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Sample records for swabs shell egg

  1. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  2. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  3. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  4. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  5. Computed tomographic evaluation of dinosar egg shell integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.C.; Greenberg, W.; Ayers, S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether computed tomography (CT) could be used to identify hatching holes in partially embedded dinosaur eggs. One Faveololithus and two Dendroolithus eggs were examined using a fourth generation CT scanner. The eggs were partially embedded in a fossilized sediment matrix, with the exposed portion of the shell appearing intact. In CT images of all three eggs, the shells appeared hyperdense relative to the matrix. Hatching holes were visible as large gaps in the embedded portion of the shell, with inwardly displaced shell fragments. It was concluded that CT is an effective technique for nondestructively assessing dinosaur egg shell integrity

  6. Nondestructive pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs are on the top of the list of the 10 riskiest foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and 352 outbreaks from 1990 to 2006 were linked to eggs. The goals of this study were to design and assemble an apparatus to apply RF energy to shell eggs and to develop a process for pasteur...

  7. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS...

  8. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000, yet less than 1% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the current process, hot water immersion, requires approxi...

  10. 75 FR 18849 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation--Small... requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from...

  11. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. ... Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups, namely H0, H1 and H2. ... Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group.

  12. Studies of C60 in fossil of dinosaur egg shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenxia; Li Xuepeng; Wang Wenmin; Xu Xunjiang; Tang Zichao; Huang Rongbin; Zheng Lansun

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of C 60 in unearthed fossil of dinosaur egg shell about 70 million years ago was reported. The results are discussed considering possible effects of the conceivable atmosphere pollution on the growth of fullerene molecules

  13. Irradiation of shell egg on the physicochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Ahn, D U

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of irradiation of shell eggs on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white during storage. Color and textural parameters of irradiated liquid egg white after cooking were also determined. Shell eggs were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 kGy using a linear accelerator. Egg white was separated from yolk and stored in at 4°C up to 14 d. Viscosity, pH, turbidity, foaming properties, color, and volatile profile of liquid egg white, and color and texture properties of cooked egg white were determined at 0, 7, and 14 d of storage. Irradiation increased the turbidity but decreased viscosity of liquid egg white. Foaming capacity and foam stability were not affected by irradiation at lower dose (2.5 kGy), but were deteriorated at higher doses (≥5.0 kGy) of irradiation. Sulfur-containing volatiles were generated by irradiation and their amounts increased as the irradiation dose increased. However, the sulfur volatiles disappeared during storage under aerobic conditions. Lightness (L* value) and yellowness (b* value) decreased, but greenness (-a* value) increased in cooked egg white in irradiation dose-dependent manners. All textural parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) of cooked egg white increased as the irradiation dose increased, but those changes were marginal. Our results indicated that irradiation of shell egg at lower doses (up to 2.5 kGy) had little negative impact on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white, but can improve the efficiency of egg processing due to its viscosity-lowering effect. Therefore, irradiation of shell eggs at the lower doses has high potential to be used by the egg processing industry to improve the safety of liquid egg without compromising its quality.

  14. An improved radiofrequency method to pasteurize salmonella in shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this study were to improve radio frequency (RF) shell egg pasteurization technology to make it more commercially feasible, to evaluate its efficacy in reducing Salmonella, and to determine its effect on the quality changes of the egg. The original RF technology inactivated 6.8 log of E....

  15. Study of dinosaur's egg shell by EPR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleuberdina, R.A.; Nasirov, R.N.

    1998-01-01

    Two varieties of calcium carbonate are defined on base of ESR spectra radiation-inducted signals containing in mollusc shell and dinosaur and ostrich egg shell; their spectral characters are studied by infrared-spectroscopy methods and X-ray analysis. Possibility of correlation between ESR signals intensity of CO 2 -radical of investigated object and geological age is determined. (author)

  16. Study Added of Waste Chicken Egg Shell in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng Wong Irwan Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the foundation of structure or construction that will receive the load transfer through to foundation. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small and cannot withstand the load transfer can result in the failure of construction. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small ground it is necessary to stabilize or improve the soil so that an increase in the carrying capacity of the land so that it can be used for construction. One material is commonly used for soil stabilization with the addition of lime. Waste chicken egg shell is waste that is still rarely used, the results of research [1], states that composition egg shell broadly consists of water (1,6% and dry material (98,4%. The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95,1% and protein (3,3%. Based on the existing mineral composition, then the egg shells are composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%, MgCO3 (0,84% and Ca3(PO42 (0,75%. This research was done by adding powdered chicken egg shell waste in clay with a composition of 5%, 7,5%, 10% and 14% with physical properties test and soil compaction test.

  17. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37...

  18. Egg shell quality in Japanese quail: characteristics, heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinc, D; Aygun, A; Karaman, E; Aksoy, T

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell ratio, egg shell strength, egg length, egg width and shell weight in Japanese quail eggs. External egg quality traits were measured on 5864 eggs of 934 female quails from a dam line selected for two generations. Within the Bayesian framework, using Gibbs Sampling algorithm, a multivariate animal model was applied to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for external egg quality traits. The heritability estimates for external egg quality traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.81. The heritability estimates for egg and shell weight of 0.81 and 0.76 were fairly high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between egg shell strength with specific gravity, shell ratio and shell weight ranging from 0.55 to 0.79 were relatively high. It can be concluded that it is possible to determine egg shell quality using the egg specific gravity values utilizing its high heritability and fairly high positive correlation with most of the egg shell quality traits. As a result, egg specific gravity may be the choice of selection criterion rather than other external egg traits for genetic improvement of egg shell quality in Japanese quails.

  19. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  20. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geveke, David J.; Bigley, Andrew B. W.; Brunkhorst, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000. However, less than 3% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the commercial hot water process requires as much as 60 min to complete. In the present study, a radio frequency (RF) apparatus was constructed, and a two-step process was developed that uses RF energy and hot water, to pasteurize eggs in less than half the time. In order to select an appropriate RF generator, the impedance of shell eggs was measured in the frequency range of 10–70 MHz. The power density within the egg was modeled to prevent potential hotspots. Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) was inoculated in the yolk to approximately 7.5 log CFU/ml. The combination process first heated the egg in 35.0 °C water for 3.5 min using 60 MHz RF energy. This resulted in the yolk being preferentially heated to 61 °C. Then, the egg was heated for an additional 20 min with 56.7 °C water. This two-step process reduced the population of E. coli by 6.5 log. The total time for the process was 23.5 min. By contrast, processing for 60 min was required to reduce the E. coli by 6.6 log using just hot water. The novel RF pasteurization process presented in this study was considerably faster than the existing commercial process. As a result, this should lead to an increase in the percentage of eggs being pasteurized, as well as a reduction of foodborne illnesses.

  1. Measurements of egg shell plasma parameters using laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In LIBS, a high-intensity laser is focussed onto the sample, which is strong ... Compared to the production of plasma, qualitative and quantitative analyses are ... In this paper, the elemental composition of the egg shell crushed to a size of about.

  2. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from waste egg-shell by Precipitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the samples. At optimal conditions, calculated stoichiometric ratio of Ca/P of the synthesized HAp powder (74 - 0565) of 1.65 closed to the theoretical value of Ca/P ratio (1.67) and amenable to biomedical applications, was obtained. Keywords: Hydroxyapatite; Egg-shell; Precipitation Method, Ca/P Stoichiometric Ratio.

  3. Challenges in Radiofrequency Pasteurization of Shell Eggs: Coagulation Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Soon Kiat; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Jones, David; Negahban, Mehrdad; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2016-10-01

    A total of 50 different configurations of simple radiofrequency (RF) heating at 27.12 MHz of a shell egg were simulated using a finite element model with the purpose of pasteurizing the egg. Temperature-dependent thermal and dielectric properties of the yolk, albumen, and shell were measured, fitted, and introduced into the model. A regression equation that relates the top electrode voltage to the gap between the electrodes and vertical position of the egg was developed. Simulation and experimental results had good agreement in terms of temperature deviation (root mean squared error ranged from 0.35 °C to 0.48 °C) and both results demonstrated the development of a "coagulation ring" around the air cell. The focused heating near the air cell of the egg prevented pasteurization of the egg due to its impact on quality (coagulation). Analysis of the electric field patterns offered a perspective on how nonuniform RF heating could occur in heterogeneous food products. The results can be used to guide development of RF heating for heterogeneous food products and further development of RF pasteurization of eggs. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray rinsed...

  5. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  6. Enteric Pathogen Bacteria in Non-Broiler Chicken Egg Shells from Traditional Market and Supermarket, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Arumugam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Around 1.5 million of children dying annually due to diarrhea. Contaminated food is one of the sources of the diarrhea incidence (food borne diseases. Eggs are one of the least expensive forms of protein which is affordable by the community and is easily to find in either traditional or modern market/supermarkets.The objective of this study was to identify enteropathogenic bacteria contamination on non-broiler (ayam kampung egg shell and to compare the findings between eggs sold in traditional and modern markets. Methods: This was a descriptive study performed at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. A total of 40 eggs were used, 20 from two traditional markets and 20 from two modern markets. The eggs were swabbed using saline, dipped in tryptic soy broth and streaked on Mac Conkey agar. The collected data were analyzed and presented in tables. Results: Out of 40 samples, there were 19 positive cultures found from the traditional market and 16 from the modern market. There were 30 pink colonies indicating that they were lactose fermented, 5 transparent colonies indicated non-lactose fermentation, 4 showed no colony growth, and 1 grew an unidentified colony. The most found bacteria were Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. in both market. Conclusions: Eggs shells from traditional and modern markets are contaminated with Enteropathogenic microbes.

  7. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... including 30 and 90 ppm dietary humic acid in liquid form, respectively. ... shell strength without affecting egg production and feed efficiency compared to control ..... Caecal metabolites and microbial populations in chickens consuming ... tation on the performance of laying hens fed with diets based on corn.

  8. Egg Shell and Oyster Shell Powder as Alternatives for Synthetic Phosphate: Effects on the Quality of Cooked Ground Pork Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Guk; Bae, Su Min; Jeong, Jong Youn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of natural calcium powders (oyster shell and egg shell calcium) as synthetic phosphate replacers in pork products. Ground pork samples were subjected to six treatments, as follows: control (-) (no phosphate added), control (+) (0.3% phosphate blend added), treatment 1 (0.5% oyster shell calcium powder added), treatment 2 (0.3% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.2% egg shell calcium powder added), treatment 3 (0.2% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder added), and treatment 4 (0.5% egg shell calcium powder added). The addition of natural calcium powders resulted in an increase in the pH values of meat products, regardless of whether they were used individually or mixed. The highest cooking loss was observed ( p cooking loss in samples with natural calcium powder added was similar ( p >0.05) to that in the positive control samples. CIE L* values decreased as the amount of added egg shell calcium powder increased. CIE a* values were higher ( p egg shell powder (treatment 2 or 3) was effective for the improvement of textural properties of the pork products. The findings show that the combined use of 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium should enable the replacement of synthetic phosphate in the production of cooked pork products with desirable qualities.

  9. Consumer Shell Egg Consumption and Handling Practices: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores

    2015-07-01

    Numerous cases and outbreaks of Salmonella infection are attributable to shell eggs each year in the United States. Safe handling and consumption of shell eggs at home can help reduce foodborne illness attributable to shell eggs. A nationally representative Web survey of 1,504 U.S. adult grocery shoppers was conducted to describe consumer handling practices and consumption of shell eggs at home. Based on self-reported survey data, most respondents purchase shell eggs from a grocery store (89.5%), and these eggs were kept refrigerated (not at room temperature; 98.5%). As recommended, most consumers stored shell eggs in the refrigerator (99%) for no more than 3 to 5 weeks (97.6%). After cracking eggs, 48.1% of respondents washed their hands with soap and water. More than half of respondents who fry and/or poach eggs cooked them so that the whites and/or the yolks were still soft or runny, a potentially unsafe practice. Among respondents who owned a food thermometer (62.0%), only 5.2% used it to check the doneness of baked egg dishes when they prepared such a dish. Consumers generally followed two of the four core "Safe Food Families" food safety messages ("separate" and "chill") when handling shell eggs at home. To prevent Salmonella infection associated with shell eggs, consumers should improve their practices related to the messages "clean" (i.e., wash hands after cracking eggs) and "cook" (i.e., cook until yolks and whites are firm and use a food thermometer to check doneness of baked egg dishes) when preparing shell eggs at home. These findings will be used to inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella infection.

  10. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Viera Ševčíková; Marek Angelovič; Ondřej Bučko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfar...

  11. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  12. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri; Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K.; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2015-01-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement

  13. Comparison of two different breeding systems laying hens in relation to egg shell quality, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to follow up and statistically evaluate the selected quality indicators of egg shell according to two different breeding systems and different age of laying hens. An object of investigation were shell weight, share of the shell, strength and thickness of the shell for table eggs. There were used the laying hens of final hybrid ISA Brown reared in enriched cage system, and free range system. In both breeding systems were ensured the conditions with application of the welfare principles. There was used to feed a complete feed mixture HYD 10 in the both breeding systems.  The feeders were supplemented with feed by hand, daily and the same day was supplemented water to drinking troughs. Egg collection was hand in both breeding systems. This paper is a contribution to the solution of optimal breeding laying hens and production of high quality and safe production of table eggs. From the evaluation of the results was formulated conclusion, which shows that statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell thickness was observed in the breeding free range system compared to the thickness of the egg shell in the breeding cage system, and in age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding systems compared to the thickness of the egg shell in age 30 weeks of laying hens. No statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in egg shell weight between breeding cage system and free range system. Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 higher egg shell weight was observed in the age 40 weeks of laying hens in both breeding  systems compared to age 30 weeks of laying hens. There no statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05 was observed in the share of egg shell and egg shell strength between breeding cage system and free range system, nor between age 30 and 40 weeks of laying hens.

  14. Rotating shell eggs immersed in hot water for the purpose of pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteurization of shell eggs for inactivation of Salmonella using hot water immersion can be used to improve their safety. The rotation of a shell egg immersed in hot water has previously been simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD); however, experimental data to verify the results do not ex...

  15. Effect of cadmium doses on chickens. 3. Long term influence of cadmium on feed consumption weight gain, egg performance and egg shell quality of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelz, M; Hardebeck, H; Krampitz, G

    1974-01-01

    In long-lasting experiments the application of Cd resulted in a decreased state of health (nephritis) of hens. Feed consumption, weight gain and egg production were reduced. Egg shell quality was not changed under practical Cd-concentrations. Studies of the ultrastructure of egg shells of animals fed with Cd did not yield any hints of damages. The protein-profiles of egg shells revealed an additional component under Cd-application. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Keeping eggs warm: thermal and developmental advantages for parasitic cuckoos of laying unusually thick-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Huang, Qiuli; Wang, Longwu; Du, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2018-01-02

    Obligate brood parasites have evolved unusually thick-shelled eggs, which are hypothesized to possess a variety of functions such as resistance to puncture ejection by their hosts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that obligate brood parasites lay unusually thick-shelled eggs to retain more heat for the developing embryo and thus contribute to early hatching of parasite eggs. By doing so, we used an infrared thermal imaging system as a non-invasive method to quantify the temperature of eggshells of common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their Oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) hosts in an experiment that artificially altered the duration of incubation. Our results showed that cuckoo eggshells had higher temperature than host eggs during incubation, but also less fluctuations in temperature during incubation disturbance. Therefore, there was a thermal and hence a developmental advantage for brood parasitic cuckoos of laying thick-shelled eggs, providing another possible explanation for the unusually thick-shelled eggs of obligate brood parasites and earlier hatching of cuckoo eggs compared to those of the host.

  17. Keeping eggs warm: thermal and developmental advantages for parasitic cuckoos of laying unusually thick-shelled eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Huang, Qiuli; Wang, Longwu; Du, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2018-02-01

    Obligate brood parasites have evolved unusually thick-shelled eggs, which are hypothesized to possess a variety of functions such as resistance to puncture ejection by their hosts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that obligate brood parasites lay unusually thick-shelled eggs to retain more heat for the developing embryo and thus contribute to early hatching of parasite eggs. By doing so, we used an infrared thermal imaging system as a non-invasive method to quantify the temperature of eggshells of common cuckoos ( Cuculus canorus) and their Oriental reed warbler ( Acrocephalus orientalis) hosts in an experiment that artificially altered the duration of incubation. Our results showed that cuckoo eggshells had higher temperature than host eggs during incubation, but also less fluctuations in temperature during incubation disturbance. Therefore, there was a thermal and hence a developmental advantage for brood parasitic cuckoos of laying thick-shelled eggs, providing another possible explanation for the unusually thick-shelled eggs of obligate brood parasites and earlier hatching of cuckoo eggs compared to those of the host.

  18. The effect of selected feed additives on the shell qualitative parameters of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals have a wide range of activities. May have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with different doses of thyme or oregano essential oil addition on egg shell quality parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=50 were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10 and fed for 20 weeks with diets with thyme or oregano essential oil. supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first and  second experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg thyme essential oil. The diets in the third and fourth experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg oregano essential oil.  The egg shell weight (g, specific egg shell weight (g/cm3, percentage of egg shell (%, egg shell strength (N/cm2 and egg shell thickness (mm were evaluated. The egg shell weight for the whole period was in the order of the groups 5.70±0.52; 5.65±0.44; 5.54±0.42; 5.62±0.38 and 5.49±0.48 g±S.D (P>0.05. Egg shell strength during the reporting period was in order of the groups: 27.81±6.00; 27.63±6.43; 27.17±6.36; 27.76±6.27 and 28.41±6.36 (N/cm2±S.D. Similarly, in the egg shell specific weight (g/cm3, egg shell percentage ratio (% and egg shell thickness (mm were observed statistically non-significant differences compared to the control group (P>0.05. The results suggest that the qualitative parameters of egg shell were not significantly influenced with thyme or oregano oil addition (P>0.05.

  19. Public health investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis in catering raw shell eggs, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Surman-Lee, S; Greenwood, M; Bolton, F J; Elson, R; Mitchell, R T; Nichols, G N; Sagoo, S K; Threlfall, E J; Ward, L R; Gillespie, I A; O'Brien, S

    2007-06-01

    In response to a dramatic change in the epidemiology of Salmonella Enteritidis in England and Wales thought to be associated with raw shell eggs, the Health Protection Agency initiated public health investigations to establish the incidence of Salmonella contamination and origin of eggs used by catering premises implicated in outbreaks of Salm. Enteritidis. Between October 2002 and November 2004, 16 971 eggs were sampled and Salmonella were recovered from 3.4%. Salmonella was isolated from 5.5% and 6.3% of Spanish and eggs of unknown origin, respectively, used in catering premises linked to outbreaks, a level significantly higher than that (1.1%) found in nonLion Quality UK eggs sampled. The small sample of UK Lion Quality eggs tested (reflecting their lack of use in premises visited) did not contain Salmonella. Several phage types of Salm. Enteritidis other than phage type 4 (PT 4) were identified with nonUK eggs. Eggs from Spain were implicated as a major source of infection. Eggs were contaminated more frequently with Salmonella when shells were dirty and/or cracked, and stored at above 8 degrees C. The use of Spanish eggs by the catering sector has been identified as a consistent significant factor in many of the outbreaks caused by Salm. Enteritidis nonPT4 in England and Wales during 2002-2004. Advice to caterers and hospitals that raw shell eggs should not be used in food that will either not be cooked or only lightly cooked should be reinforced.

  20. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms recovered from biofilms in a commercial shell egg processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During six visits, biofilms from egg contact and non-contact surfaces in a commercial shell egg processing facility were sampled. Thirty-five different sample sites were selected: Pre-wash and wash tanks (lids, screens, tank interiors, nozzle guards), post-wash spindles, blower filters, belts (far...

  1. Chemical elements in egg shell of a commercial strain of domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical elements of the egg shell of exotic commercial pullets (Lohmann) in their first laying year. A total of 160 eggs from eighty pullets were randomly selected at three-monthly intervals during the production year for the ddermination of chemical elements or the eggshell.

  2. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and confirmed by written memorandum as soon as possible. (iv) Labeling or marking of shell eggs under... locality in writing that such assistance is no longer needed. When providing assistance under paragraph (e... violation of this section, may serve upon the person in whose possession such eggs are found a written order...

  3. Study of dinosaur's egg shell by EPR method; Issledovaniya metodom EhPR skorlupy yaits dinozavrov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tleuberdina, R A; Nasirov, R N

    1998-07-01

    Two varieties of calcium carbonate are defined on base of ESR spectra radiation-inducted signals containing in mollusc shell and dinosaur and ostrich egg shell; their spectral characters are studied by infrared-spectroscopy methods and X-ray analysis. Possibility of correlation between ESR signals intensity of CO{sub 2}-radical of investigated object and geological age is determined. (author)

  4. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in Shell Eggs from Small-Scale Poultry Farms and Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Nahashon, S N; Godwin, S; Liu, S; Long, D

    2016-12-01

    Public health concerns over the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria have increased recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs purchased from small poultry farms and farmers' markets. A total of 504 eggs were pooled to make 252 composite samples, consisting of 2 eggs per composite. The microbial quality of shell eggs was determined by standard quantitative, biochemical, and PCR techniques. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, and results were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute values. Shell eggs and egg contents were positive for Escherichia coli (11.9 and 5.2%, respectively), Enterobacter (9.1 and 7.9%), and Serratia (11.5 and 4.8%). Salmonella was isolated from 3.6% of egg shells but not from egg contents. Mean (±SD) Enterobacteriaceae levels (4.4 ± 2.0 log CFU per eggshell) on shell eggs from poultry farms was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that on shell eggs from farmers' markets (2.1 ± 1.3 log CFU per eggshell). Of the 134 isolates recovered, resistance among isolates from farm and market shell eggs to erythromycin was most common (48.5 and 32.8%, respectively) followed by ampicillin (44.8 and 17.2%), and tetracycline (29.9 and 17.2%). The multiple antibiotic resistance index value for E. coli and Pantoea was 0.62, and that for Salmonella and Klebsiella terrigena was 0.08, indicating that Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs can be resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. These data reveal that shell eggs from small poultry farms and farmers' markets can harbor antimicrobial resistant pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Thus, failure to properly handle shell eggs poses a potential health hazard to consumers.

  5. Microbiology of Shell Egg Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Substantial government and industry resources have been committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. The implementation ...

  6. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  7. Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually. The experimental treatments were: i L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05. The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05. The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05. The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05. Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.

  8. The detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Li, Suiqiong; Horikawa, Shin; Shen, Wen; Park, Mi-Kyung; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the direct detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor. The ME biosensor consists of a ME resonator as the sensor platform and E2 phage as the biorecognition element that is genetically engineered to specifically bind with Salmonella typhimurium. The ME biosensor, which is a wireless sensor, vibrates with a characteristic resonant frequency under an externally applied magnetic field. Multiple sensors can easily be remotely monitored. Multiple measurement and control sensors were placed on the shell eggs contaminated by Salmonella typhimurium solutions with different known concentrations. The resonant frequency of sensors before and after the exposure to the spiked shell eggs was measured. The frequency shift of the measurement sensors was significantly different than the control sensors indicating Salmonella contamination. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm binding of Salmonella to the sensor surface and the resulting frequency shift results.

  9. Estimating local, organic, and other price premiums of shell eggs in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2016-05-01

    Hedonic modeling and retail scanner data were utilized to investigate the influence of local, organic, nutrition benefits, and other attributes of shell eggs on retail price premium in Hawaii. Within a revealed preference framework, the analysis of local and organic attributes, simultaneously, under a single unified setting is important, as such work is highly deficient in the published literature. This paper finds high to moderate price premiums in four key attributes of shell eggs - organic (64%), local (40%), nutrition benefits claimed (33%), and brown shell (18.4%). Large and extra-large sized eggs also experience price premiums over medium sized eggs. With each larger packing size, the estimated coefficients were negative, indicating a price discount, relative to the baseline packing size. However, there is no evidence to support the overwhelming influence of "local" over "organic", as hypothesized in other research work. Overall, the findings in this paper suggest industry producers and retailers should highlight and market effusively the primary attributes of their shell eggs, including "local", to remain competitive in the marketplace. Effective communication channels are crucial to delivering the product information, capturing the attention of consumers, and securing retail sales. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... in cages in three tier batteries. Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group. Egg mass of H2 hens was ..... heavy metal ion toxicity to experimental animals is dependant on the technique of application and the applied dose. However, neither increased mortality nor.

  11. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.

  12. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively.

  13. Composite adhesive bonds reinforced with microparticle filler based on egg shell waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Miroslav; Valášek, Petr

    2018-05-01

    A research on composite adhesive bonds reinforced with waste from hen eggs processing, i.e. egg shell waste (ESW) is based on an assumption of the utilization of agricultural/food production waste. The aim of the research is to gain new pieces of knowledge about the material utilization of ESW, i.e. to evaluate possibilities of the use of various concentrations of ESW microparticles smaller than 100 µm based on hen egg shells as the filler in a structural resin used for a creation of adhesive bonds from bearing metal elements. An adhesive bond strength, an elongation at break and a fracture surface were evaluated within the research on adhesive bonds. The experiment results proved the efficiency of ESW filler in the area of composite adhesive bonds. The adhesive bond strength was increased up of more than 17 % by adding 40 wt.% of ESW microparticles.

  14. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on reduction of Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 and egg quality parameters in experimentally contaminated hens' shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Durmus; Aygun, Ali; Torlak, Emrah; Mercan, Emin

    2013-09-01

    In this study, hen eggs which were experimentally contaminated with Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used. Contaminated eggs were washed statically (S5 to S30; 0 kHz) and by ultrasonic waves (U5 to U30; 35 kHz) for given applications of time (5, 15 and 30 min), then the eggs were stored at 22°C for 14 days. Depending on the time of ultrasonic application, a significant increase in egg shell strength (P eggs which were washed by ultrasonic waves. Yolk width values of ultrasonic washed eggs diminished. E. coli was completely removed by 30 min of ultrasonic application. During storage E. coli growth was not detected on the eggs which were washed by ultrasonic waves except the eggs in U5 group (2.04 log CFU eggshell⁻¹) on the first day of storage. Depending on the time of ultrasonic application a significant increase in egg quality parameters (shell strength, albumen height, Haugh units, and yolk height) were observed. The application of ultrasound led to a significant reduction in E. coli numbers on egg shells. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Chen, Sirui; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland.

  16. Can acceptable quality angel food cakes be made using pasteurized shell eggs? The effects of processing factors on functional properties of angel food cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to recent incidences of Salmonella contamination, the market for pasteurized shell eggs is rapidly growing. One objection to using pasteurized shell eggs is the belief that they will produce unacceptable baked product (e.g., angel food cakes). In the present study, shell eggs were pasteurized us...

  17. Salmonella and raw shell eggs: results of a cross-sectional study of contamination rates and egg safety practices in the United Kingdom catering sector in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, R; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2005-02-01

    This study was prompted by epidemiological investigations of the unusual number of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks associated with the use of eggs in catering premises in England and Wales during 2002. The aims of the study, performed between April and May 2003, were to establish the rate of Salmonella contamination in raw shell eggs from catering premises, investigate any correlation between the origin and type of eggs and the presence of particular serotypes or phage types (PTs) of Salmonella, and examine the use of raw shell eggs in catering premises in the United Kingdom. A total of 34,116 eggs (5,686 pooled samples of six eggs) were collected from 2,104 catering premises, most of which were eggs produced in the United Kingdom (88%). Salmonella was isolated from 17 pools (0.3%) of eggs. Of these, 15 were Salmonella Enteritidis, which were further characterized to PTs as follows: PT6 (0.1%), PT4 (0.07%), PT12 (0.04%), PT1 (0.04%), and PT14b (0.02%). Salmonella Livingstone and Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 7 resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline were also isolated. The Salmonella contamination rate of eggs produced in the United Kingdom appears to have decreased significantly since 1995 and 1996. This trend is reflected in the decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis and, in particular, Salmonella Enteritidis PT4. The impact of the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency's advice on the use of eggs, issued in January 2003, is discussed.

  18. [Determination of Cu in Shell of Preserved Egg by LIBS Coupled with PLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-qin; Xu, Xue-hong; Liu, Mu-hua; Tu, Jian-ping; Huang, Le; Huang, Lin; Yao, Ming-yin; Chen, Tian-bing; Yang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the content of copper in the shell of preserved eggs were determined directly by Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and the characteristics lines of Cu was obtained. The samples of eggshell were pretreated by acid wet digestion, and the real content of Cu was obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Due to the test precision and accuracy of LIBS was influenced by a serious of factors, for example, the complex matrix effect of sample, the enviro nment noise, the system noise of the instrument, the stability of laser energy and so on. And the conventional unvariate linear calibration curve between LIBS intensity and content of element of sample, such as by use of Schiebe G-Lomakin equation, can not meet the requirement of quantitative analysis. In account of that, a kind of multivariate calibration method is needed. In this work, the data of LIBS spectra were processed by partial least squares (PLS), the precision and accuracy of PLS model were compared by different smoothing treatment and five pretreatment methods. The result showed that the correlation coefficient and the accuracy of the PLS model were improved, and the root mean square error and the average relative error were reduced effectively by 11 point smoothing with Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) pretreatment. The results of the study show that, heavy metal Cu in preserved egg shells can be direct detected accurately by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, and the next step batch tests will been conducted to find out the relationship of heavy metal Cu content in the preserved egg between the eggshell, egg white and egg yolk. And the goal of the contents of heavy metals in the egg white, egg yolk can be knew through determinate the eggshell by the LIBS can be achieved, to provide new method for rapid non-destructive testing technology for quality and satety of agricultural products.

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella in Shell Eggs by Hot Water Immersion and Its Effect on Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geveke, David J; Gurtler, Joshua B; Jones, Deana R; Bigley, Andrew B W

    2016-03-01

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat resistant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs processed by hot water immersion were determined and the effects of the processing on egg quality were evaluated. Shell eggs were inoculated with a composite of heat resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) strains PT8 C405, 2 (FSIS #OB030832), and 6 (FSIS #OB040159). Eggs were immersed in a circulating hot water bath for various times and temperatures. Come-up time of the coldest location within the egg was 21 min. SE was reduced by 4.5 log at both hot water immersion treatments of 56.7 C for 60 min and 55.6 °C for 100 min. Decimal reduction times (D-values) at 54.4, 55.6, and 56.7 °C were 51.8, 14.6, and 9.33 min, respectively. The z-value was 3.07 °C. Following treatments that resulted in a 4.5 log reduction (56.7 °C/60 min and 55.6 °C/100 min), the surviving population of SE remained static during 4 wk of refrigerated storage. After processing under conditions resulting in 4.5 log reductions, the Haugh unit and albumen height significantly increased (P eggs by 4.5 log, but also significantly affected several egg quality characteristics. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. The effect of ultraviolet on microbiological contamination of consumptive egg shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latala, A.; Dobrzanski, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A prototype for UV irradiation (lamps of DRT type; 400 W) produced by BK-T ''Telmed'' in Warsaw was used to desinfect consumptive eggs (along with packages). It was found that about 2 min. are an optimal time of irradiation to destroy 83,5% of bacteria and 88,7% of fungi on a shell surface. Aerobic bacilli, coliforms and Aspergillus sp. appeared to be the most sensitive to UV. (author)

  1. 7 CFR 56.76 - Minimum facility and operating requirements for shell egg grading and packing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... work. In new or remodeled construction, toilet rooms shall be located in areas that do not open... allowed to stand or soak in water. Immersion-type washers shall not be used. (10) Prewetting shell eggs...

  2. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, N.P.C.; Hine, K.; Hegemann, A.; Ndithia, H.K.; Shobrak, M.; Ostrowski, S.; Williams, J.B.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate to

  3. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Hine, Kathryn; Hegemann, Arne; Ndithia, Henry K.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Ostrowski, Stephane; Williams, Joseph B.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate

  4. Factors affecting thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ODA 99-30581-13 in shell egg contents and use of heat-ozone combinations for egg pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    Infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis leads to deposition of the pathogen into the albumen or yolk of forming eggs. Heat treatment can inactivate internalized Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs, but factors such as the nature and location of contamination may influence the efficacy of thermal treatments. In the current research, natural contamination was mimicked by introducing small inocula of Salmonella Enteritidis into different locations of shell eggs and incubating inoculated eggs. These pathogen-containing eggs were heated at 57°C for 40 min, and temperature within eggs was monitored at the locations of inocula. Comparison of inactivation at equivalent internal temperatures revealed similar levels of lethality regardless of inoculum location. Refrigeration between incubation and heat treatment did not increase thermal resistance of cells in albumen but decreased cell inactivation in yolk. Sequential application of heat and gaseous ozone allows for the development of a process capable of decontaminating shell eggs with minimal thermal treatment and impact on egg quality. Inoculated eggs were subjected to (i) an immersion heating process similar to that used in commercial pasteurization or (ii) immersion heating, at reduced duration, followed by vacuum (50.8 kPa) and treatment with ozone gas (maximum 160 g/m(3)) under pressure (∼187.5 kPa). All treatments tested produced greater than 5-log inactivation, which is required for "pasteurization" processes. Differences were observed in the visual quality of eggs depending on treatment parameters. Application of ozone subsequent to heating allows for a significant reduction in heating time without decreasing process lethality.

  5. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Nicholas Pc; Hine, Kathryn; Hegemann, Arne; Ndithia, Henry K; Shobrak, Mohammed; Ostrowski, Stéphane; Williams, Joseph B; Matson, Kevin D; Tieleman, B Irene

    2014-01-01

    All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate to generally higher microbial abundances and diversity in more humid environments, including on the surface of eggshells, as well as the need for moisture to facilitate microbial penetration of the eggshell. To protect against microbial infection, the albumen of avian eggs contains antimicrobial proteins, including lysozyme and ovotransferrin. We tested whether lysozyme and ovotransferrin activities varied in eggs of larks (Alaudidae) living along an arid-mesic gradient of environmental aridity, which we used as a proxy for risk of trans-shell infection. Contrary to expectations, lysozyme activity was highest in eggs from hotter, more arid locations, where we predicted the risk of trans-shell infection would be lower. Ovotransferrin concentrations did not vary with climatic factors. Temperature was a much better predictor of antimicrobial protein activity than precipitation, a result inconsistent with studies stressing the importance of moisture for trans-shell infection. Our study raises interesting questions about the links between temperature and lysozyme activity in eggs, but we find no support for the hypothesis that antimicrobial protein deposition is higher in eggs laid in wetter environments.

  6. Biodegradation Study of Nanocomposites of Phenol Novolac Epoxy/Unsaturated Polyester Resin/Egg Shell Nanoparticles Using Natural Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials refer to those materials whose reinforcing phase has dimensions on a scale from one to one hundred nanometers. In this study, the nanocomposite biodegradation of the phenol Novolac epoxy and the unsaturated polyester resins was investigated using the egg shell nanoparticle as bioceramic as well as starch and glycerin as natural polymers to modify their properties. The phenol Novolac epoxy resin has a good compatibility with the unsaturated polyester resin. The prepared samples with different composition of materials for specified time were buried under soil and their biodegradation was studied using FTIR and SEM. The FTIR results before and after degradation showed that the presence of the hydroxyl group increased the samples degradation. Also adding the egg shell nanoparticle to samples had a positive effect on its degradation. The SEM results with and without the egg shell nanoparticle also showed that use of the egg shell nanoparticle increases the samples degradation. Additionally, increasing the amount of starch, and glycerol and the presence of egg shell nanoparticles can increase water adsorption.

  7. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from egg shells by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Y.; Adrian, M.; Alfarisi, C. D.; Khairat; Sri, R. M.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite, [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, (HAp)] is widely used in medical fields especially as a bone and teeth substitute. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been succesfully synthesized from egg shells as a source of calcium by using sol-gel method. The egg shells were calcined, hydrated (slaking) and undergone carbonation to form Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC).Then the PCC was added (NH4)2HPO4 to form HAp with variation the mole ratio Ca and P (1.57; 1.67 and 1.77), aging time (24, 48, and 72 hr) and under basic condition pH (9, 10 and 11). The formation of hydroxyapatite biomaterial was characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX. The XRD patterns showed that the products were hydroxyapatite crystals. The best result was obtained at 24 hr aging time, pH 9 with hexagonal structure of hydroxyapatite. Particle size of HAp was 35-54 nm and the morphology of hydroxyapatite observed using SEM, it showed that the uniformity crystal of hydroxyapatite.

  8. Waste Cooking Oil Conversion To Biodeisel Catalized By Egg Shell Of Purebred Chiken With Ethanol As A Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellna Tehubijuluw

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel from the waste cooking oil was carried out using the catalyst from egg shell of purebred chiken with ethanol as a solvent. Synthesis of biodiesel was prepared in two steps, esterification and transesterification. Esterification was conducted in mol ratio of ethanol and waste cooking oil of  9:1 with H2SO4 as a catalyst. Mol ratio of ethanol and used cooking oil in the transesterification of  12:1 with the CaO catalyst of shell eggs. CaO catalyst was yielded by calcinations egg shell of purebred chicken on 1000 for two hours. Calcination product was characterized with XRD to determine of CaO. Result of biodiesel was characterized based on FTIR, H-NMR, dan ASTM (American Standard Testing of Materials. Theoretically,yielded of biodiesel was 58% and experiment was 36.779%.

  9. Egg shell waste as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimized by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Priti R; Fulekar, M H

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide consumption of hen eggs results in availability of large amount of discarded egg waste particularly egg shells. In the present study, the waste shells were utilized for the synthesis of highly active heterogeneous calcium oxide (CaO) nanocatalyst to transesterify dry biomass into methyl esters (biodiesel). The CaO nanocatalyst was synthesied by calcination-hydration-dehydration technique and fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), brunauer-emmett-teller (BET) elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. TEM image showed that the nano catalyst had spherical shape with average particle size of 75 nm. BET analysis indicated that the catalyst specific surface area was 16.4 m 2  g -1 with average pore diameter of 5.07 nm. The effect of nano CaO catalyst was investigated by direct transesterification of dry biomass into biodiesel along with other reaction parameters such as catalyst ratio, reaction time and stirring rate. The impact of the transesterification reaction parameters and microalgal biodiesel yield were analyzed by response surface methodology based on a full factorial, central composite design. The significance of the predicted mode was verified and 86.41% microalgal biodiesel yield was reported at optimal parameter conditions 1.7% (w/w), catalyst ratio, 3.6 h reaction time and stirring rate of 140.6 rpm. The biodiesel conversion was determined by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The fuel properties of prepared biodiesel were found to be highly comply with the biodiesel standard ASTMD6751 and EN14214. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A method to evaluate relative ovicidal effects of soil microfungi on thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Katakam, Kiran Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic ascarid nematodes can survive and remain infective in the environment for years. The present study evaluated a simple in vitro method and evaluation scheme to assess the relative effect of two species of soil microfungi, Pochonia chlamydosporia Biotype 10...

  11. Investigation of In-Package Ozonation: The Effectiveness of Ozone to Inactive Salmonella enteritidis on Raw, Shell Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Donner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food production, handling, and distribution practices pose a constant threat to the quality and safety of food products. The objective of this research is to evaluate an innovative in-package ozonation process to reduce Salmonella enteritidis on raw, shell eggs. Previous research has shown that in-package ozonation eliminates contaminants from outside sources, reduces pathogens, and extends shelf life. In this study, raw, shell eggs were inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis and exposed to ozonation treatment. Microbial recoveries were then tested to determine bacterial reductions. Measurements included: relative humidity (34 percent at 5oC, surface temperatures (oC, ozone concentrations, bacterial reductions of Salmonella enteritidis, and quality assessment of eggs (Haugh Unit [HU], color, pH, and weight. After a 24-hour storage period, all treated samples indicated 3 log10 reductions on average (previous research has achieved up to 6log10. These results show effective in-package ozonation treatment reducing Salmonella enteritidis on raw, shell eggs without significant effect on measured egg quality over time. Benefits of in-package ozonation include no heating, low power requirements (less or equal to 50 Watts, short treatment time (seconds to minutes, and adaptability into existing processes. Given its ability to ensure the safety and longevity of food products, this technology has great potential for utilization in the food processing industry.

  12. The chocolate-egg problem: Fabrication of thin elastic shells through coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Marthelot, Joel; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Reis, Pedro M.

    2015-03-01

    We study the fabrication of thin polymeric shells based on the coating of a curved surface by a viscous fluid. Upon polymerization of the resulting thin film, a slender solid structure is delivered after demolding. This technique is extensively used, empirically, in manufacturing, where it is known as rotational molding, as well as in the food industry, e.g. for chocolate-eggs. This problem is analogous to the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin coating of plates and fibers and Bretherton's problem of film deposition in cylindrical channels, albeit now on a double-curved geometry. Here, the balance between gravity, viscosity, surface tension and polymerization rate can yield a constant thickness film. We seek to identify the physical ingredients that govern the final film thickness and its profile. In our experiments using organosilicon, we systematically vary the properties of the fluid, as well as the curvature of the substrate onto which the film is coated, and characterize the final thickness profile of the shells. A reduced model is developed to rationalize the process.

  13. Well swab collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-04-09

    A well swab collar which can be hoisted to bring well fluids upward through a pipe string is described. An elastic swab is used to swab a pipe having a predetermined diameter. The swab consists of a circular shaped elastomer body having an outer diameter a little smaller than the inner diameter of the pipe. The body is divided into multiple swab elements by ring-shaped grooves in the body. The swab element has truncated conical surfaces directed radially at an outward angle, then downward and consequently at an angle inward and then downward. (19 claims)

  14. Synthesis of solid catalyst from egg shell waste and clay for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadji, S.; Sundari, C. D. D.; Munir, M.; Fitriyah, S.

    2018-05-01

    Until now, energy consumption in Indonesia is almost entirely fulfilled by fossil fuels, thus, its availability will be limited and continue to decrease. To overcome these problems, development and utilization of renewable energy are required, one of which is biodiesel. Biodiesel can be prepared through transesterification reaction of vegetable oil using catalyst. In this research, a solid catalyst for biodiesel synthesis was prepared from chicken egg shell waste and clay. Optimization of the transesterification reaction of coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil to obtain biodiesel was also carried out. The formation of CaO/kaolin catalyst was confirmed based on the results of XRD and SEM-EDS. This catalyst is suitable for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils with lower FFA (free fatty acid) levels, i.e. coconut oil with FFA level of 0.18%. Based on FTIR result, FFA level and flame tests, it was found that biodiesel was successfully formed. Synthesis of biodiesel has the optimum conditions on reaction time of 16 hours and temperature of 64 °C, with oil: methanol ratio of 1: 15 and CaO/kaolin catalyst concentration of 0.9% in a reflux system.

  15. Egg shell quality and microstructure as affected by vitamin C, other feed additives and high environmental temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Boushy, A.R.

    1966-01-01

    The effects of climatic stress on egg formation (weight, shape, formation period, clutch size and blood calcium) and shell quality were estimated in White Leghorn and White Plymouth Rock hens. Constant environments were used with 85°F 75- 80% r.h., 75-77°F 50-60% r.h. and 55°F 50-60% r.h. as well as

  16. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  17. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  18. Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E E; Ohlendorf, H M; Cromartie, E

    1980-12-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  19. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  20. Recovery of salmonella serovar enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  1. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he ostrich industry experiences a high rate of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. Embryonic deaths were studied from data recorded on 37 740 fertile eggs incubated artificially during the 1998-2005 breeding seasons. Roughly 10 000 eggs that sustained embryonic mortalities were classified according to the stage and nature of death, i.e. before 21 days of incubation, after 21 days of incubation, deaths after pipping and rotten eggs. Although infection may have played a role in ~1300 rotten eggs, no detailed knowledge of the pathogens involved was available. The remainder of deaths could not be related to pathogens and the deaths were thus generally referred to as non-infectious. The overall level of embryonic mortality in all the eggs studied was 28.5 %. Overall embryonic mortality was affected by incubator, with higher levels (57.0 % found in eggs incubated in an African Incubator(R and also in eggs that were transferred between incubators during incubation (38.1 %. Overall embryonic mortality also increased in eggs produced by older females. Eggs produced in the autumn had the highest level of embryonic mortality at 53.6 %, whereas eggs produced in the winter had a marginally higher level of embryonic mortalities of 29.2 % compared with eggs produced during summer (27.4 %. Eggs produced by South African (SA Black males crossed to Zimbabwean Blue females had high levels of embryonic losses of 45.7 %. The embryonic mortality of eggs produced by SA Blacks or Zimbabwean Blue breeding birds subjected to pure breeding was similar at ~33-34 %, but embryonic mortality was improved in eggs produced by Zimbabwean Blue males crossed to SA Black females (27 %. Embryonic mortality was increased in eggs that were set directly (32.0 % or subjected to longer than 6 days of storage (43.5 %. Embryonic mortality was affected by year. The results that were obtained will assist in determining non-infectious factors that have a negative

  2. Synthesis and characterization of biomorphic CeO2 obtained by using egg shell membrane as template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Prekajski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new technology based on bio-templating approach was proposed in this paper. Egg-shell membrane (ESM has been employed as a natural biotemplate. Fibrous oxide ceramics was prepared by wet impregnation of biological template with water solution of cerium nitrate. The template was derived from membranes of fresh chicken eggs. Repeated impregnation, pyrolysis and final calcination in the range of 600 to 1200 °C in air resulted in template burnout and consolidation of the oxide layers. At low temperatures, the obtained products had structure which corresponded to the negative replication of biological templates. Unique bio-morphic CeO2 microstructures with interwoven networks were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, whereas low-temperature nitrogen adsorption (BET method was used in order to characterize porous properties.

  3. Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance shelf life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüceer, Muhammed; Aday, Mehmet Seçkin; Caner, Cengiz

    2016-06-01

    Eggs have long been recognised as a source of high-quality proteins. Many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment, which is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces in the food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 min during storage for 6 weeks at 24 °C. The effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs is also reported. Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 min can be applied to fresh eggs and extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24 °C storage period. Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results in maintaining internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) caused a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone treatments of 2, and especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Fe–Ni/ɣ-Al2O3 egg-shell catalyst for H2 generation by ammonia decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Hugo José Lopes; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Fe–Ni alloyed nanoparticles are a promising alternative to expensive ruthenium-based catalysts for a real-scale application of hydrogen generation by ammonia decomposition. In practical applications, millimeter-sized extrudates are used as catalyst supports, where the spatial distribution...... of the active phase should match with the type of reaction. In this work, a novel synthesis route was developed for the preparation of a Fe–Ni/ɣ-Al2O3 egg-shell catalyst. Egg-shell is a preferred profile considering the highly endothermic nature of ammonia decomposition reaction. The high viscosity of glycerol...... using focused ion bean (FIB) milling allowed to acquire high resolution images of the Ni and Fe nanoparticles on ɣ-Al2O3, which is particularly challenging due to the crystalline nature of this support. Distinct regions of the egg-shell catalyst were analyzed through scanning TEM (STEM) and TEM...

  5. Egg production and shell relationship of the land hermit crab Coenobita scaevola (Anomura: Coenobitidae from Wadi El-Gemal, Red Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa S. Sallam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to characterize the fecundity of the land hermit crab Coenobita scaevola as well as the influence of shell type on fecundity using morphometric relationships. Hermit crabs were collected monthly from January to December 2007 from the protected area of Wadi El-Gemal, at Marsa Alam on the Red Sea, and ovigerous females were selected. Hermit crab wet weight and the gastropod shell weight were recorded. The number of eggs carried by females of several sizes (CL, carapace length, stages of development and egg size were determined. Shells of eight gastropod species were occupied by ovigerous females of C. scaevola. Shells of Nerita undata was the most occupied (65.7%, particularly by individuals falling within the size range 5.0–7.0 mm CL. Only 35 berried females were recorded during May, July and September and the mean fecundity was 679.8 ± 140 eggs. Fecundity was found positively correlated with crab size and shell dimensions. The relationship between fecundity and the internal volume of the occupied shell was ranked as the most correlated. The impact of shell utilization on hermit crab fecundity is discussed.

  6. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  7. Shell Properties, Water Vapor Loss, and Hatching Success of Eggs from a Rain Forest Population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAYNE J. ARENDT

    2005-01-01

    I calculated various shell properties, water vapor loss, and hatching success of eggs of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) using measurements obtained during a long-term study in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Empirical results were comparable to standard reference formulae, demonstrating that published formulae can be used with confidence by field...

  8. The use of chicken egg shell as an alternative source of calcium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing oyster shell fraction in the diet of growing-finishing cockerel chickens partially or wholly with eggshell. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) 8 weeks old Harco cockerel chicken of mean weight 515.78 ± 3. 8g were used for the feeding trial that lasted for ten ...

  9. Pathogenicity of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Egg Shells and the Layer Farm Environment in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Andrea R.; Davos, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the egg industry is periodically implicated during outbreaks of Salmonella food poisoning. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and other nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., in particular, are a major concern for Australian public health. Several definitive types of Salmonella Typhimurium strains, but primarily Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 (DT9), have been frequently reported during egg-related food poisoning outbreaks in Australia. The aim of the present study was to generate a pathogenicity profile of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates obtained from Australian egg farms. To achieve this, we assessed the capacity of Salmonella isolates to cause gastrointestinal disease using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Data from in vitro experiments demonstrated that the invasion capacity of Salmonella serovars cultured to stationary phase (liquid phase) in LB medium was between 90- and 300-fold higher than bacterial suspensions in normal saline (cultured in solid phase). During the in vivo infection trial, clinical signs of infection and mortality were observed only for mice infected with either 103 or 105 CFU of S. Typhimurium DT9. No mortality was observed for mice infected with Salmonella serovars with medium or low invasive capacity in Caco-2 cells. Pathogenicity gene profiles were also generated for all serovars included in this study. The majority of serovars tested were positive for selected virulence genes. No relationship between the presence or absence of virulence genes by PCR and either in vitro invasive capacity or in vivo pathogenicity was detected. Our data expand the knowledge of strain-to-strain variation in the pathogenicity of Australian egg industry-related Salmonella spp. PMID:25362057

  10. Pooling raw shell eggs: Salmonella contamination and high risk practices in the United Kingdom food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, F J; Little, C L; Murphy, N; de Pinna, E; McLauchlin, J

    2010-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of pooled raw shelled egg mix (RSEM) used as an ingredient in lightly cooked or uncooked foods and high-risk kitchen hygiene practices in United Kingdom food service establishments using RSEM were investigated. Samples were collected from 934 premises. Salmonella was found in 1 (0.13%) of 764 RSEM samples, 2 (0.3%) of 726 samples from surfaces where ready-to-eat foods were prepared, and 7 (1.3%) of 550 cleaning cloths. Poor RSEM storage and handling practices were highlighted. Workers in 40% of the premises sampled failed to use designated utensils when RSEM was added to other ingredients, workers in 17% of the premises did not clean surfaces and utensils thoroughly after use with RSEM and before preparing other foods, only 42% of workers washed and dried their hands after handling eggs or RSEM, workers in 41% of the premises did not store RSEM at refrigeration temperature before use, and workers in 8% of the premises added RSEM to cooked rice at the end of cooking when preparing egg fried rice. Take-away premises, especially those serving Chinese cuisine, were least likely to have a documented food safety management system and awareness of the key food safety points concerning the use of RSEM compared with other food service premises (P < 0.0001). Food service businesses using RSEM must be aware of the continuing hazard from Salmonella, must adopt appropriate control measures, and must follow advice provided by national food agencies to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection.

  11. The analysis of PO2 difference between air space and arterialized blood in chicken eggs with respect to widely altered shell conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, H; Tazawa, H

    1988-01-01

    The gas exchange of chicken eggs takes place by molecular diffusion. The diffusion barrier between ambient atmosphere and erythrocyte hemoglobin of the gas exchanger (the vascularized chorioallantoic membrane) is conveniently divided into two parts by the air space in the fibrous shell membranes; i.e., the outer barrier (mainly the porous eggshell) and the inner barrier (the chorioallantoic membrane and the chemical reaction with hemoglobin). In contrast to the alveolar-arterial Po2 difference in vertebrate lungs, the difference of Po2 between the air space and the arterialized blood in the allantoic vein (delta PAo2.Pao2) is large in chick embryos. The present study analyzed the delta PAo2.Pao2 in relation to the diffusing capacity of the chorioallantoic membrane (inner barrier) and physiological shunt in the allantoic circulation with respect to widely altered diffusive conductance of the shell (outer barrier). The shell diffusive conductance (Go2) was altered of the beginning of incubation, and the O2 consumption (Mo2) was measured on day 16. The Mo2 increased hyperbolically with increasing Go2, reached a maximum at control values of Go2 and decreased with further increases in Go2. From Go2 and Mo2, the air space Po2 was determined. The delta PAo2.Pao2 was increased in eggs with augmented Go2 (from about 50 torr in control eggs to 70 torr in conductance-increased eggs). The diffusing capacity and allantoic shunt which produce a given delta PAo2.Pao2 were estimated employing a microcomputer performing the Bohr integration procedure so that a calculated Pao2 agreed with the measured Pao2. The allantoic shunt is not more than 20%; 10% is likely. The diffusing capacity becomes maximum in intact control eggs and is decreased at both lowered and augmented Go2. At lowered Go2, diffusion limitation is responsible for about 90% of delta Pao2.Pao2 even in the presence of a 10% shunt. The diffusion limitation to blood oxygenation decreases as Go2 increases, but it is still

  12. Transesterification of Jatropha and Karanja oils by using waste egg shell derived calcium based mixed metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Girdhar; Rawat, Devendra S.; Lamba, Bhawna Y.; Bisht, Kamal K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Nayan; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste chicken eggshell derived CaO(cesp) based mixed metal oxides were prepared. • Transesterification of high free fatty acid containing non-edible oils were achieved using prepared catalysts. • CaO(cesp) based mixed metal oxides have shown better activity in comparison to neat CaO(cesp). • Best Conversions were achieved with ZnO–CaO(cesp). • Catalyst has shown good reusability up to 4 cycles without significant loss in its activity. - Abstract: Solid base heterogeneous catalysts are one of the promising materials for the transesterification of vegetable oils because these catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require very severe operating conditions. Calcium oxide has shown good catalytic activity due to its high basicity which is required for transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAGs). In the present study, the transesterification of non-edible, high free fatty acid containing Jatropha and Karanja oils was studied by using waste chicken egg shell derived calcium (i.e. CaO(cesp)) based mixed metal oxides (M-CaO; M = ZnO, MnO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 ) as heterogeneous catalyst. A comparison was also made on the catalytic performance of these prepared catalysts. The catalyst characterizations were done by XRD, SEM, TGA, FT-IR and BET techniques. The effectiveness of the catalysts was highly influenced by the calcination temperature. ZnO–CaO(cesp) catalyst was found to be the most efficient catalyst among all. The maximum conversion for the transesterification of Jatropha and Karanja oils were achieved using 5 wt% catalyst, 65 °C temperature and 12:1 methanol/oil ratio. The catalyst could be re-used effectively during four cycles. Use of the CaO(cesp) based mixed oxides made the process more environmental benign and economical. The biodiesel prepared has shown good fuel characteristics as per EN, ASTM and IS standards

  13. Crystallization and preliminary x-ray structure analysis of the egg-white lysozyme from a Taiwanese Soft-Shelled Turtle (Tri onyx Sinensis Wiegmann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Yuvaniyama, Jirudon

    2005-10-01

    Lysozyme has been purified from the egg-white of a Taiwanese soft-shelled turtle. This soft-shelled turtle ' s egg-white lysozyme migrated on 12.5% SDS-PAGE at about 14.8 kDa. The lysozyme has been crystallized using the sitting drop vapor diffusion technique and 30% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000 in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate, p H 6.5 containing 0.2 M ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. One of the crystals diffracted X rays beyond 2 angstrom unit resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic, space group P212121, with unit cell dimensions of a = 37.8 angstrom unit, b = 55.6 angstrom unit, and c 72.2 angstrom unit and one molecule of the enzyme per asymmetric unit. The data were collected to 1.9 angstrom resolution with an R merge of 4.6%, suitable for high resolution structure analysis. The single-crystal X-ray structure of lysozyme has been initially phased with the Molecular Replacement technique using pheasant egg-white lysozyme (PDB ID 1GHL) as a search template. Model rebuilding and refinement are in progress

  14. Shell Egg Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Epidemiologic investigations conducted by health officials in California, Colorado, and Minnesota revealed several restaurants or events where more than one person...

  15. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free-range egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guard, J Y

    2012-05-01

    There is a desire by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell-egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study was conducted to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter on and within eggs and in the environment of a sister flock of conventional cage and free-range laying hens. Microbial sampling occurred approximately every 6 wk between 20 and 79 wk of age. A random sampling of typical coliform colonies produced 371 viable isolates for biochemical identification. Twenty-nine genera or species of bacteria were identified. There was a significantly greater (P free-range nest box swabs compared with that in the free-range grass and conventional cage swab samples (number of positives: 8 nest box, 1 grass, 0 cage). Seven isolates of Listeria innocua were detected with no significant difference in prevalence between the treatments. Isolates were associated with eggshells (2 free-range floor, 1 cage) and the free-range environment (2 nest box, 2 grass). There were 21 Salmonella isolates detected between all sample locations, with no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella detection between the treatments. Additional studies are needed to fully understand the effect of alternative production methods on the prevalence of pathogens and coliforms associated with nest-run eggs and the production environment.

  16. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of compost is an important indicator that determines the quality of compost. This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal. Organic wastes used were the mixture of spent mushrooms waste, coconut husks, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter. Lumbricus rubellus was the species of earthworm used in the vermicomposting process. In the composting process, egg shells flour and fish meal are added into the vermicompost as additives materials. The results indicate that the combined vermicomposting and composting process with addition the additives materials improves the chemical composition of vermicompost compared to using vermicomposting process alone. The change of chemical composition was indicated by a decrease in C-organic content and C/N ratio by 29% and 99%, respectively, while the content of N, P, K and S increased by 52%, 67.5%, 29% and 25%, respectively due to the addition of additives material in the composting process. The largest increase of vermicompost nutrient content occurred in the Ca content by an average of up to 7-fold. While polyphenols, lignin and cellulose content of vermicompost decreased slightly. The treatment of two mixture (a spent mushrooms waste, cow dung and vegetables residue, and (b spent mushroom waste, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter gave the best chemical composition. However, to determine the quality, we need to test the product in a plant growth bioassay as a follow-up study.

  17. Bactericidal Effect of Calcium Oxide (Scallop-Shell Powder) Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm on Quail Egg Shell, Stainless Steel, Plastic, and Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soo-Jin; Park, Shin Young; Kim, Seh Eun; Kang, Ike; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Jungwon; Kim, Chang-Min; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of calcium oxide (CaO) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on quail eggshells and major egg contacting surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and rubber). The samples were subjected to CaO treatments (0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, and 0.30%) for 1 min. All the CaO treatments significantly reduced P. aeruginosa biofilms on all tested surfaces as compared to controls. In comparison of biofilm stability, the strongest and most resistant biofilm was formed on eggshell against the CaO treatment, followed by rubber, stainless steel, and plastic. In evaluation of bactericidal effect, the largest reduction (3.16 log CFU) was observed in plastic even at the lowest concentration of CaO (0.01%), whereas the least reduction was found in eggshells, regardless of CaO concentration. In addition, stainless steel showed a significant reduction in biofilm formation at all concentrations except 0.10% to 0.15% CaO. At 0.30% CaO, the reduction of P. aeruginosa in biofilms on stainless steel, plastic, rubber, and eggshell were 5.48, 6.37, 4.87, and 3.14 log CFU/cm 2 (CFU/egg), respectively. Biofilm reduction after CaO treatment was also observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Based on the FE-SEM images, we observed that P. aeruginosa biofilms formed compact aggregations on eggshell surfaces with CaO treatments up to 0.30%. More specifically, a 0.20% CaO treatment resulted in the reductions of 3 to 6 log CFU in all materials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Effect of genotype on egg quality characteristics of guinea fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genotypes were Pearl x Pearl (PL x PL), Black x Black (BL x BL) and Pearl x Black (PL x BL). ... The external and shell quality parameters measured were egg weight (EWGT), egg length (ELGT), egg width (EWDT), egg shape index (ESPI), shell weight (SWGT), and shell thickness (STKN) while the internal traits were ...

  19. The influence of oxidation process on exchange bias in egg-shaped FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczyński, Błażej, E-mail: b.leszczynski@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hadjipanayis, George C.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Załęski, Karol [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Śniadecki, Zbigniew [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Musiał, Andrzej [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Jarek, Marcin [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Skumiel, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-10-15

    Egg-shaped nanoparticles with a core–shell morphology were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an iron oleate complex. XRD and M(T) magnetic measurements confirmed the presence of FeO (wustite) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) phases in the nanoparticles. Oxidation of FeO to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was found to be the mechanism for the shell formation. As-made nanoparticles exhibited high values of exchange bias at 2 K. Oxidation led to decrease of exchange field from 2880 Oe (in as-made sample) to 330 Oe (in oxidized sample). At temperatures higher than the Néel temperature of FeO (200 K) there was no exchange bias. An interesting observation was made showing the exchange field to be higher than the coercive field at temperatures close to magnetite's Verwey transition. - Highlights: • Synthesis of monodispersed FeO nanoparticles is shown. • As-made FeO nanoparticle is antiferromagnetically ordered, when it is oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the FeO core becomes small and disordered. • Exchange bias in well-ordered and disordered core is different.

  20. Assessment of the risk of salmonellosis from internally contaminated shell eggs following initial storage at 18 °C (65 °F), compared with 7 °C (45 °F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, R; Hoelzer, K; Ramirez, G A; deGraft-Hanson, J; Dennis, S B

    2014-10-01

    In the U.S., chicken-breeder farms that supply hatcheries typically store and transport eggs intended for broiler production at a temperature of 18.3 °C (65 °F). However, in case of surplus, some of these eggs may be diverted to human consumption. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 'Egg Safety Final Rule,' shell eggs intended for human consumption are required to be held or transported at or below 7.2 °C (45 °F) ambient temperature beginning 36 h after time of lay. We adapted a risk assessment model developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety Inspection Service, to quantify human exposure to Salmonella Enteritidis and the risk of human salmonellosis if eggs are held and transported at 18.3 °C for up to 5.5 days after time of lay, as has been observed when hatchery eggs are diverted to human consumption, rather than held and transported at 7.2 °C within 36 h after time of lay. Storage at 18.3 °C leads to considerable bacterial growth in internally contaminated eggs. The model predicted that more than 10% of internally contaminated eggs would remain contaminated after in-shell pasteurization resulting in a 5-log10 reduction, and that some bacteria would survive after home-cooking. The model predicted that, alternatively, eggs stored at 7.2 °C after lay would have limited bacterial growth prior to pasteurization, and Salmonella would be very unlikely to be present after pasteurization. The predicted risk of salmonellosis from the consumption of eggs held and transported at 18.3 °C and subsequently diverted to human consumption is 25 times higher than the risk when eggs are held and transported at 7.2 °C. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Comparative study of the swabbing properties of seven commercially available swab materials for cleaning verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Piletsky, Sergey; McCrossen, Sean

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the technical performances of several different commercially available swabbing materials for the purpose of cleaning verification. A steel surface was soiled with solutions of acetaminophen, nicotinic acid, diclofenac, and benzamidine and wiped with each swabbing material. The compounds were extracted with water or ethanol (depending on polarity of analyte) and their concentration in extract was quantified spectrophotometrically. The study also investigated swab debris on the wiped surface. The swab performances were compared and the best swab material was identified.

  2. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  3. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in ... but it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you' ...

  4. 'Swab racks are an old fashioned idea'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, M

    1991-12-01

    Mary Mumford, theatre sister at the Princes of Wales Hospital, Bridgend, was asked to speak in a short debate at an NATN branch meeting, supporting the motion that 'swab racks are an old fashioned idea'. Although she did not like swab racks she had not attempted thus far to do anything about them. In the event, she actually lost the debate--not in principle but because she could offer no effective alternative method of checking swabs. Having been given the incentive, a trial is now being conducted in her hospital similar to that described by Paul Wicker. This is the case presented by Mary Mumford supporting the following motion ... 'that swab racks are an old fashioned idea, which cause more potential problems due to exposure of blood than is proven to be safe in today's theatre environment'.

  5. Trans-shell infection by pathogenic micro-organisms reduces the shelf life of non-incubated bird's eggs: a constraint on the onset of incubation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Mark I; Beissinger, Steven R; Toranzos, Gary A; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Arendt, Wayne J

    2003-01-01

    Many birds initiate incubation before clutch completion, which results in asynchronous hatching. The ensuing within-brood size disparity often places later-hatched nestlings at a developmental disadvantage, but the functional significance of the timing of the onset of incubation is poorly understood. Early incubation may serve to maintain the viability of early-laid eggs, which declines over time owing to the putative effects of ambient temperature. An unexplored risk to egg viability is tran...

  6. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  7. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-01-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal

  8. Incidence of egg drop syndrome – 1976 in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the magnitude of influence by Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976 (EDS –'76 virus infection in causing drop in egg production in and around Namakkal. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swabs and 15 pouch shell glands (uteri homogenates from 15 poultry farms in and around Namakkal area were used for virus isolation. Three numbers of 10 –day- old embryonated duck eggs were used for the inoculation of each suspected material for virus isolation. The isolate was identified by HA property, by specific inhibition of HA and by AGPT using hyperimmune serum raised against reference EDS –'76 virus strain 127. Results: Out of samples from 15 farms only one isolate (6.6% was obtained from poultry farm No.5. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that the EDS –'76 virus influence in causing drop in egg production in this area to be minimal. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 350-353

  9. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  10. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  11. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellink, Eric, E-mail: emellink@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Riojas-Lopez, Monica E., E-mail: meriojas@cucba.udg.m [Departamento de Ecologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km. 15.5 Carretera a Nogales, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Luevano-Esparza, Jaime, E-mail: jluevano@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  12. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-Lopez, Monica E.; Luevano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  13. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  14. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  15. Haugh Unit: Gold Standard of Egg Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapidly determining shell egg quality in an objective manner is not an easy task. Candling is most often utilized as a quick method for assessing egg quality in a non-destructive manner, but it is a highly subjective method. As you have experienced this week, when candling, it is almost impossibl...

  16. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decharacterant, such as FD&C brown, blue, black, or green colors, meat and fish by-products, grain and milling by... part. (4) By coloring the shells of loss and inedible eggs with a sufficient amount of FD&C color to... the egg meat. Except that, lots of eggs containing significant percentages of blood spots or meat...

  17. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.

  18. Competitiveness of the EU egg sector, base year 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import levies on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied, for both shell eggs and whole egg powder. As a result of the costs of transportation, import levies and the effects on product quality and safety, there will barely be imports of

  19. Ensaios de penetração de Salmonella Enteritidis em ovos de galinha com diferentes qualidades de casca, submetidos ou não a lavagem industrial e a duas temperaturas de armazenagem Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis in chicken eggs, comparing different shell quality, industrial washing and temperature of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Pinto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento da Salmonella Enteritidis quando em contato com a superfície de ovos de consumo, classificados de acordo com a qualidade da casca ou com tratamentos (lavados ou não, usando fezes de aves como veículo de contaminação, e armazenados a 8°C e 70% de umidade relativa ou a 30°C e 90% de umidade relativa. A 8°C, o microrganismo permaneceu viável na superfície dos ovos, ao longo do tempo, enquanto a 30°C foi possível identificar a sua inibição e até sua eliminação da superfície. A contaminação do conteúdo de ovos com defeito de casca foi mais frequente quando os ovos foram submetidos a temperaturas inadequadas de armazenagem (30°C.Salmonella Enteriditis behavior was studied when present on the surface of consume eggs, classified according to the shell quality or treatments (washed or not. Stools of fowls were used as a vehicle for contamination. The eggs were stored at 8°C and 70% relative humidity or at 30°C and 90% of relative humidity. At 8°C, the microorganism stayed viable on the surface of the eggs throughout the study, while at 30°C it was inhibited and eliminated from the egg shell. The contamination of content of the eggs with shell defect was more frequent when they were submitted to inappropriate temperatures of storage (30°C.

  20. Behavior of Avirulent Yersinia pestis in Liquid Whole Egg as Affected by Antimicrobials and Thermal Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia spp. is a psychrotrophic bacterium that can grow at temperatures as low as minus two degrees Celsius, and is known to contaminate shell eggs in the United States and shell eggs and liquid egg in South America. A study was performed to determine the thermal sensitivity of avirulent Yersinia...

  1. Effect of length of lay of Nigeria indigenous chickens on their egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and thirty eggs collected from the second to the seventh month of production, from a flock of the Nigeria indigenous (NI) chickens, were analysed to determine the effect of the length of lay on egg composition and shell quality. The weights of the whole egg and its components as well as shell thickness were ...

  2. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...

  3. Shell Venster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.; Looijesteijn, B.; Regeer, B.; Stip, B.

    1995-03-01

    In the bi-monthly issues of 'Shell Venster' (window on Shell) attention is paid to the activities of the multinational petroleum company Shell Nederland and the Koninklijke/Shell Groep by means of non-specialist articles

  4. Swabs to genomes: a comprehensive workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison I. Dunitz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sequencing, assembly, and basic analysis of microbial genomes, once a painstaking and expensive undertaking, has become much easier for research labs with access to standard molecular biology and computational tools. However, there are a confusing variety of options available for DNA library preparation and sequencing, and inexperience with bioinformatics can pose a significant barrier to entry for many who may be interested in microbial genomics. The objective of the present study was to design, test, troubleshoot, and publish a simple, comprehensive workflow from the collection of an environmental sample (a swab to a published microbial genome; empowering even a lab or classroom with limited resources and bioinformatics experience to perform it.

  5. Hen genetic strain and extended cold storage influence on physical egg quality from cage-free aviary housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Karcher, D M; Regmi, P; Robison, C O; Gast, R K

    2018-04-02

    In the United States, there is an increase in need for cage-free eggs in retail and food manufacturing sectors. Understanding the impact of cage-free systems and the corresponding management on egg quality is pertinent as the U.S. industry adapts existing housing and builds new cage-free housing structures. A study was conducted comparing 2 brown shell and 2 white shell hen strains housed in a cage-free aviary system. Each set of eggs were placed in cold storage and assessed at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk. Eggs were collected at 21, 31, 42, and 60 wk of hen age. A full profile of physical quality measurements was conducted on up to 18 intact eggs for each hen strain/egg storage/hen age combination. Egg weight increased approximately 10 g for brown shell and 14 g for white shell eggs as hens aged. Many of the properties monitored were significantly impacted by all 3 main effects (hen strain, egg storage, and hen age) resulting in 3-way interactions. A brown and a white shell strain had stronger shells (44 N; P study also determined volume of shell, total length, maximum width, and percent length at maximum width to more accurately indicate egg shape than shape index. One brown shell strain produced eggs with the most consistent shape characteristics over the hen ages monitored. White shell eggs from the cage-free aviary housing produced the highest whole-egg total solids between 31 to 60 wk of hen age, whereas brown shell eggs resulted in the most consistent level of whole-egg total solids (22-23.5%). The brown and white shell strains in the current study produce cage-free aviary eggs with distinctive physical quality attributes. The outcomes from this study can be utilized by the U.S. egg industry in planning management strategies and market placement of cage-free eggs.

  6. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with eggs. Prevention is the name of the game with food allergies, so it's important for kids ... protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If ...

  7. Application of probiotic on egg production and egg quality of chukar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... the yolk color. This increase in shell thickness, shell weight and albumen weight were significant (P 0.05), though value was greater in probiotic treated birds. Egg production and quality are important determi- nations of the ...

  8. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr.

  9. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6 Egg... age required by § 118.4(a) is positive, you must divert eggs to treatment (defined in § 118.3) for the...

  10. Observations on eggs of eublepharid lizards, with comments on the evolution of the Gekkonoidea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Y.L.

    1972-01-01

    Captive specimens of Coleonyx v. variegatus, C. v. bogerti, Eublepharis macularius and Hemitheconyx caudicinctus laid parchment-shelled, moisture dependent eggs, resembling those of diplodactyline geckos and most lepidosaurians. Eublepharid eggs, including those of Aeluroscalabotes measured in

  11. Self-Collected Nasal Swabs for Respiratory Virus Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael L.; Nguyen, Matthew; Kirlin, Beth; Madziwa, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether 135 patients reporting acute respiratory illness (ARI) could self-collect nasal swab specimens and ship them for laboratory testing. Most subjects (78.2%) collected and shipped their specimens without errors; 10.5% excluded ≥1 packing components; 12.9% made ≥1 packing errors. Self-swabbing at home is feasible for confirming ARI etiology. PMID:26613095

  12. The table eggs and their quality in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose this study was to investigate quality of the table eggs, their damage and soiling in various age of the laying hens (47-62 weeks during the second phase of the laying cycle. The object of the research was table eggs, egg white, egg shell, damage and soiling of the egg shell. The eggs were of the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the non-cage system with deep litter and free range at small-scale breeding. In the breeding system with free range at small-scale conditions were secured requirements for laying hens in accordance with welfare principles. The eggs were collected each day at 4:00 pm. Weights of egg and egg shell samples of were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N. A white weight was calculated. Damage and soiling of eggs were investigated under the desk lamp lighting up to 100 W bulb. Statistical evaluation of the results was carried out in the program system SAS. From the existing conclusions of the various scientific and professional published works, it is known that both quality and safety are interrelated. In many works are the risk factors referred together as the quality standards. We found an important fact in assessing the trend of values of the egg shell weight, depending on the age of laying hens. Based on this fact, it can be assumed that the values of egg shell weight were not directly related to egg weight and egg white weight. It follows that the egg shell weight must be assessed comprehensively, and account must be taken of other factors. For the characteristics of the deformed egg shape has been one pc, representing 3.33% of the samples taken for analysis of eggs at 53 weeks of age of the total sampled eggs. In the following 56 weeks of age hens laying eggs there was not a deformed shape. The next subsequent sampling 59 weeks of age laying hens were recorded two pcs of eggs with deformed shape, i.e. 6.67%. At the last sampling of eggs at age 62 weeks, the number of eggs with deformed shape increased to

  13. Comparison of automated processing of flocked swabs with manual processing of fiber swabs for detection of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gillian; Matthews, Roger; Cunningham, Richard; Jenks, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The sensitivity of automated culture of Staphylococcus aureus from flocked swabs versus that of manual culture of fiber swabs was prospectively compared using nasal swabs from 867 patients. Automated culture from flocked swabs significantly increased the detection rate, by 13.1% for direct culture and 10.2% for enrichment culture.

  14. Comparison of Automated Processing of Flocked Swabs with Manual Processing of Fiber Swabs for Detection of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus▿‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gillian; Matthews, Roger; Cunningham, Richard; Jenks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of automated culture of Staphylococcus aureus from flocked swabs versus that of manual culture of fiber swabs was prospectively compared using nasal swabs from 867 patients. Automated culture from flocked swabs significantly increased the detection rate, by 13.1% for direct culture and 10.2% for enrichment culture. PMID:21525218

  15. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stores? The U.S. Department of Commerce's 1990 Sanitary Food Transportation Act requires that vehicles be dedicated ... coated with a mixture of salt and wet clay or ashes for a month. This process darkens ...

  16. Seeking responsibility for the lost swab? Search elsewhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R; Blackburn, S; Biggs, H

    2014-04-01

    This article explores the possibility that the surgeon's control over his or her environment is not complete and that, in certain circumstances, the final swab count can be distinguished from the 'normal course of events'. We readily accept that most swabs and instruments are left inside patients simply as a result of substandard care but we cannot accept that this is invariably the case, and lessons from the common law are cited to illustrate the reasons why. We hope to persuade defendant lawyers that it might be worthwhile to tease out from surgeons under scrutiny how these factors may have influenced their practice on the day that a swab was retained.

  17. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  18. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  19. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  20. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  1. Gossypiboma – the retained surgical swab: An enduring clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retained abdominal swabs remain a difficult problem. This review ... and continues to date, despite advances .... difficult problem to eradicate even though .... to complete multiple emergency surgeries with no rest is great, ... The position.

  2. Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection testing in group a ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... Several generations of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have been developed to facilitate ...

  3. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens Todd Myers, Tahaniyat Lalani, Mike Dent, Ju Jiang, Patrick L. Daly, Jason D...Maguire, and Allen L. Richards The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical...diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Until 2004, all confirmed cases of tick-borne spotted

  4. Forensic analysis of explosive residues from hand swabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Khairul Ahmad; Sumathy Rajendran; Syahidah Abu Hassan

    2008-01-01

    In the forensic examination of physical evidence for organic explosives, cotton swabs are often used to collect residue from surfaces, such as skin and post-blast debris. A preliminary study has been conducted to develop extraction method of a common energetic compound, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) from hand swabs followed by direct analysis of the resulting extract solution using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detector. Analysis was performed on an octadecylsilane-based (C 18 ) column using acetonitrile-water mixture (55:45) as mobile phase. The mobile phase was pumped at 1.0 mL/ min and separation affected using an isocratic mode with the detection wavelength of 230 nm. The explosive residue was extracted from cotton swabs using acetone in an ultrasonic cold bath. The developed method was later applied to the real hand swabs samples, which were taken from three army personnel who handled PETN during a munition disposal operation at Asahan Camp Military Firing range. The acetone extract obtained using sonication method was found to be effective in recovering PETN from cotton swabs with relatively high recovery (89.5 %) and good sensitivity with detection limit as low as 2 ng. The content of PETN in the real hand swab samples were found to be in the range of 4.7-130 mg. (author)

  5. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk...

  6. EVA Swab Tool to Support Planetary Protection and Astrobiology Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hood, Drew; Walker, Mary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2018-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on other planets, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed systems meet planetary protection requirements-and to protect our science from human contamination-we'll need to assess whether microorganisms may be leaking or venting from our spacecraft. Microbial sample collection outside of a pressurized spacecraft is complicated by temperature extremes, low pressures that preclude the use of laboratory standard (wetted) swabs, and operation either in bulky spacesuits or with robotic assistance. A team at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed a swab kit for use in collecting microbial samples from the external surfaces of crewed spacecraft, including spacesuits. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Swab Kit consists of a single swab tool handle and an eight-canister sample caddy. The design team minimized development cost by re-purposing a heritage Space Shuttle tile repair handle that was designed to quickly snap into different tool attachments by engaging a mating device in each end effector. This allowed the tool handle to snap onto a fresh swab end effector much like popular shaving razor handles can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. To disengage the handle from a swab, the user performs two independent functions, which can be done with a single hand. This dual operation mitigates the risk that a swab will be inadvertently released and lost in microgravity. Each swab end effector is fitted with commercially available foam swab tips, vendor-certified to be sterile for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). A microbial filter installed in the bottom of each sample container allows the container to outgas and re-pressurize without introducing microbial contaminants to internal void spaces. Extensive ground testing, post-test handling, and sample analysis confirmed the design is able to maintain sterile conditions as the canister moves between

  7. Inactivation of low pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus following pasteurization in liquid egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty seven million cases of shell eggs produced per year in the U.S. are processed as liquid egg product. The U.S. also exports a large amount of egg products. Although the U.S. is normally free of avian influenza, concern about contamination of egg product with these viruses has in the past result...

  8. Isolation and identification of female DNA on postcoital penile swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, S J; Collins, K A; Pettenati, M J; Fitts, M

    2000-06-01

    After sexual assault, cells originating from the assailant may be recovered from the victim. Through polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technology, positive scientific identification of the assailant may be made from these cells. Described is a prospective study describing a method for positively identifying cells from a female sex partner obtained from postcoital swabs of the penis of the male sex partner. Swabs were taken from the penis of a man at 1- to 24-hour intervals after coitus. DNA was isolated from each swab through standard organic extraction methods. The presence of female DNA was detected using the gender-specific amelogenin marker. Extracted DNA was amplified for eight different genetic loci using the Promega PowerPlex kit (Promega) and Amplitaq Gold (Perkin Elmer). Amplified samples were electrophoresed on precast sequencing gels (Hitachi) and were analyzed fluorescently using Hitachi's FMBIO 2 fluorescent scanner and software. Each sample obtained from a penile swab or condom was compared to male and female buccal controls. Female DNA was isolated from all postcoital penile swabs as determined by exclusive amplification of the X-chromosome specific 212 base pair amelogenin marker. In all cases, scientific identification of the female DNA from the swabs was determined by coamplification of eight STR loci (PowerPlex) and was compared to female and male control profiles. Cells shed from a female victim during sexual intercourse can be retrieved from the penis of a male offender after sexual intercourse during a 1- to 24-hour postcoital interval. DNA can be extracted from these cells and can be used to scientifically identify the female sexual participant through PCR-based technology. It is suggested that penile swabs be taken from alleged perpetrators of sexual assaults to associate them with a female victim.

  9. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P egg quality is warranted. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Response analysis of the dynamic excitation of hen eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Severa

    2007-01-01

    Commercially produced hen eggs have been tested by means of dynamic excitation of the egg-shells with following analysis of their response. The falling steel ball have been chosen as a exciting instrument and the laser vibrometer have been used as a measuring device for the egg response. The reproductibility of the experiments has been relatively high and the surface velocity has been found to be significantly dependent on the position around the meridian. Analysed frequency spectrum has show...

  11. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  12. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  13. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in great tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  14. Shelf life study of egg albumin in pasteurized and non-pasteurized eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...

  15. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries E Budding

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  16. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  17. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  18. Impacts of radiation processing on physicochemical properties of Table Eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M. D. H.; Abdul Azeem, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality, and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact, fresh while and brown shell eggs, inoculated with 10 9 colony-forming units (cfu) of S enteritidis and S, typhimurium. The effect of gamma-irradiation at doses 2,4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic and population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color), chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), the rheological changes (viscosity), pH and protean solubility of the eggs were determinate d. Results showed that 2 kGy, the number of S, enteritidis and eggs internal quality as freshness as measured by albumen height and the number of hugh units, and yolk color index were all significantly reduced with increasing irradiation doses. On significant change was found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). After irradiation, the foaming ability and foam capacity of egg white were increasing radiation doses> The viscosity of egg white and yolk decreased with increasing doses of irradiation. The pH of the egg white and yolk increasing doses of radiation dose. The protein salability decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. These Results Suggest that gamma irradiation reduce the freshness of shell eggs and improving important functional properties such as to foaming ability and foaming capacity. Gamma irradiation can also be applied to the egg breaking process sine irradiation reduces the viscosity of egg white and yolk, which can allow egg whites and yolks to be separated with greater efficiency. (Author)

  19. Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study demonstrated that olive oil improved egg weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 fatty acid level of egg yolk, and soyabean oil had positive effects on serum lipid concentrations. Incorporation of these oils into the diets of Japanese ...

  20. Correlation of quality measurements to visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using ch...

  1. Chemometric correlation of shelf life, quality measurements, and visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using pr...

  2. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  3. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  4. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  5. Effect of a commercial housing system on egg quality during extended storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Karcher, D M; Abdo, Z

    2014-05-01

    Egg producers in the United States are utilizing a variety of commercial egg production systems to provide consumer choice and meet legislative requirements. Consumer egg grades in the United States were developed for conventional cage production, and it is unclear what effect alternative production systems might have on egg quality during retail and consumer home storage. The current study was undertaken to determine what changes in egg quality characteristics occur during extended cold storage for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. During 12 wk of cold storage, egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit, static compression shell strength, vitelline membrane strength and deformation, yolk index, shell dynamic stiffness, and whole egg total solids were monitored. Overall, aviary and enriched eggs were significantly (P system effects for yolk measurements, shell dynamic stiffness, or whole egg total solids were observed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk quality measurements were all greatest at 0 and lowest at 12 wk of storage (P systems for each measured attribute at 4, 6, and 12 wk was determined. Other than differences in the change of egg weight at 4 wk, no significant differences in the rate of quality decline were found among the housing systems. The results of the current study indicate that current US egg quality standards should effectively define quality for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs.

  6. SWAB guidelines for antimicrobial therapy of acute infectious diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. C.; Schultsz, C.; Vandenbroucke-Graulsz, C. M. J.; Speelman, P.; Prins, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (SWAB: Stichting Werkgroep Antibioticabeleid) develops evidence-based guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adults. In this article we discuss the guideline on antibiotic treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea (AID). AID can be subdivided

  7. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%, vitamin E (90.00% and selenium (91.98%, and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusion feed (76.00% in respect to the control group (82.00%, confidence interval of 95%. Concerning diet supplemented with selenium and diet supplemented with vitamin E, the egg yolk weight was statistically different compared with the control group (confidence interval of 95%. The yolk weight averaged 1.80 g and 1.29 g more than yolk weight in the control eggs, respectively. The egg shell weight was statistically different in diet enriched with iodine compared with the control. The egg shell weight averaged 1.48 g less per egg for the eggs enriched with iodine with 17.45% less underweight than the control eggs. Enriched eggs offer consumer a variety of value-added options for their egg purchase. Although enriched eggs may provide consumers with a specific quality attribute or healthful ingredient, they do not appear to provide quality and value in a traditional sense as defined by the standards of quality and grade.

  8. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  9. Buccal DNA collection: comparison of buccal swabs with FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Elizabeth; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Robertson, Laila; Brisbane, Joanna M; Ashton, Lesley J; Scott, Rodney J; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2006-04-01

    Collection and analysis of DNA, most commonly from blood or buccal cells, is becoming more common in epidemiologic studies. Buccal samples, which are painless to take and relatively easily collected, are often the preferred source. There are several buccal cell collection methods: swabs, brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards, such as FTA or IsoCode cards. Few studies have systematically compared methods of buccal cell collection with respect to DNA yield and amplification success under similar conditions. We compared buccal DNA collection and amplification using buccal swabs and FTA cards in 122 control subjects from our Australian case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Buccal DNA was quantified using a real-time PCR for beta-actin and genotyped at the loci of three polymorphisms (MTHFR 677C>T, ACE I/D, and XPD 1012G>A). PCR was successful with DNA from buccal swabs for 62% to 89% of subjects and from FTA cards for 83% to 100% of subjects, depending on the locus. The matched pair odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing success of FTA cards with buccal swabs are as follows: MTHFR 677C>T using PCR-RFLP, 12.5 (11.6-13.5) and using real-time PCR, 130.0 (113.1-152.8); ACE I/D using PCR-amplified fragment length polymorphism, 3.36 (3.2-3.5); XPD 1012G>A using real-time PCR, 150.0 (132.7-172.3). FTA cards are a robust DNA collection method and generally produce DNA suitable for PCR more reliably than buccal swabs. There are, however, technical challenges in handling discs punched from FTA cards that intending users should be aware of.

  10. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina

    2014-01-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency......-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA...... detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling....

  11. Development of an ELISA for evaluation of swab recovery efficiencies of bovine serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Sparding

    Full Text Available After a potential biological incident the sampling strategy and sample analysis are crucial for the outcome of the investigation and identification. In this study, we have developed a simple sandwich ELISA based on commercial components to quantify BSA (used as a surrogate for ricin with a detection range of 1.32-80 ng/mL. We used the ELISA to evaluate different protein swabbing procedures (swabbing techniques and after-swabbing treatments for two swab types: a cotton gauze swab and a flocked nylon swab. The optimal swabbing procedure for each swab type was used to obtain recovery efficiencies from different surface materials. The surface recoveries using the optimal swabbing procedure ranged from 0-60% and were significantly higher from nonporous surfaces compared to porous surfaces. In conclusion, this study presents a swabbing procedure evaluation and a simple BSA ELISA based on commercial components, which are easy to perform in a laboratory with basic facilities. The data indicate that different swabbing procedures were optimal for each of the tested swab types, and the particular swab preference depends on the surface material to be swabbed.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND OPTIMIZATION OF ITS PREPARATION TECHNIQUE AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DO PÓ DA CASCA DE OVO E OTIMIZAÇÃO DA TÉCNICA DE ELABORAÇÃO DO PRODUTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to analyze the microbiological profile of hen egg shell powder distributed to poor communities as an alternate calcium source, and optimizing powder preparation technique through efficient hygiene and sanitary safety. The sampling was carried out in the distribution units of Pastoral da Criança program of the Catholic Church, in Goiânia municipality, Brazil. Ten egg shell powder samples were collected in the preparation places of product, at different moments during September to December 2001. It was observed that some samples presented considerable levels of aerobic mesophilic, total coliforms (at 35C, and moulds and yeasts, but not contamination with thermotolerant coliforms (at 45C, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella sp. Egg shell powder produced through the standard technique, which included essentially washing egg shells, immersion in chlorinated solution, boiling, drying, and milling process, did not show contamination by microorganisms. It was concluded that the optimized technique assures process efficiency and hygienic and sanitary quality for the product.

    KEY-WORDS: Calcium; food microbiology; food analysis; food contamination.

    A pesquisa teve o objetivo de analisar o perfil microbiológico do pó da casca de ovo de galinha distribuído a comunidades carentes, como fonte alternativa de cálcio, bem como otimizar a técnica de elaboração do produto, visando eficácia e segurança em termos higiênico-sanitários. A amostragem foi realizada em unidades de distribuição do programa Pastoral da Criança, da Igreja Católica, em Goiânia-GO, Brasil. Foram coletadas dez amostras do pó da casca de ovo, nos locais de produção e em diferentes momentos, nos meses de setembro a dezembro de 2001. Os resultados revelaram que

  13. THE SHELF LIFE OF BIRD EGGS: TESTING EGG VIABILITY USING A TROPICAL CLIMATE GRADIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVEN R. BEISSINGER; MARK I. COOK; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    2005-01-01

    Avian parents influence the onset of development, hatching synchrony, and likelihood of brood reduction through the onset of incubation. Studies testing adaptive functions of brood reduction assume that eggs are protected by their shells and waiting for parents to initiate incubation in a manner that creates optimal hatching patterns, but the viability of early laid...

  14. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  15. Osteoclast cell-surface specializations and nuclear kinetics during egg-laying in Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Medullary bone deposits serve as a reservoir of labile calcium for egg-shell calcification in birds. Quantitative transmission-electron-microscope methods and light-microscope autoradiographic cell-population-kinetic analyses were used to determine changes in cell-surface specializations and population dynamics of medullary bone osteoclasts during egg-laying in Japanese quail. Prior to egg-shell formation, from 0 to about 8 hours after the previous oviposition, very few osteoclast profiles had ruffled borders. The appearance of ruffled borders coincided with the beginning of egg-shell calcification, about 9-10 hours after the previous oviposition. During egg-shell calcification, about 10-21 hours after the previous oviposition, most osteoclast profiles had ruffled borders. Ruffled borders disappeared at the completion of egg-shell calcification and commencement of egg-shell pigmentation. Thus, functional activities of medullary bone osteoclasts appear to be closely synchronized with egg-shell calcification during egg-laying. From 1 to 48 hours after a single injection of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR), very few labeled osteoclast nuclei were seen during egg-laying. Following multiple injections of 3H-TdR, the percentage of labeled nuclei reached a peak at about 170 hours after the first injection. At this peak-labeling time, relatively few of the osteoclast profiles that had labeled nuclei had two or more; although the average number of nuclei per osteoclast profile was about 3.6. These kinetic data suggest that the medullary bone osteoclast population has a prolonged rate of turnover compared to rapid changes in cell activities associated with each 24-hour egg-laying cycle; and collectively they would suggest that rapid changes in osteoclast functions occur independently of changes in cell-population dynamics

  16. EGG QUALITY OF CREOLE HENS REARED IN THE BACKYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Juárez-Caratachea

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The egg quality from Creole backyard hens was determined by collecting samples from 11 municipalities from the central area of Michoacan State, Mexico. It was measured: egg weight (EW, longitude diameter (LD of the egg, transversal diameter (TD of the egg, shell weight (SW, shell thickness (ST, shell index (SI, white diameter (WD, yolk diameter (YD, white high (WH, yolk high (YH, air chamber high (ACH and Haugh units (HU. The averages obtained were: EW 50.7 g; LD 5.6 cm; TD 4.2 cm; SW 4.5 g.; ST 0.28 mm; SI 8.9 %; WD 10.0 cm; YD 4.5 cm; WH 6.3 mm; YH 1.6 cm; ACH 5.4 mm; HU 73.4, YP 12.1. In conclusion, the eggs of backyard hens were smaller than commercial eggs. However, the internal quality indicators suggested that backyard hen eggs have similar quality to that of commercial hens.

  17. Use of the VS-sense swab in diagnosing vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D; Nyirjesy, Paul; Kessary, Hadar; Ferris, Daron G

    2009-09-01

    Although pH assessment of vaginal secretions is beneficial for diagnosing vaginitis, it is not commonly done. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of the VS-Sense (pH test) swab (Common Sense, Ltd., Caesarea, Israel) in augmenting the diagnosis of vaginitis. We prospectively studied 193 women with acute vulvovaginal symptoms and 74 asymptomatic controls at three medical centers. The VS-Sense swab was administered intravaginally, and results were interpreted by a nurse. These results were compared with final clinical and laboratory diagnoses. In women with an elevated pH caused by bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomonas, and other types of vaginitis, the VS-Sense test sensitivity and specificity were 82.3% (102 of 124) (95% CI 74.4%-88.5%) and 94.2% (129 of 137) (95% CI 88.8%-97.4%), respectively. There was an 86.2% (95% CI 81.3%-90.1%) overall agreement between pH paper and VS-Sense swab results. The VS-Sense test offers an alternative approach to measuring vaginal pH with nitrazine paper. Use of this simple, more rapid test may facilitate the diagnosis of vulvovaginitis.

  18. Prevalence of high-risk egg-preparation practices in restaurants that prepare breakfast egg entrées: an EHS-Net study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robin; Beatty, Mark E; Bogard, April K; Esko, Michael-Peter; Angulo, Frederick J; Selman, Carol

    2004-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Foods prepared with raw shell eggs have often been associated with SE outbreaks. The federal government published the Egg Safety Action Plan in December 1999 that called for reduction of egg-preparation practices that may contribute to the survival and proliferation of SE. In seven states, an interview and brief site evaluation of 153 restaurants that prepare eggs during all hours of operation was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network to determine the prevalence of such practices. Fifty-four percent (83 of 153) of restaurants pooled raw shell eggs not intended for immediate service. These pooled eggs were held a median of 4 h for scrambled eggs, 5.5 h for omelets, and 6 h for pancakes and French toast. Nearly 26% (39 of 152) of restaurants reported storing eggs at room temperature, and 5% (7 of 152) stored eggs on ice or in cold-water baths before cooking. Generally, eggs were cooked to 72 to 83 degrees C, which is above the recommended final cook temperature of 63 to 68 degrees C. Employees reported sanitizing utensils used to prepare eggs less than once every 4 h in 42% (57 of 136) of restaurants. Several areas were identified in which further emphasis might reduce egg-associated SE infections in accordance with Healthy People 2010 goals.

  19. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  20. Omega-3 chicken egg detection system using a mobile-based image processing segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Oky Dwi; Kurniawan Teguh, M.; Cintya Amalia, P.

    2017-02-01

    An Omega-3 chicken egg is a chicken egg produced through food engineering technology. It is produced by hen fed with high omega-3 fatty acids. So, it has fifteen times nutrient content of omega-3 higher than Leghorn's. Visually, its shell has the same shape and colour as Leghorn's. Each egg can be distinguished by breaking the egg's shell and testing the egg yolk's nutrient content in a laboratory. But, those methods were proven not effective and efficient. Observing this problem, the purpose of this research is to make an application to detect the type of omega-3 chicken egg by using a mobile-based computer vision. This application was built in OpenCV computer vision library to support Android Operating System. This experiment required some chicken egg images taken using an egg candling box. We used 60 omega-3 chicken and Leghorn eggs as samples. Then, using an Android smartphone, image acquisition of the egg was obtained. After that, we applied several steps using image processing methods such as Grab Cut, convert RGB image to eight bit grayscale, median filter, P-Tile segmentation, and morphology technique in this research. The next steps were feature extraction which was used to extract feature values via mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis from each image. Finally, using digital image measurement, some chicken egg images were classified. The result showed that omega-3 chicken egg and Leghorn egg had different values. This system is able to provide accurate reading around of 91%.

  1. The avian egg exhibits general allometric invariances in mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jia-Yang; Chen, Pin-Yi; Yang, Da-Chang; Wu, Shang-Ping; Yen, An; Hsieh, Hsin-I

    2017-10-27

    The avian egg exhibits extraordinary diversity in size, shape and color, and has a key role in avian adaptive radiations. Despite extensive work, our understanding of the underlying principles that guide the "design" of the egg as a load-bearing structure remains incomplete, especially over broad taxonomic scales. Here we define a dimensionless number C, a function of egg weight, stiffness and dimensions, to quantify how stiff an egg is with respect to its weight after removing geometry-induced rigidity. We analyze eggs of 463 bird species in 36 orders across five orders of magnitude in body mass, and find that C number is nearly invariant for most species, including tiny hummingbirds and giant elephant birds. This invariance or "design guideline" dictates that evolutionary changes in shell thickness and Young's modulus, both contributing to shell stiffness, are constrained by changes in egg weight. Our analysis illuminates unique reproductive strategies of brood parasites, kiwis, and megapodes, and quantifies the loss of safety margin for contact incubation due to artificial selection and environmental toxins. Our approach provides a mechanistic framework for a better understanding of the mechanical design of the avian egg, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origin of contact incubation of amniote eggs.

  2. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic...

  3. Ensuring Microbiological Safety of Fresh Eggs by Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A. A.; Swailam, H.M.; Aly, W. F.

    2008-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (Balady, White and Brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that Balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of Balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of Balady eggs during storage at 4±1 degree C for 35 days was studied. The effects of irradiation and storage on total cholesterol, and total carotenoids contents in Balady eggs were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Coliform bacteria, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were completely eliminated. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg as a result of irradiation. Treated Balady eggs with irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  4. Comparison of environmental and egg microbiology associated with conventional and free-range laying hen management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Musgrove, M T

    2011-09-01

    Eggs from alternative production practices are a growing niche in the market. Meeting consumer requests for greater diversity in retail egg options has resulted in some unique challenges such as understanding the food safety implications of eggs from alternative production practices. A study was conducted to determine what, if any, differences exist between nest run conventional cage-produced eggs and free range-produced eggs. A sister flock of brown egg layers was maintained in conventional cage and free-range production with egg and environmental sampling every 6 wk from 20 to 79 wk of age. Aerobic, coliform, and yeast and mold populations were monitored. Environmental microbial levels were not always indicative of egg contamination levels. When significant differences (P free-range nest box eggs and free-range floor eggs were always greater than those of conventional cage eggs, which remained low throughout the study (0.42-0.02 log cfu/mL). Shell yeast and mold levels were significantly greater in free-range floor eggs than in free-range nest box eggs and conventional cage eggs throughout the entire study. Egg contents contamination levels were extremely low for all monitored populations and treatments. Season of the year played a role in both environmental and egg microbial levels. Winter had the lowest levels of all populations monitored for all treatments, except for aerobic free-range floor egg shell emulsions, which were increased (3.6 log cfu/mL). Understanding the differences in microbial populations present on conventional cage-produced and free range-produced eggs can lead to the development of effective cleaning procedures, enhancing food safety.

  5. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  6. Meatal Swabs Contain Less Cellular Material and Are Associated with a Decrease in Gram Stain Smear Quality Compared to Urethral Swabs in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen J; Schwebke, Jane R; Aaron, Kristal J; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hook, Edward W

    2017-07-01

    Urethral swabs are the samples of choice for point-of-care Gram stain testing to diagnose Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men. As an alternative to urethral swabs, meatal swabs have been recommended for the collection of urethral discharge to diagnose N. gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in certain populations by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), as they involve a less invasive collection method. However, as meatal swabs could be sampling a reduced surface area and result in fewer collected epithelial cells compared to urethral swabs, the adequacy of meatal swab specimens to collect sufficient cellular material for Gram stain testing remains unknown. We enrolled 66 men who underwent either urethral or meatal swabbing and compared the cellular content and Gram stain failure rate. We measured the difference in swab cellular content using the Cepheid Xpert CT/NG sample adequacy control crossing threshold (SAC CT ) and determined the failure rate of Gram stain smears (GSS) due to insufficient cellular material. In the absence of discharge, meatal smears were associated with a significant reduction in cellular content ( P = 0.0118), which corresponded with a GSS failure rate significantly higher than that for urethral swabs (45% versus 3%, respectively; P < 0.0001). When discharge was present, there was no difference among results from urethral and meatal swabs. Therefore, if GSS testing is being considered for point-of-care diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection or NGU in men, meatal swabs should be avoided in the absence of a visible discharge. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  8. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Safary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND. After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age, blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn’t affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05 but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32 (p0.05. No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05. Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p0.05. Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001. It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass.

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN MEAT, MILK AND EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological tests are widely used to detect antibiotic residues in the meat, milk and eggs for better care of the quality and health safety. In the present study microbiological inhibition test i.e. Swab Test on Animal Food (STAF was developed indigenously for screening of animal foods for presence of antibiotic residues. In this test local isolated culture of Bacillus subtilis was used as a test microorganism due to its high sensitivity to detect a wide range of antibiotics commonly used in animal disorders. The concentration of spore suspension of Bacillus subtilis JS2004 used in the formation of STAF plate was optimized at 2x107 spores/ ml. At this concentration, inhibition zone around Neomycin control disc was 10-16 mm. Nutrient agar was used as a medium in spore suspension and 0.4% dextrose was added as a constituent of medium. Zones of inhibition around swab samples and Neomycin control disc were observed and the diameter was measured. All swab samples showing a minimum of 2 mm wide inhibition zone around them were considered as positive for presence of antibiotic residues. The swab samples showing no zone of inhibition or a zone measuring less than 2 mm were considered as negative. Results of application of STAF test was on animal food samples revealed the high incidence of antibiotic residues.

  10. First chelonian eggs and carapace fragments from the Pliocene of Rhodes, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller-Töwe, Inken J.; Kjeldahl-Vallon, Tina A.; Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Well-preserved fossil eggs and eggshell fragments from the Pliocene Apolakkia Formation of Rhodes (Greece) are described. The eggs were found in-situ in a clutch. They are sub-spherical with lengths of 53-60 mm and widths of about 40 mm. All eggs are diagenetically compressed and their original...... diameters are estimated at 45-50 mm. The eggshells are 0.3-0.5 mm thick, partly recrystallized, but widely still aragonitic. They consist of needle-like crystals that form individual shell units. A few pores are preserved between these shell units. This shell-structure allows assignment to chelonian eggs...... in the oofamily Testudoolithidae and the oogenus Testudolithus. The external morphology, microstructure and mineralogical composition of the eggshells show close resemblance to eggs of the extant tortoise Geochelone elephantopus. Together with a small association of turtle carapace fragments from the same...

  11. Evidence of Egg Diversity in Squamate Evolution from Cretaceous Anguimorph Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fernandez

    Full Text Available Lizards are remarkable amongst amniotes, for they display a unique mosaic of reproduction modes ranging from egg-laying to live-bearing. Within this patchwork, geckoes are believed to represent the only group to ever have produced fully calcified rigid-shelled eggs, contrasting with the ubiquitous parchment shelled-eggs observed in other lineages. However, this hypothesis relies only on observations of modern taxa and fossilised gecko-like eggshells which have never been found in association with any embryonic or parental remains. We report here the first attested fossil eggs of lizards from the Early Cretaceous of Thailand, combining hard eggshells with exquisitely preserved embryos of anguimoph (e.g. Komodo dragons, mosasaurs. These fossils shed light on an apparently rare reproduction strategy of squamates, demonstrate that the evolution of rigid-shelled eggs are not an exclusive specialization of geckoes, and suggest a high plasticity in the reproductive organs mineralizing eggshells.

  12. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  13. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  14. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  15. The determination of Se content in Se egg by NAA in MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Hou Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    The selenium contents in the yolk, albumin and shell of the egg which was laid by layer hen fed with various Se concentrations are determined by thermal neutron activation analysis with a nuclear reaction 78 Se(n, γ) 77 Se m on the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The results show that the more the selenium added to the feed, the higher the Se content in the egg and that in the egg constituents, the highest Se content is in the egg yolk and the lowest in the egg albumin

  16. The Effects of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Over the Egg Quality in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCAN, Mukaddes; ÇÖTELİOĞLU, Ülker

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on the egg quality in 5 week-female Japanese quails was investigated. Hyperthyroidsm and hypothyroidism were achieved by mixing 0.4 mg/100 g. levatrocsyn-sodium and % 0.2 g. propylthiouracil (PTU) in to the food during the 5 weeks period, respectively. It was found that egg weight, albumen weight, shell weight and shell thickness values in both trial groups reduced (P

  17. Interpretation of nasal swab measurements following suspected releases of actinide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, John Allan; Bertelli, Luiz; Waters, Tom L.

    2017-01-01

    For radionuclides such as plutonium and americium, detection of removable activity in the nose (i.e., nasal swab measurements) are frequently used to determine whether follow-up bioassay measurements are warranted following a potential intake. For this paper, the authors analyzed 429 nasal swab measurements taken following incidents or suspicious circumstances (such as an air monitor alarming) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for which the dose was later evaluated using in vitro bioassay. Nasal swab measurements were found to be very poor predictors of dose and should not be used as such in the field. However, nasal swab measurements can be indicative of whether a reliably detectable committed effective dose (CED) occurred. About 14% of nasal swab measurements between 1.25 and 16.7 Bq corresponded to CEDs greater than 1 mSv, so in general, positive nasal swabs always indicate that follow-up bioassay should be performed (positive nasal swabs less than 1.25 Bq are considered separately). This probability increased significantly for nasal swabs greater than 16.7 Bq. Only about 3% of nasal swabs with no detectable activity (NDA) corresponded to reliably detectable CEDs. As a result, a nasal swab with NDA is therefore necessary, but not sufficient, to negate the need for a follow-up bioassay if it was collected following other workplace indicators of a potential intake.

  18. Ensuring microbiological safety of commercial eggs by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A; Swailam, H.M.; Abd El-Rahim, E.A.; Shallan, M.A; Aly, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (balady, white and brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0,2,3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of balady eggs during storage at 4± 1 deg c for 35 days as well as on total cholesterol , ph, and total carotenoids contents were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Whereas completely eliminated coliform bacteria, E.coli and salmonella spp. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg. irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life of balady eggs

  19. Effect of Probiotic Preparation Enriched with Selenium on Qualitative Parameters of Table Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mellen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the effects of the diet for laying hens supplemented with probiotic product with an organic form of selenium on egg weight, albumen quality, yolk quality and egg shell quality were studied. Isa Brown hens (n=90 were randomly divided at the age of 17 weeks into three groups (30 birds per group. Hens in all groups consumed the complete feed mixture ad libitum. In the control group water for drinking contained no additions. In the first experimental group probiotic product was added to the water, in the second experimental group the same probiotic preparation enriched with 0.8 to 1 mg of organic selenium per 1 g of the product was added to the water. The probiotic preparations were administered at the dose of 15 mg per 6 l of water daily, in both experimental groups. Monitored physical parameters of eggs: egg weight (g, specific egg weight (g/cm3​​, albumen weight (g, albumen height (mm, albumen index, Haugh units (HJ, yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk color (°HLR, egg shell weight, egg shell specific weight (g/cm3, egg shell strength (N/cm2, the average eggshell thickness (µm. Experiment lasted 48 weeks. The results showed that egg weight was slightly higher in both experimental groups compared with the control group, differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05. The values ​​in the order of groups: 60.97 ± 4.97, 61.18 ± 5:00; 61.75 ± 5.89 (g ± SD. Was found insignificant impact of the add probiotic preparation and probiotic preparation enriched with selenium on the quality parameters of table eggs. Yolk index, albumen index, Haugh units and the average egg shell thickness were only slightly, statistically insignificant higher in the experimental groups (P> 0.05.

  20. Characterisation of some Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains and examination of their transmission via eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J; Fodor, L; Makrai, L

    2001-01-01

    The biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 12 Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains isolated from chickens and turkeys suffering from respiratory clinical signs and the survival of some isolates on egg-shell and within chicken eggs during hatching were examined. All O. rhinotracheale strains showed typical biochemical characteristics. Among the 16 drugs examined, penicillin G, ampicillin (MICs ranging from tiamulin (MICs varied from colistin) or not at all (apramycin, spectinomycin, polymyxin B). At 37 degrees C, O. rhinotracheale did not survive on egg-shell for more than 24 hours, while upon inoculation into embryonated chicken eggs it killed embryos by the ninth day, and from the 14th day post-inoculation no O. rhinotracheale could be cultured from the eggs at all. These results suggest that O. rhinotracheale is not transmitted via eggs during hatching.

  1. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  2. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  3. Detection and molecular characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from table eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Table eggs are nutritionally important food consumed globally. Despite being protected inside the hard shell and a semi-permeable membrane, the egg contents may be contaminated with microbes and thus become a possible carrier of infectious agents to humans. A number of medically signific...

  4. Survival of Salmonella enterica serovar infantis on and within stored table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lublin, Avishai; Maler, Ilana; Mechani, Sara; Pinto, Riky; Sela-Saldinger, Shlomo

    2015-02-01

    Contaminated table eggs are considered a primary source of foodborne salmonellosis globally. Recently, a single clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis emerged in Israel and became the predominant serovar isolated in poultry. This clone is currently the most prevalent strain in poultry and is the leading cause of salmonellosis in humans. Because little is known regarding the potential transmission of this strain from contaminated eggs to humans, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Salmonella Infantis to survive on the eggshell or within the egg during cold storage or at room temperature. Salmonella cells (5.7 log CFU per egg) were inoculated on the surface of 120 intact eggs or injected into the egg yolk (3.7 log CFU per egg) of another 120 eggs. Half of the eggs were stored at 5.5 ± 0.3°C and half at room temperature (25.5 ± 0.1°C) for up to 10 weeks. At both temperatures, the number of Salmonella cells on the shell declined by 2 log up to 4 weeks and remained constant thereafter. Yolk-inoculated Salmonella counts at cold storage declined by 1 log up to 4 weeks and remained constant, while room-temperature storage supported the growth of the pathogen to a level of 8 log CFU/ml of total egg content, as early as 4 weeks postinoculation. Examination of egg content following surface inoculation revealed the presence of Salmonella in a portion of the eggs at both temperatures up to 10 weeks, suggesting that this strain can also penetrate through the shell and survive within the egg. These findings imply that Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is capable of survival both on the exterior and interior of table eggs and even multiply inside the egg at room temperature. Our findings support the need for prompt refrigeration to prevent Salmonella multiplication during storage of eggs at room temperature.

  5. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  6. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  7. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  8. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  9. Evaluation of swabs, transport media, and specimen transport conditions for optimal detection of viruses by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Julian; Garcia, Katherine; Tran, Thomas; Papadakis, Georgina; Birch, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Depletion of swabs and viral transport medium during epidemics may prompt the use of unvalidated alternatives. Swabs collected and transported dry or in saline were compared to commercially available swab/medium combinations for PCR detection of influenza, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus, and adenovirus. Each was detected at an ambient temperature (22°C) and 4°C for 7 days. Detection of influenza on dry or saline swabs is important because of its capacity to cause outbreaks involving large numbers of cases.

  10. Effect of lingual gauze swab placement on pulse oximeter readings in anaesthetised dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, A; Martinez-Taboada, F; Nitzan, M

    2017-01-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lingual gauze swab placement on pulse oximeter readings in anaesthetised dogs and cats. Following anaesthetic induction, the following pulse oximeter probe configurations were performed: no gauze swab (control), placement of a gauze swab between the tongue and the probe, placement of different thicknesses of gauze swab, placement of red cotton fabric, placement of a sheet of white paper and placement of the probe and gauze swab on different locations on the tongue. Oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and peripheral perfusion index (PI) were recorded. Placement of a gauze swab between the pulse oximeter probe and the tongue in anaesthetised dogs and cats resulted in significantly higher SpO 2 values compared with the control group. In dogs, PI values were significantly higher than the control in all groups except the quarter thickness swab group. In cats, PI was significantly higher in the double thickness swab and white paper groups compared with the control. Cats had significantly higher SpO 2 and lower PI values than dogs. The authors propose that increased contact pressure is responsible for significantly higher SpO 2 and PI readings with the use of a lingual gauze swab resulting from changes in transmural pressure and arterial compliance. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Equivalence of self- and staff-collected nasal swabs for the detection of viral respiratory pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas K Akmatov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for the timely collection of diagnostic biosamples during symptomatic episodes represents a major obstacle to large-scale studies on acute respiratory infection (ARI epidemiology. This may be circumvented by having the participants collect their own nasal swabs. We compared self- and staff-collected swabs in terms of swabbing quality and detection of viral respiratory pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective study among employees of our institution during the ARI season 2010/2011 (December-March. Weekly emails were sent to the participants (n = 84, reminding them to come to the study center in case of new symptoms. The participants self-collected an anterior nasal swab from one nostril, and trained study personnel collected one from the other nostril. The participants self-collected another two swabs (one from each nostril on a subsequent day. Human β-actin DNA concentration was determined in the swabs as a quality control. Viral respiratory pathogens were detected by multiplex RT-PCR (Seeplex RV15 kit, Seegene, Eschborn, Germany. Of 84 participants, 56 (67% reported at least one ARI episode, 18 participants two, and one participant three. Self-swabbing was highly accepted by the participants. The amount of β-actin DNA per swab was higher in the self- than in the staff-collected swabs (p = 0.008. β-actin concentration was lower in the self-swabs collected on day 1 than in those collected on a subsequent day (p<0.0001. A respiratory viral pathogen was detected in 31% (23/75 of staff- and in 35% (26/75 of self-collected swabs (p = 0.36. With both approaches, the most frequently identified pathogens were human rhinoviruses A/B/C (12/75 swabs, 16% and human coronavirus OC43 (4/75 swabs, 5%. There was almost perfect agreement between self- and staff-collected swabs in terms of pathogen detection (agreement = 93%, kappa = 0.85, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nasal self-swabbing

  12. Effect of distance from the roadway on heavy metal content and egg quality of village laying hen's egg along roadsides of tokat-turhal, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekeroglu, A.; Sari, H.; Sarica, M.; Duman, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the heavy metal contents and egg quality characteristics of chicken eggs was studied. The eggs have been collected at distances of 0-100 (Distance A), 100-200 (Distance B) and 200-300 m (Distance C) away from the edge of Tokat-Turhal road.The distance from roadway had no significant effect on egg Cu and Mn contents (P>0.05), although a significant effect on egg Cd and Pb content (P 0.05). Eggs obtained from distance A and B had significantly higher weight than obtained from distance C (P<0.05). Egg obtained from distance B had significantly lower egg shell colour scales than those of the other distances (P<0.01). And, egg yolk colour was showed a significant variation among the distances away from the roadway, and the highest yolk colour value was detected in distance B (P<0.05). Depending on obtained results, it can be concluded that the egg heavy metal concentrations exceeded background levels for hen eggs. Therefore, consumers should be aware of the possible health risks related by the use of these eggs which has obtained from side of road.

  13. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  14. Nesting environment may drive variation in eggshell structure and egg characteristics in the Testudinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D Charles

    2018-05-14

    Testudines exhibit considerable variation in the degree of eggshell calcification, which affects eggshell conductance, water physiology of the embryos, and calcium metabolism of embryos. However, the underlying reason for different shell types has not been explored. Phylogenetically controlled analyses examined relationships between egg size, shell mass, and clutch size in ∼200 turtle species from a range of body sizes and assigned by family as laying either rigid- or pliable-shelled eggs. Shell type affected egg breadth relative to pelvic dimensions, egg mass, and relative shell mass but did not affect size, mass, or total shell mass of the clutch. These results suggest that calcium availability may be a function of body size and the type of shell may reflect in part the interplay between clutch size and egg size. It was further concluded that the eggshell probably evolved as a means of physical protection. Differences in shell calcification may not primarily reflect reproductive parameters but rather correlate with the acidity of a species' nesting environment. Low pH environments may have thicker calcareous layer to counteract the erosion caused by the soil and maintain the integrity of the physical barrier. Limited calcium availability may constrain clutch size. More neutral nesting substrates expose eggshells to less erosion so calcification per egg can be reduced and this allows larger clutch sizes. This pattern is also reflected in thick, calcified crocodilian eggs. Further research is needed to test whether eggshell calcification in the testudines correlates with nest pH in order to verify this relationship. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, P George; Ruxton, Graeme D; Langridge, Keri V; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-02-04

    Camouflage is conferred by background matching and disruption, which are both affected by microhabitat. However, microhabitat selection that enhances camouflage has only been demonstrated in species with discrete phenotypic morphs. For most animals, phenotypic variation is continuous; here we explore whether such individuals can select microhabitats to best exploit camouflage. We use substrate selection in a ground-nesting bird (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica). For such species, threat from visual predators is high and egg appearance shows strong between-female variation. In quail, variation in appearance is particularly obvious in the amount of dark maculation on the light-colored shell. When given a choice, birds consistently selected laying substrates that made visual detection of their egg outline most challenging. However, the strategy for maximizing camouflage varied with the degree of egg maculation. Females laying heavily maculated eggs selected the substrate that more closely matched egg maculation color properties, leading to camouflage through disruptive coloration. For lightly maculated eggs, females chose a substrate that best matched their egg background coloration, suggesting background matching. Our results show that quail "know" their individual egg patterning and seek out a nest position that provides most effective camouflage for their individual phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  18. Egg Bungee Jump!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  19. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  20. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  1. Nutritional Quality of Eggs of Amberlink and Hyline Layers Fed on Different Levels of Provitamin A-Biofortified Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GW Zeina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was conducted to determine the interaction of types of maize (Provitamin A-biofortified maize (PABM versus white maize and strain of laying birds (Amberlink and Hyline on nutritional quality of eggs. Twenty-one of each of Amberlink and Hyline laying hens were fed on three diets for 30 days. Birds were distributed in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement constituting three diets (0, 50 or 100 % of PABM and two strains (Amberlink & Hyline. There was a diet × strain interaction on egg shell weight, average daily feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg shell thickness. Eggs produced by layers under 100 % PABM had lighter eggshell weight and lower eggshell percentage. In contrast, eggs produced by layers under 50 % PABM diet had signi-ficantly higher eggshell percentage, heavier egg shell weight and thicker eggshell. As the level of PABM increased, the yellow and red hue (Hunter a* and b* values significantly increased while the lightness values (Hunter L* values decreased. As the level of PABM in the ration increased, the vitamin A content of the egg yolk also significantly increased. Assimilation of vitamin A from feed to egg yolk in Amberlink and Hyline hens was similar. Hence, egg enrichment with vitamin A can be achieved by using PABM in layers ration. The use of high level of PABM had a negative effect on the eggshell quality traits.

  2. EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).

  3. Quality traits of eggs from autosexing Easter eggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lukanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main egg quality traits were investigated in two autosexing F1 Easter egger crosses. Partridge Araucana roosters were used as carriers of the eggshell biliverdin pigmentation gene. Maternal forms used for obtaining the two experimental crosses were high-producing layer hens carrying the sex-linked S and B genes. Experimental groups comprised F1 crosses of partridge Araucana roosters with white mutational Rhode Island hens or hens with barred colour mutation. The aim of the study was to investigated the quality traits of blue-green eggs produced by autosexing hens. The egg quality was evaluated at 38 weeks of age. Studied traits comprised egg weight (g, shape index, albumen index (AI, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, yolk colour (Roche scale, 2 2 percentages of albumen, yolk and eggshell (%, eggshell surface (cm , eggshell density (mg/cm , average eggshell thickness (µm and eggshell colour. The group W was outlined with the highest egg weight – 61.03±0.47 g, and group A – with the lowest (50.91±0.32 g. The albumen and yolk quality was the best in group A, where albumen index was 0.075±0.002, Haugh units – 76.53±0.8 and yolk index – 0.491±0.009. The analysis of eggshell colour showed that eggs of group A were with the highest lightness (L* value (73.60±0.77, whereas eggs of groups W and AW had egg lightness of 60.45±0.53 and 61.11±0.55 (p<0.001 respectively. The shell colour index (SCI demonstrated a certain overlap of values in eggs with protoporphyrin and biliverdin taints. After introduction of a correction coefficient and recalculation of SCI*, the values of green eggs assumed a negative sign and could be distinguished from brown eggs.

  4. The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, R M

    2006-08-01

    Avian eggs differ so much in their colour and patterning from species to species that any attempt to account for this diversity might initially seem doomed to failure. Here I present a critical review of the literature which, when combined with the results of some comparative analyses, suggests that just a few selective agents can explain much of the variation in egg appearance. Ancestrally, bird eggs were probably white and immaculate. Ancient diversification in nest location, and hence in the clutch's vulnerability to attack by predators, can explain basic differences between bird families in egg appearance. The ancestral white egg has been retained by species whose nests are safe from attack by predators, while those that have moved to a more vulnerable nest site are now more likely to lay brown eggs, covered in speckles, just as Wallace hypothesized more than a century ago. Even blue eggs might be cryptic in a subset of nests built in vegetation. It is possible that some species have subsequently turned these ancient adaptations to new functions, for example to signal female quality, to protect eggs from damaging solar radiation, or to add structural strength to shells when calcium is in short supply. The threat of predation, together with the use of varying nest sites, appears to have increased the diversity of egg colouring seen among species within families, and among clutches within species. Brood parasites and their hosts have probably secondarily influenced the diversity of egg appearance. Each drives the evolution of the other's egg colour and patterning, as hosts attempt to avoid exploitation by rejecting odd-looking eggs from their nests, and parasites attempt to outwit their hosts by laying eggs that will escape detection. This co-evolutionary arms race has increased variation in egg appearance both within and between species, in parasites and in hosts, sometimes resulting in the evolution of egg colour polymorphisms. It has also reduced variation in

  5. A simplified field protocol for genetic sampling of birds using buccal swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.; McDearman, Will; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    DNA sampling is an essential prerequisite for conducting population genetic studies. For many years, blood sampling has been the preferred method for obtaining DNA in birds because of their nucleated red blood cells. Nonetheless, use of buccal swabs has been gaining favor because they are less invasive yet still yield adequate amounts of DNA for amplifying mitochondrial and nuclear markers; however, buccal swab protocols often include steps (e.g., extended air-drying and storage under frozen conditions) not easily adapted to field settings. Furthermore, commercial extraction kits and swabs for buccal sampling can be expensive for large population studies. We therefore developed an efficient, cost-effective, and field-friendly protocol for sampling wild birds after comparing DNA yield among 3 inexpensive buccal swab types (2 with foam tips and 1 with a cotton tip). Extraction and amplification success was high (100% and 97.2% respectively) using inexpensive generic swabs. We found foam-tipped swabs provided higher DNA yields than cotton-tipped swabs. We further determined that omitting a drying step and storing swabs in Longmire buffer increased efficiency in the field while still yielding sufficient amounts of DNA for detailed population genetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. This new field protocol allows time- and cost-effective DNA sampling of juveniles or small-bodied birds for which drawing blood may cause excessive stress to birds and technicians alike.

  6. Differences of detection efficiency among several nasal swab samples simulated for nuclear emergency accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsu, Kumiko; Yamada, Yuji; Kurihara, Osamu; Akashi, Makoto; Momose, Takumaro; Miyabe, Kenjiro

    2008-01-01

    At nuclear emergency accident such as inhalation intake of alpha nuclide, an indispensable nasal swab method has not been used for the precise internal dose estimation. One of the reasons is uncertainty in its radiation measurement, so that precise measurement with alpha spectrometry was examined for filter samples simulating nasal swab. It was confirmed that the alpha spectrometry made possible the distinction between solution and particulate in addition to the nuclide identification. The alpha activity in swab sample was precisely evaluated only when the detection efficiency was determined considering the self-absorption with filter fibers. Another big problem of wiping efficiency in nasal swabbing is still remain, but this study certainly raised the usefulness of the nasal swab method for rapid response in emergency. (author)

  7. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using the general linear procedure of SAS (2012). Differences in means were ranked using the Duncan's multiple Range test. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality ...

  8. Effect of Different Levels of Surplus Date on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Hosseini Vashan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four 26-wk-old white Hy-Line layers (W-36 were fed commercial diets containing 0, 1.5, 3 and 5% surplus date for three period of 28 days each to study the effects of dietary surplus date on hen performance (egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ‘FCR’ and body weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density. The yolk of eggs extracted and cholesterol content were determined on one egg of each replicate hens in each period. Blood samples were collected in non-heparin zed tubes from six hens in each treatment through brachial vein at the end of experiment. Serum was separated after 8-10 hrs and was stored at – 20 oC for subsequent analysis. Hen performance (egg production, egg mass, feed intake, FCR and weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density were not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05; However in all traits, the control group had numerically lower value, except egg weight that was significantly increased with supplementation of surplus date in diet. The dietary surplus date did not significantly affect egg cholesterol, ND and IBD titre, but the serum cholesterol was significantly reduced in hens fed diets contained 5% surplus date. This study suggested that the surplus date may be used up to 5% in the diet of laying hens to reduce blood cholesterol without any significant adverse effect on performance.

  9. Eggs on Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs face a very different fate. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries. In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical imaginaries that shaped...... Danish regulation of the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyse the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work, and readings in Parliament, along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that over time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current five years and today continue...... to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare-state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate, and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss the gendered implications captured in the sociotechnical...

  10. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  11. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs. Eat or refrigerate eggs and foods containing eggs promptly after cooking. Do not keep eggs or foods made with ... water can pull bacteria into the egg. Refrigerate eggs after collection. Cook eggs thoroughly. Raw and undercooked eggs contain Salmonella ...

  12. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  13. Improving communication at handover and transfer reduces retained swabs in maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Katie; Page, Bethan F; Vincent, Charles

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of retained vaginal swabs and near misses. A review of previous retained swab incidents and near misses in a large maternity unit identified handovers and transfers as a key point of vulnerability. Interventions were introduced to improve communication at handover from the delivery suite to theatre and from theatre to the high dependency unit. Process data was collected to monitor compliance. The outcome measures were the incidence of retained swab never events and the incidence of near misses. Chi-squared analysis was used to test the significance of the results. For transfers from delivery suite to theatre, verbal handover significantly increased from 28.8% to 75.6% (ptransfers to theatre post-intervention: in 88 (30.2%) of these transfers a vaginal swab was already in situ. In 70/88 (79.5%) of cases the presence of the swab was communicated to theatre staff in three ways (verbally, written and transfer of opened swab packets) according to the new policy. In the post-intervention period there were 56 women transferred from theatre to the high-dependency unit with a vaginal pack in situ: 52 (92.9%) of these women had a sticker in place serving as a constant reminder of the presence of the vaginal pack to staff. Following a baseline of four near misses in two months, there has been only one near miss in the 15 months since the interventions were implemented, (33.3% vs. 1.1%, pcommunication at handover and transfer can reduce the incidence of retained vaginal swabs and near misses. Further work is needed to raise the profile of swab counting in maternity settings: swab counting needs to be the responsibility of all disciplines, not just the responsibility of theatre staff. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  15. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  16. Evaluation of disinfectants and antiseptics to eliminate bacteria from the surface of turkey eggs and hatch gnotobiotic poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird eggs and are in contact with intestinal microbiota prior to oviposition, but are protected from bacterial translocation by a glycoprotein cuticle layer, the shell and internal membranes. In a preliminary study, turkey eggs were hatched in a germ-free environment. Firmicutes 16S rRNA gene was de...

  17. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  18. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social dominance molds cuticular and egg chemical blends in a paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapporto, Leonardo; Romana Dani, Francesca; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2007-07-03

    Hamilton's theory [1] for the evolution of social behaviour predicts that helpers may renounce direct reproduction to help their more fertile kin. Intra-colony recognition among queens and helpers (subordinate queens or workers) is consequently a central issue in insect sociobiology. In social insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are involved in recognition, and egg-laying and non-egg-laying individuals often differ in CHC composition. These differences are assumed to be directly determined by fertility status [2,3]. In several ants and in Polistes wasps, when egg-layers disappear they are substituted by helpers, which develop their ovaries and become chemically similar to their former queens [2,3]. Sometimes helpers lay eggs in the presence of queens, which recognize and destroy the subordinates' eggs [4]. In ponerine ants, eggs often have the same chemical signature as the maternal cuticle [2]. If chemical signatures depend on fertility, egg-laying subordinates should match the queen's signature even when she is present, making egg recognition and differential oophagy impossible. In the study reported here, we experimentally separated fertility from dominance and analyzed the dynamics of hydrocarbon profiles of the cuticle of Polistes dominulus foundresses and the shell surface of their eggs. We have demonstrated that, contrary to the widely accepted view, dominance, rather than fertility, determines chemical signatures in Polistes wasps. This explains why queens can recognize their own eggs and police reproduction by subordinates if they become fertile and lay eggs.

  20. Essential elements in different types of eggs by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogi, Jessica B.; Gomes, Bruna G.; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are excellent sources of protein and provide essential nutrients to human nutrition. Neither the color of the shell nor that of the yolk affects the egg nutritive value, even though this value can vary according to the eggs from different poultries, and as well as according to the feed given to them. The egg consumption of the Brazilian southeastern population is 9.9 g/day, which represents 0.61% of the daily food consumption per capita. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se, Sc and Zn in three types of eggs (hen, free-range and quail eggs). The edible parts of the eggs (egg white and egg yolks) were analyzed Hard-boiled and Raw. The Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the element concentrations. The samples were irradiated for approximately eight hours in flux of 4.5-5.5 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , at nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. There was variation in the elements concentrations among the types of eggs and between Hard-boiled and Raw eggs. (author)

  1. Essential elements in different types of eggs by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrogi, Jessica B.; Gomes, Bruna G.; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: jessica.ambrogi@hotmail.com, E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: avegliano@uol.com.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Eggs are excellent sources of protein and provide essential nutrients to human nutrition. Neither the color of the shell nor that of the yolk affects the egg nutritive value, even though this value can vary according to the eggs from different poultries, and as well as according to the feed given to them. The egg consumption of the Brazilian southeastern population is 9.9 g/day, which represents 0.61% of the daily food consumption per capita. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se, Sc and Zn in three types of eggs (hen, free-range and quail eggs). The edible parts of the eggs (egg white and egg yolks) were analyzed Hard-boiled and Raw. The Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the element concentrations. The samples were irradiated for approximately eight hours in flux of 4.5-5.5 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, at nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. There was variation in the elements concentrations among the types of eggs and between Hard-boiled and Raw eggs. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs. ...

  3. Activation of maternal centrosomes in unfertilized sea urchin eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Walter, M.; Biessmann, H.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    Centrosomes are undetectable in unfertilized sea urchin eggs, and normally the sperm introduces the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) at fertilization. However, artificial activation or parthenogenesis triggers microtubule assembly in the unfertilized egg, and this study explores the reappearance and behavior of the maternal centrosome. During activation with A23187 or ammonia, microtubules appear first at the cortex; centrosomal antigen is detected diffusely throughout the entire cytoplasm. Later, the centrosome becomes more distinct and organizes a radial microtubule shell, and eventually a compact centrosome at the egg center organizes a monaster. In these activated eggs, centrosomes undergo cycles of compaction and decompaction in synchrony with the chromatin, which also undergoes cycles of condensation and decondensation. Parthenogenetic activation with heavy water (50% D2O) or the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol (10 microM) induces numerous centrosomal foci in the unfertilized sea urchin egg. Within 15 min after incubation in D2O, numerous fine centrosomal foci are detected, and they organize a connected network of numerous asters which fill the entire egg. Taxol induces over 100 centrosomal foci by 15 min after treatment, which organize a corresponding number of asters. The centrosomal material in either D2O- or taxol-treated eggs aggregates with time to form fewer but denser foci, resulting in fewer and larger asters. Fertilization of eggs pretreated with either D2O or taxol shows that the paternal centrosome is dominant over the maternal centrosome. The centrosomal material gradually becomes associated with the enlarged sperm aster. These experiments demonstrate that maternal centrosomal material is present in the unfertilized egg, likely as dispersed undetectable material, which can be activated without paternal contributions. At fertilization, paternal centrosomes become dominant over the maternal centrosomal material.

  4. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  5. Skin swabs with FTA® cards as a dry storage source for amphibian DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, A; Hide, G; Jehle, R

    2018-01-01

    Amphibians are the most endangered group of vertebrates, and conservation measures increasingly rely on information drawn from genetic markers. The present study explores skin swabs with Whatman FTA® cards as a method to retrieve PCR-amplifiable amphibian DNA. Swabs from ten adult great crested newts (Triturus cristatus) were used to compare FTA® card-based protocols with tissue sampling based on toe clips. PCR success rates were measured for seven microsatellite markers and one mtDNA marker ...

  6. Consumers’ Preferences for Shell Eggs Regarding Laying Hen Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Yan; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Li, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    DRAFT, do not cite. Please cite formally published version: Heng, Yan, Hikaru Hanawa Peterson, and Xianghong Li. "Consumer Attitudes toward Farm-Animal Welfare: The Case of Laying Hens." Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 38.3 (2013): 418-434. Available at: http://purl.umn.edu/165936

  7. Rectal swab screening assays of public health importance in molecular diagnostics: Sample adequacy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisovic, Sanja; Eintracht, Shaun; Longtin, Yves; Oughton, Matthew; Brukner, Ivan

    Rectal swabs are routinely used by public health authorities to screen for multi-drug resistant enteric bacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Screening sensitivity can be influenced by the quality of the swabbing, whether performed by the patient (self-swabbing) or a healthcare practitioner. One common exclusion criterion for rectal swabs is absence of "visible soiling" from fecal matter. In our institution, this criterion excludes almost 10% of rectal swabs received in the microbiology laboratory. Furthermore, over 30% of patients in whom rectal swabs are cancelled will not be re-screened within the next 48h, resulting in delays in removing infection prevention measures. We describe two quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays, human RNAse P and eubacterial 16S rDNA, which might serve as suitable controls for sampling adequacy. However, lower amounts of amplifiable human DNA make the 16s rDNA assay a better candidate for sample adequacy control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  9. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  10. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F

    2009-01-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg...... mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass...... with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2·28 vs. 2·53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61·4 vs. 60·0) and increased shell weight (g/100 g egg weight, 10·2 vs. 9·9) and shell stiffness (N/mm, 161 vs. 150) of eggs collected at 37 weeks. 7. The feeding...

  11. Effect of Different Storage Periods and Temperatures on the Hatchability of Broiler Breeder Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud*, M. Z. U. Khan1, Saima1 and M. A. Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity have been the two most common variables used to manipulate the storage environment of hatching eggs. To ascertain the effects of different egg storage periods and temperatures on hatchability; 400 eggs were obtained from a broiler breeder flock of 32 weeks of age on a single day collection basis. These eggs were randomly divided into 5 equal groups of 80 eggs each. After collection these were cleaned, fumigated and stored on four temperatures viz 4oC, 16oC, room temperature (25oC and ambient temperature (29oC. Each group was further subdivided into 4 replicates having 20 eggs each. Eggs of Group A (control were set in incubator with temperature of 37.5oC and relative humidity 60% after the storage of one day. Eggs of rest of the four groups were set in the incubator after the storage of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Subsequently, these were shifted to hatchers on 18th day where the temperature and humidity were maintained at 36.5oC and 75%, respectively. The data on hatchability and dead-in-shell embryos for various groups were recorded. The results revealed that as the storage period increased at different temperatures, the hatchability decreased significantly (P<0.01. Similarly, as the storage time increased, the percentage of dead-in-shell embryos increased (P<0.01.

  12. Shell thinning and reproductive impairment in black ducks after cessation of DDE dosage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Stendell, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Captive black ducks (anas rubripes) were fed dietary DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] at 10 ppm (dry weight; about 2 ppm on a natural diet basis) for 2 breeding seasons, then untreated feed for 2 succeeding years. Residues of DDE in the carcasses of adults declined 90% during the 2-year clean-up period. Following 2 years of dietary DDE, mean residues in eggs reached 64.9 ppm. Even after 2 years on clean feed, DDE residues in the eggs averaged 6.2 ppm or 9.5% of the mean DDE level reached after 2 years on treated feed. Shells of eggs from treated hens were about 20% thinner than shells of eggs from controls. Stoppage of DDE dosage resulted in progressively thicker shells, yet even after 2 years on untreated feed hens laid eggs with shells about 10% thinner than control hens. After DDE was removed from the diet, DDE residues in the eggs decreased, shell thickness increased, and reproductive success improved. Hens previously exposed to DDE, but then fed clean feed for 2 years, still produced significantly fewer surviving ducklings than did control hens.

  13. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  14. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen

  15. Exploratory and descriptive study on nutritional characteristics and quality of eggs from Chilean partridge (Nothoprocta perdicaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, José Luis; Matthei, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    This work aims to contribute more information on tinamou eggs by performing an exploratory and descriptive study of some of their nutritional and quality characteristics. The chemical composition of tinamou egg showed a high protein content in white (85% dry basis) and high lipid concentration in yolk (52% db). The iron (Fe) content in white was higher than hen egg (0.47 mg/100 g) and this could be associated with the observed pinkish color of the white. As in the hen egg, the major fatty acids in tinamou yolk were: oleic (39%), linoleic (23%) and palmitic (20%). The cholesterol content of tinamou was 21.2 mg/g of yolk, and 100 g of whole egg provides 589 mg of cholesterol. As in the hen egg, tinamou egg white showed high levels of lysine, sulfur-containing amino acids, threonine and valine with respect to the recommended allowance for an adult man. All essential amino acids with the exception of histidine cover the adult requirements. The shell inorganic composition of these eggs is calcium carbonate and the morphology was similar to other avian eggs. Tinamou egg is small and elongated, with a dark brown color. The eggshell is thinner and experiences more deformation but less breaking strength than hen eggshell. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  17. Response analysis of the dynamic excitation of hen eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Severa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially produced hen eggs have been tested by means of dynamic excitation of the egg-shells with following analysis of their response. The falling steel ball have been chosen as a exciting instrument and the laser vibrometer have been used as a measuring device for the egg response. The reproductibility of the experiments has been relatively high and the surface velocity has been found to be significantly dependent on the position around the meridian. Analysed frequency spectrum has shown the peak frequency and frequency history. Proposed numerical model has demonstrated reasonable agreement with experimental results and can be used as an effective tool in modelling of analogous or similar experiments.

  18. Effect of production system and flock age on eggshell and egg internal quality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Omar, Amal Saleh; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality was measured in eggs from different flocks that were reared together and then allocated to different production systems. Eggs were processed for measurements of eggshell and egg internal quality variables, scoring of ultrastructural mammillary layer features, completeness of cuticle cover, and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) quantification. There was a significant main effect (P egg weight, and egg internal quality and significant effects of flock age on most measurements. The mammillary layer ultrastructural variables showed no clear relationship with production system and flock age. However, there was a significant interaction between production system and flock age for mammillary cap, early and late fusions. Cuticle cover ([Formula: see text]), was significantly higher in barn eggs (19.20), followed by free range (17.57), and cage eggs (15.99). Completeness of cuticle cover was significantly higher in eggs from the 44 week old flock than for 64 week and 73 week old flocks. For eggshells with cuticle intact, there was a significant main effect of both production system and flock age, and significant interaction between the two, for shell reflectivity, L*a*b* values and amount of PP IX. For PP IX, when this difference was calculated for the cuticle alone, there were no statistically significant differences. In 1 g of shell with and without cuticle, there was more PP IX in cage eggs (9.49 × 10 -8 , 7.90 × 10 -8  mM) followed by free range (8.24 × 10 -8 , 6.90 × 10 -8  mM), and barn eggs (8.64 × 10 -8 , 7.28 × 10 -8  mM). Similar trends were recorded for the amount of PP IX in 1 g of cuticle, but the difference was not statistically significant. The amount of PP IX decreased significantly with increasing flock age. Comparing the cage and barn production systems at 68 week of flock age, there was no difference for the amount of PP IX in shell with or without cuticle, or in the cuticle alone. Eggs from the cage production system were darker in color

  19. Peyronie's disease after urethral swab, an unusual complication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Paulis,1,2 Davide Barletta3 1Andrology Center, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Albano Laziale, Rome, Italy; 2Castelfidardo Medical Team, Peyronie's Disease Care Center, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Urology, Andrology Center, San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy Abstract: Urethral swabs are still currently used as a diagnostic tool when urethritis or prostatitis are suspected. Urologists are certainly aware that Peyronie's disease may occur after traumatic urethral instrumentation (catheterization, urethrocystoscopy, etc, but onset of Peyronie's disease after urethral swab for diagnostic purposes has never been reported in the literature. This paper presents the case of a patient who developed Peyronie's disease after a clumsy urethral swab insertion. It is an unusual, and to date unreported, complication which we would like to call attention to. In the case of our patient, the swab had been inserted to a greater depth than normally required and strong pressure had also been applied. During the procedure, the patient experienced severe urethral and penile pain, which was followed by urethrorrhagia, and later penile curvature. The patient was treated conservatively with good results, partly because the disease was still in its active stage and not yet stable. In the light of what we report, when ordering a urethral swab, physicians should always recommend that it be performed at testing centers that follow accurate, rigorous standards. Patients should also be informed that the test they are to undergo consists of a swab being inserted into the urethra for a short distance, not more than 2–3 cm. Keywords: genitourinary trauma, penile curvature, Peyronie, urethral swab

  20. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Lee, Soomin; Nishimura, Takayuki; Katsuura, Tetsuo; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2011-01-10

    Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at lower melatonin level, a level at which melatonin is used for assessment of circadian rhythms, namely dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). In the present study, we estimated the effect of cotton swabs on the results of salivary melatonin assay using the Bland-Altman plot at lower level. Nine healthy males were recruited and each provided four saliva samples on a single day to yield a total of 36 samples. Saliva samples were directly collected in plastic tubes using plastic straws, and subsequently pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). The melatonin levels were analyzed in duplicate using commercially available ELISA kits. The mean melatonin concentration in cotton saliva collection samples was significantly lower than that in passive saliva collection samples at higher melatonin level (>6 pg/mL). The Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes relative and proportional biases in the assay results. For lower melatonin level (<6 pg/mL), although the BA plots didn't show proportional and relative biases, there was no significant correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection samples. Our findings indicate an interference effect of cotton swabs on the assay result of salivary melatonin at lower melatonin level. Cotton-based collection devices might, thus, not be suitable for assessment of DLMO.

  1. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuura Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at lower melatonin level, a level at which melatonin is used for assessment of circadian rhythms, namely dim light melatonin onset (DLMO. In the present study, we estimated the effect of cotton swabs on the results of salivary melatonin assay using the Bland-Altman plot at lower level. Methods Nine healthy males were recruited and each provided four saliva samples on a single day to yield a total of 36 samples. Saliva samples were directly collected in plastic tubes using plastic straws, and subsequently pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection. The melatonin levels were analyzed in duplicate using commercially available ELISA kits. Results The mean melatonin concentration in cotton saliva collection samples was significantly lower than that in passive saliva collection samples at higher melatonin level (>6 pg/mL. The Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes relative and proportional biases in the assay results. For lower melatonin level ( Conclusion Our findings indicate an interference effect of cotton swabs on the assay result of salivary melatonin at lower melatonin level. Cotton-based collection devices might, thus, not be suitable for assessment of DLMO.

  2. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seokha; Jeon, Hyeong Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the prevalence of pinworm infection, the egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis was examined using the adhesive cello-tape anal swab method in 1,512 preschool children sampled from a total of 20 kindergartens in Cheongju city, in November to December of 2004 (951 children from 13 kindergartens) and September to October of 2005 (561 from 7 kindergartens). The overall egg positive rate was found to be 7.9% (119/1,512); 9.3% (73/784) for boys and 6.3% (46/728) for girls, respectively. The 5-year age group evidenced the highest egg positive rate (10.9%, 47/430) among the examined age groups. As compared to those reported from previous works (ranged from 9.2 to 26.1%), the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the Cheongju city area is relatively low. PMID:16969064

  3. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT...

  4. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  5. Effects of non-feed removal molting methods on egg quality traits in commercial brown egg laying hens in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petek, Metin; Gezen, S Sule; Alpay, Fazli; Cibik, Recep

    2008-08-01

    Non-feed removal molting programme in commercial brown laying hens and its influence on pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle egg quality traits were investigated. Overall 54 birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups and each group was fed with one of the following diets during 10 days of molting period: (i) grain barley, (ii) alfalfa meal, or (iii) commercial layer ration (non-molted control group). Eggs obtained from groups in pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle periods were examined for several quality performance traits such as egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, eggshell weight, haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index and yolk color. Results indicated that non-feed removal molting programme based particularly on grain barley had positive effect on egg quality traits in laying hens. Notably, yolk color and haugh unit, which are considered as the most important quality parameters from the consumer point of view, were relatively improved in barley molted group.

  6. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swab on cortisol enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Kaji, Yumi; Yasukouchi, Akira; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    Cotton swabs are among the most commonly used devices for collecting saliva, but various studies have reported that their use impacts the results of salivary cortisol assays. These studies, however, estimated this impact by comparing the average of the concentration and/or scatter plots. In the present study, we estimated the impact of cotton swabs on the results of salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) by Bland-Altman plot. Eight healthy males (aged 20-23 years) provided four saliva samples on different days to yield a total of 32 samples. Saliva samples were collected directly in plastic tubes using plastic straws and then pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). There was a lower correlation between cotton and passive saliva collection. Individually, four subjects showed a negative correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection. A Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes a proportional bias on the EIA assay result. Our findings indicate a considerable effect of using cotton swabs for saliva collection, and subject-specific variability in the impact. A Bland-Altman plot further suggests possible reasons for this effect.

  7. Screening of Active Lyssavirus Infection in Wild Bat Populations by Viral RNA Detection on Oropharyngeal Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Juan E.; Avellón, Ana; Juste, Javier; Vera, Manuel; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Brain analysis cannot be used for the investigation of active lyssavirus infection in healthy bats because most bat species are protected by conservation directives. Consequently, serology remains the only tool for performing virological studies on natural bat populations; however, the presence of antibodies merely reflects past exposure to the virus and is not a valid marker of active infection. This work describes a new nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique specifically designed for the detection of the European bat virus 1 on oropharyngeal swabs obtained from bats but also able to amplify RNA from the remaining rabies-related lyssaviruses in brain samples. The technique was successfully used for surveillance of a serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) colony involved in a case of human exposure, in which 15 out of 71 oropharyngeal swabs were positive. Lyssavirus infection was detected on 13 oropharyngeal swabs but in only 5 brains out of the 34 animals from which simultaneous brain and oropharyngeal samples had been taken. The lyssavirus involved could be rapidly identified by automatic sequencing of the RT-PCR products obtained from 14 brains and three bat oropharyngeal swabs. In conclusion, RT-PCR using oropharyngeal swabs will permit screening of wild bat populations for active lyssavirus infection, for research or epidemiological purposes, in line not only with conservation policies but also in a more efficient manner than classical detection techniques used on the brain. PMID:11574590

  8. A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from the father. The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. Up until now most laboratories perform DNA extraction for neonatal genotyping from newborn blood samplings. In order to avoid such an invasive procedure, two protocols of DNA extraction from buccal swabs were developed: a manual protocol using the QIAamp mini blood kit (Qiagen, and an automated procedure with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument (Roche. Both EDTA-blood and buccal swabs from thrombocytopenic newborns were genotyped manually (14 samples, automatically (15 samples or both manually and automatically (two samples. Human Platelet Antigen (HPA genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor. Concordant genotypings were obtained for all samples except for one swab with the manual method. The automated DNA extraction from newborn buccal swabs with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument was chosen as the first-line strategy, with a significant gain of time in processing buccal swabs.

  9. Effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on physicochemical and functional properties of chicken egg during room-temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianxe; Jang, Aera; Kim, Dong Hun; Lee, Bong Duk; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2009-01-01

    The effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on quality and storage stability of shell egg was investigated. Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on eggshell was not detected by irradiation of 2.0 kGy at day 0 and/or chitosan coating (1%, pH 5.0) after 3 days of storage. One-day-old fresh chicken egg was chitosan coated and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy by gamma ray. The egg samples were stored at room temperature for 14 days and the effects of the combination treatment on internal physicochemical and functional properties were investigated. The Haugh unit of egg was decreased by irradiation even at 0.5 kGy. Irradiation increased the lipid oxidation in egg yolk at 2 kGy but the egg with chitosan coating reduced the level of lipid oxidation. Irradiation increased the foaming ability of egg white and decreased viscosity of egg yolk and white. Results suggested that combination of irradiation and chitosan coating can improve safety of shell egg but irradiation treatment may reduce the egg quality for direct consumption. However, an improved functional property for further processing and efficient separation of egg white and yolk can be expected for egg processing industry using irradiation.

  10. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  11. Enterobius vermicularis Eggs Discovered in Coprolites from a Medieval Korean Mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Hye-Jung

    2011-01-01

    While the presence of pinworm eggs in archaeological samples has been reported by many researchers in the New World, those have been detected very scarcely in the Old World, especially in East Asian countries. In fact, many parasite species were recovered from the archeological remains in Korea, eggs of Enterobius vermicularis had not been found. Recently, a female mummy buried in the 17th century was discovered in the Joseon tomb from Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. After rehydration process for 12 days, investigations were carried on the luminal surface of the colon. From them, 3 eggs of E. vermicularis were recovered. They were elliptical, transparent with a thin egg shell, 50.3±5.2 µm (length) and 28.2±3.9 µm (width) in size. This is the first discovery of E. vermicularis eggs in East Asia. PMID:22072838

  12. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, S.C.; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p 5 cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a γ facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the γ facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. D value varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the D value of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation

  13. Performance of swabs, lavage, and diluents to quantify biomarkers of female genital tract soluble mucosal mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene S Dezzutti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measurement of immune mediators and antimicrobial activity in female genital tract secretions may provide biomarkers predictive of risk for HIV-1 acquisition and surrogate markers of microbicide safety. However, optimal methods for sample collection do not exist. This study compared collection methods. METHODS: Secretions were collected from 48 women (24 with bacterial vaginosis [BV] using vaginal and endocervical Dacron and flocked swabs. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL was collected with 10 mL of Normosol-R (n = 20, saline (n = 14, or water (n = 14. The concentration of gluconate in Normosol-R CVL was determined to estimate the dilution factor. Cytokine and antimicrobial mediators were measured by Luminex or ELISA and corrected for protein content. Endogenous anti-HIV-1 and anti-E. coli activity were measured by TZM-bl assay or E. coli growth. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of protein were recovered by CVL, despite a 10-fold dilution of secretions, as compared to swab eluents. After protein correction, endocervical swabs recovered the highest mediator levels regardless of BV status. Endocervical and vaginal flocked swabs recovered significantly higher levels of anti-HIV-1 and anti-E. coli activity than Dacron swabs (P<0.001. BV had a significant effect on CVL mediator recovery. Normosol-R tended to recover higher levels of most mediators among women with BV, whereas saline or water tended to recover higher levels among women without BV. Saline recovered the highest levels of anti-HIV-1 activity regardless of BV status. CONCLUSIONS: Endocervical swabs and CVL collected with saline provide the best recovery of most mediators and would be the optimal sampling method(s for clinical trials.

  14. Migration of a retained surgical swab into the jejunum in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J L; Pechman, R D; Bahr, R J

    2012-12-01

    A two-year-old spayed female shih-tzu was referred with a 10-month history of lethargy, chronic diarrhoea and weight loss. On presentation, a partial response to antibiotics was noted. Physical examination revealed an abdominal mass, and serum biochemistry and haematology revealed a mature neutrophilia, hypoalbuminaemia and a non-regenerative anaemia. Contrast radiography and abdominal ultrasound were suggestive of an intraluminal foreign body. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a surgical swab in the lumen of the jejunum that was associated with severe adhesions. Histopathology showed evidence of transmural migration of the swab from the peritoneal cavity to the lumen of the jejunum. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates automation of DNA sequencing.

  16. In vitro effect of Chrysosporium indicum and Chrysosporium keratinophylum on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María V; Basualdo, Juan A; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2017-12-05

    The degree of antagonism exercised by fungi on geohelminth development varies according to the morphological alterations caused by different fungal species. Saprophytic fungi may exert ovicidal or ovistatic effects. The aim of this study was to apply scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the action of two soil saprophytic species of Chrysosporium (C. indicum and C. keratinophylum) on Toxocara canis eggs. The fungal strains to be tested were incubated for 28 days at 28°C in 2% water agar with a suspension of unembryonated T. canis eggs. A suspension of T. canis eggs in 2% water agar was used as control group. The assay was done in triplicate for each fungus and the control group. SEM observations were performed on the 4th, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day after inoculation. The effect of the fungi on eggs was evaluated in accordance with the alterations observed on the surface and the changes in the normal characteristics of the eggs. Hyphae around the eggs, appresoria penetrating the shell and changes in the typical egg membrane were observed in this assay. Type 3 effect (alterations that occur both in the embryo and the shell, and hyphal penetration of the eggs) was the prevalent effect. SEM allowed us to observe clearly the morphological alterations in T. canis eggs due to the effect of C. indicum and C. keratinophylum. Both saprophytic species of Chrysosporium alter the egg structure and alterations increase as exposure increases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  18. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  19. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  20. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  1. Performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of free-range laying hens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Hunt, P W; Hine, B C; Sharma, N K; Chung, A; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-03-16

    A study was conducted to determine the performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of laying hens exposed to ranges contaminated with Ascaridia galli. Sixteen-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) were divided into 4 treatments with 5 replicates containing 10 hens per pen. Hens of treatment 1 [negative control (NC)] ranged on a decontaminated area, and hens of treatments 2 (low infection) and 3 (medium infection) ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 250 and 1,000 embryonated A. galli eggs, respectively. The hens of treatment 4 [positive control (PC)] ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 2,500 embryonated A. galli eggs, and in addition these hens were orally inoculated with 1,000 embryonated eggs. Results indicated that hens of the medium infection group had a higher number of intestinal A. galli worms and A. galli eggs in the coprodeum excreta (43.9 ± 4.0 and 3,437 ± 459 eggs/g) compared to hens of the low infection group (23.8 ± 4.0 and 1,820 ± 450 eggs/g) (P  0.05). Egg production, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected by A. galli infection (P > 0.05). Egg quality parameters (egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell weight, shell thickness, shell percentage, shell breaking strength, deformation, albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk score) were not affected by A. galli infection (P > 0.05). Highly infected hens had lower liver lipid content (2.72 ± 0.51 g) compared to uninfected hens (4.46 ± 0.58 g, P ranges contaminated with A. galli resulted in infection of the ranging hens, but this did not affect egg production or egg quality. Infection with A. galli lowered the liver lipid reserves of the host significantly, suggesting infected hens use more energy reserves for maintenance and production.

  2. Effect of electron irradiation in hatching eggs experimentally inoculated with salmonella enteriditis, on hatch ability and broiler performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda S, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of four doses of electrons irradaition on bacteriologic population in hatching egg following experimental shell contamination with Salmonella enteriditis phage type 13 was investigated. Fresh, whole, intact raw eggs were inoculated with 10 9 Colony-Forming Units of Salmonella enteriditis, eggs were irradiated with a beam electron source at either: 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 KGy. The bacteriologic evaluation was made with Gentry's and Williams' technic. After the irradiation the groups were taken to commercial hatchery and were incubated in satndards conditions. The bacteriologic evaluation of the shell showed a significant 2.8 log reduction on the group of eggs that were irradiated with 1 KGy as compared with 0.5 KGy doses group and control group (P<0.05). A negative correlation (r=-0.93) between irradiation doses and CFU (P<0.05) was also observed. Bacteriologic evaluation of the internal shell membrane exhibited a highly significant inactivation (P<0.01) of S. enteriditis of 100% in the group of eggs irradiated at 2 and 3 kGy. A high negative correlation (r=-0.90) between irradiation doses and samples of internal structures (P<0.05) was observed. The results obtained suggested that the electrons irradiation may be use like a control system of salmonelosis on egg and like desinfection system on hatching eggs because it did not cause any effect on hatchability and broiler performance. (Author)

  3. Self-collected mid-turbinate swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E Larios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for respiratory virus testing is a nasopharyngeal (NP swab, which is collected by a healthcare worker. Midturbinate (MT swabs are an alternative due to their ease of collection and possible self-collection by patients. The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs. METHODS: Beginning in October 2008, healthy adults aged 18 to 69 years were recruited into a cohort and followed up for symptoms of influenza. They were asked to have NP and MT swabs taken as soon as possible after the onset of a fever or two or more respiratory symptoms with an acute onset. The swabs were tested for viral respiratory infections using Seeplex® RV12 multiplex PCR detection kit. Seventy six pairs of simultaneous NP and MT swabs were collected from 38 symptomatic subjects. Twenty nine (38% of these pairs were positive by either NP or MT swabs or both. Sixty nine (91% of the pair results were concordant. Two samples (3% for hCV OC43/HKU1 and 1 sample (1% for rhinovirus A/B were positive by NP but negative by MT. One sample each for hCV 229E/NL63, hCV OC43/HKU1, respiratory syncytial virus A, and influenza B were positive by MT but negative by NP. CONCLUSIONS: Flocked MT swabs are sensitive for the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses. Given the ease of MT collection and similar results between the two swabs, it is likely that MT swabs should be the preferred method of respiratory cell collection for outpatient studies. In light of this data, larger studies should be performed to ensure that this still holds true and data should also be collected on the patient preference of collection methods.

  4. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  5. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyub Shin

    Full Text Available The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd, causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Porcine Polyomavirus from Nasal Swabs of Pigs with Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Smith, Catherine; Bishop, Brian; Stewart, Chelsea; Simonson, Randy

    2018-04-26

    Metagenomic sequencing of pooled nasal swabs from pigs with unexplained respiratory disease identified a large number of reads mapping to a previously uncharacterized porcine polyomavirus. Sus scrofa polyomavirus 2 was most closely related to betapolyomaviruses frequently detected in mammalian respiratory samples. Copyright © 2018 Hause et al.

  7. Technical basis for using nose swab bioassay data for early internal dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, Raymond A.; Bertelli, Luiz; Miller, Guthrie; Little, Tom T.

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges to the dose assessment team in response to an inhalation incident in the workplace is to provide the occupational physicians, operational radiation protection personnel and line managers with early estimates of radionuclide intakes so that appropriate consequence management and mitigation can be done. For radionuclides such as Pu, where in vivo counting is not adequately sensitive, other techniques such as the measurement of removable radionuclide from the nasal airway passages can be used. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), nose swabs of the ET 1 region have been used routinely as a first response to airborne Pu releases in the workplace, as well as for other radionuclides. This paper presents the results of analysing over 15 years of nose swab data, comparing these with dose assessments performed using the Bayesian methods developed at LANL. The results provide empirical support for using nose swab data for early dose assessments. For Pu, a rule of thumb is a dose factor of 0.8 mSv Bq -1 , assuming a linear relationship between nasal swab activity and committed effective dose equivalent. However, this value is specific to the methods and models used at LANL, and should not be applied directly without considering possible differences in measurement and calculation methods. (authors)

  8. National guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adult patients: the SWAB guidelines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J. M.; Kullberg, B. J.; Gyssens, I. C.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, the Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (Stichting Werkgroep AntibioticaBeleid, SWAB) has been developing national guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adult patients. As a result of both an inventory of the wishes of the users of these guidelines and the recently

  9. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium leprae in nasal swab specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M. Y.; Douglas, J. T.; McFadden, J.; Klatser, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction based on the selective amplification of a 531-bp fragment of the gene encoding the proline-rich antigen of Mycobacterium leprae was applied to nasal swab specimens from leprosy patients, occupational contacts, and endemic and nonendemic controls. To prevent

  10. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  11. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Pus and Pus Swab Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Akbar, N.; Khan, I. U.; Hussain, A.; Ali, S.; Mirza, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from pus and pus swab specimens at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2008 to July 2012. Methodology: Data regarding positive culture and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was retrieved from the pus and pus swab culture records of the Microbiology Department, AFIP, Rawalpindi. Only those pus and pus swab specimens which yielded the growth of Acinetobacter species were included in the study. Results:Out of 2781, 1848 were of pure pus while 933 were pus swab specimens. Out of 2538 culture positive isolates, 276 (10.9 percentage) were identified as Acinetobacterspecies. Among 276 Acinetobacter species, 245 (88.8 percentage) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 31 (11.2 percentage) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Male/female ratio of the affected patients was 5.6:1. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic to which 45 percentage of the tested isolates were sensitive. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. Conclusion: About 11 percentage of soft tissue and wound infections are caused by Acinetobacter species in our set up particularly in male. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. In vitro sensitivity to carbapenems is very low. (author)

  12. A Study of Isolates from Female Genital Swab Specimens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infective vaginal discharge, when left untreated, is a possible risk of acquisition of HIV/AIDS as well as other complications. To detect some common microbial agents of vaginal discharge in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. A prospective study of female genital swabs ...

  13. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...

  14. Investigation of internal radionuclide contamination from the analysis of nasal swabs and facial swipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond Ko; Baki Sadi; Chunsheng Li; Chad Shew; Sharman Perera; Ed Waller; Kristine Mattson; Kathy Nielsen; David Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Nasal swabs and facial swipes have been used to screen potential internal radioactive contamination for decades. However, the ratio between the lung intake and the activity on a swab or a swipe varies according to the nature of the contaminant involved and the exposure conditions such as particle sizes of the contaminant and the humidity in the air. This paper reports the experimental results using stable La 2 O 3 as an analog for actinide oxides, focusing on the most important parameters such as humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition at a fixed room temperature of 23 ± 2 deg C. The results showed that the effects of humidity, plume velocity, and facial condition vary more on orofacial swipe/lung deposition ratios compared to nasal swab/lung deposition ratios. The amounts on nasal swabs tended to show smaller change with respect to parameters such as plume velocity, humidity, and skin moisture. The amounts on orofacial swipes varied by a factor of 10-15 among the samples collected across all parameters. Such variability would be expected to be even greater in a real-world scenario with a larger range of physiological and environmental conditions. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the reliability of Levine method of wound swab for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of Levine swab in accurate identification of microorganisms present in a wound and identify the necessity for further studies in this regard. Methods: A semi structured questionnaire was administered and physical examination was performed on patients with chronic wounds ...

  16. Elution of Artificial Sputum from Swab by Rotating Magnetic Field-Induced Mechanical Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Banik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton-tipped applicator swabs are used as a collection device for many biological samples and its complete elution is a desired step for clinical and forensic diagnostics. Swabs are used to collect infectious body fluids, where the concentration of pathogens can range from 1 × 104 CFU/mL (colony forming units/mL in respiratory-tract infections and 1 × 105 in urinary-tract infections, to up to 1 × 109 CFU/mL in salivary samples. These samples are then eluted and lysed, prior to DNA (De-oxy Ribonucleic Acid analysis. The recovery of micro-organisms from a matrix of swab fibres depends on the nature of the body fluid, the type of the swab fibres, and the process of elution. Various methods to elute samples from swab include chemical digestion of fibres (~20% recovery, centrifugation (~58% recovery, piezoelectric vibration, or pressurized fluid-flow (~60% recovery. This study reports a magnetically-actuated physical impingement method for elution and recovery of artificial sputum samples from cotton fibres. A device has been fabricated to induce a rotating magnetic field on smaller magnetic particles in a vial that strikes the swab within a confined gap. Elution from the swab in this device was characterized using 2% Methyl cellulose in deionised water, loaded with fluorescent-tagged polystyrene beads and E. coli at various concentrations. The recovery efficiency was found to increase with both rotational speed and elution time, but plateaus after 400 RPM (Revolutions per minute and 120 s, respectively. At a higher concentration of polystyrene beads (5 × 108 particles/mL, a maximum recovery of ~85% was achieved. With lower concentration, (1 × 105 particles/mL the maximum efficiency (~92.8% was found to be almost twice of passive elution (46.7%. In the case of E. coli, the corresponding recovery efficiency at 3.35 × 105 CFU/mL is 90.4% at 500 RPM and 120 s. This elution method is expected to have a wide applicability in clinical diagnostics.

  17. Simplifying sampling for African swine fever surveillance: Assessment of antibody and pathogen detection from blood swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J; Zani, L; Schwaiger, T; Nurmoja, I; Viltrop, A; Vilem, A; Beer, M; Blome, S

    2018-02-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable disease with serious socio-economic consequences that has been present in wild boar in the Baltic States and Poland since 2014. An introduction of ASF is usually accompanied by increased mortality, making fallen wild boar and hunted animals with signs of disease the main target for early warning and passive surveillance. It is difficult, however, to encourage hunters and foresters to report and take samples from these cases. A pragmatic and easy sampling approach with quick-drying swabs could facilitate this. In this study, we further evaluated the use of dry blood swabs for the detection of ASFV antibody and genome with samples from animal trials and diagnostic submissions (blood, bone and organs) from Estonia. Compared to serum samples, dried blood swabs yielded 93.1% (95% confidence interval: [83.3, 98.1]) sensitivity and 100% [95.9, 100.0] specificity in a commercial ASFV antibody ELISA. Similarly, the swabs gave a sensitivity of 98.9% [93.4, 100.0] and a specificity of 98.1% [90.1, 100.0] for genome detection by a standard ASFV p72 qPCR when compared to EDTA blood. The same swabs were tested in a VP72-antibody lateral flow device, with a sensitivity of 94.7% [85.4, 98.9] and specificity of 96.1% [89.0, 99.2] compared to the serum ELISA. When GenoTube samples tested in ELISA and LFD were compared, the sensitivity was 96.3% [87.3, 99.5] and the specificity was 93.8% [86.0, 97.9]. This study demonstrates reliable detection of ASFV antibody and genome from swabs. A field test of the swabs with decomposed wild boar carcasses in an endemic area in Estonia also gave promising results. Thus, this technique is a practical approach for surveillance of ASF in both free and endemic areas. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effect of Egg Orientation on Malposition in Hatching Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effects of orientation in the hatching eggs on hatching results and position disorders, so the eggs were placed in incubator for 3 groups as orientation of normal, horizontal and small end up. In this study, 1680 hatching eggs were divided into 3 groups with 7 replicates of 80 eggs in each. Hatchability of fertile eggs, malformation ratio, malposition ratio, weight loss ratio, chick quality, embryo death ratios in the early, middle and late stage of embriogenesis and mortality ratio were investigated in this research. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of egg weight loss ratio, embryo death in the late stage of embriogenesis, malposition ratio, hatching rate , whereas no significant differences among the groups in respect to malformation ratio, chick quality, embryo death in early and late embriogenesis. It was determined that the late embrionic mortality increased because of the position errors in case of hatching eggs orientation and the head of the embryo in small end up of eggs.

  19. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  20. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  1. Production and deformation of Clonorchis sinensis eggs during in vitro maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Hafiz Uddin

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke. The present study monitored eggs produced by long-term maintained adult worms of C. sinensis to confirm their egg productivity in vitro. The worms from infected rabbits were incubated in vitro in 1× Locke's solution and broth media (RPMI-1640, DMEM and IMDM. Numbers of expelled eggs were counted sequentially and their morphological changes were monitored by microscopy after 1, 30, 60, and 90 days of cultivation. On the 1-3 days of cultivation, the eggs counted maximum 4,756±202 eggs/worm/day in IMDM medium. The number of eggs gradually decreased less than 1,000 at 7-14 days and below 100 at 21days but continued to pass eggs after 56 days in all media. Length of the eggs were reduced about 1 µm at 30 days, and the length/width ratio was maintained around 1.8 at 30 days but decreased to 1.7 at 60 days and 1.5 at 90 days. Faust-Meleney index (FMI decreased as the cultivation duration increased and lowest FMI (5662.9±974.7 observed in IMDM media at day 90 (P = 0.001. Microscopic findings of the eggs recognized the miracidium in most of eggs at 60 days but not in those at 90 days. Instead, the eggs contained dark granules or vacuoles in the deformed shell at 90 days. Scanning electron microscopy revealed partial loss of wrinkles on the deformed egg surface and prominent abopercular knob. Eggs viability decreased as the cultivation progressed and showed significant positive correlation with FMI and length/width ratio. In conclusion, the cultivated worms pass only the eggs which are preformed in their uterus before cultivation. One gravid C. sinensis contains about 37,000 eggs in its uterus and produces about 4,000 eggs every day. The deformed eggs with FMI less than 7,000 and length/width ratio lower than 1.7 are non-viable.

  2. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  3. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  4. Egg dumping by predatory insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbani, A. C.; Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 290-293 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Egg dumping * ladybird beetles * oocyte resorption * trophic egg Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  5. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and

  6. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, James C.W.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Chan, Simon K.F.; Lam, Michael H.W.; Martin, Michael; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles

  7. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, James C.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama 790-8556 (Japan); Chan, Simon K.F. [Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Hong Kong, (China); Lam, Michael H.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Martin, Michael [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-12-15

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles.

  8. Does Fine Needle Aspiration Microbiology Offer Any Benefit Over Wound Swab in Detecting the Causative Organisms in Surgical Site Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanan, Sundaramurthi; Gs, Sreenath; Sureshkumar, Sathasivam; Vijayakumar, Chellappa; Sujatha, Sistla; Kate, Vikram

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the role of ne needle aspiration microbiology (FNAM) in detecting the causative organisms of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) in comparison with the standard technique of surface swabbing. Ma- terials and Methods. In this study, 150 patients with SSIs following elective and emergency operations were included. In all patients, FNAM was performed along with conventional surface swabbing to identify the causative microorganism. Sensitivity of surface swab and FNAM was calculated as the number of samples collected from the diagnosed case of SSI. A total of 115 positive cultures were obtained from the 150 patients with SSIs; surface swab was positive in 110 cases and FNAM was positive in 94 cases. The mean number of organisms isolated by surface swab, and FNAM was 0.95 and 0.8, respectively. The sensitivity of surface swab was 94.3% in elective cases and 96.25% in emergency cases. The sensitivity of FNAM was 82.8% in elective cases and 82.5% in emergency cases. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of FNAM and surface swab did not signi cantly differ in clean elective cases. The overall sensitivity of surface swab and FNAM was 95.65% and 81.7%, respectively. Comparing the antibiotic suscep- tibility pattern, no difference was observed when the same organ- ism was isolated by both methods, indicating that FNAM does not offer bene t over the conventional wound surface swab in detecting microorganisms in SSI in both elective and emergency surgeries. In certain cases with unexplained wound infections, FNAM can be used as an investigation to identify speci c pathogens not detected by conventional surface swab.

  9. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Stasulli, Dominique M; Sobestanovich, Emily M; Bille, Todd W

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations.

  10. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Adamowicz

    Full Text Available Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations.

  11. The Effect of Calcium Source in Laying Hen Diet on Egg and Tibia Bone Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Basuony, H.A.; Hatab, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty, 37-week-old Lohmann strain layers were used in the current study to evaluate the effect of using ground, sterilized chicken eggshell (ES) as calcium (Ca) source in their diets on the productive performance, egg and eggshell quality, serum Ca and inorganic P concentrations and bone mineralization. Feed and water ad libitum were provided and hens were kept under 16:8 hrs light:dark cycle. Birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (GP), 1, was a control group fed a layer diet containing finely ground limestone as the Ca source. 2 was fed a layer diet that contained a combination of 50% limestone and 50% ground eggshell (50% ES) as the Ca source, whereas group 3 received a layer diet containing 100% ground eggshell (100% ES) as the Ca source in the diet. After 2 wk of acclimation, the birds were fed the experimental diets for 6 wk, initial and final body weights (BW) and feed intake was recorded. Eggs production was expressed as a percentage of hen-day egg production, egg weight and the internal egg quality were measured. Serum Ca, P concentrations, Ca:P ratio and aldosterone level were determined. Finally, tibia weight, length and its contents of Ca, P concentrations were measured. Results of this study indicated that, there was no significant effect of dietary treatment on BW and feed consumption. Replacing limestone in the current study diet with ground, sterilized eggshell had no any significant effect on egg production, egg weight, eggshell quality and tibia characteristics among between groups. Finally, there were no significant effect for treatment on blood hematocrit, total serum Ca, P concentrations, Ca:P ratio and aldosterone level. It is concluded that hatchery waste, as chicken egg shells, can be used as the Ca source in layer diets without an adverse effect on BW, feed consumption, egg weight, egg production, egg and eggshell quality, serum Ca concentration and bone characteristics

  12. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  13. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  14. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Camacho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

  15. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  16. A study on the spiral shell in Dianchi, Yunnan, as domestic feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shouxiang; Yang Ruikun

    1990-01-01

    This article studies the accumulation and the metastasis of natural radioactive nuclei in the corporal of chicken when spiral shell is used as domestic feed. The result shows that the contents of natural radioactivity nuclei U, Th, and 226 Ra vary with the chicken meat, chicken bone, chicken egg and egg capsule. Their accumulation and metastasis are in the order: Th > U > 226 Ra, but the levels of the three radioactive nuclei are all below the limited levels of radioactive substances in the food standard of the People's Republic of China. This study provides a basis for developing and making use of the spiral shell as domestic feed in Dianchi, Yunnan

  17. The Eagle's EGGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  18. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  19. Identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from German and Danish bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Schatz, Juliane; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriel, Mariann; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-11-25

    In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). In total, 15 RT-qPCR positive swabs were detected. Remarkably, sequencing of positive samples did not confirm the presence of bat associated lyssaviruses but revealed nine distinct novel rhabdovirus-related sequences. Several novel rhabdovirus-related sequences were detected both in German and Danish insectivorous bats. The results also prove that the novel generic pan-lyssavirus RT-qPCR offers a very broad detection range that allows the collection of further valuable data concerning the broad and complex diversity within the family Rhabdoviridae.

  20. Sperm cell purification from mock forensic swabs using SOMAmer™ affinity reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katilius, Evaldas; Carmel, Andrew B; Koss, Heidi; O'Connell, Dan; Smith, Breanna C; Sanders, Glenn M; LaBerge, Greggory S

    2018-03-27

    We have demonstrated a proof of concept with affinity-based purification of sperm cells from mock forensic samples using SOMAmer™ reagents, DNA-based affinity reagents developed by SomaLogic, Inc. SOMAmer reagents were selected in vitro using whole-cell SELEX to bind specifically with intact, detergent-treated sperm cells. Successful separation of sperm from epithelial cells and their debris was demonstrated using buccal swabs with added semen. Primarily male DNA profiles were generated from sperm cells eluted from the types of cotton swabs typically used for rape kit evidence collection. The quality of sperm DNA isolated from samples purified using SOMAmers is comparable to existing commercially available differential extraction-based methods at higher sperm concentrations. This purification method is simple, offers relatively rapid (forensic casework. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Buccal swab, a minimally invasive method for the screening of oral cancer in active smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyatmi; Subiyantoro, P.; Indrakila, S.

    2018-05-01

    Smoking is the main risk factor for developing oral cancer. The previous study showed that there was a strong correlation between the length of smoking with the risk to develop oral cancer. Early detection of epithelial changes of oral mucosa will be a good prevention of the incidence of oral cancer among active smokers. This study evaluated the potential use of buccal swab for the screening of early signs of malignancy in active smokers. This study involved 80 participants including those who were smokers and non smokers. The buccal swab was conducted using sterile cytobrush. An epithelial smear was made from the buccal swab and stained with Papanicolaou’s technique. An cytomorphometric analysis was conducted by comparing the ratio of nuclear cell to cytoplasmic diameter (ND/CD) between the two groups. The mean of ND observed in this study were 8.963µ for active smokers and 7.991µ for non smokers groups. While the mean of CD were 58.249µ and 63.473µ for active smoker and non-smoker respectively. The mean of ND/CD ratio were 0.156 for active smokers and 0.129 for non smokers groups. This study detected a significant difference on the ND/CD ratio among active smokers vs non smokers (p<0.0001 95% CI = -0.040 – -0.014). In conclusion buccal swab could be a routine procedure to obtain sample for identification of changes in cells morphology to screen an early development of oral cancer.

  2. Nose swabs and urinalysis as indicators of exposure to I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrall, R. C.

    1963-06-15

    During a maintenance operation on the Aromour Research Reactor, a heat lamp, which was drying a valve, caused a small quantity of I/sup 131/ become airborne. A continuous air monitor sampling in the area gave the alarm and the area ntified by the use of a 256 channel analyzer. Nose swabs of the personnel involved were taken and 24 hour urine samples were obtained. A single channel analyzer was set up, calibrated for I/sup 131/ and thyroid counts were started several hours after the incident. The thyroid count rose during the first 24 hour period and then declined closely following the 8 day half life of I/sup 131/. The urine Samples were analyzed by two different gamma counting techniques. Portions of the 24 hour urine sample were also sent to a commercial urinalysis service and analysis for I/sup 131/specifically requested. The results of the commercial service in this instance appeared to be poor. Nose swabs taken immediately after the incident were analyzed using a NaI well crystal. The average value of the ratio mu c on nose swabs to mu c in thyroid was found to be 2.6 x 1-/sup -1/ with all values within a factor of 6. The average value of the ratio mu c in 24 hour urine sample to mu c in thyroid was 5.7 with all values within a factor of 2. It would appear that at short times after a suspected exposure to I/sup 131/ nose swabs and urine samples are both useful in making a rapid assessment of exposure. The data presented are based on 10 subjects. (auth)

  3. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  4. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Dane; Pavlović, Miloš D

    2015-06-01

    Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country's everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM), vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH) test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. In 36 (6%) patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11%) women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19%) women had BV, 19 (4%) vaginitis, and 72 (14%) candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21%) had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30%) women--in 83 (54%) of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal infections.

  5. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...... imaginaries that shaped the Danish regulation on the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyze the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work and readings in Parliament along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that in time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current 5 years...... and today continue to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss their gendered implications captured...

  6. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  7. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  8. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  9. Evaluation of two methods for monitoring surface cleanliness-ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, C A; Griffith, C J; Peters, A C; Fielding, L M

    1999-01-01

    The minimum bacterial detection limits and operator reproducibility of the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test and traditional hygiene swabbing were determined. Areas (100 cm2) of food grade stainless steel were separately inoculated with known levels of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Surfaces were sampled either immediately after inoculation while still wet, or after 60 min when completely dry. For both organisms the minimum detection limit of the ATP Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test was 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 (p 10(7) cfu/100 cm2. Hygiene swabbing percentage recovery rates for both organisms were less than 0.1% for dried surfaces but ranged from 0.33% to 8.8% for wet surfaces. When assessed by six technically qualified operators, the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test gave superior reproducibility for both clean and inoculated surfaces, giving mean coefficients of variation of 24% and 32%, respectively. Hygiene swabbing of inoculated surfaces gave a mean CV of 130%. The results are discussed in the context of hygiene monitoring within the food industry. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune

    2013-01-01

    and stored at -20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7......Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples...... until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection...

  11. Imperfect pathogen detection from non-invasive skin swabs biases disease inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRenzo, Graziella V.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Longo, Ana; Che-Castaldo, Christian; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Lips, Karen

    2018-01-01

    1. Conservation managers rely on accurate estimates of disease parameters, such as pathogen prevalence and infection intensity, to assess disease status of a host population. However, these disease metrics may be biased if low-level infection intensities are missed by sampling methods or laboratory diagnostic tests. These false negatives underestimate pathogen prevalence and overestimate mean infection intensity of infected individuals. 2. Our objectives were two-fold. First, we quantified false negative error rates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on non-invasive skin swabs collected from an amphibian community in El Copé, Panama. We swabbed amphibians twice in sequence, and we used a recently developed hierarchical Bayesian estimator to assess disease status of the population. Second, we developed a novel hierarchical Bayesian model to simultaneously account for imperfect pathogen detection from field sampling and laboratory diagnostic testing. We evaluated the performance of the model using simulations and varying sampling design to quantify the magnitude of bias in estimates of pathogen prevalence and infection intensity. 3. We show that Bd detection probability from skin swabs was related to host infection intensity, where Bd infections information in advance, we advocate that the most cautious approach is to assume all errors are possible and to accommodate them by adjusting sampling designs. The modeling framework presented here improves the accuracy in estimating pathogen prevalence and infection intensity.

  12. Quantification of loosely associated and tightly associated bacteria on broiler carcass skin using swabbing, stomaching, and grinding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Lee, H C; Chin, K B; Ha, S D; Kang, I

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to quantify bacterial populations after swabbing or stomaching, followed by grinding the swabbed or stomached broiler skins. For each of 3 replications, 3 eviscerated broilers were randomly taken from a processing line in a local broiler processing plant. Ten swabs and 10 stomachs per bird were conducted on the left- and the right-side skins (10×7 cm), respectively, which were then finally ground. Results indicated that mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) in the first swabbed sample were significantly lower than those in the first stomached sample (P0.05). During 10 swabbings followed by final grinding, 8, 9, and 83% of MAB were detected after the first swabbing, after the second through 10th swabbings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. During 10 stomachings followed by the final grinding, 17, 18, and 65% of MAB were detected after the first stomaching, after the second through 10th stomachings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms were significantly higher in the first stomaching than those in the first swabbing (P0.05). Populations of E. coli and coliforms decreased step-wisely from the highest after grinding to the intermediate after first and second sampling, and to the least after 10th sampling (Pgrinding. In this study, less than 35% of MAB seemed loosely associated in the skin of eviscerated broiler, whereas more than 65% of MAB looked tightly associated, which were not recovered by stomaching or swabbing even 10 times but were recovered by grinding the skin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  14. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  15. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  16. Influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on egg production and eggs quality of brown egg laying hens from 33 to 65 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Mateos, G G

    2018-04-17

    The influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on production and egg quality traits was studied in brown hens from 33 to 65 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial with 3 main cereals (barley, corn, and wheat) and 2 grinding size of the cereal (6 and 10 mm screen). Each treatment was replicated 11 times (10 hens/replicate). Diets were isonutritive and contained 2,740 kcal/kg AMEn and 16.8% CP. Egg production, ADFI, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined by period (4 wk) and for the entire experiment. Egg quality traits (percentage of undergrades, Haugh units, thickness, strength, color of the shell, and proportion of albumen, yolk, and shell) were measured also by period. No interactions between main cereal and grinding size of the main cereal of the diet were observed for any of the traits studied. Feed intake, egg production, and BW gain were not affected by diet or grinding size. Eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) in hens fed barley than in hens fed corn or wheat, probably because of the higher fat content of the barley diets. Also, FCR tended to improve in hens fed barley compared with hens fed corn or wheat (P = 0.07). Diet did not affect any of the egg quality traits studied. In summary, barley and wheat conveniently supplemented with enzymes, can be used in substitution of corn at levels of up to 55% in diets for laying hens, without any adverse effect on egg production or egg quality traits. Moreover, the substitution of corn by a combination of barley and supplemental fat increased egg size. Consequently, the inclusion of one or other cereal in the diet will depend primarily on their relative cost. Within the range studied, screen size (6 vs. 10 mm) of the cereal had limited effects on hen production.

  17. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on...

  18. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  19. Observations on the significance of diagnostic findings in egg-binding of Psittaciformes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.; Kostka, V.M.; Hofbauer, H.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical examination of 2192 psittacine birds of both sexes revealed a prevalence of 2.74 per cent (60 birds) of egg-binding. Domesticated species easily bred in captivity were the most commonly affected; the prevalence in cockatiels (15.75 per cent), and in budgerigars (5.73 per cent). An accurate diagnosis was possible in all cases by means of an evaluation of the case history, a visual examination, palpation and radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations. The case history alone was typical in 60 per cent of the cases, and reliable diagnosis was reached with the help of a visual examination in 70 per cent of the cases. Radiographic examination provided a definitive diagnosis in 30 per cent of the cases, especially in those with shelled eggs. Medullary bone proved to be a radiographic indication of laminated and thin-shelled eggs. However, laminated and thin-shelled eggs could only be differentiated definitively from abdominal masses, salpingitis and cystic degeneration by means of ultrasonography

  20. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  1. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  2. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Nuclear shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    de-Shalit, Amos; Massey, H S W

    1963-01-01

    Nuclear Shell Theory is a comprehensive textbook dealing with modern methods of the nuclear shell model. This book deals with the mathematical theory of a system of Fermions in a central field. It is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the single particle shell model. The second part focuses on the tensor algebra, two-particle systems. The last part covers three or more particle systems. Chapters on wave functions in a central field, tensor fields, and the m-Scheme are also presented. Physicists, graduate students, and teachers of nuclear physics will find the book invaluable.

  4. Optimaliseren van het antibioticabeleid in Nederland. IX. SWAB-richtlijn voor antimicrobiële therapie bij acute infectieuze diarree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. C.; Schultsz, C.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J.; Speelman, P.; Prins, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The 'Stichting Werkgroep Antibioticabeleid' (SWAB; Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy) develops evidence-based guidelines for the use of antibiotics in hospitalised adults. This guideline on acute infectious diarrhoea (AID) concerns the antibiotic treatment of acute infectious inflammation of

  5. Speckled eggs: water-loss and incubation behaviour in the great tit Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P; Gosler, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Many small passerine birds worldwide lay white eggs speckled with red, brown and black protoporphyrin pigment spots (maculation). Unlike some patterns of avian eggshell pigmentation which clearly serve a crypsis or signalling function, the ubiquity of maculation among passerines suggests that its origins lie in another function, not specific to any particular ecological or behavioural group. Elsewhere, we have presented evidence that protoporphyrin pigments serve a structural function related to eggshell thickness and calcium availability: eggshell maculation in the great tit Parus major increases with decreasing soil calcium levels, pigments demarcate thinner areas of shell, and both the pigment intensity and distribution are related to shell thickness. Here we show that maculation also affects the rate of water loss from the egg during incubation (approximately Mass Loss per Day or MLD, which is critical to egg viability), but not that of unincubated eggs. We also demonstrate, both by observation and experiment, that the effect of female incubation behaviour on MLD compensates in some way for variation in egg characteristics, and that differences between females in the degree of such compensation are related to differences in clutch maculation. Our results suggest that, while a principal function of maculation in this species may be to strengthen the eggshell, it may also reduce eggshell permeability when large amounts of pigment are used, and that this necessitates a behavioural adjustment from the female during incubation. We discuss these findings and make further testable predictions from our model.

  6. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  7. Bacterial contamination of eggs and behaviour of poultry flocks in the free range environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Talia; Drake, Kelly; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil; Hazel, Susan

    2016-12-01

    The free range production system is becoming more common in Australia and is expected to increase. Free range hens are exposed to more stressors in comparison to hens from barn and cage systems and it is suggested that stress can increase bacterial shedding on eggs. The aims of this study were to examine the level of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae populations, as well as the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, in eggs collected from two free range flocks on two different farms and to conduct longitudinal observations of the behaviour and welfare of hens in the free range production system. Hen age (weeks) was shown to have a significant effect (increase) on the level of total bacteria on the egg shell surface and in shell pores, as well as having an effect on feather condition score. As the hens aged, the frequency of external visual egg characteristics increased, as did feather condition score (where feather condition was poorer). These observations indicate areas which should be investigated further to improve the food safety of eggs and optimise the welfare of free range hens. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis in layer houses: a retrospective comparison of the Food and Drug Administration's egg safety rule (2010-2011) and the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitesky, Maurice; Charlton, Bruce; Bland, Mark; Rolfe, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Between July 2007 and December 2011, 2660 environmental drag swab samples were collected in total from California layer flocks on behalf of the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (CEQAP), the egg safety rule (21 CFR Parts 16 and 118) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or both. The samples were processed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab, and positive or negative results for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were recorded. This study retrospectively compares the differences between the FDA and CEQAP programs with respect to their SE environmental sampling surveillance results. To accomplish this comparison, two different CEQAP (new and old) data sets representing different SE environmental surveillance approaches in the life of the flock were compared against each other and against the FDA's SE environmental testing plan. Significant differences were noted between the CEQAP and FDA programs with respect to the prevalence of SE in the farm environment. Analyses of the prevalence of SE at different stages in the flock's life cycle (chick papers, preproduction, midproduction, postmolt, and premarket) found the highest prevalence of SE in premarket (11.9%), followed by postmolt (3.5%) and midproduction (3.4%), and there was a tie between chick papers and preproduction (2.1%). To assess the main effects of the presence of SE in the farm environment, backwards binary logistic regression was used. Of six independent variables examined (age of flock, year, season, owner, CEQAP membership, and analysis of pooled samples vs. individual swabs), only age of flock, owner, and year were determined to be significant factors in the final model. Although CEQAP membership and pooling vs. individuals swabs were not included in the final model, Pearson chi-square tests did show significantly higher odds of SE for non-CEQAP member farms and higher odds of SE in pooled samples vs. individual swabs.

  9. Effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in the diets on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters in quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, S; Erol, H; Ozsoy, B; Onbaşılar, I; Yalçın, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in quail diets on laying performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged 10 weeks were randomly allocated into one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into five replicates as subgroups, comprising 12 quails each. Dried brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used at the levels of 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% in the diets of the first, second and third treatment groups, respectively. Soyabean meal was replaced with dried brewing yeast. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The experimental period lasted 18 weeks. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, daily feed intake, daily protein intake, egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index, egg Haugh unit, the percentages of egg shell, albumen and yolk, excreta moisture and small intestinal pH. Inclusion of 3% and 4.5% dried brewing yeast in diets reduced egg yolk cholesterol concentration as mg per yolk and mg per g yolk (P brewing yeast was significantly lower (P brewing yeast resulted in significant increases (P brewing yeast. It is concluded that dried brewing yeast can be used up to 4.5% in the diets of laying quails without adverse effects on the measured parameters.

  10. THE CORN-EGG PRICE TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Babula, Ronald A.; Bessler, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A vector autoregression (VAR) model of corn, farm egg, and retail egg prices is estimated and shocked with a corn price increase. Impulse responses in egg prices, t-statistics for the impulse responses, and decompositions of forecast error variance are presented. Analyses of results provide insights on the corn/egg price transmission mechanism and on how corn price shocks pulsate through the egg-related economy.

  11. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  12. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge

    OpenAIRE

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Bilancioni, Aline; Vanden Eynde, Mathieu; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Guerry, Fr?d?ric; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (self-HPV) is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab. Methods A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed f...

  13. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  14. Sanitation Of Fresh Chicken Eggs By Ionizing Radiation And Its Effect On Their Physicochemical And Functional Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.H.; Abdul Azeem, A.M.; Eissa, F.I.; Mohamed, F.A.; Nasef, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact fresh white and brown L.S.L shell eggs inoculated with 109 colony forming units (cfu) of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella typhimurium, the effect of three doses 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic population and physical characteristics (Haugh units, yolk colour and yolk index), proximate composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), amino acids content, ,physicochemical properties (foaming ability, foaming stability and water holding capacity), the rheological change (viscosity), ph, protein solubility, carotenoids and lipid oxidation of the eggs were determined. The results revealed that at 2 kGy, the number of SE and S. typhimurium were reduced to non-detectable levels. The internal quality as freshness of eggs as measured by albumen height and the number of Haugh units as well as yolk colour and yolk index were all significantly reduced with increasing the irradiation doses. Non-significant changes were found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). Amino acids when irradiated at dose 2 kGy caused non-significant changes in their levels, but it caused significant decrease in total essential and non-essential amino acids with increasing irradiation dose at 4 and 6 kGy.After irradiation, the foaming ability and foaming capacity were increased while water holding capacity and viscosity were decreased with increasing radiation doses. The ph of the egg white and yolk was increased with increasing the radiation dose. The protein solubility was decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. Carotenoids of egg yolk were decreased with increasing doses of irradiation while lipid oxidation was increased with increasing radiation dose. Based on the obtained results, it

  15. Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...

  16. Shells and Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  17. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  18. Reevaluation of nasal swab method for dose estimation at nuclear emergency accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kurihara, Osamu; Akashi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    ICRP Publication 66 human respiratory tract model has been used extensively over in exposure dose assessment. It is well known that respiratory deposition efficiency of inhaled aerosol and its deposition region strongly depend on the particle size. In most of exposure accidents, however, nobody knows a size of inhaled aerosol. And thus two default aerosol sizes of 5μ in AMAD for the workers and 1μ in AMAD for the public are given as being representative in the ICRP model, but both sizes are not linked directly to the maximum dose. In this study, the most hazardous size to our health effects and how to estimate an intake activity was discussed from a viewpoint of emergency medicine. In exposure accident of alpha emitter such as Pu-239, lung monitor and bioassay measurements are not the best methods for rapid estimation with high sensitivity, so that an applicability of nasal swab method has been investigated. A computer software, LUDEP, was used in the calculation of respiratory deposition. It showed that the effective dose per unit intake activity strongly depended on the inhaled aerosol size. In case of Pu-239 dioxide aerosols, it was confirmed that the maximum of dose conversion factor was observed around 0.01μ. It means that this 0.01μ is the most hazardous size at exposure accident of Pu-239. From analysis of the relationship between AI and ET l deposition, it was found that the dose conversion factor from the activity deposited in ET l region also was affected by the aerosol size. The usage of the ICRP's default size in nasal swab method might cause obvious underestimation of the intake activity. Dose estimation based on nasal swab method is possible from safety side at nuclear emergency, and the availability in quantity should be reevaluated for emergency medicine considering of chelating agent administration. (author)

  19. Identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from German and Danish bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M.; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR).Findings: In total, 15 RT-qPCR posi...... bats. The results also prove that the novel generic pan-lyssavirus RT-qPCR offers a very broad detection range that allows the collection of further valuable data concerning the broad and complex diversity within the family Rhabdoviridae....

  20. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  1. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H

    2007-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  2. Rapid detection of Van genes in rectal swabs by real time PCR in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Cantarelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laboratory-based surveillance is an important component in the control of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE. METHODS: The study aimed to evaluate real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR (genes vanA-vanB for VRE detection on 115 swabs from patients included in a surveillance program. RESULTS: Sensitivity of RT-PCR was similar to primary culture (75% and 79.5%, respectively when compared to broth enriched culture, whereas specificity was 83.1%. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR provides same day results, however it showed low sensitivity for VRE detection.

  3. Incubation reduces microbial growth on eggshells and the opportunity for trans-shell infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Wayne J. Arendt

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggshells harbour microbes shortly after laying, and under appropriate ambient conditions they can multiply rapidly, penetrate through shell pores, infect egg contents and cause embryo mortality. We experimentally examined how incubation affects bacterial processes on the eggshells of pearl-eyed thrashers Margarops fuscatus nesting in tropical montane and lowland...

  4. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, S C; Tenreiro, R; Botelho, M L

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p<0.05) and an average value of (2.0{+-}0.3). 10{sup 5} cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a {gamma} facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the {gamma} facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. D{sub value} varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the D{sub value} of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  5. Radiocesium patterns in wood duck eggs and nesting females in a contaminated reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colwell, S.V.; Kennamer, R.A.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclide releases from nuclear industry are an important ecological issue, particularly because these contaminants may directly affect animals and may be transferred to the hunting public through consumption. During 1991-92, we collected 13 clutches of wood duck eggs from nest boxes established in an abandoned reactor cooling reservoir. We examined whole-egg radiocesium ( 137 Cs) levels and apportionment within egg components (albumen, yolk, and shell). Whole-egg concentrations averaged 0.113 Becquerel (Bq)/g wet mass (SE=0.01, n = 137) over 2 years. Albumen had the highest concentration of 137 Cs (x = 1.096 Bq/g dry mass), followed by shell (x = 0.132 Bq/g dry mass) and yolk (x = 0.098 Bq/g dry mass). Levels of potassium (K), a chemical analog of Cs, suggested that contamination levels in yolk were disproportionally lower than those in albumen. Levels of 137 Cs that appeared in these components may reflect temporal differences in the sythesis of yolk and albumen. Laying order did not relate to whole-egg 137 Cs concentrations within clutches, but 137 Cs concentrations in post-laying females were positively related to mean egg 137 Cs levels in their respective clutches (r 2 = 0.97). While female ducks and their eggs examined in this study would not have posed a health hazard to persons consuming them as food, we suggested that 137 Cs levels in breeding female wood ducks and their clutches may be indicators of foraging habitat selection (both contaminated and uncontaminated) during the laying cycle. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, S.C. E-mail: sandracv@itn.mces.pt; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M.L

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p<0.05) and an average value of (2.0{+-}0.3). 10{sup 5} cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a {gamma} facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the {gamma} facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. D{sub value} varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the D{sub value} of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  7. root extract on egg production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... using a shell strength device with a spiral pressure system (Fujihara, ... spectrophotometer by the improved ABTS•+ method, as described by ..... no advantage of this attribute in characterizing eggshell colour (Li et al., 2006).

  8. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products offered...

  9. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  10. A comparative evaluation of feathers, oropharyngeal swabs, and cloacal swabs for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in experimentally infected chickens and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuradji, Harimurti; Bingham, John; Lowther, Sue; Wibawa, Hendra; Colling, Axel; Long, Ngo Thanh; Meers, Joanne

    2015-11-01

    Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs have been widely used for the detection of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian Influenza A virus (HPAI virus) in birds. Previous studies have shown that the feather calamus is a site of H5N1 virus replication and therefore has potential for diagnosis of avian influenza. However, studies characterizing the value of feathers for this purpose are not available, to our knowledge; herein we present a study investigating feathers for detection of H5N1 virus. Ducks and chickens were experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus belonging to 1 of 3 clades (Indonesian clades 2.1.1 and 2.1.3, Vietnamese clade 1). Different types of feathers and oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples were compared by virus isolation. In chickens, virus was detected from all sample types: oral and cloacal swabs, and immature pectorosternal, flight, and tail feathers. During clinical disease, the viral titers were higher in feathers than swabs. In ducks, the proportion of virus-positive samples was variable depending on viral strain and time from challenge; cloacal swabs and mature pectorosternal feathers were clearly inferior to oral swabs and immature pectorosternal, tail, and flight feathers. In ducks infected with Indonesian strains, in which most birds did not develop clinical signs, all sampling methods gave intermittent positive results; 3-23% of immature pectorosternal feathers were positive during the acute infection period; oropharyngeal swabs had slightly higher positivity during early infection, while feathers performed better during late infection. Our results indicate that immature feathers are an alternative sample for the diagnosis of HPAI in chickens and ducks. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  12. The table egg: a review Ovo de consumo: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gilberto Bertechini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This present review intends to provide information and update the reader about diverse aspects of quality and consumption of eggs, the variation among consumer preference worldwide emphasizing the upper status this food represents as source of essential nutrients for human health. This review mainly focus on topics regarding production and quality of table eggs, emphasizing some aspects of the egg market, trend in egg intake and consumers perceptions regarding egg content and nutritious values. Additionally, results from specific studies that provide new findings about the role of enrichment egg components on health, prevention and treatment of diseases are discussed. A novel viewpoint is proposed in this review, highlighting the perspective for an increase of consumption of egg and egg products, mainly in markets where the consumption pattern is known to be low. How the information about shell eggs and its nutrients reach the consumer strongly affect the way this food of higher biological functions takes part in the human diet.Nesta revisão, os autores buscam informar sobre os vários aspectos relacionados à qualidade e ao consumo de ovos ao nível mundial, reportando as diferenças que existem entre os países e a importância que esse alimento representa para o fornecimento de nutrientes essenciais para nutrir e manter a saúde humana. Ao mesmo tempo, a revisão enfoca os estudos específicos, que indicam as novas descobertas sobre o enriquecimento dos ovos e sua ação auxiliar, no controle de problemas de saúde humana. Existe a perspectiva de incrementos no nível de consumo, principalmente nos países onde a ingestão é baixa e, assim, melhorar a nutrição humana com esse alimento de baixo custo e, no entanto, de alta qualidade nutricional.

  13. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  14. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its...... use, or the circumstances under which this technique may be considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was designed to investigate knowledge and attitudes of women in Denmark and the UK on egg freezing and their potential intentions regarding the procedure. RESULTS: Data...... was collected from September 2012 to September 2013 and the responses of 973 women were analyzed. In total, 83% of women reported having heard of egg freezing, and nearly all considered it acceptable for medical indications, whilst 89% considered it acceptable for social reasons. Overall, 19% expressed active...

  15. Unlocking the story in the swab: A new genotyping assay for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Allison Q; Rothstein, Andrew P; Poorten, Thomas J; Erens, Jesse; Settles, Matthew L; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2017-11-01

    One of the most devastating emerging pathogens of wildlife is the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which affects hundreds of amphibian species around the world. Genomic data from pure Bd cultures have advanced our understanding of Bd phylogenetics, genomic architecture and mechanisms of virulence. However, pure cultures are laborious to obtain and whole-genome sequencing is comparatively expensive, so relatively few isolates have been genetically characterized. Thus, we still know little about the genetic diversity of Bd in natural systems. The most common noninvasive method of sampling Bd from natural populations is to swab amphibian skin. Hundreds of thousands of swabs have been collected from amphibians around the world, but Bd DNA collected via swabs is often low in quality and/or quantity. In this study, we developed a custom Bd genotyping assay using the Fluidigm Access Array platform to amplify 192 carefully selected regions of the Bd genome. We obtained robust sequence data for pure Bd cultures and field-collected skin swabs. This new assay has the power to accurately discriminate among the major Bd clades, recovering the basic tree topology previously revealed using whole-genome data. Additionally, we established a critical value for initial Bd load for swab samples (150 Bd genomic equivalents) above which our assay performs well. By leveraging advances in microfluidic multiplex PCR technology and the globally distributed resource of amphibian swab samples, noninvasive skin swabs can now be used to address critical spatial and temporal questions about Bd and its effects on declining amphibian populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of an autoclave resistant anatomic nose model for the testing of nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolitius, Lennart; Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    A nose model that allows for the comparison of different modes of sample acquisition as well as of nasal swab systems concerning their suitability to detect defined quantities of intranasal microorganisms, and further for training procedures of medical staff, was evaluated. Based on an imprint of a human nose, a model made of a silicone elastomer was formed. Autoclave stability was assessed. Using an inoculation suspension containing Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the model was compared with standardized glass plate inoculations. Effects of inoculation time, mode of sampling, and sample storage time were assessed. The model was stable to 20 autoclaving cycles. There were no differences regarding the optimum coverage from the nose and from glass plates. Optimum sampling time was 1 h after inoculation. Storage time after sampling was of minor relevance for the recovery. Rotating the swab around its own axis while circling the nasal cavity resulted in best sampling results. The suitability of the assessed nose model for the comparison of sampling strategies and systems was confirmed. Without disadvantages in comparison with sampling from standardized glass plates, the model allows for the assessment of a correct sampling technique due to its anatomically correct shape.

  17. A study of female genital swabs in primary health care centres in Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nwadioha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect some common microbial agents of female genital discharges in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods: A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from Primary Health Care Centres, Jos, and analysed for microscopy, culture and sensitivity in Jos University Teaching Hospital, December 2006 to December 2007 was carried out. Results: Microbial agents were detected in 70% (700 of a total 1 000 female genital swabs studied. Candida species peaked with 42.0% (420 out of the 1000 samples, followed by Gardnerella vaginalis, an agent of bacterial vaginosis with 26.0%. The distribution of abnormal vaginal discharge was highest in young adults aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusions: It is concluded that abnormal vaginal discharge is most prevalent in the young sexually active age group with Candida species as the commonest agent. We recommend prevention, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of infective female genital discharge in order to reduce the menace of HIV transmission.

  18. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, S. Cabo; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M. L.

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages ( n=150) were found to not be significantly different ( pmicrobial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a γ facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the γ facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. Dvalue varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the Dvalue of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  19. Dyson shells: a retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert J.

    2001-08-01

    More than 40 years have passed since Freeman Dyson suggested that advanced technological civilizations are likely to dismantle planets in their solar systems to harvest all of the energy their stars wastefully radiate into space. Clearly this was an idea that was ahead of its time. Since that time, dozens of SETI searches have been conducted and almost all of them have focused their attention on stars which by definition cannot be the advanced civilizations that Dyson envisioned. I will review the data that created the confusion between Dyson spheres and Dyson shells. The sources that disprove Dyson spheres while still allowing Dyson shells will be discussed. The use of outmoded ideas that have biased the few searches for Dyson Shells that have occurred will be pointed out. An update of the concept of Dyson shells to include our current knowledge of biotechnology, nanotechnology and computer science will be explored. Finally, an approach to setting limits on the abundance of Dyson shells in our galaxy using existing optical astronomical data and future optical satellites will be proposed.

  20. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  1. Characteristics of pulsed photo-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence for the identification of gamma irradiated poultry eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, I.A.; Kwon, J.-H.; Ur-rehman, S.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed photo-stimulated luminescence (PPSL) is a simple screening method that can be employed qualitatively at the spot for the detection of eggs treated with ionizing radiation. Due to the variations in the results during storage, the eggs of ostrich, duck, hen, and quail were irradiated to doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy. Most of the samples were incorrectly identified during storage after four months of irradiation. Thermoluminescence (TL) technique was also tried by using egg shells in order to confirm the irradiation treatment in eggs. TL glow curves were recorded between the temperatures 50 degree C to 400 degree C at the rate of 5 degree/s for all the control and irradiated samples. On the basis of integrated areas of first glow curves (TL1), the glow curve ratios (TL1/TL2) and the shapes of maxima of TL1, the irradiation treatment of all the eggs was confirmed. Furthermore, the presence of calcite and aragonite minerals that cause the TL signal in the egg shells were studied using X-ray diffraction spectrometry. (authors)

  2. Pilot study of participant-collected nasal swabs for acute respiratory infections in a low-income, urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas CY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celibell Y Vargas,1 Liqun Wang,1 Yaritza Castellanos de Belliard,1 Maria Morban,1 Hilbania Diaz,1 Elaine L Larson,2,3 Philip LaRussa,1 Lisa Saiman,1,4 Melissa S Stockwell1,5,6 1Department of Pediatrics, 2School of Nursing, 3Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 4Department of Infection Prevention and Control, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, 5Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 6NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA Objective: To assess the feasibility and validity of unsupervised participant-collected nasal swabs to detect respiratory pathogens in a low-income, urban minority population. Methods: This project was conducted as part of an ongoing community-based surveillance study in New York City to identify viral etiologies of acute respiratory infection. In January 2014, following sample collection by trained research assistants, participants with acute respiratory infection from 30 households subsequently collected and returned a self-collected/parent-collected nasal swab via mail. Self/parental swabs corresponding with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction primary research samples were analyzed. Results: Nearly all (96.8%, n=30/31 households agreed to participate; 100% reported returning the sample and 29 were received (median time: 8 days. Most (18; 62.1% of the primary research samples were positive. For eight influenza-positive research samples, seven (87.5% self-swabs were also positive. For ten other respiratory pathogen-positive research samples, eight (80.0% self-swabs were positive. Sensitivity of self-swabs for any respiratory pathogen was 83.3% and 87.5% for influenza, and specificity for both was 100%. There was no relationship between level of education and concordance of results between positive research samples and their matching participant swab. Conclusion: In this pilot study, self-swabbing

  3. Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... for Recommendations This page contains information about egg allergy and flu vaccination. Summary: CDC and its Advisory ...

  4. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  5. How do eggs pan out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-07-01

    Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.

  6. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  7. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  8. Plant response to butterfly eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griese, Eddie; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Fatouros, Nina E.

    2017-01-01

    Plants employ various defences killing the insect attacker in an early stage. Oviposition by cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.) on brassicaceous plants, including Brassica nigra, induces a hypersensitive response (HR) - like leaf necrosis promoting desiccation of eggs. To gain a deeper insight

  9. Correlative and dynamic imaging of the hatching biology of Schistosoma japonicum from eggs prepared by high pressure freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm K Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosome eggs must traverse tissues of the intestine or bladder to escape the human host and further the life cycle. Escape from host tissues is facilitated by secretion of immuno-reactive molecules by eggs and the formation of an intense strong granulomatous response by the host which acts to exclude the egg into gut or bladder lumens. Schistosome eggs hatch on contact with freshwater, but the mechanisms of activation and hatching are poorly understood. In view of the lack of knowledge of the behaviour of egg hatching in schistosomes, we undertook a detailed dynamic and correlative study of the hatching biology of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hatching eggs of S. japonicum were studied using correlative light and electron microscopy (EM. The hatching behaviour was recorded by video microscopy. EM preparative methods incorporating high pressure freezing and cryo-substitution were used to investigate ultrastructural features of the miracidium and extra-embryonic envelopes in pre-activated and activated eggs, and immediately after eggshell rupture. Lectin cytochemistry was performed on egg tissues to investigate subcellular location of specific carbohydrate groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hatching of S. japonicum eggs is a striking phenomenon, whereby the larva is liberated explosively while still encapsulated within its sub-shell envelopes. The major alterations that occur in the egg during activation are scission of the outer envelope-eggshell boundary, autolysis of the cellular inner envelope, and likely hydration of abundant complex and simple polysaccharides in the lacunal space between the miracidial larva and surrounding envelopes. These observations on hatching provide insight into the dynamic activity of the eggs and the biology of schistosomes within the host.

  10. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. in duck eggs on sale at retail or from catering in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M; Jorgensen, F; Willis, C; McLauchlin, J; Elviss, N; Aird, H; Fox, A; Kaye, M; Lane, C; de Pinna, E

    2016-11-01

    Since 2010, human salmonellosis outbreaks in the UK have been detected as associated with the consumption of duck eggs. Little data are available on the rate of occurrence of Salmonella in duck eggs. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in duck eggs on sale and from catering in England during 2011, particularly those from small-scale production. All samples were collected independently of human salmonellosis outbreak investigations. Composite samples of 6-10 eggs (shells and contents were examined separately) were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. using the ISO 6579:2002 method. Salmonella spp. was recovered from two of 145 samples (1·4%). In one sample, Salmonella Typhimurium DT 8 was isolated from the shells while Salm. Typhimurium DT 8 and Salm. Typhimurium DT30 were isolated from the contents. Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 was isolated from the egg shells only in the second contaminated sample. This study provides baseline data for risk assessors, regulators and the food industry and may be helpful in communicating risks associated with the consumption of this product as well as evaluating risk management options to control food safety including vaccination of ducks. Human salmonellosis outbreaks in England and Northern Ireland due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 have been identified as associated with the consumption of duck eggs since 2010. This study has shown that Salmonella spp. was detected in 1·4% of ducks egg samples providing baseline data for risk assessors, regulators and the food industry. This may be helpful in communicating risks associated with the consumption of this product as well as evaluating risk management options to control food safety including vaccination of ducks. © 2016 Crown copyright. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  12. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  13. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eperon, Isabelle; Vassilakos, Pierre; Navarria, Isabelle; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Gauthier, Aude; Pache, Jean-Claude; Boulvain, Michel; Untiet, Sarah; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing. Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (κ) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods. A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable. Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316120

  14. THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM SELENITE AND SELENIZED YEAST SUPPLEMENTATION INTO DIET FOR LAYING HENS ON SELECTED QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENRIETA ARPÁŠOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with sodium selenite (SS or selenized yeast (SY on whole egg and egg shell quality of layers were studied. The chickens of Shaver Starcross 288 strain were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 4 groups (n=12; in each. The birds were fed from Day 1 of life to 9 months of age with diets differing in amounts and/or forms of selenium. Control group received basal diet (BD containing selenium naturally occurring in feeds (0.1 mg Se/kg of dry matter (DM. First and second experimental group of chickens were fed with a same BD enriched with equivalent dose of Se 0.4 mg/kg DM in form of sodium selenite or selenized yeast, respectively. The feed for third experimental group of birds consisted of BD supplemented with selenized yeast to the final amount of selenium 1.0 mg/kg DM. The egg weight was significantly higher in the groups with SY supplementation only. On the contrary the egg shell ratio was significantly lower in the groups with SY supplementation in both amounts. The width of egg was significantly increased in the groups with selenium supplementation in both forms. The value of egg shell strength was significantly decreased in group with SY in the highest amount 0.9 mg/kg DM The average egg shell thickness was the highest in the experimental group with Se-yeast in amount 0.9 mg/kg DM, however different was not significant compared with control group. The results showed that the most of selected parameters of egg quality appeared to be significantly influenced by selenium supplementation into laying hen’s basal diet.

  15. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hatchability of all eggs set and of fertile eggs was the highest in eggs placed in the front of the machine. Furthermore, early and middle stage deaths during incubation were lower in the front of the incubator compared to the back. The differences between eggs placed in the upper, middle and lower parts of the machine ...

  16. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through

  17. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  18. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  19. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate pretreatment and 2-stage curing for improved quality of salted duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zixuan; Qiao, Longshan; Zhu, Guanghong; Deng, Yun; Qian, Bingjun; Yue, Jin; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-03-01

    The effects of use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing on the microbial, physicochemical, and microstructural qualities of salted duck eggs were studied. After pretreatment in 0.5% (w/v) SDS solution at room conditions for 15 min, no discolorations were observed and no microorganisms were detected on the egg shells. In the 2-stage curing process, 25% (w/v) and 30% (w/v) saline solutions were evaluated in the 1st step (Stage I, approximately 18 d), whereas 4% (w/v) saline solution was applied in the 2nd step (Stage II, approximately 15 d). Along with increased curing time, water content decreased and NaCl content increased in the egg yolks from approximately 0.40% to 0.86%, whereas the water content of egg albumen remained at approximately 85% during the 2-stage curing. More importantly, the NaCl content of albumen maintained at approximately 4.0% at Stage II curing. Yolk index as a sign of maturity for salted duck eggs reached 1 at the end of Stage I (18 d) and retained the same value during Stage II curing regardless of the NaCl concentration in the Stage I saline solution. Oil exudation in egg yolks increased as the time of curing increased. As seen from scanning electron microscopy, oil was released from yolk granules. This study indicated that SDS pretreatment is effective to reduce microbial load on the shells of fresh duck eggs and the 2-stage curing can improve physicochemical qualities of the salted duck eggs and shortened curing time to about 7 to 17 d as compared to the traditional 1-step curing method. Spoiled saline solution and uneven distribution of salt are the 2 major problems in producing salted duck eggs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing process have shown effective to solve these problems, respectively. The SDS pretreatment was able to remove microorganisms and soil from the surface of fresh egg shells, thus preventing the spoilage of the saline solution. The 2-stage curing process

  20. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  1. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  2. Isolation of lymphotropic baboon herpesvirus (HVP) from oral swabs of hamadryas baboons of the Sukhumi monkey colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrba, V Z; Lapin, B A; Timanovskaya, V V; Dzhachvliany, M C; Kokosha, L V; Chuvirov, G N; Djatchenko, A G

    1980-01-01

    Ways of lymphotropic baboon herpesvirus (HVP) secretion and its excretion into the environment were investigated. Oral swabs and feces from the Sukhumi main stock hamadryas baboons characterized by a high risk for malignant lymphoma and the baboon stock living in isolation in the forest were used as materials for the investigations. Macaque groups of the Sukhumi stock were used as controls. It could be shown that the HVP was resistent in the oral cavity of the main stock baboons and was isolated from oral swabs of these animals both from those with malignant lymphoma and clinically healthy individuals. No virus was isolated from feces of these animals. The virus could not be isolated from oral swabs of the isolated baboon stock and macaques.

  3. Primary health clinic toilet/bathroom surface swab sampling can indicate community profile of sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Giffard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The microbiome of built environment surfaces is impacted by the presence of humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that analysis of surface swabs from clinic toilet/bathroom yields results correlated with sexually transmitted infection (STI notifications from corresponding human populations. We extended a previously reported study in which surfaces in toilet/bathroom facilities in primary health clinics in the Australian Northern Territory (NT were swabbed then tested for nucleic acid from the STI agents Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. This was in the context of assessing the potential for such nucleic acid to contaminate specimens collected in such facilities. STIs are notifiable in the NT, thus allowing comparison of swab and notification data. Methods An assumption in the design was that while absolute built environment loads of STI nucleic acids will be a function of patient traffic density and facility cleaning protocols, the relative loads of STI nucleic acids from different species will be largely unaffected by these processes. Another assumption was that the proportion of swabs testing positive for STIs provides a measure of surface contamination. Accordingly, “STI profiles” were calculated. These were the proportions that each of the three STIs of interest contributed to the summed STI positive swabs or notifications. Three comparisons were performed, using swab data from clinics in remote Indigenous communities, clinics in small-medium towns, and a single urban sexual health clinic. These data were compared with time and place-matched STI notifications. Results There were significant correlations between swab and notifications data for the both the remote Indigenous and regional data. For the remote Indigenous clinics the p values ranged from 0.041 to 0.0089, depending on data transformation and p value inference method. Further, the swab data appeared to strongly indicate

  4. A quantitative swab is a good non-invasive alternative to a quantitative biopsy for quantifying bacterial load in wounds healing by second intention in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, L L; Hermans, K; Haspeslagh, M; Chiers, K; Pint, E; Boyen, F; Martens, A M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for diagnosing wound infection in wounds healing by second intention in horses and to assess the effect of a vortex and sonication protocol on quantitative bacteriology in specimens with a histologically confirmed biofilm. In 50 wounds healing by second intention, a clinical assessment, a quantitative swab, a semi-quantitative swab, and a swab for cytology were compared to a quantitative tissue biopsy (reference standard). Part of the biopsy specimen was examined histologically for evidence of a biofilm. There was a significant, high correlation (Pquantitative swabs and the quantitative biopsies. The semi-quantitative swabs showed a significant, moderate correlation with the quantitative biopsies (Pquantitative swab is an acceptable non-invasive alternative to a quantitative biopsy for quantifying bacterial load in equine wounds healing by second intention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mumps vaccine virus genome is present in throat swabs obtained from uncomplicated healthy recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, T; Nakayama, T

    2001-01-08

    Seven children were followed for up to 42 days post-vaccination with live mumps vaccine and 37 throat swabs were obtained serially. Viral genomic RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the phosphoprotein (P) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) regions. Virus isolation was also attempted. Genomic differentiation of detected mumps virus genome was performed by sequence analysis and/or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). No adverse reaction was observed in these children. Although mumps virus was not isolated from any of the samples, viral RNA was detected in four samples from three vaccine recipients, 18, 18 and 26, and 7 days after vaccination, respectively. Detected viral RNA was identified as the vaccine strain. Our data suggests that vaccine virus inoculated replicates in the parotid glands but the incidence of virus transmission from recipients to other susceptible subjects should be low.

  6. The high vaginal swab in general practice: clinical correlates of possible pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuizen, R S; Harvey, G; Gould, I M

    1995-06-01

    Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of 286 women whose high vaginal swabs (HVS) submitted by their general practitioners showed pure, heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus, beta haemolytic streptococci groups A, C or G, Streptococcus milleri, Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae were analysed. Women with group A, C and G streptococci frequently had clinical vulvovaginitis and although the numbers were too small for statistical confirmation, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae appeared to cause clinical disease as well. The association of S. aureus or S. milleri with clinical vulvovaginitis was much less convincing. It seems relevant for laboratories to report sensitivities for group A, C and G streptococci. Further research is needed to determine the pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae.

  7. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  8. Analysis of DNA evidence recovered from epithelial cells in penile swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Katja

    2003-06-01

    In the rape case presented here, no semen, hair, or other biological evidence were left by the perpetuator at the crime scene or on the victim. The alleged assailant was arrested soon after the crime. A classical stain recovery technique using cotton swab moistened with sterile water was taken for recovering potential female epithelial cells and leukocytes deposited on the alleged assailant's penis during sexual assault. The organic method used for DNA extraction was quantified according to the slot-blot procedure and amplified at 9 and 15 polymorphic loci. Penile swab revealed a DNA profile of mixed origin. In addition to the suspect's DNA profile, DNA contribution from the victim was identified as a minor component in the mixture. Frequency of the profile resulted in a value of 5 x 10(-14) for the multiplex systems AmpFlSTR Plus and 2.5 x 10(-18) for the multiplex system PowerPlex 16, taking into account only non-overlapping alleles between the suspect and the victim from the minor component in the DNA mixture. Moreover, three additional alleles were observed at D21S11 locus by use of PowerPlex and STR SGM plus primers, which could not belong to the suspect. The victim's DNA profile showed the same three-banded genotype at this locus. The same pattern was detected when the victim's saliva or blood were used as reference samples. Our laboratory finding was consistent with the police report that the victim was a person with Down syndrome, a human genetic disease mainly resulting from trisomy (triplication) of the 21 chromosome.

  9. Numerical model for surge and swab pressures on wells with cross-section variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedevjcyk, Joao Victor; Junqueira, Silvio Luiz de Mello; Negrao, Cezar Otaviano Ribeiro [UTFPR - Federal University of Technology - Parana - Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: silvio@utfpr.edu.br, negrao@utfpr.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Drilling is one of the most complex steps in petroleum exploration. The process is accomplished by rotating a drill bit to compress the rock formation. During drilling, a fluid is pumped into the well to lubricate and cool down the drill bit, to clean up the well, to avoid the formation fluid influx to the well and also to stabilize the borehole walls. Fluid circulation, however, can be interrupted for maintenance reasons and the drill pipe can be moved to remove the drill bit. The downward or upward movement of the drill pipe displaces the fluid within the well causing either under pressure (swab) or over pressure (surge), respectively. If the pressure at the well bore overcomes the formation fracture pressure, a loss of circulation can take place. On the other way round, the upward movement may reduce the pressure below the pore pressure and an inflow of fluid to the well (kick) can occur. An uncontrolled kick may cause a blowout with serious damages. The transient flow induced by the axial movement of the drill pipe is responsible for the pressure changes at the well bore. Nevertheless, the well bore cross section variation may modify the pressure change within the pipe. In this paper, the effects of diameter variation of the drilling well on the surge and swab pressures are investigated. The equations that represent the phenomenon (mass and momentum conservation) are discretized by the finite volume method. Despite its non-Newtonian properties, the fluid is considered Newtonian in this first work. The drill pipe is considered closed and the flow is assumed as single-phased, one-dimensional, isothermal, laminar, compressible and transient. A sensitivity analysis of the flow parameters is carried out. The cross-section changes cause the reflection of the pressure wave, and consequently pressure oscillations. (author)

  10. Multiplex PCR-based assay for detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Michaels, R H; Libert, T; Kingsley, L A; Ehrlich, G D

    1996-11-01

    A multiplex PCR-based assay was developed for the detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The assay simultaneously amplified two separate DNA targets (153 and 203 bp) within a B. pertussis repetitive element and a 438-bp target within the beta-actin gene of human DNA (PCR amplification control). PCR products were detected by a sensitive and specific liquid hybridization gel retardation assay. A total of 496 paired nasopharyngeal swab specimens were tested by both the PCR-based assay and culture. Although 30 (6%) of the specimens inhibited the amplification of the beta-actin target, in all 29 specimens studied, the inhibition disappeared on repeat testing or was easily overcome with a 1:8 dilution or less of specimen digest. Of the 495 specimen pairs yielding a final evaluable result by the PCR-based assay, 19.0% were positive by the PCR-based assay, whereas 13.9% were positive by culture (P < 0.0001). After resolving the PCR-positive, culture-negative results by testing an additional aliquot from these specimens by the multiplex PCR-based assay, the PCR-based assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.9 and 99.7%, respectively, compared with values of 73.4 and 100%, respectively, for culture. In comparison with patients with culture-confirmed pertussis, those with PCR-positive, culture-negative results were older and more likely to have had prolonged cough, immunization with pertussis vaccine, or treatment with erythromycin. This multiplex PCR-based assay is substantially more sensitive than culture and identifies specimens that contain inhibitors of PCR.

  11. Evaluation of a Chlamydia trachomatis-specific, commercial, real-time PCR for use with ocular swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Harry; Holland, Martin J; Last, Anna R; Burton, Matthew J; Burr, Sarah E

    2018-02-20

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is caused by conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Trachoma is diagnosed clinically by observation of conjunctival inflammation and/or scarring; however, there is evidence that monitoring C. trachomatis infection may be required for elimination programmes. There are many commercial and 'in-house' nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of C. trachomatis DNA, but the majority have not been validated for use with ocular swabs. This study evaluated a commercial assay, the Fast-Track Vaginal swab kit, using conjunctival samples from trachoma-endemic areas. An objective, biostatistical-based method for binary classification of continuous PCR data was developed, to limit potential user-bias in diagnostic settings. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay was run on 210 ocular swab samples from Guinea-Bissau and Tanzania. Fit of individual amplification curves to exponential or sigmoid models, derivative and second derivative of the curves and final fluorescence value were examined for utility in thresholding for determining positivity. The results from the Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay were evaluated against a commercial test (Amplicor CT/NG) and a non-commercial test (in-house droplet digital PCR), both of whose performance has previously been evaluated. Significant evidence of exponential amplification (R 2  > 0.99) and final fluorescence > 0.15 were combined for thresholding. This objective approach identified a population of positive samples, however there were a subset of samples that amplified towards the end of the cycling protocol (at or later than 35 cycles), which were less clearly defined. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay showed good sensitivity against the commercial (95.71) and non-commercial (97.18) tests. Specificity was lower against both (90.00 and 96.55, respectively). This study defined a simple, automated protocol for binary classification of continuous, real-time q

  12. Stability of charged thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  13. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  14. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  15. Inhibition of PCR-based assay for Bordetella pertussis by using calcium alginate fiber and aluminum shaft components of a nasopharyngeal swab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Laus, S; Libert, T; States, S J; Ehrlich, G D

    1994-04-01

    A PCR-based assay for Bordetella pertussis was inhibited by using a calcium alginate fiber-tipped swab with an aluminum shaft but not by using a Dacron fiber-tipped swab with a plastic shaft. The calcium alginate fiber component inhibited the assay following storage for less than 1 min in a suspension of 10(3) CFU of B. pertussis per ml, whereas the aluminum shaft component required storage for at least 48 h in order to cause inhibition. We recommend the Dacron swab over the calcium alginate swab for collecting specimens for testing in PCR-based assays.

  16. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), are currently tested in human clinical trials for their potential immunomodulatory capacity. The biological potency of TSO (egg viability and infectivity) is traditionally assessed in Göttingen minipigs as the establishment of intestinal larvae...... after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical......, physical, and biological factors on egg hatching. Thus, in a series of experiments and in different combinations, the eggs were stimulated with glass beads, artificial gastric juice, bile salt and trypsin solution, fermentation gut medium, or stimulated with mucosal scrapings from the ileum and the large...

  17. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Soler

    Full Text Available Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject, while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental

  18. THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  19. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  20. Egg shape mimicry in parasitic cuckoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M R G; Medina, I; Langmore, N E; Sherratt, E

    2017-11-01

    Parasitic cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of host species. Rejection of cuckoo eggs by hosts has led to the evolution of egg mimicry by cuckoos, whereby their eggs mimic the colour and pattern of their host eggs to avoid egg recognition and rejection. There is also evidence of mimicry in egg size in some cuckoo-host systems, but currently it is unknown whether cuckoos can also mimic the egg shape of their hosts. In this study, we test whether there is evidence of mimicry in egg form (shape and size) in three species of Australian cuckoos: the fan-tailed cuckoo Cacomantis flabelliformis, which exploits dome nesting hosts, the brush cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus, which exploits both dome and cup nesting hosts, and the pallid cuckoo Cuculus pallidus, which exploits cup nesting hosts. We found evidence of size mimicry and, for the first time, evidence of egg shape mimicry in two Australian cuckoo species (pallid cuckoo and brush cuckoo). Moreover, cuckoo-host egg similarity was higher for hosts with open nests than for hosts with closed nests. This finding fits well with theory, as it has been suggested that hosts with closed nests have more difficulty recognizing parasitic eggs than open nests, have lower rejection rates and thus exert lower selection for mimicry in cuckoos. This is the first evidence of mimicry in egg shape in a cuckoo-host system, suggesting that mimicry at different levels (size, shape, colour pattern) is evolving in concert. We also confirm the existence of egg size mimicry in cuckoo-host systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Efficacy of various protein-based coating on enhancing the shelf life of fresh eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Cengiz; Yüceer, Muhammed

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings (whey protein isolate [WPI], whey protein concentrate [WPC], zein, and shellac) on functional properties, interior quality, and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs were evaluated during storage at 24 °: C for 6 weeks. Coatings and storage time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter (DMA), relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH (9.56) and weight loss, and lower albumen viscosity (5.73), Haugh unit (HU), and yolk index (YI) during storage. Among the coated eggs, the shellac and zein coated eggs had the highest value of albumen viscosity (27.26 to 26.90), HU (74.10 to 73.61), and YI (44.84 to 44.63) after storage. Shellac (1.44%) was more effective in preventing weight loss than WPC (4.59%), WPI (4.60%), and zein (2.13%) coatings. Uncoated eggs had the higest value (6.71%) of weight lost. All coatings increased shell strength (5.18 to 5.73 for top and 3.58 to 4.71 for bottom) significantly (P eggs (4.70 for top and 3.15 for bottom). The functional properties such as albumen DMA (14.50 to 16.66 and 18.97 for uncoated) and albumen RWC (841 to 891 and 475 for uncoated) of fresh eggs can be preserved during storage when they are coated. The shellac and zein coatings were more effective for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during storage. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) in the 800 to 2500 nm reflection spectra were used to quantify the contents of the fresh eggs at the end of storage. Eggs coated with shellac or zein displayed a higher absorbance at 970 and 1,197 nm respectively (OH vibration of water) compared with those coated with WPI or WPC and the uncoated group at the end of storage. The coatings improved functional properties and also shell strength and could be a viable alternative technology for maintaining the internal quality of eggs during long-term storage. This study highlights the promising use of

  2. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  3. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication.

  4. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  5. Cadmium accumulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs is modulated by dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnison, B. Kent; Meinelt, Thomas; Playle, Richard; Pietrock, Michael; Wienke, Andreas; Steinberg, Christian E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing the accumulation of cadmium (Cd 2+ ) into zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs. The accumulation of 109 Cd was affected by: (1) concentration, (2) time, (3) presence of dissolved organic material (DOM), (4) different origin of DOM and (5) different parts of fish eggs. Over a 5-h exposure, zebrafish eggs showed a steady increase in Cd-accumulation. DOM-concentrations over 15 ppm carbon (C) decreased Cd-uptake significantly. Both samples of DOM, brown water marsh (LM) and a eutrophic pond (SP), at 16.9 ppm C, reduced the Cd-accumulation in the chorion, perivitelline liquid and the embryo. Cd was mainly accumulated in the egg's outer shell chorion (61%) and only small amounts passed through the chorion into the perivitelline liquid (38%) and embryo (1%). In the presence of LM-DOM, the accumulation of Cd into the egg components was decreased by 43% (chorion), 52% (perivitelline liquid) and 52% (embryo), respectively, compared with the control group. Similarly, the presence of SP-DOM reduced the Cd-accumulation by 29% (chorion), 61% (perivitelline liquid) and 60% (embryo), respectively, compared with the controls. DOM-concentration should be taken into consideration when determining ecotoxicological effects of Cd on fish populations

  6. Egg quality in layers housed in different production systems and submitted to two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAD Barbosa Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The production system using cages is a highly polemical issue in Europe, because of the space restriction imposed to laying hens. It is considered that the cage system might compromise important comfort movements, welfare and egg quality. This study evaluated egg quality and welfare of two strains of hens housed in a conventional system (battery laying cages or litter system with nest and perches, and submitted to heat stress or comfort conditions. Two groups of 20 birds (10 Hy-line W36 and 10 Hy-line Brown were submitted to two environmental conditions (26°C and 60% RH or 35°C and 70% RH and two housing systems (cages or litter in the early production phase. Egg quality was analyzed based on egg weight, eggshell thickness, specific gravity, and Haugh units. Yolk and shell contamination by Salmonella sp was also assessed. A significant (p<0.05 reduction in quality parameters was observed in eggs produced by laying hens under heat stress, mainly in the birds housed in cages.

  7. Pseudo-Outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus Infection at an Outpatient Clinic Related to Rinsing Culturette Swabs in Tap Water▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen. PMID:20444965

  8. [Influence of distinct criteria for selecting patients for swabbing on estimation of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Baz, Iván; Guevara, Marcela; Elía, Fernando; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Fernández Alonso, Mirian; Castilla, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine under different criteria for selecting patients for swabbing. A case-control study was performed of laboratory-confirmed cases (n=909) and negative controls for influenza (n=732) in the 2010-2011 to 2012-2013 seasons in Navarre (Spain). The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was estimated by including all swabs from patients with influenza-like-illness and selecting only the first two cases per physician and week. The first two patients per physician and week were less frequently vaccinated against influenza (7.9% vs. 12.5%, p=0.021) and less often received confirmation of influenza (53.6% vs. 66.4%, p <0.001) than subsequent patients. These differences decreased after adjustment for covariates. The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine was 49% (95% CI: 23-66%) when all swabs were included and was 55% (95% CI: 27-72%) when we selected the first two swabs per week and physician. The selection of the first two patients per physician and week may bias assessment of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, although this bias was small in the seasons analyzed. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimaliseren van het antibioticabeleid in Nederland. X. SWAB-richtlijn voor antimicrobiële therapie bij gecompliceerde urineweginfecties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, S. E.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Haarst, E. P.; Vleming, L. J.; van Haaren, K. M. A.; Janknegt, R.; Platenkamp, G. J.; Prins, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The 'Stichting Werkgroep Antibioticabeleid' (SWAB; Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy) has developed an evidence-based guideline for the empirical antimicrobial treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospitalised adult patients. The choice of treatment is based on recent

  10. Pseudo-outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus infection at an outpatient clinic related to rinsing culturette swabs in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-07-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen.

  11. Pseudo-Outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus Infection at an Outpatient Clinic Related to Rinsing Culturette Swabs in Tap Water▿

    OpenAIRE

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen.

  12. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)). Here, we describe the use of KIS(TM) test for the detection of penicillin G res...

  13. Bacterial recovery using sonication versus swabbing of titanium and stainless steel implants inoculated with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshen, Thomas; Case, J Brad; Wellehan, James F; Dujowich, Mauricio

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the use of sonication to improve recovery of bacteria from metal discs infected with bacteria commonly associated with implant infections in veterinary medicine. In vitro study in which sterile titanium (Ti6Al4V) and stainless steel (AIS1316-L) discs were incubated with either Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 24 hours. The following three groups were compared: 1) the sonication group involved immersing the discs in sterile saline and sonicating for five minutes; 2) the sham group was considered a negative control in which the discs were immersed in saline for five minutes without sonication; and 3) the swab group involved systematically swabbing the implant with a sterile culturette. All samples were plated on blood agar and incubated for 24 hours. Colonies were then counted and compared. For both species of bacteria, there was a significant increase in bacterial colonies isolated using sonication compared to the other two study groups (p = 0.0001). No differences in bacterial growth were found between the two types of metal implants. There was a significant increase in bacterial colony counts for S. pseudintermedius when comparing the swab group versus the sham group, but this was not significant for P. aeruginosa. Sonication significantly improves recovery of bacteria commonly associated with veterinary implant-associated surgical site infections compared to swabbing of implants in vitro. A prospective clinical evaluation is indicated to determine the in vivo efficacy of sonication in veterinary patients.

  14. [Optimizing antibiotics policy in the Netherlands. VI. SWAB advice: no selective decontamination of intensive care patients on mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, M.J.; Kullberg, B.J.; Filius, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (Dutch acronym is SWAB) has issued a guideline in which the pro and cons of the routine use of selective decontamination (SD) in patients in intensive care (IC) on mechanical ventilation are compared in order to decide whether SD is indicated. The effectiveness

  15. ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE SHELLS: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high displacement areas and to validate the non-failure criterion for each ply constituting the inner and outer laminate facings. The numerical results were obtained at low cost by using the finite element method. Studies have focused on structural analysis of a typical shell unit with an ovoid form (egg-shaped section when it is subjected, during annular space filling operation, to pressure forces generated by wet concrete. To ensure the safety of the composite shell structure, Tsai-Hill criterion function is applied and results are presented for the most stressed plies

  16. Effect of long-term selection for egg production on eggshell quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M M; El-Dlebshany, A E; El-Deen, M Bahie; Radwan, L M; Rayan, G N

    2016-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastuctural measurements of eggshell using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail. A selection program was applied over 22 consecutive generations for higher egg production and lower broken egg percentage. The results revealed that the females of the selected line produced significantly (P < 0.01) higher egg mass compared to that of the control line. Also, the selection procedure significantly improved feed conversion ratio. The eggshells of the selected line had a higher breaking strength compared to those of the control line, although there was no difference between them in shell thickness. Significantly higher wet (P < 0.01) and dry (P < 0.05) eggshell percentages were found in the selected line. In general, the eggshells of the selected line had a lower total score (good) of ultrastructural evaluation compared to the control line. According to scanning electron microscope data, the incidence of certain structural variants was more common in eggshells of the control line suggesting poor shell strength. The incidence of alignment was more prevalent in control eggshells compared to selected ones, suggesting lower resistance to breakage. Late fusion and large interstitial spaces of the palisade layer indicating decreased resistance to fracture were observed in control eggshells. It could be concluded that the improvement eggshell quality may be caused by the long-term selection for lower cracked and broken egg rates from generation to generation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Comparison of two non-invasive methods of microbial analysis in surgery practice: incision swabbing and the indirect imprint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovanec, Zdenek; Veverkova, Lenka; Votava, Miroslav; Svoboda, Jiri; Jedlicka, Vaclav; Capov, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    A variety of methods exist to take samples from surgical site infections for cultivation; however, an unambiguous and suitable method has not yet been defined. The aim of our retrospective non-randomized study was to compare two non-invasive techniques of sampling material for microbiologic analysis in surgical practice. We compared bacteria cultured from samples obtained with the use of the swab technique, defined in our study as the gold standard, with the indirect imprint technique. A cotton-tipped swab (Copan, Brescia, Italy) was used; the imprints were taken using Whatman no. 4 filter paper (Macherey-Nagal, Duren, Germany) cut into 5×5 cm pieces placed on blood agar in a Petri dish. To culture the microorganisms in the microbiology laboratory, we used blood agar, UriSelect 4 medium (Bio-Rad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France), and a medium with sodium chloride (blood agar with salt). After careful debridement, a sample was taken from the incision surface by swab and subsequently the same area of the surface was imprinted onto filter paper. The samples were analyzed in the microbiology laboratory under standard safety precautions. The cultivation results of the two techniques were processed statistically using contingency tables and the McNemar test. Those samples that were simultaneously cultivation-positive by imprint and -negative by swabbing were processed in greater detail. Over the period between October 2008 and March 2013, 177 samples from 70 patients were analyzed. Sampling was carried out from 42 males and 28 females. One hundred forty-six samples were from incisions after operations (21 samples from six patients after operation on the thoracic cavity, 73 samples from 35 patients after operation on the abdominal cavity combined with the gastrointestinal tract, 52 samples from 19 patients with other surgical site infections not included above) and 31 samples from 11 patients with no post-operative infection. One patient had a sample taken both from a post

  18. Automated parasite faecal egg counting using fluorescence labelling, smartphone image capture and computational image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusarewicz, Paul; Pagano, Stefanie; Mills, Christopher; Popa, Gabriel; Chow, K Martin; Mendenhall, Michael; Rodgers, David W; Nielsen, Martin K

    2016-07-01

    Intestinal parasites are a concern in veterinary medicine worldwide and for human health in the developing world. Infections are identified by microscopic visualisation of parasite eggs in faeces, which is time-consuming, requires technical expertise and is impractical for use on-site. For these reasons, recommendations for parasite surveillance are not widely adopted and parasite control is based on administration of rote prophylactic treatments with anthelmintic drugs. This approach is known to promote anthelmintic resistance, so there is a pronounced need for a convenient egg counting assay to promote good clinical practice. Using a fluorescent chitin-binding protein, we show that this structural carbohydrate is present and accessible in shells of ova of strongyle, ascarid, trichurid and coccidian parasites. Furthermore, we show that a cellular smartphone can be used as an inexpensive device to image fluorescent eggs and, by harnessing the computational power of the phone, to perform image analysis to count the eggs. Strongyle egg counts generated by the smartphone system had a significant linear correlation with manual McMaster counts (R(2)=0.98), but with a significantly lower coefficient of variation (P=0.0177). Furthermore, the system was capable of differentiating equine strongyle and ascarid eggs similar to the McMaster method, but with significantly lower coefficients of variation (P<0.0001). This demonstrates the feasibility of a simple, automated on-site test to detect and/or enumerate parasite eggs in mammalian faeces without the need for a laboratory microscope, and highlights the potential of smartphones as relatively sophisticated, inexpensive and portable medical diagnostic devices. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consensus of microbiology reporting of ear swab results to primary care clinicians in patients with otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, M; Howell-Jones, R; Cunningham, R; McNulty, C

    2011-01-01

    Otitis externa is a ubiquitous inflammatory disease; although it arises most commonly from an infection, there is no consensus in the UK for the reporting of ear swab culture results. This study aims to review current microbiology laboratory reporting of ear swab specimens to primary care and reach an evidence-based consensus for a reporting policy. Fifty consecutive ear swab reports were reviewed from each of 12 laboratories in the South West region to determine and discuss reporting practice. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) GP Microbiology Laboratory Use Group reviewed the underlying evidence and worked towards a consensus of expert microbiology opinion for laboratory reporting of ear swab results using a modified version of the Delphi technique. A total of 487 reports from primary care were reviewed (54% female; 46% male). Cultures most commonly yielded Pseudomonas species (36%), Staphylococcus species (21%), Streptococcus species (15%) and fungi (11%). Five reporting policies were agreed: Policy 1: Common pathogens such as group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus - Always reported by name with antibiotic susceptibilities. Policy 2: Pseudomonas species - Always reported, but antibiotic susceptibilities only reported in severe disease. Policy 3: Aspergillus, Candida, coliforms and Proteus species, as well as non-group A streptococci and anaerobes - Only reported if moderate numbers of colonies and it is the predominant organism present; if appropriate report antibiotic susceptibilities. Policy 4: Coagulase-negative staphylococci, diphtheroids and enterococci - Not reported by name; generic terms used and antibiotic susceptibilities not reported. Policy 5: When antibiotic susceptibilities reported these must include susceptibility to a topical antibiotic. It is suggested that laboratories should consider adopting this evidence-based reporting consensus for ear swab culture results from primary care patients with

  20. Direct PCR amplification of DNA from human bloodstains, saliva, and touch samples collected with microFLOQ® swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie; Wiley, Rachel; Novroski, Nicole; Budowle, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that nylon flocked swabs outperform traditional fiber swabs in DNA recovery due to their innovative design and lack of internal absorbent core to entrap cellular materials. The microFLOQ ® Direct swab, a miniaturized version of the 4N6 FLOQSwab ® , has a small swab head that is treated with a lysing agent which allows for direct amplification and DNA profiling from sample collection to final result in less than two hours. Additionally, the microFLOQ ® system subsamples only a minute portion of a stain and preserves the vast majority of the sample for subsequent testing or re-analysis, if desired. The efficacy of direct amplification of DNA from dilute bloodstains, saliva stains, and touch samples was evaluated using microFLOQ ® Direct swabs and the GlobalFiler™ Express system. Comparisons were made to traditional methods to assess the robustness of this alternate workflow. Controlled studies with 1:19 and 1:99 dilutions of bloodstains and saliva stains consistently yielded higher STR peak heights than standard methods with 1ng input DNA from the same samples. Touch samples from common items yielded single source and mixed profiles that were consistent with primary users of the objects. With this novel methodology/workflow, no sample loss occurs and therefore more template DNA is available during amplification. This approach may have important implications for analysis of low quantity and/or degraded samples that plague forensic casework. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. THE SHAPING EFFECT OF COLLIMATED FAST OUTFLOWS IN THE EGG NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh-V-Trung; Lim, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We present high angular resolution observations of the HC 3 N J = 5-4 line from the Egg nebula, which is the archetype of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs). We find that the HC 3 N emission in the approaching and receding portion of the envelope traces a clumpy hollow shell, similar to that seen in normal carbon-rich envelopes. Near the systemic velocity, the hollow shell is fragmented into several large blobs or arcs with missing portions correspond spatially to locations of previously reported high-velocity outflows in the Egg nebula. This provides direct evidence for the disruption of the slowly expanding envelope ejected during the AGB phase by the collimated fast outflows initiated during the transition to the PPN phase. From modeling the HC 3 N distribution, we could reproduce qualitatively the spatial kinematics of the HC 3 N J = 5-4 emission using a HC 3 N shell with two pairs of cavities cleared by the collimated high-velocity outflows along the polar direction and in the equatorial plane. We infer a relatively high abundance of HC 3 N/H 2 ∼ 3 x 10 -6 for an estimated mass-loss rate of 3 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 in the HC 3 N shell. The high abundance of HC 3 N and the presence of some weaker J = 5-4 emission in the vicinity of the central post-AGB star suggest an unusually efficient formation of this molecule in the Egg nebula.

  2. Evaluation of the effects of storage in two different swab fabrics and under three different transport conditions on recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, E.; Leeuwen, M. van; Meijer-Severs, G.J.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Degener, J.E.

    Recovery of six anaerobic and five aerobic pathogens from viscose swabs and polyurethane swabs (Culturette EZ) was evaluated quantitatively, and transport in aerobic dry tubes, aerobic Amies transport medium (Transwab), and anaerobic universal transport medium (Port-a-Cul) was compared. The

  3. Maternal effects of egg size on emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Sotherland, Paul R

    2004-02-01

    Parental investment in eggs and, consequently, in offspring can profoundly influence the phenotype, survival and ultimately evolutionary fitness of an organism. Avian eggs are excellent model systems to examine maternal allocation of energy translated through egg size variation. We used the natural range in emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg size, from 400 g to >700 g, to examine the influence of maternal investment in eggs on the morphology and physiology of hatchlings. Female emus provisioned larger eggs with a greater absolute amount of energy, nutrients and water in the yolk and albumen. Variation in maternal investment was reflected in differences in hatchling size, which increased isometrically with egg size. Egg size also influenced the physiology of developing emu embryos, such that late-term embryonic metabolic rate was positively correlated with egg size and embryos developing in larger eggs consumed more yolk during development. Large eggs produced hatchlings that were both heavier (yolk-free wet and dry mass) and structurally larger (tibiotarsus and culmen lengths) than hatchlings emerging from smaller eggs. As with many other precocial birds, larger hatchlings also contained more water, which was reflected in a greater blood volume. However, blood osmolality, hemoglobin content and hematocrit did not vary with hatchling mass. Emu maternal investment in offspring, measured by egg size and composition, is significantly correlated with the morphology and physiology of hatchlings and, in turn, may influence the success of these organisms during the first days of the juvenile stage.

  4. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  5. Avian Adenoviruses Infections with Special Attention to Inclusion Body Hepatitis/ Hydropericardium Syndrome and Egg Drop Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first avian adenovirus (AAV associated with clinical disease was isolated from an outbreak of respiratory disease in quail in 1950 (Olson, 1950. Since that time, AAVs have been found in all types and breeds of chickens and from a variety of other avian species. The infections may be asymptomatic or associated with several clinical and pathological conditions. Vertical transmission via the egg is the most common way of transmission. Also horizontal transmission through faeces, contaminated egg trays, crates and trucks play a role in the infection route. Studies have demonstrated the presence of antibodies in healthy poultry, and viruses have been isolated from normal birds. Avian adenoviruses in chickens are the etiological agents of 2 diseases known as inclusion body hepatitis (IBH and hydropericardium syndrome (HP. In some cases each condition is observed separately, however, recently the 2 conditions have frequently been observed as a single entity; therefore, the name hepatitis hydropericardium has been widely used to describe the pathologic condition. The syndrome is an acute disease of young chickens associated with anemia, haemorrhagic disorders, hydropericardium and high mortality. Egg-Drop-Syndrome (EDS is caused also by an adenovirus. The disease is characterised by a severe drop in egg production as well as the production of shell-less, thin-shelled, discoloured or misshapen eggs in apparently healthy birds. Ducks and geese are the natural host of the EDS virus. It was first described in chickens in the 1970s and spread to several countries world wide. The birds usually do not show any other signs of disease, and mortality is not expected. There is no specific treatment of the AAV infections. Active immunization by vaccination using an inactivated is wide spread.

  6. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in rectal swab samples from Rousettus amplexicaudatus in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Yuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Katayama, Yukie; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Masangkay, Joseph S; Puentespina, Roberto; Eres, Eduardo; Cosico, Edison; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Ken; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Bats are the second diversity species of mammals and widely distributed in the world. They are thought to be reservoir and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. However, there is scarce report of the evidence of pathogenic bacteria kept in bats. The precise knowledge of the pathogenic bacteria in bat microbiota is important for zoonosis control. Thus, metagenomic analysis targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA of the rectal microbiota in Rousettus amplexicaudatus was performed using high throughput sequencing. The results revealed that 103 genera of bacteria including Camplyobacter were detected. Campylobacter was second predominant genus, and Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were identified in microbiome of R. amplexicaudatus. Campylobacteriosis is one of the serious bacterial diarrhea in human, and the most often implicated species as the causative agent of campylobacteriosis is C. jejuni. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of C. jejuni in 91 wild bats with PCR. As a result of PCR assay targeted on 16S-23S intergenic spacer, partial genome of C. jejuni was detected only in five R. amplexicaudatus. This is the first report that C. jejuni was detected in bat rectal swab samples. C. jejuni is the most common cause of campylobacteriosis in humans, transmitted through water and contact with livestock animals. This result indicated that R. amplexicaudatus may be a carrier of C. jejuni.

  7. Chicken parvovirus viral loads in cloacal swabs from malabsorption syndrome-affected and healthy broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Fabrine; de Lima, Diane Alves; Cerva, Cristine; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; de Almeida, Laura Lopes; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) has been associated with malabsorption syndrome (MAS) in broilers. However, the participation of this virus in such syndrome is unclear, since it may be detected in diseased and healthy chickens. In the course of these studies, it was argued whether ChPV genome loads might be correlated to the occurrence of MAS. To check such a hypothesis, a SYBR green-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect and quantify ChPV genomes. Cloacal swabs from 68 broilers with MAS and 59 from healthy animals were collected from different poultry farms. Genomes of ChPV were detected in all samples, regardless of their health status. However, viral genome loads in MAS-affected broilers were significantly higher (1 × 10 5 genome copies per 100 ng DNA) than in healthy animals (1.3 × 10 3 GC/100 ng DNA). These findings indicate that there is an association between high ChPV genome loads and the occurrence of MAS in broilers.

  8. Discovery of a novel Parvovirinae virus, porcine parvovirus 7, by metagenomic sequencing of porcine rectal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinski, Rachel M; Mitra, Namita; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses are a diverse group of viruses containing some of the smallest known species that are capable of infecting a wide range of animals. Metagenomic sequencing of pooled rectal swabs from adult pigs identified a 4103-bp contig consisting of two major open reading frames encoding proteins of 672 and 469 amino acids (aa) in length. BLASTP analysis of the 672-aa protein found 42.4 % identity to fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) parvovirus 2 (EhPV2) and 37.9 % to turkey parvovirus (TuPV) TP1-2012/HUN NS1 proteins. The 469-aa protein had no significant similarity to known proteins. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that PPV7, EhPV2, and TuPV represent a novel genus in the family Parvoviridae. Quantitative PCR screening of 182 porcine diagnostic samples found a total of 16 positives (8.6 %). Together, these data suggest that PPV7 is a highly divergent novel parvovirus prevalent within the US swine.

  9. Effect of electron irradiation in hatching eggs experimentally inoculated with salmonella enteriditis, on hatch ability and broiler performance; Efecto de la irradiacion con electrones en huevos fertiles inoculados experimentalmente con salmonella enteriditis sobre la incubabilidad y desarrollo productivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda S, M P

    1996-12-31

    The effect of four doses of electrons irradaition on bacteriologic population in hatching egg following experimental shell contamination with Salmonella enteriditis phage type 13 was investigated. Fresh, whole, intact raw eggs were inoculated with 10{sup 9} Colony-Forming Units of Salmonella enteriditis, eggs were irradiated with a beam electron source at either: 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 KGy. The bacteriologic evaluation was made with Gentry`s and Williams` technic. After the irradiation the groups were taken to commercial hatchery and were incubated in satndards conditions. The bacteriologic evaluation of the shell showed a significant 2.8 log reduction on the group of eggs that were irradiated with 1 KGy as compared with 0.5 KGy doses group and control group (P<0.05). A negative correlation (r=-0.93) between irradiation doses and CFU (P<0.05) was also observed. Bacteriologic evaluation of the internal shell membrane exhibited a highly significant inactivation (P<0.01) of S. enteriditis of 100% in the group of eggs irradiated at 2 and 3 kGy. A high negative correlation (r=-0.90) between irradiation doses and samples of internal structures (P<0.05) was observed. The results obtained suggested that the electrons irradiation may be use like a control system of salmonelosis on egg and like desinfection system on hatching eggs because it did not cause any effect on hatchability and broiler performance. (Author).

  10. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  11. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening Preferences Among Trans-Masculine Individuals: Patient-Collected Human Papillomavirus Vaginal Swabs Versus Provider-Administered Pap Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Michal; Pardee, Dana J; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Reisner, Sari L; Agénor, Madina; Alizaga, Natalie; Bernstein, Ida; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Trans-masculine (TM, i.e., persons who have a masculine spectrum gender identity, but were assigned female sex at birth) individuals face disparities in cervical cancer screening rates compared to cisgender women. Some unique barriers to screening in this population are specific to Pap tests. Introduction of self-collected frontal (i.e., vaginal) swabs for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as a screening strategy may obviate these barriers. This study elucidates cervical cancer screening preferences among TM individuals. TM individuals participated in in-depth interviews (n = 31) and online surveys (n = 32) to explore perceptions and experiences regarding cervical cancer screening, including the acceptability of self-collected frontal HPV swabs for cervical cancer screening compared to provider-administered Pap tests. Provider-collected frontal HPV swab acceptability was also explored. Most TM individuals (94% in-person and 91% online participants) preferred either the self- or provider-collected frontal HPV swab to the Pap test. Participants perceived self- and provider-collected frontal HPV swabs to be less invasive, provoke less gender discordance, and promote a greater sense of agency compared to Pap tests. However, some participants expressed concern about HPV swab accuracy and, regarding the self-collected swab, discomfort about the need to engage with genitals they may not want to acknowledge. Individuals who reported positive provider relationships found Pap tests and provider-collected frontal swabs more acceptable than those who did not. Frontal HPV swabs have the potential to promote regular cervical cancer screening among TM individuals and to narrow screening disparities. Work is ongoing to establish swab accuracy and develop shared decision-making tools.

  13. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  14. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  16. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Wiemann, Jasmina; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N.; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; M?ller, Christa E.; Sander, P. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selecti...

  17. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  18. Creep analysis of orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, V.K.; Ghosh, A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of creep analysis of orthotropic cylindrical shells subjected to axisymmetric loads has been developed. A general study of creep behaviour of cylindrical shells subjected to a uniform internal pressure has been conducted for a wide range of values of anisotropy coefficients and creep law exponent. Analysis includes determination of stress re-distribution, strain rates, stationary state stresses. Application of reference stress technique has been extended to analysis of shells. (author)

  19. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  20. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Bilancioni, Aline; Vanden Eynde, Mathieu; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Guerry, Frédéric; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (self-HPV) is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab. A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed first: self-HPV using dry swabs (s-DRY) or vaginal specimen collection using a cytobrush applied to an FTA cartridge (s-FTA). After self-HPV, a physician collected a cervical sample using liquid-based medium (Dr-WET). HPV types were identified by real-time PCR. Agreement between collection methods was measured using the kappa statistic. HPV prevalence for high-risk types was 62.3% (95%CI: 53.7-70.2) detected by s-DRY, 56.2% (95%CI: 47.6-64.4) by Dr-WET, and 54.6% (95%CI: 46.1-62.9) by s-FTA. There was overall agreement of 70.8% between s-FTA and s-DRY samples (kappa = 0.34), and of 82.3% between self-HPV and Dr-WET samples (kappa = 0.56). Detection sensitivities for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (LSIL+) were: 64.0% (95%CI: 44.5-79.8) for s-FTA, 84.6% (95%CI: 66.5-93.9) for s-DRY, and 76.9% (95%CI: 58.0-89.0) for Dr-WET. The preferred self-collection method among patients was s-DRY (40.8% vs. 15.4%). Regarding costs, FTA card was five times more expensive than the swab (~5 US dollars (USD)/per card vs. ~1 USD/per swab). Self-HPV using dry swabs is sensitive for detecting LSIL+ and less expensive than s-FTA. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 43310942.

  1. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Catarino

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV self-sampling (self-HPV is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab.A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed first: self-HPV using dry swabs (s-DRY or vaginal specimen collection using a cytobrush applied to an FTA cartridge (s-FTA. After self-HPV, a physician collected a cervical sample using liquid-based medium (Dr-WET. HPV types were identified by real-time PCR. Agreement between collection methods was measured using the kappa statistic.HPV prevalence for high-risk types was 62.3% (95%CI: 53.7-70.2 detected by s-DRY, 56.2% (95%CI: 47.6-64.4 by Dr-WET, and 54.6% (95%CI: 46.1-62.9 by s-FTA. There was overall agreement of 70.8% between s-FTA and s-DRY samples (kappa = 0.34, and of 82.3% between self-HPV and Dr-WET samples (kappa = 0.56. Detection sensitivities for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (LSIL+ were: 64.0% (95%CI: 44.5-79.8 for s-FTA, 84.6% (95%CI: 66.5-93.9 for s-DRY, and 76.9% (95%CI: 58.0-89.0 for Dr-WET. The preferred self-collection method among patients was s-DRY (40.8% vs. 15.4%. Regarding costs, FTA card was five times more expensive than the swab (~5 US dollars (USD/per card vs. ~1 USD/per swab.Self-HPV using dry swabs is sensitive for detecting LSIL+ and less expensive than s-FTA.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN: 43310942.

  2. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  3. FEMALE PREFERENCE FOR NESTS WITH EGGS IS BASED ON THE PRESENCE OF THE EGGS THEMSELVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; GROOTHUIS, TGG; Kraak, Sarah B.M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1994-01-01

    In many fish species of which males care for eggs in a nest, including Aidablennius sphynx, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. In this paper we present two aquarium experiments with this Mediterranean blenny to determine whether the females actually use the presence of eggs

  4. Host selection by a phytophagous insect: the interplay between feeding, egg maturation, egg load, and oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding movement patterns of phytophagous insects among plants is a primary goal of insect ecology. Adult females may visit plants for the purpose of depositing eggs, feeding, or both. For some species, egg maturation may be dependent on adult feeding. As a result, rates of egg maturation m...

  5. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John A

    2014-06-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.

  6. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  7. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities § 57.35...

  8. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection of...

  9. SEROLOGICAL STATUS OF EGG DROP SYNDROME IN BREEDERS AND COMMERCIAL LAYERS IN MANSEHRA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. BADAR1, M. SIDDIQUE, R. ALI1 AND M. H. RASOOL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey was conducted to see the prevalence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome (EDS virus in breeders and commercial layers in Mansehra district. A total of 50 flocks including broiler breeder (30, layer breeder (10 and commercial layers (10 were surveyed from September, 2002 to March, 2003. Paired serum samples were collected at random from 20 birds in each flock at fortnight interval and screened through haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. In broiler breeders, out of 30 flocks, 12(40% were serologically positive for EDS. In layer breeders and commercial layers, 30 and 20% flocks were found to be seropositive, respectively. On the basis of age, maximum seroprevalence (42.85% was observed in birds between 21-40 weeks of age. The seroprevalence was 33.33% in 1-20 weeks, 26.66% in 41-60 weeks and 25.00 % in 61 weeks and above old birds. No specific clinical signs were observed in all three types of birds. A drop in egg production (22.555% was observed in seropositive flocks along with misshapen soft shelled, shell-less and non-pigmented eggs. Based on these findings, the farmers were advised to vaccinate their flocks against EDS between 14-16 weeks of age using killed adjuvanted vaccines.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairon Más-Toro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the dietary supplementation of powdered leaves of Morinda citrifolia on productivity and egg quality of laying hens, a total of 160 White Leghorn birds (Hybrid L-33 of 27 weeks of age were allotted during 70 days, according to completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet fed without or with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia. Supplementation of 1.0 and 1.5% of M. citrifolia powder increased the egg weight (P0.05 among treatments. Also, supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0% of M. citrifolia increased the shell thickness and the yolk color was pigmented by this medicinal plant. It recommended the dietary supplementation of 1.0% of powdered leaves of M. citrifolia on laying hen diets to improve the egg weight, shell thickness and yolk color.

  11. Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon; Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matla, P.

    2012-05-15

    Three articles address subjects concerning the annual race with highly energy efficient cars: the Shell Eco-Marathon. [Dutch] In 3 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan de ontwerpen voor de jaarlijkse race met superzuinige auto's, de Shell Eco-Marathon.

  12. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiles, C.

    1984-01-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10 0 . We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo

  13. Thinner eggshells of dipper (Cinclus cinclus) eggs from an acidified area compared to a non-acidified area in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, S.; Staurnes, M.; Jerstad, K. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-01-01

    Eggs of dippers Cinclus cinclus from a chronically acidified area in Southern Norway were compared with eggs from a non-acidified area in Central Norway. There were no differences in egg size, as measured by volume, weight, length and calculated surface area, between the two areas. Eggshells were 7.0% lighter and 6.1% thinner, as measured by the Ratcliffe index and 7.0% as measured by the eggshell index (shell weight/surface area) in Southern Norway than in Central Norway. The Ratcliffe and eggshell indices were highly correlated. Scanning electron micrography showed that the palisade layer of eggshells of eggs from the acidified area was 10.7% thinner than that of eggshells of eggs from the non-acidified area. Eggshell vapour permeability was not significantly influenced by area. Since the moderately lower thickness in Southern Norway was not accompanied by higher vapour permeability, this indicates that the reduced eggshell thickness did not cause desiccation of dipper eggs in the acidified area. The possibility of underestimating the environmental effects of acidification on dippers is discussed. 42 refs.,2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region in mitochondrial DNA from buccal cell swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Grujičić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used in population genetics, human evolutionary and molecular anthropology studies. mtDNA hypervariable segments I and II (HVSI and HVSII were shown to be a suitable tool in genetic analyses due to the unique properties of mtDNA, such as the lack of recombination, maternal mode of inheritance, rapid evolutionary rate and high population-specific polymorphisms. Here we present a rapid and low-cost method for direct PCR amplification of a 330 bp fragment of HVSI from buccal cell samples. Avoiding the DNA isolation step makes this method appropriate for the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time. Since the transportation of samples and fieldwork conditions can affect the quality of samples and subsequent DNA analysis, we tested the effects of long-term storage of buccal cell swabs on the suitability of such samples for direct PCR amplification. We efficiently amplified a 330 bp fragment of HVSI even after the long-term storage of buccal cells at room temperature, +4°C or at -20°C, for up to eight months. All examined PCR products were successfully sequenced, regardless of sample storage time and conditions. Our results suggest that the direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region from buccal cells is a method well suited for large-scale mtDNA population studies.[Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Grant no. III 47025.

  15. Flocked nylon swabs versus RODAC plates for detection of multidrug-resistant organisms on environmental surfaces in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K; Rhee, Y; Schoeny, M; Lolans, K; Cheng, J; Reddy, S; Weinstein, R A; Hayden, M K; Popovich, K J

    2018-01-01

    To compare two culture methods [nylon fiber flocked swabs with broth enrichment versus RODAC ('replicate organism detection and counting') plates] for recovery of multidrug-resistant organisms, 780 environmental surfaces in 63 rooms of patients on contact precautions in four intensive care units at one hospital were examined. Among sites that had at least one positive culture, swab culture with broth enrichment detected the target organisms more frequently than RODAC plates (37.5% vs 26.0%, P = 0.06). There was moderate agreement between the two methods (κ = 0.44) with agreement better for small or flat surfaces compared to large or irregular surfaces. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of a same-day real-time PCR method for screening of meat and carcass swabs for Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Krause, Michael; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    of the published PCR methods for Salmonella have been validated in collaborative studies. This study describes a validation including comparative and collaborative trials, based on the recommendations from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) of a same-day, non....... Partly based on results obtained in this study, the method has obtained NordVal approval for analysis of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. The PCR method was transferred to a production laboratory and the performance was compared with the BAX Salmonella test on 39 pork samples artificially...... contaminated with Salmonella. There was no significant difference in the results obtained by the two methods. Conclusion: The real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs was validated in comparative and collaborative trials according to NordVal recommendations. The PCR method...

  17. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by ELISA and nested PCR from blood samples and nasal swabs from pigs in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Prokeš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to map the situation of swine mycoplasmoses on four farms in the region of Eastern Slovakia. The primary agent of Enzootic pneumonia of swine is Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. After reviewing the health status of conventional herds and evaluation of clinical symptoms, paired samples of nasal swabs and venous blood samples were collected from 38 pigs with clinical signs of respiratory disease. Nasal swab samples were tested by nested PCR, while blood samples were used to detect antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae by blocking ELISA. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae was confirmed by nested PCR in four pigs (10.5% and by blocking ELISA in 16 pigs (42.1% of all four farms. This work presents for the first time comparison of different methods to diagnose M. hyopneumoniae infection on pig farms in Eastern Slovakia.

  18. Clutch and egg allometry of the turtle Mauremys leprosa (Chelonia: Geoemydidae) from a polluted peri-urban river in west-central Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Mohamed; Znari, Mohammed; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Feddadi, Youssef; Baamrane, Moulay Abdeljalil Ait

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationships of clutch size (CS) and egg size to female body size (straight-line carapace length, CL) in a population of the turtle Mauremys leprosa from a polluted segment of oued (river) Tensift in arid west-central Morocco. Twenty-eight adult females were collected in May–July, 2009 and all were gravid. Each was weighed, measured, humanely euthanized and then dissected. Oviductal shelled eggs were removed, weighed (egg mass, EM) and measured for length (EL) and width (EW). Clutch mass (CM) was the sum of EM for a clutch. Pelvic aperture width (PAW) was measured at the widest point between the ilia bones through which eggs must pass at oviposition. The smallest gravid female had a CL of 124.0 mm. Mean CS was relatively large (9.7±2.0 eggs, range: 3–13) and may reflect high productivity associated with polluted (eutrophic) waters. Regression analyses were conducted using log-transformed data. CM increased isometrically with maternal body size. CS, EW and EM were all significantly hypoallometric in their relationship with CL. EL did not change significantly with increases in CL. EW increased at a hypoallometric rate with increasing CL but was unconstrained by PAW since the widest egg was smaller than the narrowest PAW measurement when excluding the three smallest females. Smaller females may have EW constrained by PAW. As females increase in size they increase both clutch size and egg width in contradiction to predictions of optimal egg size theory.

  19. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the... glucose content of the liquid eggs. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is generally... powdered. Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid eggs may be reduced by one of the optional...

  20. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EGG WEIGHT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    variety) obtained from 60 eight weeks old Japanese quails of three different plumage colour varieties: Pharaoh Quail (Black), A & M white (White) and Manchurian Gold (Brown) at 8-14 weeks of age were used in this study. Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to ...

  1. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  2. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  3. Ethical motivation of Dutch egg consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Vrieze, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses a representative sample of 356 Dutch egg consumers in order to measure the extent to which ethical principles concerning the welfare of hens in different rearing systems are translated into egg purchasing intentions, and the extent to which declared intentions are expressed in

  4. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  5. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  6. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  7. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... disinfectant for hatching egg obtained from broiler breeder flock. Oregano essential ... contamination rate, hatchability of fertile egg, body weight at 21 and 42 days, body weight gain and total feed ... successful healthy hatchlings. Several ...... Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito.

  8. Plaice egg mortality: can we determine survivorschip?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Fox, C.J.; Nash, R.D.M.; O'Brien, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The daily mortality rate of cohorts of plaice eggs in the Irish Sea is estimated throughout the spawning season in 1995 and 2000, using general additive models of egg production. Daily mortality (z) was found to vary between 0.15 and 0.29. Mortality rates declined through the season in 1995 but not

  9. On eggs of some British Guyana Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, C.G.

    1889-01-01

    They make no nest but lay their eggs in a depression in the ground where it is dry, on the beds of cultivated land, on the high dams between plantations, on the bare rocks up the rivers, and on the savannahs in the They lay two or three eggs.

  10. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... production of oocytes to egg-laying on selected sites (Alle- mand 1976b; Yang et al. .... (vii) Is the egg-laying rhythm regulated by hormones? .... were shown to be induced by factors synthesized in the re- productive tract of the ...

  11. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  12. Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei using dipsticks; comparison of rectal swabs, direct stool and stool culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated a dipstick test for rapid detection of Shigella sonnei on bacterial colonies, directly on stools and from rectal swabs because in actual field situations, most pathologic specimens for diagnosis correspond to stool samples or rectal swabs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-side chains using phase I-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles, and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 5 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 6 minutes. This is the optimal time for lecture to avoid errors of interpretation. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 4 x 10(6 CFU/ml of S. sonnei. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and different unrelated strains. When tested on 342 rectal swabs in Chile, specificity (281/295 was 95.3% (95% CI: 92.9% - 97.7% and sensitivity (47/47 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 95.5 % of cases (328/342 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% (95% CI: 65% - 86.5% and 100% respectively. When tested on 219 stools in Chile, Vietnam, India and France, specificity (190/198 was 96% (95% CI 92%-98% and sensitivity (21/21 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 96.3 % of cases (211/219 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 72.4% (95% CI 56.1%-88.6% and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: This one-step dipstick test performed well for diagnosis of S. sonnei both on stools and on rectal swabs. These data confirm a preliminary study done in Chile.

  13. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  14. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  15. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  16. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A general formalism for the dynamics of nonrotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated with local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static, or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity

  17. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, P.

    2007-01-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  18. Conventional shell model: some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, M.; Pan, X.W.; Feng, D.H.; Novoselsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some important issues in shell-model calculations related to the effective interactions used in different regions of the periodic table; in particular the quality of different interactions is discussed, as well as the mass dependence of the interactions. Mention is made of the recently developed Drexel University shell-model (DUSM). (orig.)

  19. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  20. Comparison of foam swabs and toothbrushes as oral hygiene interventions in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomised split mouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Paola J; Hannigan, Ailish; Haywood, Sean; Cole, Jade M; Palmer, Nicki; Emanuel, Charlotte; Kinsella, Tracey; Lewis, Michael A O; Wise, Matt P; Williams, David W

    2016-01-01

    During critical illness, dental plaque may serve as a reservoir of respiratory pathogens. This study compared the effectiveness of toothbrushing with a small-headed toothbrush or a foam-headed swab in mechanically ventilated patients. This was a randomised, assessor-blinded, split-mouth trial, performed at a single critical care unit. Adult, orally intubated patients with >20 teeth, where >24 hours of mechanical ventilation was expected were included. Teeth were cleaned 12-hourly using a foam swab or toothbrush (each randomly assigned to one side of the mouth). Cleaning efficacy was based on plaque scores, gingival index and microbial plaque counts. High initial plaque (mean=2.1 (SD 0.45)) and gingival (mean=2.0 (SD 0.54)) scores were recorded for 21 patients. A significant reduction compared with initial plaque index occurred using both toothbrushes (mean change=-1.26, 95% CI -1.57 to -0.95; poral health, which improved after brushing with a toothbrush or foam swab. Both interventions were equally effective at removing plaque and reducing gingival inflammation. NCT01154257; Pre-results.