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Sample records for swaging

  1. Leakproof Swaged Joints in Thin-Wall Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckenberg, F. H.; Crockett, L. K.; Snyder, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Tubular inserts reinforce joints, reducing incidence of leaks. In new swaging technique, tubular inserts placed inside ends of both tubes to be joined. Made from thicker-wall tubing with outside diameter that matches inside diameter of thin tubing swaged, inserts support tube ends at joint. They ensure more uniform contact between swage fitting and tubing. New swaging technique developed for Al/Ti/V-alloy hydraulic supply lines.

  2. Conditioning of material properties by micro rotary swaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkina, Svetlana; Schenck, Christian; Kuhfuss, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Cold forming initiates a change of the material properties like flow stress and hardness. Due to work hardening and the accompanied loss of formability some intermediate heat treatment may become necessary in multi-stage forming processes. One possibility to avoid this heat treatment is to adjust the forming characteristics in terms of flow stress and formability by rotary swaging. This process is particularly suitable not only for producing of the target geometry but also for modifying of the material properties during the process and thus, rotary swaging can prepare the parts for further forming, such as extrusion. In this contribution, the process chain "rotary swaging - extrusion" for austenite stainless steel AISI304 was investigated. The forming characteristics of the semi-finished products for the extrusion were influenced by the previous swaging process. The conditioning by changing of the microstructure, the work hardening and the geometry of the processed wires was achieved by the process design. For this purpose, the geometry of the swaging dies, the feeding velocity as well as the process kinematics (eccentric swaging) and a stroke following angle Δɸ were varied. In particular, the novel geometry of the swaging dies with extraordinary sloped faces generated a non-symmetric material flow with severe shear deformation and thus an extreme change of the microstructure. The required forming force of the following extrusion process reflected the range of achievable conditioning. The micro rotary swaging process positively improved the formability of AISI304 by work softening.

  3. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF

  4. Dry rotary swaging with structured and coated tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Marius; Schenck, Christian; Kuhfuss, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Rotary swaging is a cold bulk forming process for manufacturing of complex bar and tube profiles like axles and gear shafts in the automotive industry. Conventional rotary swaging is carried out under intense use of lubricant usually based on mineral oil. Besides lubrication the lubricant fulfills necessary functions like lubrication, flushing and cooling, but generates costs for recycling, replacement and cleaning of the workpieces. Hence, the development of a dry process design is highly desirable, both under economic and ecological points of view. Therefore, it is necessary to substitute the functions of the lubricant. This was realized by the combination of newly developed a-C:H:W coating systems on the tools to minimize the friction and to avoid adhesion effects. With the application of a deterministic structure in the forging zone of the tools the friction conditions are modified to control the axial process forces. In this study infeed rotary swaging with functionalized tools was experimentally investigated. Therefore, steel and aluminum tubes were formed with and without lubricant. Different structures which were coated and uncoated were implemented in the reduction zone of the tools. The antagonistic effects of coating and structuring were characterized by measuring the axial process force and the produced workpiece quality in terms of roundness and surface roughness. Thus, the presented results allow for further developments towards a dry rotary swaging process.

  5. Microstructures and mechanical properties of pure Mg processed by rotary swaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, W.M.; Huang, Y.D.; Wang, R.; Wang, G.F.; Srinivasan, A.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Schell, N.; Kainer, K.U.; Hort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grain size of pure Mg can be effectively reduced by rotary swaging processing. • The dominated texture of the swaged pure Mg was a basal fibre. • Twinning and non-basal plane sliding accommodated the swaging process. • Gradient texture distribution was observed through the rod diameter. • There existed a slight shear deformation on the surface of the swaged rod. - Abstract: Microstructures and tensile properties of commercial pure magnesium processed by rotary swaging (RS) technique were investigated. Bulk and gradient textures in the RS processed Mg were characterised by neutron and synchrotron diffractions, respectively. Grains of the pure Mg were gradually refined with increase in the RS passes, which largely contributed to an increase in the tensile yield strength. A dominated basal fibre texture was observed in the RS processed pure Mg. Accommodated twinning deformation was also observed. Both the optical observations and texture analyses through the diameter of the swaged rod showed a gradient evolution in microstructure

  6. Demonstration Project Relating to Stress Analysis of SWAGE-Autofrettaged and Re-Autofrettaged Gun Tubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    ... treatment hydraulic re-autofrettage of a swaged tube. APP collaborated with Benet staff in: (a) Predicting permanent OD strains for a re-autofrettaged gun tube manufactured from HB7 steel. and (b...

  7. Influence of the relative rotational speed on component features in micro rotary swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkina Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro rotary swaging is a cold forming process for production of micro components with determined geometry and surface. It is also possible to change the microstructure of wires and hence the material properties. Swaging dies revolve around the work piece with an overlaid radial oscillation. Newly developed tools (Flat Surface Dies, FSD feature plain surfaces and do not represent the geometry of the formed part as in conventional swaging. Using these tools allows for producing wires with triangle geometry (cross section as well as a circular shape. To test the influence of FSD on material properties by micro swaging a new method is investigated: the variation of the relative speed between the specimen and dies in infeed rotary swaging. During this specific process copper (C11000 and steel (304 Alloy wires with diameter d0 = 1 mm are formed. It is noticed that the mechanical characteristics such as ductility and strength differ from the characteristics after conventional swaging. Moreover this approach enables new possibilities to influence the geometry and the surface quality of wires. The impact of the relative speed on the processed wire features is described in this paper.

  8. Magnetic hardening of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} by rotary swaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gröb, T., E-mail: t.groeb@phm.tu-darmstadt.de [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Wießner, L. [Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines, Otto-Berndt-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bruder, E. [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Faske, T.; Donner, W. [Divison Structure Research, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Groche, P. [Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines, Otto-Berndt-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Müller, C. [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} was subjected to incremental forming by rotary swaging with the aim of tailoring the coercivity by changing the microstructure. The challenging part of a deformation of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} is an ordering phase present at room temperature, leading to low formability. To increase the formability of the alloy the presence of the ordering phase was supressed by two different concepts. The first concept consists of a heat treatment above the phase transition followed by rapid cooling and deformation at room temperature. The second concept was rotary swaging at temperatures above the phase transition temperature. A comparison in terms of resulting microstructure and magnetic properties shows that both concepts have a potential for tailoring the coercivity of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50}. - Highlights: • Magnetic hardening of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} was achieved by rotary swaging with two different concepts. • The influences of the microstructural changes during the rotary swaging process have been linked to magnetic hardening. • Increase in coercivity for Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} by rotary swaging at elevated temperature is limited by the dynamic restoration. • Coercivity of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} can be tailored by the induced plastic strain.

  9. Microstructure, Mechanical, and Fatigue Strength of Ti-54M Processed by Rotary Swaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khazraji, Hasan; El-Danaf, Ehab; Wollmann, Manfred; Wagner, Lothar

    2015-05-01

    TIMETAL 54M is a newly developed (α + β) titanium alloy with nominal composition Ti-5Al-4V-0.6Mo-0.4Fe. The alloy can provide a cost benefit over Ti-6Al-4V due to improved machinability and formability. In the present work, evolution of mechanical properties in terms of tensile and hardness values is investigated as a function of deformation degrees imposed via rotary swaging (RS). Microstructure, mechanical properties, and fatigue performance of Ti-54M are investigated after severe plastic deformation by RS conducted at 850 °C and after being subjected to two different post-swaging annealing conditions. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy using electron back scatter diffraction were utilized to document the evolution of the microstructure. Tensile tests were conducted to characterize mechanical properties. RS, to a true strain of 3.0, is found to lead to a marked ultrafine-grained structure of about 1 μm grain size with low content of high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). Post-swaging heat treatment at 800 °C followed by air cooling did not change the grain size but exhibited high content of HAGBs. Post-swaging heat treatment at 940 °C followed by furnace cooling resulted in a grain size of about 5 μm and enhanced work-hardening capability and ductility, which resulted in less fatigue notch sensitivity, but at the same time lower fatigue strength at 107 cycles.

  10. High thermal shock resistance of the hot rolled and swaged bulk W–ZrC alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.M.; Liu, R.; Miao, S.; Yang, X.D. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, T., E-mail: zhangtao@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fang, Q.F.; Wang, X.P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, C.S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Lian, Y.Y. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, X., E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-15

    The thermal shock (single shot) resistance and mechanical properties of the W–0.5wt% ZrC (WZC) alloys manufactured by ordinary sintering followed by swaging or rolling process were investigated. No cracks or surface melting were detected on the surface of the rolled WZC alloy plates after thermal shock at a power density of 0.66 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms, while primary intergranular cracks appear on the surface of the swaged WZC samples after thermal shock at a power density of 0.44 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms. Three point bending tests indicate that the rolled WZC alloy has a flexural strength of ∼2.4 GPa and a total strain of 1.8% at room temperature, which are 100% and 260% higher than those of the swaged WZC, respectively. The fracture energy density of the rolled WZC alloy is 3.23 × 10{sup 7} J/m{sup 3}, about 10 times higher than that of the swaged WZC (2.9 × 10{sup 6} J/m{sup 3}). The high thermal shock resistance of the rolled WZC alloys can be ascribed to their extraordinary ductility and plasticity. - Graphical abstract: (Left panel) surface morphology observed by optical microscope after a single pulse for 5 ms with various absorbed power densities at RT on the rolled WZC. (Right panel) curves of flexural stress versus strain at RT (a) and the calculated fracture energy (b) for the swaged WZC and rolled WZC alloys. - Highlights: • No cracks or surface melting were detected on the rolled WZC alloy samples after thermal shock at 0.66 GW/m{sup 2} for 5 ms. • Hot rolled WZC alloy plates exhibit a flexural strength of 2.4 GPa and a strain of 1.8% at RT. • The fracture energy of the rolled WZC alloy is 3.23 × 10{sup 7} J/m{sup 3} at RT, about 10 times higher than that of the swaged WZC. • A detailed analysis of the relationships between the mechanical properties and the thermal shock resistance is given.

  11. Surface enhanced 316L/SiC nano-composite coatings via laser cladding and following cold-swaging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Gao, Shiyou

    2017-10-01

    Cold-swaging is one of a cold deformation processes, and ceramic-reinforcement nano-composite coatings can effectively improve the performance of metal matrix surface. Therefore, the two processes are innovatively combined to further improve the surface properties of the metal matrix in this paper. The microstructure and surface properties of the laser cladding 316L + 10 wt% SiC nano-composite coatings were examined through designed experiments after cold-swaging by self-developed hydraulic machine. Furthermore, the coatings were compared with those without cold-swaging coatings at the same time. The result shows that the cold-swaging process can further enhance the tensile strength, micro-hardness and the wear resistance of the composite coating. This study can be used as a reference for further strengthening of laser cladding nano-composite coatings in future research.

  12. Development, characterization and testing of tungsten doped DLC coatings for dry rotary swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasselbruch Henning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of lubricant during rotary swaging is particularly required for a good surface finish of the work piece and the reduction of tool wear. Abandonment of lubricant would improve the ecological process-balance and could also accelerate for further work piece refinements. Also cleaning of the manufactured components becomes obsolete. Thus, a dry machining is highly innovative, consequently new strategies to substitute the lubricant functions become necessary. To encounter the changed tribological conditions due to dry rotary swaging, low friction, tungsten doped, hard DLC coatings and structured surfaces are the most promising approaches. In this work the development of hard coating by means of reactive magnetron sputtering is presented, a promising layer variant is deposited on a set of tools and then tested and investigated in real use.

  13. Basic thermal–mechanical properties and thermal shock, fatigue resistance of swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Yan, Qingzhi, E-mail: qzyan@ustb.edu.cn; Lang, Shaoting; Xia, Min; Ge, Changchun

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The potassium doped tungsten grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. • The cracking threshold of the W–K alloy was in the range of 0.44–0.66 GW/m{sup 2}. • Recrystallization occurred at 0.66–1.1 GW/m{sup 2} during the thermal shock tests. • No cracks emerged during the thermal fatigue tests (0.44 GW/m{sup 2}, 1000 cycles). • Recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles during the thermal fatigue tests. - Abstract: The potassium doped tungsten (W–K) grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. The swaged + rolled W–K alloy exhibited acceptable thermal conductivity of 159.1 W/m K and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 873 K while inferior mechanical properties attributed to the coarse pores and small deformation degree. Then the thermal shock, fatigue resistance of the W–K grade were characterized by an electron beam facility. Thermal shock tests were conducted at absorbed power densities varied from 0.22 to 1.1 GW/m{sup 2} in a step of 0.22 GW/m{sup 2}. The cracking threshold was in the range of 0.44–0.66 GW/m{sup 2}. Furthermore, recrystallization occurred in the subsurface of the specimens tested at 0.66–1.1 GW/m{sup 2} basing on the analysis of microhardness and microstructure. Thermal fatigue tests were performed at 0.44 GW/m{sup 2} up to 1000 cycles and no cracks emerged throughout the tests. Moreover, recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles.

  14. Basic thermal-mechanical properties and thermal shock, fatigue resistance of swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Yan, Qingzhi; Lang, Shaoting; Xia, Min; Ge, Changchun

    2014-09-01

    The potassium doped tungsten (W-K) grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. The swaged + rolled W-K alloy exhibited acceptable thermal conductivity of 159.1 W/m K and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 873 K while inferior mechanical properties attributed to the coarse pores and small deformation degree. Then the thermal shock, fatigue resistance of the W-K grade were characterized by an electron beam facility. Thermal shock tests were conducted at absorbed power densities varied from 0.22 to 1.1 GW/m2 in a step of 0.22 GW/m2. The cracking threshold was in the range of 0.44-0.66 GW/m2. Furthermore, recrystallization occurred in the subsurface of the specimens tested at 0.66-1.1 GW/m2 basing on the analysis of microhardness and microstructure. Thermal fatigue tests were performed at 0.44 GW/m2 up to 1000 cycles and no cracks emerged throughout the tests. Moreover, recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles.

  15. Reduction of Gas Bubbles and Improved Critical Current Density in Bi-2212 Round Wire by Swaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, J; Huang, Y; Hong, S; Parrell, J; Scheuerlein, C; Di Michiel, M; Ghosh, A; Trociewitz, U; Hellstrom, E; Larbalestier, D

    2013-01-01

    Bi-2212 round wire is made by the powder-in-tube technique. An unavoidable property of powder-in-tube conductors is that there is about 30% void space in the as-drawn wire. We have recently shown that the gas present in the as-drawn Bi-2212 wire agglomerates into large bubbles and that they are presently the most deleterious current limiting mechanism. By densifying short 2212 wires before reaction through cold isostatic pressing (CIPping), the void space was almost removed and the gas bubble density was reduced significantly, resulting in a doubled engineering critical current density (JE) of 810 A/mm2 at 5 T, 4.2 K. Here we report on densifying Bi-2212 wire by swaging, which increased JE (4.2 K, 5 T) from 486 A/mm2 for as-drawn wire to 808 A/mm2 for swaged wire. This result further confirms that enhancing the filament packing density is of great importance for making major JE improvement in this round-wire magnet conductor.

  16. Development of microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of a cold-swaged Co-Cr-Mo alloy rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Manami; Sato, Nanae; Yamanaka, Kenta; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuramoto, Koji; Chiba, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of a cold-swaged Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloy for biomedical applications. A Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.14N-0.05C (mass%) alloy rod was processed by cold swaging, with a reduction in area of 27.7%, and then annealed at 1173-1423K for various periods up to 6h. The duplex microstructure of the cold-swaged rod consisted of a face-centered cubic γ-matrix and hexagonal closed-packed ε-martensite developed during cold swaging. This structure transformed nearly completely to the γ-phase after annealing and many annealing twin boundaries were observed as a result of the heat treatment. A small amount of the ε-phase was identified in specimens annealed at 1173K. Growth of the γ-grains occurred with increasing annealing time at temperatures ≥1273K. Interestingly, the grain sizes remained almost unchanged at 1173K and a very fine grain size of approximately 8μm was obtained. The precipitation that occurred during annealing was attributed to the limited grain coarsening during heat treatment. Consequently, the specimens treated at this temperature showed the highest tensile strength and lowest ductility among the specimens prepared. An elongation-to-failure value larger than 30% is sufficient for the proposed applications. The other specimens treated at higher temperatures possessed similar tensile properties and did not show any significant variations with different annealing times. Optimization of the present rod manufacturing process, including cold swaging and interval annealing heat treatment, is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical characterization of Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy for biomedical application hot swaged and aged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Sinara Borborema; Rezende, Monica Castro; Almeida, Luiz Henrique de, E-mail: sinara@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Dille, Jean [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Mei, Paulo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Baldan, Renato; Nunes, Carlos Angelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    Beta titanium alloys were developed for biomedical applications due to the combination of its mechanical properties including low elasticity modulus, high strength, fatigue resistance, good ductility and with excellent corrosion resistance. With this perspective a metastable beta titanium alloy Ti-12Mo-13Nb was developed with the replacement of both vanadium and aluminum from the traditional alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This paper presents the microstructure, mechanical properties of the Ti-12Mo-13Nb hot swaged and aged at 500 deg C for 24 h under high vacuum and then water quenched. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature. The results show a microstructure consisting of a fine dispersed α phase in a β matrix and good mechanical properties including low elastic modulus. The results indicate that Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy can be a promising alternative for biomedical application. (author)

  18. Ultrafine-Grained Precipitation Hardened Copper Alloys by Swaging or Accumulative Roll Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Altenberger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand in the industry for conductive high strength copper alloys. Traditionally, alloy systems capable of precipitation hardening have been the first choice for electromechanical connector materials. Recently, ultrafine-grained materials have gained enormous attention in the materials science community as well as in first industrial applications (see, for instance, proceedings of NANO SPD conferences. In this study the potential of precipitation hardened ultra-fine grained copper alloys is outlined and discussed. For this purpose, swaging or accumulative roll-bonding is applied to typical precipitation hardened high-strength copper alloys such as Corson alloys. A detailed description of the microstructure is given by means of EBSD, Electron Channeling Imaging (ECCI methods and consequences for mechanical properties (tensile strength as well as fatigue and electrical conductivity are discussed. Finally the role of precipitates for thermal stability is investigated and promising concepts (e.g. tailoring of stacking fault energy for grain size reduction and alloy systems for the future are proposed and discussed. The relation between electrical conductivity and strength is reported.

  19. Effect of swaging on the 1000 C compressive slow plastic flow characteristics of the directionally solidified eutectic alloy gamma/gamma prime-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Wirth, G.

    1983-01-01

    Swaging between 750 and 1050 C has been investigated as a means to introduce work into the directionally solidified eutectic alloy gamma/gamma prime-alpha (Ni-32.3 wt percent Mo-6.3 wt percent Al) and increase the elevated temperature creep strength. The 1000 C slow plastic compressive flow stress-strain rate properties in air of as-grown, annealed, and worked nominally 10 and 25 percent materials have been determined. Swaging did not improve the slow plastic behavior. In fact large reductions tended to degrade the strength and produced a change in the deformation mechanism from uniform flow to one involving intense slip band formation. Comparison of 1000 C tensile and compressive strength-strain rate data reveals that deformation is independent of the stress state.

  20. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Corrosion Protection of Hot Swaged Ti-54M Alloy in 2 M HCl Pickling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of Ti-54M titanium alloy processed by hot rotary swaging and post-annealed to yield different grain sizes, in 2 M HCl solutions is reported. Two annealing temperatures of 800 °C and 940 °C, followed by air cooling and furnace cooling were used to give homogeneous grain structures of 1.5 and 5 μm, respectively. It has been found that annealing the alloy at 800 °C decreased the corrosion of the alloy, with respect to the hot swaged condition, through increasing its corrosion resistance and decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate. Increasing the annealing temperature to 940 °C further decreased the corrosion of the alloy.

  1. Annealing Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine-Grained Al Composites Reinforced with Nano-Al2O3 by Rotary Swaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cunguang; Wang, Wenwen; Guo, Zhimeng; Sun, Chunbao; Volinsky, Alex A.; Paley, Vladislav

    2018-03-01

    Microstructure evolution and variations in mechanical properties of Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite produced by powder metallurgy were investigated and compared with commercially pure aluminum (Al-1050) after furnace annealing. Fine gas-atomized Al powder compacts were first sintered in flowing nitrogen, subsequently consolidated into wires by rotary swaging and eventually annealed at 300 and 500 °C for 24 h each. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy was utilized to document the microstructure evolution. Rotary swaging was proven to lead to a marked decrease in grain size. After heavy swaging to true deformation degree of φ = 6 and annealing at 500 °C, obvious recrystallization was observed at Al-1050's existing grain boundaries and the crystals began to grow perpendicular to the flow direction. In the Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite, fabricated from d 50 = 6 μm Al powder, recrystallization partially occurred, while grains were still extremely fine. Due to the dual role of fine-grained Al2O3 dispersion strengthening, the nanocomposite showed improved mechanical performance in terms of tensile strength, approximately twice higher than Al-1050 after annealing at 500 °C.

  2. Study of structure and residual stresses in cold rotary swaged tungsten heavy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunčická, L.; Kocich, R.; Hervoches, Charles; Macháčková, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 705, č. 9 (2017), s. 25-31 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Tungsten heavy alloy * residual stresses * neutron scattering * electron microscopy * work hardening Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  3. Determination of the duration of heating and cooling of titanium alloy billets for swaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushakevich, S.A.; Konovalov, M.A.; Chistyakov, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish a connection between the duration of heat and the decrease in metal temperature during deformation to determine the beginning and duration of heating titanium alloy billets for hot stamping. The investigations were made on the VT3-1 alloy billets with chromel-alumel thermocouples inside. The results of measurements of billet surface and center temperatures during the heating in a resistance surface up to 960-1050deg C and during the cooling in the air. It is shown that heating and cooling increase with the billet cross-section. The heating duration up to 1050deg C for all cross-sections is 4 or 5 min less than up to 960deg C. The cooling duration from 960 and 1050deg C to 200deg C depends weakly on the heating temperature and varies for various cross-sections within the limits of 1-2 min. It is proposed to determine roughly the metal temperature on complection of stamping through the time elapsed after the heated billet has left the furnace

  4. Transmission electron microscopy of aged Ti-10Mo-20Nb alloy after hot swaging; Microscopia eletronica de transmissao da liga Ti-10Mo-20Nb envelhecida apos forjamento a quente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Sinara Borborema, E-mail: sinarab@msn.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Baldan, Renato, E-mail: renatobaldan@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Torres, Juliana; Oliveira, Nathalia Rodrigues, E-mail: juliana_torres_5@hotmail.com, E-mail: nathalia_roliveira@yahoo.com.br [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Mei, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: cnunes@demar.eel.usp.br, E-mail: pmei@fem.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Ti alloys are widely used in biomedical applications. Within this class, metastable β -Ti alloys stand, because through thermomechanical processing it is possible to obtain mechanical properties and in particular one suitable Young's modulus for biomedical applications. These alloys require high mechanical strength and a low Young's modulus to avoid stress shielding. Preliminary studies showed that the microstructure of the Ti-10Mo- 20Nb alloy after cold forging and aging 500 °C/24 h consisted in bimodal distribution of α phase in the β matrix. The aim of this study was to characterize the microstructure of Ti-10Mo-20Nb alloy after hot forging and aging at 500 °C for 24 hours. Microstructural characterization consisted of analyzes by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. According to the results, while the cold forging resulted in a bimodal α distribution in the β matrix, hot forging resulted in a thin and homogeneous α precipitation in the β matrix. (author)

  5. X-Ray Diffraction Techniques and Finite Element Modeling to Control Residual Stress in High-Temperature Pressure Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, S

    1999-01-01

    Manufacturing operations, such as swage autofrettage, shot peening, and overload processes, have been used to impart advantageous residual stresses to improve fatigue life in components used in high...

  6. Characterization of consolidated rapidly solidified Cu-Nb ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, F.; Henne, M.L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Copper-niobium ribbons produced by melt-spinning were compacted by swaging and consolidated using HIPping. Final processing to obtain in-situ composites was done by swaging. The strength of the composite is discussed in terms of the composition and morphology of the niobium phase as evaluated using electron microscopy techniques

  7. Charging material into a container and closing the container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Oldham, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive waste material is passed from a cell through a port into a storage drum which has a mouth with a removable lid. A port door includes an electromagnet to hold the lid to the door and both are moved into the cell by a pneumatic cylinder to allow loading of the drum and after re-closure of door and lid swaging tools operate to deform the lid to form one or more lips which engage under the margin around mouth to resist separation of the lid from the drum. Seals are provided. The swaging tools, or a single swaging tool, can be rotatably mounted on the port door. (author)

  8. The influence of recrystallization annealing and the state of stress on tungsten formability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, M.

    1995-01-01

    The submitted deals with the prediction of strain limits regarding the swaging procedures. An appearance of inhomogeneous localities and defect inward the forged bodies is assumed to be affected by plasticity of applied tungsten being strictly determined by chemical composition and thermomechanical conditions of the forging process. Chosen operation of swaging procedure were analysed in terms of hypothesis of maximum admissible strain, the calculated value of which at the critical area of forging had to be lesser than the strain limit

  9. Tungsten heavy metal alloys relations between the crystallographic texture and the internal stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, G.; Voltz, M.

    2001-01-01

    Quite often the W-Ni-Fe-Co heavy alloys are subjected to a thermomechanical processing of swaging and aging in order to obtain the highest possible level of resistance. Within the framework of this plastic deformation on cylindrical parts, the swaging leads to the distribution of morphological and crystallographic texture as well as specific internal stresses. The resulting mechanical characteristics are correlated to structural and sub-structural variations. (author)

  10. Influence of cold-working and subsequent heat-treatment on young's modulus and strength of Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otomo, Takuma; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Chiba, Akihiko; Nomura, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Changes in Young's modulus of the Co-31 mass%Ni-19 mass%Cr-10 mass%Mo alloy (Co-Ni based alloy) with cold-swaging, combined with heat-treatment at temperatures from 673 to 1323 K, was investigated to enhance the Young's modulus of Co-Ni based alloy. After cold-swaging, the Co-Ni based alloy, forming fiber deformation texture, shows the Young's modulus of 220 GPa. Furthermore, after ageing the cold-swaged alloy at temperature from 673 to 1323 K, the Young's modulus increased to 230 GPa, accompanied by a decrease in the internal fiction and an increase in the tensile strength. This suggests that the increment in Young's modulus is caused by a moving of the vacancies to the dislocation cores and a continuous locking of the dislocations along their entire length with solute atoms (trough model). By annealing at 1323 K after cold swaging, Young's modulus slightly increased to 236 GPa. On the other hand, the tensile strength decreases to almost the same value as that before cold swaging due to recrystallization. These results suggest that the Young's modulus and the strength in the present alloy are simultaneously enhanced by the continuous dislocation locking during aging as well as the formation of fiber deformation texture. (author)

  11. Increasing marketability and profitability of product line thru PATRAN and NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Art

    1989-01-01

    Starting with the design objective the operational cycle life of the Swaging Tool was increased. To accomplish this increase in cycle life without increasing the size or weight of the tool would be engineering achievement. However, not only was the operational cycle life increased between 2 to 10 times but simultaneously the size and weight of the Swage Tool was decreased by about 50 percent. This accomplishment now becomes an outstanding engineering achievement. This achievement was only possible because of the computerized Patran, Nastran and Medusa programs.

  12. In vitro use characterization of the microorganism from land farming of the Presidente Getulio Vargas Refinery, Brazil, for soils decontamination; Caracterizacao in vitro do uso de microorganismos do landfarming da Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas - PETROBRAS-REPAR para a descontaminacao de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Goncalves, Claudia Martins; Castro, Rodrigo Azevedo; Nascimento Neto, Durval [Parana Univ., Curitiba (Brazil). Pos-graduacao em Ciencia do Solo; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Parana Univ., Curitiba (Brazil); Grube, Karl; Coelho, Ibirajara Jorge Evangelista [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    In the present work, a set of experiments are reported from the evaluation of commercial use of the microorganisms of the Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas PETROBRAS land farming as inoculants for accelerating the bioremediation of contaminated soil with petroleum sludge, light naphtha, shale naphtha, toluene, heavy refinery oily waste, solp oil, sludge from the oily swage treatment plant, oily swage sludge and mixed oily wastes. These results are presented and discussed comparatively, and the characterization of the biodegradation activity of the land farming microorganisms for use in acceleration of bioremediation is discussed. (author)

  13. CONTROL ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

    1963-04-30

    This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

  14. 77 FR 42958 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 (all versions) and BO-105LS... tail rotor pitch link and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: This AD becomes... improperly swaged spherical bearing on the pitch link, which could result in loss of tail rotor control and...

  15. Microstructural Development and Control in Liquid Phase Sintering; Processing, Structures and Properties of Cold Worked Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-03

    between them in a composite develops in a manner consistent with the macroscopic axisymmetric deformation of wire drawing or swaging. Additionally, for...spacing) V 0 bo :vsii~f:- nikel omposit’es 0.5 -~ ................................*. . C pper-7chrorhium c2o * - - 0 0 C -io~omposites ~ :13 Nickeil

  16. Microstructure and hardness development in a copper-nickel diffusion gradient model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Cu has been electrolytically coated with Ni and subsequently deformed by rotary swaging up to a strain of ε=2 to create a chemical gradient at the interface of the two elements. The extend of this chemical intermixing has been investigated through Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy...

  17. Utilization of carbon/carbon composites in nuclear simulation fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.; Rezende, M.C.; Ferreira, S.R.; Otani, C.

    1988-01-01

    Thermo-hydraulic problems, in nuclear plants are normally analysed by using electrically heated rods. Carbon/carbon composites were used to make heating elements for testing by indirect heating up to a heat flux of 100 W/cm 2 . It is easy to verify that this value can be exceed if the choice of the complementary materials for insulator and cladding were improved. The swaging process used to reduce the cladding diameter prevented the fabrication of graphite heater rods. (author) [pt

  18. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  19. Thermal Recovery from Cold-Working in Type K Bare-Wire Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenen, A. D.; Webster, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Cold-working of most thermocouples has a significant, direct impact on the Seebeck coefficient which can lead to regions of thermoelectric inhomogeneity and accelerated drift. Cold-working can occur during the wire swaging process, when winding the wire onto a bobbin, or during handling by the end user—either accidentally or deliberately. Swaging-induced cold-work in thermocouples, if uniformly applied, may result in a high level of homogeneity. However, on exposure to elevated temperatures, the subsequent recovery process from the cold-working can then result in significant drift, and this can in turn lead to erroneous temperature measurements, often in excess of the specified manufacturer tolerances. Several studies have investigated the effects of cold-work in Type K thermocouples usually by bending, or swaging. However, the amount of cold-work applied to the thermocouple is often difficult to quantify, as the mechanisms for applying the strains are typically nonlinear when applied in this fashion. A repeatable level of cold-working is applied to the different wires using a tensional loading apparatus to apply a known yield displacement to the thermoelements. The effects of thermal recovery from cold-working can then be accurately quantified as a function of temperature, using a linear gradient furnace and a high-resolution homogeneity scanner. Variation in these effects due to differing alloy compositions in Type K wire is also explored, which is obtained by sourcing wire from a selection of manufacturers. The information gathered in this way will inform users of Type K thermocouples about the potential consequences of varying levels of cold-working and its impact on the Seebeck coefficient at a range of temperatures between ˜ 70°C and 600° C. This study will also guide users on the temperatures required to rapidly alleviate the effects of cold-working using thermal annealing treatments.

  20. Method of making V.sub.3 Ga superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew-Hughes, David

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for producing a vanadium-gallium superconductor wire having aluminum as a component thereof is disclosed, said wire being encased in a gallium bearing copper sheath. The superconductors disclosed herein may be fabricated under normal atmospheres and room temperatures by forming a tubular shaped billet having a core composed of an alloy of vanadium and aluminum and an outer sheath composed of an alloy of copper, gallium and aluminum. Thereafter the entire billet is swage reduced to form a wire therefrom and heat treated to form a layer of V.sub.3 Ga in the interior of the wire.

  1. Nuclear fuels for material test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, L.V.; Durazzo, M.; Freitas, C.T. de

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results related do the development of nuclear fuels for reactors cooled and moderated by water have been presented cylindrical and plate type fuels have been described in which the core consists of U compouns dispersed in an Al matrix and is clad with aluminium. Fabrication details involving rollmilling, swaging or hot pressing have been described. Corrosion and irradiation test results are also discussed. The performance of the different types of fuels indicates that it is possible to locally fabricate fuel plates with U 3 O 8 +Al cores (20% enriched U) for use in operating Brazilian research reactors. (Author) [pt

  2. Full size U-10Mo monolithic fuel foil and fuel plate fabrication-technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.A.; Jue, J-F.; Rabin, B.H.; Nilles, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full-size U-10Mo foils are being developed for use in high density LEU monolithic fuel plates. The application of a zirconium barrier layer to the foil is performed using a hot co-rolling process. Aluminium clad fuel plates are fabricated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or a Friction Bonding (FB) process. An overview is provided of ongoing technology development activities, including: the co-rolling process, foil shearing/slitting and polishing, cladding bonding processes, plate forming, plate-assembly swaging, and fuel plate characterization. Characterization techniques being employed include, Ultrasonic Testing (UT), radiography, and microscopy. (author)

  3. Effect of Sn addition on phases stability and mechanical properties of aged Ti-10Mo Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, F.F.; Lopes, E.S.N.; Cremasco, A.; Contieri, R.J.; Mello, M.G.; Caram, R.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays there is considerable effort in order to develop new titanium alloys using non-toxic elements such as Mo and Sn. This work deals with the alloys Ti-Mo-Sn. The samples were melted, homogenized and hot swaged. Afterwards they were solubilized and water quenched. The alloys were also aged at several temperatures Characterization involved determination of Young's modulus, hardness, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. The X-ray diffraction indicated the presence of athermal and isothermal ω phase for Ti-10Mo alloy. One also evidenced that the Vickers hardness varies with the temperature and the time of aging heat treatment. (author)

  4. Effect of Sn addition on phases stability and mechanical properties of aged Ti-10Mo Alloy; Efeito da adicao de Sn na estabilidade de fases e propriedades de ligas Ti-10Mo resfriadas rapidamente e envelhecidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, F.F.; Lopes, E.S.N.; Cremasco, A.; Contieri, R.J.; Mello, M.G.; Caram, R., E-mail: flaviamec@fem.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays there is considerable effort in order to develop new titanium alloys using non-toxic elements such as Mo and Sn. This work deals with the alloys Ti-Mo-Sn. The samples were melted, homogenized and hot swaged. Afterwards they were solubilized and water quenched. The alloys were also aged at several temperatures Characterization involved determination of Young's modulus, hardness, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. The X-ray diffraction indicated the presence of athermal and isothermal {omega} phase for Ti-10Mo alloy. One also evidenced that the Vickers hardness varies with the temperature and the time of aging heat treatment. (author)

  5. FABRICATION OF TUBE TYPE FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, E.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1959-02-01

    A method of fabricating a nuclear reactor fuel element is given. It consists essentially of fixing two tubes in concentric relationship with respect to one another to provide an annulus therebetween, filling the annulus with a fissionablematerial-containing powder, compacting the powder material within the annulus and closing the ends thereof. The powder material is further compacted by swaging the inner surface of the inner tube to increase its diameter while maintaining the original size of the outer tube. This process results in reduced fabrication costs of powdered fissionable material type fuel elements and a substantial reduction in the peak core temperatures while materially enhancing the heat removal characteristics.

  6. Analysis of autofrettaged metal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M. Afzaal; Khan, Muddasar; Rashid, Badar; Khushnood, Shahab

    2007-01-01

    Thick-walled cylinders are widely used as compressor cylinders, pump cylinders, high pressure tubing, process reactors and vessels, nuclear reactors, isostatic vessels and gun barrels. In practice, cylinders are generally subjected to sudden and frequently drastic pressure fluctuations, such as the pressure generated in a gun barrel upon the firing of the weapon, pressure reversals in pump cylinders or in process reactors employing high-pressure piping, necessitating enhanced strength of such cylinders. A process for enhancing the strength of thick-walled cylinders has been in service, and is referred to as 'autofrettage'. It extends the service life of the cylinder. The autofrettage is achieved by increasing elastic strength of a cylinder with various methods such as hydraulic pressurization, mechanical swaging, or by utilizing the pressure of a powder gas. This research work deals with the hydraulic and mechanical autofrettage of metal tubes with the objective to attain enhanced strength. Five metal tubes are taken randomly for analysis purpose. The experimental data for five metal tubes is obtained to analyze the behavior of different parameters used during, before, and after autofrettage process. For this research, two-stage autofrettage is taken into consideration. The modeling of the metal tube is carried out in WildFire-ProEngineering, and for analysis purpose, finite element software ANSYS7 and COSMOS are used. The graphical analysis of swage autofrettage is carried out using MATLAB7. The results are validated using available experimental and numerical data. (author)

  7. Metallurgical processing and properties of multifilamentary V3Ga composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.G.; Weinman, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Multifilamentary composite wires of V - 6.1 at. percent Ga filaments in a Cu-17.5 at. percent Ga matrix were fabricated. High purity V and Ga were arc melted and cast to form an alloy rod. High purity Cu and Ga were induction melted and also cast as an alloy rod. The alloy rods were reduced in diameter by swaging. The larger diameter Cu - Ga matrix rod was drilled with 19 holes which terminated within the matrix-rod. The holes served as receptacles for 19 V-Ga rods which were inserted into the matrix. The composite assembly was evacuated under high vacuum and sealed by an electron beam weld. The composite was then reduced in diameter through swaging and wire drawing to 0.032-in. dia wire. V 3 Ga layers at the filament/matrix interface were formed through an isothermal solid-state reaction. Growth rates for V 3 Ga are strongly influenced by alloy composition and formation temperature, with more rapid growth occurring in composite wires with higher Ga contents. Improved critical current densities (J/sub c/) resulted from lower formation temperatures, J/sub c/ values of over 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 in a transverse magnetic field of 100 kG were obtained in the multifilamentary composite wire. 9 figs

  8. Oxygen sensor development and low temperature corrosion study in lead-alloy coolant loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Il Soon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Lee, Seung Gi; Jeong, Seung Ho; Nam, Hyo On; Lim, Jun

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen sensor to measure dissolved oxygen concentration at liquid lead-bismuth eutectic environments have been developed. Developed oxygen sensor for application in lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) system was based on the oxygen ion conductor made of YSZ ceramic having Bi/Bi2O3 reference joined by electro-magnetic swaging. Leakage problem, which was major problem of existing sensors, can be solved by using electro-magnetic swaging method. A new calibration strategy combining the oxygen titration with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed to increase the reliability of sensor. Another calibration was also conducted by controlling the oxygen concentration using OCS (oxygen control system). Materials corrosion tests of various metals (SS316, EP823, T91 and HT9) were conducted for up to 1,000 hours with specimen inspection after every 333hours at 450 .deg. C in HELIOS. Oxygen concentration was controlled at 10 -6 wt% by using the direct gas bubbling of Ar+4%H 2 , Ar+5%O 2 and pure Ar. The dissolved oxygen concentration in LBE was also monitored by two calibrated YSZ oxygen sensors located at different places under different temperatures within HELIOS. It shows a good performance during 1000 hours. Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) test of SS316L specimen in the LBE was performed at various temperature and strain rate. The result shows that the liquid metal embrittlement effect is not crucial at tested conditions

  9. Surgical implantation techniques for electronic tags in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Glenn N.; Cooke, Steven J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Intracoelomic implantation of transmitters into fish requires making a surgical incision, incision closure, and other surgery related techniques; however, the tools and techniques used in the surgical process vary widely. We review the available literature and focus on tools and techniques used for conducting surgery on juvenile salmonids because of the large amount of research that is conducted on them. The use of sterilized surgical instruments properly selected for a given size of fish will minimize tissue damage and infection rates, and speed the wound healing of fish implanted with transmitters. For the implantation of transmitters into small fish, the optimal surgical methods include making an incision on the ventral midline along the linea alba (for studies under 1 month), protecting the viscera (by lifting the skin with forceps while creating the incision), and using absorbable monofilament suture with a small-swaged-on swaged-on tapered or reverse-cutting needle. Standardizing the implantation techniques to be used in a study involving particular species and age classes of fish will improve survival and transmitter retention while allowing for comparisons to be made among studies and across multiple years. This review should be useful for researchers working on juvenile salmonids and other sizes and species of fish.

  10. The effect of Zr on the microstructure and properties of Ti-35Nb-XZr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Málek, Jaroslav, E-mail: malek@ujp.cz [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 00 Prague-Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Karlovo náměstí 13, 121 35 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Hnilica, František, E-mail: hnilica@ujp.cz [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 00 Prague-Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Veselý, Jaroslav, E-mail: vesely@ujp.cz [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 00 Prague-Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Smola, Bohumil, E-mail: smola@met.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kolařík, Kamil, E-mail: kamil.kolarik@email.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Trojanova 339/13, 120 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Fojt, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.fojt@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Vlach, Martin, E-mail: martin.vlach@mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kodetová, Veronika [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-15

    The demand for biomaterials with high strength, low modulus, excellent biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance has led to the development of new alloys. Zirconium is known as a biocompatible element that can be used for alloying in titanium alloys. The effect of Zr on the mechanical and structural properties of a titanium alloy is studied in this paper. Binary Ti-35Nb alloy has been alloyed with various amounts of Zr (2, 4, 6 or 8 wt%). The specimens were thermo-mechanically processed (hot forged, solution treated 850 °C/0.5 h/water quenched, cold swaged and finally aged (at 400 °C or 450 °C for various periods). Cold-swaged alloys possess tensile strength of about 800 MPa, along with a low Young's modulus (~50 GPa). The elongation of all the alloys is more than 12%. The hardness increased during 400 °C annealing up to 370 HV10. The addition of Zr stabilized the β-phase and supports recrystallization and recovery processes. Corrosion resistance was also increased by the addition of Zr.

  11. A collapse mode of failure in powder-filled fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feraday, M.A.; Chalder, G.H.

    1964-01-01

    Two swaged fuel elements containing crushed, fused UO 2 powder were irradiated in a pressurized water loop at high heat ratings (∫Kdθ = 48 w/cm). The fuel elements were 2.0 cm in diameter and were sheathed in nickel-free Zircaloy--2 of 0.038 cm thickness. One element failed when the sheath ruptured at the top of a longitudinal ridge in the sheath after a burn-up of approximately 2550 MWd/TeU. No evidence was found that outgassing of the UO 2 contributed to the failure. Dimensional and structural changes observed in the fuel elements led to the conclusion that ridging of the sheath resulted from the action of coolant pressure on the diametral clearance formed by sintering and shrinkage of the UO 2 . Failure resulted due to severe local deformation accompanying one or more power cycles following ridge formation. (author)

  12. Mechanical behaviour of U3O8-Al cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueredo, A.M. de; Ferreira, I.

    1981-01-01

    Homogeneous, high density U 3 O 8 -Al cermets, containing between 5 W% and 55 Wt% of U 3 ω 8 were fabricated using hot swaging and powder metallurgy technics. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature on specimens obtained from the cermets fabricated. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation to fracture decrease with increasing U 3 O 8 in the cermet. The UTS is shown to be proportional to the minimum matrix load bearing cross-sectional area. The main influence of an increase in the content of U 3 O 8 in the cermet appears to be the decrease in the minimum matrix, load bearing cross-section. (Author) [pt

  13. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, M

    2001-07-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  14. High-temperature strength of Nb-1%Zr alloy for irradiation-capsules inner-shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Nakata, Hirokatsu; Tanaka, Mitsuo; Fukaya, Kiyoshi.

    1978-04-01

    Coated fuel particles in capsules will be irradiated at about 1600 0 C in JMTR. Nb-1%Zr alloy was chosen for inner shell material of the capsules because of its sufficient strength at 1000 0 C and low induced radioactivity. Nb-1%Zr ingot produced by electron beam melting was formed into seamless tubes by hollowing and swaging, followed by annealing. Creep test in helium flow and tensile test in vacuum were made to examine mechanical strength of the Nb-1%Zr tubes at 1000 0 C. Following are the results; 1) 0.2% yield stress at 1000 0 C is about 6 kg/mm 2 . 2) 3000 hr creep rupture stress at 1000 0 C is about 6 kg/mm 2 . (auth.)

  15. Correlations between the post-HIP treatment, resulting microstructure and fatigue behaviour of prealloyed Ti6Al4V powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, G.; Grundhoff, K.J.; Smarsly, W.

    1985-01-01

    Prealloyed Ti6Al4V powders, hot isostatically pressed in the (alpha + beta) temperature range, always possess a mixed microstructure of lenticular and equiaxed parts. Numerous treatments have been used to improve microstructural homogeneity, especially to achieve fine equiaxed grains well known to possess good HCF properties. In this contribution, four different conditions of HIP compacts from ultraclean PREP powder were investigated together with PSV powder compacted by combined die forging (CDF). The HIP compacts had pure equiaxed and lenticular, a mixture of both (as HIP) as well as a swaged + beta annealed microstructure. The best HCF fatigue strength was correlated to the last condition instead of the expected equiaxed microstructure. CDF resulted in a homogeneous equiaxed microstructure which thus could be achieved by a one-step compaction process directly from untreated powder. 12 references

  16. Structural fatigue test results for large wind turbine blade sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide quantitative information on the operating life capabilities of wind turbine rotor blade concepts for root-end load transfer, a series of cantilever beam fatigue tests was conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted on a laminated wood blade with bonded steel studs, a low cost steel spar (utility pole) with a welded flange, a utility pole with additional root-end thickness provided by a swaged collar, fiberglass spars with both bonded and nonbonded fittings, and, finally, an aluminum blade with a bolted steel fitting (Lockheed Mod-0 blade). Photographs, data, and conclusions for each of these tests are presented. In addition, the aluminum blade test results are compared to field failure information; these results provide evidence that the cantilever beam type of fatigue test is a satisfactory method for obtaining qualitative data on blade life expectancy and for identifying structurally underdesigned areas (hot spots).

  17. Scaleup of powder metallurgy processed Nb-Al multifilamentary wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, C.; Foner, S.; Otubo, J.; Pourrahimi, S.; Schwartz, B.; Zhang, H.

    1983-01-01

    Power metallurgy processed Nb-Al superconducting wires were fabricated from billets up to 45 mm o.d. with nominal areal reduction ratios, R, up to 2 X 10 5 , Nb powder sizes from 40 to 300 μm from various sources, Al powder sizes from 9 to 75 μm, Al concentrations from 3 to 25 wt % Al and with a wide range of heat treatments. All the compacts used tap density powder in a Cu tube and swaging and/or rod rolling and subsequent wire drawing. Both single strand and bundled wires were made. Overall critical current densities, J /SUB c/, of 2 X 10 4 A/cm 2 at 14 T and 10 4 A/cm 2 at 16 T were achieved for 6 to 8 wt % Al in Nb

  18. Production of superconducting Nb3Sn wire using Nb or Nb(Ti) and Sn(Ga) solid solution powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, C.L.H.; Foner, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on superconducting Nb 3 Sn wire produced by the powder metallurgy method using Nb or Nb-2.9 at% Ti powder in combination with Sn-x at% Ga powders (x = 3, 4.2, 6.2 and 9.0). Ga additions to the Sn caused considerable solid solution hardening which improved its workability. It made the Nb-Sn(Ga) powder combinations convenient for swaging and extensive wire drawing. Anneals at 950 degrees C produced wires with an overall J c of 10 4 A/cm 2 at 21.9 T for wires with both Ti in the Nb and 6.2 at% Ga in the Sn. Comparison of this wire with the best Nb(Ti)-Cu-internal Sn(Ti) shows a higher J c per A15 areas, especially in fields of 22T and above

  19. Development of electrically heated rods with resistive element of graphite or carbon/carbon composites for simulating transients in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoro, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thermo-hydraulic problems, in nuclear plants are normally analysed by the use of electrically heated rods. The direct or indirect heater rods are limited in their use because, for high temperatures and high heat flux, the heating element temperature approach its melting point. The use of platinum or tantalum is not economically viable. Graphite and carbon/carbon composites are alternative materials because they are good electrical conductors and have good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Graphite and carbon/carbon composites were used to make heating elements for testing by indirect heating. The swaging process used to reduce the cladding diameter prevented the fabrication of graphite heater rods. Carbon/carbon composite used to make heating elements gave good results up to a heat flux of 100 W/cm 2 . It is easy to verify that this value can be exceeded if the choice of the complementary materials for insulator and cladding improved. (author) [pt

  20. Elaboration and characterization of silver sheathed YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, P.; Chaffron, L.; Schmirgeld, L.

    1990-01-01

    We report on our recent progress in the elaboration of silver sheathed high-Tc superconducting wires. It is shown that careful optimization of the swaging and pressing stages leads to a compacity of nearly 100% for the green ceramic, which considerably reduces the problem of its shrinkage in the silver clad during sintering, and consequently increases the critical current density far above 10 3 A/cm 2 at 77 K. Electrical and microstructural characterization of the wires are presented and compared with other published data. In particular, for both YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO ribbons, it is shown that the thinner the ribbon the higher the critical current density. But this effect is much more pronounced for BiSrCaCuO because, due to partial melting of the former ceramic during the elaboration process, there is a pronounced enhancement of its texture as its thickness is reduced

  1. Method of fabricating a poision tube for reactor control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Toshimi; Masaoka, Isao; Naruse, Akisuke

    1983-04-28

    A method to unify the neutron absorbing performance, enhance the workability in the insertion of neutron absorber tube and further decrease the stresses acting on the neutron absorber coating tube is described. The neutron absorber coated rod comprising neutron absorbing substance and a metal pipe is fabricated by compressing a metal pipe filled with the neutron absorber. Specifically, neutron absorbing substance such as boron carbide powder or the like is filled in a metal pipe such as made of stainless steel tube by way of vibration packing or the like. Then, after heating the metal pipe, it is applied with compression working such as swaging into a fine tube to increase the packing density of the absorbing substance filled in the pipe to greater than 60% of the theoretical density and completely contacted closely to the inner wall of the pipe. The neutron absorber coated rod thus fabricated can be inserted to an external coating tube with ease at a predetermined gap.

  2. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J.; Thompson, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  3. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  4. The Conceptual Design for Tubular Fuel Assemblies of an Advanced Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Dan, Ho Jin; Cho, Yeong Garp; Yoon, Doo Byung; Park, Cheol

    2005-05-01

    An Advanced Research Reactor(ARR) is being designed by KAERI since 2002. The final goal of the project is to develop a new and unique research reactor model which is superior in safety and economical aspects. In this work, the conceptual design for tubular fuel assemblies was carried out to enhance the previous model. The shape optimization of the cross section of the top guide was performed, and the swaging procedure in connecting fuel plates and stiffeners was developed. Moreover to reflect changes in number and size of fuel plates, related parts of the standard and the reduced fuel assemblies were redesigned. The top guide should suppress the vibration of the fuel assembly due to coolant and resist against material failures owing to fatigue and yield. In order to gain these design requirements, we have optimized the section profile of the top guide. To confirm manufacturing aspects, the swaging procedure was developed and its performance was tested. The results of tangential tensile test and axial compression test guaranteed that the fixing state between fuel plates and stiffeners is firm enough to hold each other. In addition, due to changes in number and size of fuel plates, the outer cross section of the fuel assembly was expanded and the diameter of the spacer tube was reduced. Reflecting these design changes, top/bottom guide, top guide cover, spring, spring cover, and receptacle were readjusted. Based on the technical experiences on the design and operation of the HANARO, the standard and the reduced fuel assemblies will be verified by performing various tests and analysis

  5. Strain aging in tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowding, R.J.; Tauer, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tungsten heavy alloys which are two-phase mixtures of body center cubic (BCC) tungsten surrounded by a face center cubic (FCC) matrix. The matrix is most often composed of nickel and iron in a ratio of 70:30 but, occasionally, the matrix may also contain cobalt or copper. Nickel, however, is always the primary matrix component. The tungsten heavy alloy is fabricated through powder metallurgy techniques. Elemental powders are blended, pressed to shape, and sintered. Depending upon the tungsten content, the sintering temperatures are usually in the range of 1450 degrees C to 1525 degrees C. These temperatures are high enough that, as a result, the matrix is at the liquid phase and the process is known as liquid phase sintering. At the liquid phase temperature, the matrix becomes saturated with tungsten, but this does not change the FCC character of the matrix. The sintering is usually done in a hydrogen atmosphere furnace in order to reduce the oxides on the tungsten powder surfaces and create clean, active surfaces which will enhance the adherence between the tungsten and the matrix. The hydrogen atmosphere also creates the presence of excess dissolved hydrogen in the alloy. It has been shown that the hydrogen degrades the toughness and ductility of the heavy alloy. A post-sintering vacuum heat treatment is generally required to insure that there is no residual hydrogen present. The as-sintered tensile strength of a 90% tungsten, 7% nickel, 3% iron alloy (90W) is in the range of 800 to 940 MPa and can be increased significantly by cold working, usually rolling or swaging. Swaging to reductions in area of 20% can result in tensile strengths of 1250 MPa or more. As the strength increases, the elongation, which may have been 30% or more, decreases to less than 5%

  6. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys. 14/20% chromium: effects of processing on deformation texture, recrystallization and tensile properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regle, H.

    1994-01-01

    The ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising candidates for high temperature application materials, in particular for long life core components of advanced nuclear reactors. The aim of this work is to control the microstructure, in order to optimise the mechanical properties. The two ferritic alloys examined here, MA956 and MA957, are obtained by Mechanical Alloying techniques. They are characterised by quite anisotropic microstructure and mechanical properties. We have investigated the influence of hot and cold working processes (hot extrusion, swaging and cold-drawing) and recrystallization heat treatments on deformation textures, microstructures and tensile properties. The aim was to control the size of the grains and their anisotropic shape, using recrystallization heat treatments. After consolidation and hot extrusion, as-received materials present a extremely fine microstructure with elongated grains and a very strong (110) deformation texture with single-crystal character. At that stage of processing, recrystallization temperature are very high (1450 degrees C for MA957 alloy and 1350 degrees C for MA956 alloy) and materials develop millimetric recrystallized grains. Additional hot extrusion induce a fibre texture. Cold-drawing maintains a fibre texture, but the intensity decreases with increasing cold-work level. For both materials, the decrease of texture intensities correspond to a decrease of the recrystallization temperatures (from 1350 degrees C for a low cold-work level to 750 degrees C for 60 % cold-deformation, case of MA956 alloy) and a refinement of the grain size (from a millimetric size to less than an hundred of micrometer). Swaging develop a cyclic component where the intensity increases with increasing deformation in this case, the recrystallization temperature remains always very high and the millimetric grain size is slightly modified, even though cold-work level increases. Technologically, cold-drawing is the only way

  7. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys. 14/20% chromium: effects of processing on deformation texture, recrystallization and tensile properties; Alliages ferritiques 14/20% de chrome renforces par dispersion d`oxydes. Effets des procedes de mise en forme sur les textures de deformation, la recristallisation et les proprietes de traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regle, H

    1994-12-31

    The ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising candidates for high temperature application materials, in particular for long life core components of advanced nuclear reactors. The aim of this work is to control the microstructure, in order to optimise the mechanical properties. The two ferritic alloys examined here, MA956 and MA957, are obtained by Mechanical Alloying techniques. They are characterised by quite anisotropic microstructure and mechanical properties. We have investigated the influence of hot and cold working processes (hot extrusion, swaging and cold-drawing) and recrystallization heat treatments on deformation textures, microstructures and tensile properties. The aim was to control the size of the grains and their anisotropic shape, using recrystallization heat treatments. After consolidation and hot extrusion, as-received materials present a extremely fine microstructure with elongated grains and a very strong (110) deformation texture with single-crystal character. At that stage of processing, recrystallization temperature are very high (1450 degrees C for MA957 alloy and 1350 degrees C for MA956 alloy) and materials develop millimetric recrystallized grains. Additional hot extrusion induce a fibre texture. Cold-drawing maintains a fibre texture, but the intensity decreases with increasing cold-work level. For both materials, the decrease of texture intensities correspond to a decrease of the recrystallization temperatures (from 1350 degrees C for a low cold-work level to 750 degrees C for 60 % cold-deformation, case of MA956 alloy) and a refinement of the grain size (from a millimetric size to less than an hundred of micrometer). Swaging develop a cyclic component where the intensity increases with increasing deformation in this case, the recrystallization temperature remains always very high and the millimetric grain size is slightly modified, even though cold-work level increases. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Experimental Qualification of the Sleeved Pin Multilink Attachment for Divertor PFC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutanen, J.; McCallum, A.; Turner, A.; Merola, M.

    2006-01-01

    The latest design for connecting the limited life ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC's) to the reusable cassette body is the so called sleeved pin multilink attachment. The connection is made by expanding a 43 mm diameter hollow AlBr pin inside the fixation holes of components of the cassette body and PFC by a swaging process. The multilink is an easy, safe and fast assembly method, but the original dismantling method of drilling out the pin was found troublesome. Therefore, in the latest attachment design a thin sleeve is incorporated between the pin and the holes, which makes it possible to dismantle the joint by simply pulling out the pin and sleeve sequentially. Experimental qualification of the new sleeved design is now proceeding. The aim of the experimental qualification is to prove that the sleeved design meets the requirements of load carrying capability, clearance free connection, and easy and safe removal. Associated analytical studies were performed to develop and verify theoretical models and correlations for use in design. Results from the experimental qualification will provide reference information for developing tools for making and removing the connection. Theoretical finite element models in association with the results of earlier test campaigns with nonsleeved design were used to determine pin expansion parameters. The expansion parameters were verified with plate-pin tests measuring contact pressures produced by pin expansion. The plate-pin tests were also used to demonstrate the feasibility of pin removal and develop pin removal methodology. The mechanical capabilities of the connection design are being examined with test series of cyclic tensile loading plus articulation-induced loading of a single connection mock-up. Remaking properties of the attachment are being studied with multiple swaging and removing of the pin into the fixation holes. Finally the dismantling of the connection will be examined with full length pin extraction

  9. The Inter-Agency programme on marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    The Global Programme of Action (GPA) for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities - as well as a number of international conventions (e.g., United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Oslo and Paris Conventions) and regional agreements - are addressing the needs, The GPA sets the obligations for, and aims at assisting the States to undertake, the monitoring of contaminants in the marine environment and to control and abate pollution sources. Included among the contaminants of major concern are persistent organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides and PCBs), heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, radioactive substances, nutrients, swage, and litter. Effective surveillance of contaminants of the marine environment and control of pollution depend upon a number of factors, including appropriate institutional capacity in the countries. In recent years, many countries displayed increased attention to environmental issues and, gradually, infrastructures were developed and environmental protection regulations were put into place. This article reviews the global framework for assisting countries to upgrade their capabilities for analysing data related to the marine environment, and particularly focuses on services being provided by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco

  10. Surface modification of Ti-30Ta alloy by electrospun PCL deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, C.M.; Rangel, A.L.R.; Souza, M.A. de; Claro, A.P.R.A.; Rezende, M.C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil); Almeida, R. dos S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Full text: Surface modifications techniques have been used for change the inert surface of the titanium alloys for better interaction. Ingots of the experimental alloy Ti30Ta were melted in an arc furnace and re-melted ten times at least. They were homogenized under vacuum at 1000 °C for 86. 4 ks to eliminate chemical segregation and cold-worked by swaging. Discs were immersed in aqueous NaOH solution for 24 h, dried at room temperature, immersed in HCl and dried at 40 °C in oven for 24 hours. Followed, PCL fibers were deposited on the Ti30Ta alloy discs surfaces by electrospinning. Plasma treatment was carried out for change PCL electrospun by using stainless steel plasma reactor. Samples were immersed in SBF 5x solution for apatite growth. Surfaces were evaluated by using SEM, X-rays diffraction and contact angle. Samples exhibited hydrophilic behavior after plasma treatment and SBF immersion. Results are very interesting for biomedical applications. (author)

  11. Influence of the chemical composition and temperature in the mechanical behaviour of U3O8-Al cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.I.; Figueredo, A.M. de

    1982-01-01

    U 3 O 8 -Al nuclear cermets, with U 3 O 8 content varying from zero to 80 wt%, were prepared by rotary swaging of U 3 O 8 -Al compacts at 500 0 C. Specimens were fabricated from these materials and tensile tested at the temperatures 25 0 , 200 0 , 300 0 and 400 0 C at a strain rate of 4.3 x 10 - 5 s - 1 . The yield stress σ sub(E) and the ultimate tensile strength σ sub(R), were analysed as a function of the test temperature and cermet composition. The results show that the dependence of σ sub(E) and σ sub(R) on composition can be explained in terms of the variation of the minimum load bearing cross-sectional area of the aluminum matrix with U 3 O 8 concentration. The temperature dependence of σ sub(R) and σ sub(E) of the cermets was seen to be similar to the temperature dependence of these parameters of the aluminum matrix. (Author) [pt

  12. Obtention of copper-magnesium alloys wires used in electrical transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marcos Gonzales

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain copper wires in three different chemical compositions starting from electrolytic copper and magnesium. The mains steps were evaluated, starting from the melting of small eutectic cooper-magnesium specimens in an electric arc furnace, followed by further dilution of this buttons in a resistive furnace and casting it in a copper mould. The as cast billets were homogenized in a resistive furnace at 910 degree C for 2 h. The billets were mechanically cold worked by swaging and a final drawing step to attain a round shape and a reasonable surface quality. The cast ingots chemical analysis indicated that the processing route showed to be adequate, in laboratory scale, to obtain wires with cross sectional area of 4 mm2 and 10 m in length. The wires in both conditions - as cold worked and after a recovering heat treatment at 510 degree C for 1 h, were mechanically characterized by tensile testing and hardness. The wires had also the electric conductivity assessed in the recovered heat-treated state and the results were compared to the literature data. The obtained material showed to be adequate to be used as electric conductor. The yield strain and ultimate tensile strength were improved with the increasing amount of Mg in the alloy, 11 % and 24 %, respectively, while the electric conductivity decreased to 60 % IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard). (author)

  13. Study of a design criterion for 316L irradiated represented by a strain hardened material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouin, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the consequence of radiation on different structure submitted to imposed displacement loading and for damages due to plastic instability or rupture. The main consequence of radiation is a material hardening with a ductility decrease. This effect is similar to initial mechanical hardening: the mechanical properties (determined on smooth tensile specimen) evolve in the same way while irradiation or mechanical hardening increase. So in this study, radiation hardening is simulated by mechanical hardening (swaging). Tests were carried out for which two damages were considered: plastic instability and rupture. These two damages were studied with initial mechanical hardening (5 tested hammering rate 0, 15, 25, 35 and 45% on 316L stainless steel). Likewise two types of loading were studied: tensile or bending loading on specimens with or without geometrical singularities (notches). From tensile tests, two deformation criteria are proposed for prevention against the two quoted damages. Numerical study is carried out allowing to confirm hypothesis made at the time of the tensile test result interpretation and to validate the rupture criterion by applying on bending test. (author)

  14. Study of a design criterion for 316L irradiated represented by a strain hardened material; Etude d'un critere de dimensionnement d'un acier 316L irradie represente par un materiau ecroui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouin, H

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the consequence of radiation on different structure submitted to imposed displacement loading and for damages due to plastic instability or rupture. The main consequence of radiation is a material hardening with a ductility decrease. This effect is similar to initial mechanical hardening: the mechanical properties (determined on smooth tensile specimen) evolve in the same way while irradiation or mechanical hardening increase. So in this study, radiation hardening is simulated by mechanical hardening (swaging). Tests were carried out for which two damages were considered: plastic instability and rupture. These two damages were studied with initial mechanical hardening (5 tested hammering rate 0, 15, 25, 35 and 45% on 316L stainless steel). Likewise two types of loading were studied: tensile or bending loading on specimens with or without geometrical singularities (notches). From tensile tests, two deformation criteria are proposed for prevention against the two quoted damages. Numerical study is carried out allowing to confirm hypothesis made at the time of the tensile test result interpretation and to validate the rupture criterion by applying on bending test. (author)

  15. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrmann Gregory P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces. The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements.

  16. The effect of the solute on the structure, selected mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of Ti–Zr system alloys for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Laboratório de Anelasticidade e Biomateriais, 17.033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Donato, T.A.G.; Arana-Chavez, V.E. [USP — Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Biologia Oral e Biomateriais, 05.508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Buzalaf, M.A.R. [USP — Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 17.012-901, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Grandini, C.R., E-mail: betog@fc.unesp.br [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Laboratório de Anelasticidade e Biomateriais, 17.033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    New titanium alloys have been developed with the aim of utilizing materials with better properties for application as biomaterials, and Ti–Zr system alloys are among the more promising of these. In this paper, the influence of zirconium concentrations on the structure, microstructure, and selected mechanical properties of Ti–Zr alloys is analyzed. After melting and swaging, the samples were characterized through chemical analysis, density measurements, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness, and elasticity modulus. In-vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed on cultured osteogenic cells. The results showed the formation essentially of the α′ phase (with hcp structure) and microhardness values greater than cp-Ti. The elasticity modulus of the alloys was sensitive to the zirconium concentrations while remaining within the range of values of conventional titanium alloys. The alloys presented no cytotoxic effects on osteoblastic cells in the studied conditions. - Highlights: • Ti–Zr alloys for biomedical applications were developed. • Only α′ phase was observed. • Influence of zirconium concentrations on the properties of Ti–Zr alloys was analyzed. • No cytotoxic effects were observed.

  17. Deformation processed Al/Ca nano-filamentary composite conductors for HVDC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czahor, C. F.; Anderson, I. E.; Riedemann, T. M.; Russell, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    Efficient long-distance power transmission is necessary as the world continues to implement renewable energy sources, often sited in remote areas. Light, strong, high-conductivity materials are desirable for this application to reduce both construction and operational costs. In this study an Al/Ca (11.5% vol.) composite with nano-filamentary reinforcement was produced by powder metallurgy then extruded, swaged, and wire drawn to a maximum true strain of 12.7. The tensile strength increased exponentially as the filament size was reduced to the sub-micron level. In an effort to improve the conductor’s ability to operate at elevated temperatures, the deformation-processed wires were heat-treated at 260°C to transform the Ca-reinforcing filaments to Al2Ca. Such a transformation raised the tensile strength by as much as 28%, and caused little change in ductility, while the electrical conductivity was reduced by only 1% to 3%. Al/Al2Ca composites are compared to existing conductor materials to show how implementation could affect installation and performance.

  18. Effect of high content nano-thoria addition on the properties of tungsten electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fazhan; Zhuge Fei; Zhang Hui; Ding Bingjun

    2003-01-01

    By hot swaging, the nano-composite W-4.5%ThO 2 cathode was fabricated. A comparative investigation has been made on the operation characteristics for a conventional W-2%ThO 2 cathode, a conventional W-4%ThO 2 cathode and a nano-composite W-4.5%ThO 2 cathode. The results showed that the arc starting and arc voltage-current characteristic of the nano-composite W-4.5%ThO 2 electrode was the best among the three cathodes. These operating characteristics depended on the content and the size of thoria. The anti-erosion ability of the nano-composite W-4.5%ThO 2 cathode was slightly better than that of conventional W-4%ThO 2 cathode, but was obviously improved as compared to W-2%ThO 2 cathode, indicating that the content of thoria governs the resistance to arc erosion of the electrodes

  19. Atomics International fuel fabrication facility and low enrichment program [contributed by T.A. Moss, AI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The AI facility is approximately 30,000 square feet in area and consists of four general areas. One area is devoted to the production of UAl x powder. It consists of a series of arc melting furnaces, crushing lines, glove boxes, and compacting presses. The second area is used for the rolling of fuel plates. The third area is used for the machining of the plates to final size and also the machining of the fuel elements. In the fourth area the fuel plates are swaged into assemblies, and all welding and inspection operations are performed. As part of the lower enrichment program we are scheduled to put a second UAl x powder line into operation and we have had to expand some of our storage area. Under the low enrichment program the AI fuel facility will be modified to accommodate a separate low enrichment Al x production line and compacting line. This facility modification should be done by the end of the fiscal year. We anticipate producing fuel with an enrichment slightly less than 20% We anticipate powder being available for plate production shortly after the facility is completed. Atomics International is scheduled to conduct plate LEU verification work using fully enriched material in the June-July time period, at which time we will investigate what level of uranium loadings we can go to using the current process. It is anticipated that 55 volume percent uranium compound in our fuel form can be achieved

  20. Mechanical properties and microstructure of Ti-35.5Nb-5.7Ta beta alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartakova, S; Prachar, P; Dvorak, I; Hruby, V; Vanek, J; Pospichal, M; Svoboda, E; Martikan, A; Konecna, H; Sedlak, I

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys represent generally accepted metallic biomaterials for clinical dentistry and dental implantology. In this paper, we present a Ti-35.5Nb-5.7Ta alloy with a special respect to its microstructure and mechanical characteristics, such as Young modulus of elasticity. Three thermal treatments differing in temperature and time of annealing were used during the Ti-35.5Nb-5.7Ta processing in order to evaluate the effects of ageing, melting annealing, and annealing on mechanical characteristics and microstructure. Using microscopy, the alloy was analyzed and the differences in shares of beta phase grains, alpha particles and precipitates evaluated. The three thermal treatments were evaluated also from technological point of view. The following thermal treatment was found optimal for the Ti-35.5Nb-5.7Ta alloy: melting annealing at 800 °C for 0.5 hour followed by a cold swaging with a 52-79 % deformation, and final hardening at 500 °C for 2 hours in water(Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 24).

  1. A novel method for shape analysis: deformation of bubbles during wire drawing in doped tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmat, P.; Bartha, L.; Grosz, T.; Rosta, L.

    2001-01-01

    A novel technique has been developed for monitoring shape and size of microscopic pores, bubbles, second phase particles in deformed PM materials. The anisotropic small angle neutron scattering (ASANS) measurement provides direct visualization of the shape of second phase objects after rolling, swaging, wire drawing. Also in case of mixture of different objects e. g. uniformly elongated bubbles and spherical ones they can be separated and their morphological parameters like relative number density, diameter, aspect ratio can be obtained from the quantitative analysis of ASANS data. Rods and wires from K-AI-Si doped tungsten containing residual porosity and K filled bubbles were studied from 6 mm to 0.2 mm in diameter. The increase of the average aspect ratio (∼1/d) was found to be much slower than expected from the usual theory (∼1/d 3 ). Instead of 'constant volume' assumption, the 'constant length' seems to be reliable. The ASANS investigation revealed also the occurrence of a small amount of spherical bubbles after several steps of wire drawing. (author)

  2. Cladding temperature measurement by thermocouples at preirradiated LWR fuel rod samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiling, W.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the technique to measure cladding temperatures of test fuel rod samples, applied during the in-pile tests on fuel rod failure in the steam loop of the FR2 reactor. NiCr/Ni thermocouples with stainless steel and Inconel sheaths, respectively,of 1 mm diameter were resistance spot weld to the outside of the fuel rod cladding. For the pre-irradiated test specimens, welding had to be done under hot-cell conditions, i.e. under remote handling. In order to prevent the formation of eutectics between zirconium and the chemical elements of the thermocouple sheath at elevated temperatures, the thermocouples were covered with a platinum jacket of 1.4 mm outside diameter swaged onto the sheath in the area of the measuring junction. This thermocouple design has worked satisfactorily in the in-pile experiments performed in a steam atmosphere. Even in the heatup phase, in which cladding temperatures up to 1050 0 C were reached, only very few failures occured. This good performance is to a great part due to a careful control and a thorough inspection of the thermocouples. (orig.) [de

  3. Mechanical behaviour of copper 15% volume niobium microcomposite wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Nb microcomposites are attractive in magnet pulsed field technology applications due to their anomalous mechanism of mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity. In this sense, recently it was conceived the use of Cu 15% vol. Nb wires to operate as a high tensile strength cable for a diamond cutting tool (diamond wires for marble and granite slabbing. The multifilamentary Cu 15% vol. Nb composite was obtained using a new processing route, starting with niobium bars bundled into copper tubes, without arc melting. Cold working techniques, such as swaging and wire drawing, combined with heat treatments such as sintering and annealing, and tube restacking were employed. The tensile property of the composite was measured as a function of the niobium filaments dimensions and morphology into the copper matrix, in the several processing steps. An ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 960 MPa was obtained for an areal reduction (R = Ao/A, with Ao-initial cross section area, and A-final cross section area of 4x10(8 X, in which the niobium filaments reached thickness less than 20 nm. The anomalous mechanical strength increase is attributed to the fact that the niobium filaments acts as a barrier to copper dislocations.

  4. Cu-Nb3Sn superconducting wires prepared by ''Copper Liquid Phase Sintering method'' using the Nb-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, A.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-30% Nb in weighting were prepared by the method of Copper sintering liquid phase the method was improved by substitution of Nb power by Nb-H powder, obtaining a high density material with good mechanical properties, which was reduced to fine. Wire, Without heat treatment. The Cu-Nb 3 Sn wires were obtained by external diffusion process depositing tin in the Cu-30%Nb wires, and by internal diffusion process using the Sn-8.5% Cu in weighting, which was reduced to rods of 3.5 mm. These Cu-30%Nb rods were enclosed in copper tubes and deformed mechanically by rotary swaging and drawing. During the drawing step some wires were fractured, that were analysed and correlated with the microstructure of the Sn-8.5 Wt% Cu alloy. External and internal diffusion samples; after a fast thermal treatment for Sn diffusion, were submited to the temperature of 700 0 C to provide the reaction between Sn and Nb, leading to the Nb 3 Sn phase. Samples with several reaction times, and its influence on T c and J c critical parameters and normal resistivity were prepared and analysed. (author) [pt

  5. The effect of the solute on the structure, selected mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of Ti–Zr system alloys for dental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B.; Donato, T.A.G.; Arana-Chavez, V.E.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Grandini, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    New titanium alloys have been developed with the aim of utilizing materials with better properties for application as biomaterials, and Ti–Zr system alloys are among the more promising of these. In this paper, the influence of zirconium concentrations on the structure, microstructure, and selected mechanical properties of Ti–Zr alloys is analyzed. After melting and swaging, the samples were characterized through chemical analysis, density measurements, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness, and elasticity modulus. In-vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed on cultured osteogenic cells. The results showed the formation essentially of the α′ phase (with hcp structure) and microhardness values greater than cp-Ti. The elasticity modulus of the alloys was sensitive to the zirconium concentrations while remaining within the range of values of conventional titanium alloys. The alloys presented no cytotoxic effects on osteoblastic cells in the studied conditions. - Highlights: • Ti–Zr alloys for biomedical applications were developed. • Only α′ phase was observed. • Influence of zirconium concentrations on the properties of Ti–Zr alloys was analyzed. • No cytotoxic effects were observed

  6. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of biomedical Ti-Nb-Zr(-Ta) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, L.M.; Schneider, S.G.; Schneider, S.; Silva, H.M.; Malvisi, F.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant development of novel implant alloys based on β-Ti such as Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys systems. The purpose of this work is to provide characterization of Ti-35.3Nb-5.1Ta-7.1Zr and Ti-41.1Nb-7.1Zr alloys, in which Nb will substitute the atomic amount of Ta, with emphasis in the property-microstructure-composition relationships. These alloys are produced from commercially pure materials (Ti, Nb, Zr and Ta) by an arc melting method. All ingots were submitted to sequences of heat treatment (1000 deg. C/2 h - WQ), cold working by swaging procedures and other heat treatment (1000 deg. C/2 h - WQ). Specimens, in as cast and heat-treated condition, were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These results suggested the presence of β- and ω-phases. Mechanical properties were based on tensile and hardness tests. These alloys exhibit a lower modulus than that of conventional Ti alloys and the other mechanical properties are suitable for biomedical applications

  7. Heater Validation for the NEXT-C Hollow Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.; Mackey, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Swaged cathode heaters whose design was successfully demonstrated under a prior flight project are to be provided by the NASA Glenn Research Center for the NEXT-C ion thruster being fabricated by Aerojet Rocketdyne. Extensive requalification activities were performed to validate process controls that had to be re-established or revised because systemic changes prevented reuse of the past approaches. A development batch of heaters was successfully fabricated based on the new process controls. Acceptance and cyclic life testing of multiple discharge and neutralizer sized heaters extracted from the development batch was initiated in August, 2016, with the last heater completing testing in April, 2017. Cyclic life testing results substantially exceeded the NEXT-C thruster requirement as well as all past experience for GRC-fabricated units. The heaters demonstrated ultimate cyclic life capability of 19050 to 33500 cycles. A qualification batch of heaters is now being fabricated using the finalized process controls. A set of six heaters will be acceptance and cyclic tested to verify conformance to the behavior observed with the development heaters. The heaters for flight use will be then be provided to the contractor from the remainder of the qualification batch. This paper summarizes the fabrication process control activities and the acceptance and life testing of the development heater units.

  8. Surface modification of Ti-30Ta alloy by electrospun PCL deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, C.M.; Rangel, A.L.R.; Souza, M.A. de; Claro, A.P.R.A.; Rezende, M.C.R.; Almeida, R. dos S.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Surface modifications techniques have been used for change the inert surface of the titanium alloys for better interaction. Ingots of the experimental alloy Ti30Ta were melted in an arc furnace and re-melted ten times at least. They were homogenized under vacuum at 1000 °C for 86. 4 ks to eliminate chemical segregation and cold-worked by swaging. Discs were immersed in aqueous NaOH solution for 24 h, dried at room temperature, immersed in HCl and dried at 40 °C in oven for 24 hours. Followed, PCL fibers were deposited on the Ti30Ta alloy discs surfaces by electrospinning. Plasma treatment was carried out for change PCL electrospun by using stainless steel plasma reactor. Samples were immersed in SBF 5x solution for apatite growth. Surfaces were evaluated by using SEM, X-rays diffraction and contact angle. Samples exhibited hydrophilic behavior after plasma treatment and SBF immersion. Results are very interesting for biomedical applications. (author)

  9. Mechanical properties of molybdenum alloyed liquid phase-sintered tungsten-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.B.; German, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tungsten-based composites are fabricated from mixed elemental powders using liquid phase sintering, usually with a nickel-iron matrix. During sintering, the tungsten undergoes grain growth, leading to microstructure coarsening that lowers strength but increases ductility. Often the desire is to increase strength at the sacrifice of ductility, and historically, this has been performed by postsintering deformation. There has been considerable research on alloying to adjust the as-sintered mechanical properties to match those of swaged alloys. Prior reports cover many additions, seemingly including much of the periodic table. Unfortunately, many of the modified alloys proved disappointing, largely due to degraded strength at the tungsten-matrix interface. Of these modified alloys, the molybdenum-containing systems exhibit a promising combination of properties, cost, and processing ease. For example, the 82W-8Mo-7Ni-3Fe alloy gives a yield strength that is 34% higher than the equivalent 90W-7Ni-3Fe alloy (from 535 to 715 MPa) but with a 33% decrease in fracture elongation (from 30 to 20% elongation). This article reports on experiments geared to promoting improved properties in the W-Mo-Ni-Fe alloys. However, unlike the prior research which maintained a constant Ni + Fe content and varied the W:Mo ratio, this study considers the Mo:(Ni + Fe) ratio effect for 82, 90, and 93 wt pct W

  10. Effects of Oil Shocks on the Unemployment: GVAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek KhojastehNeghad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil is not only one of the most significant and useful consumer goods but also is a remarkable material in energy production all around the world which has a lot of price fluctuation. oil shocks consider as a principal factor of many financial crises and have various effects on economy of countries. Hence, the assessment of price fluctuations on macroeconomic variables such as unemployment seems important. This paper survey the oil price inconstancy on unemployment in 31countries during the period from the second quarter of 1985 to the fourth quarter of 2009 through Global Vector Auto-Regression model. Results demonstrate except of the rest of W. Europe, there is a positive relationship between oil prices oscillation and unemployment. It should be noted in many area the feedback along with the lag that depends on the ratio of oil cost in national income, reliance level to imported oil, end-users ability to reduce their usage and substitute other sources, gas consumption quantity in economy, effect of higher prices on other energy sources, monetary policies adopt when face with oil price swaging and capability of goverments to apply the vary policies.

  11. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division: 1982 July 1 - September 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    During the third quarter of 1982, work in solid state studies included study of energy spectra of Auger electrons from a silicon single crystal, use of an excimer laser to anneal an aluminum crystal implanted with iron atoms, studies of defects created by helium ion irradiation of a dilute copper-indium alloy crystal, and computer simulations of ion channeling in a platinum crystal surface. Work in radiation chemistry on the enhancement of water calorimetry sensitivity continued. A surface science program to understand the temporal oscillations in the oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum continued with the study of the interaction of oxygen with the (100) crystallographic face of platinum. Studies in analytical chemistry included a comparison of fuel burnup results using 145 Nd + 146 Nd and 148 Nd, and a preliminary investigation into methods of reduction of U(VI) to U(IV), particularly electrolytic reduction. Materials science work continued on the fracture surfaces of Exel alloys cracked in hydrogen gas, the true incubation time for stress corrosion cracking in cesium-cadmium vapour mixtures, evidence for a previously unknown hexagonal phase of germanium, growth experiments in the DIDO reactor on swaged single-crystals, and examination of the first zirconium specimen purified by electrotransport in the CRNL equipment

  12. High density tungsten-nickel-iron-cobalt alloys having improved hardness and method for making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrice, T.W.; Bost, J.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the process of making high density alloy containing about 85 to 98 weight percent tungsten and the balance of the alloy being essentially a binder of nickel, iron and cobalt, and wherein the cobalt is present in an amount within the range of about 5 to 47.5 weight percent of the binder, comprising: blending powders of the tungsten, nickel, iron and cobalt into a homogeneous composition, compacting the homogeneous composition into a shaped article, heating the shaped article to a temperature and for a time sufficient to sinter the article, subjecting the sintered article to a temperature sufficient to enable the intermetallic phase formed at the matrix to tungsten interface to diffuse into the gamma austenitic phase whereby the alpha tungsten/gamma austenite boundaries are essentially free of such intermetallic phase, quenching the article, and swaging the article to a reduction in area of about 5 to 40 percent, the article having improved mechanical properties, including improved tensile strength and hardness while maintaining suitable ductility for subsequent working thereof

  13. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholster, P.J.; Botha, A.-M.; Cloete, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources

  14. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  15. Room temperature creep behavior of Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei-dong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Wu, Hong; Lan, Xiao-dong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Qiu, Jingwen [College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China); Hu, Te [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tang, Hui-ping [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwestern Institute of Nonferrous Metal Research, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710012 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The room temperature creep behavior and deformation mechanisms of a Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloy, which is also called “gum metal”, were investigated with the nanoindentation creep and conventional creep tests. The microstructure was observed with electron backscattered diffraction analysis (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the creep stress exponent of the alloy is sensitive to cold deformation history of the alloy. The alloy which was cold swaged by 85% shows high creep resistance and the stress exponent is approximately equal to 1. Microstructural observation shows that creep process of the alloy without cold deformation is controlled by dislocation mechanism. The stress-induced α' martensitic phase transformation also occurs. The EBSD results show that the grain orientation changes after the creep tests, and thus, the creep of the cold-worked alloy is dominated by the shear deformation of giant faults without direct assistance from dislocations. - Highlights: •Nanoindentation was used to investigate room temperature creep behavior of gum metal. •The creep stress exponent of gum metal is sensitive to the cold deformation history. •The creep stress exponent of cold worked gum metal is approximately equal to 1. •The creep of the cold-worked gum metal is governed by the shear deformation of giant faults.

  16. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Gregory P; Hidler, Joseph; Mirotznik, Mark S

    2012-10-03

    A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces.The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements.

  17. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  18. The effect of annealing temperature on the properties of powder metallurgy processed Ti-35Nb-2Zr-0.5O alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málek, Jaroslav; Hnilica, František; Veselý, Jaroslav; Smola, Bohumil; Medlín, Rostislav

    2017-11-01

    Ti-35Nb-2Zr-0.5O (wt%) alloy was prepared via a powder metallurgy process (cold isostatic pressing of blended elemental powders and subsequent sintering) with the primary aim of using it as a material for bio-applications. Sintered specimens were swaged and subsequently the influence of annealing temperature on the mechanical and structural properties was studied. Specimens were annealed at 800, 850, 900, 950, and 1000°C for 0.5h and water quenched. Significant changes in microstructure (i.e. precipitate dissolution or grain coarsening) were observed in relation to increasing annealing temperature. In correlation with those changes, the mechanical properties were also studied. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 925MPa (specimen annealed at 800°C) to 990MPa (900°C). Also the elongation increased from ~ 13% (800°C) to more than 20% (900, 950, and 1000°C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on the development of high-Tc superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Lee, Hee Gyoun; Kim, Chan Joong

    1991-09-01

    High magnetization YBaCuO superconductor was prepared with additions of BaSnO 3 , SnO 2 and SiC by partial melt processing. Addition of BaSnO 3 increased the magnetic property of YBaCuO by flux pinning action of finely dispersed BaSnO 3 particles, while addition of SnO 2 decreased the magnetic property, because the size of particle was larger than that of BaSnO 3 . BiPbSrCaCuO superconducting tape of single filament was prepared by powder-in-tube method using silver as a shearth material. The fabrication techniques involves powder packing, swaging, drawing and cold rolling/pressing method. The final dimension of wire after drawing is 1.2mm diameter. The wire was pressed into a tape form with a thickness of 70micron and a width of 3mm. The obtained critical current density of the prepared tape was 2000A/cm 2 at 77K. (Author)

  20. Californium-252 radiotherapy sources for interstitial afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; Walker, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm centers within a flexible plastic tube. The seed assemblies are fabricated with remotely operated, specially designed machines. The fabrication process involves the production of a Pt-10 percent Ir-clad wire with a 252 Cf 2 O 3 -Pd cermet core. The wire is swaged and drawn to size, cut to length, and welded in a Pt-10 percent Ir capsule 0.8 mm in diameter and 6 mm long. Each seed capsule contains approximately 0.5 microgram of 252 Cf. Because the effective half-life of 252 Cf is 2.6 years, the seed assemblies are not disposable and must be reused until their activities have decreased to unsuitable levels. The flexible plastic components must therefore have sufficient resistance to radiation damage to survive the neutron-plus-gamma radiation from 252 Cf. On the basis of accelerated irradiation tests with a large 252 Cf source, a recently developed fluoropolymer, ''Tefzel'' (trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) has adequate radiation resistance for this application. Californium-252 seed assembly systems are loaned by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration for clinical investigations under a protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, U.S. National Cancer Institute

  1. Influence of residual stresses during eddy current testing of zircaloy bar material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Das, G.; Pratap, Y.; Acharya, S.; Chaube, R.K.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Zirconium alloy bar is the input material for making end plugs required for encapsulating the fuel tubes after loading of uranium di-oxide pellets. These bars are manufactured through extrusion followed by multi-pass swaging and intermediate vacuum annealing. The bar is subjected to 100% Ultrasonic testing to ensure that defect free material is used for making the end plugs. The elements thus welded are subjected to helium leak testing for checking the weld integrity. However, stray cases of helium leakage from fuel elements were observed on few occasions. On investigation, it was found that the leakage was from small porosity present in the plugs. In order to isolate such an eventuality, stricter ultrasonic standards were adopted and additionally eddy current testing was introduced. It was observed that a number of eddy current signals equal to the defect standard were noticed and the reasons for these indications could not be identified. This led to a significant fall in the material recovery. An in-depth study with various heat treatment cycles and process steps was carried out. It was finally concluded that the indications observed in eddy current testing were due to the residual stresses on the periphery of the bar material caused due by improper straightening being carried out at the final stage of the bar manufacture. This paper presents the systematic studies carried out and correlation established between the eddy current signals and the residual stresses

  2. Microstructural changes in zirconium alloy bar due to multi-roll straightening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouraharidas; Acharya, Swaroop; Pratap, Y.; Chaube, R.K.; Kiran Kumar, I.; Ramana Rao, A.V.; Saibaba, N.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium alloy bar is the input material for making of end plugs required for encapsulating the uranium di-oxide pellets in the fuel tubes. These bars are manufactured through extrusion followed by multi-pass swaging with intermediate and final vacuum annealing. The straightened and ground bars are subjected to 100% Ultrasonic testing and Eddy current testing to identify flaws and micro-porosity in the material, which could otherwise affect the integrity of fuel element. The defect standards at ultrasonic and eddy current inspection have been made more stringent, in view of the importance of fuel pin integrity during reactor operation. Consequently, many of the rods have shown eddy current indications greater than the defect standard. Detailed microstructural examination was carried out at each process step to identify the cause for these indications. Characteristic variation in the grain size and microstructure were noticed from surface to the centre of the material. Correlation between residual stresses and the eddy current signals was established. The extent of residual stresses could be controlled by adopting improvised straightening method at the final stage. This paper deals with the various trials carried out and the conclusions arrived at. (author)

  3. Innovative approaches in the manufacture of zirconium alloy components for PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M.N.; Srivastava, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Selection of an appropriate route for the fabrication of Zirconium alloy fuel components has a direct bearing on the quality of finished product. Many sophisticated and intricate processes such as vacuum arc melting, extrusion, hot rolling and cold working processes - swaging, drawing and sheet rolling are employed. Many advances were made in eddy current and ultrasonic evaluation to meet the stringent quality control requirement and locate the micro flaws. Emphasis was laid on achieving high recoveries and manufacture the product at minimum cost. Several creative and innovative processes were adopted particularly in the fabrication of end caps and spacers. The spacers were produced through the wire route and subsequently parting them into tiny spacers, which is entirely different from the conventional route of fabricating the sheets followed by blanking and coining. This has improved the material recovery and the lead time has been reduced substantially. The end caps used for the closure of clad tubes have to meet the most stringent quality requirements to avoid micro-flaws. The manufacturing processes adopted have direct influence on the integrity of the finished product. Special defect standards were developed to identify and eliminate micro-flaws and thereby ensure consistent and repetitive quality product. The paper brings out the above innovative approaches made in fabrication and quality control techniques in the manufacture of fuel components for PHWR fuel bundles. (author)

  4. Hydroforming of Tesla Cavities at Desy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, W.; Kaiser, H.; Singer, X.; Gonin, I.; Zhelezov, I.; Khabibullin, T.; Kneisel, P.; Saito, K.

    2000-01-01

    Since several years the development of seamless niobium cavity fabrication by hydro forming is being pursued at DESY. This technique offers the possibility of lower cost of fabrication and perhaps better rf performance of the cavities because of the elimination of electron-beam welds, which in the standard fabrication technique have sometimes lead to inferior cavity performance due to defects. Several single cell 1300 MHz cavities have been formed from high purity seamless niobium tubes, which are under computer control expanded with internal pressure while simultaneously being swaged axially. The seamless tubes have been made by either back extrusion and flow forming or by spinning or deep drawing. Standard surface treatment techniques such as high temperature post purification, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), electropolishing (EP) and high pressure ultra pure water rinsing (HPR) have been applied to these cavities. The cavities exhibited high Q - values of 2 x 10 10 at 2K and residual resistances as low as 3 n(Omega) after the removal of a surface layer of app. 100 (micro)m by BCP. Surprisingly, even at high gradients up to the maximum measured values of E acc ∼ 33 MV/m the Q-value did not decrease in the absence of field emission as often observed. After electropolishing of additional 100 (micro)m one of the cavities reached an accelerating gradient of E acc (ge) 42 MV/m

  5. Design, Fabrication and Performance of Boron-Carbide Control Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, H.A.; Jacobson, J.

    1964-01-01

    A control blade design, incorporating boron-carbide (B 4 C) in stainless-steel tubes, was introduced into service in boiling water reactors in April 1961. Since that time this blade has become the standard reference control element in General Electric boiling-water reactors, replacing the 2% boron-stainless-steel blades previously used. The blades consist of a sheathed, cruciform array of small vertical stainless-steel tubes filled with compácted boron-carbide powder. The boron-carbide powder is confined longitudinally into several independent compartments by swaging over ball bearings located inside the tubes. The development and use of boron-carbide control rods is discussed in five phases: 1. Summary of experience with boron-steel blades and reasons for transition to boron-carbide control; 2. Design of the boron-carbide blade, beginning with developmental experiments, including early measurements performed in the AEC ''Control Rod Material and Development Program'' at the Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory, through a description of the final control blade configuration; 3. Fabrication of the blades and quality control procedures; 4. Results of confirmatory pre-operational mechanical and reactivity testing; and 5. Post-operational experience with the blades, including information on the results of mechanical inspection and reactivity testing after two years of reactor service. (author) [fr

  6. Wideband filter radiometers for blackbody temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L. P.; Bamber, C.; Gaertner, A. A.; Gerson, R. K.; Woods, D. J.; Woolliams, E. R.

    2010-10-01

    The use of high-temperature blackbody (HTBB) radiators to realize primary spectral irradiance scales requires that the operating temperature of the HTBB be accurately determined. We have developed five filter radiometers (FRs) to measure the temperature of the National Research Council of Canada's HTBB. The FRs are designed to minimize sensitivity to ambient temperature fluctuations. They incorporate air-spaced colored glass filters and a Si photodiode detector that are housed in a cell whose temperature is controlled to ±0.1°C by means of annular thermoelectric elements at the front and rear of the cell. These wideband filter radiometers operate in four different wavelength bands. The spectral responsivity measurements were performed in an underfill geometry for a power-mode calibration that is traceable to NRC's cryogenic radiometer. The spectral temperature sensitivity of each of these FRs has been measured. The apertures for these FRs were cold-formed by swaging machine-cut apertures onto precision dowel pins. A description of the filter radiometer design, fabrication and testing, together with a detailed uncertainty analysis, is presented. We derive the equations that relate the spectral irradiance measured by the FRs to the spectral radiance and temperature of the HTBB, and deal specifically with the change of index of refraction over the path of the radiation from the interior of the HTBB to the FRs. We believe these equations are more accurate than recently published derivations. Our measurements of the operating temperature of our HTBB working at temperatures near 2500 K, 2700 K and 2900 K, together with measurements using a pyrometer, show agreement between the five filter radiometers and with the pyrometer to within the estimated uncertainties.

  7. Application Of Lean Strategy To Redesign The Assembly Process Flow Of Glow Plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vylen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is an applied methodology of scientific objective techniques which will improve the tasks in a process to be performed with a minimum of non-value-added activities. It is being increasingly adopted as a potential solution for many automotive manufacturing industries. This paper addresses the implementation of lean principles in an automotive component manufacturing company with a focus on current manufacturing practices and visual identification of non-value-added time, such as bottle necking, waiting time and material handling, etc. The typical operations involved in making the Glow Plug are caulking, tig welding, MgO filling & O-ring pressing, swaging, facing, thread rolling, inspection and assembly. The facing operation can be eliminated by stabilizing the variations generated during the MgO filling machine. The MgO filling activity contains various forms of non-value-added activities such as worn-out gripper, insufficient clamping tension, physical shaking of the WPC on the agitation unit instead of fine vibration, Jerky insertion of the WPC shank into the agitation locator. It was identified that approximately 15mm material was wasted per piece, though there is no value addition on the part. This project utilizes Lean tools such as “Six Sigma” and “Value Stream Mapping” procedures. Resolving and improving the above problems resulted in drastic increase in productivity by 87% from 82%, reduction in the rejections by 13% from 18%, reduction in the manufacturing lead time by 2.62 days/annum, reduction in the utilization of shop floor space by 6m2 and also the manufacturing cost by 1.16 million INR/ annum.

  8. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  9. The United States pit disassembly and conversion project -- Meeting the MOX fuel specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.O.; James, C.A.; Kolman, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The US is actively involved in demonstrating the disassembly of nuclear weapons pits to an unclassified form readied for disposition. The MOX option is the most likely path forward for plutonium that originated from nuclear weapon pits. The US demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion is known as ARIES, the advanced recovery and integrated extraction system. The ARIES demonstration line is being used to gather data in an integrated fashion of the technologies needed for pit disassembly and conversion. These activities include the following modules: pit bisection, hydride-dehydride, oxide conversion, canning, electrolytic decontamination, and nondestructive assay (NDA). Pit bisection swages in a pit in half. Hydride-dehydride converts the pit plutonium metal to an unclassified metal button. To convert the plutonium metal to an oxide the US is investigating a number of options. The primary oxide conversion approach involves variations of combining plutonium hydriding and subsequent oxidation. Another approach is to simply oxidize the metal under controlled conditions-direct metal oxidation (DMO). To remove the gallium from the plutonium oxide, a thermal distillation approach is being used. These pyrochemical approaches will substantially reduce the wastes produced for oxide conversion of weapon plutonium, compared to traditional aqueous processing. The packaging of either the plutonium metal or oxide to long term storage criteria involves the canning and electrolytic decontamination modules. The NDA suite of instruments is then used to assay the material in the containers, which enables international verification without the need to open the containers and repackage them. All of these processes are described

  10. Fabrication of U-10wt.%Zr Fuel slug for SFR by Injection Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chan B.

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication technology of metal fuel has been developed by various methods such as rolling, swaging, wire drawing, and co-extrusion, but each of these methods had process limitations requiring an additional subsequent process, and needing the fabrication equipment is complex, which is not favorable for remote use. A practical process of metallic fuel fabrication for an SFR needs to be cost efficient, suitable for remote operation, and capable of mass production while reducing the amount of radioactive waste. Injection casting was chosen as the most promising technique, in the early 1950s, and this technique has been applied to fuel slug fabrication for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) driver and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins. Because of the simplistic nature of the process and equipment, compared to other processes examined, this process has been successfully used in a remote operation environment for fueling of the EBR-II reactor. In this study, vacuum injection casting suitable for remote operation has been developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. Vacuum injection casting technique was developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. The appearance of the fabricated U-10wt.%Zr fuel was generally sound and the internal integrity was found to be satisfactory through gamma-ray radiography. Minimum fuel losses after casting relative to the initial charge amount of U-10wt.%Zr fuel slugs met the proposed goal of less than 0.1% fuel losses during fabrication. Modifications of the current facility system and advanced casting techniques are underway to produce higher quality fuel slugs

  11. Fabrication of U-10wt.%Zr Fuel slug for SFR by Injection Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Ko, Young Mo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chan B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The fabrication technology of metal fuel has been developed by various methods such as rolling, swaging, wire drawing, and co-extrusion, but each of these methods had process limitations requiring an additional subsequent process, and needing the fabrication equipment is complex, which is not favorable for remote use. A practical process of metallic fuel fabrication for an SFR needs to be cost efficient, suitable for remote operation, and capable of mass production while reducing the amount of radioactive waste. Injection casting was chosen as the most promising technique, in the early 1950s, and this technique has been applied to fuel slug fabrication for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) driver and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins. Because of the simplistic nature of the process and equipment, compared to other processes examined, this process has been successfully used in a remote operation environment for fueling of the EBR-II reactor. In this study, vacuum injection casting suitable for remote operation has been developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. Vacuum injection casting technique was developed to fabricate metallic fuel for an SFR. The appearance of the fabricated U-10wt.%Zr fuel was generally sound and the internal integrity was found to be satisfactory through gamma-ray radiography. Minimum fuel losses after casting relative to the initial charge amount of U-10wt.%Zr fuel slugs met the proposed goal of less than 0.1% fuel losses during fabrication. Modifications of the current facility system and advanced casting techniques are underway to produce higher quality fuel slugs.

  12. The effect of boron addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of biomedical Ti35Nb6Ta alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Málek, Jaroslav, E-mail: malek@ujp.cz [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Prague, Zbraslav (Czech Republic); CTU in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Materials Engineering, Karlovo Namesti 13, 121 35 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Hnilica, František, E-mail: hnilica@ujp.cz [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Prague, Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Veselý, Jaroslav, E-mail: vesely@ujp.cz [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Prague, Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Smola, Bohumil, E-mail: smola@met.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Březina, Vítězslav, E-mail: brezinavita@gmail.com [Masaryk University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Stomathology, Komenského Náměstí 220/2, 662 43 Brno (Czech Republic); Kolařík, Kamil, E-mail: kamil.kolarik@email.cz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitní 22, 306 14 Plzeň (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    The beta-titanium alloys are promising materials for bioapplications but their processing via melting is difficult. Coarse grains have been observed in as-cast specimens. Subsequent thermo-mechanical processing seems to be necessary in order to obtain fine-grained microstructure with better mechanical properties. The grain size can be decreased significantly by addition of small boron amount. In this work Ti–35Nb–6Ta alloy with various B additions (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt.%) has been studied. Even the smallest amount of B leads to significant grain refinement in Ti–35Nb–6Ta alloy (from 1300 to about 350 μm). Slight grain refinement has been observed also after hot forging and solution treatment. TiB particles emerged in specimens due to B addition. These particles contribute to changes in mechanical properties not only in hot forged and solution treated specimens (hardness increase from 140 to 180 HV10), but also in cold swaged specimens (hardness from 230 to 250 HV10, tensile strength from 800 to 920 MPa). The hardness values can be increased up to 370 HV10 during aging at 400 °C (specimen with 0.5 wt.% B). It has been observed that specimens with low boron addition 0.05 wt.% possess no cytotoxicity. On the other hand in specimens with 0.1 wt.% B or more slight adverse effect on cytotoxicity has been observed. - Highlights: • The influence of boron on microstructure and mechanical properties has been studied. • Beta-transus temperature has been determined. • Cytotoxicity depending on boron content has been evaluated. • Possibility of final heat treatment has been determined.

  13. Evaluation of Ravi river water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Ali, W.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation from 1989 to 1998 on river Ravi pollution was carried out to study the effects of wastewater discharges on its water quality in relation to its various water use. The sources of pollution entering the river between Syphon (20 Km upstream) and Balloki Head works (75 Km downstream) includes Upper Chenab Canal (U.C.) which bring industrial effluents through Deg municipal swage from the city of Lahore. Investigation revealed that the flow in the river are highly variable with time during the year U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//S at the tail and Qadiarabad (Q.B.) Link canal with a capacity of 410 m3/S are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A desecrating trend has been observed in the D.O. Levels indicating increasing pollution. Over times D.O values are above 4 mg/l indicating recovery due to dilution biodegradation and aeration. An increasing trend has been observed in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, total dissolved solids and indicator organisms. Even with the discharges of pollutions from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and city sewage, BOD at Balloki was unexpectedly low. It was investigated that because of pollution free Q.B. link canal which joins the river just before Balloki Head works makes the water diluted, which accounted for low BOD. Water of river Ravi meet the chemical water quality requirement for irrigation. However the water quality does not meet the coliform and faecal coliform criteria for most water use. (orig../A.B.)

  14. Validation of structural design of JHR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisson, S.; Miras, G.; Le Bourdonnec, L.; Lemoine, P.; Anselmet, M.C.; Marelle, V.

    2010-01-01

    The validation of the structural design of the Jules Horowitz Reactor fuel element was made by the Finite Element Method, starting from the Computer Aided Design. The JHR fuel element is a cylindrical assembly of three sectors composed of eight rolled fuel plates. A roll-swaging process is used to join the fuel plates to three aluminium stiffeners. The hydraulic gap between each plate is 1.95 mm. The JHR fuel assembly is fastened at both ends to the upper and lower endfittings by riveting. The main stresses are essentially thermal loads, imposed on the fuel zone of the plates. These thermal loads result from the nuclear heat flux (W/cm 2 ). The mechanical loads are mainly hydraulic thrust forces. The average coolant velocity is 15 m/s. Seismic effects are also studied. The fuel assembly is entirely modelled by thin shells. The model takes into account asymmetric thermal loads which often appear in Research Reactors. The mechanics of the fuel plates vary in function of the burn up. These mechanical properties are derived from the data sets used in the MAIA code, and the validity of the structure is demonstrable at throughout the life of the fuel. Results concerning displacement are compared to functional criteria, while results concerning stress are compared to RCC-MX criteria. The results of this analysis show that the mechanical and geometrical integrity of the JHR fuel elements is respected for Operating Categories 1 and 2. This paper presents the methodology of this demonstration for the results obtained. (author)

  15. Structure-property relationships in an Al matrix Ca nanofilamentary composite conductor with potential application in high-voltage power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang

    This study investigated the processing-structure-properties relationships in an Al/Ca composites using both experiments and modeling/simulation. A particular focus of the project was understanding how the strength and electrical conductivity of the composite are related to its microstructure in the hope that a conducting material with light weight, high strength, and high electrical conductivity can be developed to produce overhead high-voltage power transmission cables. The current power transmission cables (e.g., Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR)) have acceptable performance for high-voltage AC transmission, but are less well suited for high-voltage DC transmission due to the poorly conducting core materials that support the cable weight. This Al/Ca composite was produced by powder metallurgy and severe plastic deformation by extrusion and swaging. The fine Ca metal powders have been produced by centrifugal atomization with rotating liquid oil quench bath, and a detailed study about the atomization process and powder characteristics has been conducted. The microstructure of Al/Ca composite was characterized by electron microscopy. Microstructure changes at elevated temperature were characterized by thermal analysis and indirect resistivity tests. The strength and electrical conductivity were measured by tensile tests and four-point probe resistivity tests. Predicting the strength and electrical conductivity of the composite was done by micro-mechanics-based analytical modeling. Microstructure evolution was studied by mesoscale-thermodynamics-based phase field modeling and a preliminary atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. The application prospects of this composite was studied by an economic analysis. This study suggests that the Al/Ca (20 vol. %) composite shows promise for use as overhead power transmission cables. Further studies are needed to measure the corrosion resistance, fatigue properties and energized field performance of this composite.

  16. Durability Evaluation of a Thin Film Sensor System With Enhanced Lead Wire Attachments on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Kiser, J. Douglas; Singh, Mrityunjay; Cuy, Mike; Blaha, Charles A.; Androjna, Drago

    2000-01-01

    An advanced thin film sensor system instrumented on silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix ceramic matrix composites (SiC/SiC CMCs), was evaluated in a Mach 0.3 burner rig in order to determine its durability to monitor material/component surface temperature in harsh environments. The sensor system included thermocouples in a thin film form (5 microns thick), fine lead wires (75 microns diameter), and the bonds between these wires and the thin films. Other critical components of the overall system were the heavy, swaged lead wire cable (500 microns diameter) that contained the fine lead wires and was connected to the temperature readout, and ceramic attachments which were bonded onto the CMCs for the purpose of securing the lead wire cables, The newly developed ceramic attachment features a combination of hoops made of monolithic SiC or SiC/SiC CMC (which are joined to the test article) and high temperature ceramic cement. Two instrumented CMC panels were tested in a burner rig for a total of 40 cycles to 1150 C (2100 F). A cycle consisted of rapid heating to 1150 C (2100 F), a 5 minute hold at 1150 C (2100 F), and then cooling down to room temperature in 2 minutes. The thin film sensor systems provided repeatable temperature measurements for a maximum of 25 thermal cycles. Two of the monolithic SiC hoops debonded during the sensor fabrication process and two of the SiC/SiC CMC hoops failed during testing. The hoops filled with ceramic cement, however, showed no sign of detachment after 40 thermal cycle test. The primary failure mechanism of this sensor system was the loss of the fine lead wire-to-thin film connection, which either due to detachment of the fine lead wires from the thin film thermocouples or breakage of the fine wire.

  17. Study on the overview on food borne bacteria in food with animal origin in Iran; Part three: seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S Shekarforoush

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current retrospective study was focused on the contamination of seafood in Iran during the years 1999 to 2012. The isolates were Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perferingense, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahemolyticus. C. botulinum type E was the most prevalent type of bacteria in the fisheries products, responsible for the most cases of botulinal food poisoning. The presence of coliforms and E. coli in the seafood was due to environmental pollution. Additionally, in the processed food, the contamination of potable water and poor handling of the products are the main sources. L. monocytogenes was isolated from fresh, frozen and processed food. The microorganism is able to grow in the refrigeration condition and multiply in the processed food. The temperature of cold smoking (20-30 ºC cannot stop growing of Listeria. High prevalence of Salmonella in water and fisheries product was mainly because of the low environmental sanitation and various geographical conditions. However, Compost fertilizer and flowing of the swages through the farms were considered as the major source of contamination. S. aureus is not a typical microorganism of the fisheries farms but may contaminate them during the processing or in-appropriate handling of the products. V. Parahemolyticus is a normal habitant organism of the pelagic area. The organism usually find in the warm water and presents in the tropical conditions. Different species of Vibrio may contaminate the salty water in the warm seasons and so contaminate the aquatics farms in these areas. In general, the prevalence of vibriosis was associated with the consumption of semi-cooked food stuff and/or the secondary contamination of the processed ones.

  18. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  19. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  20. Strength of initially virgin martensites at - 196 °C after aging and tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldis, George T.; Cohen, Morris

    1983-06-01

    The compressive strength at -196°C of martensites in Fe-0.26 pct C-24 pct Ni, Fe-0.4 pct C-21 pct Ni, and Fe-0.4 pct C-18 pct Ni-3 pct Mo alloys, all with subzero M temperatures, has been determined in the virgin condition and after one hour at temperatures from -80 to +400 °C. The effects of ausforming (20 pct reduction in area of the austenite by swaging at room temperature prior to the martensitic transformation) were also investigated. For the unausformed martensites, aging at temperatures up to 0 °C results in relatively small increases in strength. Above 0 °C, the age hardening increment increases rapidly, reaching a maximum at 100 °C. Above 100 °C, the strength decreases continuously with increasing tempering temperature except for the molybdenum-containing alloy, which exhibits secondary hardening on tempering at 400 °C. For the ausformed martensites, the response to aging at subzero temperatures is greater than for unausformed material. Strength again passes through a maximum on aging at 100 °C. However, on tempering just above 100 °C, the ausformed materials show a slower rate of softening than the unausformed martensites. The strengthening produced by the ausforming treatment is largest for the Fe-0.4 pct C-18 pct Ni-3 pct Mo alloy, but there is no evidence of carbide precipitation in the deformed austenite to a°Count for this effect of molybdenum.

  1. Hydroforming of superconducting TESLA cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, W.; Kaiser, H.; Singer, X.

    2003-01-01

    Seamless fabrication of single-cell and multi-cell TESLA shape cavities by hydroforming has been developed at DESY. The forming takes place by expanding the seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Tube radius and axial displacement are being computer controlled in accordance with results of FEM simulations and the experimentally obtained strain-stress curve of tube material. Several Nb single cell cavities have been produced. A first bulk Nb double cell cavity has been fabricated. The Nb seamless tubes have been produced by spinning and deep drawing. Surface treatment such as buffered chemical polishing, (BCP), electropolishing (EP), high pressure ultra pure water rinsing (HPR), annealing at 800degC and baking at ca. 150degC have been applied. The best single cell bulk Nb cavity has reached an accelerating gradient of Eacc > 42 MV/m after ca. 250 μm BCP and 100 μm EP. Several bimetallic NbCu single cell cavities of TESLA shape have been fabricated. The seamless tubes have been produced by explosive bonding and subsequent flow forming. The thicknesses of Nb and Cu layers in the tube wall are about 1 mm and 3 mm respectively. The RF performance of NbCu clad cavities is similar to that of bulk Nb cavities. The highest accelerating gradient achieved was 40 MV/m after ca. 180 μm BCP, annealing at 800degC and baking at 140degC for 30 hours. The degradation of the quality factor Qo after repeated quenching is moderate, after ca. 150 quenches it reaches the saturation point of Qo=1.4x10 10 at low field. This indicates that on the basis of RF performance and material costs the combination of hydroforming with tube cladding is a very promising option. (author)

  2. Advances in the manufacture of clad tubes and components for PHWR fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Jha, S.K.; Chandrasekha, B.; Tonpe, S.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel bundles for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) consists of Uranium di-oxide pellets encapsulated into thin wall Zircaloy clad tubes. Other components such as end caps, bearing pads and spacer pads are the integral elements of the fuel bundle. As the fuel assembly is subjected to severe operating conditions of high temperature and pressure in addition to continual irradiation exposure, all the components are manufactured conforming to stringent specifications with respect to chemical composition, mechanical & metallurgical properties and dimensional tolerances. The integrity of each component is ensured by NDE at different stages of manufacture. The manufacturing route for fuel tubes and components comprise of a combination of thermomechanical processing and each process step has marked effect on the final properties. The fuel tubes are manufactured by processing the extruded blanks in four stage cold pilgering with intermediate annealing and final stress relieving operation. The bar material is produced by hot extrusion followed by multi-pass swaging and intermediate annealing. Spacer pads and bearing pads are manufactured by blanking and coining of Zircaloy sheet which is made by a combination of hot and cold rolling operations. Due to the small size and stringent dimensional requirements of these appendages, selection of production route and optimization of process parameters are important. This paper discusses about various measures taken for improving the recoveries and mechanical and corrosion properties of the tube, sheet and bar materials being manufactured at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad For the production of clad tubes, modifications at extrusion stage to reduce the wall thickness variation, introduction of ultrasonic testing of extruded blanks, optimization of cold working and heat treatment parameters at various stages of production etc. were done. The finished bar material is subjected to 100% Ultrasonic and eddy current testing to ensure

  3. Process improvements for enhanced productivity of PHWR garter springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasula Reddy, S.; Tonpe, Sunil; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR), Garter springs are used as spacers between the coolant tube and calandria tube. Garter springs are made from Zirconium alloy containing 2.5 % Niobium and 0.5% copper. The springs are basically manufactured by coiling a wire of cross section 1.7 mm x 1.0 mm, which is produced by series of drawing and swaging operations using hot extruded rods of 19 mm diameter. The manufacturing process also involves heat treatment and chemical cleaning operations at appropriate stages. It is required to ensure that the life of springs against parameters like hydrogen pickup, residual stresses and low stiffness is improved at the manufacturing stage itself by improving manufacturing process. The impact of above problems on spring life and process improvements is briefly discussed. The critical factor affecting the garter spring performance in PHWR Reactor is mainly hydrogen. The life limiting factors for garter springs are the problems arising out of high total hydrogen content, which depends on the hydrogen pickup during reactor operation. This phenomenon can happen during the reactor operation, as springs are prone to pick-up hydrogen in the reactor environment. Hence acceptable hydrogen content for the springs is specified as 25 ppm (max.). Garter spring is susceptible to hydrogen pick-up during various production processes, which make material brittle and difficult for fabrication process such as wire drawing and coiling. By studying and optimizing the process parameters of spring manufacturing, the hydrogen pick-up of springs is brought down from 70 ppm to a level of 20 ppm. Garter springs are provided with a hook at each end to enable its assembly to coolant tube in the reactor. The hook portion is very critical in maintaining the integrity of the spring. It is desirable to have the hook portion relieved of all residual stresses. For this purpose manufacturing process has been modified and solutionising was introduced as

  4. On the hardenability of Nb-modified metastable beta Ti-5553 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, K.N.; Andrade, D.R.; Opini, V.C.; Mello, M.G.; Lopes, E.S.N.; Caram, R., E-mail: caram@fem.unicamp.br

    2016-05-15

    Among the commercially available titanium alloys, the metastable β Ti-5553 alloy (Ti–5Al–5V–5Mo–3Cr–0.5Fe wt.%) is an object of great interest because it is employed in aerospace structural applications, primarily in the replacement of steel components. One of the primary advantages of this alloy is its high hardenability, which allows it to retain the β phase at room temperature, even at low cooling rates, thereby allowing the thermoprocessing of thick parts. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of V with Nb on the hardenability of Ti-5553. Based on the molybdenum equivalent criterion, the Nb-modified Ti-5553 alloy was designed to present 12 wt.% of Nb instead of 5 wt.% of V. Samples of both alloys were prepared by melting them in an arc furnace under an inert atmosphere, heat-treated at high temperatures for 12 h and plastic deformed using swage forging. Finally, these samples were solution heat-treated at temperatures above the β-transus followed by cooling at different rates using water quenching, furnace cooling and a modified Jominy end quench test. Characterization was performed by measuring Vickers hardness, X-ray diffraction, and light optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The results obtained indicate that metastable β phase can be retained when the cooling rate is higher than 21 °C/s for both alloys. At lower cooling rates, α phase precipitation was observed, but it appeared to be less evident in the Nb-modified Ti-5553, suggesting that the replacement of V with Nb increased the hardenability of the alloy. - Highlights: • Hardenability of Ti alloys are assessed using a modified Jominy end quench test. • Ti-5553 and Nb-modified Ti-5553 are subjected to continuous cooling experiments. • β phase decomposition kinetics is reduced by replacing V with Nb in Ti-5553. • Nb-modified Ti-5553 features improved hardenability. • Replacement of V with Nb causes the

  5. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  6. Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlasek, P; Duris, S; Palencar, R

    2015-01-01

    Temperature measurements are one of the key factors in many industrial applications that directly affect the quality, effectiveness and safety of manufacturing processes. In many industrial applications these temperature measurements are realized by thermocouples. Accuracy of thermocouples directly affects the quality of the final product of manufacturing and their durability determines the safety margins required. One of the significant effects that affect the precision of the thermocouples is short and long term stability of their voltage output. This stability issue occurs in every type of thermocouples and is caused by multiple factors. In general these factors affect the Seebeck coefficient which is a material constant, which determines the level of generated voltage when exposed to a temperature gradient. Changes of this constant result in the change of the thermocouples voltage output thus indicated temperature which can result in production quality issues, safety and health hazards. These alternations can be caused by physical and chemical changes within the thermocouple lead material. Modification of this material constant can be of temporary nature or permanent. This paper concentrates on the permanent, or irreversible changes of the Seebeck coefficient that occur in commonly used swaged MIMS Type N thermocouples. These permanent changes can be seen as systematic change of the EMF of the thermocouple when it is exposed to a high temperature over a period of time. This change of EMF by time is commonly known as the drift of the thermocouple. This work deals with the time instability of thermocouples EMF at temperatures above 1200 °C. Instability of the output voltage was taken into relation with the lead diameter of the tested thermocouples. This paper concentrates in detail on the change of voltage output of thermocouples of different diameters which were tested at high temperatures for the overall period of more than 210 hours. The gather data from this

  7. Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlasek, P.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.

    2015-02-01

    Temperature measurements are one of the key factors in many industrial applications that directly affect the quality, effectiveness and safety of manufacturing processes. In many industrial applications these temperature measurements are realized by thermocouples. Accuracy of thermocouples directly affects the quality of the final product of manufacturing and their durability determines the safety margins required. One of the significant effects that affect the precision of the thermocouples is short and long term stability of their voltage output. This stability issue occurs in every type of thermocouples and is caused by multiple factors. In general these factors affect the Seebeck coefficient which is a material constant, which determines the level of generated voltage when exposed to a temperature gradient. Changes of this constant result in the change of the thermocouples voltage output thus indicated temperature which can result in production quality issues, safety and health hazards. These alternations can be caused by physical and chemical changes within the thermocouple lead material. Modification of this material constant can be of temporary nature or permanent. This paper concentrates on the permanent, or irreversible changes of the Seebeck coefficient that occur in commonly used swaged MIMS Type N thermocouples. These permanent changes can be seen as systematic change of the EMF of the thermocouple when it is exposed to a high temperature over a period of time. This change of EMF by time is commonly known as the drift of the thermocouple. This work deals with the time instability of thermocouples EMF at temperatures above 1200 °C. Instability of the output voltage was taken into relation with the lead diameter of the tested thermocouples. This paper concentrates in detail on the change of voltage output of thermocouples of different diameters which were tested at high temperatures for the overall period of more than 210 hours. The gather data from this

  8. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients E_{acc} up to 35  MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP and up to 42  MV/m after electropolishing (EP. More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients E_{acc} of 30–35  MV/m were measured after BCP and E_{acc} up to 40  MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of E_{acc}=30–35  MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and

  9. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 1. Life-cycle analysis of a District Heating System with PEX-pipes insulated by expanded polystyrene; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 1: Livscykelanalys av Polystyrenisolerat Fjaerrvaermesytem med PEX-mediaroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A. Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    the conventional system. The EPSPEX system is also limited in use for well drained ground conditions above the water table. Conventional district heating pipes do not have this limitation. The most important possibility to decrease the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system is to increase the insulation, this even though the distribution system is comparably well insulated to start with. The environmental life cycle impacts of the distribution pipe system - production, laying and use - are dominated by the extra heat that has to be generated to cover the heat losses from the system. When this report was written, measurements from systems in use to confirm the model calculation of heat losses are still lacking. More fine-tuned results can be achieved when studies of the EPSPEX system in use have been concluded. Among different components in the EPSPEX system the impacts from production and transport of EPS-blocks make the major impact. Thus, it is important to utilize the polystyrene material as efficiently as possible, minimizing spillage, and to ensure that unavoidable spillage is recycled as material. However, the environmental impacts from production of the insulating blocks are well outweighed by the decreased environmental impacts gained by using the insulation. In product development it is thus important to ensure that the insulating capacity of the EPSPEX system is never decreased. Machines used for excavating the pipe trenches combust diesel oil, and the production and use of this diesel oil generates a substantial part of the environmental impacts by several of the assessment methods used. If possible, it is desirable to further minimize the excavation work and to use 'mini excavators' and low emitting machines (especially regarding nitrous oxides). The brass swaged coupling used to connect the PEX-pipes, gives a strong impact regarding acidification and the two weighting methods EPS2000 and Ecoscarcity, especially when compared to the very

  10. Contribution of CERCA to the US DOE conference on the use of 20% and 45% enriched uranium as fuel for research reactors [contributed by J. Doumerc, CERCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumerc, J.

    1993-01-01

    . Because it says that the present situation is a very good opportunity for taking account of the situation and using all the calculations which will have to be performed for designing new cores and new core configurations and trying to introduce more standardization in the plate. For instance, we have in our company, a very impressive collection of punching dies and other things for making cores which sometimes differ by only 1/10 of a millimeter. Probably more standardization can be introduced in this area. On the reverse, I would like to demonstrate that as far as the final fitting of the plates to size, the swaging and end-fitting machine process is less sensitive to the effect of standardization. If a formula would have to be proposed, I would suggest very strongly that for the future we use ready-made plates in custom made elements and many savings would be achieved

  11. Note on current position regarding the development by the UKAEA of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, B.

    1983-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority have an MTR fuel fabrication plant located at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland. The prime function of the plant is to manufacture fuel elements for the UKAEA's own DIDO and PLUTO heavy water reactors located at their research establishment at Harwell. The plant, which has a capacity of about 1000 fuel elements per annum, also manufactures fuel elements, on a commercial basis, for university reactors in the United Kingdom and for a number of customers in overseas countries. The UKAEA have been manufacturing MTR fuel elements of a wide range of designs for over twenty-five years. Following the initiative of the US Government's RERTR programme, the UKAEA have embarked on a modest programme of MTR fuel manufacturing development., irradiation and post-irradiation examination to establish the techniques required to manufacture fuel elements containing uranium of a significantly lower enrichment than that in the fuel elements they currently manufacture. In the first instance this work is being directed towards the production of fuel elements containing uranium of 45% enrichment. After an initial analysis it was recognised that although a satisfactory 45% enriched version of certain of the designs of fuel elements currently manufactured could probably be produced using established U/Al alloy technology, it would be necessary to utilise powder technology for other elements in order to achieve the higher uranium density required. Studies of published information and consideration of the technology and facilities already available at Dounreay prompted the decision to concentrate on the development Of U 3 O 8 /Al cermet type fuel elements of similar geometry to those currently manufactured. Some of the fuel element designs currently manufactured by the UKAEA are listed: Concentric (Extruded) 74% enriched; Concentric Plates 80% enriched with densities 0.60 and 0.53 g U/ cm 3 ; Flat Plate (Swaged) 80% enriched and Flat Plate

  12. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 1. Life-cycle analysis of a District Heating System with PEX-pipes insulated by expanded polystyrene; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 1: Livscykelanalys av Polystyrenisolerat Fjaerrvaermesytem med PEX-mediaroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    the conventional system. The EPSPEX system is also limited in use for well drained ground conditions above the water table. Conventional district heating pipes do not have this limitation. The most important possibility to decrease the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system is to increase the insulation, this even though the distribution system is comparably well insulated to start with. The environmental life cycle impacts of the distribution pipe system - production, laying and use - are dominated by the extra heat that has to be generated to cover the heat losses from the system. When this report was written, measurements from systems in use to confirm the model calculation of heat losses are still lacking. More fine-tuned results can be achieved when studies of the EPSPEX system in use have been concluded. Among different components in the EPSPEX system the impacts from production and transport of EPS-blocks make the major impact. Thus, it is important to utilize the polystyrene material as efficiently as possible, minimizing spillage, and to ensure that unavoidable spillage is recycled as material. However, the environmental impacts from production of the insulating blocks are well outweighed by the decreased environmental impacts gained by using the insulation. In product development it is thus important to ensure that the insulating capacity of the EPSPEX system is never decreased. Machines used for excavating the pipe trenches combust diesel oil, and the production and use of this diesel oil generates a substantial part of the environmental impacts by several of the assessment methods used. If possible, it is desirable to further minimize the excavation work and to use 'mini excavators' and low emitting machines (especially regarding nitrous oxides). The brass swaged coupling used to connect the PEX-pipes, gives a strong impact regarding acidification and the two weighting methods EPS2000 and Ecoscarcity, especially when compared to the very small volume

  13. Design, Fabrication and Performance of Boron-Carbide Control Elements; Conception, Fabrication et Comportement de Lames de Commande en Carbure de Bore; Raschety, izgotovlenie i kharakteristiki reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej. Iz karbida Bora; Proyecto, Elaboracion y Rendimiento de Elementos de Control de Carburo de Boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, H. A.; Jacobson, J. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1964-06-15

    A control blade design, incorporating boron-carbide (B{sub 4}C) in stainless-steel tubes, was introduced into service in boiling water reactors in April 1961. Since that time this blade has become the standard reference control element in General Electric boiling-water reactors, replacing the 2% boron-stainless-steel blades previously used. The blades consist of a sheathed, cruciform array of small vertical stainless-steel tubes filled with compacted boron-carbide powder. The boron-carbide powder is confined longitudinally into several independent compartments by swaging over ball bearings located inside the tubes. The development and use of boron-carbide control rods is discussed in five phases: 1. Summary of experience with boron-steel blades and reasons for transition to boron-carbide control; 2. Design of the boron-carbide blade, beginning with developmental experiments, including early measurements performed in the AEC ''Control Rod Material and Development Program'' at the Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory, through a description of the final control blade configuration; 3. Fabrication of the blades and quality control procedures; 4. Results of confirmatory pre-operational mechanical and reactivity testing; and 5. Post-operational experience with the blades, including information on the results of mechanical inspection and reactivity testing after two years of reactor service. (author) [French] Un modele de lame de commande en carbure de bore (B{sub 4}C) a ete mis en place dans des reacteurs a eau bouillante en avril 1961. Depuis lors, cette lame est devenue l 'element de commande temoin classique dans les reacteurs a eau bouillante de la General Electric et a remplace les lames en acier inoxydable a 2% de bore utilisees auparavant. Ces lames consistent en un assemblage gaine cruciforme comprenant de petits tubes d'acier inoxydable verticaux remplis de poudre de carbure de bore agglomeree. Dans le sens de la longueur, cette poudre est enfermee dans plusieurs