also included lithology and basin-scale SL/k index variation was 87% accurate. Domain transitions had larger area thresholds in basins with resistant conglomerate versus sandstone or shale formations and where SL/k index was more variable along a profile. In a restricted model of hillslope, swale, and colluvial channel domains, profile curvature measured over 100 m was also related to domain occurrence. A model for regional-scale mapping applications with six additional predictors was 95% accurate. The results showed that ordinal logistic regression can be used to predict and map process domains in regions with complex physiography using descriptors measured from high -resolution DEMs.

  18. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hede, M. U.; Nielsen, L.; Clemmensen, L. B.; Noe-Nygaard, N.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & Software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet peninsula. Furthermore, topography along the profile lines, primary on beach ridge summits and swale bases, was measured to be included in the interpretation of the GPR reflection data using a high-resolution GPS system. The topography-corrected GPR data allow us to interpret internal sedimentary architecture which may be used as a proxy of past relative sea-level. High-resolution GPR images with a vertical resolution of c. 0.1 m of the near-surface sediments resolve downlapping reflections along the GPR profiles, which are interpreted to mark the transition from the beach to the upper shoreface regime (i.e. sea-level) at the time of deposition. Combining the variations in height of the downlaps (in meters above present mean sea-level) with optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques provides estimates of relative sea-level at specific times.

  19. Woody-grass ratios in a grassy arid system are limited by multi-causal interactions of abiotic constraint, competition and fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nano, Catherine E M; Clarke, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    Predicting changes in vegetation structure in fire-prone arid/semi-arid systems is fraught with uncertainty because the limiting factors to coexistence between grasses and woody plants are unknown. We investigated abiotic and biotic factors influencing boundaries and habitat membership in grassland (Triodia or 'spinifex' grassland)-shrubland (Acacia aneura or 'mulga' shrubland) mosaics in semi-arid central Australia. We used a field experiment to test for the effects of: (1) topographic relief (dune/swale habitat), (2) adult neighbour removal, and (3) soil type (sand/clay) on seedling survival in three shrub and two grass species in reciprocal field plantings. Our results showed that invasion of the shrubland (swale) by neighbouring grassland species is negated by abiotic limitations but competition limits shrubland invasion of the grassland (dune). All species from both habitats had significantly reduced survival in the grassland (dune) in the presence of the dominant grass (Triodia) regardless of soil type or shade. Further, the removal of the dominant grass allowed the shrubland dominant (A. aneura) to establish outside its usual range. Seedling growth and sexual maturation of the shrubland dominant (A. aneura) was slow, implying that repeated fire creates an immaturity risk for this non-sprouter in flammable grassland. By contrast, rapid growth and seed set in the grassland shrubs (facultative sprouters) provides a solution to fire exposure prior to reproductive onset. In terms of landscape dynamics, we argue that grass competition and fire effects are important constraints on shrubland patch expansion, but that their relative importance will vary spatially throughout the landscape because of spatial and temporal rainfall variability.

  20. The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua-peng; Li, Zhuo-xi; Fu, Guangtao

    2013-11-15

    Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than conventional urban drainage systems. However, its effects on urban flooding at a scale of urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when different rainfall characteristics are considered. In this paper, using an urbanizing catchment in China as a case study, the effects of three LID techniques (swale, permeable pavement and green roof) on urban flooding are analyzed and compared with the conventional drainage system design. A range of storm events with different rainfall amounts, durations and locations of peak intensity are considered for holistic assessment of the LID techniques. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction during a storm event compared to the conventional drainage system design. The results obtained indicate that all three LID scenarios are more effective in flood reduction during heavier and shorter storm events. Their performance, however, varies significantly according to the location of peak intensity. That is, swales perform best during a storm event with an early peak, permeable pavements perform best with a middle peak, and green roofs perform best with a late peak, respectively. The trends of flood reduction can be explained using a newly proposed water balance method, i.e., by comparing the effective storage depth of the LID designs with the accumulative rainfall amounts at the beginning and end of flooding in the conventional drainage system. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Cape Tribulation, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Crumpler, L. S.; McLennan, S. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Opportunity Rover is in its 11th year of exploration, currently exploring the Cape Tribulation rim segment of the ~22 km wide Noachian Endeavour Crater and its tilted and fractured outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is ~25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S levels relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven (gentle swale superimposed on Murray Ridge and site of Opportunity's 5th winter site) and the Hueytown fracture (running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright, wind-scoured outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August 2015. Pervasive but modest aqueous alteration of Endeavour's rim is implied by the combination of CRISM and Opportunity data, providing insight into early aqueous processes dominated in this location by relatively low water to rock ratios, and at least in part associated with enhanced fluid flow along fractures.

  2. O letramento acadêmico em inglês: dificuldades na confecção da seção introdução de artigos acadêmicos English academic literacy: difficulties in writing the introduction section of research articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Mendes Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as dificuldades de um pós-graduando da área de energia na confecção da introdução de um artigo acadêmico em inglês. Duas versões do texto foram analisadas (uma após a instrução e outra após a conferência com a instrutora, comparando-as com os modelos de introdução de Swales (2004 e de Samraj (2002 ensinados no curso. O aluno apresentou os seguintes problemas: a narração como modo de organização retórica do texto, a ausência do movimento 2 dos modelos, uma escolha inadequada de léxico. A combinação desses elementos impediu que o texto apresentasse o valor cultural do gênero textual artigo acadêmico - a autopromoção. Os dados suscitam questionamentos sobre os limites da descrição empírica dos gêneros textuais e de seu ensino.This paper discusses the difficulties of a graduate student in the area of Energy in writing the introduction of a research paper in English. Two versions of the text (one after the instruction and another after the conference with the instructor were compared with Swales' (2004 and Samraj' (2002 models of introductions taught in the English academic writing course offered. The student revealed the following problems: narration as the rhetorical mode of organization of the text, the absence of Move 2 of the introduction, inappropriate choice of vocabulary. The combination of these factors prevented the article from having the cultural value of the academic article genre: self-promotion. The data raise questions about the limits of empirical description of genres and their teaching based on this kind of description.

  3. The Great 1787 Corralero, Oaxaca, Tsunami Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Lagos, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Aguilar, B.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Caballero, M.; Ruíz-Fernández, A. C.; Suarez, G.; Ortuño, M.

    2013-05-01

    In 28th March 1787, more than two centuries ago, a deadly tsunami (related to the the San Sixto earthquake) poured over the coast of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas, along more than 500 km of the Mexican Pacific coast and up to 6 km inland, the tsunami destroyed mostly farmlands, and livestock and few villages since the density of population was sparse at the time, according to known historical accounts. We report the first geological evidence from the Corralero (Alotengo) lagoon coastal area to support these historical accounts. A transect was made with coring and test pits every 100 m from the coastline and up to 1.6 km inland. The test pits showed an anomalous sand layer that had been deposited in a single event in the swales of a series of beach ridges. The anomalous layer is continuous along the transect, about a 1000 m-long, and is formed of coarse to medium sand, at about 36 to 64 cm depth. It thickness varies, averaging 28 cm in the middle of a swale. Based on the accounts of the 1787 earthquake (M 8.6) and tsunami, we deduced that this might be the evidence of its existence. As the only major tsunami described at that time, the San Sixto earthquake-triggered tsunami. We used the stratigraphy, grain size, microfossils (foraminifera and diatoms), magnetic properties such as magnetic susceptibility, remanent magnetization analyses to reveal the nature of this anomalous sand layer. These proxies support a sudden and rapid event, consisting of sands transported by an extreme sea-wave inland. Further analysis will confirm the estimated age of this event.

  4. New Evidence of an Ancient Bald Cypress Forest on the Inner Shelf of Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.; Guilderson, T. P.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Climate models suggest cold-adapted trees grew in the southeastern United States (SE US) during glacial intervals yet there is a scarcity of paleoclimate records for marine isotope stages 3 to 5 in this region, limiting our understanding of early glacial oceanic-climatic conditions. Here we describe an offshore site with well-preserved in situ bald cypress stumps (Taxodium distichum) and woody remnants exposed in an eroding swale located 13.5 km from Orange Beach, Alabama in 18 m of seawater. T. distichum grows in warm and humid climates with low elevations (>0-50 m) preferring freshwater riparian environments with frequent flooding. Wood samples from exposed stumps and sediments have good preservation with cellular structure intact and smell like freshly cut cypress indicating preservation in anoxic conditions that suppressed biodegradation. Radiocarbon dating of eight wood subsamples, including an in situ stump, was inconclusive due to detection limits indicating the wood is older than 50,000 years. We conducted high-resolution geophysical surveys and coring operations in August 2015 recovering a total of 17.075 m of sediment cores. The base of these cores contain wood-bearing muddy peat sediments of the Pleistocene terrestrial wetlands. The geophysical surveys reveal the stumps are located around the eroding swale with possible river landforms visible in the side-scan sonar suggesting a paleochannel surrounded by bald cypress trees similar to modern swamps and bayous. Preliminary pollen analysis reveals an abundance of bald cypress (T. distichum), tupelo (Nyssa aquatic), and pine (Pinus spp.) similar to modern SE US wetlands. Ongoing sediment core analysis includes microfossil, palynology, and sedimentology analysis. Our preliminary results from this submerged glacial landscape suggest that coastal T. distichum wetlands were present in the early glacial interval along the northern Gulf Coast.

  5. Hydrology and Water and Sediment Quality at James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge near Kahuku, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; De Carlo, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    The James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge occupies two lowland marsh and pond complexes on the northern coastal plain of Oahu: the mostly natural ponds and wetlands of the Punamano Unit and the constructed ponds of the Kii Unit. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages the Refuge primarily to protect and enhance habitat for four endangered species of Hawaiian waterbirds. Kii Unit is fed by artesian wells and rainfall, whereas Punamano Unit is fed naturally by rainfall, runoff, and ground-water seepage. Streams drain from the uplands into lowland ditches that pass through Kii Unit on their way to the ocean. A high-capacity pump transfers water from the inner ditch terminus at Kii to the ocean outlet channel. Stormwaters also exit the inner ditch system over flood-relief swales near the outlet pump and through a culvert with a one-way valve. A hydrologic investigation was done from November 1996 through February 1998 to identify and quantify principal inflows and outflows of water to and from the Refuge, identify hydraulic factors affecting flooding, document ground-water/surface-water interactions, determine the adequacy of the current freshwater supply, and determine water and sediment quality. These goals were accomplished by installing and operating a network of stream-gaging stations, meteorology stations, and shallow ground-water piezometers, by computing water budgets for the two Refuge units, and by sampling and analyzing water and pond-bottom sediments for major ions, trace metals, and organic compounds. Streamflow during the study was dominated by winter stormflows, followed by a gradual recession of flow into summer 1997, as water that had been stored in alluvial fans drained to lowland ditches. Outflow at the ditch terminus in 1997 was 125 million gallons greater than measured inflow to the coastal plain, mainly reflecting gains from ground water along the ditches between outlying gages and the ditch terminus. Of the measured 1997 outflow, 98 percent

  6. The phosphorus content of fluvial sediment in rural and industrialized river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Philip N; Walling, Desmond E

    2002-02-01

    The phosphorus content of fluvial sediment (suspended sediment and the sediment) has been examined in contrasting rural (moorland and agricultural) and industrialized catchments in Yorkshire, UK. The River Swale drains a rural catchment with no major urban and industrial areas, and the total phosphorus (TP) content of fluvial sediment is generally within the range 500-1,500 microg g(-1). There is little evidence of any major downstream increase in TP content. In contrast, fluvial sediment from the industrialized catchments of the Rivers Aire and Calder exhibits both higher levels of TP content and marked downstream increases, with values of TP content ranging from 7,000 microg g(-1) at downstream sites. These elevated levels reflect P inputs from point sources, such as sewage treatment works (STWs) and combined sewer overflows. The influence of STWs is further demonstrated by the downstream increase in the inorganic P/organic P ratio from 4 in the lower reaches. Comparison of the P content of suspended sediment with that of the sediment and both discharge and suspended sediment concentration, reflecting changes in sediment and P sources during high flow events. Spatial variations in the P contents of the sediment evidence a similar pattern as those for suspended sediment, with relatively low levels of TP in the River Swale and elevated levels in the middle and downstream reaches of the Rivers Aire and Calder. The PP concentrations associated with floodplain and channel bed sediment are, however, lower than equivalent values for suspended sediment, and this primarily reflects the differences in the particle size composition between the three types of sediments. Rates of floodplain deposition and the amounts of fine-grained sediment stored in the river channels are relatively high, and suggest that such environments may represent important sinks for PP. Based on the sediment samples collected from the study basins, a simple four-fold classification which relates the

  7. Side-Scan Sonar Observations off Santa Rosa Island, Florida Before and After Hurricane Ivan, September 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, C.; Briggs, K. B.; Richardson, M. D.

    2005-05-01

    A 6-km2 area immediately offshore of Santa Rosa Island, Florida in 5-15-m water depth was surveyed with a 300-kHz side-scan sonar as part of the Coastal Dynamics in Heterogeneous Sedimentary Environments research initiative funded by the Office of Naval Research. Side-scan sonar observations were made five days before and five days after Hurricane Ivan made landfall approximately 100 km to the west of the study location in September 2004. The sonar observations made prior to the hurricane indicate a mostly sand bottom that included areas of uniform, small-scale wind-wave ripple morphology occurring mostly in the deeper regions of the western half of the survey area. The ripple orientation is shore-normal, with the crests and troughs essentially extending E-W. The ripple morphology is less prominent in the eastern half of the surveyed area and not apparent in the more shallow areas, consisting mostly of little apparent bottom structure. Imagery also show two distinct areas of low backscatter trending NW-SE through the survey area that appear to be mud swales. The obvious morphology change as a result of Hurricane Ivan was the widespread formation of low-backscatter patches that give the imagery a mottled texture. These patches vary in size and shape, but 25 m2 is typical. Diver observations in an area about 5 km to the east of the study site confirmed the existence of mud deposits, or mud-filled depressions. These mud deposits range in thickness from thin, 2-cm layers up to 15-cm deposits. Outflow from the lagoonal areas behind barrier islands after the passage of the hurricane likely supplied the mud that pooled in bathymetric depressions. Also, post-hurricane sonographs show more prominent wave ripples with larger crestal spacings and amplitude, but similar to pre-hurricane sonographs, ripples were less uniform to non-existent in the shallow areas. The mud swale formations remained and are better defined in the imagery after the hurricane. Particle-size analysis

  8. Os Processos Verbais Presentes nos Artigos Científicos da Revista Gestão e Secretariado: Uma Análise com Base na Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyla Christina Almeida Portela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este trabalho está inserido no Projeto SAL (Systemics across Languages que tem por objetivo apoiar pesquisas linguísticas que investigam a relação entre gramática e discurso em termos sistêmico-funcionais. O trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os processos verbais em 23 artigos científicos da revista Gestão e Secretariado, publicados online. Os processos verbais quando empregados, ratificam, esclarecem e explicam fatos ou situações, desempenhando um papel imprescindível na sustentação dos argumentos apresentados por autores frente à temática do texto. Como fundamentação teórica será utilizada a Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional (LSF, que estuda a língua em uso em diferentes contextos, desenvolvida por M.A.K Halliday (1985, 1994 e revista por Halliday e Matthiessen e outros. A pesquisa basearse-á na metafunção ideacional da Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional – que compreende a língua como atividade social, avaliando seus contextos de uso (HALLIDAY,1994 e HALLIDAY & MATTHIESSEN, 2004. No que se refere aos estudos sobre gêneros científicos, a pesquisa estará fundamentada em Bhatia (1993, Swales (1989, 1990, Swales & Feak (1999, Motta-Roth (1995, 2006 e outros. O gênero artigo científico é um gênero que serve como uma via de comunicação entre pesquisador, profissionais, professores e alunos de graduação e pós-graduação. Na análise dos dados, será observada a frequência dos processos do dizer e a sua relação com os participantes da oração (dizente e verbiagem. A metodologia utilizada será subsidiada pelo programa de Linguística de Corpus Wordsmith Tools 5.0 (Scott, 2009, mais especificamente as ferramentas wordList e concordance. Esta pesquisa pretende auxiliar o melhor entendimento de como os autores que publicam na revista Gestão e Secretariado utilizam dos processos do dizer.

  9. The Geological Trace Of The 1932 Tsunamis In The Tropical Jalisco-Colima Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Blecher, L.; Goff, J. R.; Corona, N.; Chague-Goff, C.; Lagos, M.; Hutchinson, I.; Aguilar, B.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Rangel, V.; Zawadzki, A.; Jacobsen, G.

    2013-05-01

    The study and preservation of tsunami deposits have being challenging in humid tropical environments. While tsunami deposits have been widely studied at temperate latitudes, few studies assess this problem in tropical environments due to the difficulties intrinsic to these places (e.g. tsunami deposit preservation, post-burial changes in a tropical environment, mangrove vegetation, difficult access, wildlife, among others). Here we assess the problem of tsunami-deposits preservation on the Jalisco-Colima tropical coast of Mexico, which parallels the more than 1000-km long Mexican subduction, where historical accounts indicate the occurrence of two significant tsunamis on June 3 and 22, 1932 (Corona and Ramírez-Herrera, 2012a, Valdivia et al., 2012). However, up to date, no geological evidence of these events has been reported. We present geological evidence of two large tsunamis related to the June 3, M 8.2 earthquake, and the June 22, Ms 6.9 landslide-triggering event of 1932 (Corona and Ramírez-Herrera, 2012a, b). A multiproxy approach was applied to unravel the nature of anomalous sand units and sharp basal contacts in the stratigraphy of a number of sites at Palo Verde estuary, El Tecuán swales and marsh, and La Manzanilla swales, on the Jalisco-Colima coast. Lines of evidence including historical, geomorphological, stratigraphic, grain size, organic matter content, microfossils (diatoms and foraminifera), geochemical content, magnetic susceptibility and AMS analyses, together with dating (210Pb and 14C), and modeling, corroborate the presence of tsunami deposits of both the 3 June 1932 tsunami at El Tecuán and La Manzanilla, and the 22 June 1932 tsunami at Palo Verde. Further evidence of earlier tsunamis, at least four events, is also evident in the stratigraphy. Work in progress should reveal the chronology of the earliest tsunamis and their origin. Corona, N., M.T. Ramirez-Herrera. (2012a) Mapping and historical reconstruction of the great Mexican 1932

  10. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Crumpler, L.; McLennan, S.; Farrand, W. H.; Joliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Opportunity Rover is currently in its 11th year of operations, exploring the rim of the approximately 22 km wide Noachian-age Endeavour Crater. Opportunity spent its 5th winter season in Cook Haven, a gentle swale along Murray Ridge. Two small rocks serendipitously overturned by rover wheel motions show evidence for aqueous precipitation of sulfates, and interaction with a strong oxidant (e.g., O2) to form a thin, high valence state Mn oxide coating. After the winter, Opportunity headed south to Cape Tribulation and explored Shoemaker formation impact breccias, finding numerous Ca-sulfate veins cutting across outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is approximately 25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven and the Hueytown (fracture running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright polygonal outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August

  11. Análise de citações em textos acadêmicos escritos An analysis of citations in written academic texts

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    Tatiana S. de Macedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um estudo de citações em escrita acadêmica na perspectiva da análise de citações e dos estudos de gêneros do discurso (Moravcsik & Murugesan, 1975; Swales, 1986, 1990, 2004; Bhatia, 2004. O estudo enfoca o uso de citações por membros expertos e membros novatos da comunidade acadêmica de Linguística e consistiu na análise e comparação de nove artigos acadêmicos e treze trabalhos finais de disciplina. Os resultados mostram que as escolhas linguísticas que orientam a escrita das citações são em grande parte compartilhadas pelos membros expertos (autores dos artigos acadêmicos e pelos novatos (alunos de curso de pós-graduação, autores dos trabalhos finais de disciplina, haja vista que ambos fazem uso de citações confirmativas, em detrimento de negativas. Todavia, membros expertos, ao contrário dos novatos, utilizam a própria voz para confrontar outros autores. As implicações deste estudo reiteram a necessidade de os Cursos de Letras terem uma abordagem de ensino e aprendizagem de escrita acadêmica baseada em gêneros do discurso visando desenvolver a consciência retórica dos alunos em relação à escrita acadêmica e, consequentemente, ao uso de citações em textos escritos, de maneira a empoderar os alunos a construir um posicionamento autoral em sua comunidade discursiva.This article reports on a study of citations in academic writing from the perspective of citation analysis and genre analysis (Moravcsik & Murugesan, 1975; Swales, 1986, 1990, 2004; Bhatia, 2004. The study focuses on the use of citations by expert and novice members of the Linguistics community and presents a comparative analysis of nine research articles and thirteen student term papers in that area. The results show that the linguistic choices that guide the writing of citations are largely shared by the expert members (authors of the research articles and the novice ones (graduate students authoring the papers in that both

  12. The potential of purpose-built corpora in the analysis of student academic writing in English

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    Julia Hüttner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards using English as an academic lingua franca has undoubtedly increased the awareness of a need for specific EAP writing instruction and inroads into researching student writing have been made. However, systematic improvements for a theory-informed teaching practice still require more detailed knowledge of the current state of student academic writing, which also takes into account local practices and requirements. Extended genre analysis provides such a means of researching student writing in specific settings. This is an innovative methodology which expands on English for Specific Purposes (ESP genre analysis (cf. Bhatia, 1993, 2004; Swales, 1990, 2004 to systematically integrate corpus linguistic tools into the analysis and to take into account the special status of student genres. A special advantage of this methodology is that it can be applied easily and successfully to small-scale purpose-built corpora. This paper presents an application of extended genre analysis to a corpus of 55 student paper conclusions produced by non-native speakers in the initial phase of their studies. Findings suggest systematic differences in structure between student and expert genres, as well as a more complex set of differences in lexico-grammar, and especially the use of formulaic language, between research articles and non-native student papers. The implications of these findings as well as of the proposed methodology of corpus-based genre analysis for teaching practice are also discussed.

  13. Gêneros textuais datasheet e artigos científico em aulas de ESP: levantamentos léxico-estatísticos para fins educacionais

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    Sabrina Bonqueves Fadanelli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A linha Socioretórica de estudos de gêneros textuais (SWALES, 1990; BAZERMAN, 1997 tem apresentado resultados interessantes para o ensino de Inglês para Fins Específicos (ESP, muitos destes voltados para gêneros acadêmicos (BIBER et al., 2002. O presente artigo objetivou extrair dados relevantes para a preparação de material para o ensino de terminologia técnica em aulas de ESP no ambiente acadêmico. Assim sendo, artigos acadêmicos da área de Computação foram comparados a um gênero específico da área de Eletrotécnica: os datasheets. Utilizando ferramentas computacionais como o AntConc e o TermoStat e corpora destes dois gêneros, foram observadas as características apresentadas pelas ocorrências mais frequentes de colocações especializadas (ORENHA-OTTAIANO, 2012; HAUSMANN, 1990. Os resultados apontam similaridades e diferenças entre as colocações especializadas nos gêneros artigo acadêmico e datasheet, evidenciando a importância da aplicação da Linguística de Corpus no planejamento do professor de ESP. ** Filiação 2.

  14. The Blogging Artist: a Genre-Analysis Approach to Teaching English for Art Purposes

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    Anda-Elena Crețiu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Building on the now classic approaches to Discourse Analysis offered by Swales and Bhatia, the present paper tries to establish the benefits and value of applying the method of Genre Analysis to teaching English for Art Purposes, with a focus on a more recent Internet genre, that of the artist’s blog (weblog. The artist’s blog is seen as part of the greater genre of the weblog, which has already been classified into a number of subgenres. The paper proposes yet another dimension to be added to those already considered when classifying the weblogs: the dimension of “occupational-oriented content” as a descriptive for further classifications; it also tries to uncover the generic features of this type of discourse. The ultimate aim of this study is, on the one hand, that of providing art students with the necessary know-how of using the weblog genre for their current and future professional purposes, as part of the complex system of genres devised by the artistic discourse community in order to communicate both within and without itself, and, on the other hand, to help students use their knowledge of the English language to create such a discourse type in order to obtain maximum benefits.

  15. Collapse and erosion at the low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Sheffield, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.R.; McGovern, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    Collapse and erosion are the dominant landform-modification processes at the Sheffield, Illinois, low-level radioactive-waste burial site. Records on collapse have been collected by the site contractor since 1978 and include data of inspection, location, and cavity dimensions. Fluvial sediment yield was measured by the US Geological Survey beginning in July 1982 from three gaged areas which drained two-thirds of the 20-acre site, and from a gaged 3.5-acre area in undisturbed terrain 0.3 mile south of the site. A total of 302 collapse cavities were recorded from October 1978 through September 1985. Based on the weight of earth material equivalent to cavity volume, an annual average of 6 tons of sediment per acre of site area has moved downward due to collapse. Sixty-two percent of the collapses occurred in swales between waste-disposal trenches or near trench boundaries, while the remainder occurred in earth material covers over trench interiors. Two-thirds of the collapses occurred during the months of February, March, and April. On-site fluvial sediment yield averaged 2 tons per acre per year from July 1982 through July 1984. Although this yield was approximately 200 times that from the undisturbed area, it is about one-half the annual sediment yield expected from a 20-acre row-crop agricultural basin on an 8% slope near Sheffield

  16. Gênero digital e seus propósitos comunicativos: uma análise em perfis pessoais de sites de relacionamento

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    Wellington Carvalho de Arêa Leão

    2017-06-01

    ABSTRACT:It is investigated, in this written work, the emerging digital genre personal profile at social networking websites and the communicative purpose more frequent when the subjects propose themselves to use this type of genre. It is adopted in this sense, a socio-rhetorical perspective of genre analysis, considering that this has given a new meaning to the forms of relationships between people to the digital world, as it is presented in a Web-mediated way. The main theoretical basis is based in the study of discourse genres, by Bakhtin (2011, socio-rhetorical perspective, by Miller (2012, definitions of textual genres and communicative purposes, by Swales (1990 apud BIASI-RODRIGUES; BEZERRA, 2012 and Cavalcanti (2014 and the definitions and functionalities of the genre under analysis, by Leão (2015. This is a bibliographic research of qualitative approach with data analysis, in which 10 badoo.com.br profiles were selected, among which five belonging to the researcher's circle of friends and five of a fake female profile, created by him. The results show that the building of friendship ties is the most frequent and obvious communicative purpose when the users look for a dialogue with others at the studied social networking site. It was also found that the analyzed genre combines mixed communicative purposes, between a factual and a virtual reality, besides being a purpose that aims at a personal promotion in its support.

  17. Development of a Tool for Siting Low Impact Development in Urban Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mikle, C.; de Beurs, K.; Julian, J.

    2013-12-01

    Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant loadings. Examples of LIDs include riparian buffers, grassed swales, detention/retention ponds, rain gardens, green roofs and rain barrels. Broad-scale decision support tools for siting LIDs have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity and lack of necessary high-resolution geospatial data. Here, we develop a framework to assist city planners and water quality managers in siting LIDs in urban watersheds. One key component of this research is a framework accessible to those interested in using it. Hence, development of the framework has centered around 1) determining optimal data requirements for siting LID in an urban watershed and 2) developing a tool compatible with both open-source and commercial GIS software. We employ a wide variety of landscape metrics to evaluate the tool. A case study of the Lake Thunderbird Watershed, an urbanized watershed southeast of Oklahoma City, illustrates the effectiveness of a tool that is capable of siting LID in an urban watershed.

  18. WEBLOGS AS A SUBGENRE OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION / MARKETING

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    María Jesús Pinar Sanz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the characteristics of weblogs (usually shortened to blog, but occasionally spelled web log, the latest genre of internet communication that has attained widespread popularity (Herring et al. 2005. I will focus my attention on those weblogs which contain any kind of political message during election campaigns. The paper situates blogs with respect to the dominant forms of digital communication and as a powerful tool for developing future election campaigns in light of their low cost and the speed with which news can be published. The generic variables will be studied in detail, taking into account Swales' general theory of genre (1990 and genre theories applied to electronic communication (Yates and Orlikowski, 1992. Register variables (Halliday, 1989; Martin, 2001 will also be thoroughly studied. The results of this study show the characteristics of weblogs with regards to vocabulary, syntactic structures and the use of pronouns among others. The findings are based on an investigation of 20 politically-oriented weblogs, randomly selected during the 2004 American and 2005 British elections.

  19. The DC-8 Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.; Batelaan, Paul; Siegel, Peter; Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, Aaron; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade; Guldalian, John; Raz, Guy; Shea, James

    2000-01-01

    An airborne radiometer is being developed to demonstrate the capability of radiometry at submillimeter-wavelengths to characterize cirrus clouds. At these wavelengths, cirrus clouds scatter upwelling radiation from water vapor in the lower troposphere. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in scattering due to crystal size to be distinguished from changes in cloud ice content. Measurements at dual polarizations can also be used to constrain the mean crystal shape. An airborne radiometer measuring the upwelling submillimeter-wave flux should then able to retrieve both bulk and microphysical cloud properties. The radiometer is being designed to make measurements at four frequencies (183 GHz, 325 GHz, 448 GHz, and 643 GHz) with dual-polarization capability at 643 GHz. The instrument is being developed for flight on NASA's DC-8 and will scan cross-track through an aircraft window. Measurements with this radiometer in combination with independent ground-based and airborne measurements will validate the submillimeter-wave radiometer retrieval techniques. The goal of this effort is to develop a technique to enable spaceborne characterization of cirrus, which will meet a key climate measurement need. The development of an airborne radiometer to validate cirrus retrieval techniques is a critical step toward development of spaced-based radiometers to investigate and monitor cirrus on a global scale. The radiometer development is a cooperative effort of the University of Colorado, Colorado State University, Swales Aerospace, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is funded by the NASA Instrument Incubator Program.

  20. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes

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    Anne-Laure Markovina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the first line of storm defence. Placement of fibrous Leptospermum windrows allowed wind blown sand to form crests and swales parallel to the beach. Burial of Spinifex seed head in the moist sand layer achieved primary colonization of the reconstructed dune and development of a soil fungal hyphae network prior to introduction of secondary colonizing species. Monitoring stakes were used as roosts by birds, promoting re-introduction of native plant species requiring germination by digestive tract stimulation. Bush regeneration reduced competition from weeds, allowing native vegetation cover to succeed. On-going weeding and monitoring are essential at Magenta Shores until bitou bush is controlled for the entire length of beach. The reconstructed dunes provide enhanced protection from sand movement and storm bite, for built assets, remnant significant vegetation and sensitive estuarine ecosystems.

  1. Twin Peaks (B/W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Twin Peaks are modest-size hills to the southwest of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. They were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The peaks are approximately 30-35 meters (-100 feet) tall. North Twin is approximately 860 meters (2800 feet) from the lander, and South Twin is about a kilometer away (3300 feet). The scene includes bouldery ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of the South Twin Peak. The large rock at the right edge of the scene is nicknamed 'Hippo'. This rock is about a meter (3 feet) across and 25 meters (80 feet) distant.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  2. Seismic reflection and vibracoring studies of the continental shelf offshore central and western Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, W.M.; Albanese, J.R.; Coch, N.K.; Harsch, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughs is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic units identified are an upper, generally oxidized, nearshore facies, an underlying fine- to medium-sand and silty-clay unit considered to be an estuarine facies, and a lower, coarse-grained deeply oxidized, cross-laminated pre

  3. The Blogging Artist: a Genre-Analysis Approach to Teaching English for Art Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda-Elena Crețiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Building on the now classic approaches to Discourse Analysis offered by Swales and Bhatia, the present paper tries to establish the benefits and value of applying the method of Genre Analysis to teaching English for Art Purposes, with a focus on a more recent Internet genre, that of the artist’s blog (weblog. The artist’s blog is seen as part of the greater genre of the weblog, which has already been classified into a number of subgenres. The paper proposes yet another dimension to be added to those already considered when classifying the weblogs: the dimension of “occupational-oriented content” as a descriptive for further classifications; it also tries to uncover the generic features of this type of discourse. The ultimate aim of this study is, on the one hand, that of providing art students with the necessary know-how of using the weblog genre for their current and future professional purposes, as part of the complex system of genres devised by the artistic discourse community in order to communicate both within and without itself, and, on the other hand, to help students use their knowledge of the English language to create such a discourse type in order to obtain maximum benefits.

  4. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  5. Effects of landscape-based green infrastructure on stormwater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of impervious surfaces in urban and suburban catchments affects their hydrological behavior by decreasing infiltration, increasing peak hydrograph response following rainfall events, and ultimately increasing the total volume of water and mass of pollutants reaching streams. These changes have deleterious effects on downstream surface waters. Consequently, strategies to mitigate these impacts are now components of contemporary urban development and stormwater management. This study evaluates the effectiveness of landscape green infrastructure (GI) in reducing stormwater runoff volumes and controlling peak flows in four subdivision-scale suburban catchments (1.88 – 12.97 acres) in Montgomery County, MD, USA. Stormwater flow rates during runoff events were measured in five minute intervals at each catchment outlet. One catchment was built with GI vegetated swales on all parcels with the goal of intercepting, conveying, and infiltrating stormwater before it enters the sewer network. The remaining catchments were constructed with traditional gray infrastructure and “end-of-pipe” best management practices (BMPs) that treat stormwater before entering streams. This study compared characteristics of rainfall-runoff events at the green and gray infrastructure sites to understand their effects on suburban hydrology. The landscape GI strategy generally reduced rainfall-runoff ratios compared to gray infrastructure because of increased infiltration, ul

  6. Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a Watershed-Scale Case for Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID is a relatively new concept in land use management that aims to maintain hydrological conditions at a predevelopment level without deteriorating water quality during land development. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA developed the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration model (SUSTAIN to evaluate the performance of LID practices at different spatial scales; however, the application of this model has been limited relative to LID modeling. In this study, the SUSTAIN model was applied to a Taiwanese watershed. Model calibration and verification were performed, and different types of LID facilities were evaluated. The model simulation process and the verified model parameters could be used in other cases. Four LID scenarios combining bioretention ponds, grass swales, and pervious pavements were designed based on the land characteristics. For the SUSTAIN model simulation, the results showed that pollution reduction was mainly due to water quantity reduction, infiltration was the dominant mechanism and plant interception had a minor effect on the treatment. The simulation results were used to rank the primary areas for nonpoint source pollution and identify effective LID practices. In addition to the case study, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters was performed, showing that the soil infiltration rate was the most sensitive parameter affecting the LID performance. The objectives of the study are to confirm the applicability of the SUSTAIN model and to assess the effectiveness of LID practices in the studied watershed.

  7. Challenges in Modeling Debris-Flow Initiation during the Exceptional September 2013 Northern Colorado Front Range Rainstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R. L.; Coe, J. A.; Godt, J.; Kean, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Heavy rainfall during 9 - 13 September 2013 induced about 1100 debris flows in the foothills and mountains of the northern Colorado Front Range. Eye-witness accounts and fire-department records put the times of greatest landslide activity during the times of heaviest rainfall on September 12 - 13. Antecedent soil moisture was relatively low, particularly at elevations below 2250 m where many of the debris flows occurred, based on 45 - 125 mm of summer precipitation and absence of rainfall for about 2 weeks before the storm. Mapping from post-event imagery and field observations indicated that most debris flows initiated as small, shallow landslides. These landslides typically formed in colluvium that consisted of angular clasts in a sandy or silty matrix, depending on the nature of the parent bedrock. Weathered bedrock was partially exposed in the basal surfaces of many of the shallow source areas at depths ranging from 0.2 to 5 m, and source areas commonly occupied less than 500 m2. Although 49% of the source areas occurred in swales and 3 % in channels, where convergent flow might have contributed to pore-pressure build up during the rainfall, 48% of the source areas occurred on open slopes. Upslope contributing areas of most landslides (58%) were small (physical-properties variability. The low-moisture initial conditions require consideration of unsaturated zone effects. Ongoing fieldwork and computational modeling are aimed at addressing these challenges related to initiation of the September 2013 debris flows.

  8. Perennial flow through convergent hillslopes explains chemodynamic solute behavior in a shale headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, E.; Steinhoefel, G.; Dere, A. L. D.; Sullivan, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    Streams experience changing hydrologic connectivity to heterogeneous water sources under different flow regimes. It remains unclear how seasonal flow paths link these different sources and regulate concentration-discharge behavior. Previous research at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) in central Pennsylvania, USA identified chemostatic solutes (e.g., K, Mg, Na, Cl) whose concentrations varied little across a wide range of discharge values and chemodynamic solutes (e.g., Fe and Mn) whose concentrations decreased sharply with increasing stream discharge. To elucidate inputs to the stream when concentrations of chemodynamic solutes were high, we investigated stream water and shallow groundwater (table remained over a meter below the stream bed along the rest of the channel. We conclude that well water sampled from the upper catchment is young, shallow interflow that upwells to generate metal-rich stream headwaters during the dry season. High concentrations of chemodynamic solutes measured during low discharge occur when metal-rich headwaters are flushed to the catchment outlet during periodic rain events. Interflow during the dry season originates from water that infiltrates through organic-rich swales; thus, metals in the stream at low flow are ultimately derived from convergent hillslopes where biological processes have concentrated chemodynamic elements. We infer that chemodynamic solutes are diluted at high discharge due to increased flow through planar hillslopes and inputs from regional groundwater that rises to enter the stream. This study highlights how spatially heterogeneous biogeochemistry and seasonally variable flow paths regulate concentration-discharge behavior within catchments.

  9. Study of hydraulic properties of binary beads mixture as porous media in sustainable urban drainage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad Faiz; Puay, How Tion; Zakaria, Nor Azazi

    2017-10-01

    Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SuDS) such as swales and rain gardens is showing growing popularity as a green technology for stormwater management and it can be used in all types of development to provide a natural approach to managing drainage. Soil permeability is a critical factor in selecting the right SuDS technique for a site. On this basis, we have set up a laboratory experiment to investigate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of single size and binary (two sizes) mixture using column-test as a preliminary investigation with two sets of glass beads with different sizes are used in this study. The porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity for varies volume fraction of the course and fine glass beads were measured. It was found that the porosity of the binary mixture does not increase with the increment of the ratio of coarse to fine beads until the volume fraction of fine particles is equal to the coarse component. Saturated hydraulic conductivity result shows that the assumption of random packing was not achieved at the higher coarse ratio where most of the fine particles tend to sit at the bottom of the column forming separate layers which lower the overall hydraulic conductivity value.

  10. Postulating hypotheses in experimental doctoral dissertations on Applied Linguistics: A qualitative investigation into rhetorical shifts and linguistic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Miin-Hwa Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which research hypotheses need to be incorporated in experimental studies often becomes a subject of discussion among academics supervising the writing of theses and dissertations. While writers are concerned about how hypotheses can be strategically linked with other elements in research reports to effectively present an introductory chapter, instructors are considering ways of guiding learners to use the appropriate language in postulating research hypotheses. Using an analytical framework developed by Swales (1990 & 2004 and specialist informants’ qualitative data, this largely qualitative investigation looks into a corpus of experimental doctoral dissertations submitted to 32 American universities from 2001 to 2009 in order to ascertain (i the degree to which research hypotheses need to be presented in dissertation introductions, (ii how hypotheses are strategically linked with other rhetorical segments, and (iii the salient linguistic mechanisms used to achieve the communicative functions. This study has revealed (i how writers shift from pertinent communicative moves to the postulation of hypotheses, and (ii the gamut of major language choices employed to postulate these hypotheses. The findings can be used to prepare teaching materials that help learners comprehend and employ the rhetorical strategies and linguistic mechanisms needed in postulating hypotheses in research reports.

  11. Retrieval of Compositional End-Members From Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Observations in a Soil-Filled Fracture in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, N. T.; Arvidson, R. E.; O'Sullivan, J. A.; Catalano, J. G.; Guinness, E. A.; Politte, D. V.; Gellert, R.; VanBommel, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    The Opportunity rover investigated a gentle swale on the rim of Endeavour crater called Marathon Valley where a series of bright planar outcrops are cut into polygons by fractures. A wheel scuff performed on one of the soil-filled fracture zones revealed the presence of three end-members identified on the basis of Pancam multispectral imaging observations covering 0.4 to 1 μm: red and dark pebbles, and a bright soil clod. Multiple overlapping Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) measurements were collected on three targets within the scuff zone. The field of view of each APXS measurement contained various proportions of the Pancam-based end-members. Application of a log maximum likelihood method for retrieving the composition of the end-members using the 10 APXS measurements shows that the dark pebble end-member is compositionally similar to average Mars soil, with slightly elevated S and Fe. In contrast, the red pebble end-member exhibits enrichments in Al and Si and is depleted in Fe and Mg relative to average Mars soil. The soil clod end-member is enriched in Mg, S, and Ni. Thermodynamic modeling of the soil clod end-member composition indicates a dominance of sulfate minerals. We hypothesize that acidic fluids in fractures leached and oxidized the basaltic host rock, forming the red pebbles, and then evaporated to leave behind sulfate-cemented soil.

  12. Genre analysis of literature research article abstracts: A cross-linguistic, cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Marefat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following Swales’s (1981 works on genre analysis, studies on different sections of Research Articles (RAs in various languages and fields abound however, only scant attention has been directed toward abstracts written in Persian, and in the field of literature. Moreover, claims made by Lores (2004 regarding the correspondence of two types of abstracts with different models, and by Martin (2004 concerning the influence of sociocultural factors on the way writers write needed evaluation. To fill this gap, 90 English and Persian abstracts written in the field of literature, by English and Persian native speakers, were analyzed based on the IMRD (Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion and CARS (Create A Research Space models. The results demonstrated that literature RA writers generally focus on Introduction and Results, neglect Method and Discussion, and do not mention the niche in previous related work secondly, although none of the models were efficient, literature abstracts generally matched CARS more than IMRD and thirdly, abstracts written by Persian native speakers had minor deviations from both the Persian and the international norms, and exhibited a standard of their own. The present study also discusses steps which the models fail to predict. In addition, it offers a number of pedagogical implications for TEFL, especially for the writing skill.

  13. Optimal implementation of green infrastructure practices to reduce adverse impacts of urban areas on hydrology and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Collingsworth, P.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Engel, B.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient loading from Maumee River watershed is a significant reason for the harmful algal blooms (HABs) problem in Lake Erie. Although studies have explored strategies to reduce nutrient loading from agricultural areas in the Maumee River watershed, the nutrient loading in urban areas also needs to be reduced. Green infrastructure practices are popular approaches for stormwater management and useful for improving hydrology and water quality. In this study, the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model was used to determine how different strategies for implementing green infrastructure practices can be optimized to reduce impacts on hydrology and water quality in an urban watershed in the upper Maumee River system. Community inputs, such as the types of green infrastructure practices of greatest interest and environmental concerns for the community, were also considered during the study. Based on community input, the following environmental concerns were considered: runoff volume, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorous (TP), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and Nitrate+Nitrite (NOx); green infrastructure practices of interest included rain barrel, cistern, green roof, permeable patio, porous pavement, grassed swale, bioretention system, grass strip, wetland channel, detention basin, retention pond, and wetland basin. Spatial optimization of green infrastructure practice implementation was conducted to maximize environmental benefits while minimizing the cost of implementation. The green infrastructure practice optimization results can be used by the community to solve hydrology and water quality problems.

  14. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles.

  15. CRT--Cascade Routing Tool to define and visualize flow paths for grid-based watershed models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Wesley R.; Medina, Rose L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Cascade Routing Tool (CRT) is a computer application for watershed models that include the coupled Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model, GSFLOW, and the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). CRT generates output to define cascading surface and shallow subsurface flow paths for grid-based model domains. CRT requires a land-surface elevation for each hydrologic response unit (HRU) of the model grid; these elevations can be derived from a Digital Elevation Model raster data set of the area containing the model domain. Additionally, a list is required of the HRUs containing streams, swales, lakes, and other cascade termination features along with indices that uniquely define these features. Cascade flow paths are determined from the altitudes of each HRU. Cascade paths can cross any of the four faces of an HRU to a stream or to a lake within or adjacent to an HRU. Cascades can terminate at a stream, lake, or HRU that has been designated as a watershed outflow location.

  16. The EVNATURB project: toward an operational platform to assess Blue Green Solutions eco-systemic services in urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Versini, P. A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are facing an expected increase in intensity and frequency of extreme weather events due to climate change. Combined with unsustainable urbanization, this should exacerbate the environmental consequences related to the water cycle as stormwater management issues, urban heat island increase and biodiversity degradation. Blue Green Solutions (BGS), such as green roofs, vegetated swales or urban ponds, appear to be particularly efficient to reduce the potential impact of new and existing urban developments with respect to these issues. Based on this statement, the French ANR EVNATURB project aims to develop a platform to assess the eco-systemic services provided by BGS and related with the previously mentioned issues. By proposing a multi-disciplinary consortium coupling monitoring, modelling and prospecting, it attempts to tackle several scientific issues currently limiting BGS wide implementation. Based on high resolution monitored sites and modelling tools, space-time variability of the related physical processes will be studied over a wide range of scales (from the material to the district scale), as well as local social-environmental stakes and constraints, to better consider the complexity of the urban environment. The EVNATURB platform developed during the project is intended for every stakeholder involved in urban development projects (planners, architects, engineering and environmental certification companies…) and will help them to implement BGS and evaluate which ones are the most appropriate for a particular project depending on its environmental objectives and constraints, and particularly for obtaining environmental certification.

  17. An evaluation of hydrologic modeling performance of EPA SWMM for bioretention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülbaz, Sezar; Kazezyılmaz-Alhan, Cevza Melek

    2017-12-01

    Recent techniques should be investigated in detail to avoid present and future problems of urbanization like flood, drought and water pollution. Low Impact Development (LID) Best Management Practices (BMPs) such as bioretentions, green roofs, rain barrels, vegetative swales, and permeable pavements have been implemented to diminish the adverse effects of urbanization. In this study, a hydrological model for a Rainfall-Watershed-Bioretention (RWB) system is developed by using the Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM). RWB system is an experimental setup which consists of an artificial rainfall system, a drainage area and four bioretention columns with different soil mixtures. The hydrological modeling capability of SWMM for bioretentions is presented using the experimental data obtained from the experiments conducted in the RWB system under different rainfall events and for bioretentions with different designs. Finally, the modeling results of SWMM are compared with the results of the Hydrological Model of RWB (HM-RWB) system. Results show that EPA SWMM performs well in modeling bioretentions whereas the results of HM-RWB are in better agreement with the experimental data.

  18. A Review of Applicability and Effectiveness of Low Impact Development/Green Infrastructure Practices in Arid/Semi-Arid United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized areas of the southwestern/western United States are among the fastest growing in the nation and face multiple water resource challenges. Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices are increasingly popular technologies for managing stormwater; however, LID is often not as common in the southwest/west due to the lack of regulatory and/or economic drivers. There is also a lack of performance evaluation of these practices, particularly at the field scale. This study focused on investigating the hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of field-scale LID/GI systems in arid/semi-arid climates. Nine typical practices were reviewed: rainwater harvest system, detention pond, retention pond, bioretention, media filter, porous pavement, vegetated swale/buffer/strip, green roof, and infiltration trench, as well as integrated LIDs. We evaluate these practices by a cost-effectiveness analysis and also recommend best practices for the arid/semi-arid area. The analysis provides data support and insights for future implementation of LID/GI in the southwest/west.

  19. An intercultural study of first-person plural references in biomedical writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria Carciu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a contrastive analysis of biomedical research articles published in international English-medium journals and written by scholars from two cultural contexts (Anglo-American and Spanish. It first describes both similarities and differences in terms of the rhetorical effects that first-person plural references (“we”, “our” and “us” create across the different sections of the IMRaD pattern (Swales, 1990. Then, the functions of these pronouns are explored following Tang and John’s (1999 taxonomy of the discourse roles of personal pronouns. Quantitative results show that, overall, Spanish writers tend to use “we” pronouns more than their native counterparts, thus making themselves more visible in their texts particularly in Introduction and Discussion sections. On the other hand, results also indicate striking similarities regarding the discourse role of “we” as “guide”, “architect”, “opinion-holder” and “originator” –roles which seem to indicate writers’ awareness of the specific communicative purposes of “we” references in each RA section. This crosscultural variation is finally discussed in relation to the dominance of English as the international lingua franca of academic communication and research (Benfield & Howard, 2000; Tardy, 2004; Giannoni, 2008a.

  20. Conceptualization and application of an approach for designing healthcare software interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Maskara, Reena; Maskara, Sanjeev; Chiang, I-Jen

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to conceptualize a novel approach, which facilitates us to design prototype interfaces for healthcare software. Concepts and techniques from various disciplines were used to conceptualize an interface design approach named MORTARS (Map Original Rhetorical To Adapted Rhetorical Situation). The concepts and techniques included in this approach are (1) rhetorical situation - a concept of philosophy provided by Bitzer (1968); (2) move analysis - an applied linguistic technique provided by Swales (1990) and Bhatia (1993); (3) interface design guidelines - a cognitive and computer science concept provided by Johnson (2010); (4) usability evaluation instrument - an interface evaluation questionnaire provided by Lund (2001); (5) user modeling via stereotyping - a cognitive and computer science concept provided by Rich (1979). A prototype interface for outpatient clinic software was designed to introduce the underlying concepts of MORTARS. The prototype interface was evaluated by thirty-two medical informaticians. The medical informaticians found the designed prototype interface to be useful (73.3%), easy to use (71.9%), easy to learn (93.1%), and satisfactory (53.2%). MORTARS approach was found to be effective in designing the prototype user interface for the outpatient clinic software. This approach might be further used to design interfaces for various software pertaining to healthcare and other domains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Análise retórica de introduções de artigos científicos da área da saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Goulart Ritti-Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda pela publicação de artigos científicos tem levado pesquisadores a preocuparem-se cada vez mais com a escrita no ambiente acadêmico. Sendo a introdução uma das seções responsáveis pela garantia de publicação do artigo e ainda pela aceitação do trabalho pela comunidade cientifica, merece, assim, especial atenção no momento de sua redação. Dessa forma, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar, por meio da aplicação do Modelo CARS (SWALES, 1990, de que modo introduções de artigos científicos da área da saúde pública são organizadas retoricamente. Foram analisadas as introduções de dez artigos científicos redigidos em língua portuguesa e publicados em revistas indexadas na base de dados Scielo no ano de 2012. Os resultados indicam que a maioria dos artigos adota uma organização retórica das informações coerente com as opções previstas no modelo de análise utilizado.

  2. Water harvesting techniques for small communities in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, E; Anda, M; Mathew, K; Ho, G

    2001-01-01

    Limited water resources exist in numerous remote indigenous settlements around Australia. Indigenous people in these communities are still living in rudimentary conditions while their urban counterparts have full amenities, large scale water supplies and behavioral practices which may not be appropriate for an arid continent but are supported by extensive infrastructure in higher rainfall coastal areas. As remote indigenous communities continue to develop, their water use will increase, and in some cases, costly solutions may have to be implemented to augment supplies. Water harvesting techniques have been applied in settlements on a small scale for domestic and municipal purposes, and in the large, broadacre farm setting for productive use of the water. The techniques discussed include swales, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and "sand dam" basins. This paper reviews the applications of water harvesting relevant to small communities for land rehabilitation, landscaping and flood control. Landscaping is important in these communities as it provides shelter from the sun and wind, reduces soil erosion and hence reduced airborne dust, and in some cases provides food and nutrition. Case studies of water harvesting systems applied in the Pilbara Region, Western Australia for landscaping around single dwellings in Jigalong and Cheeditha, in a permaculture garden in Wittenoon and at a college and carpark in Karratha are described.

  3. Justification and Persuasion about Cloning: Arguments in Hwang's Paper and Journalistic Reported Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar; Federico-Agraso, Marta

    2009-05-01

    We examine the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s (2004) paper about human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, or ‘therapeutic cloning’), contrasted with four Journalistic Reported Versions (JRV) of it, and with students’ summaries of one JRV. As the evaluation of evidence is one of the critical features of argumentation (Jiménez-Aleixandre 2008), the analysis focuses on the use of evidence, drawing from instruments to analyze written argumentation (Kelly et al. 2008) and from studies about the structure of empirical research reports (Swales 2001). The objectives are: 1) To examine the use of evidence and the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s Science, 303: 1669-1674 (2004) original paper in terms of the criteria: a) pertinence of the evidence presented to the claims; b) sufficiency of the evidence for the purpose of supporting the claims; and c) coordination of the evidence across epistemic levels. 2) To explore how the structure of Hwang’s paper translates into the JRV and into university students’ perceptions about the evidence supporting the claims. The argumentative structure of Hwang’s paper is such that its apparently ostensible main claim about NT constitutes a justification for a second claim about its therapeutic applications, for which no evidence is offered. However, this second claim receives prominent treatment in the JRV and in the students’ summaries. Implications for promoting critical reading in the classroom are discussed.

  4. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Generic structure and promotional elements in best-selling online book blurbs: a cross-cultural study

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    Neslihan Önder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the generic structure and promotional elements of the online fiction blurbs accompanying the 95 best-selling books from Amazon United Kingdom and Okuoku Turkey (1999-2011, a company that sells books online that are written in Turkish or translated into Turkish, and adds to the growing number of investigations into this genre (Kathpalia, 1997; Bhatia, 2004; Cacchiani, 2007; Gea-Valor, 2007; Gesuato, 2007; Basturkmen, 2009. Based on the findings, a two-level schematic structure (moves and steps is proposed for the blurbs following Swales (1990. The findings suggest that Amazon UK book blurbs have a six-move schematic structure: complimenting the author, book description, justifying the book by establishing a niche, book promotion, author’s background and author’s website/blog being the second, fourth and fifth obligatory moves. However, Okuoku book blurbs feature a five-move schematic structure with complimenting the author, book description, involving the reader in the text, book promotion and author’s background, the second and fourth being obligatory. Analysis of promotional elements in the corpora reveals that online fiction book blurbs employ the art of advertising through the use of favorable expressions (Bhatia, 2005 and innovative uses of rhetorical strategies to persuade the reader to read the book.

  6. Reclamation design for a fen wetland on a tailings sand deposit in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); McKenna, G.T.; Papini, A.G.; Scordo, E.B. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the first attempt at designing and constructing a fen wetland and surrounding watershed on a soft tailings deposit in the Athabasca oil sands region. Among the main design components were upland hummocks, vegetated swales, a pond for water storage, a fen wetland, and 2 perched fens. For each component, reclamation prescriptions were developed using methods from Syncrude's regulatory approvals for upland forests, advice from technical experts on wetlands, and results from an analogous wetland research program. Prior to the reclamation, a long-term research program was started to appraise the response of wetland plants to different operation treatments, including placement depth, material type, compaction, and salinity. Operation techniques were developed to glean live in-situ peat material from the top layer of the boreal forest for use in wetland reclamation. Design topography and soil material types were taken into account in developing the prescriptions, which were used to test specific research hypotheses within the instrumented research watershed.

  7. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisited using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.M.; McBride, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf ???5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  8. Explicit Learning of Authorial Stance-taking by L2 Doctoral Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichin Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the texts of apprentice academic writers has found that they often exhibit weaknesses related to presenting an authoritative argumentative stance. This study rendered explicit linguistic resources for stance-taking and engaged advanced L2 writers in exploring stance expressions in published research. Both linguistic and language learning theories informed this study. Seven Mandarin-speaking learners of English from fields in social sciences engaged in three writing sessions in which they consulted a concordance tool organized and created to present genre moves (Swales 1990; 2004 and engagement strategies (Martin & White, 2005 used by academic authors in research introductions. Analysis of their drafts showed improvement in rhetorical move structure and stance deployment after using the tool. They were found to be more accurate in applying and identifying stances that present assertive claims and factual statements than moderately assertive stance expressions that present expansive meanings. Despite some success in learning, close text analysis reveals that more help is needed to support students in deploying appropriately assertive claims, substantiating strong claims, and managing their stance expression across several clauses. Overall, this study found that an explicit approach to learning about authorial stance has the potential to raise L2 writers’ consciousness and improve their writing.

  9. Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope, northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1989-01-01

    Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope include canyons, primary fan valleys, deep-sea valleys, and remnant valley segments. Long-range sidescan sonographs and associated seismic-reflection profiles indicate that the canyons may originate along a mid-slope escarpment and grow upslope by mass wasting and downslope by valley erosion or aggradation. Most canyons are partly filled with sediment, and Quillayute Canyon is almost completely filled. Under normal growth conditions, the larger canyons connect with primary fan valleys or deep-sea valleys in Cascadia Basin, but development of accretionary ridges blocks or re-routes most canyons, forcing abandonment of the associated valleys in the basin. Astoria Fan has a primary fan valley that connects with Astoria Canyon at the fan apex. The fan valley is bordered by parallel levees on the upper fan but becomes obscure on the lower fan, where a few valley segments appear on the sonographs. Apparently, Nitinat Fan does not presently have a primary fan valley; none of the numerous valleys on the fan connect with a canyon. The Willapa-Cascadia-Vancouver-Juan de Fuca deep-sea valley system bypasses the submarine fans and includes deeply incised valleys to broad shallow swales, as well as within-valley terraces and hanging-valley confluences. ?? 1989.

  10. A protocol for classifying ecologically relevant marine zones, a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Els; Degraer, Steven; Schelfaut, Kristien; Willems, Wouter; Van Lancker, Vera

    2009-06-01

    Mapping ecologically relevant zones in the marine environment has become increasingly important. Biological data are however often scarce and alternatives are being sought in optimal classifications of abiotic variables. The concept of 'marine landscapes' is based on a hierarchical classification of geological, hydrographic and other physical data. This approach is however subject to many assumptions and subjective decisions. An objective protocol for zonation is being proposed here where abiotic variables are subjected to a statistical approach, using principal components analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis. The optimal number of clusters (or zones) is being defined using the Calinski-Harabasz criterion. The methodology has been applied on datasets of the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS), a shallow sandy shelf environment with a sandbank-swale topography. The BPNS was classified into 8 zones that represent well the natural variability of the seafloor. The internal cluster consistency was validated with a split-run procedure, with more than 99% correspondence between the validation and the original dataset. The ecological relevance of 6 out of the 8 zones was demonstrated, using indicator species analysis. The proposed protocol, as exemplified for the BPNS, can easily be applied to other areas and provides a strong knowledge basis for environmental protection and management of the marine environment. A SWOT-analysis, showing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the protocol was performed.

  11. Investigating Generic Structure of English Research Articles: Writing Strategy Differences between English and Indonesian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Mirahayuni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Research into English research articles (RAs has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990 Create-A­Research-Space (CARS model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategics between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational

  12. Semi-Automated Classification of Seafloor Data Collected on the Delmarva Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, E. M.; Pendleton, E. A.; Brothers, L. L.; Mahmud, A.; Thieler, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    We tested automated classification methods on acoustic bathymetry and backscatter data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on the Delmarva inner continental shelf to efficiently and objectively identify sediment texture and geomorphology. Automated classification techniques are generally less subjective and take significantly less time than manual classification methods. We used a semi-automated process combining unsupervised and supervised classification techniques to characterize seafloor based on bathymetric slope and relative backscatter intensity. Statistical comparison of our automated classification results with those of a manual classification conducted on a subset of the acoustic imagery indicates that our automated method was highly accurate (95% total accuracy and 93% Kappa). Our methods resolve sediment ridges, zones of flat seafloor and areas of high and low backscatter. We compared our classification scheme with mean grain size statistics of samples collected in the study area and found that strong correlations between backscatter intensity and sediment texture exist. High backscatter zones are associated with the presence of gravel and shells mixed with sand, and low backscatter areas are primarily clean sand or sand mixed with mud. Slope classes further elucidate textural and geomorphologic differences in the seafloor, such that steep slopes (>0.35°) with high backscatter are most often associated with the updrift side of sand ridges and bedforms, whereas low slope with high backscatter correspond to coarse lag or shell deposits. Low backscatter and high slopes are most often found on the downdrift side of ridges and bedforms, and low backscatter and low slopes identify swale areas and sand sheets. We found that poor acoustic data quality was the most significant cause of inaccurate classification results, which required additional user input to mitigate. Our method worked well

  13. Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that

  14. Effects of Low-impact Development of Infiltration and Storage Facilities on Urban Runoff Management in City of Sanandaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Bahrami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, low-impact development (LID has been well established as a method to provide the best and most affordable solutions for managing and alleviating the negative impacts of urban floods. Application of this practical method is regarded as a major step toward sustainable development as it employs eco-friendly storage instruments, reduces the effects of urbanization on impervious surfaces, and helps water infiltration to recharge groundwater resuorces. Although low-impact development tools have proved effective in the management of surface water resources and conservation of water quality, finding proper locations for the deployment of the equipment and the optimal use of each tool are still questions of much controversy and no definitive solutions are provided yet as environmental conditions keep changing. The present study exploits bio-retention cells, rain barrels, green roofs, and vegetable swales as storage instruments under different rainfall scenarios with return periods from 2 to 100 years extracted from the statistical data of Sanadaj City to determine the flood volumes and hydrographs for each sub-basin before and after the low-impact development tools are employed. Moreover, SWMM 5.1 software developed by the American Environmental Protection Agency is used to develop hydraulic and hydrologic models of the basin and the changes are monitored with each development tool selected. The most outstanding results obtained from this study include the change observed in thet form of hydrograph, a reduction of 50% in time of concentration, and reductions of 35 to 50% in peak flow in the city of Sanadaj as a result of employing the low-impact development method. Conclusion: Classification of the equipment into infiltration and storage tools used for urban runoff control allows the best runoff control model to be developed such that the grounds are prepared not only for the return to the conditions before a certain development took

  15. How much is enough? Minimal responses of water quality and stream biota to partial retrofit stormwater management in a suburban neighborhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison H Roy

    Full Text Available Decentralized stormwater management approaches (e.g., biofiltration swales, pervious pavement, green roofs, rain gardens that capture, detain, infiltrate, and filter runoff are now commonly used to minimize the impacts of stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of retrofit, parcel-scale stormwater management practices for improving downstream aquatic ecosystem health. A reverse auction was used to encourage homeowners to mitigate stormwater on their property within the suburban, 1.8 km(2 Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA. In 2007-2008, 165 rain barrels and 81 rain gardens were installed on 30% of the properties in four experimental (treatment subcatchments, and two additional subcatchments were maintained as controls. At the base of the subcatchments, we sampled monthly baseflow water quality, and seasonal (5×/year physical habitat, periphyton assemblages, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the streams for the three years before and after treatment implementation. Given the minor reductions in directly connected impervious area from the rain barrel installations (11.6% to 10.4% in the most impaired subcatchment and high total impervious levels (13.1% to 19.9% in experimental subcatchments, we expected minor or no responses of water quality and biota to stormwater management. There were trends of increased conductivity, iron, and sulfate for control sites, but no such contemporaneous trends for experimental sites. The minor effects of treatment on streamflow volume and water quality did not translate into changes in biotic health, and the few periphyton and macroinvertebrate responses could be explained by factors not associated with the treatment (e.g., vegetation clearing, drought conditions. Improvement of overall stream health is unlikely without additional treatment of major impervious surfaces (including roads, apartment buildings, and

  16. Can There Ever Be Enough to Impact Water Quality? Evaluating BMPs in Elliot Ditch, Indiana Using the LTHIA-LID Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. S.; Hoover, F. A.; Bowling, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Elliot Ditch is an urban/urbanizing watershed located in the city of Lafayette, IN, USA. The city continues to struggle with stormwater management and combined sewer overflow (CSO) events. Several best-management practices (BMP) such as rain gardens, green roofs, and bioswales have been implemented in the watershed, but the level of adoption needed to achieve meaningful impact is currently unknown. This study's goal is to determine what level of BMP coverage is needed to impact water quality, whether meaningful impact is determined by achieving water quality targets or statistical significance. A power analysis was performed using water quality data for total suspended solids (TSS), E.coli, total phosphorus (TP) and nitrate (NO3-N) from Elliot Ditch from 2011 to 2015. The minimum detectable difference (MDD) was calculated as the percent reduction in load needed to detect a significant change in the watershed. The water quality targets were proposed by stakeholders as part of a watershed management planning process. The water quality targets and the MDD percentages were then compared to simulated load reductions due to BMP implementation using the Long-term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development (LTHIA-LID) model. Seven baseline model scenarios were simulated by implementing the maximum number of each of six types of BMPs (rain barrels, permeable patios, green roofs, grassed swale/bioswales, bioretention/rain gardens, and porous pavement), as well as all the practices combined in the watershed. These provide the baseline for targeted implementation scenarios designed to determine if statistically and physically meaningful load reductions can be achieved through BMP implementation alone.

  17. Simulated Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Urban Stormwater Management under Climate Change in Different Hydroclimatic and Archetypal Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Butcher, J.; Sarkar, S.; Clark, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change could significantly alter the occurrence and management of urban stormwater runoff quantity and quality. Responding to this challenge requires an improved understanding of potential changes together with the effectiveness of management responses for reducing impacts under range of potential future climatic conditions. Traditional gray stormwater infrastructure generally uses single-purpose, hard structures including detention basins and storm sewers to dispose of rainwater. Green infrastructure (GI) uses vegetation and soil to manage rainwater where it falls. GI has been gaining in popularity, and has been shown to provide a number of benefits for adapting to climate change including effects on stormwater quantity, quality and carbon and nutrient biogeochemical cycling. Uncertainty remains, however, due to limited understanding of GI performance in different hydroclimatic and urban settings, and in response to changes in climate. In this study we use simulation modeling to assess the impacts of climate change on both gray (wet ponds) and green infrastructure practices (green roofs, swales, bioretention) in different hydroclimatic and urban settings. Simulations were conducted using RHESSYs, a mechanistic, hydrologic and biogeochemical model, for 36 characteristic urban "archetypes" (AUSs) representing different development patterns and GI practices found in typical U.S. cities. Climate change scenarios are based on dynamically and temporally downscaled, mid-21st century climate model output from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Results suggest altered mass and energy inputs will cause changes in performance of these practices for water quantity, water quality, and carbon sequestration that vary across the country. Infrastructure design should take these potential changes into consideration.

  18. SISTEM PENGELOLAAN WILAYAH PANTAI BERDASARKAN TINGKAT KERAWANAN BENCANA MARIN DI PANTAI UTARA JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Sunarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian yang dilaksanakan di wilayah pantai utara Tawa Tengah bertujuan (1 menemutunjukkan dan memetakan wilayah-wilayah pantai yang mengalami erosi, abrasi, sedimentasi, intrusi air asin, dan tsunami, (2 menaksir tingkat kerawanan bencana marin, dan (3 menyusun cara-cara pengelolaan wilayah pantai. Pendekatan yang dipergunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan bentuklahan dan posisinya terhadap garis pantai. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan, bahwa erosi pantai terjadi pada satuan bentuklahan M3 (kompleks beting gisik dan swale, M4 (teras pantai terumbu, dan M6 (rataan pasut dan mangrove; abrasi terjadi pada DI (lerengkaki perbukitan; sedimentasi dan intrusi air asin terjadi pada MI (delta cuspate, M2 (delta kakiburung, M3, dan M6. Tingkat kerawanan I (sangat rawan terjadi bada satuan bentuklahan M3, M4, M6, dan Dl; tingkat kerawanan (rowan terjadi pada MI, M3, dan M6; tingkat kerawanan III (agak rawan terjadi pada DI, M6, F2 (daiaran aluvial dan M2; serta tingle-at kerawanan N (tidak rawan terjadi pada M2, M3, M5 (gisik saku, V3 (kipas aluvial gunungapi, dan V4 (lerengkaki gunungapi. Cara pengelolaan wilayah pantai Ml, M2, dan M6 dilakukan dengan penanaman jenis api-api dan bakau, pada M3 dengan penanaman jenis tapak kaki kambing, pada F2 dilakukan pembuatan imbuhan buatan, pada M2 dilakukan pembuatan tambak sistem surjan dengan tanaman melati pada punggungan dan ikan pada ledokan, pada M4 dengan pembiakan terumbu karang, terutama karang cabang, serta pada D1 dengan peletakan bongkah-bongkah batu dan pembiakan terumbu karang.

  19. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, Will

    2003-10-01

    , significant progress was made on acquisition and development of spatial data, monitoring of steelhead spawning, riparian revegetation, streamflow monitoring, completion of maintenance and repair work, completion of a working version of a habitat database, and completion of the Swale Creek assessment.

  20. Holding Water in the Landscape; striking a balance between food production and healthy catchment function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Adams, Russell

    2015-04-01

    Here it is proposed that ~5 % of the rural landscape could be modified to hold water during storm events. Hence ~95% of land remains for food production, commercial forestry and amenity. This is a catchment scale commitment to sustainably reducing flood and drought risk, improving water quality, biodiversity and thereby climate proofing our catchments. The farmed landscape has intensified and as a result, runoff rates are no longer in balance with the catchment needs, which in turn contributes to floods, droughts and water pollution problems. The loss of infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity and the increase in ditches and drains through intense farming has resulted in a reduction of the overall water holding capacity of the landscape, therefore deeper soil and aquifer recharge rates are lower. However, adequate raw water supply and food production is also vital. Here we consider how ~5% of productive land could be used to physically hold water during and after storms. This is a simple philosophy for water stewardship that could be delivered by farmers and land managers themselves. In this poster we consider a 'treatment train' of mitigation in headwaters by the construction of:- Rural SuDs - by creating swales, bunds and grassy filters; Buffer Strips - (designed to hold water); The Ditch of The Future - by creating the prime location for holding water and recovering lost top soil and finally the better use of Small Headwater Floodplains - by storing flood water, creating wetlands, planting new forest, installing woody debris and new habitats. We present examples of where and how these measures have been installed and show the cost-effectiveness of temporarily holding storm runoff in several case study catchments taken from the UK.

  1. Integral stormwater management master plan and design in an ecological community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wu; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Zheng; Li, Junqi; Shi, Man

    2014-09-01

    Urban stormwater runoff nearly discharges directly into bodies of water through gray infrastructure in China, such as sewers, impermeable ditches, and pump stations. As urban flooding, water shortage, and other environment problems become serious, integrated water environment management is becoming increasingly complex and challenging. At more than 200ha, the Oriental Sun City community is a large retirement community located in the eastern side of Beijing. During the beginning of its construction, the project faced a series of serious water environment crises such as eutrophication, flood risk, water shortage, and high maintenance costs. To address these issues, an integral stormwater management master plan was developed based on the concept of low impact development (LID). A large number of LID and green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) approaches were designed and applied in the community to replace traditional stormwater drainage systems completely. These approaches mainly included bioretention (which captured nearly 85th percentile volume of the annual runoff in the site, nearly 5.4×10(5)m(3) annually), swales (which functioned as a substitute for traditional stormwater pipes), waterscapes, and stormwater wetlands. Finally, a stormwater system plan was proposed by integrating with the gray water system, landscape planning, an architectural master plan, and related consultations that supported the entire construction period. After more than 10 years of planning, designing, construction, and operation, Oriental Sun City has become one of the earliest modern large-scale LID communities in China. Moreover, the project not only addressed the crisis efficiently and effectively, but also yielded economic and ecological benefits. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Characterising stormwater gross pollutants captured in catch basin inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahanggir; Anwar, A H M Faisal; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Heitz, Anna; Rothleitner, Craig

    2017-05-15

    The accumulation of wash-off solid waste, termed gross pollutants (GPs), in drainage systems has become a major constraint for best management practices (BMPs) of stormwater. GPs should be captured at source before the material clogs the drainage network, seals the infiltration capacity of side entry pits or affects the aquatic life in receiving waters. BMPs intended to reduce stormwater pollutants include oil and grit separators, grassed swales, vegetated filter strips, retention ponds, and catch basin inserts (CBIs) are used to remove GP at the source and have no extra land use requirement because they are typically mounted within a catch basin (e.g. side entry pits; grate or gully pits). In this study, a new type of CBI, recently developed by Urban Stormwater Technologies (UST) was studied for its performance at a site in Gosnells, Western Australia. This new type of CBI can capture pollutants down to particle sizes of 150μm while retaining its shape and pollutant capturing capacity for at least 1year. Data on GP and associated water samples were collected during monthly servicing of CBIs for one year. The main component of GPs was found to be vegetation (93%): its accumulation showed a strong relationship (r 2 =0.9) with rainfall especially during the wet season. The average accumulation of total GP load for each CBI was 384kg/ha/yr (dry mass) with the GP moisture content ranging from 24 to 52.5%. Analysis of grain sizes of GPs captured in each CBI showed similar distributions in the different CBIs. The loading rate coefficient (K) calculated from runoff and GP load showed higher K-values for CBI located near trees. The UST developed CBI in this study showed higher potential to capture GPs down to 150μm in diameter than similar CBI devices described in previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Blue and green infrastructures implementation to solve stormwater management issues in a new urban development project - a modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating buildings and socio-economic activities, urban areas are particularly vulnerable to hydrological risks. Modification in climate may intensify already existing issues concerning stormwater management (due to impervious area) and water supply (due to the increase of the population). In this context, water use efficiency and best water management practices are key-issues in the urban environment already stressed. Blue and green infrastructures are nature-based solutions that provide synergy of the blue and green systems to provide multifunctional solutions and multiple benefits: increased amenity, urban heat island improvement, biodiversity, reduced energy requirements... They are particularly efficient to reduce the potential impact of new and existing developments with respect to stormwater and/or water supply issues. The Multi-Hydro distributed rainfall-runoff model represents an adapted tool to manage the impacts of such infrastructures at the urban basin scale. It is a numerical platform that makes several models interact, each of them representing a specific portion of the water cycle in an urban environment: surface runoff and infiltration depending on a land use classification, sub-surface processes and sewer network drainage. Multi-Hydro is still being developed at the Ecole des Ponts (open access from https://hmco.enpc.fr/Tools-Training/Tools/Multi-Hydro.php) to take into account the wide complexity of urban environments. The latest advancements have made possible the representation of several blue and green infrastructures (green roof, basin, swale). Applied in a new urban development project located in the Paris region, Multi-Hydro has been used to simulate the impact of blue and green infrastructures implementation. It was particularly focused on their ability to fulfil regulation rules established by local stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. The results show that a combination of several blue and green

  4. How much is enough? Minimal responses of water quality and stream biota to partial retrofit stormwater management in a suburban neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison H; Rhea, Lee K; Mayer, Audrey L; Shuster, William D; Beaulieu, Jake J; Hopton, Matthew E; Morrison, Matthew A; St Amand, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Decentralized stormwater management approaches (e.g., biofiltration swales, pervious pavement, green roofs, rain gardens) that capture, detain, infiltrate, and filter runoff are now commonly used to minimize the impacts of stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of retrofit, parcel-scale stormwater management practices for improving downstream aquatic ecosystem health. A reverse auction was used to encourage homeowners to mitigate stormwater on their property within the suburban, 1.8 km(2) Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). In 2007-2008, 165 rain barrels and 81 rain gardens were installed on 30% of the properties in four experimental (treatment) subcatchments, and two additional subcatchments were maintained as controls. At the base of the subcatchments, we sampled monthly baseflow water quality, and seasonal (5×/year) physical habitat, periphyton assemblages, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the streams for the three years before and after treatment implementation. Given the minor reductions in directly connected impervious area from the rain barrel installations (11.6% to 10.4% in the most impaired subcatchment) and high total impervious levels (13.1% to 19.9% in experimental subcatchments), we expected minor or no responses of water quality and biota to stormwater management. There were trends of increased conductivity, iron, and sulfate for control sites, but no such contemporaneous trends for experimental sites. The minor effects of treatment on streamflow volume and water quality did not translate into changes in biotic health, and the few periphyton and macroinvertebrate responses could be explained by factors not associated with the treatment (e.g., vegetation clearing, drought conditions). Improvement of overall stream health is unlikely without additional treatment of major impervious surfaces (including roads, apartment buildings, and parking lots

  5. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  6. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  7. Lithological heterogeneity in a back-barrier sand island: Implications for modelling hydrogeological frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Jonathan; Cox, Malcolm E.; McLoughlin, Stephen; Huftile, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment mineralogy, quartz-grain surface-textures, grain-size analysis, bore-hole logging and ground penetrating radar are combined to develop a three dimensional stratigraphic model of a back-barrier sand island in southeast Queensland, Australia. The island consists of an unconsolidated sedimentary pile above an erosional bounding surface at the top of the underlying bedrock. The stratigraphy is complex, recording the shift in depositional environments from fluvio-deltaic to strandplain, via estuarine stages of evolution. The back-barrier island deposits are correlated with the stratigraphy of the adjacent coastal plain to the west and the barrier island to the east. Extrapolation of optically stimulated luminescence dates obtained from the barrier island combined with direct dating of the back-barrier island sediments is used to constrain the depositional age and chronology of the back-barrier island stratigraphy. The modern depositional environment evolved from a chenier plain into a barrier island system by the flooding of an interdune swale and development of a shore-parallel back-barrier tidal lagoon. The lithological heterogeneity of the back-barrier island succession was controlled by the presence of a bedrock incised palaeovalley and changes in relative sea-level. Sedimentary facies associations constrain the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties controlled by lithological heterogeneity. Post-depositional alteration horizons are integrated with the facies model to account for the effects of weathering and diagenesis on hydraulic behaviour. The derived hydrostratigraphy describes a vertically stacked, dual aquifer, island groundwater system consisting of a semi-confined palaeovalley aquifer overlain by an unconfined strand-plain aquifer. Hydrostratigraphic analysis based on sedimentary facies associations, integrated with post-depositional alteration characteristics reveals great complexity of groundwater systems within small island settings. The

  8. How much Is enough? Minimal responses of water quality and stream biota to partial retrofit stormwater management in a suburban neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Rhea, Lee K.; Mayer, Audrey L.; Shuster, William D.; Beaulieu, Jake J.; Hopton, Matthew E.; Morrison, Matthew A.; St. Amand, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Decentralized stormwater management approaches (e.g., biofiltration swales, pervious pavement, green roofs, rain gardens) that capture, detain, infiltrate, and filter runoff are now commonly used to minimize the impacts of stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of retrofit, parcel-scale stormwater management practices for improving downstream aquatic ecosystem health. A reverse auction was used to encourage homeowners to mitigate stormwater on their property within the suburban, 1.8 km2 Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). In 2007–2008, 165 rain barrels and 81 rain gardens were installed on 30% of the properties in four experimental (treatment) subcatchments, and two additional subcatchments were maintained as controls. At the base of the subcatchments, we sampled monthly baseflow water quality, and seasonal (5×/year) physical habitat, periphyton assemblages, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the streams for the three years before and after treatment implementation. Given the minor reductions in directly connected impervious area from the rain barrel installations (11.6% to 10.4% in the most impaired subcatchment) and high total impervious levels (13.1% to 19.9% in experimental subcatchments), we expected minor or no responses of water quality and biota to stormwater management. There were trends of increased conductivity, iron, and sulfate for control sites, but no such contemporaneous trends for experimental sites. The minor effects of treatment on streamflow volume and water quality did not translate into changes in biotic health, and the few periphyton and macroinvertebrate responses could be explained by factors not associated with the treatment (e.g., vegetation clearing, drought conditions). Improvement of overall stream health is unlikely without additional treatment of major impervious surfaces (including roads, apartment buildings, and parking lots

  9. Independent Review of Elemental Phosphorus Remediation at the Eastern Michaud Flats FMC Operable Unit near Pocatello, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, L. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kimmell, T. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quinn, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    If, despite risks to workers and these potential impacts, stakeholders decide that P4 wastes need to be excavated and treated, the Review Team determined that a number of the ETTs examined warrant further consideration for the treatment of P4 waste that has been characterized (for example, P4 waste present in the historical ponds). Nevertheless, concerns about the health and safety of site investigation workers using then-available investigation approaches prevented the collection of subsurface samples containing P4 from large areas of the site (e.g., the railroad swale, the vadose zone beneath the Furnace Building, and the abandoned railcars), As a result, the contaminant CSM in those particular areas was not refined enough to allow the Review Team to draw conclusions about using some of the ETTs to treat P4 waste in those areas. The readiness of an ETT for implementation varies depending on many factors, including stakeholder input, permitting, and remedial action construction requirements. Technologies that could be ready for use in the near term (within 1 year) include the following: mechanical excavation, containment technologies, off-site incineration, and drying and mechanical mixing under a tent structure. Technologies that could be ready for use in the mid-term (1 to 2 years) include cutter suction dredging, thermal-hydraulic dredging, and underground pipeline cleaning technologies. Technologies requiring a longer lead time (2 to 5 years) include on-site incineration, a land disposal restriction waste treatment system, an Albright & Wilson batch mud still, post-treatment on-site disposal, and post-treatment off-site disposal.

  10. Assessing the Role of Dune Topography on a Fresh Water Lens of a Siliciclastic Barrier Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. P.; Carter, G. A.; Mooneyhan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carlton P. Anderson, Gregory Carter, and David Mooneyhan University of Southern Mississippi Gulf Coast Geospatial Center Department of Geography and Geology Carlton.p.anderson@eagles.usm.edu The Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier island chain consist of dynamic depositional landforms that constantly undergo changes in their evolutionary processes through changes in sea level, sediment supply, and weather events. These complex landscapes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) provide a chance to study their geomorphological progressions, which have been produced by sea level rise and fluvial processes throughout the Holocene. Studies on the freshwater lens of barriers have mainly concentrated on carbonate island settings with minimal focus to barriers with siliciclastic geology. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship beach dune topography plays in the development and sustainability of the fresh water lens of Cat Island, Mississippi. Cat Island offers the opportunity to research a siliciclastic barrier along the NGOM where minimal anthropogenic activities have taken place. To determine the effect dune topography has on the fresh water lens, a transect of permanent water wells were used in conjunction with test wells at different sites throughout the north spit of the island, to establish the water table height above the ellipsoid (WGS 84), with vertical accuracies of 2 cm. Cross-sectional profiles of the dunes were also performed utilizing purposeful transects that intersected fresh water ponds in the dune-swale systems. These ponds provide water table elevations at the surface which were interpolated across the dunes for areas that lacked permanent well sites. To obtain survey-grade accuracies, a Trimble TSC3 receiver coupled with a R8 antennae RTK system were used. Salinity measurements were taken at test sites to determine the salt-to-freshwater interface. Results provide insights into how dune topography influences the fresh water lens of a

  11. How Much Is Enough? Minimal Responses of Water Quality and Stream Biota to Partial Retrofit Stormwater Management in a Suburban Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison H.; Rhea, Lee K.; Mayer, Audrey L.; Shuster, William D.; Beaulieu, Jake J.; Hopton, Matthew E.; Morrison, Matthew A.; St. Amand, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Decentralized stormwater management approaches (e.g., biofiltration swales, pervious pavement, green roofs, rain gardens) that capture, detain, infiltrate, and filter runoff are now commonly used to minimize the impacts of stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of retrofit, parcel-scale stormwater management practices for improving downstream aquatic ecosystem health. A reverse auction was used to encourage homeowners to mitigate stormwater on their property within the suburban, 1.8 km2 Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). In 2007–2008, 165 rain barrels and 81 rain gardens were installed on 30% of the properties in four experimental (treatment) subcatchments, and two additional subcatchments were maintained as controls. At the base of the subcatchments, we sampled monthly baseflow water quality, and seasonal (5×/year) physical habitat, periphyton assemblages, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the streams for the three years before and after treatment implementation. Given the minor reductions in directly connected impervious area from the rain barrel installations (11.6% to 10.4% in the most impaired subcatchment) and high total impervious levels (13.1% to 19.9% in experimental subcatchments), we expected minor or no responses of water quality and biota to stormwater management. There were trends of increased conductivity, iron, and sulfate for control sites, but no such contemporaneous trends for experimental sites. The minor effects of treatment on streamflow volume and water quality did not translate into changes in biotic health, and the few periphyton and macroinvertebrate responses could be explained by factors not associated with the treatment (e.g., vegetation clearing, drought conditions). Improvement of overall stream health is unlikely without additional treatment of major impervious surfaces (including roads, apartment buildings, and parking lots

  12. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Sarah C.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Bennett, Andrew F.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter). Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood), they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26571383

  13. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  14. Spatial connectivity, scaling, and temporal trajectories as emergent urban stormwater impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, T.; Gironas, J. A.; Hale, R. L.; Mejia, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban watersheds are structurally complex systems comprised of multiple components (e.g., streets, pipes, ponds, vegetated swales, wetlands, riparian corridors, etc.). These multiple engineered components interact in unanticipated and nontrivial ways with topographic conditions, climate variability, land use/land cover changes, and the underlying eco-hydrogeomorphic dynamics. Such interactions can result in emergent urban stormwater impacts with cascading effects that can negatively influence the overall functioning of the urban watershed. For example, the interaction among many detention ponds has been shown, in some situations, to synchronize flow volumes and ultimately lead to downstream flow amplifications and increased pollutant mobilization. Additionally, interactions occur at multiple temporal and spatial scales requiring that urban stormwater dynamics be represented at the long-term temporal (decadal) and across spatial scales (from the single lot to the watershed scale). In this study, we develop and implement an event-based, high-resolution, network hydro-engineering model (NHEM), and demonstrate an approach to reconstruct the long-term regional infrastructure and land use/land cover conditions of an urban watershed. As the study area, we select an urban watershed in the metropolitan area of Scottsdale, Arizona. Using the reconstructed landscapes to drive the NHEM, we find that distinct surficial, hydrologic connectivity patterns result from the intersection of hydrologic processes, infrastructure, and land use/land cover arrangements. These spatial patters, in turn, exhibit scaling characteristics. For example, the scaling of urban watershed dispersion mechanisms shows altered scaling exponents with respect to pre-urban conditions. For example, the scaling exponent associated with geomorphic dispersion tends to increase for urban conditions, reflecting increased surficial path heterogeneity. Both the connectivity and scaling results can be used to

  15. A proxy late Holocene climatic record deduced from northwest Alaskan beach ridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, O.K.; Jordan, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A climatically-sensitive, oscillatory pattern of progradation and erosion is revealed in late Holocene accretionary sand ridge and barrier island complexes of Seward Peninsula, northwest Alaska. Archaeological and geological radiocarbon dates constrain the authors chronology for the Cape Espenberg beach ridge plain and the Shishmaref barrier islands, 50 km to the southwest. Cape Espenberg, acts as the depositional sink for the northeastward longshore transport system and contains the oldest sedimentary deposits: based on 3700±90 B.P. (β-23170) old grass from a paleosol capping a low dune facies. The oldest date on the Shishmaref barrier islands is 1550±70 B.P. (β-23183) and implies that the modem barrier is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Late Holocene sedimentation varies between intervals of erosion and rapid progradation. During erosional periods higher dunes are built atop beach ridges: as between 3000-2000 yrs. BP and intermittently from 1000 BP to the present. At other times, rapid progradation predominated, generating wide swales and low beach ridges without dunes. Tentatively, dune formation is correlative with the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age glacial advances and increased alluviation in north Alaska. Rapid progradation is contemporaneous with warmer intervals of soil and peat formation atop alluvial terraces, dated to ca. 4000-3500 and 2000-1000 yrs. B.P. In the record of the last 1000 years, dune building is correlative with heightened storminess, as reflected in northwest Alaska tree-ring chronologies and weather anomalies such as spring dust storms and winter thunderstorms in East Asian locations

  16. The Great 1787 Earthquake (M 8.6) and Tsunami along The Mexican Subduction Zone - History, Geology and Tsunami Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Lagos, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Caballero, M.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Suarez, G.; Ortuño, M.

    2017-12-01

    The 1787 great earthquake (M 8.6) triggered a deadly tsunami that poured over the coast of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas, along more than 500 km of the Mexican Pacific coast and up to 6 km inland. This tsunami, according with historical documents, destroyed mostly farmlands and livestock, and damaged few villages since the density of population was sparse at the time. We report first on geological evidence from the Corralero lagoon and adjacent coastal plain that seem in agreement with historical accounts. The deposit left by the 1787 tsunami can be traced along a transect of cores and test pits from the coastline and up to 1.6 km inland. The test pits showed an anomalous sand layer that was deposited in a single event in the swales of a series of beach ridges. The anomalous layer is almost continuous along the transect, about a 1000 m-long, and is formed of coarse to medium sand, at variable depths, with variable thickness, and pinching up with the distance from the coastline. We used stratigraphy, grain size, microfossils (foraminifera and diatoms), magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility proxies to reveal the nature of this anomalous sand layer. Stratigraphy, abrupt contacts, and magnetic properties support a sudden and rapid event, consisting of sands transported most probably by an extreme sea-wave far inland. Furthermore, based on the accounts of the 1787 earthquake (M 8.6) and tsunami, and estimates from 210Pb sedimentation rates, we suggest that this is the tsunami deposit left by the 1787 event. Tsunami modeling will further enhance the hazard and risk assessment of this area in Mexico.

  17. A produção escrita do gênero e-mail nos livros didáticos de língua inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Mônica Moura Lima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As interações sociais vêm proporcionando novas formas de comunicação impulsionadas pelas novas tecnologias. Gêneros como o e-mail tem nos proporcionados variações criativas na língua, sobretudo em sua escrita (CRYSTAL, 2006. Considerando o livro didático (LD como um gênero do discurso, e refletindo sobre essa conjuntura digital que incidem em nossas interações, objetivamos nesse trabalho analisar as atividades de escrita de e-mails em duas coleções didáticas de inglês para o ensino médio, no intuito de verificar nesses gêneros evidências sobre a relação de seus elementos regularizadores como propósitos, estilos, temas, papeis sociais, estrutura composicional e evento deflagrador, ou seja, propõe-se, em linhas gerais, verificar o comportamento do gênero e-mail nas atividades propostas pelos livros, refletindo sobre suas influências. Para dar sustentação a essa pesquisa, fundamentamo-nos nas leituras de Bakhtin (1997[1979], Miller (2012[1984], Swales (2004, Bazerman(2009, Devitt (2004, Bunzen (2008, dentre outros. Os resultados das analises evidenciaram que as atividades de escrita do e-mail são influenciadas pelos propósitos comunicativos do livro didático, os quais se regularizam em aspectos linguísticos e temáticos, refletindo sobremaneira nos demais elementos como estilos, papeis sociais, estrutura composicional e outros, dessa maneira, pouco espelhando a natureza sociorretórica do e-mail na vida social.

  18. Spatial Evaluation of Multiple Benefits to Encourage Multi-Functional Design of Sustainable Drainage in Blue-Green Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fenner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban drainage systems that incorporate elements of green infrastructure (SuDS/GI are central features in Blue-Green and Sponge Cities. Such approaches provide effective control of stormwater management whilst generating a range of other benefits. However these benefits often occur coincidentally and are not developed or maximised in the original design. Of all the benefits that may accrue, the relevant dominant benefits relating to specific locations and socio-environmental circumstances need to be established, so that flood management functions can be co-designed with these wider benefits to ensure both are achieved during system operation. The paper reviews a number of tools which can evaluate the multiple benefits of SuDS/GI interventions in a variety of ways and introduces new concepts of benefit intensity and benefit profile. Examples of how these concepts can be applied is provided in a case study of proposed SuDS/GI assets in the central area of Newcastle; UK. Ways in which SuDS/GI features can be actively extended to develop desired relevant dominant benefits are discussed; e.g., by (i careful consideration of tree and vegetation planting to trap air pollution; (ii extending linear SuDS systems such as swales to enhance urban connectivity of green space; and (iii managing green roofs for the effective attenuation of noise or carbon sequestration. The paper concludes that more pro-active development of multiple benefits is possible through careful co-design to achieve the full extent of urban enhancement SuDS/GI schemes can offer.

  19. nvestigating Generic Structure of English Research Articles: Writing Strategy Differences between English and Indonesian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Mirahayuni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into English research articles (RAs has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990 Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategies between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational strategies. Second, non-native English writers need to acquire knowledge of commonly used formal generic structure, and more importantly, the knowledge of the nature of scientific writing in English to be able to gain wider readership. The implications for further research and the teaching of academic writing are discussed.

  20. A Theoretical Model of Drumlin Formation Based on Observations at Múlajökull, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; McCracken, R. G.; Zoet, L. K.; Benediktsson, Í. Ö.; Schomacker, A.; Johnson, M. D.; Woodard, J.

    2017-12-01

    The drumlin field at the surge-type glacier, Múlajökull, provides an unusual opportunity to build a model of drumlin formation based on field observations in a modern drumlin-forming environment. These observations indicate that surges deposit till layers that drape the glacier forefield, conform to drumlin surfaces, and are deposited in shear. Observations also indicate that erosion helps create drumlin relief, effective stresses in subglacial till are highest between drumlins, and during quiescent flow, crevasses on the glacier surface overlie drumlins while subglacial channels occupy intervening swales. In the model, we consider gentle undulations on the bed bounded by subglacial channels at low water pressure. During quiescent flow, slip of temperate ice across these undulations and basal water flow toward bounding channels create an effective stress distribution that maximizes till entrainment in ice on the heads and flanks of drumlins. Crevasses amplify this effect but are not necessary for it. During surges, effective stresses are uniformly low, and the bed shears pervasively. Vigorous basal melting during surges releases debris from ice and deposits it on the bed, with deposition augmented by transport in the deforming bed. As surge cycles progress, drumlins migrate downglacier and grow at increasing rates, due to positive feedbacks that depend on drumlin height. Drumlin growth can be accompanied by either net aggradation or erosion of the bed, and drumlin heights and stratigraphy generally correspond with observations. This model highlights that drumlin growth can reflect instabilities other than those of bed shear instability models, which require heuristic till transport assumptions.

  1. Cognition and context of legal texts: spanish and english judgments compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Angeles Ruiz Moneva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las áreas de investigación dentro del área de Lenguas para Fines Específicos (LSP la constituyen los textos especializados y sus géneros (Nekvapil 2006. La noción de género, tal como se define por autores como Swales (1990 o Bhatia (1993, es, sin duda, y  ha sido reconocida como una noción clave para la comprensión y la traducción de textos especializados, y entre estos, los textos legales (Alcaraz y Hughes 2002a; Borja Albi, 2000. Por'género' o 'tipo de texto' se entiende una clase específica de texto que es utilizado por una comunidad científica, un grupo profesional o comunidad de discurso, a fin de cumplir con un propósito definido. Cada género se distinguen por ciertas rasgos peculiares, como un formato particular, un propósito definido, y rasgos léxicos, morfológicos, sintácticos y discursivos específicos. Entre los textos legales, las sentencias son probablemente uno de los tipos de texto más común y más ampliamente utilizado en varias ramas o áreas de la ley, como el derecho civil o penal. Son, además, un ejemplo representativo de los textos argumentativos. Algunos autores, (como Maley 1985 o Borja Albi 2000 señalaron la impersonalidad como un rasgo de las sentencias españolas, lo que contrasta con un tono mucho más personal de las sentencias inglesas. Por el contrario, Vázquez Orta Orta (2010 ha insistido en el papel de interpersonalidad y la intersubjetividad en las sentencias, así como también en la intertextualidad que las sentencias establecen con las  anteriores y también con las próximas decisiones judiciales. En este sentido, este artículo analiza una selección de sentencias recientes, de  tribunales representativos de España y Gran Bretaña, con el fin de caracterizar las sentencias españolas y británicas. Se espera que este estudio puede ser útil para los estudios legales y culturales, así como para traducción.

  2. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington - Feasibility Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

    2006-01-01

    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The

  3. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington ? Feasibility Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

    2006-01-01

    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The

  4. Modeling the efficacy of future BMP implementation to improve water quality in the highly urbanized watersheds of Dominguez Channel and Machado Lake in Los Angeles California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. M.; Hogue, T. S.; Gold, M.; Mika, K.

    2016-12-01

    Dominguez Channel and Machado Lake watersheds are located in highly urbanized southern Los Angeles County. The 16 mile long channel that runs through the Dominguez Channel watershed (DCW) captures stormwater from a drainage area of 71 square miles and discharges directly into the Los Angeles Harbor. Machado Lake, located within the Machado Lake watershed (MLW) and directly adjacent to DCW, has a surface area of 40 acres and receives stormwater from 25 square miles. The water quality of receiving streams and waterbodies in DCW and MLW are increasingly polluted from stormwater runoff and highly concentrated areas of industrial activities. The main concern of water impairment within DCW includes copper and zinc while MLW is focused on nutrients, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorous. The implementation of Low Impact Developments (LIDs) and stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) within the watershed aim to mitigate the effects of urbanization by reducing pollutant loads, runoff volume, and storm peak flow. We utilize the EPA System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) model in order to assess the impact of BMPs within the DCW and MLW watersheds by forecasting flow regimes and water quality time series data. Six compliance scenarios are simulated in SUSTAIN to assess pollutant load reduction and cost effectiveness. They each utilize a various suite of the five BMPs selected, which include vegetated swales, bioretention cells, dry ponds, infiltration trenches and porous pavement. Preliminary results show that while the six compliance options reduce pollutant loads by at least 73% in DCW, copper and zinc are only 9% and 50% in compliance, respectively, in terms of the wet weather TMDLs. This study further analyzes these results by comparing DCW to other previously modelled watersheds in Los Angeles, including Ballona Creek watershed and the Los Angeles River watershed. Observed water quality sampling from Machado Lake has shown the mean

  5. The Twin Peaks in 3-D, as Viewed by the Mars Pathfinder IMP Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Twin Peaks are modest-size hills to the southwest of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. They were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The peaks are approximately 30-35 meters (-100 feet) tall. North Twin is approximately 860 meters (2800 feet) from the lander, and South Twin is about a kilometer away (3300 feet). The scene includes bouldery ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of the South Twin Peak. The large rock at the right edge of the scene is nicknamed 'Hippo'. This rock is about a meter (3 feet) across and 25 meters (80 feet) distant.This view of the Twin Peaks was produced by combining 4 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera to cover both peaks. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution pancromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.The anaglyph view of the Twin Peaks was produced by combining the left and right eye mosaics (above) by assigning the left eye view to the red color plane and the right eye view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under

  6. Impacts of Different Soil Texture and Organic Content on Hydrological Performance of Bioretention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyilmaz Alhan, Cevza

    2015-04-01

    The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed has adverse effects such as flooding and water pollution on both surface water and groundwater resources. Low Impact Development (LID) Best Management Practices (BMPs) such as bioretentions, vegetated rooftops, rain barrels, vegetative swales and permeable pavements have been implemented in order to diminish adverse effects of urbanization. LID-BMP is a land planning method which is used to manage storm water runoff by reducing peak flows as well as simultaneously improving water quality. The aim of this study is developing a functional experimental setup called as Rainfall-Watershed-Bioretention (RWB) System in order to investigate and quantify the hydrological performance of bioretention. RWB System is constructed on the Istanbul University Campus and includes an artificial rainfall system, which allows for variable rainfall intensity, drainage area, which has controllable size and slope, and bioretention columns with different soil ratios. Four bioretention columns with different soil textures and organic content are constructed in order to investigate their effects on water quantity. Using RWB System, the runoff volume, hydrograph, peak flow rate and delay in peak time at the exit of bioretention columns may be quantified under various rainfalls in order to understand the role of soil types used in bioretention columns and rainfall intensities. The data obtained from several experiments conducted in RWB System are employed in establishing a relation among rainfall, surface runoff and flow reduction after bioretention. Moreover, the results are supported by mathematical models in order to explain the physical mechanism of bioretention. Following conclusions are reached based on the analyses carried out in this study: i) Results show that different local soil types in bioretention implementation affect surface runoff and peak flow considerably. ii) Rainfall intensity and duration affect peak flow

  7. Geologic Map of the Estes Park 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Braddock, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The rocks and landforms of the Estes Park 30 x 60 minute quadrangle display an exceptionally complete record of geologic history in the northern Front Range of Colorado. The Proterozoic basement rocks exposed in the core of the range preserve evidence of Paleoproterozoic marine sedimentation, volcanism, and regional soft-sediment deformation, followed by regional folding and gradational metamorphism. The metasedimentary rocks of the Estes Park quadrangle are distinct within northern Colorado for preserving the complete metamorphic zonation from low-grade chlorite-muscovite phyllites, through middle greenschist-grade rocks with sequential aluminous porphyroblasts, to partially melted gneisses that contain high-grade cordierite and garnet in the non-melted residues. Regional and textural evidence shows that the widespread metamorphism was essentially concurrent with intrusion of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite and related magmas and with the peak of deformation in the partially melted high-grade rocks. The metamorphic thermal pulse arrived later following the peak of deformation in the physically higher, cooler, low-grade terrane. Mesoproterozoic time was marked by intrusion of biotite granite in the Longs Peak-St Vrain batholith, a complex, irregular body that occupies nearly half of the core of the Front Range in this quadrangle. The magma was dry and viscous as it invaded the metamorphic rocks and caused wholesale plastic folding of the wall rock structure. Steep metamorphic foliation that resulted from the Paleoproterozoic deformations was bowed upward and re-oriented into flat-lying attitudes as the crystal-rich magma rose buoyantly and spread out in the middle crust. Magma invaded the schists and gneisses along weak foliation planes and produced a characteristic sill-upon-sill intrusive fabric, particularly in the higher parts of the batholith. Broad, open arches and swales that are defined by the flow-aligned feldspar foliation of the granite, as well as by

  8. Bird-habitat associations in coastal rangelands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all remnants of temperate grasslands in southeastern South America are used for livestock ranching and are subject to habitat degradation resulting from this activity. Exploring how habitat features affect the composition of grassland avifaunal communities is a first step to understand how current cattle-ranching management practices impact avian diversity. We used canonical ordination to test for relationships between five habitat variables and the composition of the bird community in coastal grasslands in southern Brazil. We sampled pastures with different heights, from overgrazed short-grass to tall herbaceous vegetation. We recorded 1,535 individuals and 27 species of birds. The first ordination axis indicated a strong contribution of mean vegetation height on the composition of the bird community, whereas the second axis revealed the influence of herbaceous vegetation patchiness and woody vegetation cover. Three groups of species were revealed by the ordination: one more diffuse associated with intermediate and tall herbaceous vegetation, another with short grass, and a third with vegetation patchiness and woody vegetation. Species restricted to tall herbaceous vegetation are negatively impacted from habitat degradation resulting from overgrazing and trampling by livestock, and mowing and burning of tall plants. Occurrence of these species in our study area is related with the presence of swales immediately behind the dune system and where remnants of tall vegetation persist. Birds of pastures with ample cover of short herbaceous plants, including one globally threatened species and six other restricted to short-grass habitat, apparently benefit from local livestock management practices. Woody vegetation possibly functions as a keystone structure, enabling the occurrence in grasslands of avian species that rely on shrubby habitat. Although livestock ranching promotes the diversity of habitats by creating distinct patches of

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of management practices on hydrology and water quality at watershed scale with a rainfall-runoff model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A

    2015-04-01

    The adverse influence of urban development on hydrology and water quality can be reduced by applying best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. This study applied green roof, rain barrel/cistern, bioretention system, porous pavement, permeable patio, grass strip, grassed swale, wetland channel, retention pond, detention basin, and wetland basin, on Crooked Creek watershed. The model was calibrated and validated for annual runoff volume. A framework for simulating BMPs and LID practices at watershed scales was created, and the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and water quality were evaluated with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for 16 scenarios. The various levels and combinations of BMPs/LID practices reduced runoff volume by 0 to 26.47%, Total Nitrogen (TN) by 0.30 to 34.20%, Total Phosphorus (TP) by 0.27 to 47.41%, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) by 0.33 to 53.59%, Lead (Pb) by 0.30 to 60.98%, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by 0 to 26.70%, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) by 0 to 27.52%. The implementation of grass strips in 25% of the watershed where this practice could be applied was the most cost-efficient scenario, with cost per unit reduction of $1m3/yr for runoff, while cost for reductions of two pollutants of concern was $445 kg/yr for Total Nitrogen (TN) and $4871 kg/yr for Total Phosphorous (TP). The scenario with very high levels of BMP and LID practice adoption (scenario 15) reduced runoff volume and pollutant loads from 26.47% to 60.98%, and provided the greatest reduction in runoff volume and pollutant loads among all scenarios. However, this scenario was not as cost-efficient as most other scenarios. The L-THIA-LID 2.1 model is a valid tool that can be applied to various locations to help identify cost effective BMP/LID practice plans at watershed scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Levine; V.L. Finley

    1998-03-01

    from the TFTR stack; the data are presented in this report. During 1996, PPPL completed the removal of contaminated soil from two locations that were identified through the monitoring program: petroleum hydrocarbons along a drainage swale and chromium adjacent to the cooling tower.

  11. Reading Ombrone river delta evolution through beach ridges morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammi, Irene; Piccardi, Marco; Pranzini, Enzo; Rossi, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    heights were analysed through LiDAR data and some of them were found higher than average. Conceptual models in literature allowed us to explain higher beach ridges as periods of stability or a very initial erosion stage interesting the beach. The high resolution DTM produced from LiDAR and UAV data permitted a better reconstruction of the last five centuries of delta evolution and to characterize the difference of beach ridges morphology of the up-drift and the down-drift sides of the delta. Within this framework the presence of interdune swales in the down-drift side has been explained.

  12. Assembling an ignimbrite: Compositionally defined eruptive packages in the 1912 Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes ignimbrite, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, J.; Wilson, C.J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The 1912 Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) ignimbrite was constructed from 9 compositionally distinct, sequentially emplaced packages, each with distinct proportions of rhyolite (R), dacite (D), and andesite (A) pumices that permit us to map package boundaries and flow paths from vent to distal extents. Changing pumice proportions and interbedding relationships link ignimbrite formation to coeval fall deposition during the first ???16 h (Episode I) of the eruption. Pumice compositional proportions in the ignimbrite were estimated by counts on ???100 lapilli at multiple levels in vertical sections wherever accessible and more widely over most of the ignimbrite surface in the VTTS. The initial, 100% rhyolite ignimbrite package (equivalent to regional fall Layer A and occupying ???3.5 h) was followed by packages with increasing proportions of andesite, then dacite, emplaced over ???12.5 h and equivalent to regional fall Layers B1-B3. Coeval fall deposits are locally intercalated with the ignimbrite and show parallel changes in R:D (rhyolite:dacite) proportions, but lack significant amounts of andesite. Andesite was thus dominantly a low-fountaining component in the eruption column and is preferentially represented in packages filling the VTTS north of the vent. The most extensive packages (3 and 4) occur in B1 and early B2 times where flow mobility and volume were optimized; earlier all-rhyolite flows (Package 1) were highly energetic but less voluminous, while later packages (5-9) were both less voluminous and emplaced at lower velocities. Package boundaries are expressed as one or more of the following: sharp color changes corresponding to compositional variations; persistent finer-grained basal parts of flow units; compaction swales filled by later packages; erosional channels cut by the flows that fill them; lobate accumulations of one package; and (mostly south of the vent) intercalated fall deposit layers. Clear flow-unit boundaries are best developed between

  13. Evidence for biologic response to pedogenesis along the Merced River chronosequence, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S. E.; Amundson, R.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term soil weathering results in accumulations of clay and reduced hydraulic conductivity. How biology responds to these changes in the physical environment and how the response, in turn, influences landscape development are crucial questions in the effort to elucidate the links between the biologic and physical earth surface domains. Mima mounds are small, circular half-domes of soil that are suspected of being formed by burrowing rodents, as an adaption to saturated soil conditions. In the swales between the mounds, ephemeral wetlands called vernal pools, support a suite of endemic and endangered plant and animal species. Mima mounds, then, may provide a useful model by which to examine the complex feedbacks between landscape and life. In this study, changes in mound characteristics and in biological activity (pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae) are investigated across the Merced River chronosequence, a series of alluvial terraces which have been shown to exhibit an increasing degree of soil and hardpan development with landform age. Mound morphology (size, slope, curvature, concentration, elongation, dispersion) and relation to environmental parameters were analyzed using airborne LIDAR (light detection and ranging) imagery of the mounds. The high-resolution (1m) LIDAR surveys (conducted in 2006 and 2010) cover 65km2 and comprise seven different-aged landforms, ranging from several hundred years to several million years. Minimal filtering was performed on the dataset given the absence of large vegetation or other obstructions. A 20x20m moving window filter was used to smooth out the low frequency signals and accentuate mounded features. To test how and whether the subterranean mammals modify their burrowing habits in response to soil age, biotic sediment transport was measured monthly on 0.01, 0.5, and 2 m.y.o. terraces using RFID (radio frequency identification) technology. Half-liter portions of soil containing five RFID tags were implanted in active gopher

  14. The ichnofacies and ichnoassemblages in terrestrial deposits of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, terrestrial ichnofossil research was mostly focused on three ichnofacies: the Scoyenia ichnofacies, characterizing transitional fluvio-lacustrine environments, the Mermia ichnofacies, characterizing fully lacustrine settings, and the Termitichnus ichnofacies, characterizing terrestrial environments, especially, paleosol deposits. Specially in China, many terrestrial ichnofossils, including at least 24 ichnogenera from fluvial deposits and 59 ichnogenera from lacustrine deposits, have been found in Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins. Most of them belong to the common elements of the three ichnofacies and consist of feeding, grazing, crawling, dwelling, and resting traces and rhizoliths. Based on the composition, occurrence and distribution characteristics of trace fossils from terrestrial sedimentary basins of China, 36 ichnoassemblages have been proposed. However, the most common 12 ichnoassemblages, in which six are found in fluvial sedimentary environments from the Upper Cretaceous of the Sichuan Basin in western China and Xixia Basin in western Henan Province, include: (1 Scoyenia–Rusophycus ichnoassemblage generated in the floodplain along channels and the shallow water swales or lakes (such as oxbow lakes; (2 Skolithos–Arenicolites ichnoassemblage produced in the high energy sandy bar (heart bar or point bar of the channel environment; (3 Gastruichnus–Palaeophycus ichnoassemblage developed in the channel-levee environment; (4 Beaconites–Taenidium ichnoassemblage occurring in the embankment (crevasse splay sedimentary environment; (5 Beaconites–Rhizolithos ichnoassemblage appearing in the floodplain sedimentary environment, and (6 Beaconites–Scoyenia ichnoassemblage distributed in the periodically exposed overbank lake (extremely shallow lacustrine sedimentary environments. The other six ichnoassemblages are found in lacustrine sedimentary environments: (1 Scoyenia–Skolithos ichnoassemblage always developed

  15. Chenier Development within a Prograding Strandplain Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, D.; Hein, C. J.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2017-12-01

    chenier. Recent storm-induced landward transport of a thin, sandy overwash fan mimics the proposed mechanism for earlier ridge-swale development. Finally, a future chenier is forming 1 km offshore where breaking waves concentrate sand. Between these two sand deposits is a shallow (< 3 m) muddy region where cores and surface samples indicate an absence of sand.

  16. Strategy for introduction of rainwater management facility considering rainfall event applied on new apartment complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, H.; Lee, D. K.; Yoo, S.

    2014-12-01

    As regional torrential rains become frequent due to climate change, urban flooding happens very often. That is why it is necessary to prepare for integrated measures against a wide range of rainfall. This study proposes introduction of effective rainwater management facilities to maximize the rainwater runoff reductions and recover natural water circulation for unpredictable extreme rainfall in apartment complex scale. The study site is new apartment complex in Hanam located in east of Seoul, Korea. It has an area of 7.28ha and is analysed using the EPA-SWMM and STORM model. First, it is analyzed that green infrastructure(GI) had efficiency of flood reduction at the various rainfall events and soil characteristics, and then the most effective value of variables are derived. In case of rainfall event, Last 10 years data of 15 minutes were used for analysis. A comparison between A(686mm rainfall during 22days) and B(661mm/4days) knew that soil infiltration of A is 17.08% and B is 5.48% of the rainfall. Reduction of runoff after introduction of the GI of A is 24.76% and B is 6.56%. These results mean that GI is effective to small rainfall intensity, and artificial rainwater retarding reservoir is needed at extreme rainfall. Second, set of target year is conducted for the recovery of hydrological cycle at the predevelopment. And an amount of infiltration, evaporation, surface runoff of the target year and now is analysed on the basis of land coverage, and an arrangement of LID facilities. Third, rainwater management scenarios are established and simulated by the SWMM-LID. Rainwater management facilities include GI(green roof, porous pavement, vegetative swale, ecological pond, and raingarden), and artificial rainwater. Design scenarios are categorized five type: 1)no GI, 2)conventional GI design(current design), 3)intensive GI design, 4)GI design+rainwater retarding reservoir 5)maximized rainwater retarding reservoir. Intensive GI design is to have attribute value to

  17. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of site A, Palos Park Forest Preserve, Chicago. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The principal finding of this study of Site A (CP-2, CP-3 Reactors) and Plot M (burial site) is the presence of tritium (as water) in the Plot M area and in the three wells to the north. No abnormal amounts of radioactivity were found in any other Forest Preserve District wells or in any private wells. The only radionuclide in the Site A core samples attributable to operations at the Site is tritium. The concentrations were substantially less than in the Plot M area. Elevated concentrations of uranium and plutonium were found on the surface of the bed of a swale 50 to 200 feet north and downhill of Plot M. Average values over this area were about 10 pCi/g U and 0.2 pCi/g for Pu. The only important pathway for exposure to the public from the radionuclides buried in Plot M is from the tritiated water moving from the Plot to the dolomite aquifer and consumed by individuals using the picnic wells. The possible dose to people from this pathway is estimated at 0.7 mrem/y as compared to the EPA drinking water standard of 4 mrem/y. Elevated tritium concentrations were found in the soil around and beneath Plot M; they decrease with increasing distance from the Plot. Tritium has been found in the subsoil as deep as samples have been collected, so it must be assumed that the ground beneath and immediately around the Plot contains tritium down to the dolomite aquifer about 130 feet deep. The total tritium content in this area is estimated to be about 3000 Ci. In the three waterways that drain the Plot, the Illinois and Michigan Canal, Des Plaines River, and Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, tritium from the Plot was not detected. Small amounts of other radionuclides (U, Pu, /sup 90/Sr) have been found in boreholes beneath the concrete cap covering the Plot, but not in the subsoil outside of the Plot. (14 figs, 36 tables)

  18. Birds of a eucaliptos woodlot in interior São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Willis

    Full Text Available Some 255 birds were recorded between 1982-2001 in and near a 2314-ha "Horto" of old eucalyptus plantations with native understory and a lake, near Rio Claro, in central São Paulo, Brazil. This is close to the 263 recorded in and around a ten-times smaller nearby 230-ha woodlot of semideciduous forest. Different species were 44, for a total of 307 in both areas. One hundred and fifty nonvagrant forest and border species were recorded in 1982-86, a number close to the 152 in the small native woodlot. With dry years and logging of plots in 1985-93, 21 of the 150 species were lost, 42 species decreased in numbers, 49 were stable, 19 increased (15 being border species, and 5 entered (one of dry forest and 4 of borders, so 129 species remained in 1996-2001 compared to 133 in the native woodlot. Open-area birds were 33, versus 50 in better-checked grassy swales in sugar cane near the natural woodlot, for a total of 53. Several species, like some border ones, did not enter the open but isolated and mowed interior lake area, or took years to do so. Water and marsh birds were 46 versus 40 in smaller creeks and ponds near the natural woodlot (total, 55 but many were migrants or infrequent visitors using distant areas, and perhaps should be counted as 0.1-0.9 "local species" rather than "1" species. Use of this more accurate method would reduce waterbird totals by 14 "species" in the Horto and by 11 around the native woodlot. I also recommend longer censusing at the edges in large woodlots or many edge species will be recorded only in small fragments of habitat. Several species increased and others decreased with occasional cat-tail and water-lily cleanups at the lake. A forested corridor between the Horto and natural woodlot is recommended, with old eucalyptus left to provide flowers for hummingbirds.

  19. Birds of a eucaliptos woodlot in interior São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis E. O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some 255 birds were recorded between 1982-2001 in and near a 2314-ha "Horto" of old eucalyptus plantations with native understory and a lake, near Rio Claro, in central São Paulo, Brazil. This is close to the 263 recorded in and around a ten-times smaller nearby 230-ha woodlot of semideciduous forest. Different species were 44, for a total of 307 in both areas. One hundred and fifty nonvagrant forest and border species were recorded in 1982-86, a number close to the 152 in the small native woodlot. With dry years and logging of plots in 1985-93, 21 of the 150 species were lost, 42 species decreased in numbers, 49 were stable, 19 increased (15 being border species, and 5 entered (one of dry forest and 4 of borders, so 129 species remained in 1996-2001 compared to 133 in the native woodlot. Open-area birds were 33, versus 50 in better-checked grassy swales in sugar cane near the natural woodlot, for a total of 53. Several species, like some border ones, did not enter the open but isolated and mowed interior lake area, or took years to do so. Water and marsh birds were 46 versus 40 in smaller creeks and ponds near the natural woodlot (total, 55 but many were migrants or infrequent visitors using distant areas, and perhaps should be counted as 0.1-0.9 "local species" rather than "1" species. Use of this more accurate method would reduce waterbird totals by 14 "species" in the Horto and by 11 around the native woodlot. I also recommend longer censusing at the edges in large woodlots or many edge species will be recorded only in small fragments of habitat. Several species increased and others decreased with occasional cat-tail and water-lily cleanups at the lake. A forested corridor between the Horto and natural woodlot is recommended, with old eucalyptus left to provide flowers for hummingbirds.

  20. Characterisation of Hydrological Response to Rainfall at Multi Spatio-Temporal Scales in Savannas of Semi-Arid Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jarihani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall is the main driver of hydrological processes in dryland environments and characterising the rainfall variability and processes of runoff generation are critical for understanding ecosystem function of catchments. Using remote sensing and in situ data sets, we assess the spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall, rainfall–runoff response, and effects on runoff coefficients of antecedent soil moisture and ground cover at different spatial scales. This analysis was undertaken in the Upper Burdekin catchment, northeast Australia, which is a major contributor of sediment and nutrients to the Great Barrier Reef. The high temporal and spatial variability of rainfall are found to exert significant controls on runoff generation processes. Rainfall amount and intensity are the primary runoff controls, and runoff coefficients for wet antecedent conditions were higher than for dry conditions. The majority of runoff occurred via surface runoff generation mechanisms, with subsurface runoff likely contributing little runoff due to the intense nature of rainfall events. MODIS monthly ground cover data showed better results in distinguishing effects of ground cover on runoff that Landsat-derived seasonal ground cover data. We conclude that in the range of moderate to large catchments (193–36,260 km2 runoff generation processes are sensitive to both antecedent soil moisture and ground cover. A higher runoff–ground cover correlation in drier months with sparse ground cover highlighted the critical role of cover at the onset of the wet season (driest period and how runoff generation is more sensitive to cover in drier months than in wetter months. The monthly water balance analysis indicates that runoff generation in wetter months (January and February is partially influenced by saturation overland flow, most likely confined to saturated soils in riparian corridors, swales, and areas of shallow soil. By March and continuing through October

  1. A propósito da “síntese brasileira” nos estudos de gêneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Gomes Bezerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Em publicações recentes, pesquisadores estrangeiros têm mencionado a existência de uma “síntese brasileira” nos estudos de gêneros (textuais/discursivos, a qual teria sido impulsionada pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e pelo Simpósio Internacional de Estudos de Gêneros Textuais (SIGET, configurando-se como um modelo teórico alternativo, uma quarta ou quinta grande tendência mundial de estudos de gêneros, capaz de conciliar abordagens linguísticas, retóricas, sociológicas e pedagógicas. O aludido modelo brasileiro encontraria suas bases teóricas e metodológicas na Escola de Genebra e no interacionismo sociodiscursivo. Este trabalho tem como objetivo discutir o estatuto da “síntese brasileira” conforme defendida principalmente por Bawarshi e Reiff ([2010] 2013, mas também por Swales (2012, a partir de um levantamento panorâmico das abordagens teóricas correntes no país, incluindo uma discussão das principais influências que marcam a pesquisa brasileira no campo dos gêneros. Para isso, uma atenção especial é dedicada a estudos que buscam mapear abordagens teóricas, bem como combinações entre abordagens, nos trabalhos de pesquisadores brasileiros, além de se realizar um exame crítico de publicações que contribuíram para a divulgação dos estudos brasileiros de gêneros no exterior e fundamentaram a hipótese da síntese. Os resultados indicam a existência de uma significativa complexidade e ecletismo nas abordagens de gêneros por autores brasileiros, ao lado da adesão a perspectivas específicas e diferenciadas, o que problematiza em muito a possibilidade de uma síntese entendida como uma perspectiva única e unificada.

  2. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  3. Six large tsunamis in the past ~1700 years at Stardust Bay, Sedanka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R. C.; Carver, G. A.; Bender, A. M.; Briggs, R. W.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Koehler, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Two great earthquakes in 1946 (Unimak Island, Mw 8.1) and 1957 (Andreanof Islands, Mw 8.6) ruptured parts of the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, generating deadly pan-Pacific tsunamis that hit Hawaii. Here, we provide the first estimates of recurrence intervals of such destructive Aleutian-born tsunamis from evidence for tsunami inundation at Stardust Bay on the Pacific coast of Sedanka Island, ~25 km southeast of Dutch Harbor, Alaska. We used soil augers, outcrops and shallow pits to map 6 continuous sand deposits across four depositional environments in a ~500-m-wide, 35-hectare valley. Successive sandy deposits mantled the crests of beach ridges, buried peat formed in freshwater wetlands and upland muskeg, and accumulated to form unusual terrace remnants along the valley's inland margin. Dark, basaltic tephras interbedded in peat underlying two of the sands guided stratigraphic correlation across the study area. Thin, peaty horizons separate the six gray sand beds that can be distinguished from black tephra deposits by their compositions, which consist of subangular volcanic lithics similar to Stardust Bay beach sand. The youngest sand, often the thinnest (<1-13 cm) of the six deposits, underlies drift logs scattered across the landscape at elevations up to 18.5 m and as far as 800 m inland, which provide minimum limits on inundation for the most recent tsunami. The older sands vary in thickness from 6-50 cm and often have rounded gravel at the bases of multiple, normally-graded sand beds, some of which contain ripped-up mud or peat clasts. The sheet-like sand beds blanket topography, thinning over beach ridges and thickening in swales and bogs. Although marine foraminifera are absent in the sandy and peaty deposits in the valley, we infer a tsunami origin for the sand beds, based on their physical properties. The activity of 210Pb and 137Cs in organic-rich sediment above and below the youngest sand bed suggest it predates 1963, consistent with

  4. Historical changes in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands and the roles of extreme storms, sea level, and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    An historical analysis of images and documents shows that the Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are undergoing rapid land loss and translocation. The barrier island chain formed and grew at a time when there was a surplus of sand in the alongshore sediment transport system, a condition that no longer prevails. The islands, except Cat, display alternating wide and marrow segments. Wide segments generally were products of low rates of inlet migration and spit elongation that resulted in well-defined ridges and swales formed by wave refraction along the inlet margins. In contrast, rapid rates of inlet migration and spit elongation under conditions of surplus sand produced low, narrow, straight barrier segments. Since the mid 1800s, average rates of land loss for all the MS islands accelerated systematically while maintaining consistency from island to island. In contrast, Dauphin Island, off the Alabama coast, gained land during the early 20th century and then began to lose land at rates comparable to those of the MS barriers. There is an inverse relationship between island size and percentage of land reduction for each barrier such that Horn Island lost 24% and Ship Island lost 64% of its area since the mid 1800s. Ship Island is particularly vulnerable to storm-driven land losses because topographic and bathymetric boundary conditions focus wave energy onto the island. The three predominant morphodynamic processes associated with land loss are: (1) unequal lateral transfer of sand related to greater updrift erosion compared to downdrift deposition, (2) barrier narrowing resulting from simultaneous erosion of the Gulf and Soundside shores, and (3) barrier segmentation related to storm breaching. The western three fourths of Dauphin Island are migrating landward as a result of storms that erode the Gulf shore, overwash the island, and deposit sand in Mississippi Sound. Petit Bois, Horn, and Ship Islands have migrated westward as a result of predominant

  5. A dinâmica de produção de conhecimento: teorias e dados, pesquisador e pesquisados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dèsirée Motta-Roth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As maneiras de desenhar a prática de pesquisa, de construir um discurso sobre ela e de materializá-la no texto variam de acordo com as culturas locais de cada disciplina acadêmica, seus valores e crenças (Becher, 1981; Swales, 1990; Hyland, 2000. Em áreas duras como a física e a química, tradicionalmente se verificou uma tendência ao consenso (Kuhn, 1970, com fundamentos conceituais e procedimentais acordados entre os membros. A cultura coesa das áreas duras foi vista por Thomas Kuhn como sinal de ciência madura, pois evidenciava argumentos consensuais, verificados, testados, discutidos no coletivo da disciplina ao longo de séculos. As ciências humanas e sociais, por outro lado, têm se caracterizado pelarecência da sua organização enquanto disciplina, pela novidade de seus argumentos e pela pouca amplitude de seu consenso (Rorty, 1991. Essa natureza heterogênea da validação do conhecimento e da caracterização do objeto de estudo é vista, neste trabalho, mais como qualidade a ser saudada do que como defeito a ser excluído. Para estudar um objeto tão complexo e rico como a linguagem humana, a Lingüística Aplicada desenha procedimentos que se socorrem em outras tantas disciplinas limítrofes, como a psicologia (na pesquisa cognitivista, a antropologia (na pesquisa etnográfica e a sociologia (na pesquisa em análise do discurso. O surgimento de diferentes possibilidades para a prática de pesquisa vem acompanhado de discussões sobre a legitimação dos problemas e procedimentos de pesquisa. Diferentes desenhos demandam, entre outras coisas, perspectivas diversas do pesquisador sobre a linguagem e como estudá-la. Este trabalho examina dois conceitos ligados a a essa questão: a perspectiva ética e a perspectiva êmica, tentando relacioná-las a diferentes modos de investigar a linguagem. Por ser de natureza complexa e rica, a linguagem demanda que acomodemos, na metodologia de pesquisa, uma 'tensão dialética' entre

  6. Neutron Spectrometer Prospecting in the Mojave Volatiles Project Analog Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Hunt, D. R.; Deans, M. C.; Lim, D. S.; Foil, G.; Fong, T.

    2015-01-01

    either hydroxyl/water in mineral assemblages or as moisture will significantly enhance the return of thermalized neutrons. However, in the Mojave test setting there is little uniformity, especially in bulk material density. We find that lighter toned materials (immature pavements, bar and swale, and wash materials) have lower thermal neutron flux, while mature, darker pavements with the greatest desert varnish development have higher neutron fluxes. Preliminary analysis of samples from the various terrain types in the test area indicates a prevailing moisture content of 2-3 wt% H2O. However, soil mineralogy suggests that the welldeveloped Av1 soil horizon beneath the topmost dark pavement clast layer contains the highest clay content. Structural water (including hydroxyl) in these clays may explain the enhanced neutron albedo over dark pavements. On the other hand, surface and subsurface bulk density can also play a role in neutron albedo - lower density of materials found in washes, for example, can result in a reduction in neutron flux. Analysis is ongoing.

  7. Landform characterization using geophysics—Recent advances, applications, and emerging tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Remke L.

    2012-01-01

    on the use of electrical and GPR methods for characterization of landforms in the range of meters to 100 s of meters in dimension. In a study of polygonal patterned ground in the Saginaw Lowlands, Michigan, USA, electrical resistivity tomography was used to characterize differences in subsurface texture and water content associated with polygon-swale topography. Also, a sand-filled thermokarst feature was identified using electrical resistivity data. The second example is on the use of constant spread traversing (CST) for characterization of large-scale glaciotectonic deformation in the Ludington Ridge, Michigan. Multiple CST surveys parallel to an ~ 60 m high cliff, where broad (~ 100 m) synclines and narrow clay-rich anticlines are visible, illustrated that at least one of the narrow structures extended inland. A third case study discusses internal structures of an eolian dune on a coastal spit in New Zealand. Both 35 and 200 MHz GPR data, which clearly identified a paleosol and internal sedimentary structures of the dune, were used to improve understanding of the development of the dune, which may shed light on paleo-wind directions.

  8. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in

  9. Floodplain phosphorus distribution in an agricultural watershed and its role in contributing to in-stream phosphorus load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakidis, Iordanis Vlasios

    total-P deposition patterns across the floodplains (e.g., short- vs. long-term P deposition areas); and (iii) comparisons of the soil total-P concentrations and critical shear stresses among the main river zones and determination of their primary function either as P sources or sinks, under high runoff and flood conditions. Following that line of thinking, this research results comprise of three (3) parts, each one addressing a specific objective. The first part of the results includes the soil texture and total-P concentration analyses of the extracted soil profiles to identify the soil total-P spatial and vertical deposition patterns across the floodplains, as well as, to investigate the total-P variability with respect to soil physical properties (e.g., soil texture). The second part of the results focuses on investigating the role of topography (e.g., flat vs. ridge vs. swale land surfaces) and flood characteristics (e.g., frequency, magnitude, duration) in soil total-P spatial and vertical deposition patterns across the river floodplains to understand the time-scale nature of the P storage. The last part of the results presents the experimentally determined topsoil critical shear stress values and erodibility rates to characterize the floodplains' primary function, based on their location along the three (3) main river zones, either as sources or sinks for total-P, during high runoff and flood conditions. Overall, the results of this research show that (i) the total-P concentration in soils is tightly related to the fine particle content and monotonic linear relationships can be established between the two variables. In other words, the higher the fine particle content, the higher the total-P concentration in soils; (ii) a mixture of two normal distributions fit the log-transformed soil total-P concentration data of each field site considered in this study. The fitted distributions successfully capture the two peaks of the soil total-P concentration data correspond

  10. Volcanic Processes and Geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2009-01-01

    recently in A.D. 1883. The decapitated summit after the 1883 eruption, replaced by andesite domes of six eruptions since, shows a general process: collapse of steep summit domes, then the summit regrown by later dome eruptions. The island's stratigraphy is based on six or seven coarse-pumice tephra 'marker beds'. In upward succession they are layers G (2,100 yr B.P.), I (1,700 yr B.P.), H (1,400 yr B.P.), C (1,200-1,000 yr B.P.), M (750 yr B.P.), and B (390 yr B.P.). A coarse, hummocky debris-avalanche deposit older than about 2,100 yr B.P. - or perhaps a stack of three of them - lies along the east coast, the oldest exposed such bouldery diamicts on Augustine Island. Two large debris avalanches swept east and southeast into the sea between about 2,100 and 1,800 yr B.P. A large debris avalanche shed east and east-northeast into the sea between 1,700 and 14,00 yr B.P. Between about 1,400 and 1,100 yr B.P. debris avalanches swept into the sea on the volcano's south, southwest, and north-northwest. Pumiceous pyroclastic fans spread to the southeast and southwest, lithic pyroclastic flows and lahars (?) to the south and southeast. Pyroclastic flows, pyroclastic surges, and lahars swept down the west and south flanks between about 1,000 and 750 yr B.P. A debris avalanche swept into the sea on the west, and a small one on the south-southeast, between about 750 and 400 yr B.P. Large lithic pyroclastic flows shed to the southeast; smaller ones descended existing swales on the southwest and south. Between about 400 yr B.P. and historical time (late 1770s), three debris avalanches swept into the sea on the west-northwest, north-northwest, and north flanks. One of them (West Island) was large and fast: most of it rode to sea far beyond a former sea cliff, and its surface includes geomorphic evidence of having initiating a tsunami. Augustine's only conspicuous lava flow erupted on the north flank. During this prehistoric period numerous domes grew at th

  11. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    similar pattern: younger water discharges to small order streams in headwater basins and older water discharges to larger streams near the basin outlet.Factors affecting nitrogen transport in ground water include spatial and temporal variation in input sources, ground-water age, and aquifer processes that lead to denitrification. Spatial and temporal variations in nitrogen sources affect all the watersheds. Tributaries with higher inputs of nitrogen have higher concentrations in stream base flow. Areas where nitrogen application rates have increased over time show an age-nitrate relation in ground-water samples. The age-nitrate relation can be affected by denitrification, which occurs in Pocomoke and East Mahantango Creeks but is not evident in Polecat and Muddy Creeks. In East Mahantango Creek, the level of denitrification is significant in water with residence times greater than 20 years, but because this is a small component of overall ground-water discharge to a stream, it may not remove a significant quantity of nitrogen from the system. Denitrification in Pocomoke Creek is significant and appears to affect mostly older water discharging to streams. Therefore, if most of the nitrogen entering these two streams is associated with the discharge of younger ground water, denitrification may not greatly affect the overall nitrogen delivery to these streams.Other findings of this study show that nitrate in ground water discharging along preferential flow paths may not be affected by natural processes, such as denitrification or uptake by riparian vegetation. Seeps to swales and ditches beneath the north uplands at Polecat Creek indicate a shallow water table and discharge of young ground water whereas the absence of such seeps on the south side indicates a deep water table and a lack of young ground water. Similarly, discharge at the base of the slope and to the valley wetland south of the creek but not north of the creek indicates a different role for the