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Sample records for swabs shell egg

  1. Campylobacter sp in eggs from cloacal swab positive breeder hens Campylobacter sp em ovos provenientes de matrizes pesadas com swab cloacal positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp is a microaerophilic, thermotolerating Gram negative bacterium, known to be one of the main causes of food-borne human infections. Among the foods that carry these microorganisms, the chicken is outstanding. In Brazil, a large chicken exporting country, few researches are conducted about their prevalence in breeder hens and the transmission through eggs. The aim of this research was to verify the presence of Campylobacter sp in the shells and within the eggs from positive cloacal swab breeder hens. Microbiological analyses were made on cloacal swabs of 140 weighed breeder hens. The positive breeder hens were set aside and in a total of 244 of their eggs, Campylobacter sp was present in macerated shells and yolk contents during 7 weeks. Out of the 140 researched breeder hens, 25 (17.8% were positive from cloacal swabs, however the eggs were not positive. The physiological characteristics of the birds, their eggs and Campylobacter sp favor the bacterium entering and surviving in the eggs, but in this study, no positive result was found in macerated shells or in the yolks, indicating that vertical transmission is probably an unusual event.Campylobacter sp é reconhecida como uma das principais causas de gastrenterite humana de origem alimentar. Dentre os alimentos veiculadores desses microrganismos, a carne de frango tem sido a mais implicada. Os estudos existentes sobre a transmissão vertical da Campylobacter são escassos e não conclusivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a presença de Campylobacter sp na casca e interior de ovos de matrizes positivas em swabs cloacais e a possibilidade de transmissão vertical. Foram analisados swabs cloacais de 140 matrizes pesadas e seus ovos colhidos para análise durante 7 semanas consecutivas. Dos 244 ovos colhidos, 129 foram fumigados e 115 analisados sem tratamento. Foram analisados o macerado da casca e a gema. Das 140 matrizes pesquisadas, 25 (17,8% foram positivas em swabs

  2. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  3. Palaeontology: pterosaur egg with a leathery shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Ji, Shu-An; Cheng, Yen-Nien; You, Hai-Lu; Lü, Jun-Chang; Liu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Chong-Xi

    2004-12-02

    The recent discovery of a pterosaur egg with embryonic skeleton and soft tissues from the Yixian Formation confirmed that the flying pterosaurs were oviparous. Here we describe another pterosaur egg whose exquisite preservation indicates that the shell structure was soft and leathery.

  4. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  5. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... shell membranes missing and with egg meat adhering to or in contact with the outside of the shell. (3... membranes. (4) Liquid egg recovered from shell egg containers and leaker trays. (5) Open leakers made in the...

  6. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  7. Nondestructive pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs are on the top of the list of the 10 riskiest foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and 352 outbreaks from 1990 to 2006 were linked to eggs. The goals of this study were to design and assemble an apparatus to apply RF energy to shell eggs and to develop a process for pasteur...

  8. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae on Vacuum Loaders in Shell Egg Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, D. R; Musgrove, M. T

    2008-01-01

    .... The current study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the Enterobacteriaceae present on vacuum loader cups used in shell egg processing to transfer nest run eggs to the processing line...

  9. Calcinated egg shell as a candidate of biosecurity enhancement material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OTA, Mari; TOYOFUKU, Chiharu; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SANGSRIRATANAKUL, Natthanan; YAMADA, Masashi; NAKAJIMA, Katsuhiro; KITAZAWA, Minori; HAKIM, Hakimullah; ALAM, Md. Shahin; SHOHAM, Dany; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Calcinated egg shell (Egg-CaO), of which the main component is calcium oxide, was evaluated in the forms of powder and aqueous solutions for their efficacies as disinfectants against avian influenza virus (AIV...

  10. Traits of eggshells and shell membranes of translucent eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-He; Li, Ya-Jie; Liu, Long; Liu, Jing-Shou; Bao, Man; Yang, Ning; Zhuo-Cheng, Hou; Ning, Zhong-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Translucent eggshells negatively affect the appearance of eggs and decrease their economic value. Translocation and accumulation of water from the contents to the shells of eggs are frequent occurrences. Causes of translucent eggshell formation have been investigated, but the primary reason is uncertain. In previous studies, scientists have found that the thickness of the eggshell membrane was significantly different between translucent and opaque eggs. However, there are some conflicts among studies. We performed 2 experiments with 3 breeding flocks of chickens to target the reasons for egg translucence. In experiment 1, eggs of 1,024 Brown-Egg Dwarf Layers (DWL) were used. Approximately 1,600 eggs were collected over 2 consecutive days. They were stored for 3 days, and then 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs were selected for measurement of egg quality traits and weight loss over several weeks. In experiment 2, we used DWL and White Leghorn pure line (WLL) for assessment of eggshell ultrastructure and membrane traits. We chose 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs from 3,500 DWL eggs and 125 translucent and 125 opaque eggs from 5,028 WLL eggs. The results are as follows: (1) translucent eggs had greater eggshell strength and lower ultimate failure stress of shell membrane than opaque eggs in both DWL and WLL groups, (2) translucent eggs had thicker shells and thinner shell membranes than opaque eggs in DWL, (3) no significant differences were found in either gas pore or bubble pore traits between translucent and opaque eggs in either line, and (4) no significant differences were detected in internal egg quality or weight loss between translucent and opaque eggs in either line. In summary, the present study suggests that variations in both eggshells and shell membrane structures are implicated in the formation of translucent eggs. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000, yet less than 1% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the current process, hot water immersion, requires approxi...

  12. Egg weight and egg shell thickness as affected by dietary calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded levels of dietary inclusions of oyster shell and bone meal were used as calcium sources to determine their influence on egg weight and egg thickness for laying chicken in cages, under tropical conditions. Birds were allocated at random to 8% oyster shell and 2% bone meal in treatment 1; 7% and 3% in treatment II; ...

  13. Pathogen prevalence and microbial levels associated with restricted shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2007-09-01

    Restricted shell eggs that do not meet quality standards for retail but maintain acceptable quality for inclusion in further processed eggs are often diverted to further processing. A study was conducted to characterize the microbiological populations present on and in these eggs. On a single day, restricted eggs were collected from three shell egg processing plants a total of three times (replicates). Six shells or egg contents were combined to create a pool. Ten pools of shells and contents were formed for each plant per replicate. Shells and membranes were macerated in 60 ml of diluent. Contents were stomacher blended to form a homogeneous mixture. Total aerobic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. The prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria was determined by cultural methods. Average aerobic counts were 4.3 log CFU/ml for the shells and 2.0 log CFU/ml for the contents. There were plant x replicate differences for both (P Enterobacteriaceae level associated with the shell was 2.4 log CFU/ml and less than 0.1 log CFU/ml for the egg contents, with 36.7% of the samples being positive. One shell sample (0.5% of total samples) was Campylobacter positive. Two shell samples (1.1% of total samples) were Salmonella positive. Twenty-one percent of samples were positive for Listeria (33 shells and 5 contents). Although current pasteurization guidelines are based on Salmonella lethality, the results of this study reiterate the need to revisit the guidelines to determine the effectiveness for other pathogenic species.

  14. 7 CFR 56.40 - Grading requirements of shell eggs identified with grademarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Prerequisites to Packaging...

  15. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eggs are among the most nutritious foods on earth and can be part of a healthy diet. ... undercooked eggs? Infants, young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems are particularly ...

  16. Salmonella collected from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Shaw, J D; Harrison, M A

    2012-09-01

    Salmonella, a member of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Salmonella. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to a central processing facility before they are washed, graded, and packed. Two plants in the Southeastern United States were sampled; one was a mixed operation and the other was an off-line operation. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n = 25/visit). A 12 × 12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Each swab was preenriched in buffered peptone at 37°C for 24 h, selectively enriched using TT and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth at 42°C overnight, then plated onto brilliant green sulfa and XLT-4 incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive colonies were transferred to lysine iron agar and triple sugar iron slants for 24 h at 37°C. Isolates with presumptive reactions were confirmed using commercial polyclonal antisera. After initial confirmation, serogrouping was performed using commercial antisera. Mixed-operation swab samples were 12% positive for Salmonella, whereas off-line samples were 36% positive for Salmonella; isolates were confirmed as serogroups B, C1, and C2. Kauffman-White serotyping was performed by a contract laboratory. Serotypes (n = 30) recovered were Anatum, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, Mbandanka, and Typhimurium. This work demonstrated that nest run egg carts may serve as reservoirs for Salmonella in the shell egg processing environment.

  17. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Shaw, J D; Sheppard, M; Harrison, M A

    2009-10-01

    Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to the plant on carts to be processed. Two plants in the southeastern United States were sampled. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n=25/visit). A 12x12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated using violet red bile glucose agar incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. There was 100% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae at plant A with an average 3.8 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Plant B had 90% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae with an average 3.2 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Two randomly selected isolates from each positive sample were recultured 3 times to increase the likelihood of clonality and were then identified biochemically. Of the 124 isolates analyzed, genera identified were Citrobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Hafnia spp., Kluyvera spp., Leclercia spp., and Salmonella spp. Pseudomonas spp. was the only non-Enterobacteriaceae identified by our methods. This work demonstrates that nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae in the shell egg processing environment.

  18. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae from washed and unwashed commercial shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Cox, Nelson A; Harrison, Mark A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. This work demonstrated that commercial processing decreased microbial contamination of eggshells. To know which species persisted during storage on washed or unwashed eggs, Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected and identified biochemically. For each of three replications, shell eggs were purchased from a commercial processing plant, transported back to the laboratory, and stored at 4 degrees C. Once a week for 6 weeks, 12 eggs for each treatment (washed and unwashed control) were rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. A 1-ml aliquot of each sample was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Following incubation, plates were observed for colonies characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. A maximum of 10 isolates per positive sample were streaked for isolation before being identified to the genus or species level using commercially available biochemical strips. Although most of the isolates from the unwashed control eggs belonged to the genera Escherichia or Enterobacter, many other genera and species were identified. These included Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, Serratia, and Yersinia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae also recovered from the unwashed egg samples included Xanthomonas and Flavimonas. Very few washed egg samples were contaminated with any of these bacteria. These data provide useful information on the effectiveness of processing in removing microorganisms from commercial shell eggs.

  19. Shell rinse and shell crush methods for the recovery of aerobic microorganisms and enterobacteriaceae from shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Cox, N A; Harrison, M A

    2005-10-01

    Recovery of bacteria from shell eggs is important for evaluating the efficacy of processing and the quality and safety of the final product. Shell rinse (SR) techniques are easy to perform and widely used. An alternative sampling method involves crushing and rubbing the shell (CR). To determine the most appropriate method for recovering microorganisms from shell eggs, 358 shell eggs were collected from a commercial egg processor and sampled by SR and CR techniques. Total aerobic mesophiles and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated on plate count and violet red bile glucose agar plates, respectively. Unwashed, in process, and postprocess eggs were evaluated in the study. Aerobic microorganism prevalence for eggshells sampled was similar for both methods (approximately 100%), but the log CFU per milliliter values were higher in the SR than the CR samples (3.2 and 2.2, respectively). Average Enterobacteriaceae recovery was similar for both methods (45 versus 40% for the SR and CR methods, respectively) when all eggs were considered together. This population was detected more often by SR when unwashed eggs were sampled (90 versus 56% for the SR and CR methods, respectively), equally by SR and CR for in-process eggs (30 versus 29.3% for the SR and CR methods, respectively), but more often by CR for postprocess eggs (10 versus 36% for the SR and CR methods, respectively). The SR technique was easier to perform and recovered larger numbers of aerobic organisms, particularly for unwashed eggs. However, the CR technique was more efficient for recovery of Enterobacteriaceae from postprocess eggs. Stage of shell egg processing may be an important consideration when choosing egg sampling methods.

  20. Study Added of Waste Chicken Egg Shell in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng Wong Irwan Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the foundation of structure or construction that will receive the load transfer through to foundation. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small and cannot withstand the load transfer can result in the failure of construction. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small ground it is necessary to stabilize or improve the soil so that an increase in the carrying capacity of the land so that it can be used for construction. One material is commonly used for soil stabilization with the addition of lime. Waste chicken egg shell is waste that is still rarely used, the results of research [1], states that composition egg shell broadly consists of water (1,6% and dry material (98,4%. The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95,1% and protein (3,3%. Based on the existing mineral composition, then the egg shells are composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%, MgCO3 (0,84% and Ca3(PO42 (0,75%. This research was done by adding powdered chicken egg shell waste in clay with a composition of 5%, 7,5%, 10% and 14% with physical properties test and soil compaction test.

  1. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. Shell eggs identified with the grademarks shown in § 56.36 shall be legibly lot numbered on either the individual egg, the carton, or the consumer package...

  2. Impact of commercial processing on the microbiology of shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Harrison, Mark A; Cox, Nelson A

    2005-11-01

    Shell egg microbiology has been studied extensively, but little information is available on how modern U.S. processing conditions impact microbial populations. As regulations are being drafted for the industry, such information can be important for determining processing steps critical to product safety. Five different shell egg surface microbial populations (aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella) were monitored at 12 points along the processing line (accumulator, prewash rinse, washer 1, washer 2, sanitizer, dryer, oiler, scales, two packer head lanes, rewash entrance, and rewash exit). Three commercial facilities were each visited three times, a total of 990 eggs were sampled, and 5,220 microbiological samples were subsequently analyzed. Although variations existed in concentrations of microorganisms recovered from each plant, the patterns of fluctuation for each population were similar at each plant. On average, aerobes, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, and E. coli prevalence were reduced by 30, 20, 50, and 30%, respectively, by the end of processing. The microbial concentrations (log CFU per milliliter) in the egg rinse collected from packer head lanes were decreased by 3.3, 1.3, 1.3, and 0.5, respectively, when compared with those of rinses collected from eggs at the accumulator. Salmonella was recovered from 0 to 48% of pooled samples in the three repetitions. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from preprocessed than from in-process or ready-to-pack eggs. These data indicate that current commercial practices decrease microbial contamination of egg shell surfaces.

  3. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  4. Measurements of egg shell plasma parameters using laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements of 1064 nm laser-induced egg shell plasma parameters are presented in this paper. Of special interests were its elemental identification and the determination of spectroscopic temperature and electron density. The electron temperature of 5956 K was inferred using an improved iterative Boltzmann plot ...

  5. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from waste egg-shell by Precipitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The as-heated powders and processed powders were characterized by photomicrographic analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The influence of temperature on calcined egg-shell powder was investigated. Increasing temperature of the ...

  6. Relative Importance of External Quality Attributes of Shell Eggs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inferential comparison of the attributes however, showed that size and cleanliness were rated higher (P0.05) sub-class differences. Respondents expected large eggs to have more edible material; clean shells to signify freshness and safety, while dark ...

  7. Comparative study on the characteristics of egg shells of some bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on the characteristics of egg shells of some bird species. ... Egg shells of francolin, duck and turkey were compared for their physical and chemical characteristics. The range of weight of eggs and shells, respectively, were 25.2-74.9 and 5.23-9.40 g. Protein content was between 65.2-73.1 g/100 g; crude ...

  8. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  9. Enteric Pathogen Bacteria in Non-Broiler Chicken Egg Shells from Traditional Market and Supermarket, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Arumugam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Around 1.5 million of children dying annually due to diarrhea. Contaminated food is one of the sources of the diarrhea incidence (food borne diseases. Eggs are one of the least expensive forms of protein which is affordable by the community and is easily to find in either traditional or modern market/supermarkets.The objective of this study was to identify enteropathogenic bacteria contamination on non-broiler (ayam kampung egg shell and to compare the findings between eggs sold in traditional and modern markets. Methods: This was a descriptive study performed at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. A total of 40 eggs were used, 20 from two traditional markets and 20 from two modern markets. The eggs were swabbed using saline, dipped in tryptic soy broth and streaked on Mac Conkey agar. The collected data were analyzed and presented in tables. Results: Out of 40 samples, there were 19 positive cultures found from the traditional market and 16 from the modern market. There were 30 pink colonies indicating that they were lactose fermented, 5 transparent colonies indicated non-lactose fermentation, 4 showed no colony growth, and 1 grew an unidentified colony. The most found bacteria were Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. in both market. Conclusions: Eggs shells from traditional and modern markets are contaminated with Enteropathogenic microbes.

  10. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. Ozturk Ergin*, Coskun Isa, Ocak Nuh and Erener Guray. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ondokuz Mayis, Samsun, Turkey. Accepted 3 January, 2008. Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated ...

  11. Salmonella prevalence in commercial raw shell eggs in Japan: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Tsujiyama, Y; Asai, T; Noda, Y; Katayama, S; Yamada, Y

    2011-07-01

    We examined 20 300 raw shell chicken eggs sold at retail stores in Japan for Salmonella outside and inside eggs. The eggs were purchased at 220 retail stores throughout Japan between August 2007 and January 2008. Of 2030 pooled egg samples (10 eggs/sample), Salmonella was isolated from five shell samples (0.25%), but not from any of egg-content samples. The serovars of the isolates were Salmonella Enteritidis (2), S. Derby, S. Livingstone and S. Cerro. The samples positive for Salmonella originated from five different egg grading and packaging (GP) centres. All the GP centres washed their egg shells according to government guidelines for hygienic practice in GP centres. Thus, practical control measures at GP centres need to be reviewed and implemented to diminish Salmonella prevalence of egg shells because Salmonella contamination on eggs is a potential hazard for foodborne salmonellosis in Japan.

  12. Chicken Egg Shell Membrane Associated Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Sarbjeet; Liyanage, Rohana; Kannan, Lakshmi; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Lay, Jack O; Rath, Narayan C

    2015-11-11

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell as a feed supplement, which showed potential to improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. Therefore, to determine their protein and peptide profiles, we extracted the egg shell membranes (ESM) from fresh unfertilized eggs with methanol and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl) to obtain soluble proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. The methanol extract was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), high-performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine its peptide and protein profiles. The GdHCl extract was subjected to ESI-HPLC-MS/MS following trypsin digestion of reduced/alkylated proteins. Nine proteins from the methanol extract and >275 proteins from the GdHCl extract were tentatively identified. The results suggested the presence of several abundant proteins from egg whites, such as ovoalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme as well as many others associated with antimicrobial, biomechanical, cytoskeletal organizational, cell signaling, and enzyme activities. Collagens, keratin, agrin, and laminin were some of the structural proteins present in the ESM. The methanol-soluble fraction contained several clusterin peptides and defensins, particularly, two isoforms of gallin. The ratios of the two isoforms of gallin differed between the membranes obtained from brown and white eggs. The high abundance of several antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other bioactive proteins in the ESM along with its potential to entrap various microbes and antigens may make it a suitable vehicle for oral immunization of post hatch poultry and improve their disease resistance.

  13. Waste shells of mollusk and egg as biodiesel production catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriya-Empikul, N; Krasae, P; Puttasawat, B; Yoosuk, B; Chollacoop, N; Faungnawakij, K

    2010-05-01

    The solid oxide catalysts derived from waste shells of egg, golden apple snail, and meretrix venus were employed to produce biodiesel from transesterification of palm olein oil. The shell materials were calcined in air at 800 degrees C with optimum time of 2-4h to transform calcium species in the shells into active CaO catalysts. All catalysts showed the high biodiesel production activity over 90% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in 2h, whilst the eggshell-derived catalyst showed comparable activity to the one derived from commercial CaCO(3). The catalytic activity was in accordance with the surface area of and the Ca content in the catalysts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilizing Optical Coherence Tomography in the Nondestructive and Noncontact Measurement of Egg Shell Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Sabuncu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure the thickness of egg shells without any contact and by utilizing a nondestructive method that sends infrared light beam on the egg. We obtain measurement resolutions on the order of 7 μm up to a penetration depth of 1.7 mm from the actual surface of the egg shell. The measurement results we obtained show that optical coherence tomography can be used to accurately determine the egg shell thickness. Scanning the light beam over the surface allows for measuring the egg profile and monitoring the variations of shell thickness. Since this information gives a quantitative value for the uniformity of the egg shell structure, we anticipate that optical coherence tomography may be used in the quantitative evaluation of egg quality in in-line automated inspection systems.

  15. Variations in external and internal microbial populations in shell eggs during extended storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Northcutt, J K

    2004-12-01

    The current project was conducted to determine the microbial quality of commercially processed shell eggs during extended storage. Unwashed eggs were collected at the accumulator before entering the processing line. Washed eggs were retrieved after placement in flats. All eggs were stored on pulp flats at 4 degrees C for 10 weeks. Twelve eggs from each treatment were rinsed on the day of collection and during each week of storage. After rinsing, eggs were sanitized in ethanol, and contents were aseptically collected. Total aerobes, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, and pseudomonads were enumerated from shell rinses and pooled egg contents. During storage, no differences were found between unwashed and washed eggs for Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads in either shell rinses or contents. No differences were found between treatments for population levels of total aerobes or yeasts and molds in the egg contents throughout the storage period. Significant differences between treatments were found at each week of storage for external shell contamination by total aerobes. The highest unwashed egg contamination occurred at week 8 of storage and the lowest was at weeks 0 and 1 of storage. The highest shell contamination with aerobic bacteria on the washed eggs was found at week 0 of storage and the lowest was at week 7. Yeast and mold contamination determined by shell rinses was also significantly different between treatments at each week of storage. Commercially washed eggs were significantly less contaminated than were unwashed eggs for the populations monitored.

  16. Variations in External and Internal Microbial Populations in Shell Eggs during Extended Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D.R. Jones; M.T. Musgrove; J.K. Northcutt

    2004-01-01

    .... After rinsing, eggs were sanitized in ethanol, and contents were aseptically collected. Total aerobes, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, and pseudomonads were enumerated from shell rinses and pooled egg contents...

  17. Consumer Shell Egg Consumption and Handling Practices: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores

    2015-07-01

    Numerous cases and outbreaks of Salmonella infection are attributable to shell eggs each year in the United States. Safe handling and consumption of shell eggs at home can help reduce foodborne illness attributable to shell eggs. A nationally representative Web survey of 1,504 U.S. adult grocery shoppers was conducted to describe consumer handling practices and consumption of shell eggs at home. Based on self-reported survey data, most respondents purchase shell eggs from a grocery store (89.5%), and these eggs were kept refrigerated (not at room temperature; 98.5%). As recommended, most consumers stored shell eggs in the refrigerator (99%) for no more than 3 to 5 weeks (97.6%). After cracking eggs, 48.1% of respondents washed their hands with soap and water. More than half of respondents who fry and/or poach eggs cooked them so that the whites and/or the yolks were still soft or runny, a potentially unsafe practice. Among respondents who owned a food thermometer (62.0%), only 5.2% used it to check the doneness of baked egg dishes when they prepared such a dish. Consumers generally followed two of the four core "Safe Food Families" food safety messages ("separate" and "chill") when handling shell eggs at home. To prevent Salmonella infection associated with shell eggs, consumers should improve their practices related to the messages "clean" (i.e., wash hands after cracking eggs) and "cook" (i.e., cook until yolks and whites are firm and use a food thermometer to check doneness of baked egg dishes) when preparing shell eggs at home. These findings will be used to inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella infection.

  18. Single Step Sintered Calcium Phosphate Fibers from Avian EGG Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Prabhash; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu

    2013-11-01

    Different forms of calcium-phosphate (Hydoxyapatite, α-TCP, β-TCP, CDHA) minerals are found to be major component of bone tissue. Development of calcium-phosphate (CaP) based fibrous microstructures is of significant research interest worldwide owing to its improved mechanical properties and higher interconnectivity. Here we represent a method for single step sintered wet-spun Fibers of calcium phosphate from avian egg shells for biomedical applications. Raw egg shell powder was mixed with chitosan solution and Phosphoric acid. The mixture is milled in a ball mill overnight and then filtered. The slurry was de-aired using 100 microliter 1-octanol per 100 ml of slurry as antifoaming and wet spun in coagulation bath. Fiber was dried overnight and sintered at different temperatures for microstructure and phase analysis. Both green and sintered Fibers were physico-chemical characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR, and stereo-zoom microscopy. The fibers obtained in this procedure are found to have highly porous interconnected structures which can provide good cell adhesion and therefore can be used for bioactive scaffold making.

  19. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  20. Survey of shell egg processing plant sanitation programs: effects on non-egg-contact surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Fletcher, D L; Cox, N A

    2004-12-01

    To successfully implement a hazard analysis critical control point plan, prerequisite programs are essential. Sanitation standard operating procedures are an important part of such a plan and can reduce contamination levels so that food safety and quality are not adversely affected. Noncontact surfaces in the shell egg processing plants can serve as a reservoir of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of sanitation programs used in a variety of shell egg processing facilities (in-line, off-line, and mixed operations). Fourteen different noncontact surfaces were sampled in nine commercial facilities across the southeastern United States. Non-egg-contact surfaces were defined as those where the shell egg does not come into direct contact with the surface or with the fluid from that surface. Gauze pads soaked in sterile phosphate-buffered saline were used for sampling at the end of a processing day (POST) and again the next morning prior to operations (PRE). Aerobic plate counts (APCs) and numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were determined. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between POST and PRE counts for either population recovered from the 14 sampling sites. Only samples from the floor under the farm belts, nest-run loader, washers, and packer heads were reduced by 1 log CFU/ml of rinsate for APCs or Enterobacteriaceae counts. APCs of more than 10(4) CFU/ml of rinsate were recovered from many samples. Highest APCs were found on the floor under the farm belt and on shelves of the nest-run carts. High APCs were found on the wheel surface for off-line carts and on the loading dock floor. Highest Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in samples from the floor, drain, and nest-run egg cart shelves. A lack of significant difference between POST and PRE counts indicates that current sanitation programs could be improved. These data suggest that traffic patterns for the movement of eggs and materials through the plant should be

  1. Identification of enterobacteriaceae on vacuum loaders in shell egg processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2008-08-01

    Cleaning and sanitation are paramount in food processing. Gaining an understanding of the microbial populations present in a processing facility can help in the development of effective and efficient cleaning. The current study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the Enterobacteriaceae present on vacuum loader cups used in shell egg processing to transfer nest run eggs to the processing line. Twenty cups were rinsed on each of 3 visits to both an off-line operation and a mixed operation. A total of 442 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were biochemically identified from vacuum loader cup rinses. The predominant genera isolated from the 2 facilities were Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Citrobacter, and Serratia. The primary organisms from the off-line facility were Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter amnigenus 2, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolates found in the greatest proportion from the mixed operation were Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 18 genera were recovered from the 2 facilities, with 9 being present in both processing facilities. The findings of this study can be used in assessing the sources of bacterial contamination in egg processing and in developing more effective, targeted cleaning programs for processing equipment and facilities.

  2. Effect of cadmium doses on chickens. 3. Long term influence of cadmium on feed consumption weight gain, egg performance and egg shell quality of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelz, M.; Hardebeck, H.; Krampitz, G.

    1974-01-01

    In long-lasting experiments the application of Cd resulted in a decreased state of health (nephritis) of hens. Feed consumption, weight gain and egg production were reduced. Egg shell quality was not changed under practical Cd-concentrations. Studies of the ultrastructure of egg shells of animals fed with Cd did not yield any hints of damages. The protein-profiles of egg shells revealed an additional component under Cd-application. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. The effect of selected feed additives on the shell qualitative parameters of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals have a wide range of activities. May have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with different doses of thyme or oregano essential oil addition on egg shell quality parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=50 were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10 and fed for 20 weeks with diets with thyme or oregano essential oil. supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first and  second experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg thyme essential oil. The diets in the third and fourth experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg oregano essential oil.  The egg shell weight (g, specific egg shell weight (g/cm3, percentage of egg shell (%, egg shell strength (N/cm2 and egg shell thickness (mm were evaluated. The egg shell weight for the whole period was in the order of the groups 5.70±0.52; 5.65±0.44; 5.54±0.42; 5.62±0.38 and 5.49±0.48 g±S.D (P>0.05. Egg shell strength during the reporting period was in order of the groups: 27.81±6.00; 27.63±6.43; 27.17±6.36; 27.76±6.27 and 28.41±6.36 (N/cm2±S.D. Similarly, in the egg shell specific weight (g/cm3, egg shell percentage ratio (% and egg shell thickness (mm were observed statistically non-significant differences compared to the control group (P>0.05. The results suggest that the qualitative parameters of egg shell were not significantly influenced with thyme or oregano oil addition (P>0.05.

  4. Public health investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis in catering raw shell eggs, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Surman-Lee, S; Greenwood, M; Bolton, F J; Elson, R; Mitchell, R T; Nichols, G N; Sagoo, S K; Threlfall, E J; Ward, L R; Gillespie, I A; O'Brien, S

    2007-06-01

    In response to a dramatic change in the epidemiology of Salmonella Enteritidis in England and Wales thought to be associated with raw shell eggs, the Health Protection Agency initiated public health investigations to establish the incidence of Salmonella contamination and origin of eggs used by catering premises implicated in outbreaks of Salm. Enteritidis. Between October 2002 and November 2004, 16 971 eggs were sampled and Salmonella were recovered from 3.4%. Salmonella was isolated from 5.5% and 6.3% of Spanish and eggs of unknown origin, respectively, used in catering premises linked to outbreaks, a level significantly higher than that (1.1%) found in nonLion Quality UK eggs sampled. The small sample of UK Lion Quality eggs tested (reflecting their lack of use in premises visited) did not contain Salmonella. Several phage types of Salm. Enteritidis other than phage type 4 (PT 4) were identified with nonUK eggs. Eggs from Spain were implicated as a major source of infection. Eggs were contaminated more frequently with Salmonella when shells were dirty and/or cracked, and stored at above 8 degrees C. The use of Spanish eggs by the catering sector has been identified as a consistent significant factor in many of the outbreaks caused by Salm. Enteritidis nonPT4 in England and Wales during 2002-2004. Advice to caterers and hospitals that raw shell eggs should not be used in food that will either not be cooked or only lightly cooked should be reinforced.

  5. The location of protoporphyrin in the eggshell of brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R

    2013-10-01

    Protoporphyrin has been identified as the main eggshell pigment in brown-shelled eggs. However, there has been some uncertainty concerning the distribution of the pigment within the shell (and cuticle) in brown-shelled eggs. Most previous studies have suggested that the bulk of the shell pigment is deposited in the cuticle of the shell. The present study measured the levels of protoporphyrin in intact eggshells and in shells from which the cuticle had been removed, using eggs from flocks at 3 different ages. This enabled the calculation of the relative amount of protoporphyrin in the calcareous eggshell and the cuticle layer of the eggshell. The majority of the protoporphyrin pigment was located in the calcareous part of the eggshell (80-87%) with a minority contained within the cuticle (13-20%). These findings suggest that studies focused on maintenance of shell color in brown-shelled eggs need to consider the stage of egg formation at which the reduction in pigment deposition is occurring.

  6. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Luchini, Timothy J F; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri; Agarwal, Anand K; Goel, Vijay K; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5±1 min. The compressive strength after 24h of incubation was approximately 8.45±1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10±1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16±4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aeration of the shell membranes of avian eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R S; Piiper, J

    1988-01-01

    The inner and outer shell membranes (ISM, OSM) of fertile hen's eggs become aerated during the first ten days of incubation. The volume of gas in the compound membrane increases from 0 to 65% by day 11 when practically all of the space between the fibers is gas filled. The amount of gas depends on a balance between the capillary tension produced by fluid menisci in the interstices between fibers and the colloid osmotic tension of the albumen. Capillary tension, measured directly with a pressure plate apparatus, and colloid osmotic pressure, measured with a new technique, are in virtual equilibrium during aeration. These tensions increase from 0.15 bar at laying to 2.25 bar on day 11 because of evaporation from the membranes and active removal of water from the albumen by the embryo. Water leaving the membranes by evaporation is only partly replaced from the albumen. Thus the water contents of the membranes and albumen decrease (ISM: 79 to 56%, OSM: 71 to 52%, albumen: 86 to 58%). As the membranes dry, gas enters the larger pores first. Physiological estimates of effective radius show smaller (x = 1.3 micrograms), bimodally distributed pores in the ISM and larger (x = 3.4 micrograms), unimodally distributed pores in the OSM.

  8. Age influence on quality of shell and penetration in bacterial laying lightweight eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Smaniotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the influence of the bird’s age on the quality of the shell and percentage of bacterial penetration in commercial eggs. White-shelled commercial eggs were used, laid by light laying hens in their first laying cycle at 21, 39, 51, and 62 weeks of age. Shell quality evaluations comprised: egg weight, specific gravity, percentage and thickness of shell, number and size of pores. For evaluations regarding bacterial penetration, strains of several enterobacterias and one salmonella were used, all of which resistant to Nalidixic acid (100µg/ml. The method employed for evaluation of bacterial penetration was filling the eggs with growth medium. The data were subjected to variance analysis with 5% of probability using SAS (Education Analytical Software, 2013. Eveb though increase in the laying hen's age caused reduction of the quality of eggshells, it failed to affect the percentage of penetration of the bacterial samples evaluated.

  9. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from shell eggs collected during commercial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Northcutt, J K; Jones, D R; Cox, N A; Harrison, M A

    2008-06-01

    In the United States, commercial shell eggs are washed and graded before retail. Since passage of the Egg Products Inspection Act in 1971, processing guidelines have been set to ensure that external and internal characteristics are maintained. However, less is known about how commercial processing affects the safety of shell eggs. To identify enteric bacteria entering plants and persisting throughout processing, eggs were collected from 3 US commercial shell egg-processing plants on 3 separate visits. On each plant visit, 12 eggs were collected from each of 12 sites along the processing line: accumulator, prewash rinse, first washer, second washer, sanitizer rinse, dryer, oiler, check detection/scales, 2 egg grader/packer head lanes, rewash belt entrance, and rewash belt exit. Each egg was sampled by a rinse technique, and the rinsate was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay for the detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae. From each plate, up to 5 colonies were randomly selected and isolated for identification to genus or species by using biochemical tests. Several genera and species were detected at each of the 3 plants. Sites from which the greatest numbers of isolates were identified were those collected from eggs during preprocessing (accumulator, prewash rinse) or from eggs judged as dirty (rewash belt entrance or exit). Sites yielding the smallest number of isolates were those during or at the end of processing. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter spp. were isolated from each of the 9 plant visits. Other genera isolated from at least 1 of the 3 plants included Cedecea, Citrobacter, Erwinia, Hafnia, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, and Serratia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae isolated and identified included Aeromonas, Chryseomonas, Listonella, Pseudomonas, Sphingobacterium, Vibrio, and Xanthomonas. All of the genera and species were recovered less frequently from fully processed eggs than

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of the egg-shell of the fly synthesiomyia Nudiseta (wulp)

    OpenAIRE

    El Alfy, Nagla Z. [نجلاء زكي الالفي

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the egg-shell of the fly Synthesiomyia nudiseta has been studied by scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the outer chorion is highly ridged, grooved and has a reticulate appearance except at the collar surrounding the micropyle. There are few aeropyles at the antimicropylar pole. The structure of the egg-shell outside the hatching lines is composed of three layers. The outer layer consists of vertical columns that arise from the middle layer, these columns bra...

  11. Reduced egg shell permeability affects embryonic development and hatchling traits in Lycodon rufozonatum and Pelodiscus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenqi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Ye; DU, Weiguo

    2018-01-01

    The response of embryos to unpredictable hypoxia is critical for successful embryonic development, yet there remain significant gaps in our understanding of such responses in reptiles with different types of egg shell. We experimentally generated external regional hypoxia by sealing either the upper half or bottom half of the surface area of eggs in 2 species of reptiles (snake [Lycodon rufozonatum] with parchment egg shell and Chinese soft-shelled turtle [Pelodiscus sinensis] with rigid egg shell), then monitored the growth pattern of the opaque white patch in turtle eggs (a membrane that attaches the embryo to the egg shell and plays an important role in gas exchange), the embryonic heart rate, the developmental rate and the hatchling traits in turtle and snake eggs in response to external regional hypoxia. The snake embryos from the hypoxia treatments facultatively increased their heart rate during incubation, and turtle embryos from the upper-half hypoxia treatment enhanced their growth of the opaque white patch. Furthermore, the incubation period and hatching success of embryos were not affected by the hypoxia treatment in these 2 species. External regional hypoxia significantly affected embryonic yolk utilization and offspring size in the snake and turtle. Compared to sham controls, embryos from the upper-half hypoxia treatment used less energy from yolk and, therefore, developed into smaller hatchlings, but embryos from the bottom-half hypoxia treatment did not. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. 75 FR 18849 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella... availability of a guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from contaminating eggs on the farm...

  13. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumers. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, all shell eggs, whether in intrastate or... said district office, within 10-working days from the date of receipt of the order. (ii) Issuance of... eggs are located within 5-working days of the issuance of the order. If the appeal includes a request...

  14. Chemical elements in egg shell of a commercial strain of domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical elements of the egg shell of exotic commercial pullets (Lohmann) in their first laying year. A total of 160 eggs from eighty pullets were randomly selected at three-monthly intervals during the production year for the ddermination of chemical elements or the eggshell.

  15. The effect of a commercial UV disinfection system on the bacterial load of shell eggs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de K.; Grijspeerdt, K.; Hermann, L.M.; Heyndrickx, M.; Uytendaele, M.; Debevere, J.; Putirulan, F.F.; Bolder, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To study the effect of UV irradiation on the bacterial load of shell eggs and of a roller conveyor belt. Methods and Results: The natural bacterial load on the eggshell of clean eggs was significantly reduced by a standard UV treatment of 4.7 s; from 4.47 to 3.57 log CFU per eggshell. For very

  16. EFFECT OF DIETARY SODIUM SELENITE AND SE-ENRICHED YEAST ON EGG-SHELL QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF LAYING HENS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta ARPÁŠOVÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was designed to investigate the effects of feed supplementation with selenite or selenized yeast on eggs quality of laying hens. Hens of laying breed Isabrown were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 4 groups (n=12 and fed ad libitum for 9 months on diets which differed only in amounts or forms of selenium supplemented. Hens were fed from 1st day by standard feed mixture. Control group get only native dose of selenium (0.1 mg/kg naturally presented in feed mixtures. First experimental group get selenium addition 0.4 mg/kg in a form of sodium selenite, second one the same dose of 0.4 mg/kg but in organic form of Se-yeast. The diet for the fourth group was supplemented with Se-yeast at Se dose 0.9 mg/kg DM. The both doses of organic selenium had significantly (P<0.05 beneficial influence on the egg weight (g±SD (60.45±3.87a; 60.81±5.63a; 62.41±3.72b; 62.15±3.16b. Significantly lower values of egg shell weight and egg shell ratio were found out in experimental group with sodium selenite only. The significantly lower egg shell strength (N/cm2 was in the experimental groups with supplementation of Se in both forms. Average egg shell thickness (μm were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the supplementation of Se into the feed mixture for laying hens.

  17. Rapid and simple purification of lysozyme from the egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Miyuki; Murao, Sato; Yamane, Takuya; Inoue, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Iwao; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) is a hydrolytic enzyme that cleaves the β-(1,4)-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, a major bacterial cell wall polymer. In the food industry, lysozyme is used as an additive mainly in the production of wine and beer. Lysozyme was found to be localized in the egg shell membrane. In this study, we found that lysozyme was easily purified from the egg shell membrane and that the enzyme also had antibacterial activity. Furthermore, we found that the antibacterial activity of purified lysozyme from the egg shell membrane was lower than that of purified lysozyme from the egg white at alkaline pH. The method for rapid purification of lysozyme developed in this study should contribute to the food industry.

  18. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in Shell Eggs from Small-Scale Poultry Farms and Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Nahashon, S N; Godwin, S; Liu, S; Long, D

    2016-12-01

    Public health concerns over the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria have increased recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs purchased from small poultry farms and farmers' markets. A total of 504 eggs were pooled to make 252 composite samples, consisting of 2 eggs per composite. The microbial quality of shell eggs was determined by standard quantitative, biochemical, and PCR techniques. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, and results were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute values. Shell eggs and egg contents were positive for Escherichia coli (11.9 and 5.2%, respectively), Enterobacter (9.1 and 7.9%), and Serratia (11.5 and 4.8%). Salmonella was isolated from 3.6% of egg shells but not from egg contents. Mean (±SD) Enterobacteriaceae levels (4.4 ± 2.0 log CFU per eggshell) on shell eggs from poultry farms was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that on shell eggs from farmers' markets (2.1 ± 1.3 log CFU per eggshell). Of the 134 isolates recovered, resistance among isolates from farm and market shell eggs to erythromycin was most common (48.5 and 32.8%, respectively) followed by ampicillin (44.8 and 17.2%), and tetracycline (29.9 and 17.2%). The multiple antibiotic resistance index value for E. coli and Pantoea was 0.62, and that for Salmonella and Klebsiella terrigena was 0.08, indicating that Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs can be resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. These data reveal that shell eggs from small poultry farms and farmers' markets can harbor antimicrobial resistant pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Thus, failure to properly handle shell eggs poses a potential health hazard to consumers.

  19. Microbiology of Shell Egg Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Substantial government and industry resources have been committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. The implementation ...

  20. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  1. The use of ESR spectroscopy for the investigation of dosimetric properties of egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Birol E-mail: bengin@taek.gov.tr; Demirtas, Hayruennisa

    2004-12-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the dosimetric properties of chicken egg shells. The ESR spectra of the irradiated egg shell were found to have an asymmetric absorption characterized by a major resonance at g{sub perpendicular}=2.0019 and a minor resonance at g{sub ||}=1.9980. The study was carried out on g{sub perpendicular}=2.0019 signal because of the accuracy of measurements and the possibility of using it as ESR dosimeter. The activation energy (E), frequency factor (k{sub 0}) and mean-life ({tau}) were calculated to be 1.50{+-}0.10 eV, 2x10{sup 13} s{sup -1} and (4.4{+-}0.4)x10{sup 4} year respectively. Dose-response was investigated between dose ranges of 1 Gy and 10 kGy for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. Dose-response was found to be appropriate for dosimetry in the range 3 Gy to 10 kGy. The lower limit of observable doses for egg shell sample was about 3 Gy. The other ESR dosimetric parameters of egg shell samples, fading characteristic, light effect, dose-rate dependence and energy dependence, have also been studied in detail. Apart from its non-tissue equivalence, egg shell has very good dosimetric properties with insignificant fading, light independence, linearity in dose-response (3 Gy-10 kGy), dose-rate independence and independence from energy above 500 keV. It suggests that egg shell may be used as a retrospective {gamma} radiation dosimetry after nuclear accidents or other short accidental radiation events.

  2. Impacts of Limestone Multi-particle Size on Production Performance, Egg Shell Quality, and Egg Quality in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually. The experimental treatments were: i L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05. The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05. The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05. The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05. Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.

  3. Rapid and Simple Purification of Lysozyme from the Egg Shell Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Kozuka, Miyuki; Murao, Sato; Yamane, Takuya; Inoue, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Iwao; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) is a hydrolytic enzyme that cleaves the β-(1, 4)-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, a major bacterial cell wall polymer. In the food industry, lysozyme is used as an additive mainly in the production of wine and beer. Lysozyme was found to be localized in the egg shell membrane. In this study, we found that lysozyme was easily purified from the egg shell membrane and that the enzyme also had an antibacterial activity. ...

  4. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.

  5. Effect of dietary protein sources and storage temperatures on egg internal quality of stored shell eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on the internal quality (Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk hardness and yolk springiness of eggs when stored at either 4 or 28°C for 28 d. A total of 288 laying hens (32 wk of age were randomly allotted to 6 treatment groups (4 replicates per treatment and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM as the protein ingredient(s. A 6 × 2 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage temperatures (4 and 28°C as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 216 eggs was collected for egg internal quality determination. The results showed as follows: 1 lower egg quality was observed in the DRM group compared with the other groups when stored at 4 and 28°C for 28 d (P < 0.05, while there was no difference in egg internal quality among the other groups. 2 The CSP diet resulted in higher yolk hardness compared with the other diets when eggs were stored at 4°C for 28 d (P < 0.05. Lower Haugh unit was observed in the DRM and SBM-DRM groups compared with the other groups when eggs were stored for 28 d at 4°C (P < 0.05. 3 Yolk breakage occurred in the DRM group and eggs could not be analyzed for egg internal quality when stored at 28°C for 28 d. The overall results indicated that CSP or DRM as the sole dietary protein source for laying hens may adversely affect the internal quality of stored eggs as compared with the SBM diet, and half replacement of CSP combined with SBM may maintain similar egg quality to SBM diet alone for eggs stored under refrigerated conditions.

  6. Effect of pharmacological levels of dietary vanadium on the egg production, shell thickness and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens and coturnix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Y.S.; Kratzer, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    The addition of 100 ppm of vanadium to a ration for White Leghorn laying hens caused a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the egg shell thickness, but did not cause any significant change in the egg production, egg weight or egg yolk cholesterol content. The addition of 300 ppm of vanadium caused a severe depression in the egg production which was the only symptom of vanadium toxicity to be observed. The addition of 50, 100, 200 or 300 ppm vanadium to the ration of laying coturnix did not cause any significant change in egg production, egg weight or egg yolk cholesterol content. The addition of the same levels of vanadium to one-day old male coturnix chicks did not cause any significant growth depression or mortality. The authors suggest that coturnix may be more resistant to vanadium toxicity than chickens. 8 references, 5 tables.

  7. Salmonella and raw shell eggs: results of a cross-sectional study of contamination rates and egg safety practices in the United Kingdom catering sector in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, R; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2005-02-01

    This study was prompted by epidemiological investigations of the unusual number of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks associated with the use of eggs in catering premises in England and Wales during 2002. The aims of the study, performed between April and May 2003, were to establish the rate of Salmonella contamination in raw shell eggs from catering premises, investigate any correlation between the origin and type of eggs and the presence of particular serotypes or phage types (PTs) of Salmonella, and examine the use of raw shell eggs in catering premises in the United Kingdom. A total of 34,116 eggs (5,686 pooled samples of six eggs) were collected from 2,104 catering premises, most of which were eggs produced in the United Kingdom (88%). Salmonella was isolated from 17 pools (0.3%) of eggs. Of these, 15 were Salmonella Enteritidis, which were further characterized to PTs as follows: PT6 (0.1%), PT4 (0.07%), PT12 (0.04%), PT1 (0.04%), and PT14b (0.02%). Salmonella Livingstone and Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 7 resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline were also isolated. The Salmonella contamination rate of eggs produced in the United Kingdom appears to have decreased significantly since 1995 and 1996. This trend is reflected in the decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis and, in particular, Salmonella Enteritidis PT4. The impact of the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency's advice on the use of eggs, issued in January 2003, is discussed.

  8. Comparative study on the characteristics of egg shells of some bird species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Egg shells of francolin, duck and turkey were compared for their physical and chemical characteristics. The range of weight of eggs and shells, respectively, were 25.2−74.9 and 5.23−9.40 g. Protein content was between 65.2−73.1 g/100 g; crude fat ranged from 2.54−8.54 g/100 g; crude fibre was low with value range of 0.04−1.14 g/100 g; ash content range was 3.44−7.56 g/100 g. Total and essential amino acids, respectively, were between 189-353 and 98.1−188 mg/g and threonine was limiting. Gross energy ranged from 1556−1687 kJ/100 g. High concentrations of minerals were detected.

  9. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, N.P.C.; Hine, K.; Hegemann, A.; Ndithia, H.K.; Shobrak, M.; Ostrowski, S.; Williams, J.B.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate to

  10. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Hine, Kathryn; Hegemann, Arne; Ndithia, Henry K.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Ostrowski, Stephane; Williams, Joseph B.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate

  11. Kinetic study of the selective hydrogenation of styrene over a Pd egg-shell composite catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Betti,Carolina; Badano,Juan; Lederhos,Cecilia; Maccarrone, María; Carrara, Nicolás; Coloma, Fernando; Quiroga, Mónica; Vera, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This is a study on the kinetics of the liquid-phase hydrogenation of styrene to ethylbenzene over a catalyst of palladium supported on an inorganic–organic composite. This support has a better mechanical resistance than other commercial supports, e.g. alumina, and yields catalysts with egg-shell structure and a very thin active Pd layer. Catalytic tests were carried out in a batch reactor by varying temperature, total pressure and styrene initial concentration between 353–393 K, 10–30 bar, an...

  12. Various causes related to dead-in-shell embryos of crossbred (PB-2 x Indigenous chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalita,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the etiopathology of dead-in-shell embryos of PB-2 male x Indigenous female crossbred chicken egg.Materials and Methods: A total of 1377 eggs were incubated which was collected from a flock of crossbreed bird (PB-2xIndigenous chicken. Out of which 568 (41.25 % egg failed to pip out, were utilized for further study. All the dead in shell embryos were examined for different anomalies and pathological condition thorough necropsy examination. For bacteriological isolation a piece of liver, lung and yolk sac contents were collected from 25 nos. of dead in shell embryos and send to the Department of Microbiology for further examination.Results: A total of 241 (42.42 % egg were recorded as dead-in-shell embryos out of 568 eggs which were fail to pip out. The percentage of dead-in-shell was higher on 21st day (61.34% than 18th day (38.66 % of incubation. Out of 241 nos. of dead in shell embryos, 47 (19.50% cases showed malpositions,19 (7.88% malformation, 6 (2.49% adhesion,4 (1.66% dehydra-tion, 67 (27.80% pathological condition and 98 (40.66% cases showed no definite abnormalities and 327 (57.57% numbers of egg were found as infertile.Conclusion: The dead in shell embryo may be due to genetic factor, breed, some pathological condition, frequent power failure, lack of proper hygiene etc.

  13. Modulation of quail intestinal and egg shell gland calbindin (Mr 28,000) gene expression by vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and egg laying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striem, S; Bar, A

    1991-02-01

    The effects of vitamin D3 sources, egg production and egg cycle on the genomic expression of calbindin (Mr 28,000) in the intestine and egg shell gland (ESG) of quail were characterized by Northern blot and solution hybridization, using synthetic oligonucleotide probe. In vitamin D3- or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3)-fed quail, onset of egg production induced duodenal and ESG calbindin mRNA and calbindin synthesis. Duodenal calbindin mRNA was slightly higher during the period of shell calcification as compared with the period during which shells were not formed (ESG inactivity). ESG calbindin mRNA was markedly higher during the period of shell calcification than of ESG inactivity. Increasing dietary intake of [3H]1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased the duodenal, but not ESG, content of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and calbindin. Duodenal calbindin and its mRNA were absent in vitamin D-deficient quail and were not affected by egg laying. ESG calbindin in the vitamin D-deficient quail was not affected by egg laying, but calbindin mRNA increased in the vitamin D-deficient birds during shell calcification. The results suggest that: (a) intestinal calbindin mRNA and calbindin are induced and/or regulated, either directly or indirectly, by 1,25-(OH)2D3; (b) intestinal calbindin and its mRNA are further induced at the onset of egg laying by an additional stimulator besides 1,25-(OH)2D3; (c) 1,25-(OH)2D3 is required for the expression of the latter stimulator; (d) ESG calbindin mRNA and calbindin are induced in egg-laying birds by a stimulator associated with the egg cycle; and (e) the induction of ESG calbindin mRNA does not need vitamin D metabolites, but 1,25-(OH)2D3 is required for the translation of the mRNA.

  14. Waste Cooking Oil Conversion To Biodeisel Catalized By Egg Shell Of Purebred Chiken With Ethanol As A Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellna Tehubijuluw

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel from the waste cooking oil was carried out using the catalyst from egg shell of purebred chiken with ethanol as a solvent. Synthesis of biodiesel was prepared in two steps, esterification and transesterification. Esterification was conducted in mol ratio of ethanol and waste cooking oil of  9:1 with H2SO4 as a catalyst. Mol ratio of ethanol and used cooking oil in the transesterification of  12:1 with the CaO catalyst of shell eggs. CaO catalyst was yielded by calcinations egg shell of purebred chicken on 1000 for two hours. Calcination product was characterized with XRD to determine of CaO. Result of biodiesel was characterized based on FTIR, H-NMR, dan ASTM (American Standard Testing of Materials. Theoretically,yielded of biodiesel was 58% and experiment was 36.779%.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolated from commercial shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Cox, N A; Harrison, M A; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Ladely, S R

    2006-09-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a global problem. Isolates of Salmonella and Escherichia coli recovered from shell egg samples, collected at 3 commercial plants, were analyzed for resistance to 16 antimicrobial agents (n=990). Eggs were sampled by rinsing in a saline solution. Pooled samples were preenriched in buffered peptone water and then selectively isolated using standard broths and agars. Salmonella-positive isolates were serogrouped immunologically before being serotyped. Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated from individual samples using violet red bile glucose agar plates. Escherichia coli were identified biochemically from presumptive Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Salmonella and generic E. coli antimicrobial-susceptibility testing was conducted using a semiautomated broth microdilution system. More resistance was observed in the Salmonella isolates (n=41) than in the E. coli isolates (n=194). Salmonella Typhimurium was the most prevalent (69.0%) serotype and demonstrated the greatest multiple resistance. Salmonella Kentucky, the least prevalent (5.0%) serotype recovered, was the most susceptible. Although 34.1% of the Salmonella serotypes were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 60.1% were resistant to 11 or more compounds. Many Salmonella isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (63.4%), nalidixic acid (63.4%), and streptomycin (61.0%). Most E. coli isolates (73.2%) were susceptible to all antimicrobial drugs. Many E. coli isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (29.9%), streptomycin (6.2%), and gentamicin (3.1%). Only 1% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to 4 antimicrobial agents. These data indicate that shell eggs can harbor resistant foodborne and commensal bacteria; among Salmonella isolates, resistance was serotype-dependent.

  16. Egg shell waste as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimized by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Priti R; Fulekar, M H

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide consumption of hen eggs results in availability of large amount of discarded egg waste particularly egg shells. In the present study, the waste shells were utilized for the synthesis of highly active heterogeneous calcium oxide (CaO) nanocatalyst to transesterify dry biomass into methyl esters (biodiesel). The CaO nanocatalyst was synthesied by calcination-hydration-dehydration technique and fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), brunauer-emmett-teller (BET) elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. TEM image showed that the nano catalyst had spherical shape with average particle size of 75 nm. BET analysis indicated that the catalyst specific surface area was 16.4 m 2  g -1 with average pore diameter of 5.07 nm. The effect of nano CaO catalyst was investigated by direct transesterification of dry biomass into biodiesel along with other reaction parameters such as catalyst ratio, reaction time and stirring rate. The impact of the transesterification reaction parameters and microalgal biodiesel yield were analyzed by response surface methodology based on a full factorial, central composite design. The significance of the predicted mode was verified and 86.41% microalgal biodiesel yield was reported at optimal parameter conditions 1.7% (w/w), catalyst ratio, 3.6 h reaction time and stirring rate of 140.6 rpm. The biodiesel conversion was determined by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The fuel properties of prepared biodiesel were found to be highly comply with the biodiesel standard ASTMD6751 and EN14214. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A method to evaluate relative ovicidal effects of soil microfungi on thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Katakam, Kiran Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Thick-shelled eggs of animal-parasitic ascarid nematodes can survive and remain infective in the environment for years. The present study evaluated a simple in vitro method and evaluation scheme to assess the relative effect of two species of soil microfungi, Pochonia chlamydosporia Biotype 10...

  18. 7 CFR 56.76 - Minimum facility and operating requirements for shell egg grading and packing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contaminated, shall not be used in shell egg protection operations. Oil is to be filtered prior to application... cleaning compounds, defoamers, destainers, sanitizers, inks, oils, lubricants, or any other compound that... running water, an acceptable handwashing detergent, and a sanitary method for drying hands. Toilet rooms...

  19. Investigation of In-Package Ozonation: The Effectiveness of Ozone to Inactive Salmonella enteritidis on Raw, Shell Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Donner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food production, handling, and distribution practices pose a constant threat to the quality and safety of food products. The objective of this research is to evaluate an innovative in-package ozonation process to reduce Salmonella enteritidis on raw, shell eggs. Previous research has shown that in-package ozonation eliminates contaminants from outside sources, reduces pathogens, and extends shelf life. In this study, raw, shell eggs were inoculated with Salmonella enteritidis and exposed to ozonation treatment. Microbial recoveries were then tested to determine bacterial reductions. Measurements included: relative humidity (34 percent at 5oC, surface temperatures (oC, ozone concentrations, bacterial reductions of Salmonella enteritidis, and quality assessment of eggs (Haugh Unit [HU], color, pH, and weight. After a 24-hour storage period, all treated samples indicated 3 log10 reductions on average (previous research has achieved up to 6log10. These results show effective in-package ozonation treatment reducing Salmonella enteritidis on raw, shell eggs without significant effect on measured egg quality over time. Benefits of in-package ozonation include no heating, low power requirements (less or equal to 50 Watts, short treatment time (seconds to minutes, and adaptability into existing processes. Given its ability to ensure the safety and longevity of food products, this technology has great potential for utilization in the food processing industry.

  20. The chocolate-egg problem: Fabrication of thin elastic shells through coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Marthelot, Joel; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Reis, Pedro M.

    2015-03-01

    We study the fabrication of thin polymeric shells based on the coating of a curved surface by a viscous fluid. Upon polymerization of the resulting thin film, a slender solid structure is delivered after demolding. This technique is extensively used, empirically, in manufacturing, where it is known as rotational molding, as well as in the food industry, e.g. for chocolate-eggs. This problem is analogous to the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin coating of plates and fibers and Bretherton's problem of film deposition in cylindrical channels, albeit now on a double-curved geometry. Here, the balance between gravity, viscosity, surface tension and polymerization rate can yield a constant thickness film. We seek to identify the physical ingredients that govern the final film thickness and its profile. In our experiments using organosilicon, we systematically vary the properties of the fluid, as well as the curvature of the substrate onto which the film is coated, and characterize the final thickness profile of the shells. A reduced model is developed to rationalize the process.

  1. Egg shell quality and microstructure as affected by vitamin C, other feed additives and high environmental temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Boushy, A.R.

    1966-01-01

    The effects of climatic stress on egg formation (weight, shape, formation period, clutch size and blood calcium) and shell quality were estimated in White Leghorn and White Plymouth Rock hens. Constant environments were used with 85°F 75- 80% r.h., 75-77°F 50-60% r.h. and 55°F 50-60% r.h. as well as

  2. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nurhidayati; Usman Ali; Indiyah Murwani

    2017-01-01

    .... This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal...

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-crystaline CaFe2O4 via Solution Combustion Method from Solid Waste Egg Shells as Source of Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    M. Veerabhadraswamy; H.Bhagya Lakshmi,; B. J. Madhu,

    2017-01-01

    The liable application of solid egg shell waste obtained from food processing industry into biocompatible calcium ferrite nano materials will put in significance to the waste generated.Million tons of egg shell waste are produced every day which has contributed to environmental pollution.In this framework blending of nanotechnology with science, ensuing green chemistry moralities has led to arrival of innovative and improved technologies in the field of material science. Our present work aims...

  4. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  5. Egg Production, Shell Thickness, and Other Physiological Parameters of Laying Hens Affected by T-2 Toxin1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, R. D.; Doerr, J. A.; Hamilton, P. B.; Burmeister, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    T-2 toxin has been reported to cause severe oral lesions and neural disturbances in young broiler chickens. T-2 toxin, when added at a level of 20 μg per g of feed, caused oral lesions but no abnormal neural disturbances in young broiler chickens. T-2 toxin, when added at a level of 20 μg per g of feed, caused oral lesions but no abnormal neural symptoms in laying hens. T-2 toxin had no effect on either hemoglobin, hematocrit values, erythrocyte count, plasma glucose, prothrombin times, or the sizes of the liver, spleen, pancreas, and heart. Lipid content of the liver was not altered. Feed consumption, however, was reduced, as were the total plasma protein and lipid concentrations and the total leukocyte count. Most important economically was the lowered egg production and a thinner egg shell. The timing and severity of the symptoms suggest that T-2 toxin causes primary oral lesions that reduce feed consumption with a consequent reduction in serum proteins and lipids, which culminate in decreased egg production. The leucopenia and thinner egg shell may be independent systemic effects of T-2 toxin in laying hens. PMID:1147602

  6. A Novel Porous Carrier Found in Nature for Nanocomposite Materials Preparation: A Case Study of Artemia Egg Shell-Supported TiO2 for Formaldehyde Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemia egg shells have an asymptotic sized pore structure (pore diameter: 500 nm–2500 nm, which could be used as a porous carrier for the preparation of nanocomposite materials. The objective of the present study was to prepare shell-supported TiO2 using a naturally porous carrier, Artemia egg shell, and to exhibit a case study of shell-supported TiO2 for formaldehyde removal. Characterization of shell-TiO2 using SEM-EDS, TEM, and XRD proved that Artemia shell with asymptotic reduction pores (pore diameter: 500 nm–2500 nm can be used as the carrier for nanocomposite materials. Artemia egg shell-supported TiO2 in polycrystalline-like nanostructures can be used for the high efficiency removal (adsorption and degradation of formaldehyde under visible light. Our results suggest that iron, one of the shell’s components, should broaden the absorption of visible light and enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of nanotitanium dioxide under visible light. Due to their interesting absorption and formaldehyde removal qualities, Artemia egg shell, as a novel naturally porous carrier for nanocomposite materials preparation, especially in the preparation of nanocatalysts, is worthy of further study.

  7. Synthesis of nanostructured pirochromite magnesium chromate with egg shell membrane template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholkappiyan Ramachandran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we report on the use of fresh and boiled egg shell membrane as bio-templates in the co-precipitation of pirochromite. The structure evolution, microstructure and optical properties of the ESM templated MgCr2O4 nanomaterial were studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental mapping and UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometry. The annealing of the untemplated and templated co-precipitated MgCr2O4 powders at 1000 °C for 4 h produced single phased nanostructured material with spinel cubic crystal structure. The FTIR results showed slight variations in the band positions ν 1 and ν 2 which are attributed to the change in the microstructure due to the introduction of ESM in the preparation of MgCr2O4. The morphologies and average crystallite size of the annealed MgCr2O4 nanocrystalline powders depended on the type of the template. 3D hierarchical flake-like and mesh like structures were observed. The annealed MgCr2O4 nanocrystalline powders have shown excitonic absorptions in the visible range 300–500 nm due to the transitions that took place from the O-2p level to the Cr-3d level. The optical band gap energies were found to be 3.68–3.71 eV for the direct band gap and 3.30–3.37 eV for the indirect band gap. This could make these MgCr2O4 nanocrystalline powders possible photocatalysts in the visible range 300–500 nm.

  8. A Facile Synthesis of SiO2@Co/mSiO2 Egg-Shell Nanoreactors for Fischer-Tropsch Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae In; Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Ji Chan; Yang, Jung-Il; Lee, Kwan Young

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a convenient melt-infiltration method, using a hydrated metal salt with porous support, was developed to prepare various metal/metal-oxide nanocatalysts. Until now, millimeter-scale, bead-shaped, cobalt egg-shell catalysts have been used to enhance the rate of reactant diffusion and catalyst performance. In the present work, new SiO2@Co/mSiO2 egg-shell nanoreactors (~300 nm) were synthesized with controlled Co content of 10 and 20 wt%. This was accomplished using a selective melt-infiltration process with porous silica shells around solid-silica cores. The SiO2@Co(10 wt%)/mSiO2 egg-shell catalyst that bears small cobalt nanoparticles of -2 nm was successfully employed for the industrially valuable Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction, showing the high activity of -8.0 x 10(-5) mol(CO) x gCo(-1) x S(-1).

  9. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he ostrich industry experiences a high rate of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. Embryonic deaths were studied from data recorded on 37 740 fertile eggs incubated artificially during the 1998-2005 breeding seasons. Roughly 10 000 eggs that sustained embryonic mortalities were classified according to the stage and nature of death, i.e. before 21 days of incubation, after 21 days of incubation, deaths after pipping and rotten eggs. Although infection may have played a role in ~1300 rotten eggs, no detailed knowledge of the pathogens involved was available. The remainder of deaths could not be related to pathogens and the deaths were thus generally referred to as non-infectious. The overall level of embryonic mortality in all the eggs studied was 28.5 %. Overall embryonic mortality was affected by incubator, with higher levels (57.0 % found in eggs incubated in an African Incubator(R and also in eggs that were transferred between incubators during incubation (38.1 %. Overall embryonic mortality also increased in eggs produced by older females. Eggs produced in the autumn had the highest level of embryonic mortality at 53.6 %, whereas eggs produced in the winter had a marginally higher level of embryonic mortalities of 29.2 % compared with eggs produced during summer (27.4 %. Eggs produced by South African (SA Black males crossed to Zimbabwean Blue females had high levels of embryonic losses of 45.7 %. The embryonic mortality of eggs produced by SA Blacks or Zimbabwean Blue breeding birds subjected to pure breeding was similar at ~33-34 %, but embryonic mortality was improved in eggs produced by Zimbabwean Blue males crossed to SA Black females (27 %. Embryonic mortality was increased in eggs that were set directly (32.0 % or subjected to longer than 6 days of storage (43.5 %. Embryonic mortality was affected by year. The results that were obtained will assist in determining non-infectious factors that have a negative

  10. Comparison of a novel strategy for the detection and isolation of Salmonella in shell eggs with the Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Thau, Eve; Brown, Eric W; Hammack, Thomas S

    2013-12-01

    The current FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method for the detection of Salmonella in eggs requires 2 wk to complete. The objective of this project was to improve the BAM method for the detection and isolation of Salmonella in whole shell eggs. A novel protocol, using 1,000 g of liquid eggs for direct preenrichment with 2 L of tryptic soy broth (TSB) followed by enrichment using Rappaport-Vassiliadis and Tetrathionate broths, was compared with the standard BAM method, which requires 96 h room temperature incubation of whole shell egg samples followed by preenrichment in TSB supplemented with FeSO4. Four Salmonella ser. Enteritidis (4 phage types) and one Salmonella ser. Heidelberg isolates were used in the study. Bulk inoculated pooled liquid eggs, weighing 52 or 56 kg (approximately 1,100 eggs) were used in each trial. Twenty 1,000-g test portions were withdrawn from the pooled eggs for both the alternative and the reference methods. Test portions were inoculated with Salmonella at 1 to 5 cfu/1,000 g eggs. Two replicates were performed for each isolate. In the 8 trials conducted with Salmonella ser. Enteritidis, the alternative method was significantly (P Salmonella ser. Heidelberg, combined data from 2 trials showed the alternative method was significantly (P Salmonella from shell eggs based on the following factors: 1) the alternative method is 4 d shorter than the reference method; 2) it uses regular TSB instead of the more complicated TSB supplemented with FeSO4; and 3) it was equivalent or superior to the reference method in 9 out of 10 trials for the detection of Salmonella in shell eggs.

  11. Constant Temperature Artificial Incubation of Spawned Eggs in Natural Nests from the Chinese Freshwater Soft-Shelled Turtle, Tryonyx sinensis Strauch(1862)

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Young Nam; Kim, Sung Han

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT On June 14, 2008 (the first experiment) and July 24, 2008 (the second experiment), the shores of the Boseong River and the sandy beaches, Seokgok-myun, Moksadong-myun, Gokseong-gun in Jeollanam Province were investigated and a total of 29 soft-shelled turtle (Tryonyx sinensis) eggs in the natural spawning nest eggs were collected (13 eggs were collected in the first experiment and 16 eggs in the second experiment). The temperatures in the natural spawning nests were 25.9-36.9?0.5?, t...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of biomorphic CeO2 obtained by using egg shell membrane as template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Prekajski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new technology based on bio-templating approach was proposed in this paper. Egg-shell membrane (ESM has been employed as a natural biotemplate. Fibrous oxide ceramics was prepared by wet impregnation of biological template with water solution of cerium nitrate. The template was derived from membranes of fresh chicken eggs. Repeated impregnation, pyrolysis and final calcination in the range of 600 to 1200 °C in air resulted in template burnout and consolidation of the oxide layers. At low temperatures, the obtained products had structure which corresponded to the negative replication of biological templates. Unique bio-morphic CeO2 microstructures with interwoven networks were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, whereas low-temperature nitrogen adsorption (BET method was used in order to characterize porous properties.

  13. Egg production and shell relationship of the land hermit crab Coenobita scaevola (Anomura: Coenobitidae from Wadi El-Gemal, Red Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa S. Sallam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to characterize the fecundity of the land hermit crab Coenobita scaevola as well as the influence of shell type on fecundity using morphometric relationships. Hermit crabs were collected monthly from January to December 2007 from the protected area of Wadi El-Gemal, at Marsa Alam on the Red Sea, and ovigerous females were selected. Hermit crab wet weight and the gastropod shell weight were recorded. The number of eggs carried by females of several sizes (CL, carapace length, stages of development and egg size were determined. Shells of eight gastropod species were occupied by ovigerous females of C. scaevola. Shells of Nerita undata was the most occupied (65.7%, particularly by individuals falling within the size range 5.0–7.0 mm CL. Only 35 berried females were recorded during May, July and September and the mean fecundity was 679.8 ± 140 eggs. Fecundity was found positively correlated with crab size and shell dimensions. The relationship between fecundity and the internal volume of the occupied shell was ranked as the most correlated. The impact of shell utilization on hermit crab fecundity is discussed.

  14. Preparation of Co-Mo catalyst using activated carbon produced from egg shell and SiO2 as support – A hydrogenation study

    OpenAIRE

    Adeniyi Sunday Ogunlaja; Alade, Olalekan S.; Funmilola Y. Oladipo

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of a series of cobalt-molybdenum (Co-Mo) catalysts supported on SiO2 and carbonized egg shells were investigated using standard procedures; the catalysts were further calcined at the 500 oC temperature to generate the internally consistent set, and the metal atoms content were varied in a regular manner. The ratio 1:4 (Co2+: Mo6+) by weight was employed for the various catalysts prepared. The carbonized egg shells were divided into two parts: the first part was leached with HN...

  15. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. C. Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM as the protein ingredient(s. A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05. Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05, but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness.

  16. Shell Properties, Water Vapor Loss, and Hatching Success of Eggs from a Rain Forest Population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAYNE J. ARENDT

    2005-01-01

    I calculated various shell properties, water vapor loss, and hatching success of eggs of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) using measurements obtained during a long-term study in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Empirical results were comparable to standard reference formulae, demonstrating that published formulae can be used with confidence by field...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Fe–Ni/ɣ-Al2O3 egg-shell catalyst for H2 generation by ammonia decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Hugo José Lopes; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria

    2015-01-01

    of the active phase should match with the type of reaction. In this work, a novel synthesis route was developed for the preparation of a Fe–Ni/ɣ-Al2O3 egg-shell catalyst. Egg-shell is a preferred profile considering the highly endothermic nature of ammonia decomposition reaction. The high viscosity of glycerol......-EDX) and optical microscopy. A three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the spherical-shaped ɣ-Al2O3 was achieved using X-ray micro tomography and the Fe–Ni egg-shell spatial distribution was inspected throughout the entire volume of the support body. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation...... using focused ion bean (FIB) milling allowed to acquire high resolution images of the Ni and Fe nanoparticles on ɣ-Al2O3, which is particularly challenging due to the crystalline nature of this support. Distinct regions of the egg-shell catalyst were analyzed through scanning TEM (STEM) and TEM...

  18. Synthesis of solvothermal derived TiO2 nanocrystals supported on ground nano egg shell waste and its utilization for the photocatalytic dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohini; Kumari, Pooja; Chavan, Prakash Dhondiram; Datta, Sudipta; Dutta, Suman

    2017-11-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles with excellent crystallinity were synthesized via solvothermal method and supported on the ground nano-sized egg shell waste at different loading concentrations. The photocatalytic degradation of the mixture of Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) in aqueous solution utilizing prepared TiO2 nano composite under visible light irradiation was analysed. Different characterizations including UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM), energy dispersive studies (EDS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed to investigate the physicochemical properties of the prepared catalyst. In addition, FE-SEM and EDS analysis of the prepared egg shell support were carried out to confirm the morphology, particle size distribution, and composition. The solvothermal derived TiO2 nanocrystals supported on ground nano-sized egg shell waste exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the as-prepared TiO2 nanoparticles. The synergistic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles and nano egg shell support is attributed to the effective dispersion of TiO2 that offers high specific surface area.

  19. The use of chicken egg shell as an alternative source of calcium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing oyster shell fraction in the diet of growing-finishing cockerel chickens partially or wholly with eggshell. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) 8 weeks old Harco cockerel chicken of mean weight 515.78 ± 3. 8g were used for the feeding trial that lasted for ten ...

  20. Pathogenicity of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Egg Shells and the Layer Farm Environment in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Andrea R.; Davos, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the egg industry is periodically implicated during outbreaks of Salmonella food poisoning. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and other nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., in particular, are a major concern for Australian public health. Several definitive types of Salmonella Typhimurium strains, but primarily Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 (DT9), have been frequently reported during egg-related food poisoning outbreaks in Australia. The aim of the present study was to generate a pathogenicity profile of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates obtained from Australian egg farms. To achieve this, we assessed the capacity of Salmonella isolates to cause gastrointestinal disease using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Data from in vitro experiments demonstrated that the invasion capacity of Salmonella serovars cultured to stationary phase (liquid phase) in LB medium was between 90- and 300-fold higher than bacterial suspensions in normal saline (cultured in solid phase). During the in vivo infection trial, clinical signs of infection and mortality were observed only for mice infected with either 103 or 105 CFU of S. Typhimurium DT9. No mortality was observed for mice infected with Salmonella serovars with medium or low invasive capacity in Caco-2 cells. Pathogenicity gene profiles were also generated for all serovars included in this study. The majority of serovars tested were positive for selected virulence genes. No relationship between the presence or absence of virulence genes by PCR and either in vitro invasive capacity or in vivo pathogenicity was detected. Our data expand the knowledge of strain-to-strain variation in the pathogenicity of Australian egg industry-related Salmonella spp. PMID:25362057

  1. Pathogenicity of Salmonella strains isolated from egg shells and the layer farm environment in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Andrea R; Davos, Dianne; Chousalkar, K K

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, the egg industry is periodically implicated during outbreaks of Salmonella food poisoning. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and other nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., in particular, are a major concern for Australian public health. Several definitive types of Salmonella Typhimurium strains, but primarily Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 (DT9), have been frequently reported during egg-related food poisoning outbreaks in Australia. The aim of the present study was to generate a pathogenicity profile of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates obtained from Australian egg farms. To achieve this, we assessed the capacity of Salmonella isolates to cause gastrointestinal disease using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Data from in vitro experiments demonstrated that the invasion capacity of Salmonella serovars cultured to stationary phase (liquid phase) in LB medium was between 90- and 300-fold higher than bacterial suspensions in normal saline (cultured in solid phase). During the in vivo infection trial, clinical signs of infection and mortality were observed only for mice infected with either 10(3) or 10(5) CFU of S. Typhimurium DT9. No mortality was observed for mice infected with Salmonella serovars with medium or low invasive capacity in Caco-2 cells. Pathogenicity gene profiles were also generated for all serovars included in this study. The majority of serovars tested were positive for selected virulence genes. No relationship between the presence or absence of virulence genes by PCR and either in vitro invasive capacity or in vivo pathogenicity was detected. Our data expand the knowledge of strain-to-strain variation in the pathogenicity of Australian egg industry-related Salmonella spp. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Constant Temperature Artificial Incubation of Spawned Eggs in Natural Nests from the Chinese Freshwater Soft-Shelled Turtle, Tryonyx sinensis Strauch(1862).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Nam; Kim, Sung Han

    2017-03-01

    On June 14, 2008 (the first experiment) and July 24, 2008 (the second experiment), the shores of the Boseong River and the sandy beaches, Seokgok-myun, Moksadong-myun, Gokseong-gun in Jeollanam Province were investigated and a total of 29 soft-shelled turtle (Tryonyx sinensis) eggs in the natural spawning nest eggs were collected (13 eggs were collected in the first experiment and 16 eggs in the second experiment). The temperatures in the natural spawning nests were 25.9-36.9±0.5℃, the depth of the eggs was 5.2-7.5±0.5 cm as the distance of the average 6.4±0.5 cm. 29 eggs were scattered at least 0.2 cm interval. Artificial incubation of 29 eggs was conducted in artificial nest boxes in thermo-plastic composition of the incubator, and then incubated at 26.5-35.5±0.5℃, and an average constant temperature was 31.2-32.1±1.0℃. The incubation days ranged from 53 to 55. In case of most turtles, incubation at 31℃ (higher temperatures) generally produces all or mostly females, while incubation at 25℃(cooler temperatures) produces all or mostly males. Exceptionally, in case of genus Trionyx, the sex ratio of female : male of T. sinensis of a freshwater soft-shelled turtle was approximately 1:1, which differs from other genera of turtles and makes T. sinensis Strauch only turtles presently known to lack temperature-dependent sex determination.

  3. Preparation of Co-Mo catalyst using activated carbon produced from egg shell and SiO2 as support – A hydrogenation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Sunday Ogunlaja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a series of cobalt-molybdenum (Co-Mo catalysts supported on SiO2 and carbonized egg shells were investigated using standard procedures; the catalysts were further calcined at the 500 oC temperature to generate the internally consistent set, and the metal atoms content were varied in a regular manner. The ratio 1:4 (Co2+: Mo6+ by weight was employed for the various catalysts prepared. The carbonized egg shells were divided into two parts: the first part was leached with HNO3, as the other one was not leached. Activity tests were run using these catalysts containing leached and unleached carbon for the hydrogenation of methyl orange; the changes in absorbance regarding the unhydrogenated methyl orange at a wavelength of 460 nm were respectively 0.07 and 0.067 when the catalyst containing the leached carbonized egg shell (catalyst A and the catalyst containing the unleached activated carbon (catalyst B were used for the hydrogenation reaction. This confirms that catalyst A is more efficient in hydrogenating methyl orange than catalyst B.

  4. A study of Salmonella Spp. contamination in egg of ducks and turkeys, consumed in Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali Ghorbani ranjbary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Salmonella is a short rod shape, gram-negative, non-encapsulated, aerobic and anaerobic options that cause food poisoning in humans. Raw food of animal origin, particularly meat and eggs of birds have important role in the transfer of this disease. Since duck and turkey eggs are very important in the transmission of Salmonellosis and consuming of local and non-industrial eggs of ducks and turkeys in this area is common, the present study was performed to clarify the prevalence of salmonella contamination. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 300 native duck and turkey eggs were collected and transferred to the lab. In laboratory after sampling from surface of the eggs shell were disinfected with 80% ethanol and contents of 5 duck and turkey eggs, sparately mixed in special dishes. After 24 hr incubation at 37°C with a swab in selenite - F broth were inoculated. Samples were transferred to Salmonella - Shigella agar from selenite-f environment. After incubation in 37°C, colonies suspected to Salmonella were evaluated. Suspicious colonies in the TSI and lysine decarboxylase environments were inoculated. And bacteria that had reactions related to Salmonella, were studied by PCR with specific primers for Salmonella and serotypes of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Results: A total of 300 eggs of ducks and turkeys ,7 cases (2.3% were contaminated with Salmonella, and from 7 unclean egg s shell , 1 case of turkey egg shell (0.66% was infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. And 6 duck eggs shell (4% were infected, that all of the serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium. Conclusion: Regarding the present study, and other researches, it can be concluded that the Salmonella infection in the duck and turkey eggs were less than poultry eggs and it seems that vertical transmission of Salmonella in the turkeys and ducks was less than poultry.

  5. Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Susie MacMurray's Shell installation manifests in Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, like some pulsing exotica, a heavily-textured wall-paper, darkly decorative, heavily luxurious, broodingly present, with more than a hint of the uncanny or the gothic. A remarkable undertaking by an artist of significance, this work's life-span will be just one year, and then it will disappear, leaving no physical trace, but undoubtedly contributing in a much less tangible way to an already rich layering of n...

  6. Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.

  7. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella

  8. Shell Egg Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Epidemiologic investigations conducted by health officials in California, Colorado, and Minnesota revealed several restaurants or events where more than one person...

  9. The influence of oxidation process on exchange bias in egg-shaped FeO/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyński, Błażej; Hadjipanayis, George C.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.; Załęski, Karol; Śniadecki, Zbigniew; Musiał, Andrzej; Jarek, Marcin; Jurga, Stefan; Skumiel, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Egg-shaped nanoparticles with a core-shell morphology were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an iron oleate complex. XRD and M(T) magnetic measurements confirmed the presence of FeO (wustite) and Fe3O4 (magnetite) phases in the nanoparticles. Oxidation of FeO to Fe3O4 was found to be the mechanism for the shell formation. As-made nanoparticles exhibited high values of exchange bias at 2 K. Oxidation led to decrease of exchange field from 2880 Oe (in as-made sample) to 330 Oe (in oxidized sample). At temperatures higher than the Néel temperature of FeO (200 K) there was no exchange bias. An interesting observation was made showing the exchange field to be higher than the coercive field at temperatures close to magnetite's Verwey transition.

  10. The transmission color value: a novel egg quality measure for recording shell color used for monitoring the stress and health status of a brown layer flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, K; Vaesen, I; Loffel, J; Kemps, B; Kamers, B; Perianu, C; Zoons, J; Darius, P; Decuypere, E; De Baerdemaeker, J; De Ketelaere, B

    2010-03-01

    Stress and diseases have the potential to influence the deposition of eggshell pigmentation during egg formation. Therefore, defining the shell color of eggs on a daily basis could be a representative method for monitoring stress or health status of a flock and maintaining good performance. A novel way of measuring eggshell color based on visible-near infrared transmission spectroscopy transmission spectra was defined: the transmission color value (TCV). The TCV was calculated as the ratio between the transmission at 643 nm (maximum absorbance of the pigmentation molecule protoporphyrin IX) and the transmission at 610 nm (a reference wavelength). Experiments were carried out to investigate the relevance of TCV for monitoring flock stress and health or even anticipating any factors unfavorable to performance. In 2 small experimental flocks, deliberate heat stress challenges were applied. A medium-scale experimental flock in an aviary was monitored on a daily basis during the whole productive period. From the deliberate heat stress challenges, it was seen that stress had a significant effect on eggshell pigmentation. This observation was confirmed in a daily monitored flock, in which, for example, an infectious bronchitis infection occurred. These stress situations were quickly reflected by an increased TCV value: more transmission due to less pigmentation and hence less absorbance at the pigmentation wavelength. Furthermore, for the observed problems in the daily monitoring, the TCV value signaled the problem earlier (4 d) than the average egg weight or even signaled when the other parameters did not signal anything. Measuring the TCV of all eggs produced on a daily basis provides relevant information on the stress or health status of a flock of brown layers. This could be used as an early detection of stress situations or emerging diseases, even before important quality and health damage can occur.

  11. Validation of the Reveal(®) 2.0 Group D1 Salmonella Test for Detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in Raw Shell Eggs and Poultry-Associated Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozola, Mark; Biswas, Preetha; Viator, Ryan; Feldpausch, Emily; Foti, Debra; Li, Lin; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Alles, Susan; Rice, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance of the Reveal(®) 2.0 Group D1 Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay for use in detection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in raw shell eggs and poultry-associated matrixes, including chicken carcass rinse and poultry feed. In inclusivity testing, the Reveal 2.0 test detected all 37 strains of SE tested. The test also detected all but one of 18 non-Enteritidis somatic group D1 Salmonella serovars examined. In exclusivity testing, none of 42 strains tested was detected. The exclusivity panel included Salmonella strains of somatic groups other than D1, as well as strains of other genera of Gram-negative bacteria. In matrix testing, performance of the Reveal 2.0 test was compared to that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedure for chicken carcass rinse and to that of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual for raw shell eggs and poultry feed. For all matrixes evaluated, there were no significant differences in the ability to detect SE when comparing the Reveal 2.0 method and the appropriate reference culture procedure as determined by probability of detection statistical analysis. The ability of the Reveal 2.0 test to withstand modest perturbations to normal operating parameters was examined in robustness experiments. Results showed that the test can withstand deviations in up to three operating parameters simultaneously without significantly affecting performance. Real-time stability testing of multiple lots of Reveal 2.0 devices established the shelf life of the test device at 16 months postmanufacture.

  12. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of compost is an important indicator that determines the quality of compost. This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal. Organic wastes used were the mixture of spent mushrooms waste, coconut husks, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter. Lumbricus rubellus was the species of earthworm used in the vermicomposting process. In the composting process, egg shells flour and fish meal are added into the vermicompost as additives materials. The results indicate that the combined vermicomposting and composting process with addition the additives materials improves the chemical composition of vermicompost compared to using vermicomposting process alone. The change of chemical composition was indicated by a decrease in C-organic content and C/N ratio by 29% and 99%, respectively, while the content of N, P, K and S increased by 52%, 67.5%, 29% and 25%, respectively due to the addition of additives material in the composting process. The largest increase of vermicompost nutrient content occurred in the Ca content by an average of up to 7-fold. While polyphenols, lignin and cellulose content of vermicompost decreased slightly. The treatment of two mixture (a spent mushrooms waste, cow dung and vegetables residue, and (b spent mushroom waste, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter gave the best chemical composition. However, to determine the quality, we need to test the product in a plant growth bioassay as a follow-up study.

  13. Bactericidal Effect of Calcium Oxide (Scallop-Shell Powder) Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm on Quail Egg Shell, Stainless Steel, Plastic, and Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soo-Jin; Park, Shin Young; Kim, Seh Eun; Kang, Ike; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Jungwon; Kim, Chang-Min; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of calcium oxide (CaO) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on quail eggshells and major egg contacting surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and rubber). The samples were subjected to CaO treatments (0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, and 0.30%) for 1 min. All the CaO treatments significantly reduced P. aeruginosa biofilms on all tested surfaces as compared to controls. In comparison of biofilm stability, the strongest and most resistant biofilm was formed on eggshell against the CaO treatment, followed by rubber, stainless steel, and plastic. In evaluation of bactericidal effect, the largest reduction (3.16 log CFU) was observed in plastic even at the lowest concentration of CaO (0.01%), whereas the least reduction was found in eggshells, regardless of CaO concentration. In addition, stainless steel showed a significant reduction in biofilm formation at all concentrations except 0.10% to 0.15% CaO. At 0.30% CaO, the reduction of P. aeruginosa in biofilms on stainless steel, plastic, rubber, and eggshell were 5.48, 6.37, 4.87, and 3.14 log CFU/cm 2 (CFU/egg), respectively. Biofilm reduction after CaO treatment was also observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Based on the FE-SEM images, we observed that P. aeruginosa biofilms formed compact aggregations on eggshell surfaces with CaO treatments up to 0.30%. More specifically, a 0.20% CaO treatment resulted in the reductions of 3 to 6 log CFU in all materials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil Using Transesterification, with the KOH on Carbon Support from Waste Material and Egg Shell, as the Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Babel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave assisted transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO is carried out in the presence of KOH on carbonized waste coconut shell support (KOH/CS, and CaO derived from waste egg shell (CaO-ES. The effect of reaction temperature on the yield of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs is studied. Conventional transesterification is also performed for comparison. FAME production is also carried out with new cooking oil (NCO. The results show that a reaction temperature of 80 °C is optimum for FAME production in the presence of either KOH/CS or CaO-ES. The produced biodiesel properties satisfy the criteria according to ASTM D6751. Acid catalysed esterification of WCO before transesterification leads to higher production of FAMEs due to the reduction of Free Fatty Acids (FFAs. However, conventional transesterification using WCO without esterification yields lower FAMEs. Although the microwave heating decreases the reaction time, it does not necessarily lead to an increase in FAMEs. The production of FAMEs depends on not only the type of transesterification process, but also the type of feedstock. Comparing KOH/CS with CaO-ES, KOH/CS is preferable in terms of the quantity and quality of the produced FAMEs using a two-step process with H2SO4 catalysed esterification, followed by alkali catalysed conventional transesterification.

  15. The influence of oxidation process on exchange bias in egg-shaped FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczyński, Błażej, E-mail: b.leszczynski@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hadjipanayis, George C.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Załęski, Karol [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Śniadecki, Zbigniew [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Musiał, Andrzej [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Jarek, Marcin [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Skumiel, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-10-15

    Egg-shaped nanoparticles with a core–shell morphology were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an iron oleate complex. XRD and M(T) magnetic measurements confirmed the presence of FeO (wustite) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) phases in the nanoparticles. Oxidation of FeO to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was found to be the mechanism for the shell formation. As-made nanoparticles exhibited high values of exchange bias at 2 K. Oxidation led to decrease of exchange field from 2880 Oe (in as-made sample) to 330 Oe (in oxidized sample). At temperatures higher than the Néel temperature of FeO (200 K) there was no exchange bias. An interesting observation was made showing the exchange field to be higher than the coercive field at temperatures close to magnetite's Verwey transition. - Highlights: • Synthesis of monodispersed FeO nanoparticles is shown. • As-made FeO nanoparticle is antiferromagnetically ordered, when it is oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the FeO core becomes small and disordered. • Exchange bias in well-ordered and disordered core is different.

  16. Egg marketing in national supermarkets: specialty eggs--part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P H; Koelkebeck, K W; Bell, D D; Carey, J B; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J

    2001-04-01

    Large eggs promoted as having one or more features beyond conventional white or brown shell eggs (specialty eggs) were evaluated for quality and price in a national retail study. Subtypes of specialty eggs included: nutritionally altered eggs, organic eggs, fertile eggs, eggs from welfare-managed hens, or hens fed all-vegetable diets. Extension Poultry Specialists in California (CA), Connecticut, Illinois, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Texas conducted a survey of egg quality and price and compared 246 dozen specialty eggs with 390 dozen conventional white shell eggs during the summer of 1996. Age of the eggs based on carton dating indicated specialty eggs were older (16.5 d) than white eggs (11.7 d). Average egg weights for specialty compared to white were 60.2 and 59.6 g, respectively. Interior egg quality evaluations including albumen height, Haugh units (HU), and percentage HU 5.0 mm, 67.5, and 10.6%, respectively) compared to specialty eggs (4.7 mm, 63.8, and 16.3%). Although the percentage of cracked eggs was similar between specialty and white eggs (5.4 and 5.7%), the percentage of leakers was threefold higher for the specialty eggs (1.0 vs. 0.3%). Egg price was substantially higher for the specialty eggs, averaging $2.18/dozen with a range from 0.88 to $4.38, compared to white eggs, averaging $1.23/dozen and ranging from 0.39 to $2.35.

  17. Physicochemical study of CaCO3 from egg shells Estudo físico-químico do carbonato de cálcio obtido a partir da casca de ovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Seigi Murakami

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, a pharmaceutical excipient, is widely used as diluent in solid dosage forms. It is also used as a base for medicinal and dental preparations, a buffering and dissolution aid for dispersible tablets, a food additive and a calcium supplement. Egg shells are a rich source of mineral salts, mainly calcium carbonate, which corresponds to about 94% of the shell. Layer farms produce large amounts of shells, whose final disposal poses a challenge from the environmental standpoint. This work was designed to evaluate the physicochemical and thermal properties of calcium carbonate obtained from egg shells. The findings indicated that calcium carbonate from egg shells can be used as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient.O carbonato de cálcio é um excipiente farmacêutico amplamente utilizado como diluente em formas farmacêuticas sólidas. Também é utilizado para auxiliar na dissolução de comprimidos dispersíveis, como base para preparações dentais e medicinais, e como aditivos em suplementos alimentares. A casca de ovo é rica em sais minerais, principalmente o carbonato de cálcio que corresponde a 94% da casca. As indústrias de ovos produzem grande quantidade de casca e seu destino final é um desafio em termos ambientais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades físico-químicas do carbonato de cálcio obtido a partir da casca de ovo. Os resultados demonstraram que o carbonato de cálcio obtido pode ser uma alternativa como excipiente farmacêutico.

  18. Egg structural characteristics of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Faris A. Al-Obaidi; Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus) in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Result...

  19. Performance And Egg Quality Of Hens Fed Cocoa Husk Based Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hen performance and egg quality. The trial was conducted for 10 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed consumption (FC), and feed efficiency (FE) were criteria of comparison. Others were feed cost/kg egg, shell weight, percentage shell and yolk colour index. Inclusion of 10 and 20% CHM in ...

  20. Effect of replacing Palm Kernel Cake with Sheabutter Cake on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shea butter cake at 20% dietary level significantly (P 0.05) decreased shell thickness, shell weight, egg mass and shell surface area. Haugh unit and yolk index were not affected by the treatments. Shell weight and shell thickness were positively correlated. Yolk cholesterol and hen day egg production decreased as dietary ...

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EGG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    order to maximise the recycling opportunities for egg shells, the material could be incinerated independently of ... used for skin grafts, dental implants, angioplasty sleeves, cornea repair, plastic surgery, treatment of ... of biodegradable plastics from egg shell membrane proteins; altering of food-borne bacterial pathogen heat ...

  2. Swabbing for respiratory viral infections in older patients: a comparison of rayon and nylon flocked swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, S S; Quarsten, H; Hagen, E; Lyngroth, A L; Pripp, A H; Bjorvatn, B; Bakke, P S

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sampling efficacy of rayon swabs and nylon flocked swabs, and of oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal specimens for the detection of respiratory viruses in elderly patients. Samples were obtained from patients 60 years of age or above who were newly admitted to Sorlandet Hospital Arendal, Norway. The patients were interviewed for current symptoms of a respiratory tract infection. Using rayon swabs and nylon flocked swabs, comparable sets of mucosal samples were harvested from the nasopharynx and the oropharynx. The samples were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. A total of 223 patients (mean age 74.9 years, standard deviation [SD] 9.0 years) were swabbed and a virus was recovered from 11% of the symptomatic patients. Regardless of the sampling site, a calculated 4.8 times higher viral load (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-17, p = 0.017) was obtained using the nylon flocked swabs as compared to the rayon swabs. Also, regardless of the type of swab, a calculated 19 times higher viral load was found in the samples from the nasopharynx as compared to the oropharynx (95% CI 5.4-67.4, p Nylon flocked swabs appear to be more efficient than rayon swabs.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  4. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aa

    Keywords: Egg location, hatchability, incubation, egg size, turkey. # Corresponding author. E-mail: mozcelik@mehmetakif.edu.tr. Introduction. One of the main objectives in turkey breeder production is to increase the number of poults .... the shell and dried, or hatched but adhered to the shell) death rates were determined.

  5. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Maleo Egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone Park

    OpenAIRE

    Saerang, JLP; Manalu, W; Soesanto, IRH; Mardiastuti, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width) of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg ...

  6. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  7. effects of various oil source on performance, egg quality, fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esmedd

    Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of eggs and blood lipids ... weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 ...... lipoprotein levels in broiler chickens.

  8. Fortificação de alimentos com o pó da casca de ovo como fonte de cálcio Food fortification with egg shell powder as a calcium source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O pó da casca de ovo é usado como fonte de cálcio em multimisturas distribuídas no Brasil por organizações não-governamentais. O presente trabalho teve por objetivos fortificar, com o pó da casca de ovo, alimentos tradicionais, de baixo custo e de fácil preparo, e estimar a contribuição nutricional de porções desses alimentos para o aporte diário de cálcio. Foram elaboradas dez preparações de consumo habitual, que foram enriquecidas com o pó da casca de ovo (37,4% de cálcio na proporção de 1 g do pó para 100 g de cereal ou farinha usada nos alimentos processados. Os alimentos fortificados apresentaram teores de cálcio entre 111,5 mg e 506,4 mg.100 g -1, significativamente mais elevados que o conteúdo das formulações originais sem fortificação. Porções médias das formulações fortificadas perfazem de 14 a 32% das referências nutricionais de cálcio para indivíduos adultos. Conclui-se que alimentos de consumo habitual fortificados com o pó da casca de ovo podem contribuir de forma significativa para a ingestão adequada de cálcio e prevenção de deficiência do nutriente, especialmente de osteoporose, em indivíduos de diferentes grupos etários e extratos sociais.Egg shell powder is used as a calcium source in a nutritional supplement known as "multimistura" that has been distributed in Brazil by non-governmental organizations. The objectives of this research were to fortify traditional, low cost and easy to prepare dishes with egg shell powder and to estimate the nutritional contribution of each portion to the calcium daily intake. Ten common dishes were prepared and fortified with egg shell powder (with 37.4% of calcium at the rate of 1g to 100 g of cereal or flour used in the processing foods. The fortified foods showed a range of calcium concentrations between 111.5 mg and 506.4 mg.100 g -1, which were significantly higher than the contents of the original formulations without fortification. Mean portions

  9. Physico-chemical analysis of eggs of native fowl, duck and goose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 135 eggs (50 chicken, 50 duck and 35 goose eggs) were collected from farmers' doors from adjoining rural areas of Bhubaneswar for egg quality traits and chemical analysis. The mean values of quality traits of egg weight, volume, albumin weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shell thickness, shape index, albumin ...

  10. Incidence of egg drop syndrome – 1976 in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the magnitude of influence by Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976 (EDS –'76 virus infection in causing drop in egg production in and around Namakkal. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swabs and 15 pouch shell glands (uteri homogenates from 15 poultry farms in and around Namakkal area were used for virus isolation. Three numbers of 10 –day- old embryonated duck eggs were used for the inoculation of each suspected material for virus isolation. The isolate was identified by HA property, by specific inhibition of HA and by AGPT using hyperimmune serum raised against reference EDS –'76 virus strain 127. Results: Out of samples from 15 farms only one isolate (6.6% was obtained from poultry farm No.5. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that the EDS –'76 virus influence in causing drop in egg production in this area to be minimal. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 350-353

  11. Nutrient digestibility and egg production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increase in the quantity of biodegraded PKM resulted in significant differences in the values determined for feed intake, hen-day production, and average egg weight; but for egg length, yolk index, egg/yolk ratio and egg shell thickness, there was no significant difference. Despite the significantly lower hen-day production of ...

  12. Predation on Japanese quail vs. house sparrow eggs in artificial nests: small eggs reveal small predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation studies frequently use eggs such as Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) to identify potential predators of Neotropical migrants' eggs, but such eggs may be too large or thick-shelled to identify the full complement of potential predators. We compared predation events and predators of Japanese Quail and smaller House Sparrow (

  13. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection by an appropriate U.S. Government official, an official of an approved meat, poultry, or egg... applicable laws and regulations for importation into the United States. Refrigeration of Shell Eggs ...

  14. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most options. That's where you'll find vegan foods that are made without eggs or egg products. When preparing your own food, you can substitute one of these egg alternatives in your recipes. Each of these replaces one egg (these substitutes ...

  15. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Luévano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-07-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned.

  16. The Effect of Addition Pineapple Peel Meal (Ananas comosus (L Merr in Diet on Total Egg and Egg Duck Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD, if the result had significant effect, would be continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that an addition pineapple peel meal in  duck diet had no effect (P>0,05 on numbers of egg and thick of egg shell, however, it had  highly significant effect (P<0,01 on fat  and  cholesterol  egg  yolk . The concluded showed that the addition of pineaple peel meal  in ducks diet can be decreasing fat and cholesterol egg yolk and can not decreasing numbers of egg and egg shell tick. Keywords: Mojosari ducks, total egg, egg shell thick, egg yolk fat, and egg yolk cholesterol

  17. Validation of Single and Pooled Manure Drag Swabs for the Detection of Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis in Commercial Poultry Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, Hailu; Goodluck, Helen A; Pitesky, Maurice; Friend, Tom D; Campbell, James A; Hill, Ashley E

    2015-12-01

    Single swabs (cultured individually) are currently used in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official method for sampling the environment of commercial laying hens for the detection of Salmonella enterica ssp. serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis). The FDA has also granted provisional acceptance of the National Poultry Improvement Plan's (NPIP) Salmonella isolation and identification methodology for samples taken from table-egg layer flock environments. The NPIP method, as with the FDA method, requires single-swab culturing for the environmental sampling of laying houses for Salmonella Enteritidis. The FDA culture protocol requires a multistep culture enrichment broth, and it is more labor intensive than the NPIP culture protocol, which requires a single enrichment broth. The main objective of this study was to compare the FDA single-swab culturing protocol with that of the NPIP culturing protocol but using a four-swab pool scheme. Single and multi-laboratory testing of replicate manure drag swab sets (n  =  525 and 672, respectively) collected from a Salmonella Enteritidis-free commercial poultry flock was performed by artificially contaminating swabs with either Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4, 8, or 13a at one of two inoculation levels: low, x¯  = 2.5 CFU (range 2.5-2.7), or medium, x¯  = 10.0 CFU (range 7.5-12). For each replicate, a single swab (inoculated), sets of two swabs (one inoculated and one uninoculated), and sets of four swabs (one inoculated and three uninoculated), testing was conducted using the FDA or NPIP culture method. For swabs inoculated with phage type 8, the NPIP method was more efficient (P 0.05) between the FDA method (single swabs) and the pooled NPIP method (four-pool swabs). The study concludes that the pooled NPIP method is not significantly different from the FDA method for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in drag swabs in commercial poultry laying houses. Consequently based on the FDA

  18. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but was only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs.

  19. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellink, Eric, E-mail: emellink@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Riojas-Lopez, Monica E., E-mail: meriojas@cucba.udg.m [Departamento de Ecologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km. 15.5 Carretera a Nogales, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Luevano-Esparza, Jaime, E-mail: jluevano@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  20. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  1. Egg-shaped core/shell α-Mn2O3@α-MnO2 as heterogeneous catalysts for decomposition of phenolics in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Edy; Zhang, Huayang; Liu, Qiaoran; Sun, Hongqi; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-09-01

    Novel uniform ellipsoid α-Mn2O3@α-MnO2 core/shell (McMs) nanocomposites were prepared via a hydrothermal process with a shape-control protocol followed by calcination at different temperatures. The properties of the composites were characterized by a number of techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The core/shell materials were much effective in heterogeneous oxone(®) activation to generate sulfate and hydroxyl radicals for degradation of aqueous phenol. The McMs composites demonstrated catalytic activity for 100% phenol decomposition in short duration varying between 20 and 120 min, much higher than that of homogeneous Mn(2+) system with 95% phenol degradation in 120 min. They also showed a higher activity than single-phase α-Mn2O3 or α-MnO2. The catalytic activity of phenol degradation depends on temperature, oxone(®) concentration, phenol concentration, and catalyst loading. The catalysts also showed a stable activity in several cycles. Kinetic study demonstrated that phenol degradation reactions follow a first order reaction on McMs catalysts giving activation energies at 32.1-68.8 kJ/mol. With the detection of radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), the generation mechanism was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil and 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters) of baking powder for each egg. When you're cutting out eggs, you'll want to make sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, ...

  3. Swab sample transfer for point-of-care diagnostics: characterization of swab types and manual agitation methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttada Panpradist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global need for disease detection and control has increased effort to engineer point-of-care (POC tests that are simple, robust, affordable, and non-instrumented. In many POC tests, sample collection involves swabbing the site (e.g., nose, skin, agitating the swab in a fluid to release the sample, and transferring the fluid to a device for analysis. Poor performance in sample transfer can reduce sensitivity and reproducibility. METHODS: In this study, we compared bacterial release efficiency of seven swab types using manual-agitation methods typical of POC devices. Transfer efficiency was measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR for Staphylococcus aureus under conditions representing a range of sampling scenarios: 1 spiking low-volume samples onto the swab, 2 submerging the swab in excess-volume samples, and 3 swabbing dried sample from a surface. RESULTS: Excess-volume samples gave the expected recovery for most swabs (based on tip fluid capacity; a polyurethane swab showed enhanced recovery, suggesting an ability to accumulate organisms during sampling. Dry samples led to recovery of ∼20-30% for all swabs tested, suggesting that swab structure and volume is less important when organisms are applied to the outer swab surface. Low-volume samples led to the widest range of transfer efficiencies between swab types. Rayon swabs (63 µL capacity performed well for excess-volume samples, but showed poor recovery for low-volume samples. Nylon (100 µL and polyester swabs (27 µL showed intermediate recovery for low-volume and excess-volume samples. Polyurethane swabs (16 µL showed excellent recovery for all sample types. This work demonstrates that swab transfer efficiency can be affected by swab material, structure, and fluid capacity and details of the sample. Results and quantitative analysis methods from this study will assist POC assay developers in selecting appropriate swab types and transfer methods.

  4. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  5. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the body weight was positively and non-significantly (P>0.05) correlated with egg length, egg breadth, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell ...

  6. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.R. Morris. Department of Agriculture and Horticulture, University of Reading, England. In this article the contribution which geneticists can make to egg quality i.e. eggmass, shell thickness, and albumen height is examined. Factors which the poultryman can manipulate on the farm such as the choice of a lighting system ...

  7. Morphology of dry-resistant eggs in parthenogenetic Heterocypris incongruens (Ramdohr, 1808) (Ostracoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özuluğ, Oya; Suludere, Zekiye

    2012-09-01

    It has been known that many organisms evolved to survive in temporary or ephemeral inland waters. Many of them have dry-resistant eggs against desiccation. The structural feature of egg shell is important because only this will ensure to survive the dry period. Structural features of egg shell in the parthenogenetic Heterocypris incongruens (Ramdohr, 1808) was investigated by scanning electron microscope. Results showed that egg shell structure consists of two distinct layers; an outer layer with holes or alveoli and an inner layer consisting of two dense sublayers. Also, structural similarities in egg-shell of H. incongruens and some other crustaceans which combat desiccation problem will be discussed.

  8. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  9. Ensaios de penetração de Salmonella Enteritidis em ovos de galinha com diferentes qualidades de casca, submetidos ou não a lavagem industrial e a duas temperaturas de armazenagem Penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis in chicken eggs, comparing different shell quality, industrial washing and temperature of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Pinto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento da Salmonella Enteritidis quando em contato com a superfície de ovos de consumo, classificados de acordo com a qualidade da casca ou com tratamentos (lavados ou não, usando fezes de aves como veículo de contaminação, e armazenados a 8°C e 70% de umidade relativa ou a 30°C e 90% de umidade relativa. A 8°C, o microrganismo permaneceu viável na superfície dos ovos, ao longo do tempo, enquanto a 30°C foi possível identificar a sua inibição e até sua eliminação da superfície. A contaminação do conteúdo de ovos com defeito de casca foi mais frequente quando os ovos foram submetidos a temperaturas inadequadas de armazenagem (30°C.Salmonella Enteriditis behavior was studied when present on the surface of consume eggs, classified according to the shell quality or treatments (washed or not. Stools of fowls were used as a vehicle for contamination. The eggs were stored at 8°C and 70% relative humidity or at 30°C and 90% of relative humidity. At 8°C, the microorganism stayed viable on the surface of the eggs throughout the study, while at 30°C it was inhibited and eliminated from the egg shell. The contamination of content of the eggs with shell defect was more frequent when they were submitted to inappropriate temperatures of storage (30°C.

  10. Effect of length of lay of Nigeria indigenous chickens on their egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and thirty eggs collected from the second to the seventh month of production, from a flock of the Nigeria indigenous (NI) chickens, were analysed to determine the effect of the length of lay on egg composition and shell quality. The weights of the whole egg and its components as well as shell thickness were ...

  11. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spec...

  12. Luminescence color as a characteristic for selection in poultry eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalova, Natalya B.; Vasiljeva, Ludmilia T.; Zamorskaja, Tatjana; Bychajev, Al.

    1996-12-01

    This work concerns luminescence of egg shell and chick down and livability and egg production of hens. It was established that the best layers showed orange color of egg shell luminescence at the beginning of the laying period. Yellow color of chick down luminescence indicates on the chicken's good development especially concerning its digestive and circulatory systems, and connects with its future high livability and egg production. So the use of the color of luminescence is advisable as an additional characteristic providing good possibility to forecast the development of a chicken, its resistance for stressors, its livability and egg production afterwards.

  13. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.

  14. Competitiveness of the EU egg sector, base year 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import levies on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied, for both shell eggs and whole egg powder. As a result of the costs of transportation, import levies and the effects on product quality and safety, there will barely be imports of

  15. Serotyping and virulence genes detection in Escherichia coli isolated from fertile and infertile eggs, dead-in-shell embryos, and chickens with yolk sac infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, C C; López, A C C; Téllez, I G; Navarro, O A; Anderson, R C; Eslava, C C

    2004-12-01

    Escherichia coli is a common avian pathogen mainly associated with extraintestinal infections such as yolk sac infection (YSI). The aim of this study was to determine the serotypes and the presence of some virulence genes of E. coli strains isolated from different samples in a vertically integrated poultry operation in Mexico. Two hundred sixty-seven E. coli isolates from different samples were serotyped using rabbit serum against the 175 somatic (O) and 56 flagellar (H) antigens of the typing schema. Virulence genes were determined by colony blot hybridization, using DNA probes for st, eae, agg1, agg2, bfp, lt, cdt, slt, and ipaH diarrhea-associated virulence factors. The serogroup of 85% of the strains was determined; O19 (12%), 084 (9%), 08 (6%), and 078 (5%) were the most common. Using the complete antigenic formula (O and H), O19:NM (n = 31) was the serotype most frequently isolated from dead-in-shell embryos and in broilers that had died on the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh days after hatch. One hundred ten strains (41.2%) hybridized with one or more of the used probes. Of these, ipaH (72%), eae (30%), and cdt (27%) were the most common. Considering the origin of the respective isolates, 40% of the broiler farm strains were positive for at least one probe. Results show that some avian E. coli strains isolated in Mexico are included in avian pathogenic E. coli serotypes not previously reported, suggesting that they could be specific for this geographic area. The wide distribution of the ipaH gene among nonmotile strains suggests that this invasiveness trait could be important in YSI pathogenesis. On the other hand, some other genes could contribute to E. coli virulence during YSI.

  16. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...

  17. Egg serpins: The chicken and/or the egg dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombre, Clara; Guyot, Nicolas; Moreau, Thierry; Monget, Philippe; Da Silva, Mylène; Gautron, Joël; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Twenty-seven serpins belonging to clade A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I serpins are currently referenced in chicken genome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of chicken serpins revealed that ovalbumin (Serpinb14) and its paralogs ovalbumin-related protein Y (Serpinb14b) and ovalbumin-related protein X (Serpinb14c) are found in bird species. These clade B serpins are specifically expressed in reproductive tissues and exported in the egg where they constitute major protein components. These data suggest that these three paralogs have probably appeared in birds to face new environments and ensure the extra-uterine development of an embryo in a shell egg. Twelve other serpins have been identified in the newly produced egg, some of them having a specific distribution in the respective egg structures (eggshell, egg white, vitelline membrane and egg yolk). The physiological role of these egg serpins remain largely unexplored, but there is increasing evidence in literature or by homologies with their mammalian counterparts, that some of them participate in cell proliferation, tissue remodeling and/or angiogenesis associated with folliculogenesis and development of extraembryonic structures, eggshell biomineralization, egg defense and nutrition of the embryo. A better knowledge of the phylogenetic evolution of these 15 serpins in other oviparous species, on their egg distribution, on their regulation during embryonic development (activation/degradation/transfer) and on their functional specificity, is needed to better appreciate their role and their bird-specificity. These review shed light on the multiple possibilities that offer the avian egg model to study the role of serpins in reproduction and developmental biology. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Swabs to genomes: a comprehensive workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison I. Dunitz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sequencing, assembly, and basic analysis of microbial genomes, once a painstaking and expensive undertaking, has become much easier for research labs with access to standard molecular biology and computational tools. However, there are a confusing variety of options available for DNA library preparation and sequencing, and inexperience with bioinformatics can pose a significant barrier to entry for many who may be interested in microbial genomics. The objective of the present study was to design, test, troubleshoot, and publish a simple, comprehensive workflow from the collection of an environmental sample (a swab to a published microbial genome; empowering even a lab or classroom with limited resources and bioinformatics experience to perform it.

  19. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Mahdavi; Mohammad Jalali; Hjieh Ghasemian Safaei; Ehsan Shamloo

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and colifor...

  20. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, M.; S. N. G. Socoloski; Komiyama, C M [UNESP; M. S. Lemos; J. C. O. Silva; Ribeiro,R.P.; M. B. Vendramel; E. C. Reginato; Vieira, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells...

  1. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Maleo Egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLP Saerang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg were measured by used vernier caliper, egg shell thickness by tripod micrometer, yolk color by yolk color fan. Length and width of egg used were measured by Vernier caliper, and egg shell thickness by a tripod micrometer, yolk color by yolk color fan. Physical characteristic have been identified eggs weight, egg width, egg length, egg index, albumen width, albumen length, albumen index, yolk width, yolk length, yolk index, weight albumen, weight yolk, egg shell thickness, and shell weight increased by 223.70 g, 104.00 mm, 56.68 mm, 56.41, 113.8 mm, 86.72 mm, 6.07%, 85.30 mm, 69.90 mm, 31.54%, 47.51 g, 110.80 g, 0.02 inch, 19.55 g, respectively. The result of analysis indicated that maleo eggs have completed amino acids and fatty acids, that is essensial amino acids, non essensial amino acids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Physical characteristic egg that comprised of egg weight, egg width, egg length, egg index, albumen width, albumen length, albumen index, yolk width, yolk length, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, egg shell thickness, and shell weight were 223.70 g, 104.00 mm, 56.68 mm, 56.41, 113.8 mm, 86.72 mm, 6,07%, 85.30 mm, 69.90 mm, 31.54%, 47.51 g, 110.80 g, 0:02-inch, 19:55 g, respectively. Maleo egg contained complete amino acids and fatty acids, including essential amino acids, non essential amino acids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. (Animal Production 12(1: 34-38 (2010Key Words: Maleo bird, maleo

  2. Comparing non-woven, filmateci and woven gauze swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Loveless, P; Hay, N P; Toyick, N

    1993-01-02

    The physical characteristics and performance of seven non-woven swabs intended for topical use were compared with those of filmated swabs and woven cotton gauze in a series of laboratory tests. The results of this study suggest that the non-woven swabs have significant advantages over the other type examined. Based upon current pricing structures they represent a highly cost-effective alternative to the more traditional products for routine wound management procedures. As the various non-wovens have very different handling characteristics, it should be possible to select a swab to suit most requirements from the range of products available.

  3. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,

  4. Motion compensated image processing and optimal parameters for egg crack detection using modified pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...

  5. QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS ON THE CROATIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Grčević Grčević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical quality indicators of table eggs available on the Croatian market. The research was carried out on eggs produced by two manufacturers, marked as A and B, on the 7th and 28th day of egg storing. According to the Regulations on egg quality (OJ 115/06, Art. 9, eggs are classified as class A or fresh eggs and class B or eggs for industrial processing. Referring to the weight of the eggs, the eggs of class A are divided into four grades: XL, L, M and S. Our research focused on the M weight grade eggs, because they are the most represented ones in our conditions. The following external indicators of egg quality were analyzed: shape index (%, egg weight (g, shell weight (g, shell strength (kg/cm2 and thickness (mm. Furthermore, the following indicators of inner egg quality were tested: weight of albumen and yolk (g, yolk colour, Haugh units (HU, albumen height (mm, pH of albumen and pH of yolk. Results of our research provided the following conclusions: based on evaluation of energy and protein value, eggs of the manufacturer B had better nutritive value than eggs of the manufacturer A. The results of research into quality of eggs on the 7th day of storage proved that there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 between the A and B egg manufacturer if referring to the egg weight, shape index, shell thickness, shell weight and strength, as well as albumen weight. After the 28th day of egg storage, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 determined for albumen height, HU, pH values of albumen and yolk, and yolk colour (P=0.003. Based on the analysis of nutritive values and physical and chemical properties of eggs during storage, it was confirmed that eggs produced by the manufacturer B were of better quality than eggs of the manufacturer A. Eggs of both manufacturers met the requirements defined by the Croatian Regulations on egg quality.

  6. Comparison of urine with urethral swabs for the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although cell culture has been regarded as the 'gold standard' for C. ... immunofluorescence as a 'gold standard', because of loss of chlamydial ... Specimens for EIA were collected with. Dacron swabs on aluminium shafts with prescored plastic handles. Swabs were immersed and broken off in 1 ml EIA transport media ...

  7. The table eggs and their quality in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose this study was to investigate quality of the table eggs, their damage and soiling in various age of the laying hens (47-62 weeks during the second phase of the laying cycle. The object of the research was table eggs, egg white, egg shell, damage and soiling of the egg shell. The eggs were of the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the non-cage system with deep litter and free range at small-scale breeding. In the breeding system with free range at small-scale conditions were secured requirements for laying hens in accordance with welfare principles. The eggs were collected each day at 4:00 pm. Weights of egg and egg shell samples of were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N. A white weight was calculated. Damage and soiling of eggs were investigated under the desk lamp lighting up to 100 W bulb. Statistical evaluation of the results was carried out in the program system SAS. From the existing conclusions of the various scientific and professional published works, it is known that both quality and safety are interrelated. In many works are the risk factors referred together as the quality standards. We found an important fact in assessing the trend of values of the egg shell weight, depending on the age of laying hens. Based on this fact, it can be assumed that the values of egg shell weight were not directly related to egg weight and egg white weight. It follows that the egg shell weight must be assessed comprehensively, and account must be taken of other factors. For the characteristics of the deformed egg shape has been one pc, representing 3.33% of the samples taken for analysis of eggs at 53 weeks of age of the total sampled eggs. In the following 56 weeks of age hens laying eggs there was not a deformed shape. The next subsequent sampling 59 weeks of age laying hens were recorded two pcs of eggs with deformed shape, i.e. 6.67%. At the last sampling of eggs at age 62 weeks, the number of eggs with deformed shape increased to

  8. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  9. Shell utilization and morphometries of the hermit crab Diogenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fecundity, shell utilization, and crab and associated shell morphometries were investigated for the hermit crab Diogenes brevirostris collected from three intertidal sites in the eastern Cape. The relationship between crab fresh mass and egg number was linear. D. brevirostris was found to occupy 33 gastropod shell species ...

  10. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  11. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  12. Nylon flocked swab severely reduces Hexagon Obti sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frippiat, Christophe; De Roy, Gilbert; Fontaine, Louis-Marie; Dognaux, Sophie; Noel, Fabrice; Heudt, Laeticia; Lepot, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ethylene oxide treated flocked swab and the Hexagon Obti blood detection strip. In this study, we investigated this compatibility. Our work shows that sampling with ethylene oxide treated flocked swab reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using the Hexagon Obti immunological test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary sodium nitrate consumption on egg production, egg quality characteristics and some blood indices in native hens of west azarbaijan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safary, H; Daneshyar, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn't affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (psodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (pnitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass).

  14. Gossypiboma – the retained surgical swab: An enduring clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that raise clinical suspicion, of a condition that may be elusive in presentation on ... A review of the English literature reporting retained abdominal swabs between 1992 and 2012 revealed 100 cases. .... help to explain the variety of associated.

  15. Estimation of the rate of egg contamination from Salmonella-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M E; Martelli, F; McLaren, I; Davies, R H

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the most prevalent causes for human gastroenteritis and is by far the predominant Salmonella serovar among human cases, followed by Salmonella Typhimurium. Contaminated eggs produced by infected laying hens are thought to be the main source of human infection with S. Enteritidis throughout the world. Although previous studies have looked at the proportion of infected eggs from infected flocks, there is still uncertainty over the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated eggs. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate at which infected birds produce contaminated egg shells and egg contents. Data were collected from two studies, consisting of 15 and 20 flocks, respectively. Faecal and environmental sampling and testing of ovaries/caeca from laying hens were carried out in parallel with (i) for the first study, testing 300 individual eggs, contents and shells together and (ii) for the second study, testing 4000 eggs in pools of six, with shells and contents tested separately. Bayesian methods were used to estimate the within-flock prevalence of infection from the faecal and hen post-mortem data, and this was related to the proportion of positive eggs. Results indicated a linear relationship between the rate of contamination of egg contents and the prevalence of infected chickens, but a nonlinear (quadratic) relationship between infection prevalence and the rate of egg shell contamination, with egg shell contamination occurring at a much higher rate than that of egg contents. There was also a significant difference in the rate of egg contamination between serovars, with S. Enteritidis causing a higher rate of contamination of egg contents and a lower rate of contamination of egg shells compared to non-S. Enteritidis serovars. These results will be useful for risk assessments of human exposure to Salmonella-contaminated eggs. © 2013 Crown copyright. This article is published with the

  16. Risk assessment of use of cracked eggs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, E C

    1996-06-01

    In 1992, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) amended its Egg Regulations to restrict movement of Canada C eggs (cracks) to federally registered processed egg stations for pasteurization. This was questioned by egg producers and some provinces on economic grounds. It was also in conflict with long-standing practices of marketing eggs in some provinces to retail stores, bakeries, restaurants and institutions or at the farm gate. In order to determine how much of a risk these eggs were to human health, AAFC requested that the Health Protection Branch (HPB) of Health Canada (HC) conduct a risk assessment. On the basis of outbreak data, the main hazard in these eggs was identified as Salmonella. Salmonellae may occasionally be present on shell eggs even after washing, and any Salmonella reaching the membranes can be transferred to an egg mixture through breaking, and will rapidly grow under improper storage conditions. A Relative Risk analysis showed that cracked eggs are 3 to 93 times more likely than uncracked shell eggs to cause outbreaks. A probability of illness of 1 in 3800 was derived from the 40 million cracked eggs produced in Canada and not pasteurized and the probable 10,500 illnesses arising from these. This was for the general population, but this would be greater for those who consume many shell eggs or would do so in an unsafe manner, or are more likely to be infected (5% of consumers who eat raw or lightly cooked eggs daily, rural communities with more opportunities for obtaining cracked eggs, and those who are immunocompromised and in institutions). Even though it is not possible to precisely determine the risk of salmonellosis through cracked eggs, this assessment indicated that there was enough of a concern that a management strategy was needed. Eight options for managing the risk were considered and ranked for acceptability by both HC and AAFC. Ideally, all cracked eggs should be broken and pasteurized, but this is impractical in certain regions

  17. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continuous overflow. Rinse water and chlorine sanitizing rinse may be used as part of the replacement water. Iodine sanitizing rinse may not be used as part of the replacement water. (6) Waste water from the egg... other methods which may be approved by the Administrator. (b) Shell eggs shall not be washed in the...

  18. Egg Qualities and Performance Characteristics of Laying Chicken in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters measured included daily feed intake, initial and final body weights, hen – day production, mortality rate, feed conversion ratio, feed cost per dozen eggs, egg weight, shell thickness, albumen weight, yolk weight, haugh unit, yolk length and yolk index. Housing system has significant effects (p <0.05) on the ...

  19. Indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-10-05

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus et al. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells.

  20. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  1. Shelf life study of egg albumin in pasteurized and non-pasteurized eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...

  2. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in great tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  3. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  4. EVA Swab Tool to Support Planetary Protection and Astrobiology Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Hood, Drew; Walker, Mary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2018-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on other planets, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed systems meet planetary protection requirements-and to protect our science from human contamination-we'll need to assess whether microorganisms may be leaking or venting from our spacecraft. Microbial sample collection outside of a pressurized spacecraft is complicated by temperature extremes, low pressures that preclude the use of laboratory standard (wetted) swabs, and operation either in bulky spacesuits or with robotic assistance. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed a swab kit for use in collecting microbial samples from the external surfaces of crewed spacecraft, including spacesuits. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Swab Kit consists of a single swab tool handle and an eight-canister sample caddy. The design team minimized development cost by re-purposing a heritage Space Shuttle tile repair handle that was designed to quickly snap into different tool attachments by engaging a mating device in each attachment. This allowed the tool handle to snap onto a fresh swab attachment much like popular shaving razor handles can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. To disengage the handle from a swab, the user performs two independent functions, which can be done with a single hand. This dual operation mitigates the risk that a swab will be inadvertently released and lost in microgravity. Each swab attachment is fitted with commercially available foam swab tips, vendor-certified to be sterile for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). A microbial filter installed in the bottom of each sample container allows the container to outgas and repressurize without introducing microbial contaminants to internal void spaces. Extensive ground testing, post-test handling, and sample analysis confirmed the design is able to maintain sterile conditions as the canister moves between

  5. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  6. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho; Régis Siqueira de Castro Teixeira; Elisângela de Souza Lopes; Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque; Suzan Vitória Girão Lima; Ruben Vasconcelos Horn; Roberta Cristina da Rocha-e-Silva; William Maciel Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab) and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza....

  7. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  8. Effect of Canola Oil and Vitamin A on Egg Characteristics and Egg Cholesterol in Laying Hens During Hot Summer Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmad*1, Ahsan-ul-Haq2, M Yousaf2, Z Kamran1, Ata-ur-Rehman3, MU Suhail1 and HA Samad1

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Canola oil and vitamin A were evaluated for their effects on egg characteristics, egg cholesterol and egg triglycerides (TG in laying hens prone to heat-stress during summer months. Four levels of canola oil (0, 2, 3 and 4% of diet in combination with two levels of vitamin A (3,000 or 10,000 IU/kg of diet were fed to laying hens for a period of 12 weeks. Various egg-quality parameters were measured on weekly basis while, serum TG, egg cholesterol and TG contents were analyzed during the last week of the trial. The results of the study showed that the egg weight, egg mass, yolk weight, Haugh unit score, shell thickness, shell weight and egg breaking-strength were similar (P>0.05 for all canola oil levels supplemented to the laying hens. Higher egg weight and egg mass (P0.05 by increasing canola oil or vitamin A levels in the diet of laying hens. It might be concluded from the results of the present study that canola oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids can be included in the diet of laying hens without compromising the quality characteristics of the eggs.

  9. note on variable incubation period within a clutch of eggs of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hatchings occurred, the nest was opened and the eggs were removed. A broken empty shell was found, as expected, together with the remaining 11 whole eggs. The eggs were opened, and although ten had putrefied, the 11 th con- tained a living embryo C. 6 mm long (d. hatchling length of 50 mm.) In sea turtles nesting in ...

  10. Obtaining and Storing House Sparrow Eggs in Quantity for Nest-Predation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Thomas J. Maier

    2001-01-01

    House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) eggs are useful in artificial nest experiments because they are approximately the same size and shell thickness as those of many forest passerines. House Sparrow eggs can be readily collected in quantity by providing nest boxes in active livestock barns. We collected over 1200 eggs in three years (320-567 per year)...

  11. Determination of the quality of stripe-marked and cracked eggs during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stripe marks, which occasionally occur on the shell, do not cause breakage to the shell and shell membranes of eggs. This study investigated the quality of intact eggs (IEs, minor stripe-marked eggs (MEs, severe stripe-marked eggs (SEs, and cracked eggs (CEs during 3-week storage at 25°C. Methods Shell eggs were collected the day after being laid and were washed. Among them, eggs without any visual cracks or stripe marks on the shells were evaluated as IEs by the plant employees using candling in a darkened egg storage room; the remaining eggs exhibited some eggshell defects. At day 3, the eggs were further categorized into IEs, MEs, SEs, CEs, and broken eggs (BEs on the basis of the description given. Except BEs, which were discarded, the remaining eggs were stored at 25°C (approximate relative humidity 50% and then analyzed. Results Stripe marks were observed primarily within the first 3 days after washing. At day 3, CEs had significantly (p<0.05 lower Haugh unit values, but all eggs had grades AA or A, according to the United States Department of Agriculture standard. As storage time increased, differences in egg quality between groups were more obvious. IEs had the highest eggshell breaking strength. During storage, the total plate counts and pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., were not detectable in the internal content of IEs and SEs. Conclusion In conclusion, cracks degraded egg quality severely and minor stripe marks only slightly influenced the egg quality.

  12. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries E Budding

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  13. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Andries E; Grasman, Matthijs E; Eck, Anat; Bogaards, Johannes A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  14. Genetic Analyses of Egg Quality in Khorasan Razavi Native Fowl Using the Bayesian Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirkhah Z

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters influencing egg quality in Khorasan Razavi native fowl. (CoVariance components were estimated by the Bayesian statistical method via Gibbs sampling in GIBBS3F90 software. 1000 eggs (28-29 weeks old were collected from 775 hens of the ninth generation of Khorasan-Razavi Province native fowl breeding center. External (egg weight,specific gravity, long length, short length, shape index, shell strength, shell weight, shell thickness and internal (yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk weight, yolk index, albumen diameter, albumen height, albumen weight, albumen index, Haugh unit egg quality traits were measured. Six univariate animal models were used for estimation of genetic parameters and the best model for each trait was determined by deviance information criterion (DIC. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between traits were estimated using bivariate animal model. Direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.10 (egg width to 0.39 (yolk index. For all traits except albumen diameter and albumen index, the inclusion of maternal effects in the model resulted in considerable reduction in direct heritability. Genetic correlations of egg weight with shell strength and shell thickness were negative. In conclusion, due to genetic correlations among external and internal egg quality traits, selection based on egg weight and shell thickness may improve external and internal egg quality traits. Also, including maternal effects in the form of genetic or permanent environment in the statistical model resulted in more accurate estimates for most traits.

  15. First chelonian eggs and carapace fragments from the Pliocene of Rhodes, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller-Töwe, Inken J.; Kjeldahl-Vallon, Tina A.; Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    diameters are estimated at 45-50 mm. The eggshells are 0.3-0.5 mm thick, partly recrystallized, but widely still aragonitic. They consist of needle-like crystals that form individual shell units. A few pores are preserved between these shell units. This shell-structure allows assignment to chelonian eggs...

  16. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%, vitamin E (90.00% and selenium (91.98%, and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusion feed (76.00% in respect to the control group (82.00%, confidence interval of 95%. Concerning diet supplemented with selenium and diet supplemented with vitamin E, the egg yolk weight was statistically different compared with the control group (confidence interval of 95%. The yolk weight averaged 1.80 g and 1.29 g more than yolk weight in the control eggs, respectively. The egg shell weight was statistically different in diet enriched with iodine compared with the control. The egg shell weight averaged 1.48 g less per egg for the eggs enriched with iodine with 17.45% less underweight than the control eggs. Enriched eggs offer consumer a variety of value-added options for their egg purchase. Although enriched eggs may provide consumers with a specific quality attribute or healthful ingredient, they do not appear to provide quality and value in a traditional sense as defined by the standards of quality and grade.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF EGG SHELL POWDER AND OPTIMIZATION OF ITS PREPARATION TECHNIQUE AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DO PÓ DA CASCA DE OVO E OTIMIZAÇÃO DA TÉCNICA DE ELABORAÇÃO DO PRODUTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to analyze the microbiological profile of hen egg shell powder distributed to poor communities as an alternate calcium source, and optimizing powder preparation technique through efficient hygiene and sanitary safety. The sampling was carried out in the distribution units of Pastoral da Criança program of the Catholic Church, in Goiânia municipality, Brazil. Ten egg shell powder samples were collected in the preparation places of product, at different moments during September to December 2001. It was observed that some samples presented considerable levels of aerobic mesophilic, total coliforms (at 35C, and moulds and yeasts, but not contamination with thermotolerant coliforms (at 45C, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella sp. Egg shell powder produced through the standard technique, which included essentially washing egg shells, immersion in chlorinated solution, boiling, drying, and milling process, did not show contamination by microorganisms. It was concluded that the optimized technique assures process efficiency and hygienic and sanitary quality for the product.

    KEY-WORDS: Calcium; food microbiology; food analysis; food contamination.

    A pesquisa teve o objetivo de analisar o perfil microbiológico do pó da casca de ovo de galinha distribuído a comunidades carentes, como fonte alternativa de cálcio, bem como otimizar a técnica de elaboração do produto, visando eficácia e segurança em termos higiênico-sanitários. A amostragem foi realizada em unidades de distribuição do programa Pastoral da Criança, da Igreja Católica, em Goiânia-GO, Brasil. Foram coletadas dez amostras do pó da casca de ovo, nos locais de produção e em diferentes momentos, nos meses de setembro a dezembro de 2001. Os resultados revelaram que

  18. Effect of Beeswax, Gelatin and Aloe vera Gel Coatings on Physical Properties and Shelf Life of Chicken Eggs Stored at 30°C

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Iroshan Mudannayaka; Dissanayakage Surakshi Wimangika Rajapaksha; Kodithuwakku Arachchilage Heshan Taraka Kodithuwakku

    2016-01-01

    Present study was to determine the effect of beeswax, gelatin and Aloe vera gel coatings on internal quality and shelf life of chicken eggs compared to uncoated and mineral oil coated eggs. Four hundred and seventy five brown shell eggs were obtained from 32 weeks old Lohmann classic brown layers and all the eggs were randomly divided into five groups as ninety five eggs per group. Mineral oil, beeswax, Aloe vera gel and gelatin coatings were applied on eggs as four treatments and...

  19. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  20. Bacteriological pattern of wound swab isolates in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To determine the pattern of bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity profile in patients with infected chronic leg ulceration. METHODS: Sixty swab specimens obtained from chronic leg ulcer (CLU) patients were cultured aerobically and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the recovered organisms ...

  1. Gossypiboma – the retained surgical swab: An enduring clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language publications were excluded and abstracts of relevant articles were evaluated for .... [5] The diagnosis of a gossypiboma may be made easily on plain film if the radio-opaque marker is intact; however, ... radio-opaque markers are helpful in identification of retained swabs using plain X-ray. An X-ray is taken on table ...

  2. Bacterial isolates from swab specimens and their susceptibilities to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin showed uniform activities against Proteus spp, which showed partial resistance to all agents except sparfloxacin. Multi-drugs resistances are high with all organisms. Many pathogens cause infections in swab sites. The knowledge of causative organisms and their sensitivities are important since ...

  3. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal tissue swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Andre; Kostiuk, Morris; Zhang, Han; Lindsay, Cameron; Makki, Fawaz; O'Connell, Daniel A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Cote, David W J; Seikaly, Hadi; Biron, Vincent L

    2017-01-14

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) caused by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is rising worldwide. HPV-OPSCC is commonly diagnosed by RT-qPCR of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins or by p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been recently reported as an ultra-sensitive and highly precise method of nucleic acid quantification for biomarker analysis. To validate the use of a minimally invasive assay for detection of oncogenic HPV based on oropharyngeal swabs using ddPCR. Secondary objectives were to compare the accuracy of ddPCR swabs to fresh tissue p16 IHC and RT-qPCR, and to compare the cost of ddPCR with p16 IHC. We prospectively included patients with p16+ oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer (OC/OPSCC), and two control groups: p16- OC/OPSCC patients, and healthy controls undergoing tonsillectomy. All underwent an oropharyngeal swab with ddPCR for quantitative detection of E6 and E7 mRNA. Surgical specimens had p16 IHC performed. Agreement between ddPCR and p16 IHC was determined for patients with p16 positive and negative OC/OPSCC as well as for healthy control patients. The sensitivity and specificity of ddPCR of oropharyngeal swabs were calculated against p16 IHC for OPSCC. 122 patients were included: 36 patients with p16+OPSCC, 16 patients with p16-OPSCC, 4 patients with p16+OCSCC, 41 patients with p16-OCSCC, and 25 healthy controls. The sensitivity and specificity of ddPCR of oropharyngeal swabs against p16 IHC were 92 and 98% respectively, using 20-50 times less RNA than that required for conventional RT-qPCR. Overall agreement between ddPCR of tissue swabs and p16 of tumor tissue was high at ĸ = 0.826 [0.662-0.989]. Oropharyngeal swabs analyzed by ddPCR is a quantitative, rapid, and effective method for minimally invasive oncogenic HPV detection. This assay represents the most sensitive and accurate mode of HPV detection in OPSCC without a tissue biopsy in the available literature.

  5. Genetic analysis of egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Nath Chatterjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to estimate the genetic parameters and to assess the inheritance pattern of egg quality traits in White Leghorns. Materials and Methods: Data on 480 eggs produced by 40 week old pullets of 4 genetic groups were used for studying egg quality traits. Heritabilities and correlations were estimated by full sib correlation method using Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood (LSMLMW computer program. Results: The egg weight, haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell weight and shell thickness ranged from 50.01 ± 0.48 to 53.89 ± 0.43 g, 65.38 ± 0.92 to 80.98 ± 1.01, 0.341 ± 0.003 to 0.353 ± 0.003, 0.056 ± 0.002 to 0.087 ± 0.002, 14.16 ± 0.13 to 15.58 ± 0.12 g, 30.92 ± 0.39 to 33.18 ± 0.39 g, 4.32 ± 0.05 to 5.12 ± 0.05 g and 0.336 ± 0.003 to 0.376 ± 0.003 mm, respectively. Heritability estimates for egg weight, yolk index, albumen index and albumen weight ranged from low to medium while those of haugh unit, yolk weight, shell weight and shell thickness ranged from low to high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg weight with other egg quality traits except shell quality traits were mostly positive and moderate to high. High positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between haugh unit and other traits were observed. Genetic correlation of yolk weight with albumen weight was positive while that with shell quality traits was mostly negative. Shell weight was positively correlated with shell thickness. Conclusion: Significant genetic group differences were observed for various egg quality traits studied. The heritability estimates for different egg quality traits were low to moderate. The association among egg quality traits was positive in general. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 263-266

  6. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina

    2014-01-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency......-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA...... detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling....

  7. Development of an ELISA for evaluation of swab recovery efficiencies of bovine serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Sparding

    Full Text Available After a potential biological incident the sampling strategy and sample analysis are crucial for the outcome of the investigation and identification. In this study, we have developed a simple sandwich ELISA based on commercial components to quantify BSA (used as a surrogate for ricin with a detection range of 1.32-80 ng/mL. We used the ELISA to evaluate different protein swabbing procedures (swabbing techniques and after-swabbing treatments for two swab types: a cotton gauze swab and a flocked nylon swab. The optimal swabbing procedure for each swab type was used to obtain recovery efficiencies from different surface materials. The surface recoveries using the optimal swabbing procedure ranged from 0-60% and were significantly higher from nonporous surfaces compared to porous surfaces. In conclusion, this study presents a swabbing procedure evaluation and a simple BSA ELISA based on commercial components, which are easy to perform in a laboratory with basic facilities. The data indicate that different swabbing procedures were optimal for each of the tested swab types, and the particular swab preference depends on the surface material to be swabbed.

  8. PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICALQUALITYOFOPAQUE, SANITIZED, AND CHILLED QUAIL EGGS EXPERIMENTALLY CONTAMINATED WITH Salmonella enteric SER. TYPHIMURIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juliana Ribeiro Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of Japanese quail eggs artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. The eggs were sanitized and stored at different temperatures (between 5 and 25 ºC for 27 days. We used 768 eggs with opaque shells, typical pigments of the species, and average weight of 11 g. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (contamination x sanitation x cooling with six replications and one egg per experimental unit. The eggs were contaminated by handling with 1.5 x 105 colony forming unit (CFU of Salmonella. Typhimurium / mL and sanitized according to the treatments with a 5 ppm Cl solution. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and t test. Bacterial contamination has damaged the egg weight, Haugh unit, yolk index and albumen, and pH of yolk and albumen, from 18 days of storage. The egg storage time and storage temperature affected the internal quality of quail eggs in all variables. The worst internal quality was observed in eggs stored at 25 ºC. The sanitation and cooling reduced the growth of Salmonella in contaminated eggs. Eggs in opaque shell, when not refrigerated, should be consumed within 18 days after laying. Keywords: opaque shell; quail eggs; Salmonella Typhimurium; sanitization; storage.

  9. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  10. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  11. Stability Studies on Dry Swabs and Wet Mailed Swabs for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Aptima Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Jeanne; Clark, Carey B; Holden, Jeffrey; Hook, Edward W; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Schachter, Julius

    2017-03-01

    The Aptima Combo 2 (AC2) and Aptima CT (ACT) (Hologic Inc., San Diego, CA) are nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) that detect Chlamydia trachomatis AC2 also detects Neisseria gonorrhoeae Storage and temperature conditions may impact the utility of NAATs in some settings and screening programs. We evaluated specimen stability for use beyond the Aptima package insert specifications for temperature and duration of storage (between 2°C and 30°C and 60 days, respectively) in two studies: (i) dry C. trachomatis-seeded swabs were used with ACT after storage at 4°C, 23°C, or 36°C for up to 84 days and (ii) swabs seeded with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae and then placed in transport medium were tested with AC2, after being mailed via the U.S. Postal Service to three different sites. Prolonged storage of samples had no effect, and samples stored at 4°C, 23°C, and 36°C for up to 84 days yielded comparable ACT positivities, although there was a drop in signal intensity for virtually all specimens under all storage/shipping conditions after day 21. In the mailing study, 80%, 52% and 29% of seeded swabs were exposed to temperatures of >30°C during three rounds in transit, and 2% reached temperatures of >40°C. No evidence of signal degradation in the AC2 assay for detection of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae was observed, although some mailed swabs took more than 5 weeks to reach the laboratory site. These two studies support the potential use of swabs at temperatures above 36°C and storage beyond 60 days and provide confidence regarding this commercially available NAAT for testing of specimens after mailing. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Spawning Coordination of Mates in a Shell Brooding Cichlid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Schütz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. External fertilisation requires synchronisation of gamete release between the two sexes. Adequate synchronisation is essential in aquatic media because sperm is very short-lived in water. In the cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, fertilisation of the eggs takes place inside an empty snail shell, where females stay inside the shell and males have to ejaculate into the shell opening. This spawning pattern makes the coordination of gamete release difficult. Methods. This study examined the synchronisation of males and females during egg laying. Results. The results showed that the male initiates each spawning sequence and that sperm release and egg laying are very well synchronised. 68% of all sperm releases occurred at exactly the same time when the female laid an egg, and 99% of ejaculations occurred within ±5 seconds from egg deposition. On average 95 eggs are laid one by one with intervals of several minutes between subsequent eggs, leading to a total spawning duration in excess of six hours. Conclusions. We discuss this exceptional spawning pattern and how it might reflect a conflict between the sexes, with males attempting to induce egg laying and females extending the egg laying period to raise the chance for parasitic males to participate in spawning.

  13. Growth of the chick area vasculosa in ovo and in shell-less culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, R; Nelson, J.; Wilson, D J

    1990-01-01

    The rates of growth and cell proliferation of the chick area vasculosa (Days 2-5 of incubation) were examined in windowed eggs and in shell-less culture preparations. For embryos of developmental Stages 15 to 23, the area vasculosa in shell-less cultures was significantly smaller than in corresponding eggs; however there was no significant difference in the radial growth between these groups. The cultivation of embryos in shell-less culture did not affect the normal macroscopic or histologica...

  14. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Prevalence of high-risk egg-preparation practices in restaurants that prepare breakfast egg entrées: an EHS-Net study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robin; Beatty, Mark E; Bogard, April K; Esko, Michael-Peter; Angulo, Frederick J; Selman, Carol

    2004-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Foods prepared with raw shell eggs have often been associated with SE outbreaks. The federal government published the Egg Safety Action Plan in December 1999 that called for reduction of egg-preparation practices that may contribute to the survival and proliferation of SE. In seven states, an interview and brief site evaluation of 153 restaurants that prepare eggs during all hours of operation was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network to determine the prevalence of such practices. Fifty-four percent (83 of 153) of restaurants pooled raw shell eggs not intended for immediate service. These pooled eggs were held a median of 4 h for scrambled eggs, 5.5 h for omelets, and 6 h for pancakes and French toast. Nearly 26% (39 of 152) of restaurants reported storing eggs at room temperature, and 5% (7 of 152) stored eggs on ice or in cold-water baths before cooking. Generally, eggs were cooked to 72 to 83 degrees C, which is above the recommended final cook temperature of 63 to 68 degrees C. Employees reported sanitizing utensils used to prepare eggs less than once every 4 h in 42% (57 of 136) of restaurants. Several areas were identified in which further emphasis might reduce egg-associated SE infections in accordance with Healthy People 2010 goals.

  16. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P < 0.001). The amount of cuticle present did not differ between densities (P = 0.95) but some aspects of shell colors (P ≤ 0.01) and location of protoporphyrin IX (P = 0.046) varied. Hen age affected the majority of measurements. Stocking density differences may be related to hen diet as previous radio-frequency identification tracking of individual hens in these flocks showed birds used the range for longer in the lowest density and the least in the highest density, including depleting the range of vegetation sooner in the smaller ranges. An additional study assessing the relationship between individual hen range use, nutrition, and egg

  17. Omega-3 chicken egg detection system using a mobile-based image processing segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Oky Dwi; Kurniawan Teguh, M.; Cintya Amalia, P.

    2017-02-01

    An Omega-3 chicken egg is a chicken egg produced through food engineering technology. It is produced by hen fed with high omega-3 fatty acids. So, it has fifteen times nutrient content of omega-3 higher than Leghorn's. Visually, its shell has the same shape and colour as Leghorn's. Each egg can be distinguished by breaking the egg's shell and testing the egg yolk's nutrient content in a laboratory. But, those methods were proven not effective and efficient. Observing this problem, the purpose of this research is to make an application to detect the type of omega-3 chicken egg by using a mobile-based computer vision. This application was built in OpenCV computer vision library to support Android Operating System. This experiment required some chicken egg images taken using an egg candling box. We used 60 omega-3 chicken and Leghorn eggs as samples. Then, using an Android smartphone, image acquisition of the egg was obtained. After that, we applied several steps using image processing methods such as Grab Cut, convert RGB image to eight bit grayscale, median filter, P-Tile segmentation, and morphology technique in this research. The next steps were feature extraction which was used to extract feature values via mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis from each image. Finally, using digital image measurement, some chicken egg images were classified. The result showed that omega-3 chicken egg and Leghorn egg had different values. This system is able to provide accurate reading around of 91%.

  18. A possible chelonian egg from the Brazilian late cretaceous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZEVEDO SERGIO ALEX

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a possible fossil egg proceeding from the Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of Paraná Basin, Brazil. External morphology, dimensions, texture and shell ornamentation examined under electron microscopy show close resemblance to the Recent podocnemidid chelonian eggs. Association with bony material in the outcrop suggests that it is related to a species of Podocnemis. Computerized tomography reveals a high density outer region corresponding to the shell component layers, and successive layers with decreasing density towards the nucleus. An area of high density in the central region may represent remains of an embryo.

  19. Egg laying strategies and effect of temperature on egg development of Argulus siamensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Hemaprasanth; Kar, Banya; Mohanty, Bikash Ranjan; Garnayak, Sushil Kumar; Jena, Joy Krushna

    2013-10-01

    Argulus siamensis is the most damaging fish parasite prevalent in the freshwater aquaculture systems of India. In an attempt to further understand the behavior of this economically important parasite, the means of biological transmission, egg laying strategies and effect of temperature on development of eggs was studied. A. siamensis showed opportunistic egg laying behavior where in it used both living and non-living substrata for egg laying. It was marked that the parasites used the shells of freshwater snails of the family Viviparidae, the runners of the water weeds of genus Nymphoides and dead fish in the culture ponds for laying of eggs. This study confirmed that the maximum eggs were laid by the parasite in the habitat usage zone of the host fish. The optimum temperature for development of the eggs of A. siamensis into the infective naupliar stage and hatching was found to be 28 °C. These new insights into the behavior of A. siamensis would be helpful to devise biological control methods against the parasite.

  20. Egg Quality Traits and their Repeatability Estimates in High and Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg Quality Traits and their Repeatability Estimates in High and Low Body Weight Lines of Crossbred normal Feather, Naked Neck and Frizzle Chicken. ... Shell thickness was not significantly different in both body weight lines, while yolk index ...

  1. Experimental comparison of excision and swabbing microbiological sampling methods for carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperell, Richard; Reid, Carol-Ann; Solano, Silvia Nicolau; Hutchison, Michael L; Walters, Lisa D; Johnston, Alexander M; Buncic, Sava

    2005-10-01

    Bovine sides, ovine carcasses, and porcine carcasses were individually inoculated by dipping in various suspensions of a marker organism (Escherichia coli K-12 or Pseudomonas fluorescens), alone or in combination with two meat-derived bacterial strains, and were sampled by two standard methods: cotton wet-dry swabbing and excision. The samples were examined for bacterial counts on plate count agar (PCA plate counts) and on violet red brilliant green agar (VRBGA plate counts) by standard International Organization for Standardization methods. Average bacterial recoveries by swabbing, expressed as a percentage of the appropriate recoveries achieved by excision, varied widely (2 to 100%). Several factors that potentially contributed to relatively low and highly variable bacterial recoveries obtained by swabbing were investigated in separate experiments. Neither the difference in size of the swabbed area (10, 50, or 100 cm2 on beef carcasses) nor the difference in time of swabbing (20 or 60 min after inoculation of pig carcasses) had a significant effect on the swabbing recoveries of the marker organism used. In an experiment with swabs preinoculated with the marker organism and then used for carcass swabbing, on average, 12% of total bacterial load was transferred inversely (i.e., from the swab to the carcass during the standard swabbing procedure). In another experiment, on average, 14% of total bacterial load was not released from the swab into the diluent during standard swab homogenization. Use of custom-made swabs with abrasive butts, around which metal pieces of pan scourers were wound, markedly increased PCA plate count recoveries from noninoculated lamb carcasses at commercial abattoirs compared with cotton swabs. In spite of the observed inferiority of the cotton wet-dry swabbing method compared with the excision method for bacterial recovery, the former is clearly preferred by the meat industry because it does not damage the carcass. Therefore, further large

  2. Evidence of Egg Diversity in Squamate Evolution from Cretaceous Anguimorph Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fernandez

    Full Text Available Lizards are remarkable amongst amniotes, for they display a unique mosaic of reproduction modes ranging from egg-laying to live-bearing. Within this patchwork, geckoes are believed to represent the only group to ever have produced fully calcified rigid-shelled eggs, contrasting with the ubiquitous parchment shelled-eggs observed in other lineages. However, this hypothesis relies only on observations of modern taxa and fossilised gecko-like eggshells which have never been found in association with any embryonic or parental remains. We report here the first attested fossil eggs of lizards from the Early Cretaceous of Thailand, combining hard eggshells with exquisitely preserved embryos of anguimoph (e.g. Komodo dragons, mosasaurs. These fossils shed light on an apparently rare reproduction strategy of squamates, demonstrate that the evolution of rigid-shelled eggs are not an exclusive specialization of geckoes, and suggest a high plasticity in the reproductive organs mineralizing eggshells.

  3. (shell) nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equations for the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by particles with spherical or cylindrical symmetry. Aden and Kerker have published complete details of scattering from concentric spherical shells in 1951 [28]. In Mie theory, the harmonically oscillating electromagnetic fields are expressed in terms of a set of spherical ...

  4. Effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin deposition in the whole egg of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin concentrations in the eggs of commercial laying hens. A total of 1,800 25-week-old Lohman pink-shell hens were randomly assigned to four dietary vitamin treatments as follows: NRC(1994 level, NRC (1994 level with Hy.D® (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Local level (current average industry level in China and OVN® level (optimum vitamin nutrition level, with 10 replicates per treatment and 45 layers per replicate. Hens were housed in commercial laying cages with three birds per cage and given ad libitum access to feed. Results showed the hens that received the fortified vitamin levels in the OVN® treatment had a significantly (p<0.05 lower number of cracked (.47% and dirty eggs (.27%, and increased egg deposition of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, 25-OH-D3, vitamin E, vitamin B1, biotin and pantothenate (p<0.05. Treatments had no significant effect on egg-shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh units and eggshell thickness. Hens fed the NRC-Hy.D® combination also experienced a significant decrease in cracked and dirty eggs (.70% and .44%, respectively and an increased deposition of 25-OH-D3 in comparison with the NRC treatment. Results of the present study suggest that that the Local treatment was able to improve egg quality parameters of laying hens, but resulted in more cracked and dirty eggs. OVN® reduced the number of cracked eggs and dirty eggs, and improved the deposition of several vitamins in eggs. With the addition of Hy.D®, eggshell strength and 25-OH-D3 deposition in eggs were also improved, and cracked and dirty egg rates declined.

  5. Effect of dietary fermented mushroom bed on egg production in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shu; Mitani, Hiroaki; Kamata, Masato; Ohtsuka, Akira; Otomaru, Konosuke; Obi, Takeshi; Kanouchi, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Egg productivity is declined by stress. It has been reported that some food supplements can improve the egg productivity due to a reduction of environmental stress. We evaluated the effect of fermented waste mushroom bed (FWMB) as a dietary additive on egg productivity. Hens were fed control food (control group, n = 100) or 3% FWMB-added food (FWMB group, n = 100) for 16 months. The number of eggs, soft-shelled eggs, and broken eggs were recorded for 15 months. We also evaluated stress-related markers (ovotransferrin, lipid peroxide, and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). The FWMB group had slightly increased egg production compared with control hens. The FWMB group produced significantly less broken and soft-shelled eggs than the control group. All stress-related markers were significantly lower in the FWMB group than in the control group. Gut flora was also affected by FWMB feeding. The increased egg production and decreased proportion of broken and soft-shelled eggs might be related to the prevention of stressful conditions by FWMB.

  6. Detecting and quantifying influenza virus with self- versus investigator-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Andrea; Quach, Susan; McGeer, Allison; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2017-07-01

    We compared pairs of self- and investigator-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs to detect and quantify influenza viral loads. We used RNase P, which reflects presence of human cells to determine adequate sample collection. Sixteen pairs of influenza-positive swabs and 25 pairs of influenza-negative swabs were included in this study. The median influenza A viral loads for self- and investigator-collected swabs were 1.68 and 1.67 log10 copies/mL, respectively (P = 0.96). RNase P loads were also similar between self- and investigator-collected swabs (P = 0.51). Self-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs yield comparable viral loads to investigator-collected swabs, and therefore might be considered for research and clinical management. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Innovating portuguese traditional pastry – on the use of pasteurised egg yolk in “ovos moles”

    OpenAIRE

    Fundo, J.; Quintas, M.; Brandão, T. R. S.; Silva, C L M

    2006-01-01

    “Ovos moles” is a renowned traditional Portuguese sweet that is confectioned with egg yolk, sugar and water. In this work a safer and easier to manipulate raw material - pasteurised liquid egg yolk - is proposed to substitute the intact shell eggs used in traditional “ovos moles” production. Due to previous heat treatment, pasteurised liquid egg yolk presents different sensorial, nutritional and physical properties. These changes may alter the final product’s characteristics. In order to deve...

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN MEAT, MILK AND EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological tests are widely used to detect antibiotic residues in the meat, milk and eggs for better care of the quality and health safety. In the present study microbiological inhibition test i.e. Swab Test on Animal Food (STAF was developed indigenously for screening of animal foods for presence of antibiotic residues. In this test local isolated culture of Bacillus subtilis was used as a test microorganism due to its high sensitivity to detect a wide range of antibiotics commonly used in animal disorders. The concentration of spore suspension of Bacillus subtilis JS2004 used in the formation of STAF plate was optimized at 2x107 spores/ ml. At this concentration, inhibition zone around Neomycin control disc was 10-16 mm. Nutrient agar was used as a medium in spore suspension and 0.4% dextrose was added as a constituent of medium. Zones of inhibition around swab samples and Neomycin control disc were observed and the diameter was measured. All swab samples showing a minimum of 2 mm wide inhibition zone around them were considered as positive for presence of antibiotic residues. The swab samples showing no zone of inhibition or a zone measuring less than 2 mm were considered as negative. Results of application of STAF test was on animal food samples revealed the high incidence of antibiotic residues.

  9. The effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability of quail eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Oguz Fatih; Yamak, Umut Sami

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the successful incubation period is to achieve maximum health chicks in each batch. Therefore, all factors affecting incubation have to be investigated in detail. This study investigated the effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability of quail eggs. A total of 1415 eggs were collected from the same flock at the ages of 23 and 41 weeks. Two different incubations were performed at these eggs. Eggshell thicknesses of all eggs were determined with an ultrasonic gauge before incubation. Incubation period was applied as for 18 days. After 15 days of incubation, eggs were transferred to hatching machine. Eggs were classified as thin-, medium-, and thick-shelled according to eggshell thickness values. Eggshell thicknesses were ranged between 0.24 and 0.36 mm, and the differences between the hatching rates of thickness values were not found significant. Hatchability of thin-, medium-, and thick-shelled eggs was found as 69.2%, 69.4%, and 82.4% for Experiment 1. These values were as 87.8%, 89.2%, and 91.9% for Experiment 2, respectively. Similar to eggshell thickness frequencies, the differences between hatching rates of eggshell thickness groups were found insignificant. Results of this study showed that eggshell thickness does not affect hatchability.

  10. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  11. Shell worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from table eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table eggs are nutritionally important food consumed globally. Despite being protected inside the hard shell and a semi-permeable membrane, the egg contents may be contaminated with microbes and thus become a possible carrier of infectious agents to humans. A number of medically significant bacteria...

  13. Modified pressure system for imaging egg cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kurt C.; Yoon, Seung Chul; Jones, Deana R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.

    2008-04-01

    One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders are having difficulty matching the pace of the machines. Additionally, some plants also have a problem with micro-cracks that the graders often miss because they are very small and hard to see immediately post-processing but grow and become readily apparent before they reach market. An imaging system was developed to help the grader detect these small micro-cracks. The imaging system utilized one image captured at atmospheric pressure and a second at a slight negative pressure to enhance the crack and make detection much easier. A simple image processing algorithm was then applied to the ratio of these two images and the resulting image, containing both cracked and/or intact eggs were color-coded to simplify identification. The imaging system was capable of imaging 15 eggs in about 3/4 second and the algorithm processing took about another 10 seconds. These times could easily be reduced with a dedicated, multi-threaded computer program. In analyzing 1000 eggs, the system was 99.6% accurate overall with only 0.3% false positives compared to 94.2% accurate overall for the human graders with 1.2% false positives. An international patent on the system was filed and further automation of the system is needed.

  14. Duration of Loxosceles reclusa Venom Detection by ELISA from Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGLASSON, DAVID L; GREEN, JONATHON A; STOECKER, WILLIAM V; BABCOCK, JAMES L; CALCARA, DAVID A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diagnosis of Loxosceles reclusa envenomations is currently based upon clinical presentation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can detect surface Loxosceles venom at the envenomation site, allowing diagnostic confirmation. The length of time that venom on the skin is recoverable non-invasively is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS To investigate duration of recoverable venom antigen, whole venom and fractionated sphingomyelinase D venom aliquots were injected subcutaneously in New Zealand White rabbits. Cotton and Dacron swabs were compared for venom recovery over a 21-day period using a surface swab technique. RESULTS Significant amounts of Loxosceles reclusa antigen were found on the surface of rabbit skin after experimental injection of whole venom and sphingomyelinase D. The duration of recoverable antigen using this experimental model appears to be at least two weeks and as long as 21 days in some cases. CONCLUSIONS Because the duration of the recoverable antigen is seen to be at least two weeks, the ELISA venom test appears capable of detecting venom on most patients presenting with Loxosceles envenomations. This detection system will allow the physician more accurate determination of whether the lesion is from a brown recluse spider or some other agent that can cause this type of necrotic ulcer. PMID:19967916

  15. Duration of Loxosceles reclusa venom detection by ELISA from swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, David L; Green, Jonathon A; Stoecker, William V; Babcock, James L; Calcara, David A

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of Loxosceles reclusa envenomations is currently based upon clinical presentation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can detect surface Loxosceles venom at the envenomation site, allowing diagnostic confirmation. The length of time that venom on the skin is recoverable non-invasively is unknown. To investigate duration of recoverable venom antigen, whole venom and fractionated sphingomyelinase D venom aliquots were injected subcutaneously in New Zealand White rabbits. Cotton and Dacron swabs were compared for venom recovery over a 21-day period using a surface swab technique. Significant amounts of Loxosceles reclusa antigen were found on the surface of rabbit skin after experimental injection of whole venom and sphingomyelinase D. The duration of recoverable antigen using this experimental model appears to be at least two weeks and as long as 21 days in some cases. Because the duration of the recoverable antigen is seen to be at least two weeks, the ELISA venom test appears capable of detecting venom on most patients presenting with Loxosceles envenomations. This detection system will allow the physician more accurate determination of whether the lesion is from a brown recluse spider or some other agent that can cause this type of necrotic ulcer.

  16. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shape index and eggshell weight did not differ among treatments. Eggshell thickness and eggshell breaking strength were higher in hens fed with MBM as compared to control and OSM fed birds. Similar to the tendency in shell quality, MBM inclusion in the diet tended to enhance albumen height and Haugh unit.

  17. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  18. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  19. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  20. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  1. A comparison of DNA collection and retrieval from two swab types (cotton and nylon flocked swab) when processed using three QIAGEN extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Robert J; Dagnall, Kathryn E; Ames, Carole E

    2012-05-01

    The Metropolitan Police Service currently uses cotton swabs to retrieve DNA for forensic profiling. Recently, a new nylon flocked swab type has become available from Copan (MicroRheologics, Brescia, Italy) that it is claimed, offers increased sample recovery and release yields. If true, the flocked swab may have important applications in DNA evidence retrieval. This study examines the DNA retrieval capability of cotton and nylon flocked swabs when extracted using three common extraction platforms (QIAcube, BioRobot EZ1 and manually processed QIAamp DNA investigator kit). Results indicate that both swab types are capable of recovering high percentages of DNA (>50%); however, the extraction platform selected was shown to have a significant effect upon DNA retrieval. Across all experiments, the cotton swab combined with the spin-column extractions was shown to be most effective, with the nylon swab and BioRobot EZ1 combination being the least effective. These findings illustrate the importance of extraction method selection. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. PE-Swab Direct STR Amplification of Forensic Touch DNA Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason Y

    2015-05-01

    The PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow was developed to process low-level "touch DNA" samples. In this workflow, a forensic sample is first collected on a 4-mm PE-Swab (a novel sample collection device); two 2-mm punches containing collected samples are then generated from the PE-Swab and directly amplified for STR typing. Compared to the conventional STR workflow, which involves DNA extraction, purification, and elution volume reduction, the PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow does not require sample preparation and takes DNA loss due to sample preparation, the PE-Swab workflow is more sensitive than the conventional STR workflow. The average peak height per sample obtained by the PE-swab workflow is 3 times higher than that from the conventional workflow with both low-level single source and two-contributor mixture samples tested in this study. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Actinomyces hominis sp. nov., isolated from a wound swab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Guido; Englert, Ralf; Frodl, Reinhard; Bernard, Kathryn A; Stenger, Steffen

    2010-07-01

    A coryneform bacterium (strain 1094(T)) was isolated from a wound swab taken from an 89-year-old female patient. Chemotaxonomic investigations suggested that this bacterium was related to the genera Actinomyces, Arcanobacterium and Actinobaculum. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 1094(T) was most closely related to Actinomyces europaeus CCUG 32789 A(T) (94.3 % similarity). Phenotypically, the isolate could be separated from its closest phylogenetic neighbours on the basis of being positive for catalase, CAMP reaction, acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and raffinose fermentation. Based on the data presented, it is proposed that strain 1094(T) should be classified in a novel species, Actinomyces hominis sp. nov. The type strain is 1094(T) (=CCUG 57540(T) =DSM 22168(T)).

  4. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  5. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  6. A study on eggshell pigmentation: biliverdin in blue-shelled chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Xu, G Y; Liu, Z Z; Li, J Y; Yang, N

    2006-03-01

    Biliverdin is an important pigment in the eggshell of chickens and other avian species. Determination of the biosynthesis site for biliverdin is essential for understanding the biochemical process and genetic basis of eggshell pigmentation. Either blood or the shell gland could be the biosynthesis site of eggshell biliverdin. A segregation population with full-sib sisters genotyped Oo and oo, which laid blue-shelled eggs and light brown eggs, respectively, was constructed in a native Chinese chicken breed. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC were used to determine the biliverdin concentration in eggshells, blood, bile, excreta, and shell gland of both groups of chickens. Biliverdin content was significantly different between egg shells of blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens (P < 0.01). Blood and bile were tested 3 to 4 h before oviposition, and excreta was tested randomly. Results showed no significant difference in biliverdin concentration in blood, bile, and excreta between the 2 groups. In the shell gland, the biliverdin contents for the blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens were 8.25 +/- 2.55 and 1.29 +/- 0.12 nmol/g, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that blood is not the biosynthesis site of the shell biliverdin. Biliverdin is most likely synthesized in the shell gland and then deposited onto the eggshell of chickens.

  7. Nutritional Quality of Eggs of Amberlink and Hyline Layers Fed on Different Levels of Provitamin A-Biofortified Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GW Zeina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was conducted to determine the interaction of types of maize (Provitamin A-biofortified maize (PABM versus white maize and strain of laying birds (Amberlink and Hyline on nutritional quality of eggs. Twenty-one of each of Amberlink and Hyline laying hens were fed on three diets for 30 days. Birds were distributed in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement constituting three diets (0, 50 or 100 % of PABM and two strains (Amberlink & Hyline. There was a diet × strain interaction on egg shell weight, average daily feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg shell thickness. Eggs produced by layers under 100 % PABM had lighter eggshell weight and lower eggshell percentage. In contrast, eggs produced by layers under 50 % PABM diet had signi-ficantly higher eggshell percentage, heavier egg shell weight and thicker eggshell. As the level of PABM increased, the yellow and red hue (Hunter a* and b* values significantly increased while the lightness values (Hunter L* values decreased. As the level of PABM in the ration increased, the vitamin A content of the egg yolk also significantly increased. Assimilation of vitamin A from feed to egg yolk in Amberlink and Hyline hens was similar. Hence, egg enrichment with vitamin A can be achieved by using PABM in layers ration. The use of high level of PABM had a negative effect on the eggshell quality traits.

  8. Effect of lingual gauze swab placement on pulse oximeter readings in anaesthetised dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, A; Martinez-Taboada, F; Nitzan, M

    2017-01-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lingual gauze swab placement on pulse oximeter readings in anaesthetised dogs and cats. Following anaesthetic induction, the following pulse oximeter probe configurations were performed: no gauze swab (control), placement of a gauze swab between the tongue and the probe, placement of different thicknesses of gauze swab, placement of red cotton fabric, placement of a sheet of white paper and placement of the probe and gauze swab on different locations on the tongue. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) and peripheral perfusion index (PI) were recorded. Placement of a gauze swab between the pulse oximeter probe and the tongue in anaesthetised dogs and cats resulted in significantly higher SpO2 values compared with the control group. In dogs, PI values were significantly higher than the control in all groups except the quarter thickness swab group. In cats, PI was significantly higher in the double thickness swab and white paper groups compared with the control. Cats had significantly higher SpO2 and lower PI values than dogs. The authors propose that increased contact pressure is responsible for significantly higher SpO2 and PI readings with the use of a lingual gauze swab resulting from changes in transmural pressure and arterial compliance. British Veterinary Association.

  9. A Comparison of Dacron versus Flocked Nylon Swabs for Anal Cytology Specimen Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C.; Ghosh, Arpita; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Follansbee, Stephen; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Gravitt, Patti E.; Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We compared the performance of commonly used Dacron versus flocked nylon swabs for anal cytology. Study Design From 23 HIV-positive men screened at Kaiser Permanente San Francisco (San Francisco, Calif., USA), 2 anal specimens were collected, 1 with each swab in random order, and placed into liquid cytology medium. Specimens were tested for cellularity by quantifying a genomic DNA (erv-3). The number of cells was assessed from prepared slides by automated image analysis. Performance was compared between swabs using 2-sample t tests and standard crossover trial analysis methods accounting for period effect. Results Flocked swabs collected slightly more erv-3 cells than Dacron for the first sample although not significantly (p = 0.18) and a similar number of erv-3 cells for the second sample (p = 0.85). Flocked swabs collected slightly more cells per slide than the Dacron swabs at both time periods although this was only significant in the second time period (p = 0.42 and 0.03 for first and second periods, respectively). In crossover trial analysis, flocked swabs outperformed Dacron for cell count per slide based on slide imaging (p = 0.03), but Dacron and flocked swabs performed similarly based on erv-3 quantification (p = 0.14). Conclusions Further studies should determine whether flocked swabs increase the representation of diagnostically important cells compared to Dacron. PMID:21791907

  10. Equivalence of self- and staff-collected nasal swabs for the detection of viral respiratory pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas K Akmatov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for the timely collection of diagnostic biosamples during symptomatic episodes represents a major obstacle to large-scale studies on acute respiratory infection (ARI epidemiology. This may be circumvented by having the participants collect their own nasal swabs. We compared self- and staff-collected swabs in terms of swabbing quality and detection of viral respiratory pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective study among employees of our institution during the ARI season 2010/2011 (December-March. Weekly emails were sent to the participants (n = 84, reminding them to come to the study center in case of new symptoms. The participants self-collected an anterior nasal swab from one nostril, and trained study personnel collected one from the other nostril. The participants self-collected another two swabs (one from each nostril on a subsequent day. Human β-actin DNA concentration was determined in the swabs as a quality control. Viral respiratory pathogens were detected by multiplex RT-PCR (Seeplex RV15 kit, Seegene, Eschborn, Germany. Of 84 participants, 56 (67% reported at least one ARI episode, 18 participants two, and one participant three. Self-swabbing was highly accepted by the participants. The amount of β-actin DNA per swab was higher in the self- than in the staff-collected swabs (p = 0.008. β-actin concentration was lower in the self-swabs collected on day 1 than in those collected on a subsequent day (p<0.0001. A respiratory viral pathogen was detected in 31% (23/75 of staff- and in 35% (26/75 of self-collected swabs (p = 0.36. With both approaches, the most frequently identified pathogens were human rhinoviruses A/B/C (12/75 swabs, 16% and human coronavirus OC43 (4/75 swabs, 5%. There was almost perfect agreement between self- and staff-collected swabs in terms of pathogen detection (agreement = 93%, kappa = 0.85, p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nasal self-swabbing

  11. Equivalence of self- and staff-collected nasal swabs for the detection of viral respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmatov, Manas K; Gatzemeier, Anja; Schughart, Klaus; Pessler, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The need for the timely collection of diagnostic biosamples during symptomatic episodes represents a major obstacle to large-scale studies on acute respiratory infection (ARI) epidemiology. This may be circumvented by having the participants collect their own nasal swabs. We compared self- and staff-collected swabs in terms of swabbing quality and detection of viral respiratory pathogens. We conducted a prospective study among employees of our institution during the ARI season 2010/2011 (December-March). Weekly emails were sent to the participants (n = 84), reminding them to come to the study center in case of new symptoms. The participants self-collected an anterior nasal swab from one nostril, and trained study personnel collected one from the other nostril. The participants self-collected another two swabs (one from each nostril) on a subsequent day. Human β-actin DNA concentration was determined in the swabs as a quality control. Viral respiratory pathogens were detected by multiplex RT-PCR (Seeplex RV15 kit, Seegene, Eschborn, Germany). Of 84 participants, 56 (67%) reported at least one ARI episode, 18 participants two, and one participant three. Self-swabbing was highly accepted by the participants. The amount of β-actin DNA per swab was higher in the self- than in the staff-collected swabs (p = 0.008). β-actin concentration was lower in the self-swabs collected on day 1 than in those collected on a subsequent day (p<0.0001). A respiratory viral pathogen was detected in 31% (23/75) of staff- and in 35% (26/75) of self-collected swabs (p = 0.36). With both approaches, the most frequently identified pathogens were human rhinoviruses A/B/C (12/75 swabs, 16%) and human coronavirus OC43 (4/75 swabs, 5%). There was almost perfect agreement between self- and staff-collected swabs in terms of pathogen detection (agreement = 93%, kappa = 0.85, p<0.0001). Nasal self-swabbing for identification of viral ARI pathogens proved to be equivalent to

  12. The Effect Of Age Of Bird On Shell Quality And Component Yield Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect or age of birds on shell quality and yield components of egg was studied. The birds' age were 25, 30, 58 or. 78 weeks. The eggs' weight increased by 9.92%, 26.43% and 31.46% for birds at 30, 58 and 78 weeks, respectively. While the shell weight was found to increase by 15.10, 34.55 and 30.44% for birds at 30, ...

  13. Comparison of HMOX1 expression and enzyme activity in blue-shelled chickens and brown-shelled chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhePeng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blue egg coloring is attributed to biliverdin derived from the oxidative degradation of heme through catalysis by heme oxygenase (HO. The pigment is secreted into the eggshell by the shell gland. There is uncertainty as to whether the pigment is synthesized in the shell gland or in other tissues. To investigate the site of pigment biosynthesis, the expression of heme oxygenase (decycling 1 (HMOX1, a gene encoding HO, and HO activity in liver and spleen were compared between blue-shelled chickens (n=12 and brown-shelled chickens (n=12. There were no significant differences in HMOX1 expression and HO activity in these tissues between the two groups. Since the liver and spleen, two important sites outside the shell gland where heme is degraded into biliverdin, CO and Fe2+, did not differ in HO expression and activity we conclude that the pigment is most likely synthesized in the shell gland.

  14. Quality traits of eggs from autosexing Easter eggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lukanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main egg quality traits were investigated in two autosexing F1 Easter egger crosses. Partridge Araucana roosters were used as carriers of the eggshell biliverdin pigmentation gene. Maternal forms used for obtaining the two experimental crosses were high-producing layer hens carrying the sex-linked S and B genes. Experimental groups comprised F1 crosses of partridge Araucana roosters with white mutational Rhode Island hens or hens with barred colour mutation. The aim of the study was to investigated the quality traits of blue-green eggs produced by autosexing hens. The egg quality was evaluated at 38 weeks of age. Studied traits comprised egg weight (g, shape index, albumen index (AI, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, yolk colour (Roche scale, 2 2 percentages of albumen, yolk and eggshell (%, eggshell surface (cm , eggshell density (mg/cm , average eggshell thickness (µm and eggshell colour. The group W was outlined with the highest egg weight – 61.03±0.47 g, and group A – with the lowest (50.91±0.32 g. The albumen and yolk quality was the best in group A, where albumen index was 0.075±0.002, Haugh units – 76.53±0.8 and yolk index – 0.491±0.009. The analysis of eggshell colour showed that eggs of group A were with the highest lightness (L* value (73.60±0.77, whereas eggs of groups W and AW had egg lightness of 60.45±0.53 and 61.11±0.55 (p<0.001 respectively. The shell colour index (SCI demonstrated a certain overlap of values in eggs with protoporphyrin and biliverdin taints. After introduction of a correction coefficient and recalculation of SCI*, the values of green eggs assumed a negative sign and could be distinguished from brown eggs.

  15. VARIABILITY, HERITABILITY AND CORRELATIONS OF EGG SHAPE IN THE ZATORSKA GOOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej RABSZTYN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was aimed at the evaluation of inheritance of goose egg measurements, egg shape indices and egg weight as well as the relationship between these traits. The research was carried out in the flock of the Zatorska geese, belonging to the FAO registered genetic resources of poultry. Seven hundred sixty-one eggs from pedigree bred geese in their first to fourth reproduction seasons were included in the analysis. Average egg shape index was 68.8%, average shell surface area was 140.6 cm2. Egg weight of geese in different age was 165 g. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations estimated between the analysed traits of goose egg are presented.

  16. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  17. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...

  18. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  19. Water-vapor conductance of testudinian and crocodilian eggs (class reptilia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, G C; Taigen, T L; Packard, M J; Shuman, R D

    1979-09-01

    Flexible-shelled eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) have conductances to water vapor that are 55 times higher than predicted for avian eggs of similar size, whereas rigid-shelled eggs of softshell turtles (Trionyx spiniferus) and American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) have conductances that are only five times higher than expected for comparable eggs of birds. The differences between empirical and predicted values result from the much higher effective pore areas in reptilian eggshells than in those of birds. The relatively high porosities of these reptilian eggs presumably facilitate the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide eggshells in later stages of incubation when air trapped inside nest chambers may become hypoxic and hypercapnic, yet seem not to lead to excessive transpiration of water vapor owing to the high humidities in nests where incubation occurs.

  20. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG CHARACTERISTICS OF PULLETS AND SPENT LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. YASMEEN, S. MAHMOOD1, M. HASSAN, N. AKHTAR AND M. YASEEN2

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Production performance and egg quality characteristics of pullets and spent layers were compared in this study. Forty birds, each from the flocks of pullets (24 weeks old and spent layers (76 weeks old were selected as experimental birds. The birds from each age group were divided into five replicates, each comprising of eight birds. All the experimental birds were fed a commercial layer ration @ 110g/bird/day for 12 weeks. The data on egg production, feed consumption, egg weight and egg quality characteristics viz. shell thickness, shell weight, breaking strength, albumen diameter, albumen weight and yolk weight were recorded. The data thus collected were utilized for calculation of FCR, Haugh unit and yolk index values. The results revealed that pullets produced more eggs and utilized their feed more efficiently than spent layers. However, egg weight in spent layers was higher than in their counterparts. Pullets also produced eggs with thicker shell and higher Haugh unit values when compared to the spent layers. Feed consumption and yolk index values remained unaffected due to the age. Pullets also had better egg quality characteristics than those of spent layers.

  1. Revised SWAB guidelines for antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, JA; Prins, JM; Bonten, MJ; Degener, J; Janknegt, RE; Hollander, JMR; Jonkers, RE; Wijnands, WJ; Verheij, TJ; Sachs, APE; Kullberg, BJ

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (SWAB) develops evidence-based guidelines, aimed at optimalisation of antibiotic use and limitation of the spread of antimicrobial resistance. A revision of the SWAB guideline for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), published in 1998, was

  2. A simplified field protocol for genetic sampling of birds using buccal swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.; McDearman, Will; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    DNA sampling is an essential prerequisite for conducting population genetic studies. For many years, blood sampling has been the preferred method for obtaining DNA in birds because of their nucleated red blood cells. Nonetheless, use of buccal swabs has been gaining favor because they are less invasive yet still yield adequate amounts of DNA for amplifying mitochondrial and nuclear markers; however, buccal swab protocols often include steps (e.g., extended air-drying and storage under frozen conditions) not easily adapted to field settings. Furthermore, commercial extraction kits and swabs for buccal sampling can be expensive for large population studies. We therefore developed an efficient, cost-effective, and field-friendly protocol for sampling wild birds after comparing DNA yield among 3 inexpensive buccal swab types (2 with foam tips and 1 with a cotton tip). Extraction and amplification success was high (100% and 97.2% respectively) using inexpensive generic swabs. We found foam-tipped swabs provided higher DNA yields than cotton-tipped swabs. We further determined that omitting a drying step and storing swabs in Longmire buffer increased efficiency in the field while still yielding sufficient amounts of DNA for detailed population genetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. This new field protocol allows time- and cost-effective DNA sampling of juveniles or small-bodied birds for which drawing blood may cause excessive stress to birds and technicians alike.

  3. The effect of foeniculum vulgare essence on production performance, egg quality and reproductive parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Taki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fennel essence on performance, egg quality and ovarian morphology of commercial laying eggs for ten weeks. In this experiment, one hundred and forty 30-wk-old commercial egg laying type Hy-Line (W36 were randomly assigned into 4 treatments with 5 replicates and 8 birds per each. Treatments were a control (0.0% essence and diets containing 200, 400 and 600 ppm fennel essence. Performance parameters include egg weight and egg production was recorded daily and feed intake, FCR and egg quality parameters were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, 2 birds of each replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered for analysis of ovarian morphology. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Different levels of fennel essence no significant effect on egg production. Levels of 200 and 400 ppm of fennel essence showed a significant increase in egg weight. Levels of fennel essence had no significant effect on feed intake and FCR but it caused significant increase in yolk color and had significant effect on the properties of egg shell. Levels of essence had no significant effect on the relative weight of the ovary, oviduct and stroma but 200 ppm of fennel essence had significant effect on weight of large yellow follicles. The results showed that the addition of fennel essence improved egg weight, egg shell and yolk color and had a significant effect on the large yellow follicles.

  4. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  5. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study dietary boron at different doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg feed) was supplemented to layers from 4 to 64 weeks of age. There was no significant difference between treatments with respect of mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and cracked eggs. Significant increases were observed in body ...

  6. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality traits for each variety were also determined. Mean egg weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Brown variety (10.53g) than in the Black and White varieties. Likewise the Brown variety was significantly higher (P<0.05) in egg width, yolk weight, yolk ...

  7. Effects of organic mineral dietary supplementation on production performance and egg quality of white layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIM Fernandes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed at evaluating the effect of organic trace mineral supplementation of commercial layer diets on productive performance and egg quality. One-hundred-ninety-two Hy Line W36 white 69-w-old layers were distributed into a completely randomized design with three treatments, and eight replicates, with eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (R1, and two others experimental diets containing 0.250 ppm (R2 and 0.500 ppm (R3 of an organic source of zinc, manganese, and selenium. Feed intake (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and kg/kg egg, egg weight (g, egg production (%, thin and cracked eggshells (%, specific gravity (g/mL, Haugh Units, total egg solids (%, yolk yield, white and shell yields (%, eggshell thickness, and egg Se content were evaluated Tukey's test analyzed differences among means at 5% of probability using PROC GLM in SAS (2000. Although not significant as compared to the non-supplemented diet, improvements on relative cracked-plus-thin shells were observed with the use of organic mineral blend. The addition of the organic blend to the diet at 0.250 kg/ton resulted in (p<0.05 higher total egg solids. Also, as compared to eggs from control group, fresh and dried yolk yields were higher with the dietary inclusion of the organic mineral blend at 0.250 and 0.500 kg/ton.

  8. Effects of nanocalcium carbonate on egg production performance and plasma calcium of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjigohari, S; Ziaei, N; Ramzani Ghara, A; Tasharrofi, S

    2017-04-27

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nanocalcium carbonate (NCC) instead of calcium carbonate (CC) on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, blood calcium and egg quality characteristics in laying hens. A total of 120 laying hens were used in a 10-weeks trial, from week 23 to 33 of age. Laying hens were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replications, five hens each. The experimental treatments involved replacing 50% of the CC in the diet by decreasing amounts of NCC and were T1 Basal diet (BD) with 8.06% CC; T2 (6.045% of CC as a negative control); T3 (4.03% of CC replaced by 2.015% NCC); T4 (4.03% of CC replaced by 1.01% NCC); T5 (4.03% of CC replaced by 0.252% NCC) and T6 (4.03 of CC replaced with 0.126%NCC).Egg weight was unaffected by dietary treatments (p > .05). However, the egg production percentage and egg mass in T6 were less than that of other treatments (p < .05). The laying hens in the control group had the best average feed conversion ratio (p < .05). Also, the lowest concentration of calcium in hens' blood was recorded for birds fed T6 (p < .05). The best egg shell quality (relative egg shell weight and egg shell weight/surface) was observed in T1 (p < .05).Collectively, our results demonstrated that NCC could replace CC at a lower inclusion level but extreme reduction of calcium concentration in diets (to 1.43% Ca in the T6 group) reduced production performance, egg quality characteristics, Tibia thickness and blood calcium of laying hens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. 9 CFR 590.411 - Requirement of formulas and approval of labels for use in official egg products plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bulk packaged product. Nutrition labeling is required when nutrients, such as proteins, vitamins, and... broken from the shell, shall have a total egg solids content of 24.20 percent or greater. (e) Nutrition..., except for the following which are exempt from nutrition labeling requirements: (1) Egg products shipped...

  10. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  11. Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal.

  12. Expression and activity analysis reveal that heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 is associated with blue egg formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z P; Liu, R F; Wang, A R; Li, J Y; Deng, X M

    2011-04-01

    Biliverdin is responsible for the coloration of blue eggs and is secreted onto the eggshell by the shell gland. Previous studies confirmed that a significant difference exists in biliverdin content between blue eggs and brown eggs, although the reasons are still unknown. Because the pigment is derived from oxidative degradation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO), this study compared heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1), the gene encoding HO expression and HO activity, in the shell glands of the Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken (n = 12) and the Dongxiang brown-shelled chicken (n = 12). Results showed that HMOX1 was highly expressed at the mRNA (1.58-fold; P 0.05). Taken together, these results show that blue egg formation is associated with high expression of HMOX1 in the shell gland of Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens, and suggest that differential expression of HMOX1 in the 2 groups of chickens is most likely to arise from an alteration in the trans-acting factor.

  13. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  14. Oviposition time, flock age, and egg position in clutch in relation to brown eggshell color in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J; Chousalkar, K

    2016-09-01

    In Australia and other parts of the world, table eggs with uniform brown eggshell color are well regarded by consumers. Brown eggshell color has been positively correlated with certain egg characteristics such as shell strength and egg specific gravity, along with specific antibacterial functions. In the current study, the effect of hen oviposition time, flock age, and egg position in-clutch on the intensity of brown eggshell color was studied in commercial laying hens. The collected eggs were processed to measure egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell color (L*a*b*), quantification of protoporphyrin IX (PP IX), and shell thickness. Hen oviposition time had a statistically significant effect (P L*a*b*, amount of PP IX, and shell thickness. L* increased from 59.72 in the first half hour after lights on to 61.67 6 hours later, and PP IX per gram of eggshell decreased from 1.32×10(-7) mM to 1.26×10(-7) mM. Flock age had a significant effect on egg weight, L*a*b*, shell reflectivity, PP IX, and shell thickness. The mean egg weight increased from 55.4 g at 25 wk of flock age to 63.3 g at 75 wk of flock age. PP IX per gram of eggshell was 1.45×10(-7) mM at 25 wk and declined to 1.31×10(-7) mM at 75 wk of flock age. Individual hen clutch length was highly variable, ranging from 22 to 123 eggs in a single clutch. Egg position in a clutch had a significant effect on all egg quality variables measured; however, the R(2) values for each variable measured were low. The eggshell color declined to a greater extent with increasing position in a clutch for long clutches compared with short and medium clutches. In conclusion, hen oviposition time affected brown eggshell color with darker brown eggs laid early in the d and lighter colored brown eggs laid later in the morning. The intensity of brown color decreased with flock age, and egg position in-clutch had relatively little effect on brown eggshell color. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Evaluation of the Recovery Rate of Different Swabs for Microbial Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverde, Marcel; Willrodt, Julian; Staerk, Alexandra

    Contact plates, dipslides, and swabs are used for the microbiological monitoring of surfaces in controlled environments such as pharmaceutical clean rooms. In the present study, three different swab types using two different methods (direct streaking on agar versus elution followed by membrane filtration) were evaluated. In a first study, representative surfaces in pharmaceutical clean rooms were artificially inoculated using three different environmental strains (in vitro study). In a second study, a naturally inoculated floor was swabbed with the same three swab types, again using the two different recovery methods (in situ study). With the in vitro study, clear differences were found between the three swab types as well as between the two recovery methods. In addition, recovery rate of the swab type was dependent on the recovery method (interactive effect). One swab type showed a higher recovery rate with direct streaking on agar, while the other swab type showed better results using the elution/membrane filtration method. This difference can be explained by the fact that both swabs were each developed for their specific application. The type of surface also had a highly significant effect on the recovery rates. Recovery on stainless steel was better than for the other surfaces, while lexan had the lowest recovery rate. From the three different strains applied in the in vitro study, Micrococcus luteus had significantly higher recovery results compared to the other two strains (Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus brasiliensis). The differences in recovery between the swab type and recovery method were less pronounced in the in situ study. In particular, the recovery of the swab type depending on the recovery method was not found. In conclusion, if swabs are to be used for environmental monitoring, their suitability should first be evaluated. This can be approached with artificially inoculated surfaces. However, naturally inoculated surfaces might be more

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of mouth swabs during production causing a major outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassen Jørgen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002 we investigated an outbreak comprising 231 patients in Norway, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and linked to the use of contaminated mouth swabs called Dent-O-Sept. Here we describe the extent of contamination of the swabs, and identify critical points in the production process that made the contamination possible, in order to prevent future outbreaks. Methods Environmental investigation with microbiological examination of production, ingredients and product, molecular typing of bacteria and a system audit of production. Results Of the 1565 swabs examined from 149 different production batches the outbreak strain of P. aeruginosa was detected in 76 swabs from 12 batches produced in 2001 and 2002. In total more than 250 swabs were contaminated with one or more microbial species. P. aeruginosa was detected from different spots along the production line. The audit revealed serious breeches of production regulations. Health care institutions reported non-proper use of the swabs and weaknesses in their purchasing systems. Conclusion Biofilm formation in the wet part of the production is the most plausible explanation for the continuous contamination of the swabs with P. aeruginosa over a period of at least 30 weeks. When not abiding to production regulations fatal consequences for the users may ensue. For the most vulnerable patient groups only documented quality-controlled, high-level disinfected products and items should be used in the oropharynx.

  17. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n=10, grade 3 (n=29, and grade 4 (n=17. Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biopsy specimen. Results. Swab culturing identified all of the microorganisms isolated from the corresponding deep tissue specimens in 9/10 of grade 2 wounds (90.0%, and this proportion decreased to 12/29 (41.4% and 7/17 (41.2% for grades 3 and 4 wounds, respectively (p=0.02. Moreover, the sensitivity for identifying Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli and Citrobacter, by swabbing was low (33.3%. In addition, some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia and Ralstonia pickettii, were isolated from deep tissues but not from swabs. Conclusions. Swab culturing may be reliable for identification of pathogens in diabetic foot wounds classified as grade 2. However, it is advisable to culture deep tissue specimens for wounds of grade ≥3 because swab culturing is associated with a high risk of missing pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Broth versus solid agar culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    As part of the donor assessment protocol, bioburden assessment must be performed on allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples collected at the time of tissue retrieval. Swab samples of musculoskeletal tissue allografts from cadaveric donors are received at the microbiology department of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (Australia) to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. This study will review the isolation rate of organisms from solid agar and broth culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swabs were inoculated onto horse blood agar (anaerobic, 35 °C) and chocolate agar (CO2, 35 °C) and then placed into a cooked meat broth (aerobic, 35 °C). A total of 1,912 swabs from 389 donors were received during the study period. 557 (29.1 %) swabs were culture positive with the isolation of 713 organisms, 249 (34.9 %) from solid agar culture and an additional 464 (65.1 %) from broth culture only. This study has shown that the broth culture of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal swab samples recovered a greater amount of organisms than solid agar culture. Isolates such as Clostridium species and Staphylococcus aureus would not have been isolated from solid agar culture alone. Broth culture is an essential part of the bioburden assessment protocol of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue in this laboratory.

  19. The Development of Indicator Cotton Swabs for the Detection of pH in Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Schaude

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicator cotton swabs have been developed in order to enable faster, less expensive, and simpler information gathering of a wound status. Swabs are normally used for cleaning the wound, but here, they were covalently functionalized with indicator chemistry. Thus, they in principle enable simultaneous wound cleaning and wound pH detection. Using an indicator dye with a color change from yellow to red, combined with an inert dye of blue color, a traffic light color change from green to red is induced when pH increases. The indicator cotton swabs (ICSs show a color change from green (appropriate wound pH to red (elevated wound pH. This color change can be interpreted by the naked eye as well as by an optical color measurement device in order to obtain quantitative data based on the CIE L*a*b* color space. Two types of swabs have been developed—indicator cotton swabs ICS1 with a sensitive range from pH 5 to 7 and swabs ICS2 with a sensitive range from 6.5 to 8.5. The swabs are gamma-sterilized and the effect of sterilization on performance was found to be negligible. Furthermore, cytotoxicity testing shows cell viability and endotoxin levels to be within the allowable range.

  20. The Development of Indicator Cotton Swabs for the Detection of pH in Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaude, Cindy; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Meindl, Claudia; Attard, Jennifer; Binder, Barbara; Mohr, Gerhard J

    2017-06-12

    Indicator cotton swabs have been developed in order to enable faster, less expensive, and simpler information gathering of a wound status. Swabs are normally used for cleaning the wound, but here, they were covalently functionalized with indicator chemistry. Thus, they in principle enable simultaneous wound cleaning and wound pH detection. Using an indicator dye with a color change from yellow to red, combined with an inert dye of blue color, a traffic light color change from green to red is induced when pH increases. The indicator cotton swabs (ICSs) show a color change from green (appropriate wound pH) to red (elevated wound pH). This color change can be interpreted by the naked eye as well as by an optical color measurement device in order to obtain quantitative data based on the CIE L*a*b* color space. Two types of swabs have been developed-indicator cotton swabs ICS1 with a sensitive range from pH 5 to 7 and swabs ICS2 with a sensitive range from 6.5 to 8.5. The swabs are gamma-sterilized and the effect of sterilization on performance was found to be negligible. Furthermore, cytotoxicity testing shows cell viability and endotoxin levels to be within the allowable range.

  1. Effect of production system and flock age on eggshell and egg internal quality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Omar, Amal Saleh; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality was measured in eggs from different flocks that were reared together and then allocated to different production systems. Eggs were processed for measurements of eggshell and egg internal quality variables, scoring of ultrastructural mammillary layer features, completeness of cuticle cover, and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) quantification. There was a significant main effect (P system on shell reflectivity, egg weight, and egg internal quality and significant effects of flock age on most measurements. The mammillary layer ultrastructural variables showed no clear relationship with production system and flock age. However, there was a significant interaction between production system and flock age for mammillary cap, early and late fusions. Cuticle cover ([Formula: see text]), was significantly higher in barn eggs (19.20), followed by free range (17.57), and cage eggs (15.99). Completeness of cuticle cover was significantly higher in eggs from the 44 week old flock than for 64 week and 73 week old flocks. For eggshells with cuticle intact, there was a significant main effect of both production system and flock age, and significant interaction between the two, for shell reflectivity, L*a*b* values and amount of PP IX. For PP IX, when this difference was calculated for the cuticle alone, there were no statistically significant differences. In 1 g of shell with and without cuticle, there was more PP IX in cage eggs (9.49 × 10(-8), 7.90 × 10(-8 )mM) followed by free range (8.24 × 10(-8), 6.90 × 10(-8 )mM), and barn eggs (8.64 × 10(-8), 7.28 × 10(-8 )mM). Similar trends were recorded for the amount of PP IX in 1 g of cuticle, but the difference was not statistically significant. The amount of PP IX decreased significantly with increasing flock age. Comparing the cage and barn production systems at 68 week of flock age, there was no difference for the amount of PP IX in shell with or without cuticle, or in the cuticle alone. Eggs from the cage production

  2. [Correlation between microbial growth in conjunctival swabs of corneal donors and contamination of organ culture media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Bischoff, M; Schirra, F; Langenbucher, A; Ong, M; Halfmann, A; Herrmann, M; Seitz, B

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rate of contamination in conjunctival swabs from corneal donors by microbiological investigations and to correlate this with microbial contamination of the culture medium. Contamination of conjunctival swabs and culture media was analyzed retrospectively for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 at the LIONS corneal bank of Saar-Lor-Lux Trier/Westpfalz at the Saarland University Medical Center. The total annual number of conjunctival swabs was 316 in 2009, 341 in 2010 and 381 in 2011. Conjunctival swabs were taken prior to 1.25% povidone-iodine application. After disinfection donor corneas were harvested by in situ corneoscleral disc excision in all cases. The correlation between positive conjunctival swabs and microbial contamination of the culture medium was analyzed. In every year examined the contamination rate of the culture medium was significantly higher in cases of contaminated conjunctival swabs (p culture medium was contaminated in 16.5%, 11.5% and 7.6% of the donated corneas with positive conjunctival swabs and in 7.2%, 1.9% and 0.6% in donated corneas with negative conjunctival swabs, respectively. A positive correlation was found between contamination of the culture medium and microbial colonization of the conjunctival swabs, Nevertheless, microbial colonization of the conjunctiva was high and contamination of the culture medium was relatively low. For the microbial contamination rate of the donated corneas in the medium, conjunctival disinfection time with iodine solution before explantation of the corneoscleral disc and the addition of antibiotics to the culture medium seem to play a protective role.

  3. Avian incubation inhibits growth and diversification of bacterial assemblages on eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Shawkey

    Full Text Available Microbial infection is a critical source of mortality for early life stages of oviparous vertebrates, but parental defenses against infection are less well known. Avian incubation has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of trans-shell infection by limiting microbial growth of pathogenic bacteria on eggshells, while enhancing growth of commensal or beneficial bacteria that inhibit or competitively exclude pathogens. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bacterial assemblages on naturally incubated and experimentally unincubated eggs at laying and late incubation using a universal 16S rRNA microarray containing probes for over 8000 bacterial taxa. Before treatment, bacterial assemblages on individual eggs from both treatment groups were dissimilar to one another, as measured by clustering in non-metric dimensional scaling (NMDS ordination space. After treatment, assemblages of unincubated eggs were similar to one another, but those of incubated eggs were not. Furthermore, assemblages of unincubated eggs were characterized by high abundance of six indicator species while incubated eggs had no indicator species. Bacterial taxon richness remained static on incubated eggs, but increased significantly on unincubated eggs, especially in several families of Gram-negative bacteria. The relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa did not change on incubated eggs, but that of 82 bacterial taxa, including some known to infect the interior of eggs, increased on unincubated eggs. Thus, incubation inhibits all of the relatively few bacteria that grow on eggshells, and does not appear to promote growth of any bacteria.

  4. Essential elements in different types of eggs by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrogi, Jessica B.; Gomes, Bruna G.; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: jessica.ambrogi@hotmail.com, E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: avegliano@uol.com.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Eggs are excellent sources of protein and provide essential nutrients to human nutrition. Neither the color of the shell nor that of the yolk affects the egg nutritive value, even though this value can vary according to the eggs from different poultries, and as well as according to the feed given to them. The egg consumption of the Brazilian southeastern population is 9.9 g/day, which represents 0.61% of the daily food consumption per capita. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se, Sc and Zn in three types of eggs (hen, free-range and quail eggs). The edible parts of the eggs (egg white and egg yolks) were analyzed Hard-boiled and Raw. The Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the element concentrations. The samples were irradiated for approximately eight hours in flux of 4.5-5.5 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, at nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. There was variation in the elements concentrations among the types of eggs and between Hard-boiled and Raw eggs. (author)

  5. Measurements of egg shell plasma parameters using laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    improved iterative Boltzmann plot method with six calcium atomic emission lines, and the electron number density of 6.1 × 1016 ... once-ionized calcium line at 393.37 nm. Based on the experimental ... beam from the plasma can be neglected and the inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption was the dominant mechanism of ...

  6. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  8. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  9. Use of swabs for sampling epithelial cells for molecular genetics analyses in Enteroctopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenback, Nathan; Scheel, David; Gravley, Meg C.; Sage, George K.; Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Talbot, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of using swabs to collect cells from the epidermis of octopus as a non-invasive DNA source for classical genetic studies, and demonstrated value of the technique by incorporating it into an effort to determine, within a day, the lineage of captured, live Enteroctopus (E. dofleini or a cryptic lineage). The cryptic lineage was targeted for captive behavioral and morphological studies, while once genetically identified, the non-target lineage could be more rapidly released back to the wild. We used commercially available sterile foamtipped swabs and a high-salt preservation buffer to collect and store paired swab and muscle (arm tip) tissue sampled from live Enteroctopus collected from Prince William Sound, Alaska. We performed a one-day extraction of DNA from epithelial swab samples and amplification of two diagnostic microsatellite loci to determine the lineage of each of the 21 individuals. Following this rapid lineage assessment, which allowed us to release non-target individuals within a day of laboratory work, we compared paired swab and muscle tissue samples from each individual to assess quantity of DNA yields and consistency of genotyping results, followed by assessment of locus-by-locus reliability of DNA extracts from swabs. Epithelial swabs yielded, on average, lower quantities of DNA (170.32 ± 74.72 (SD) ng/μL) relative to DNA obtained from tissues collected using invasive or destructive techniques (310.95 ± 147.37 (SD) ng/μL. We observed some decrease in yields of DNA from extractions of swab samples conducted 19 and 31 months after initial extractions when samples were stored at room temperature in lysis buffer. All extractions yielded quantities of DNA sufficient to amplify and score all loci, which included fragment data from 10 microsatellite loci (nine polymorphic loci and monomorphic locus EdoμA106), and nucleotide sequence data from a 528 base pair portion of the nuclear octopine dehydrogenase gene. All results

  10. Effect of Different Storage Periods and Temperatures on the Hatchability of Broiler Breeder Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud*, M. Z. U. Khan1, Saima1 and M. A. Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity have been the two most common variables used to manipulate the storage environment of hatching eggs. To ascertain the effects of different egg storage periods and temperatures on hatchability; 400 eggs were obtained from a broiler breeder flock of 32 weeks of age on a single day collection basis. These eggs were randomly divided into 5 equal groups of 80 eggs each. After collection these were cleaned, fumigated and stored on four temperatures viz 4oC, 16oC, room temperature (25oC and ambient temperature (29oC. Each group was further subdivided into 4 replicates having 20 eggs each. Eggs of Group A (control were set in incubator with temperature of 37.5oC and relative humidity 60% after the storage of one day. Eggs of rest of the four groups were set in the incubator after the storage of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Subsequently, these were shifted to hatchers on 18th day where the temperature and humidity were maintained at 36.5oC and 75%, respectively. The data on hatchability and dead-in-shell embryos for various groups were recorded. The results revealed that as the storage period increased at different temperatures, the hatchability decreased significantly (P<0.01. Similarly, as the storage time increased, the percentage of dead-in-shell embryos increased (P<0.01.

  11. Shell ontogeny in radiolarians

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anderson, O.R.; Gupta, S.M.

    The ontogeny of the shells in modern and ancient radiolarian species, Acrosphaera cyrtodon were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The shells of A. cyrtodon were obtained from core samples collected from the Central Indian...

  12. Self-collected vaginal swabs for HPV screening: An exploratory study of rural Black Mississippi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crosby

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Black rural women from the deep-south are generally comfortable self-collecting cervico-vaginal swabs for HPV testing. Given that nearly 30% tested positive for oncogenic HPV, and that fatalism as well a lack of trust in doctors predicted prevalence, a reasonable screening alternative to Pap testing may be community-based testing for HPV using self-collected vaginal swabs.

  13. Mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swab specimens in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Danielle Caldeira Martins; da Costa, Thaina Miranda; Rabello, Renata Fernandes; Alves, F?bio Aguiar; de Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swabs is reported. Among the 59 isolates, 9 (15%) isolates were mannitol-negative; all of these isolates were categorized as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa. This report emphasizes that mannitol fermentation on mannitol salt agar should not be used as the sole criterion when screening nasal swab specimens for S. aureus.

  14. Mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swab specimens in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Caldeira Martins dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swabs is reported. Among the 59 isolates, 9 (15% isolates were mannitol-negative; all of these isolates were categorized as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IVa. This report emphasizes that mannitol fermentation on mannitol salt agar should not be used as the sole criterion when screening nasal swab specimens for S. aureus.

  15. Mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swab specimens in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Danielle Caldeira Martins; da Costa, Thaina Miranda; Rabello, Renata Fernandes; Alves, Fábio Aguiar; de Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona

    2015-06-01

    The isolation of mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swabs is reported. Among the 59 isolates, 9 (15%) isolates were mannitol-negative; all of these isolates were categorized as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa. This report emphasizes that mannitol fermentation on mannitol salt agar should not be used as the sole criterion when screening nasal swab specimens for S. aureus.

  16. Surface-sampling and analysis of TATP by swabbing and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Cassioli, Luigi; Grossi, Silvana; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2013-01-10

    The method of sample recovery for trace detection and identification of explosives plays a critical role in several criminal investigations. After bombing, there can be difficulties in sending big objects to a laboratory for analysis. Traces can also be searched for on large surfaces, on hands of suspects or on surfaces where the explosive was placed during preparatory phases (e.g. places where an IED was assembled, vehicles used for transportation, etc.). In this work, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) was synthesized from commercial precursors following reported methods. Several portions of about 6mg of TATP were then spread on different surfaces (e.g. floors, tables, etc.) or used in handling tests. Three different swabbing systems were used: a commercial swab, pre-wetted with propan-2-ol (isopropanol) and water (7:3), dry paper swabs, and cotton swabs wetted with propan-2-ol. Paper and commercial swabs were also used to sample a metal plate, where a small charge of about 4g of TATP was detonated. Swabs were sealed in small glass jars with screw caps and Parafilm(®) M and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Swabs were extracted and analysed several weeks later by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the three systems gave positive results, but wetted swabs collected higher amounts of TATP. The developed procedure showed its suitability for use in real cases, allowing TATP detection in several simulations, including a situation in which people wash their hands after handling the explosive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexually dimorphic tridimensionally preserved pterosaurs and their eggs from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Kellner, Alexander W A; Jiang, Shunxing; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Yingxia; Paidoula, Yahefujiang; Cheng, Xin; Rodrigues, Taissa; Meng, Xi; Zhang, Jialiang; Li, Ning; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2014-06-16

    The pterosaur record is generally poor, with little information about their populations, and pterosaur eggs are even rarer, with only four isolated and flattened eggs found to date. We report here a population of a new sexually dimorphic pterosaur species (Hamipterus tianshanensis gen. et sp. nov.), with five exceptionally well-preserved three-dimensional eggs, from the Early Cretaceous deposit in northwestern China. About 40 male and female individuals in total were recovered, but the actual number associated might be in the hundreds. All of the discovered skulls have crests, which exhibit two different morphologies in size, shape, and robustness. The eggs show pliable depressions with cracking and crazing on the outer surface. The eggshell, observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy, comprises a thin calcareous external hard shell followed by a soft membrane. These fossils shed new light on the reproductive strategy, ontogeny, and behavior of pterosaurs. The cranial crests show sexually dimorphic morphologies, with presumed males and females differing in crest size, shape, and robustness. Ontogenetic variation is reflected mainly in the expansion of the rostrum. The eggs have some external rigidity of the general pliable eggshell, and the microstructure of the eggshell is similar to that of some modern "soft" snake eggs. We suggest that this new pterosaur nested in colonies and thus exhibited gregarious behavior, a possible general trend for at least derived pterodactyloid pterosaurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  19. Fabrication of SERS swab for direct detection of trace explosives in fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhengjun; Du, Hongjie; Cheng, Fansheng; Wang, Cong; Wang, Canchen; Fan, Meikun

    2014-12-24

    Swab sampling is of great importance in surface contamination analysis. A cotton swab (cotton Q-tip) was successfully transformed into surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate (SERS Q-tip) through a bottom-up strategy, where Ag NPs were first self-assembled onto the Q-tip followed by in situ growing. The capability for direct swab detection of Raman probe Nile Blue A (NBA) and a primary explosive marker 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) using the SERS Q-tip was explored. It was found that at optimum conditions, a femotogram of NBA on glass surface could be swab-detected. The lowest detectable amount for 2,4-DNT is only ∼1.2 ng/cm(2) (total amount of 5 ng) on glass surface, 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than similar surface analysis achieved with infrared technique, and comparable even with that obtained by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Finally, 2,4-DNT left on fingerprints was also analyzed. It was found that SERS signal of 2,4-DNT from 27th fingerprint after touching 2,4-DNT powder can still be clearly identified by swabbing with the SERS Q-tip. We believe this is the first direct SERS swabbing test of explosives on fingerprint on glass. Considering its relative long shelf life (>30 d), the SERS Q-tip may find great potential in future homeland security applications when combined with portable Raman spectrometers.

  20. New technique to take samples from environmental surfaces using flocked nylon swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, G; Rynbäck, J; Loré, B

    2010-08-01

    Environmental surfaces near infected and/or colonised patients in hospitals are commonly contaminated with potentially pathogenic micro-organisms. At present, however, there is no standardised method for taking samples from surfaces in order to perform quantitative cultures. Usually contact plates or swabs are used, but these methods may give different results. The recovery rate of traditional swabbing, e.g. cotton or rayon, is poor. With a new type of swab utilising flocked nylon, the recovery may be enhanced up to three times compared with a rayon swab. In this study, we inoculated reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae onto a bedside table and took samples 1h later when inocula were dry. Sequential samples were taken from the same surface. A new sampling technique using two sequential nylon swabs for each sample was validated. The efficiency of the sampling, percentage recovery of the inoculum and the variation of culture results obtained from repeated experiments are described. Enhanced efficiency and higher recovery of inoculum were demonstrated using two sequential flocked nylon swabs for sampling. Copyright 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial contamination assessment of cryostored autogenous cranial bone flaps: should bone biopsies or swabs be performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ivan P; Inglis, Timothy J J; Bowman, Jacintha; Lee, Gabriel Y F

    2013-02-01

    Autogenous cranioplasty infection requiring bone flap removal is under-recognised as a major complication causing significant morbidity. Microbial contamination of stored bone flaps may be a significant contributing factor. Current infection control practices and storage procedures vary. It is not known whether 'superficial' swabs or bone cultures provide a more accurate assessment. Twenty-five skull flaps that were cryo-stored for more than 6 months were studied. Two swab samples (superficial and deep) and a bone biopsy sample were taken from each skull flap sample and cultured. Half blood agar and half chocolate agar plates were inoculated with the swabs for anaerobic and aerobic cultures respectively. The bone biopsy samples were cultured in brain-heart broth and subcultured similar to the swabs for 5 days. Incidence of microbial contamination was 20 % in the bone flaps studied. One swab culture and five bone biopsy cultures were positive for bacterial growth, all of which contained Propionibacterium acnes (p = 0.014). Positive cultures were from bone flaps stored less than 18 months, whereas no growth was obtained from bone flaps that were stored longer (p = 0.014). Bone biopsy culture is a more sensitive technique of assessing microbial contamination of cryo-stored autogenous bone flaps than swab cultures. The clinical implications of in vitro demonstration of microbial contamination require further study.

  2. ESR dosimetry of irradiated chicken legs and chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-12-31

    Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ``a posteriori`` the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author).

  3. Shell concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-10-01

    This report describes the testing performed with reef shell, clam shell and a combination of reef and clam shell used as coarse aggregate to determine if a low modulus concrete could be developed for use as a base material as an alternate to the pres...

  4. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  5. Genetic parameters for egg and related characteristics of white Leghorn hens in a subtropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sabri,Hani M.; Wilson,Henry R.; Harms,Robert H.; Charles J. Wilcox

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of heritability and phenotypic and genetic correlations between egg number, weight, specific gravity, mass, and estimated shell weight were obtained, along with phenotypic and genetic correlations of specific gravity and weight with body weight, weight change, metabolizable energy intake, residual feed consumption, and weight and age at sexual maturity. Data were from 350 White Leghorn hens by 50 sires and 175 dams. Heritabilities of the egg traits ranged from 0.20 to 0.55, increasi...

  6. Response analysis of the dynamic excitation of hen eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Severa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially produced hen eggs have been tested by means of dynamic excitation of the egg-shells with following analysis of their response. The falling steel ball have been chosen as a exciting instrument and the laser vibrometer have been used as a measuring device for the egg response. The reproductibility of the experiments has been relatively high and the surface velocity has been found to be significantly dependent on the position around the meridian. Analysed frequency spectrum has shown the peak frequency and frequency history. Proposed numerical model has demonstrated reasonable agreement with experimental results and can be used as an effective tool in modelling of analogous or similar experiments.

  7. Effects of Storage Methods and Lenght of Storage on some Quality Parameters of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudusola, IO.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of Japanese quail eggs, as affected by storage method and length in 21days, were assessed using 140 eggs collected from 7-week old birds. Eggs were stored using refrigeration, oiling, black polythene bag or on a tray at room temperature (30 oc as a control. This study determines the best storage condition and optimum storage length storage for quail eggs. Egg quality parameters measured included egg weight, shell weight, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, haugh unit and egg weight loss. Effects on the chemical composition of eggs were determined with proximate analysis. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA with storage method and duration as the two main effects. There were progressive increases in weight losses with increased length of storage for all storage methods. Haugh units decreased progressively per storage method as length of storage increased (P< 0.05. Control and refrigeration methods do not differ significantly in all proximate composition except for protein. There were significant differences (P< 0.05 in length of storage for all proximate composition. Eggs maintained desired internal quality when stored for 4 days at room temperature. Refrigeration could be used for storage of eggs up to 7 days; where it is unavailable oiling could be used.

  8. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS EGGS WITH NORMAL AND VITREOUS EGGSHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reis Vilela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal and external quality of eggs classified as eggs with normal eggshell and eggs with vitreous eggshell, produced by hens at three different ages. Forty-five eggs of each eggshell type, normal and vitreous, were sampled at the ages of 30, 50, and 70 weeks. The weight of the egg, in both types of eggshell, increased with the advancing age of the hen. Higher concentration of calcium was found in eggs with normal eggshells comparing to eggs with vitreous eggshells. The eggshell type did not affect phosphorus percentage. The mineral deposition of the eggshell was constant. The skin thickness increased irrespective of the shell along the reproductive life of the chicken and decreased when the bird became older. The percentage of albumen increased, while the percentage of albumen protein and pH decreased throughout the ages. Percentage of egg yolk, humidity, and pH decreased with increase of age of the laying hen, whereas crude protein and lipid increased. Eggs with vitreous eggshell showed eggshell with lower quality compared to those with normal eggshell, without, however, compromising the internal quality of albumen and yolk. Keywords: egg quality; eggshell types; physical analysis.

  9. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  10. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC on exterior quality of eggs. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight (168 Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC, medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I, medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II, and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III. Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III. Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. Results The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01 in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01. The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01. The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. Conclusion SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  11. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. Results The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. Conclusion SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs. PMID:28231694

  12. Efficacy of a Sonicating Swab for Removal and Capture of Listeria monocytogenes in Biofilms on Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branck, Tobyn A; Hurley, Matthew J; Prata, Gianna N; Crivello, Christina A; Marek, Patrick J

    2017-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is of great concern in food processing facilities because it persists in biofilms, facilitating biotransfer. Stainless steel is commonly used for food contact surfaces and transport containers. L. monocytogenes biofilms on stainless steel served as a model system for surface sampling, to test the performance of a sonicating swab in comparison with a standard cotton swab. Swab performance and consistency were determined using total viable counts. Stainless steel coupons sampled with both types of swabs were examined using scanning electron microscopy, to visualize biofilms and surface structures (i.e., polishing grooves and scratches). Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to image and to quantitate the biofilms remaining after sampling with each swab type. The total viable counts were significantly higher ( P ≤ 0.05) with the sonicating swab than with the standard swab in each trial. The sonicating swab was more consistent in cell recovery than was the standard swab, with coefficients of variation ranging from 8.9% to 12.3% and from 7.1% to 37.6%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic imaging showed that biofilms remained in the polished grooves of the coupons sampled with the standard swab but were noticeably absent with the sonicating swab. Percent area measurements of biofilms remaining on the stainless steel coupons showed significantly ( P ≤ 0.05) less biofilm remaining when the sonicating swab was used (median, 1.1%), compared with the standard swab (median, 70.4%). The sonicating swab provided greater recovery of cells, with more consistency, than did the standard swab, and it is employs sonication, suction, and scrubbing. IMPORTANCE Inadequate surface sampling can result in foodborne illness outbreaks from biotransfer, since verification of sanitization protocols relies on surface sampling and recovery of microorganisms for detection and enumeration. Swabbing is a standard method for microbiological sampling of

  13. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X......-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT......-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location....

  14. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  15. Hen's egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa

    2016-07-06

    The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases.

  16. The phylotypic egg timer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2000-01-01

    Von Baer and Haeckel provided the basis of what came to be known as the phylotypic egg timer: during their development vertebrate embryos pass through a period in which they show the archetype of the vertebrate body plan. During this period vertebrate embryos are similar, in both form and

  17. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete

  18. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  19. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups, namely H0, H1 and H2. Control (H0) hens were fed a commercial diet while H1 and H2 hens were fed a diet including 30 and 90 ppm dietary humic acid in liquid form, respectively. Hens were placed individually in cages in three ...

  20. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Lee, Soomin; Nishimura, Takayuki; Katsuura, Tetsuo; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2011-01-10

    Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at lower melatonin level, a level at which melatonin is used for assessment of circadian rhythms, namely dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). In the present study, we estimated the effect of cotton swabs on the results of salivary melatonin assay using the Bland-Altman plot at lower level. Nine healthy males were recruited and each provided four saliva samples on a single day to yield a total of 36 samples. Saliva samples were directly collected in plastic tubes using plastic straws, and subsequently pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). The melatonin levels were analyzed in duplicate using commercially available ELISA kits. The mean melatonin concentration in cotton saliva collection samples was significantly lower than that in passive saliva collection samples at higher melatonin level (>6 pg/mL). The Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes relative and proportional biases in the assay results. For lower melatonin level (<6 pg/mL), although the BA plots didn't show proportional and relative biases, there was no significant correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection samples. Our findings indicate an interference effect of cotton swabs on the assay result of salivary melatonin at lower melatonin level. Cotton-based collection devices might, thus, not be suitable for assessment of DLMO.

  1. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuura Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at lower melatonin level, a level at which melatonin is used for assessment of circadian rhythms, namely dim light melatonin onset (DLMO. In the present study, we estimated the effect of cotton swabs on the results of salivary melatonin assay using the Bland-Altman plot at lower level. Methods Nine healthy males were recruited and each provided four saliva samples on a single day to yield a total of 36 samples. Saliva samples were directly collected in plastic tubes using plastic straws, and subsequently pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection. The melatonin levels were analyzed in duplicate using commercially available ELISA kits. Results The mean melatonin concentration in cotton saliva collection samples was significantly lower than that in passive saliva collection samples at higher melatonin level (>6 pg/mL. The Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes relative and proportional biases in the assay results. For lower melatonin level ( Conclusion Our findings indicate an interference effect of cotton swabs on the assay result of salivary melatonin at lower melatonin level. Cotton-based collection devices might, thus, not be suitable for assessment of DLMO.

  2. Post-coital vaginal sampling with nylon flocked swabs improves DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Corina C G; Wiebosch, Danielle C; Kloosterman, Ate D; Sijen, Titia

    2010-02-01

    In the examination of sexual assault cases, DNA typing of vaginal samples mostly occurs after differential DNA extraction. Notwithstanding the differential extraction method, the DNA profiles from the seminal fraction often show the male alleles at low-level in combination with female alleles. This unfavorable ratio male to female DNA is due to a limited amount of sperm cells and an overwhelming quantity of female cells. In this study, we compared standard cotton and nylon flocked swabs for post-coital vaginal sampling. Twelve couples donated 88 vaginal swabs - 44 cotton, 44 nylon flocked - which were taken with a time since intercourse (TSI) up to 84 h. These vaginal swabs were sorted into categories on the basis of the TSI and submitted to (1) microscopic examination for the presence of male cells, (2) presumptive tests for the detection of seminal fluid and (3) DNA typing. Cellular elution was found to be 6-fold more efficient from the nylon flocked swabs. This makes microscopic analysis less time consuming as the higher cell yield and better cell morphology simplify detection of male cells. Both swab types reveal similar results regarding presumptive tests and male DNA typing. Positive presumptive tests (RSID-semen and PSA) were obtained up to 60 h TSI and male autosomal profiles up to 72 h TSI. Interestingly, over 50% of the samples negative for both presumptive tests resulted in informative male STR profiles. After differential extraction, less DNA was left on the nylon flocked swabs and more male DNA was isolated. Our results imply that the use of nylon flocked swabs for vaginal sampling will improve microscopic analysis and DNA typing in the medical forensic investigation of sexual assault cases.

  3. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seokha; Jeon, Hyeong Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the prevalence of pinworm infection, the egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis was examined using the adhesive cello-tape anal swab method in 1,512 preschool children sampled from a total of 20 kindergartens in Cheongju city, in November to December of 2004 (951 children from 13 kindergartens) and September to October of 2005 (561 from 7 kindergartens). The overall egg positive rate was found to be 7.9% (119/1,512); 9.3% (73/784) for boys and 6.3% (46/728) for girls, respectively. The 5-year age group evidenced the highest egg positive rate (10.9%, 47/430) among the examined age groups. As compared to those reported from previous works (ranged from 9.2 to 26.1%), the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the Cheongju city area is relatively low. PMID:16969064

  4. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seokha; Jeon, Hyeong Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S; Park, Joong-Ki

    2006-09-01

    In an attempt to determine the prevalence of pinworm infection, the egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis was examined using the adhesive cello-tape anal swab method in 1,512 preschool children sampled from a total of 20 kindergartens in Cheongju city, in November to December of 2004 (951 children from 13 kindergartens) and September to October of 2005 (561 from 7 kindergartens). The overall egg positive rate was found to be 7.9% (119/1,512); 9.3% (73/784) for boys and 6.3% (46/728) for girls, respectively. The 5-year age group evidenced the highest egg positive rate (10.9%, 47/430) among the examined age groups. As compared to those reported from previous works (ranged from 9.2 to 26.1%), the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the Cheongju city area is relatively low.

  5. Effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on physicochemical and functional properties of chicken egg during room-temperature storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xianxe [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Aera; Kim, Dong Hun [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Duk [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mooha [Division of Food and Animal Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    The effect of combination of chitosan coating and irradiation on quality and storage stability of shell egg was investigated. Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on eggshell was not detected by irradiation of 2.0 kGy at day 0 and/or chitosan coating (1%, pH 5.0) after 3 days of storage. One-day-old fresh chicken egg was chitosan coated and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy by gamma ray. The egg samples were stored at room temperature for 14 days and the effects of the combination treatment on internal physicochemical and functional properties were investigated. The Haugh unit of egg was decreased by irradiation even at 0.5 kGy. Irradiation increased the lipid oxidation in egg yolk at 2 kGy but the egg with chitosan coating reduced the level of lipid oxidation. Irradiation increased the foaming ability of egg white and decreased viscosity of egg yolk and white. Results suggested that combination of irradiation and chitosan coating can improve safety of shell egg but irradiation treatment may reduce the egg quality for direct consumption. However, an improved functional property for further processing and efficient separation of egg white and yolk can be expected for egg processing industry using irradiation.

  6. Continuous variation rather than specialization in the egg phenotypes of cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) parasitizing two sympatric reed warbler species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniak, Szymon M; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Sudyka, Joanna; Cichoń, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of brood parasitism has long attracted considerable attention among behavioural ecologists, especially in the common cuckoo system. Common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) are obligatory brood parasites, laying eggs in nests of passerines and specializing on specific host species. Specialized races of cuckoos are genetically distinct. Often in a given area, cuckoos encounter multiple hosts showing substantial variation in egg morphology. Exploiting different hosts should lead to egg-phenotype specialization in cuckoos to match egg phenotypes of the hosts. Here we test this assumption using a wild population of two sympatrically occurring host species: the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and reed warbler (A. scirpaceus). Using colour spectrophotometry, egg shell dynamometry and egg size measurements, we studied egg morphologies of cuckoos parasitizing these two hosts. In spite of observing clear differences between host egg phenotypes, we found no clear differences in cuckoo egg morphologies. Interestingly, although chromatically cuckoo eggs were more similar to reed warbler eggs, after taking into account achromatic differences, cuckoo eggs seemed to be equally similar to both host species. We hypothesize that such pattern may represent an initial stage of an averaging strategy of cuckoos, that--instead of specializing for specific hosts or exploiting only one host--adapt to multiple hosts.

  7. Continuous variation rather than specialization in the egg phenotypes of cuckoos (Cuculus canorus parasitizing two sympatric reed warbler species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon M Drobniak

    Full Text Available The evolution of brood parasitism has long attracted considerable attention among behavioural ecologists, especially in the common cuckoo system. Common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus are obligatory brood parasites, laying eggs in nests of passerines and specializing on specific host species. Specialized races of cuckoos are genetically distinct. Often in a given area, cuckoos encounter multiple hosts showing substantial variation in egg morphology. Exploiting different hosts should lead to egg-phenotype specialization in cuckoos to match egg phenotypes of the hosts. Here we test this assumption using a wild population of two sympatrically occurring host species: the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus and reed warbler (A. scirpaceus. Using colour spectrophotometry, egg shell dynamometry and egg size measurements, we studied egg morphologies of cuckoos parasitizing these two hosts. In spite of observing clear differences between host egg phenotypes, we found no clear differences in cuckoo egg morphologies. Interestingly, although chromatically cuckoo eggs were more similar to reed warbler eggs, after taking into account achromatic differences, cuckoo eggs seemed to be equally similar to both host species. We hypothesize that such pattern may represent an initial stage of an averaging strategy of cuckoos, that--instead of specializing for specific hosts or exploiting only one host--adapt to multiple hosts.

  8. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  9. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swab on cortisol enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Kaji, Yumi; Yasukouchi, Akira; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    Cotton swabs are among the most commonly used devices for collecting saliva, but various studies have reported that their use impacts the results of salivary cortisol assays. These studies, however, estimated this impact by comparing the average of the concentration and/or scatter plots. In the present study, we estimated the impact of cotton swabs on the results of salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) by Bland-Altman plot. Eight healthy males (aged 20-23 years) provided four saliva samples on different days to yield a total of 32 samples. Saliva samples were collected directly in plastic tubes using plastic straws and then pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). There was a lower correlation between cotton and passive saliva collection. Individually, four subjects showed a negative correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection. A Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes a proportional bias on the EIA assay result. Our findings indicate a considerable effect of using cotton swabs for saliva collection, and subject-specific variability in the impact. A Bland-Altman plot further suggests possible reasons for this effect.

  10. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and eggs: a national epidemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Christopher R

    2006-08-15

    Beginning in the 1970s, the incidence of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) infection and the number of related outbreaks in the United States has increased dramatically. By 1994, SE was the most commonly reported Salmonella serotype, with an incidence of >10 laboratory-confirmed infections per 100,000 population in the Northeast. Intensive epidemiologic and laboratory investigations identified shell eggs as the major vehicle for SE infection in humans, and that the eggs had been internally contaminated by transovarian transmission of SE in the laying hen. Three key interventions aimed at preventing the contamination and growth of SE in eggs have included farm-based programs to prevent SE from being introduced into egg-laying flocks, early and sustained refrigeration of shell eggs, and education of consumers and food workers about the risk of consuming raw or undercooked eggs. Since 1996, the incidence of SE infection in humans has decreased greatly, although many cases and outbreaks due to SE contaminated eggs continue to occur.

  11. Enterobius vermicularis eggs discovered in coprolites from a medieval Korean mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Min

    2011-09-01

    While the presence of pinworm eggs in archaeological samples has been reported by many researchers in the New World, those have been detected very scarcely in the Old World, especially in East Asian countries. In fact, many parasite species were recovered from the archeological remains in Korea, eggs of Enterobius vermicularis had not been found. Recently, a female mummy buried in the 17th century was discovered in the Joseon tomb from Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. After rehydration process for 12 days, investigations were carried on the luminal surface of the colon. From them, 3 eggs of E. vermicularis were recovered. They were elliptical, transparent with a thin egg shell, 50.3±5.2 µm (length) and 28.2±3.9 µm (width) in size. This is the first discovery of E. vermicularis eggs in East Asia.

  12. The effects of different levels of L-carnitine and fat on performance and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. REZAEI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine is used as feed additive in poultry diets to increase yield and to improve feed efficiency. The major role of L-carnitine appears to be the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for ƒÀ oxidation. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of two levels of fat (10 and 30 g kg-1 DM and two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 250 mg kg-1 on performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens in a factorial arrangement (2~2 with completely randomized design with six replicates and four laying hens in each replicate. During the experiment feed intake, egg weight, egg production, feed conversion ratio, and some blood parameters (triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, egg quality (albumen height, egg shell thickness, egg shell breaking strength, and cholesterol content of eggs were measured. Results of this experiment indicated that supplementation of L-carnitine in laying hens diets had not significant effect on performance, cholesterol content of eggs, but decreased the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL in blood serum and increased albumen height of eggs significantly (p

  13. Enterobius vermicularis egg positive rate of pre-school children in Chunchon, Korea (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Jun; Choi, Ye-Jong; Lee, Soo-Ung; Park, Hyun-Young; Yang, Yong-Sang

    2000-01-01

    Pre-school children were examined for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis egg by perianal swab method. We visited 67 nurseries and 25 kindergartens between January, 1999 and April, 1999 in Chunchon, Korea. Of the 4,711 children examined, 434 (9.2%) were found to be positive for E. vermicularis egg. The egg positive rates of boys and girls were 10.1% and 8.1%, respectively. The rates were 7.8% in kindergartens and 9.7% in nurseries. Positive rate of 50 institutions was less than 10%. Rate in 35 institutions was from 10% to less than 20%. Rate in 7 institutions was equal to or over 20%. Out of 1,113 children examined twice, 28 (2.5%) children were positive consecutively, 53 (4.8%) were positive with negative conversion, 47 (4.2%) were negative with positive conversion, and 985 (88.5%) were consecutively negative. It means that in the low endemic area of enterobiasis with around 10% positive rate, the two consecutive examinations may increase the egg detection rate of 4.2-4.8%. The small number of consecutive egg positive children also suggests that the worm burden of the positive children might be low. Since the egg positive rate of that age group in this City increased from 1.85% (1997), and 3.0% (1998), the more intensive regular control should be executed. PMID:11138323

  14. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  15. Occurrence of Salmonella sp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci in raw eggs and Coalho cheese: comparative study between two cities of Brazil's northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Evêncio-Luz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analyses of chicken eggs in Recife and Salvador have shown a high occurrence of Salmonella in the egg shells and yolks. Likewise, the occurrence of Salmonella plus coagulase-positive staphylococci in Coalho cheese reached alarming levels. The data revealed a significant risk of infections and intoxications from consuming these foods in the cities.

  16. Tapeworm eggs in a 270 million-year-old shark coprolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L; Horn, Bruno L D; Schultz, Cesar L

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in - or pass through - the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145-155 µm in length and 88-100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian.

  17. Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark Coprolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Horn, Bruno L. D.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in – or pass through – the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145–155 µm in length and 88–100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian. PMID:23383033

  18. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  19. Glycerin from biodiesel in the feeding of red-egg layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielly Stefany Pinto Fontinele

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vegetable glycerin on performance and egg quality of red-egg layers in the second production cycle. A total of 252 Hy-Line Brown layers weighing 1.919 ± 0.095 kg, at 90 weeks, were used in a completely randomized design with six treatments and seven birds per replication. The experiment lasted 84 days. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no glycerin and five diets with increasing levels of vegetable glycerin (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%. The following variables were evaluated: feed intake (g/bird/day; egg production (%; egg weight (g; egg mass (g/bird/day; conversion per egg mass (kg kg and per dozen eggs (kg/dz; percentages of albumen, yolk, and shell; eggshell thickness (mm; and egg specific gravity. (Y = 67.69 + 54.23X, R2 = 0.78 and egg mass (Y = 44.84 + 42.87X, R2 = 0.66 improved linearly with the glycerin levels. A quadratic effect was observed (Y = 114.11 + 336.96 X – 3,169.6 X2, R2 = 0.52 on feed intake. In conclusion, glycerin can be used to partially replace corn in diets for layers in the second production cycle at inclusion levels of up to 10%.

  20. Tapeworm eggs in a 270 million-year-old shark coprolite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C Dentzien-Dias

    Full Text Available Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in - or pass through - the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites or even intestinal contents (enterolites can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum, suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145-155 µm in length and 88-100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids. This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian.

  1. The Egg model

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate a variety of aspects related to computer-assisted flooding optimization and history matching. Unfortunately the details of the parameters settings are not always identical and not always fully docu...

  2. In vitro effect of Chrysosporium indicum and Chrysosporium keratinophylum on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María V; Basualdo, Juan A; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2017-12-05

    The degree of antagonism exercised by fungi on geohelminth development varies according to the morphological alterations caused by different fungal species. Saprophytic fungi may exert ovicidal or ovistatic effects. The aim of this study was to apply scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the action of two soil saprophytic species of Chrysosporium (C. indicum and C. keratinophylum) on Toxocara canis eggs. The fungal strains to be tested were incubated for 28 days at 28°C in 2% water agar with a suspension of unembryonated T. canis eggs. A suspension of T. canis eggs in 2% water agar was used as control group. The assay was done in triplicate for each fungus and the control group. SEM observations were performed on the 4th, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day after inoculation. The effect of the fungi on eggs was evaluated in accordance with the alterations observed on the surface and the changes in the normal characteristics of the eggs. Hyphae around the eggs, appresoria penetrating the shell and changes in the typical egg membrane were observed in this assay. Type 3 effect (alterations that occur both in the embryo and the shell, and hyphal penetration of the eggs) was the prevalent effect. SEM allowed us to observe clearly the morphological alterations in T. canis eggs due to the effect of C. indicum and C. keratinophylum. Both saprophytic species of Chrysosporium alter the egg structure and alterations increase as exposure increases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Comparison of Bacterial Communities on Peripheral Intravenous Catheters and Matched Skin Swabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Choudhury

    Full Text Available Skin bacteria at peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC insertion sites pose a serious risk of microbial migration and subsequent colonisation of PIVCs, and the development of catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs. Common skin bacteria are often associated with CRBSIs, therefore the bacterial communities at PIVC skin sites are likely to have major implications for PIVC colonisation. This study aimed to determine the bacterial community structures on skin at PIVC insertion sites and to compare the diversity with associated PIVCs. A total of 10 PIVC skin site swabs and matching PIVC tips were collected by a research nurse from 10 hospitalised medical/surgical patients at catheter removal. All swabs and PIVCs underwent traditional culture and high-throughput sequencing. The bacterial communities on PIVC skin swabs and matching PIVCs were diverse and significantly associated (correlation coefficient = 0.7, p<0.001. Methylobacterium spp. was the dominant genus in all PIVC tip samples, but not so for skin swabs. Sixty-one percent of all reads from the PIVC tips and 36% of all reads from the skin swabs belonged to this genus. Staphylococcus spp., (26%, Pseudomonas spp., (10% and Acinetobacter spp. (10% were detected from skin swabs but not from PIVC tips. Most skin associated bacteria commonly associated with CRBSIs were observed on skin sites, but not on PIVCs. Diverse bacterial communities were observed at skin sites despite skin decolonization at PIVC insertion. The positive association of skin and PIVC tip communities provides further evidence that skin is a major source of PIVC colonisation via bacterial migration but microbes present may be different to those traditionally identified via culture methods. The results provide new insights into the colonisation of catheters and potential pathogenesis of bacteria associated with CRBSI, and may assist in developing new strategies designed to reduce the risk of CRBSI.

  4. Comparison of sputum and nasopharyngeal swabs for detection of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji Hun; Kim, Kyung Hee; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Jeong Woong; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Yiel Hea

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostic tests for respiratory viral infections use traditionally either nasopharyngeal washes or swabs. Sputum is representative of the lower respiratory tract but is used rarely for viral testing. The aim of this study was to compare the detection rates of respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum using a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Adults who were admitted or presented to the clinics of Gil Medical Center with acute respiratory symptoms were recruited from 1 November 2012 to 31 March 2013. Paired specimens of nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum were obtained from 154 subjects, and RNA was extracted and tested for 16 different respiratory viruses using the Anyplex II RV16 Detection kit (Seegene, Seoul, Korea). The positive rate was 53% (81/154) for nasopharyngeal swabs and 68% (105/154) for sputum (P < 0.001). One hundred thirty-four viruses were identified for 107 illnesses. Influenza A virus, RSV A, HRV, coronavirus OC43, and adenovirus were detected more frequently in sputum samples than in nasopharyngeal swabs (P < 0.001). Importantly, 12 of 44 (27%) influenza A infections and 11 of 27 (41%) RSV infections were positive in only sputum samples. The detection rates of respiratory viruses from sputum samples were significantly higher than those from nasopharyngeal swabs in adults using real-time multiplex RT-PCR. These findings suggest that sputum would benefit for the detection of respiratory viruses by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in patients who produce sputum. Further studies are needed to establish standardized RNA extraction methods from sputum samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  6. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...... with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates...... automation of DNA sequencing....

  7. Evaluation of the Swabbing of Disposable Absorbent Incontinence Products for Assessing the Carriage of Multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae in Nursing Home Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Naf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We compared the performance of incontinence product (IP and rectal swabbing for the detection of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE carriage in a large multicenter study conducted in February 2017 among the residents of 23 French nursing homes. The study included 547 residents who habitually wore IP, 88 of whom were MDRE carriers (16.1%. Positive results were obtained for both rectal and IP swabs for 64 of these residents, for rectal swabs only for 22 and for IP swabs only for two of these patients. The estimated prevalence of MDRE carriage depended on the type of sample: 15.7% for rectal swabs and 12.1% for IP swabs (p < 0.001. The positive percent agreement was 84.2% and the negative percent agreement was 97.4%. Rectal swabbing remains the best method for detecting MDRE carriage in elderly residents, but our findings provide support for the use of swabs from IP used overnight to increase response rates in MDRE surveys in elderly residents that habitually wear IP, when rectal swabbing is not feasible.

  8. Comparison of feces versus rectal swabs for the molecular detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in foals with equine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; Johnson, Cara; Slovis, Nathan; Page, Allen; Gebhart, Connie

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the molecular detection rate of Lawsonia intracellularis between feces and rectal swabs collected from 42 foals with suspected equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). Fecal samples and rectal swabs were processed for DNA purification by using an automated extraction system. The purified DNA was then analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the aspartate ammonia lyase (aspA) gene of L. intracellularis. Absolute quantitation was calculated by using a standard curve for L. intracellularis and expressed as copy numbers of the aspA gene of L. intracellularis per microliter of purified DNA. The combined PCR detection rate for L. intracellularis was 90%, with 38 foals testing PCR positive in feces (33 samples), rectal swabs (32), or both (27). Six foals tested PCR positive only in feces, whereas 5 tested positive only in rectal swabs. Feces yielded a significantly higher aspA gene copy number of L. intracellularis than rectal swabs. Feces and rectal swabs tested PCR negative from 4 foals. In conclusion, the results showed that feces yielded similar numbers of PCR-positive results, with a higher L. intracellularis aspA gene load than rectal swabs. By analyzing dual samples, the PCR detection rate for L. intracellularis increased from 76% and 79% for rectal swabs and feces, respectively, to 90%. Rectal swabs should be considered as an alternative sample type for EPE-suspected patients with decreased or no fecal output.

  9. Evaluation of Liquid-Based Swab Transport Systems against the New Approved CLSI M40-A2 Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzie, Nina; Adukwu, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Following revised information pertaining to newer swab types and testing protocols in the new CLSI M40-A2 standard, we evaluated three liquid swab transport systems for the recovery of aerobic, anaerobic, and fastidious organisms at room temperature and at 4°C. All tested liquid swab transport systems were fully compliant with the M40-A2 standard, with acceptable performance at both temperatures after the full specified holding period, using both qualitative (roll-plate) and quantitative (swab elution) methods. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders; Riise, Ruth; Vorum, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)(Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Ten "ant-eggs" were extracted; four of these as well as control tissue were analyzed by mass spectrometry (AB Sciex). Proteins were identified and their approximate abundances were determined. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out on the remaining "ant-eggs" for cytokeratin and S100. In anterior OCT-images, the "ant-egg" structures are localized on the iris. Comparative pictures showed that they stayed in the same location for more than 45 years. Mass spectrometry of "ant-eggs" yielded a proteome of 56 different proteins. Eighteen of the 56 "ant-egg" proteins (32 %) were neither present in our controls nor in a known fetal lens proteome. Among these were cytokeratin and Matrix-Gla protein. Immunohistochemical reactions were positive for cytokeratin and S100. This study demonstrates the previously unknown protein composition of the "ant-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location.

  11. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Camacho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

  12. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  13. The magnum-isthmus junction of the fowl oviduct participates in the formation of the avian-type shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Kun Ming; Sultana, Fowzia; Howlider, Mohammad Abdur Rahman; Iwasawa, Atsushi; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2006-01-01

    Avian eggs possess a shell membrane in the shape of an asymmetrical ellipsoid and with a limiting membrane that is a smooth layer of homogeneous, dense materials. We describe the role of the magnum-isthmus junction (MIJ) of the oviduct in the formation of the avian-type shell membrane in the domestic fowl Gallus domesticus. The narrow width of the lumen at the MIJ indirectly participates in the determination of the asymmetrical ellipsoid shape of eggs that are encased by the egg-white layer and subsequently by the peri-albumen layer (PL) and the shell membrane. The PL reacts with Alcian blue and exists between the egg white and the limiting membrane. It is added to the ovulating egg at the MIJ and covers the outermost surface of the egg-white layer. The function of the PL is to provide a smooth surface by covering the irregular surface of the egg-white layer. The materials of the PL consist of an Alcian blue-positive polysaccharide (or glycoprotein) of 240 kDa and five proteins of 135, 116, 72, 49, and 46 kDa. The isolated materials have an affinity to bind with the egg-white mass. An antiserum against quail PL materials stains the domestic fowl PL and secretory cells of the luminal epithelium at the MIJ, and cross-reacts with the molecules of 240, 135, and 116 kDa.

  14. SHELL ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valley. Although fossil specimens of this subspecies have been used in palaeoclimatic reconstruction, there have been no previous reports of living examples. Here We describe the local habitat, climate and some aspects of ecology and isotopic variation within the snail shell. If isotope data can be obtained for fossil shells, ...

  15. Learning the Bash Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Newham, Cameron

    2005-01-01

    This refreshed edition serves as the most valuable guide yet to the bash shell. It's full of practical examples of shell commands and programs guaranteed to make everyday use of Linux that much easier. Includes information on key bindings, command line editing and processing, integrated programming features, signal handling, and much more!

  16. Holograms with egg albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salinas, P.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Perez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    Two components of the egg as the albumen and their proteins are used for holographic recorded applying lithography technique. This matrix was composed by albumen-glucose and by protein-glucose. The results obtained for the parameter diffraction efficiency with our matrix albumen-glucose was it from 44.1% and for the matrix protein-glucose were two maximums of diffraction efficiency, reached about the mixture ovoalbumin-glucose (6.2*10 -1%) and avidin-glucose (4.7*10 -1%).

  17. Self-collected mid-turbinate swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E Larios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for respiratory virus testing is a nasopharyngeal (NP swab, which is collected by a healthcare worker. Midturbinate (MT swabs are an alternative due to their ease of collection and possible self-collection by patients. The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs. METHODS: Beginning in October 2008, healthy adults aged 18 to 69 years were recruited into a cohort and followed up for symptoms of influenza. They were asked to have NP and MT swabs taken as soon as possible after the onset of a fever or two or more respiratory symptoms with an acute onset. The swabs were tested for viral respiratory infections using Seeplex® RV12 multiplex PCR detection kit. Seventy six pairs of simultaneous NP and MT swabs were collected from 38 symptomatic subjects. Twenty nine (38% of these pairs were positive by either NP or MT swabs or both. Sixty nine (91% of the pair results were concordant. Two samples (3% for hCV OC43/HKU1 and 1 sample (1% for rhinovirus A/B were positive by NP but negative by MT. One sample each for hCV 229E/NL63, hCV OC43/HKU1, respiratory syncytial virus A, and influenza B were positive by MT but negative by NP. CONCLUSIONS: Flocked MT swabs are sensitive for the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses. Given the ease of MT collection and similar results between the two swabs, it is likely that MT swabs should be the preferred method of respiratory cell collection for outpatient studies. In light of this data, larger studies should be performed to ensure that this still holds true and data should also be collected on the patient preference of collection methods.

  18. A Study of Isolates from Female Genital Swab Specimens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To detect some common microbial agents of vaginal discharge in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from Obstetrics and Gynecology units of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria and analyzed for microscopy, ...

  19. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyub Shin

    Full Text Available The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd, causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts.

  20. Sensitive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by lesion swab sampling coupled to qPCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Emily R.; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Scheske, Laura; Rios, Ruby; Marquez, Ricardo; Cossio, Alexandra; Albertini, Audrey; Schallig, Henk; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-01-01

    Variation in clinical accuracy of molecular diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is commonly observed depending on the sample source, the method of DNA recovery and the molecular test. Few attempts have been made to compare these variables. Two swab and aspirate samples from lesions

  1. Evaluation of the reliability of Levine method of wound swab for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of Levine swab in accurate identification of microorganisms present in a wound and identify the necessity for further studies in this regard. Methods: A semi structured questionnaire was administered and physical examination was performed on patients with chronic wounds ...

  2. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  3. DNA from buccal swabs suitable for high-throughput SNP multiplex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Gai L; Gibson, Catherine S; O'Callaghan, Michael E; Goldwater, Paul N; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Haan, Eric A; MacLennan, Alastair H

    2009-12-01

    We sought a convenient and reliable method for collection of genetic material that is inexpensive and noninvasive and suitable for self-collection and mailing and a compatible, commercial DNA extraction protocol to meet quantitative and qualitative requirements for high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multiplex analysis on an automated platform. Buccal swabs were collected from 34 individuals as part of a pilot study to test commercially available buccal swabs and DNA extraction kits. DNA was quantified on a spectrofluorometer with Picogreen dsDNA prior to testing the DNA integrity with predesigned SNP multiplex assays. Based on the pilot study results, the Catch-All swabs and Isohelix buccal DNA isolation kit were selected for our high-throughput application and extended to a further 1140 samples as part of a large cohort study. The average DNA yield in the pilot study (n=34) was 1.94 microg +/- 0.54 with a 94% genotyping pass rate. For the high-throughput application (n=1140), the average DNA yield was 2.44 microg +/- 1.74 with a >or=93% genotyping pass rate. The Catch-All buccal swabs are a convenient and cost-effective alternative to blood sampling. Combined with the Isohelix buccal DNA isolation kit, they provided DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for high-throughput SNP multiplex analysis.

  4. Occurrence of Tropheryma whipplei during diarrhea in Hajj pilgrims: a PCR analysis of paired rectal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Benkouiten, Samir; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Memish, Ziad; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Tropheryma whipplei was recently associated with gastroenteritis in children. We hypothesize that T. whipplei may be a contributing microbe in traveller's diarrhea. The presence of T. whipplei was investigated by PCR on rectal swab samples of Hajj pilgrims before and after travelling to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Additionally a rectal swab was performed at the time of diarrhea for some pilgrims. A total of 129 pilgrims underwent rectal swab samples before departure and on return. All pilgrims were negative for T. whipplei before travel. One pilgrim (0.8%) was positive on return but did not reported diarrhea. A total of 30 pilgrims (23.3%) experienced diarrhea during the stay in the KSA. Nine pilgrims with diarrhea underwent the additional rectal swab during their diarrhea episode, two of them were positive for T. whipplei. This work suggests that T. whipplei may be associated with adult traveller's diarrhea, by finding T. whipplei DNA individuals negative before and after the episode of diarrhea. Further study addressing this issue in larger cohorts of Hajj pilgrims with systematic sampling at the time of diarrheal episode may help to understand the potential role of T. whipplei in traveller's diarrhea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of self-collected penile-meatal swabs compared to clinician-collected urethral swabs for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium by nucleic acid amplification assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dize, Laura; Barnes, Perry; Barnes, Mathilda; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Marsiglia, Vincent; Duncan, Della; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2016-10-01

    Men were enrolled in a study to assess the performance and acceptability of self-collected penile meatal swabs as compared to clinician-collected urethral swabs for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We expected penile-meatal swabs to perform favorably to urethral swabs for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) detection by nucleic acid amplification assays (NAATs). Of 203 swab pairs tested; for CT, penile-meatal swab sensitivity was 96.8% and specificity was 98.8%. NG sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 98.9%, respectively. For TV, sensitivity was 85.0% and specificity was 96.7%. For MG sensitivity and specificity were 79.3% and 99.4%, respectively. No significant statistical differences between sample type accuracy (CT: P=0.625; NG: P=0.248; TV: P=0.344; and MG: P=0.070) existed. Most men, 90.1%, reported self-collection of penile-meatal swabs as "Very Easy" or "Easy". Self-collected penile-meatal swabs appeared acceptable for NAAT STI detection and an acceptable collection method by men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Egg activation in physiological polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Fertilization is indispensable not only for restoring diploid genomes but also for the initiation of early embryonic cell cycles in sexual reproduction. While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm is permitted but only one sperm nucleus participates in the formation of a zygote nucleus. Polyspermy requires that the sperm transmit the egg activation signal more slowly, thus allowing the egg to accept several sperm. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by the fertilizing sperm is both necessary and sufficient for egg activation in polyspermy. Multiple small Ca(2+) waves induced by several fertilizing sperm result in a long-lasting Ca(2+) rise, which is a characteristic of polyspermic amphibian eggs. We introduced a novel soluble sperm factor for egg activation, sperm-specific citrate synthase, into polyspermic newt eggs to cause Ca(2+) waves. Citrate synthase may perform dual functions: as an enzyme in mitochondria and as a Ca(2+)-inducing factor in egg cytoplasm. We also discuss the close relationship between the mode of fertilization and the Ca(2+) rise at egg activation and consider changes in this process through evolution in vertebrates.

  7. Egg activation in physiological polyspermy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iwao, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    .... While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy...

  8. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  9. Frequency of different shell color and its effect on the fertility and hatchability in Black rock, Gramapriya and Vanaraja breeds of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was undertaken to assess the effect of shell color on the fertility and hatchability in three different breeds of chicken viz, Black Rock, Gramapriya and Vanaraja maintained at Government Poultry Farm, Durg (Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 eggs from each breed (Black rock, Gramapriya and Vanaraja were studied in each trial and total three trials were conducted. All the eggs were individually marked. Eggs were divided into Brown, Light Brown and Creamy White. Eggs were candled twice during incubation i.e. on 7th and 18th days. Fertility percent was calculated by number of fertile eggs divided by total numbers of eggs set for incubation multiplied by 100. Likewise hatchability was calculated on TES (total egg set basis and FES (fertile egg set basis by the formulae Data were analyzed by chi-square test Results: The findings shown that the overall average for shell color among the three breeds, brown shell color (46.98% was found to be most frequent as compare to light brown (43.02% and creamy white (10.00% colors, respectively. The fertility percentage among three different classes of shell color of eggs irrespective of breeds or batches highest pooled mean was in brown shell color (90.80% followed by light brown (85.22% and creamy white (83.33%. Whereas, on total egg set (TES basis the hatchability percentage irrespective of breeds or hatches were 73.72 for brown, 67.00 for light brown and 52.47 for creamy white shell colored eggs, respectively and the pooled hatchability on fertile egg set (FES basis, percentage followed same trend as in the case of hatchability on TES and brown shelled eggs group had higher hatchability rate with 81.19 percent followed by light brown (78.62% and creamy white (62.96%, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that dark colored eggs had higher fertility rate and also hatched at higher rate than did light colored eggs. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 594-598

  10. Antimicrobial lysozyme-chitosan coatings affect functional properties and shelf life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuceer, Muhammed; Caner, Cengiz

    2014-01-15

    The interior quality, shell impact strength and functional characteristics of eggs coated with chitosan and lysozyme-chitosan combinations were evaluated for enhancing egg freshness during storage. A 10% (w/w) lysozyme solution was incorporated into 1% (w/w) chitosan film-forming solution at ratios of 0, 10, 20 and 60% (w/w). Storage time and coating had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, weight loss, albumen pH, dry matter, relative whipping capacity (RWC) and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH and weight loss and lower albumen viscosity. All coated eggshells showed greater puncture strength than uncoated eggshells, resulting in extended shelf life. The 20 and 60% lysozyme-chitosan coatings were more effective in maintaining the internal quality of eggs (e.g. pH, dry matter and RWC). Attributes such as pH, dry matter and RWC were better after the 20% lysozyme-chitosan treatment than after the other treatments. The 10, 20 and 60% lysozyme-chitosan coatings, considered active packaging, showed promising attributes. They could be a viable alternative to existing techniques for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during long-term storage. Chitosan coatings also improved shell strength. This study also confirms that measurements of albumen quality (pH, dry matter, viscosity and RWC) are excellent indicators of egg freshness. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  12. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, James C.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama 790-8556 (Japan); Chan, Simon K.F. [Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Hong Kong, (China); Lam, Michael H.W. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Martin, Michael [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lam, Paul K.S. [Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2006-12-15

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles.

  13. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  14. [Antibiotic sensitivity of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from throat swabs and purulent material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachna-Sawicka, Katarzyna; Pietrzak, Anna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and susceptibility of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from throat swabs (142--29.9%) and purulent material (333--70.1%) taken from patients treated at University Hospital dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz Collegium Medicum. L. Rydygier in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun in 2005-2009. Of the 475 tested strains, 156 (32.8%) were identified as S. pyogenes. This species accounted for 38.8% of strains isolated from purulent material and 19.0% of swabs from the throat. Among the strains isolated from throat swabs of 62 (43.7%) were identified as Streptococcus group C. Only 5.1% strains were identified as Streptococcus group F. All strains of beta-hemolytic streptococci were susceptible to ampicillin or penicillin, fluoroquinolones, vancomycin and linezolid. Erythromycin-susceptible strains was 83.8%, and 89.1% for clindamycin. A total of 51.3% of erythromycin resistance strains had the cMLS(B) phenotype (63.3% for strains from throat swabs and 46.3% of the purulent materials). Sensitivity to tetracycline was characterized by 51.2% of strains of beta-hemolytic streptococci. The percentage of strains susceptible to this antibiotic among isolates from throat swabs was 63.1%, and purulent material--48.0%. The lowest percentage of strains susceptible to tetracycline (14.1%) were found among S. agalactiae and Streptococcus group G (33.6%) strains. During the study time, saw an increase in the percentage of strains susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin.

  15. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  16. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain of chickens which reaches a mature egg ... Subsequent rates of decline tend to be parallel and so selection for early albumen quality is effective in improving late albumen quality. The difficulty is that, in many markets, the producer is not directly penalized ... maximum total yield - an intermediate is best. If egg income.

  17. Assessing the ability of swab data to determine the true burden of infection for the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Frances; Daniel, Olivia; Garner, Trent; Fisher, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a pathogenic fungus which causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians by infecting the animals' epidermis. The most commonly applied method for the detection of Bd is the use of a sterile swab, rubbed over the keratinized areas of an amphibian and then processed to yield DNA for detection by qPCR. This method has been used to infer a threshold of lethal infection in some species; however, how reliable and reproducible the swabbing method is at detecting the true burden of infection suffered by individuals is not known. European midwife toads, Alytes obstetricans, are susceptible to chytridiomycosis and are highly parasitised by Bd across Europe. By quantifying Bd-load throughout the entire skin and comparing this to swab results taken from the same individual, we determined whether epidermal swabs provide a quantifiable and accurate indication of the true fungal burden suffered. Further, we examined whether we could infer a threshold for lethal infection based on comparison of swab data taken from infected A. obstetricans exhibiting different clinical states. From swab data, we detected significantly higher fungal burdens from moribund metamorphs compared to visually healthy individuals; however, the ability of these swab data to provide an accurate indication of the true fungal burden was not reliable. These data suggest that fungal load dynamics play an important role in disease-induced mortality in A. obstetricans at these sites, but that using swab data to infer an exact threshold for Bd-associated mortality might be inappropriate and misleading.

  18. Throat Swabs and Sputum Culture as Predictors of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus Lung Colonization in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Seidler

    Full Text Available Due to frequent infections in cystic fibrosis (CF patients, repeated respiratory cultures are obtained to inform treatment. When patients are unable to expectorate sputum, clinicians obtain throat swabs as a surrogate for lower respiratory cultures. There is no clear data in adult subjects demonstrating the adequacy of throat swabs as a surrogate for sputum or BAL. Our study was designed to determine the utility of throat swabs in identifying lung colonization with common organisms in adults with CF.Adult CF subjects (n = 20 underwent bronchoscopy with BAL. Prior to bronchoscopy, a throat swab was obtained. A sputum sample was obtained from subjects who were able to spontaneously expectorate. All samples were sent for standard microbiology culture.Using BAL as the gold standard, we found the positive predictive value for Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be 100% in both sputum and throat swab compared to BAL. However, the negative predictive value for P. aeruginosa was 60% and 50% in sputum and throat swab, respectively. Conversely, the positive predictive value for Staphylococcus aureus was 57% in sputum and only 41% in throat swab and the negative predictive value of S. aureus was 100% in sputum and throat swab compared to BAL.Our data show that positive sputum and throat culture findings of P. aeruginosa reflect results found on BAL fluid analysis, suggesting these are reasonable surrogates to determine lung colonization with P. aeruginosa. However, sputum and throat culture findings of S. aureus do not appear to reflect S. aureus colonization of the lung.

  19. Detection of Pneumocystis in the nasal swabs of immune-suppressed rats by use of PCR and microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hüseyin; Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Mert; Değirmenci, Aysu; Karaçalı, Sabire; Polat, Ceylan; Gürüz, Yüksel; Uner, Ahmet

    2013-02-13

    Detection of Pneumocystis jiroveci colonization in lungs or oral samples due to high sensitivity of PCR methods results in undue treatment of patients without any symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate Pneumocystis carinii in rats, immune suppressed by oral and subcutaneous administration of dexamethasone. Blood, oral, nasal and eye swabs were collected prior to immune suppression and 2, 6, 12 weeks after administration of dexamethasone. Also, samples were collected from lung, heart, liver, kidney, diaphragm, brain, spleen, tongue, muscle, eye, intestine, and feces. Cysts and trophozoites were investigated in stained slides and MSG gene was detected by PCR. The results showed that weight loss is significantly higher in rats administered oral dexamethasone (Pdexamethasone. PCR was positive in lungs and oral swabs of rats prior to the administration of dexamethasone. After the administration of dexamethasone, the MSG gene was detected in oral swabs, lungs, spleen, kidney and (for the first time) in nasal swabs. PCR was positive in nasal swabs during the second and sixth weeks of oral and subcutaneous administration of dexamethasone, respectively. Presence of P. jiroveci in nasopharyngeal aspirate, oropharyngeal wash, oral swab, induced sputum or BAL, and absence in nasal swab in a patient without symptoms of PCP may support clinician's decision regarding colonization. Overall, detection of P. carinii in nasal swabs of rats by PCR demonstrated that nasal sampling can be used for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia.

  20. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  1. Long-term selection using a single trait criterion, non-destructive deformation, in White Leghorns: Effect over time on genetic parameters for traits related to egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Olivier; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Vincenot, Christian E; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Moriya, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Although non-destructive deformation is relevant for assessing eggshell strength, few long-term selection experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. This study used restricted maximum likelihood-based methods with a four-trait animal model to analyze the effect of non-destructive deformation on egg production, egg weight and sexual maturity in a two-way selection experiment involving 17 generations of White Leghorns. In the strong shell line, corresponding to the line selected for low non-destructive deformation values, the heritability estimates were 0.496 for non-destructive deformation, 0.253 for egg production, 0.660 for egg weight and 0.446 for sexual maturity. In the weak shell line, corresponding to the line selected for high non-destructive deformation values, the heritabilities were 0.372, 0.162, 0.703 and 0.404, respectively. An asymmetric response to selection was observed for non-destructive deformation, egg production and sexual maturity, whereas egg weight decreased for both lines. Using non-destructive deformation to select for stronger eggshell had a small negative effect on egg production and sexual maturity, suggesting the need for breeding programs to balance selection between eggshell traits and egg production traits. However, the analysis of the genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and egg weight revealed that large eggs are not associated with poor eggshell quality. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  3. Nuclear shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    de-Shalit, Amos; Massey, H S W

    1963-01-01

    Nuclear Shell Theory is a comprehensive textbook dealing with modern methods of the nuclear shell model. This book deals with the mathematical theory of a system of Fermions in a central field. It is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the single particle shell model. The second part focuses on the tensor algebra, two-particle systems. The last part covers three or more particle systems. Chapters on wave functions in a central field, tensor fields, and the m-Scheme are also presented. Physicists, graduate students, and teachers of nuclear physics will find the book invaluable.

  4. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Shira C Shafir; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months.

  5. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    with intention to freeze eggs were being single, age under 35 years, childlessness, and a history of infertility. In this group, risk and cost were less important considerations. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that there is widespread awareness and support of the availability of eggs freezing for reproductive...

  6. Does Fine Needle Aspiration Microbiology Offer Any Benefit Over Wound Swab in Detecting the Causative Organisms in Surgical Site Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanan, Sundaramurthi; Gs, Sreenath; Sureshkumar, Sathasivam; Vijayakumar, Chellappa; Sujatha, Sistla; Kate, Vikram

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the role of ne needle aspiration microbiology (FNAM) in detecting the causative organisms of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) in comparison with the standard technique of surface swabbing. Ma- terials and Methods. In this study, 150 patients with SSIs following elective and emergency operations were included. In all patients, FNAM was performed along with conventional surface swabbing to identify the causative microorganism. Sensitivity of surface swab and FNAM was calculated as the number of samples collected from the diagnosed case of SSI. A total of 115 positive cultures were obtained from the 150 patients with SSIs; surface swab was positive in 110 cases and FNAM was positive in 94 cases. The mean number of organisms isolated by surface swab, and FNAM was 0.95 and 0.8, respectively. The sensitivity of surface swab was 94.3% in elective cases and 96.25% in emergency cases. The sensitivity of FNAM was 82.8% in elective cases and 82.5% in emergency cases. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of FNAM and surface swab did not signi cantly differ in clean elective cases. The overall sensitivity of surface swab and FNAM was 95.65% and 81.7%, respectively. Comparing the antibiotic suscep- tibility pattern, no difference was observed when the same organ- ism was isolated by both methods, indicating that FNAM does not offer bene t over the conventional wound surface swab in detecting microorganisms in SSI in both elective and emergency surgeries. In certain cases with unexplained wound infections, FNAM can be used as an investigation to identify speci c pathogens not detected by conventional surface swab.

  7. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Stasulli, Dominique M; Sobestanovich, Emily M; Bille, Todd W

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations.

  8. Quantification of loosely associated and tightly associated bacteria on broiler carcass skin using swabbing, stomaching, and grinding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Lee, H C; Chin, K B; Ha, S D; Kang, I

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to quantify bacterial populations after swabbing or stomaching, followed by grinding the swabbed or stomached broiler skins. For each of 3 replications, 3 eviscerated broilers were randomly taken from a processing line in a local broiler processing plant. Ten swabs and 10 stomachs per bird were conducted on the left- and the right-side skins (10×7 cm), respectively, which were then finally ground. Results indicated that mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) in the first swabbed sample were significantly lower than those in the first stomached sample (P0.05). During 10 swabbings followed by final grinding, 8, 9, and 83% of MAB were detected after the first swabbing, after the second through 10th swabbings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. During 10 stomachings followed by the final grinding, 17, 18, and 65% of MAB were detected after the first stomaching, after the second through 10th stomachings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms were significantly higher in the first stomaching than those in the first swabbing (P0.05). Populations of E. coli and coliforms decreased step-wisely from the highest after grinding to the intermediate after first and second sampling, and to the least after 10th sampling (P<0.05), regardless of swabbing or grinding. In this study, less than 35% of MAB seemed loosely associated in the skin of eviscerated broiler, whereas more than 65% of MAB looked tightly associated, which were not recovered by stomaching or swabbing even 10 times but were recovered by grinding the skin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Methods to Improve the Extraction and Recovery of DNA from Cotton Swabs for Forensic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S.; Stasulli, Dominique M.; Sobestanovich, Emily M.; Bille, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol’s incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations. PMID:25549111

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of thymol, synbiotic and their combination on performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile of Hy-Line Brown hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wareth, A A A

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of thymol, synbiotic (Biomin, IMBO) and their combination in laying hen diets on laying performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile from 24 to 36 weeks of age. Treatment groups were fed on a control diet, the control diet supplemented with thymol (250 mg/kg), the control diet supplemented with synbiotic (250 mg/kg) or the control diet supplemented with a combination of thymol (250 mg/kg) and synbiotic (250 mg/kg). Supplementation of thymol and synbiotic, separately as well as combined, improved egg weight, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio from 24 to 36 weeks of age. The eggs obtained from thymol, synbiotic or their combination treatments displayed higher values of shell thickness, Haugh unit and shell percentage compared to the control. Serum cholesterol significantly decreased in the single or combined form of thymol and synbiotic supplementation treatments.

  11. Surge and swab pressures in wells with cross-section changes; Pressoes de surge and swab em pocos com variacao de secao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedevjcyk, Joao Victor; Junqueira, Silvio Luiz de Mello; Negrao, Cezar Otaviano Ribeiro [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR). Laboratorio de Ciencias Termicas (Lacit) (Brazil)], e-mails: silvio@utfpr.edu.br, negrao@utfpr.edu.br

    2009-12-15

    Well drilling is performed by rotating and applying a weighted drill bit to the geological formation. Well diameter variations and the use of drill pipe accessories might cause changes to the annular cross section space between the drill pipe and the borehole. It should be noted cross section changes influence pressure losses within the well. This study proposes a mathematical/ numerical model to simulate the surge and swab problem in wells with variable cross section areas. The fluid flow yielded by the drill pipe motion is considered to be one-dimensional, isothermal, compressible and transient. The proposed model features the mass and momentum conservation equations, along with a state equation and a constitutive equation for Bingham or Power Law fluids. The governing equations were discretized by the Finite Volume Method. The well is assumed to be impermeable and the drill pipe end to be closed. The results were compared to measured data obtained at the Taquipe experimental well with good agreement. Predictions can now be made as to how changes in cross section areas may significantly affect the transient surge and swab pressures. (author)

  12. Selenium enrichment of table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Cheng, K M

    2010-10-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element with a recommended dietary allowance for human adults of 55 μg/d. However, there is evidence that greater dietary intakes may have possible health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of cancer. Several studies have shown the feasibility of enriching eggs using organic Se and that Se-enriched eggs are an effective way to supplement human diets. However, few studies have examined the response of egg Se concentration to high (>1 μg/g) dietary organic Se intake by the laying hens. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of higher dietary organic Se levels on production, egg mass, and egg Se levels. These were assessed by feeding 3 breeds of laying hens (Barred Plymouth Rock, Lohmann Brown, Lohmann White) a basal diet containing 0.3 μg of Se/g of diet as Na2SeO3. Into this diet, Se yeast (SelenoSource AF 600), an organic source of Se, was added at 1.0, 2.4, or 5.1 μg of Se/g of diet for 4 wk. Feed consumption, egg production, and egg mass were not affected by the dietary Se concentration in all 3 breeds. Within the range of Se levels employed in the laying hens' diet, egg Se content increased linearly as dietary levels of Se increased. The results of this study indicate that feeding up to 5.1 µg/g of Se will not affect egg production and the welfare of the laying hen and is a practical way of producing Se-enriched eggs for the consumers.

  13. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items.

  14. Shells and Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  15. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...... imaginaries that shaped the Danish regulation on the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyze the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work and readings in Parliament along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that in time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current 5 years...

  16. Identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from German and Danish bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M.; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR).Findings: In total, 15 RT......-qPCR positive swabs were detected. Remarkably, sequencing of positive samples did not confirm the presence of bat associated lyssaviruses but revealed nine distinct novel rhabdovirus-related sequences. Conclusions: Several novel rhabdovirus-related sequences were detected both in German and Danish insectivorous...... bats. The results also prove that the novel generic pan-lyssavirus RT-qPCR offers a very broad detection range that allows the collection of further valuable data concerning the broad and complex diversity within the family Rhabdoviridae....

  17. Standards for the management of swabs, needles and instruments in the operating theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Astrop

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of swabs, needles and instruments in the operating theatre is a high-risk and problem-prone area for the operating theatre nurse. The purpose of this research is to formulate specific standards on the management of swabs, needles and instruments in the operating theatre to ensure the safety of the patient. An exploratory and descriptive research design was used and executed in 3 hospitals of a private hospital group in Gauteng. A structured two phase process was followed, ie the development phase and the validation phase. This last phase was done by means of deliberate debate. It is recommended that these standards be implemented, tested and validated on a national basis and a monitoring and evaluation system should be developed to ensure nursing compliance with these standards.

  18. Absence of Neisseria meningitidis from throat swabs of Kuwaiti pilgrims after returning from the Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Entesar H; Dashti, Ali A; Electricwala, Qudsiya Y; Abdulsamad, Abdulsamad M; Al-Sayegh, Safeya

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether or not Neisseria meningitidis was present in the throat of Kuwaiti pilgrims after returning from the Hajj. Throat swabs were taken from 177 participants 1 week after returning from the Hajj. The participants were asked about: associated medical conditions, meningococcal vaccination status and the intake of ciprofloxacin before leaving Mecca for Kuwait. There was no throat colonization with N. meningitidis on any of the throat swabs. Of the 177 pilgrims, 163 (92%) were vaccinated with meningococcal quadrivalent vaccine before leaving to Saudi Arabia. Ninety-seven of the pilgrims (83%) had received one dose of ciprofloxacin before leaving Mecca. The result showed that vaccination before leaving Kuwait and ciprofloxacin prophylaxis were effective in preventing throat colonization with Neisseria meningitidis. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Allergenicity of pasteurized whole raw Hen's egg compared with fresh whole raw Hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, Merryn; Donato, Adaweyah; Makrides, Maria; Gold, Michael; Quinn, Patrick; Penttila, Irmeli

    2015-05-01

    Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of egg allergy using fresh egg are common; however, to limit the risk of foodborne infection, many allergy units use pasteurized raw egg. Pasteurization and drying processes have the potential to affect the structure of egg proteins in egg powder and thus the allergenicity when compared to fresh egg. Our aim was to compare the binding of serum IgE from egg-allergic children to in vitro digested and undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder with unpasteurized fresh whole raw egg. Egg proteins from in vitro digested or undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder, fresh whole egg, egg white and egg yolk were separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane and incubated overnight with pooled sera from egg-allergic children. In both the raw egg samples and the pasteurized whole egg powder, protein bands corresponding to known molecular weights of the major egg allergens were present. Pasteurized whole raw egg powder was bound by serum IgE in a similar manner to unpasteurized whole raw egg and was unaffected by in vitro digestion. Serum IgE also bound egg yolk, indicating sensitization to both egg yolk and egg white proteins. The main egg allergens are present in pasteurized whole raw egg powder, and serum IgE of egg-allergic children binds to them in a similar pattern to those in fresh whole raw egg. Pasteurized whole raw egg powder is a suitable substitute for raw egg in clinical practice for oral food challenges. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  1. The Magnum-Isthmus Junction of the Fowl Oviduct Participates in the Formation of the Avian-type Shell Membrane(Morphology)

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Ming, Mao; Fowzia, Sultana; Abdur Rahman Howlider, Mohammad; Atsushi, Iwasawa; Norio, Yoshizaki; Department of Poultry Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University; Department of Animal Resource Production, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University

    2006-01-01

    Avian eggs possess a shell membrane in the shape of an asymmetrical ellipsoid and with a limiting membrane that is a smooth layer of homogeneous, dense materials. We describe the role of the magnum-isthmus junction (MIJ) of the oviduct in the formation of the avian-type shell membrane in the domestic fowl Gallus domesticus. The narrow width of the lumen at the MIJ indirectly participates in the determination of the asymmetrical ellipsoid shape of eggs that are encased by the egg-white layer a...

  2. Imperfect pathogen detection from non-invasive skin swabs biases disease inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRenzo, Graziella V.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Longo, Ana; Che-Castaldo, Christian; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Lips, Karen

    2018-01-01

    1. Conservation managers rely on accurate estimates of disease parameters, such as pathogen prevalence and infection intensity, to assess disease status of a host population. However, these disease metrics may be biased if low-level infection intensities are missed by sampling methods or laboratory diagnostic tests. These false negatives underestimate pathogen prevalence and overestimate mean infection intensity of infected individuals. 2. Our objectives were two-fold. First, we quantified false negative error rates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on non-invasive skin swabs collected from an amphibian community in El Copé, Panama. We swabbed amphibians twice in sequence, and we used a recently developed hierarchical Bayesian estimator to assess disease status of the population. Second, we developed a novel hierarchical Bayesian model to simultaneously account for imperfect pathogen detection from field sampling and laboratory diagnostic testing. We evaluated the performance of the model using simulations and varying sampling design to quantify the magnitude of bias in estimates of pathogen prevalence and infection intensity. 3. We show that Bd detection probability from skin swabs was related to host infection intensity, where Bd infections caused by skin swabs in persisting host communities with low-level infections. More generally, our results have implications for study designs in other disease systems, particularly those with similar objectives, biology, and sampling decisions. 4. Uncertainty in pathogen detection is an inherent property of most sampling protocols and diagnostic tests, where the magnitude of bias depends on the study system, type of infection, and false negative error rates. Given that it may be difficult to know this information in advance, we advocate that the most cautious approach is to assume all errors are possible and to accommodate them by adjusting sampling designs. The modeling framework presented here improves the accuracy in

  3. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  4. Nasal swab real-time PCR is not suitable for in vivo diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Q. Mayer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a zoonosis causing economic losses and public health risks in many countries. The disease diagnosis in live animals is performed by intradermal tuberculin test, which is based on delayed hypersensitivity reactions. As tuberculosis has complex immune response, this test has limitations in sensitivity and specificity. This study sought to test an alternative approach for in vivo diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. DNA samples, extracted from nasal swabs of live cows, were used for SYBR® Green real-time PCR, which is able to differentiate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the results of tuberculin test, the in vivo gold standard bTB diagnosis method, with real-time PCR, thereby determining the specificity and sensitivity of molecular method. Cervical comparative test (CCT was performed in 238 animals, of which 193 had suitable DNA from nasal swabs for molecular analysis, as indicated by amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene, and were included in the study. In total, 25 (10.5% of the animals were CCT reactive, of which none was positive in the molecular test. Of the 168 CCT negative animals, four were positive for M. tuberculosis complex at real time PCR from nasal swabs. The comparison of these results generated values of sensitivity and specificity of 0% and 97.6%, respectively; moreover, low coefficients of agreement and correlation (-0.029 and -0.049, respectively between the results obtained with both tests were also observed. This study showed that real-time PCR from nasal swabs is not suitable for in vivo diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis; thus tuberculin skin test is still the best option for this purpose.

  5. Detection of strep throat causing bacterium directly from medical swabs by touch spray - mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jarmusch, Alan K.; Pirro, Valentina; Kerian, Kevin S.; Cooks, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Strep throat causing Streptococcus pyogenes was detected in vitro and in simulated clinical samples by performing touch spray ionization - mass spectrometry. MS analysis took only seconds to reveal characteristic bacterial and human lipids. Medical swabs were used as the substrate for ambient ionization. This work constitutes the initial step in developing a noninvasive MS-based test for clinical diagnosis of strep throat. It is limited to the single species, S. pyogenes, which is responsible...

  6. Detection of Brucella spp. in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus by a real-time PCR using blowhole swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingzhong; Conway, Jessica; Phillips, Kristen M; Stolen, Megan; Durden, Wendy N; Fauquier, Deborah; McFee, Wayne E; Schwacke, Lori

    2016-08-09

    Blowhole swabs are a simple and non-invasive method for collecting samples from cetaceans and can be used for screening large numbers of animals in the field. This study reports a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp. using blowhole swab samples from bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus stranded in the coastal region of Virginia, South Carolina and northern Florida, USA, between 2013 and 2015. We used real-time PCR results on lung samples from the same dolphins in order to estimate the relative sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR of blowhole swabs. Brucella DNA was detected in lung tissue of 22% (18/81) and in blowhole swabs of 21% (17/81) of the sampled dolphins. The relative sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR on blowhole swabs as compared to the real-time PCR on lung samples was 94% (17/18) and 100% (63/63), respectively. These results indicate that real-time PCR on blowhole swabs may be used as a non-invasive test for rapid detection of Brucella spp. in the respiratory tract of dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of blowhole swabs for detection of bacterial pathogens by real-time PCR in bottlenose dolphins.

  7. Validation of a Nylon-Flocked-Swab Protocol for Efficient Recovery of Bacterial Spores from Smooth and Rough Surfaces▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet planetary-protection requirements, culturable bacterial spore loads are measured representatively for the total microbial contamination of spacecraft. However, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) cotton swab protocols for spore load determination have not changed for decades. To determine whether a more efficient alternative was available, a novel swab was evaluated for recovery of different Bacillus atrophaeus spore concentrations on stainless steel and other surfaces. Two protocols for the nylon-flocked swab (NFS) were validated and compared to the present NASA standard protocol. The results indicate that the novel swab protocols recover 3- to 4-fold more (45.4% and 49.0% recovery efficiency) B. atrophaeus spores than the NASA standard method (13.2%). Moreover, the nylon-flocked-swab protocols were superior in recovery efficiency for spores of seven different Bacillus species, including Bacillus anthracis Sterne (recovery efficiency, 20%). The recovery efficiencies for B. atrophaeus spores from different surfaces showed a variation from 5.9 to 62.0%, depending on the roughness of the surface analyzed. Direct inoculation of the swab resulted in a recovery rate of about 80%, consistent with the results of scanning electron micrographs that allowed detailed comparisons of the two swab types. The results of this investigation will significantly contribute to the cleanliness control of future life detection missions and will provide significant improvement in detection of B. anthracis contamination for law enforcement and security efforts. PMID:20543054

  8. Evaluation of a PCR test for detection of treponema pallidum in swabs and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, P A; Gressier, L; Dion, P L; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J P; Deleuze, J; Pantoja, C; Bianchi, A; Lassau, F; Avril, M F; Janier, M; Dupin, N

    2012-03-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis.

  9. Noninvasive buccal swab antigen sample and molecular testing provides extended antigen typing for patients with hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Angeli; Hampton, Kisha; Duncan, Natalie; Roberson, Chris; Slayten, Jayanna; Davisson, Suzanne; Aronowitz, Jessica; Shapiro, Amy

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of performing a noninvasive, molecular-based red blood cell (RBC) antigen test on infants and very young children with sickle cell disease as part of a statewide newborn screening follow-up program. A prospective pilot project was conducted using a noninvasive buccal swab and test kit to perform DNA-based, extended RBC phenotyping in 92 children participating in a newborn hemoglobinopathy screening follow-up program. Reported data include the extended panel of antigens detected by molecular analysis compared with unaffected population estimates. Molecular-based RBC antigen testing was successful, with extended RBC typing generated for all subjects. Molecular testing detected several rare negative or rare positive phenotypes, demonstrating the utility of obtaining an extended antigen panel. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing antigen testing on buccal swab specimens from children with sickle cell disease as part of a newborn screening follow-up program with the aim of allowing specific unit matching to prevent alloimmunization with RBC transfusions. The general applicability of testing may be limited by a lack of uniform insurance coverage for buccal swab testing, however. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abdominal fibrosarcoma associated with a retained surgical swab in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, E L; Scudamore, C L; Francis, I; Schöniger, S

    2010-07-01

    An abdominal fibrosarcoma surrounding a retained surgical swab was identified in a 3-year-old neutered female rottweiler dog presented with chronic inappetence and lethargy. Laparotomy revealed a mass within the omentum, multiple hepatic masses and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. The dog was humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination. Microscopically, the omental mass was consistent with a sarcoma surrounding centrally located fibres of foreign material and was infiltrated by epithelioid macrophages containing intracytoplasmic fibre fragments. Sarcoma tissue was also present in mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs, and some affected lymph nodes contained intralesional epithelioid macrophages with fibre fragments. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopical examinations were consistent with a diagnosis of fibrosarcoma. By fibre analysis and electron microscopy, the intratumoural fibres were identified as cotton fibres with features identical to those obtained from a surgical swab. To our knowledge this is the first description of an abdominal fibrosarcoma associated with a retained surgical swab in a dog. Other examples of foreign body-associated sarcomas in the veterinary literature are vaccine- and implant-induced sarcomas. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  12. Uterine and eggshell structure and histochemistry in a lizard with prolonged uterine egg retention (Lacertilia, Scincidae, Saiphos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Mathieson, Ashley N; Ecay, Tom W; Herbert, Jacquie F; Parker, Scott L; Thompson, Michael B

    2010-11-01

    The eggshell of lizards is a complex structure composed of organic and inorganic molecules secreted by the oviduct, which protects the embryo by providing a barrier to the external environment and also allows the exchange of respiratory gases and water for life support. Calcium deposited on the surface of the eggshell provides an important nutrient source for the embryo. Variation in physical conditions encountered by eggs results in a tradeoff among these functions and influences eggshell structure. Evolution of prolonged uterine egg retention results in a significant change in the incubation environment, notably reduction in efficiency of gas exchange, and selection should favor a concomitant reduction in eggshell thickness. This model is supported by studies that demonstrate an inverse correlation between eggshell thickness and length of uterine egg retention. One mechanism leading to thinning of the eggshell is reduction in size of uterine shell glands. Saiphos equalis is an Australian scincid lizard with an unusual pattern of geographic variation in reproductive mode. All populations retain eggs in the uterus beyond the embryonic stage at oviposition typical for lizards, and some are viviparous. We compared structure and histochemistry of the uterus and eggshell of two populations of S. equalis, prolonged egg retention, and viviparous to test the hypotheses: 1) eggshell thickness is inversely correlated with length of egg retention and 2) eggshell thickness is positively correlated with size of shell glands. We found support for the first hypothesis but also found that eggshells of both populations are surprisingly thick compared with other lizards. Our histochemical data support prior conclusions that uterine shell glands are the source of protein fiber matrix of the eggshell, but we did not find a correlation between size of shell glands and eggshell thickness. Eggshell thickness is likely determined by density of uterine shell glands in this species.

  13. Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in pregnant women by using combined swab cultures: cross-sectional prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marconi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Maternal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and early-onset neonatal sepsis have aroused interest in the worldwide literature. Streptococcal neonatal disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period, especially among premature neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of maternal streptococcal colonization by using combined swab cultures, compared with swab collection from a single site. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 405 patients at gestational ages of 35 to 37 weeks. Swabs from the perianal (rectal region, vaginal introitus and upper lateral vaginal vault were cultured in Todd-Hewitt selective broth. Colonies suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae were subjected to the catalase and CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen tests. To evaluate the positivity of combined swab cultures, Tukey's test was used for comparison of proportions. RESULTS: The prevalence of streptococcal colonization was 25.4%. Among the patients with positive cultures, 28.1% had this at only one collection site, 24.2% simultaneously at two sites and 47.5% at all three sites. Associating the swabs from two collection sites significantly increased streptococcal isolation, compared with a single swab (P < 0.05, except for perianal (rectal collection. Use of combined swabs from three collection sites showed statistically higher isolation rates. CONCLUSION: In combined swab cultures collected from three collection sites, the prevalence of maternal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization was higher than in swabs collected from a single site.

  14. Effect Of Fish Oil Alone or In Combination With Tomato Powder Supplementation In Feed On Egg Quality of Local Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Andri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks. Fivety 28-weeks old female local ducks with initial egg production of 4 days before research was 55.00 + 4.08% (coefficient of variation 7.42% were randomly distributed to five treatments with 2 repetition and 5 birds of each. The treatmens were T0: basal feed (control; T1: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil ; T2: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil; T3: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder; T4: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder. Variable observed in this research were egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova based on Completely Randomized Design, if significant effect appear was then continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that there were no significant effect (P>0.05 of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight of local ducks. The conclusion of this research is that there was no effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks.

  15. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  16. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    Human worm infections have, to a large extent, been eradicated in countries with high sanitary standards by preventing the fecal-oral transmission of infective eggs. It is possible to study parasite infections among past populations by retrieving and analyzing parasite eggs using...... paleoparasitological techniques such as morphological examination and molecular identification. Hard-shelled parasite eggs can be recovered from the environment even after extended periods of time and they have shown to be excellent reservoirs of ancient DNA (aDNA). aDNA analysis has enabled identifying which species...... of parasite an egg originates from. This is impossible solely using morphological examination. One example is the whipworm, Trichuris spp. that is known to have narrow host ranges, which makes it particularly suited to determine from which host an egg originates. A case study will be presented, in which...

  17. Spatial distribution and hatching of overwintered eggs of a fish ectoparasite, Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V N; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T; Lankinen, Y

    2001-09-12

    The habitat distribution of overwintered eggs, which were found to be the only source of spring recruitment of Argulus coregoni Thorell, was studied at a commercial fish farm in Central Finland. The frequency of occurrence of egg clutches in the deep parts of the canals and ponds was 50 to 80% and the percentage cover of the surface of stones with egg clutches was 1.7 to 6.4%, while in the shallow parts these values were 8 to 27% and 0.1 to 0.3%, respectively. A greater proportion of empty egg-shells was observed in shallow water in the mid-May, suggesting an earlier hatching there stimulated by the increased temperature and higher illumination. Under laboratory conditions, only elevated UV illumination, but not diurnally fluctuating temperature, significantly accelerated hatching. Normally overwintered eggs produced a pronounced peak of hatched larvae at the end of May and hatching continued at a much slower rate throughout the summer. Eggs that overwintered twice, first normally and then for a second time buried under sediments, were exposed to the same laboratory conditions simultaneously with normally overwintered eggs, but their hatching was delayed until August. The hatching rate was low, but markedly increased in December.

  18. Biological Effects of Low Energy Ar+ Ion Bombardment on Silkworm Eggs: a Novel Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaping; Wu, Yuejin; Liu, Xuelan; Yuan, Hang; Yu, Zengliang

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we found for the first time that silkworm eggs were able to survive in vacuum for a long period of time. Subsequently, low energy Ar+ ions with different energies and fluences were used to bombard silkworm eggs so as to explore the resulting biological effects. Results showed that (i) the exposure of silkworm eggs to vacuum within 10 min did not cause significant impact on the hatching rates, while the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 25 keV or 30 keV with fluences ranging from 2.6×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 to 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 caused a significant impact on the hatching rates, and the hatching rates decreased with the increase in the fluence and energy level; (ii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 or 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 resulted in a noticeable etching on the egg shell surface which could be observed by a scanning electron microscope; and (iii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 generated several mutant phenotypes which were observed in the 5th instar silkworms and a moth.

  19. Metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) in the Lower Illinois River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfonas, Anna E; Tucker, John K; Brunkow, Paul E; Johnson, Kevin A; Hussein, Hussein S; Lin, Zhi-Qing

    2006-03-01

    The Illinois River is a highly utilized navigable waterway in the US Midwest, and has historically been contaminated with metal toxicants from various industrial and municipal pollution sources. Little information on metal contamination is available in the Lower Illinois River, and in particular, in the habitat of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) at the southern end of the river near Grafton, IL. This study was conducted to determine current levels of metal contamination in water, sediment, soil, and plants in the habitat, as well as to reveal temporal and spatial variations of metal accumulation in eggs of the red-eared slider. Aluminum, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Sn, and Zn were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy. High concentrations of metals were observed in lake sediment, compared with the concentrations in water, soil, and plant tissues. Sediment Ni concentrations (mg kg(-1)) varied from 66 to 95 and Sn from 1100 to 1600. Five detectable metals in egg content were Zn (24.2 +/- 13), Al (2.2 +/- 1.2), Sn (1.8 +/- 1.1), Mn (1.1 +/- 0.6), and Cu (0.9 +/- 0.5); nine detectable metals in egg shell were Zn (6.8 +/- 3.9), Sn (3.7 +/- 3.1), Cu (1.9 +/- 1.3), Cr (1.6 +/- 1.5), V (1.6 +/- 1.4), Pb (1.3 +/- 0.7), Ni (1.3 +/- 0.9), Mn (1.0 +/- 0.8), and Cd (0.16 +/- 0.11). Zinc accumulation in egg content was significantly correlated with Zn in egg shell (r = 0.445, P < 0.002, n = 42). While significant spatial variation was observed in egg shell, metal accumulation in eggs (content and shell) collected from the same ground of turtles consecutively for 4 years did not show a significant temporal change.

  20. Primary health clinic toilet/bathroom surface swab sampling can indicate community profile of sexually transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiunn-Yih; Andersson, Patiyan; Holt, Deborah C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The microbiome of built environment surfaces is impacted by the presence of humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that analysis of surface swabs from clinic toilet/bathroom yields results correlated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) notifications from corresponding human populations. We extended a previously reported study in which surfaces in toilet/bathroom facilities in primary health clinics in the Australian Northern Territory (NT) were swabbed then tested for nucleic acid from the STI agents Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. This was in the context of assessing the potential for such nucleic acid to contaminate specimens collected in such facilities. STIs are notifiable in the NT, thus allowing comparison of swab and notification data. Methods An assumption in the design was that while absolute built environment loads of STI nucleic acids will be a function of patient traffic density and facility cleaning protocols, the relative loads of STI nucleic acids from different species will be largely unaffected by these processes. Another assumption was that the proportion of swabs testing positive for STIs provides a measure of surface contamination. Accordingly, “STI profiles” were calculated. These were the proportions that each of the three STIs of interest contributed to the summed STI positive swabs or notifications. Three comparisons were performed, using swab data from clinics in remote Indigenous communities, clinics in small-medium towns, and a single urban sexual health clinic. These data were compared with time and place-matched STI notifications. Results There were significant correlations between swab and notifications data for the both the remote Indigenous and regional data. For the remote Indigenous clinics the p values ranged from 0.041 to 0.0089, depending on data transformation and p value inference method. Further, the swab data appeared to strongly indicate known higher

  1. Primary health clinic toilet/bathroom surface swab sampling can indicate community profile of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Philip M; Su, Jiunn-Yih; Andersson, Patiyan; Holt, Deborah C

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome of built environment surfaces is impacted by the presence of humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that analysis of surface swabs from clinic toilet/bathroom yields results correlated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) notifications from corresponding human populations. We extended a previously reported study in which surfaces in toilet/bathroom facilities in primary health clinics in the Australian Northern Territory (NT) were swabbed then tested for nucleic acid from the STI agents Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. This was in the context of assessing the potential for such nucleic acid to contaminate specimens collected in such facilities. STIs are notifiable in the NT, thus allowing comparison of swab and notification data. An assumption in the design was that while absolute built environment loads of STI nucleic acids will be a function of patient traffic density and facility cleaning protocols, the relative loads of STI nucleic acids from different species will be largely unaffected by these processes. Another assumption was that the proportion of swabs testing positive for STIs provides a measure of surface contamination. Accordingly, "STI profiles" were calculated. These were the proportions that each of the three STIs of interest contributed to the summed STI positive swabs or notifications. Three comparisons were performed, using swab data from clinics in remote Indigenous communities, clinics in small-medium towns, and a single urban sexual health clinic. These data were compared with time and place-matched STI notifications. There were significant correlations between swab and notifications data for the both the remote Indigenous and regional data. For the remote Indigenous clinics the p values ranged from 0.041 to 0.0089, depending on data transformation and p value inference method. Further, the swab data appeared to strongly indicate known higher relative prevalence of gonorrhoeae

  2. Eggshell porosity covaries with egg size among female House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) but is unrelated to incubation onset and egg-laying order within clutches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E.K.; White, A.; Lang, A.; Podgorski, L.; Thompson, C.F.; Sakaluk, S.K.; Jaeckle, W.B.; Harper, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    In birds, the duration of egg incubation (the time from incubation onset to hatching) can affect multiple components of nest success, but what affects incubation duration? Previous studies suggest that incubation duration is affected by both parental behavior and components of the egg, which have yet to be determined. One egg component that may be related to incubation behavior and the time until hatching is eggshell porosity, which affects the exchange of metabolic gasses and water vapor across the shell and, thus, the speed of embryonic development and incubation duration. We tested whether eggshell porosity was associated with the timing of incubation onset by female House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, 1809), and whether porosity varied within clutches in a manner that might be associated with incubation periods and hatching patterns (i.e., synchronous vs. asynchronous hatching). Eggshell porosity was unrelated to the onset of maternal incubation and did not differ between early and later-laid eggs within clutches, but differed significantly among females and covaried with egg size. We conclude that producing all eggshells of similar porosity within clutches, while adjusting incubation onset once most or all eggs are laid, provide facultative maternal control over variation in hatching patterns. PMID:26146408

  3. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free-range egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guard, J Y

    2012-05-01

    There is a desire by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell-egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study was conducted to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter on and within eggs and in the environment of a sister flock of conventional cage and free-range laying hens. Microbial sampling occurred approximately every 6 wk between 20 and 79 wk of age. A random sampling of typical coliform colonies produced 371 viable isolates for biochemical identification. Twenty-nine genera or species of bacteria were identified. There was a significantly greater (P Listeria innocua were detected with no significant difference in prevalence between the treatments. Isolates were associated with eggshells (2 free-range floor, 1 cage) and the free-range environment (2 nest box, 2 grass). There were 21 Salmonella isolates detected between all sample locations, with no significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella detection between the treatments. Additional studies are needed to fully understand the effect of alternative production methods on the prevalence of pathogens and coliforms associated with nest-run eggs and the production environment.

  4. Effect of thermal stress on fertility and egg quality of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S

    2016-10-01

    Heat stress is one of the major causes of a decreased performance of laying quail in tropical and subtropical countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature humidity index (THI) on fertility aspects, external and internal egg quality parameters in Japanese quail. One hundred and forty four (144) Japanese quail, 12 of weeks age, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, lower than 70), H 1 (at moderate THI, 70-75) and H 2 (at high THI, 76-80). Quail in the control and H 1 groups had significant greater fertility (p=0.021) and hatchability % (p=0.037), compared with H 2 group. Quail in the control group (at low THI) laid heavier egg weight with a higher external (egg weight (p=0.03), shell thickness, shell weight, eggshell ratio and eggshell density (p=0.001)) and internal egg quality score (albumin weight (p=0.026), yolk height (p=0.003), yolk index (p=0.039) and Haugh unit (p=0.001)). Otherwise, such quality traits were compromised in heat-stressed quail. At the high THI level, egg weight had a significant positive correlation with albumin weight (r=0.58, pegg quality traits, indicating a detrimental policy of economic income. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  6. Bacterial contamination of eggs and behaviour of poultry flocks in the free range environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Talia; Drake, Kelly; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil; Hazel, Susan

    2016-12-01

    The free range production system is becoming more common in Australia and is expected to increase. Free range hens are exposed to more stressors in comparison to hens from barn and cage systems and it is suggested that stress can increase bacterial shedding on eggs. The aims of this study were to examine the level of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae populations, as well as the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, in eggs collected from two free range flocks on two different farms and to conduct longitudinal observations of the behaviour and welfare of hens in the free range production system. Hen age (weeks) was shown to have a significant effect (increase) on the level of total bacteria on the egg shell surface and in shell pores, as well as having an effect on feather condition score. As the hens aged, the frequency of external visual egg characteristics increased, as did feather condition score (where feather condition was poorer). These observations indicate areas which should be investigated further to improve the food safety of eggs and optimise the welfare of free range hens. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ensuring safety of home-produced eggs to control salmonellosis in Poland: lessons from an outbreak in September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielicka-Hardy, A; Zarowna, D; Szych, J; Madajczak, G; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-11-22

    Implementation of control measures in line with European Commission regulations has led to a decrease in salmonellosis in the European Union since 2004. However, control programmes do not address laying hens whose eggs are produced for personal consumption or local sale. This article reports an investigatxion of a salmonellosis outbreak linked to home-produced eggs following a family event held in a farm in September 2011 near Warsaw, Poland. In the outbreak, 34 people developed gastroenteritis symptoms. Results from a cohort study indicated a cake, prepared from raw home-produced eggs, as the vehicle of the outbreak. Laboratory analysis identified Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in stool samples or rectal swabs from 18 of 24 people and in two egg samples. As no food items remained, we used phage typing to link the source of the outbreak with the isolated strains. Seven S. Enteritidis strains analysed (five from attendees and two from eggs) were phage type 21c. Our findings resulted in culling of the infected laying hens and symptomatic pigeons housed next to the hens. Salmonella poses as a public health problem in Poland: control measures should not forget home-produced eggs, as there is a risk of infection from their consumption.

  8. Egg laying of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae on Arabidopsis thaliana affects subsequent performance of the larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Geiselhardt

    Full Text Available Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant--herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants. Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2 , a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content.

  9. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  10. From shell logs to shell scripts

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Nico; Blockeel, Hendrik

    2001-01-01

    Analysing the use of a Unix command shell is one of the classic applications in the domain of adaptive user interfaces and user modelling. Instead of trying to predict the next command from a history of commands, we automatically produce scripts that automate frequent tasks. For this we use an ILP association rule learner. We show how to speedup the learning task by dividing it into smaller tasks, and the need for a preprocessing phase to detect frequent subsequences in the data. We illustrat...

  11. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.105 Dried... recognized as safe within the meaning of section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The... food for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section is “Dried eggs” or...

  12. Fabrication of diamond shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard

    2016-11-01

    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  13. Sensational spherical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

  14. Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell structure and proteoglycan localization and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M S; Arias, J I; Neira-Carrillo, A; Arias, J L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative analyzes of biomineralization models have being crucial for the understanding of the functional properties of biominerals and the elucidation of the processes through which biomacromolecules control the synthesis and structural organization of inorganic mineral-based biomaterials. Among calcium carbonate-containing bioceramics, egg, mollusk and echinoderm shells, and crustacean carapaces, have being fairly well characterized. However, Thoraceca barnacles, although being crustacea, showing molting cycle, build a quite stable and heavily mineralized shell that completely surround the animal, which is for life firmly cemented to the substratum. This makes barnacles an interesting model for studying processes of biomineralization. Here we studied the main microstructural and ultrastructural features of Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell, characterize the occurrence of specific proteoglycans (keratan-, dermatan- and chondroitin-6-sulfate proteoglycans) in different soluble and insoluble organic fractions extracted from the shell, and tested them for their ability to crystallize calcium carbonate in vitro. Our results indicate that, in the barnacle model, proteoglycans are good candidates for the modification of the calcite crystal morphology, although the cooperative effect of some additional proteins in the shell could not be excluded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neena; Kanwar, Deepia

    2014-05-01

    To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, Rattus rattus (R. rattus). Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm. In bi-choice tests, significantly (Pegg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  16. Uptake of radiolabeled 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl into Japanese quail egg compartments and embryo following air cell and albumen injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Karen M; Baltos, Leah D; Marcell, Allegra M; Bohannon, Meredith E B; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    The avian embryo is an excellent model for testing adverse developmental effects of environmental chemicals as well as uptake and movement of xenobiotics within the egg compartments. Before incubation at embryonic day 0, 14 C 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl ( 14 C PCB 77) was injected into Japanese quail eggs either onto the air cell or into the albumen. All egg components were collected on embryonic day 1, 5, or 10, and concentrations of 14 C PCB 77 were measured in various egg components (shell, membrane, yolk, albumen, and embryo). The results showed measurable 14 C PCB 77 in all egg components, with changing concentrations in each egg component over the course of embryonic development. Specifically, concentrations in the shell content decreased between embryonic days 1 and 10, increased in albumen from embryonic days 1 to 5 and then decreased at embryonic day 10, and increased in both yolk and embryo from embryonic days 1 to 10. Vehicle and injection site both influenced 14 C PCB 77 allantoic fluid concentrations, with little effect on other egg components except for the inner shell membrane. The fatty acid vehicle injected into the albumen yielded the highest 14 C PCB 77 recovery. These findings demonstrate dynamic movement of toxicants throughout the egg components during avian embryonic development and a steady increase of relatively low levels of 14 C PCB 77 in the embryo compared with the yolk, albumen, and shell, suggesting that embryonic uptake (i.e., exposure) mirrors utilization of egg components for nutrition and growth during development. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:126-135. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Culture-independent qunatification of Salmonella enterica in carcass gauze swabs by flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Schelin, Jenny; Norling, Börje

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate quantitative risk assessment in the meat production chain, there is a need for culture-independent quantification methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of flotation, a non-destructive sample preparation method based on traditional buoyant density centrifugation......, for culture-independent quantification of intact Salmonella in pig carcass gauze swabs (100 cm2) prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). A novel approach was investigated, excluding the homogenization step prior to flotation, to improve the detection limit and speed up the quantification procedure. The buoyant...... concentrations of ≥ 6.1×108 CFU/swab sample, but not by concentrations ≤ 6.1×106 CFU/swab sample. By using the gauze swabs directly in the flotation procedure, the homogenization step normally used for preparation of food-related samples could be excluded, which simplified the culture independent quantification...

  18. Skin testing with raw egg does not predict tolerance to baked egg in egg-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P J; Kumar, K; Fox, A T

    2014-11-01

    Most children with egg allergy tolerate egg in baked foods, such as cake, but tolerance cannot be predicted with conventional allergy testing. We hypothesized that the skin prick test (SPT) wheal to unprocessed raw egg might predict tolerance of baked egg at formal oral food challenge (OFC). We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the utility of SPT wheal to egg extract (EE), raw egg (RE), and the ratio of EE:RE in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC in children presenting to our tertiary referral centers with a physician diagnosis of egg allergy and following complete egg avoidance in their diet, between 2009 and 2013. OFC were performed following a standardized protocol using baked egg in cake, to a total dose equivalent to 3g egg protein. Data were analyzed from 186 completed challenges: OFC was positive in 64 (34%) children and negative in 122 (66%). Six children experienced anaphylaxis at OFC. Children tolerant to baked egg were more likely to have a lower SPT to egg extract/raw egg and EE:RE (median 0.56) than their allergic counterparts (0.70, p raw egg and EE:ER equal to 0.71, 0.63 and 0.60, respectively. EE:RE was not helpful in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC. Indeed, SPT to egg extract was slightly better at predicting outcome than either SPT to raw egg or EE:RE. Unfortunately, tolerance to baked egg can only be predicted from previous history or through controlled exposure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison of urine samples and penile swabs for detection of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative Dutch men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Fleur; Wolffs, Petra; Brink, Antoinette; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole; Quint, Wim; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Hoebe, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Penile swab sampling is the method of choice when testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in men. Urine sampling is already used in routine sexually transmitted infections (STI) diagnostics and could provide a less invasive sampling method in men to detect HPV. Therefore we compared detection of HPV types in urine samples and penile swabs by the highly sensitive SPF10-LiPA25 system. First void urine and self-obtained penile swab samples were collected from 120 men, with a mean age of 29.4 years, visiting a STI clinic in South Limburg, the Netherlands. In total 111 of 120 men were included in the analysis. Broad-spectrum HPV DNA amplification and mucosal HPV genotyping were performed using the SPF10 DEIA-LiPA25 system (SPF10 HPV LiPA, V.1). In total 75 (68%) men were positive for HPV in the combined analysis. Sixty-six (59%) paired samples were concordant in being positive or negative. In 39% of the men HPV DNA was detected only in the penile swab. In 2% of the men HPV DNA was detected only in the urine sample. Considering penile swabs as the gold standard, a sensitivity of 41% (95% CI 30% to 53%) and a specificity of 95% (95% CI 81% to 99%) was found. In 6 (5%) urines high risk types were repeatedly found that were not detected in the matching swab. Urine samples are not comparable to penile swabs in the detection of HPV in men. However, the addition of urine samples to penile swabs could be of use in epidemiological or clearance studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Sanitation of chicken eggs by ionizing radiation: HACCP and inactivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, S.C. E-mail: sandracv@itn.mces.pt; Tenreiro, R.; Botelho, M.L

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the application of irradiation technology to chicken eggs in order to get a product free of pathogenic microorganisms. Bioburden values of eggs from chickens of different ages (n=150) were found to not be significantly different (p<0.05) and an average value of (2.0{+-}0.3). 10{sup 5} cfu/egg was obtained for the shell. Two major microbial groups were characterized in the egg's natural microbiota, no Salmonella or Campylobacter were detected. HACCP studies indicated the feed as a critical point. Dosimetry studies were carried out in a {gamma} facility to find the best geometry and dose rate for irradiation. Whole eggs were artificially contaminated with reference strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni and irradiated in the {gamma} facility at sub-lethal doses (0.2-1 kGy) with a dose rate of 1.0 kGy/h. D{sub value} varied between 0.31-0.26 kGy and 0.20-0.19 kGy in S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, and between 0.21-0.18 kGy and 0.07-0.09 in C. coli and C. jejuni, for shell and yolk+white. Using sub-lethal doses up to 5 kGy, the D{sub value} of natural microbiota in whole eggs was 1.29 kGy. Results show that low irradiation doses could guarantee egg sanitation.

  1. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  2. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  3. Proteome changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fertilized eggs as an effect of triploidization heat-shock treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Dorafshan, Salar; Johari, Seyed Ali

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore proteome changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fertilized eggs as an effect of triploidization heat-shock treatment. Eggs and milt were taken from eight females and six males. The gametes were pooled to minimize the individual differences. After insemination, the eggs were incubated at 10°C for 10min. Half of the fertilized eggs were then subjected to heat shock for 10min submerged in a 28°C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder were incubated normally and used as diploid controls. Three batches of eggs were randomly selected from each group and were incubated at 10-11°C under the same environmental conditions in hatchery troughs until the fry stage. Triplicate samples of 30 eggs (10 eggs per trough) from each group were randomly selected 1.5h post-fertilization for proteome extraction. Egg proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Based on the results from the statistical analyses, 15 protein spots were found to decrease significantly in abundance in heat-shock treated group and were selected for identification. Out of 15 protein spots showing altered abundance, 14 spots were successfully identified. All of the egg proteins identified in our study were related to vitellogenin (vtg). Decreased abundance of vitellogenin in heat-shock treated eggs in our study may either be explained by (i) higher utilization of vtg as an effect of increased cell size in triploids or (ii) changed metabolism in response to heat-shock stress and (iii) diffusion of vtg through chorion due to incidence of egg shell damage. Decreased abundance of vitellogenin in heat-shock treated eggs was associated with reduced early survival rates and lowered growth performance of triploid fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Screening femoral heads from living donors: a prospective study comparing swab-agar versus bone fragment-broth culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegeman, Veroniek; Verhaegen, Jan; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Femoral heads are an important source of allograft bone used in reconstructive orthopaedic surgery. The sterility of donor material is of major importance for the recipient. Femoral heads intraoperatively retrieved during hip arthroplasty from medically screened living donors are routinely checked with a surface swab to exclude microbiological contamination. There is, however, evidence that swab cultures have limited sensitivity. We therefore prospectively compared two ways of screening femoral heads. Bacterial recovery from swabs in Amies transport medium taken intraoperatively, subsequently transported to the microbiology laboratory and inoculated on agar and in broth was compared with the recovery from a bone fragment also taken intraoperatively but immediately inoculated into Wilkins Chalgren broth. Forty femoral heads were tested with both methods. Bacteria were cultured neither from the femoral surface swabs nor from the femoral fragments. Consequently no distinct conclusions regarding the sensitivity of both techniques could be drawn. In addition the bacterial yield of two swabs in Amies transport medium streaked on a variety of culture media other than the conventional agar plates was also studied. Culturing of these swabs resulted in the detection of bacteria that are predominantly considered contaminants.

  6. Observational study of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from vaginal swabs of adult women in a hospital and community laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Arlo; Taylor, Susan

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a common cause of vulvo-vaginitis in pre-pubertal females but is uncommonly isolated from the vaginal swabs of adult females. We aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory findings of adult females with GAS isolated from vaginal swabs in a community and hospital laboratory. Over a 19 week period the two laboratories identified females ≥ 15 years of age with GAS isolated from vaginal swabs. At least 2 weeks after reporting, the referring doctor or midwife was telephoned by the authors for clinical information or the clinical notes were reviewed. Laboratory data were also collected. One hundred adult females with GAS isolated from vaginal swabs were identified from approximately 4500-5000 community laboratory, and 20 from approximately 2000 hospital laboratory swabs. Community patients were more likely to have presented with vaginal symptoms such as discharge, while hospital patients were more likely to have ascending infection related to pregnancy/recent delivery. Of the community patients, 15% were asymptomatic compared with 5% of the hospital patients. Review of Gram stain and culture quantification was not found to be particularly useful for discriminating between clinical infection and asymptomatic colonisation. Isolation of GAS from the vaginal swabs of adult females is uncommon. In the community setting it may represent infection with vulvo-vaginitis or asymptomatic colonisation. In the hospital setting, its isolation is frequently associated with pregnancy-related infectious complications.

  7. Inactivation of single-celled Ascaris suum eggs by low-pressure UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sarah A; Nelson, Kara L

    2006-03-01

    Intact and decorticated single-celled Ascaris suum eggs were exposed to UV radiation from low-pressure, germicidal lamps at fluences (doses) ranging from 0 to 8,000 J/m2 for intact eggs and from 0 to 500 J/m2 for decorticated eggs. With a UV fluence of 500 J/m2, 0.44-+/-0.20-log inactivation (mean+/-95% confidence interval) (63.7%) of intact eggs was observed, while a fluence of 4,000 J/m2 resulted in 2.23-+/-0.49-log inactivation (99.4%). (The maximum quantifiable inactivation was 2.5 log units.) Thus, according to the methods used here, Ascaris eggs are the most UV-resistant water-related pathogen identified to date. For the range of fluences recommended for disinfecting drinking water and wastewater (200 to 2,000 J/m2), from 0- to 1.5-log inactivation can be expected, although at typical fluences (less than 1,000 J/m2), the inactivation may be less than 1 log. When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80-+/-0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation. This protection may have been due to UV absorption by proteins in the outer layers of the 3- to 4-microm-thick eggshell. Stirring alone (without UV exposure) also inactivated some of the Ascaris eggs (approximately 20% after 75 min), which complicated determination of the inactivation caused by UV radiation alone.

  8. Minor Salmonella: potential pathogens in eggs in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Heleili, Nouzha; Alloui, Nadir

    2015-10-29

    Salmonellosis is one of the major foodborne diseases known to be closely related to the consumption of contaminated eggs, infected poultry, and poultry products. Control and survey of the poultry chain are the key elements and the most critical steps in the prevention of human transmission of Salmonella. This study was carried out in East Algeria on 150 eggs meant for consumption collected from mini-markets and immediately tested for Salmonella using standard methods (ISO AFNOR 6579 modified in 2002). Briefly, the shell surfaces were carefully wiped using sterile appropriated tissues while the white and yellow yolks were separated. All 10 samples were pooled together and a total of 45 samples were carefully analyzed. A contamination rate of 4.4% was found, and two strains of Salmonella bradford were isolated from white and yellow yolks. The results showed that XLT4 was the best medium for Salmonella isolation from yolks. Screening for other Salmonella in parental chickens using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test revealed seropositive cases of Salmonella enteritidis at the top of the poultry production pyramid. Occurrence of Salmonella in yolks and seropositive results for S. in parental chickens is a serious and potential danger to public health. Radical and preventive measures must be taken at the critical points to control and to avoid human transmission. These measures must be installed at all levels of egg production through the application of appropriate and strict regulations, and use of good hygienic practices in transport, storage, and food preparation.

  9. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  10. Shell nu zelf onder vuur!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir.ing Ruud Thelosen

    2011-01-01

    Shell heeft zich in de Tweede Kamer moeten verantwoorden voor haar activiteiten in Nigeria. Daarnaast loopt er ook een rechtzaak tegen Shell aangespannen door Milieudefensie namens een groepje gedupeerde Nigeriaanse boeren en viseers. In de VS heeft Shell al een megaboete moeten betalen.

  11. Temporal Structures in Shell Models

    OpenAIRE

    Okkels, Fridolin

    2000-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent GOY shell-model is characterised by a single type of burst-like structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell-amplitudes revealing a approximative chaotic attractor of the dynamics.

  12. Accuracy of self-collected vaginal dry swabs using the Xpert human papillomavirus assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Catarino

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction-based Xpert human papillomavirus (HPV assay is a rapid test that detects high-risk HPV (hrHPV infection. This point-of-care test is usually performed by collecting a cervical specimen in a vial of PreservCyt® transport medium. We compared HPV test positivity and accuracy between self-collected sample with a dry swab (s-DRY versus physician-collected cervical sampling using a broom like brush and immediate immersion in PreservCyt (dr-WET.In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 150 women ≥ 18 years old attending the colposcopy clinic in the University Hospital of Geneva. Each participant first self-collected a vaginal sample using a dry swab and then the physician collected a cervical specimen in PreservCyt. HPV analysis was performed with Xpert. Part of the PreservCyt-collected sample was used for hrHPV detection with the cobas® HPV test. HPV test positivity and performance of the two collection methods was compared.HPV positivity was 49.1% for s-DRY, 41.8% for dr-WET and 46.2% for cobas. Good agreement was found between s-DRY and dr-WET samples (kappa±Standard error (SE = 0.64±0.09,, particularly for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL+ (kappa±SE = 0.80±0.17. Excellent agreement was found between the two samples for HPV16 detection in general (kappa±SE = 0.91±0.09 and among LSIL+ lesions (kappa±SE = 1.00±0.17. Sensitivities and specificities were, respectively, 84.2% and 47.1%(s-DRY, 73.1% and 58.7%. (dr-WET and 77.8% and 45.7% (cobas for CIN2+ detection. The median delay between sampling and HPV analysis was 7 days for the Xpert HPV assay and 19 days for cobas. There were 36 (24.0% invalid results among s-DRY samples and 4 (2.7% among dr-WET (p = 0.001. Invalid results happened due to the long interval between collection and analysis.Self-collected vaginal dry swabs are a valid alternative to collecting cervical samples in PreservCyt solution for HPV testing with the Xpert HPV assay

  13. Rapid detection of Van genes in rectal swabs by real time PCR in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Cantarelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laboratory-based surveillance is an important component in the control of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE. METHODS: The study aimed to evaluate real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR (genes vanA-vanB for VRE detection on 115 swabs from patients included in a surveillance program. RESULTS: Sensitivity of RT-PCR was similar to primary culture (75% and 79.5%, respectively when compared to broth enriched culture, whereas specificity was 83.1%. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR provides same day results, however it showed low sensitivity for VRE detection.

  14. Detection of strep throat causing bacterium directly from medical swabs by touch spray-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmusch, Alan K; Pirro, Valentina; Kerian, Kevin S; Cooks, R Graham

    2014-10-07

    Strep throat causing Streptococcus pyogenes was detected in vitro and in simulated clinical samples by performing touch spray ionization-mass spectrometry. MS analysis took only seconds to reveal characteristic bacterial and human lipids. Medical swabs were used as the substrate for ambient ionization. This work constitutes the initial step in developing a non-invasive MS-based test for clinical diagnosis of strep throat. It is limited to the single species, S. pyogenes, which is responsible for the vast majority of cases. The method is complementary to and, with further testing, a potential alternative to current methods of point-of-care detection of S. pyogenes.

  15. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  16. Detection of influenza A virus from live-bird market poultry swab samples in China by a pan-IAV, one-step reverse-transcription FRET-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Lu; Sun, Zhihao; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Huang, Ke; Li, Min; Peng, Daxin; Xu, Xiulong; Ye, Jianqiang; Li, Jing; Guo, Weina; Wang, Chengming

    2016-07-22

    The persistent public health threat of animal to human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) has stimulated interest in rapid and accurate detection of all IAV subtypes in clinical specimens of animal origin. In this study, a new set of primers and probes was designed for one-step pan-IAV reverse-transcription fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR. The detection limit of one-step pan-IAV RT FRET-PCR was 10 copies of the matrix gene per reaction, and proved to be equivalent or superior to virus isolation in detecting nine IAV subtypes. Application of the pan-IAV RT FRET-PCR to oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swab specimens collected from healthy poultry in 34 live bird markets in 24 provinces of China revealed that 9.2% of the animals (169/1,839) or 6.3% of their oral-pharyngeal or cloacal swabs (233/3,678) were positive for IAV, and 56.8% of IAV-positive samples were of the H9N2 subtype. Paralleling detection of IAV in H9N2-infected SPF chickens and chickens from LBM showed that pan-IAV FRET-PCR had a higher detection limit than virus isolation in eggs while the results by FRET-PCR and virus isolation overall matched. It is expected that this strategy can be useful for facile surveillance for IAV in clinical samples from a variety of sources.

  17. Automated parasite faecal egg counting using fluorescence labelling, smartphone image capture and computational image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusarewicz, Paul; Pagano, Stefanie; Mills, Christopher; Popa, Gabriel; Chow, K Martin; Mendenhall, Michael; Rodgers, David W; Nielsen, Martin K

    2016-07-01

    Intestinal parasites are a concern in veterinary medicine worldwide and for human health in the developing world. Infections are identified by microscopic visualisation of parasite eggs in faeces, which is time-consuming, requires technical expertise and is impractical for use on-site. For these reasons, recommendations for parasite surveillance are not widely adopted and parasite control is based on administration of rote prophylactic treatments with anthelmintic drugs. This approach is known to promote anthelmintic resistance, so there is a pronounced need for a convenient egg counting assay to promote good clinical practice. Using a fluorescent chitin-binding protein, we show that this structural carbohydrate is present and accessible in shells of ova of strongyle, ascarid, trichurid and coccidian parasites. Furthermore, we show that a cellular smartphone can be used as an inexpensive device to image fluorescent eggs and, by harnessing the computational power of the phone, to perform image analysis to count the eggs. Strongyle egg counts generated by the smartphone system had a significant linear correlation with manual McMaster counts (R(2)=0.98), but with a significantly lower coefficient of variation (P=0.0177). Furthermore, the system was capable of differentiating equine strongyle and ascarid eggs similar to the McMaster method, but with significantly lower coefficients of variation (Psmartphones as relatively sophisticated, inexpensive and portable medical diagnostic devices. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of FoodChek™ - Salmonella for Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Eggs, Derivative Products, and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Tremblay, Renaud; Martinez, Gabriela; Giuffre, Michael; Hammack, Thomas; Fernandez, Maria Cristina; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The FoodChek™ - Salmonella assay is an immunomagnetic lateral flow assay for the rapid detection (shorter than 24 h) of the most frequently isolated Salmonella (groups B-E) in eggs, egg-derivative products, and environmental surfaces. The FoodChek - Salmonella assay correctly identified 99.6% (239/240) of the samples tested in the matrix studied, and the statistical analysis of the method comparison study results demonstrated that it performs as well as U.S. culture-based reference methods. Ninety-nine percent of the 103 Salmonella strains tested belonging to serogroups B-E were detected during the inclusivity study. Concerning the exclusivity, 31 nontarget strains were tested. No cross-reactivity was observed in FoodChek - Salmonella assay enrichment conditions. In addition, the assay shows strong robustness, good stability, and consistency among lots. The present study proves that the assay is an effective tool for the rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in whole liquid eggs, liquid egg white (liquid egg albumen), shell eggs, dried whole eggs, dried egg yolks, and environmental surfaces as stainless steel, plastic, rubber, ceramic tiles, and sealed concrete.

  19. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajati H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the influence of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation in the broiler breeder diets on body weight, mortality, feed intake, egg production, hatchability and humoral immunity response was investigated. A total number of 13140 female and 1260 male breeders (Cobb 500 with 26 wks of age were allocated to three treatments with six replicates (800 birds each replicate. Breeders were fed control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide or probiotic (Protexin® for 17 weeks. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured weekly during 26-40 wks of age. The hatchability of eggs was recorded on weeks 38, 39, and 40. Antibody production was recorded after 8 wks of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation. Prebiotic supplementation did not affect feed intake, the percentages of egg production and settable eggs percents. Prebiotic increased egg hatchability and reduced the percentages of infertile eggs, as well as dead embryo-in-shells. Antibody titers against influenza and reovirus were higher in prebiotic fed group, but there were no significant differences among the other blood antibody titers. Probiotic had no significant effect on the considered parameters. In conclusion, findings of present study showed that prebiotic improved egg hatchability and humoral immunity of broiler breeders.

  20. Unfolding Kinetics of Egg Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dipti

    2011-03-01

    This study explores denaturing kinetics of egg white using high resolution calorimetric technique. Fresh egg was scanned fro heating and cooling to see the thermodynamics 10circ; C to 100circ; C at different heating ramp rates varying from 1 to 20circ; C/min. An endothermic peak was found on heating scan showing denaturing of protein which was found absent at the cooling indicating the absence of any residue after heating. The denature peak shifted towards higher temperature as ramp rate increases following Arrhenius behavior and shows an activated denaturing kinetics of the egg protein. This peak was also compared with the water to avoid water effects. Behavior of denaturing peak can be explained in terms of Arrhenius theory.

  1. Are Hadrons Shell-Structured?

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    A stability analysis of the mass spectrum indicates that hadrons, like atoms and nuclei, are shell-structured. The mesonic shells mass series, combined with the results of a mass quantization analysis, reveals striking similarities with the nuclear shells. In addition, the mesonic mass patterns suggest solid-phase partonic bound states on an fcc lattice, compatible with a model by A. O. Barut with stable leptons as constituents, bound by magnetism. Baryonic shells grow with a lower density, and only start at shell 3 with the nucleon.

  2. Unlocking the story in the swab: A new genotyping assay for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Allison Q; Rothstein, Andrew P; Poorten, Thomas J; Erens, Jesse; Settles, Matthew L; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2017-11-01

    One of the most devastating emerging pathogens of wildlife is the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which affects hundreds of amphibian species around the world. Genomic data from pure Bd cultures have advanced our understanding of Bd phylogenetics, genomic architecture and mechanisms of virulence. However, pure cultures are laborious to obtain and whole-genome sequencing is comparatively expensive, so relatively few isolates have been genetically characterized. Thus, we still know little about the genetic diversity of Bd in natural systems. The most common noninvasive method of sampling Bd from natural populations is to swab amphibian skin. Hundreds of thousands of swabs have been collected from amphibians around the world, but Bd DNA collected via swabs is often low in quality and/or quantity. In this study, we developed a custom Bd genotyping assay using the Fluidigm Access Array platform to amplify 192 carefully selected regions of the Bd genome. We obtained robust sequence data for pure Bd cultures and field-collected skin swabs. This new assay has the power to accurately discriminate among the major Bd clades, recovering the basic tree topology previously revealed using whole-genome data. Additionally, we established a critical value for initial Bd load for swab samples (150 Bd genomic equivalents) above which our assay performs well. By leveraging advances in microfluidic multiplex PCR technology and the globally distributed resource of amphibian swab samples, noninvasive skin swabs can now be used to address critical spatial and temporal questions about Bd and its effects on declining amphibian populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. UriSwab: an effective transport medium for nucleic acid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna-Maria G; Garland, Suzanne M; Guy, Rebecca; Wand, Handan; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2017-11-01

    Background Patient self-sampling allows for remote collection and return to clinic or laboratory by post. Urine samples, although convenient, are challenging to post. This study evaluated UriSwab (Copan, Brescia, Italy) as a collection and transport vessel for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) detection by polymerase chain reaction, compared with flocked swab and neat urine. Five replicates of each specimen type were prepared from previously characterised urine samples (n=330), stored at room temperature (RT) or 37°C, then extracted on day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 16 (VERSANT kPCR Sample Prep System, Siemens, Munich, Germany). Crossing thresholds (Cq) from CT and NG detection (VERSANT CT/GC DNA 1.0 assay kit, Siemens) and MG detection (real-time polymerase chain reaction assay) were compared using logistic regression, stratified by sample type, temperature and analyte. Mixed-model statistical techniques were used to assess correlation between repeated observations. UriSwab showed an increasing trend in Cq values at RT and 37°C for CT and NG, and RT for MG (all P<0.01). UriSwab was not statistically significantly different to neat urine, except CT at RT (0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.51-1.15). Flocked swab similarly showed increasing Cq values at 37°C for CT, a significant decreasing trend at RT for MG and increasing trend at 37°C for MG. Flocked swab was not statistically significantly different from neat urine at RT and 37°C for CT and MG. UriSwab allows transport of urine for CT, NG and MG detection regardless of storage time or temperature, suggesting that CT and NG are stable for up to 16 days and MG up to 10 days.

  4. A study of female genital swabs in primary health care centres in Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nwadioha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect some common microbial agents of female genital discharges in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. Methods: A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from Primary Health Care Centres, Jos, and analysed for microscopy, culture and sensitivity in Jos University Teaching Hospital, December 2006 to December 2007 was carried out. Results: Microbial agents were detected in 70% (700 of a total 1 000 female genital swabs studied. Candida species peaked with 42.0% (420 out of the 1000 samples, followed by Gardnerella vaginalis, an agent of bacterial vaginosis with 26.0%. The distribution of abnormal vaginal discharge was highest in young adults aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusions: It is concluded that abnormal vaginal discharge is most prevalent in the young sexually active age group with Candida species as the commonest agent. We recommend prevention, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of infective female genital discharge in order to reduce the menace of HIV transmission.

  5. Evaluation of an autoclave resistant anatomic nose model for the testing of nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolitius, Lennart; Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    A nose model that allows for the comparison of different modes of sample acquisition as well as of nasal swab systems concerning their suitability to detect defined quantities of intranasal microorganisms, and further for training procedures of medical staff, was evaluated. Based on an imprint of a human nose, a model made of a silicone elastomer was formed. Autoclave stability was assessed. Using an inoculation suspension containing Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the model was compared with standardized glass plate inoculations. Effects of inoculation time, mode of sampling, and sample storage time were assessed. The model was stable to 20 autoclaving cycles. There were no differences regarding the optimum coverage from the nose and from glass plates. Optimum sampling time was 1 h after inoculation. Storage time after sampling was of minor relevance for the recovery. Rotating the swab around its own axis while circling the nasal cavity resulted in best sampling results. The suitability of the assessed nose model for the comparison of sampling strategies and systems was confirmed. Without disadvantages in comparison with sampling from standardized glass plates, the model allows for the assessment of a correct sampling technique due to its anatomically correct shape.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in conjunctival swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnifro, E.; Storey, C.; Morris, D.; Tullo, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the west occurs as ophthalmia neonatorum, acquired from the mother, or adult paratrachoma which is also associated with current genital tract infection. Accurate rapid laboratory diagnosis facilitates management, but the relative merits of antigen detection or DNA amplification tests are unresolved.
METHODS—A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was developed which amplified part of the plasmid shared by all the serovars of C trachomatis. Conjunctival swabs were tested using an in house immune dot-blot test (IDBT) for chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen, a commercial direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test for chlamydial elementary bodies, and the PCR (DNA extracted using guanidinium lysis buffer).
RESULTS—The PCR achieved a detection limit of 100 plasmid copies (10 elementary bodies). In a combined retrospective and prospective clinical evaluation, the PCR and IDBT gave identical results with 21 positive and 57 negative eye swabs. However, interpretation of the DFA test required meticulous examination of the stained smear, sometimes by two microscopists.
CONCLUSIONS—The PCR is likely to play an increasing role in the diagnosis of ocular C trachomatis infection because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity.

 PMID:9274416

  7. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. in duck eggs on sale at retail or from catering in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M; Jorgensen, F; Willis, C; McLauchlin, J; Elviss, N; Aird, H; Fox, A; Kaye, M; Lane, C; de Pinna, E

    2016-11-01

    Since 2010, human salmonellosis outbreaks in the UK have been detected as associated with the consumption of duck eggs. Little data are available on the rate of occurrence of Salmonella in duck eggs. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in duck eggs on sale and from catering in England during 2011, particularly those from small-scale production. All samples were collected independently of human salmonellosis outbreak investigations. Composite samples of 6-10 eggs (shells and contents were examined separately) were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. using the ISO 6579:2002 method. Salmonella spp. was recovered from two of 145 samples (1·4%). In one sample, Salmonella Typhimurium DT 8 was isolated from the shells while Salm. Typhimurium DT 8 and Salm. Typhimurium DT30 were isolated from the contents. Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 was isolated from the egg shells only in the second contaminated sample. This study provides baseline data for risk assessors, regulators and the food industry and may be helpful in communicating risks associated with the consumption of this product as well as evaluating risk management options to control food safety including vaccination of ducks. Human salmonellosis outbreaks in England and Northern Ireland due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 have been identified as associated with the consumption of duck eggs since 2010. This study has shown that Salmonella spp. was detected in 1·4% of ducks egg samples providing baseline data for risk assessors, regulators and the food industry. This may be helpful in communicating risks associated with the consumption of this product as well as evaluating risk management options to control food safety including vaccination of ducks. © 2016 Crown copyright. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. The influence of Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Starfish (Asterias rubens) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammershøj, Marianne; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    . The egg weight was not different from the egg weights of control diets, but the inclusion of 4 g mussel meal resulted in a lower (P egg weight than 8 g and 12 g mussel meal per 100 g feed. The egg shell strength was not affected by any of the diets. The egg yolk colour was lower (P ...The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment...... groups, each with five replicates, including a control diet providing fish meal, 3 diets providing mussel meal (4, 8 and 12 g/100 g) and 2 diets providing starfish meal (4 and 8 g/100 g). Laying rate, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, mortality and live weight of the hens did not differ among treatments...

  9. An analysis of the response of Sooty Tern eggs to sonic boom overpressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Carina; Garrelick, Joel; Bowles, Ann

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that sonic booms caused a mass hatching failure of Sooty Terns in the Dry Tortugas in Florida by cracking the eggshells. This paper investigates this possibility analytically, complementing previous empirical studies. The sonic boom is represented as a plane-wave excitation with an N-wave time signature. Two models for the egg are employed. The first model, intended to provide insight, consists of a spherical shell, with the embryo represented as a rigid, concentric sphere and the albumen as an acoustic fluid filling the intervening volume. The substrate is modeled as a doubling of the incident pressure. The second, numerical model includes the egg-shape geometry and air sac. More importantly, the substrate is modeled as a rigid boundary of infinite extent with acoustic diffraction included. The peak shell stress, embryo acceleration, and reactive force are predicted as a function of the peak sonic boom overpressure and compared with damage criteria from the literature. The predicted peak sonic boom overpressure necessary for egg damage is much higher than documented sonic boom overpressures, even for extraordinary operational conditions. Therefore, as with previous empirical studies, it is concluded that it is unlikely that sonic boom overpressures damage avian eggs.

  10. QTL mapping of egg albumen quality in egg layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkatukia, Mervi; Tuiskula-Haavisto, Maria; Arango, Jesus; Tabell, Jonna; Schmutz, Matthias; Preisinger, Rudolf; Vilkki, Johanna

    2013-08-16

    A fresh, good quality egg has a firm and gelatinous albumen that anchors the yolk and restricts growth of microbiological pathogens. As the egg ages, the gel-like structure collapses, resulting in thin and runny albumen. Occasionally thin albumen is found in a fresh egg, giving the impression of a low quality product. A mapping population consisting of 1599 F2 hens from a cross between White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up, to identify loci controlling albumen quality. The phenotype for albumen quality was evaluated by albumen height and in Haugh units (HU) measured on three consecutive eggs from each F2 hen at the age of 40 weeks. For the fine-mapping analysis, albumen height and HU were used simultaneously to eliminate contribution of the egg size to the phenotype. Linkage analysis in a small population of seven half-sib families (668 F2) with 162 microsatellite markers spread across 27 chromosomes revealed two genome-wide significant regions with additive effects for HU on chromosomes 7 and Z. In addition, two putative genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions were identified on chromosomes 4 and 26. The QTL effects ranged from 2 to 4% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide significant QTL regions on chromosomes 7 and Z were selected for fine-mapping in the full set composed of 16 half-sib families. In addition, their existence was confirmed by an association analysis in an independent commercial Hy-Line pure line. We identified four chicken genomic regions that affect albumen quality. Our results also suggest that genes that affect albumen quality act both directly and indirectly through several different mechanisms. For instance, the QTL regions on both fine-mapped chromosomes 7 and Z overlapped with a previously reported QTL for eggshell quality, indicating that eggshell membranes may play a role in albumen quality.

  11. HST/ACS observations of shell galaxies: inner shells, shell colours and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, G.; Carter, D.; Peletier, R. F.; Balcells, M.; Del Burgo, C.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Shells in Elliptical Galaxies are faint, sharp-edged features, believed to provide evidence for a merger event. Accurate photometry at high spatial resolution is needed to learn on presence of inner shells, population properties of shells, and dust in shell galaxies. Aims: Learn more about the origin of shells and dust in early type galaxies. Methods: V-I colours of shells and underlying galaxies are derived, using HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. A galaxy model is made locally in wedges and subtracted to determine shell profiles and colours. We applied Voronoi binning to our data to get smoothed colour maps of the galaxies. Comparison with N-body simulations from the literature gives more insight to the origin of the shell features. Shell positions and dust characteristics are inferred from model galaxy subtracted images. Results: The ACS images reveal shells well within the effective radius in some galaxies (at 0.24 re = 1.7 kpc in the case of NGC 5982). In some cases, strong nuclear dust patches prevent detection of inner shells. Most shells have colours which are similar to the underlying galaxy. Some inner shells are redder than the galaxy. All six shell galaxies show out of dynamical equilibrium dust features, like lanes or patches, in their central regions. Our detection rate for dust in the shell ellipticals is greater than that found from HST archive data for a sample of normal early-type galaxies, at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions: The merger model describes better the shell distributions and morphologies than the interaction model. Red shell colours are most likely due to the presence of dust and/or older stellar populations. The high prevalence and out of dynamical equilibrium morphologies of the central dust features point towards external influences being responsible for visible dust features in early type shell galaxies. Inner shells are able to manifest themselves in relatively old shell systems. Based on observations made

  12. Pilot study of participant-collected nasal swabs for acute respiratory infections in a low-income, urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas CY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celibell Y Vargas,1 Liqun Wang,1 Yaritza Castellanos de Belliard,1 Maria Morban,1 Hilbania Diaz,1 Elaine L Larson,2,3 Philip LaRussa,1 Lisa Saiman,1,4 Melissa S Stockwell1,5,6 1Department of Pediatrics, 2School of Nursing, 3Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 4Department of Infection Prevention and Control, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, 5Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 6NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA Objective: To assess the feasibility and validity of unsupervised participant-collected nasal swabs to detect respiratory pathogens in a low-income, urban minority population. Methods: This project was conducted as part of an ongoing community-based surveillance study in New York City to identify viral etiologies of acute respiratory infection. In January 2014, following sample collection by trained research assistants, participants with acute respiratory infection from 30 households subsequently collected and returned a self-collected/parent-collected nasal swab via mail. Self/parental swabs corresponding with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction primary research samples were analyzed. Results: Nearly all (96.8%, n=30/31 households agreed to participate; 100% reported returning the sample and 29 were received (median time: 8 days. Most (18; 62.1% of the primary research samples were positive. For eight influenza-positive research samples, seven (87.5% self-swabs were also positive. For ten other respiratory pathogen-positive research samples, eight (80.0% self-swabs were positive. Sensitivity of self-swabs for any respiratory pathogen was 83.3% and 87.5% for influenza, and specificity for both was 100%. There was no relationship between level of education and concordance of results between positive research samples and their matching participant swab. Conclusion: In this pilot study, self-swabbing

  13. Evaluation of Three Swabbing Devices for Detection of Listeria monocytogenes on Different Types of Food Contact Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Lahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes can adhere to different types of food contact surfaces within a food processing environment. Therefore, environmental sampling devices should be capable of detecting unacceptable contamination. In this study, a sponge-stick, foam spatula and an environmental swab were evaluated on their ability to detect low concentrations of L. monocytogenes on different types of food contact surfaces. A cocktail of four L. monocytogenes serotypes was inoculated with a concentration of 100 CFU/250 cm2 onto stainless steel (SS, high density polyethylene (HDPE and rubber surfaces in a 250 cm2 area. Immediately after inoculation and after 1 h exposure, the surfaces were swabbed with the different swabbing devices. The results of the study show only minor differences in the ability of the swabbing devices to detect L. monocytogenes. All devices were capable to detect the contamination immediately after inoculation. However, when the surfaces were allowed to air-dry for 1 h, L. monocytogenes was undetected in 11.1% of the samples (n = 27 with the sponge stick, in 7.4% of the samples (n = 27 with the foam spatula and in 3.7% of the samples (n = 27 with the environmental swab, especially on SS surfaces. The detection ability of the different devices for L. monocytogenes can be concluded to be rather high on different types of food contact surfaces.

  14. Comparison of Easy-Flow Copan Liquid Stuart's and Starplex Swab transport systems for recovery of fastidious aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Cheryl; Barenfanger, Joan; Lawhorn, Jerry; Verhulst, Steven

    2005-03-01

    Because samples are frequently submitted on swabs from distant sites, viability of the organism must be maintained. We compared two transport systems, a new Copan Liquid Stuart's swab with an Easy-Flow swab applicator and the Starplex Liquid Stuart's swab. The purpose of the study was to assess the release and/or recovery of organisms from the Copan system compared to that from Starplex. Triplicate swabs were seeded with 3 dilutions of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although the amount of the initial inoculum was the same for both transport systems, recovery by the roll-plate method at time zero was consistently increased with the Copan system (31 to 87% higher). This is the most important finding in this study. With N. gonorrhoeae, subsequent recoveries were similar for Copan and Starplex but poor for both systems. With N. meningitidis and Haemophilus, higher levels of recovery were clearly obtained with Copan (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). With Streptococcus, subsequent recoveries for Copan and Starplex were mixed. In conclusion, Copan generally demonstrated better recovery of organisms compared to Starplex even (and especially) at time zero.

  15. Contaminant concentrations in Florida raptor eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...

  16. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J A; Kraut, A; Bernstein, D I; Warrington, R; Bolin, T; Warren, C P; Bernstein, I L

    1993-02-01

    A 26-year-old man employed in a company which manufactured hen egg white derived lysozyme for use in the pharmaceutical industry was evaluated for occupational asthma. The worker began to experience immediate-onset asthmatic symptoms two months after starting to work with egg lysozyme powder. The work process involved the production of approximately 1,000 kg of purified dried lysozyme powder per week. Prick skin testing was positive to egg lysozyme (50 mg/ml) and other egg protein components, but negative to whole egg white and egg yolk reagents. Serum specific IgE to egg lysozyme was documented. Decrements in serial peak expiratory flow rates were associated with lysozyme exposure at work. A specific bronchoprovocation challenge to lysozyme powder was positive demonstrating an isolated immediate asthmatic response (48 percent decrease from baseline FEV1). This is the first reported case of lysozyme-induced asthma specifically caused by inhalational exposure to egg lysozyme.

  17. Effect of Egg Weights on Hatching Results, Broiler Performance and Some Stress Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Duman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of hatching egg weight of broiler parent stocks on hatching results, chick performance, carcass characteristics, internal organ weights and some blood stress parameters. Eggs were divided into 3 egg weight groups (55.0 to 60.0 g (light, 60.1 to 65.0 g (medium and 65.1 to 70.0 g (heavy for the experiments. After incubation, mixed-gender broiler chicks from the hatcher were placed into 27 grower pens (2x1 m with 9 replications for 3 weight groups by using randomized block design. Each pen had 25 broiler chicks. Therefore, 225 chicks were used for each group and 675 chicks in total. The experiment was designed with nine replicates. Chi-square test, variance analysis test and Duncan multiple range test were used during statistical analysis. Hatching egg weight significantly affected egg shell thickness (p=0.042, egg weight loss on 18th day of incubation (p<0.001, number of healthy chick (p=0.001 and deformed chicks (p=0.003, hatchability (p=0.003, hatchability yield (p=0.002, hatching weight and 7 day chick body weight (p=0.001, fresh carcass yields (p=0.002, and cooled carcass yields (p<0.001, blood triglyceride level (p=0.031, back toe relative asymmetry (p=0.032 and back toe fluctuating asymmetry (p=0.038. It was concluded in the present study that medium-weight eggs yielded better hatching results and the chicks of medium-weight eggs also yielded better outcomes with regards to other investigated parameters.

  18. Hen’s egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K, minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases.

  19. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  20. The Egg with Two Yellows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. The Egg with Two Yellows. M K Chandrashekaran. Book Review Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 979-987. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/10/0979-0987 ...

  1. How do eggs pan out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-07-01

    Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.

  2. Allergy to inhaled egg material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J H; McConnochie, K; Trotman, D M; Collins, G; Saunders, M J; Latham, S M

    1983-09-01

    The use of a spray system to coat meat rolls with egg solution resulted in the development of asthmatic type symptoms in eight of thirteen workers exposed to the spray. Symptoms were severe in five workers, less severe in two, and one worker experienced vague symptoms. Even though precipitins were present in nine of the workers there were no pyrexial episodes nor influenza-like symptoms occurring some hours after inhaling the egg material to suggest extrinsic allergic alveolitis. All sera with precipitins reacted against an antigen in egg yolk, two sera only to this antigen but no precipitins to ovalbumin were detected. Lung function, X-ray and haematology provided no evidence that the inhalation of egg had lasting detrimental effects. There was no correlation between clinical response, skin testing, IgE levels and precipitins, hence, for each individual none of these parameters is predictive. However, collectively the results show sensitization and this has been confirmed by lack of symptoms when a different method of coating the pastry was adopted.

  3. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  4. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3

  5. Effect of Egg Size on Heat Production and the Transition of Energy from Egg to Hatchling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Molenaar, R.; Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    It has been reported that during incubation, large eggs produce more heat than small eggs (Rahn et al., 1974; Hoyt, 1987; Vleck et al., 1980; Vleck and Vleck, 1987; Meijerhof and Van Beek, 1993). Large eggs also face more difficulties to remove the surplus heat from the egg (French, 1997), as a

  6. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any State...

  7. [Diagnostic stain of helminth eggs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1976-12-01

    A description is given of a diagnostic method for the staining of eggs and larvae of intestinal helminth in smears of both fresh and fixed stool samples. The contents of the eggs and larvae stain red, the background various shades of blue. The most contrasting staining was obtained with thin-walled eggs.

  8. EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0655711075

    EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL! Of all the different kinds of foods, an egg is special for its combination of all essential food nutrients in one item. Chicken eggs have an average weight of (~50g) with two distinct parts that have distinct nutritional values: the yolk (17g); and white (33g).

  9. Multi-Shell Shell Model for Heavy Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yang; Wu, Cheng-Li

    2003-01-01

    Performing a shell model calculation for heavy nuclei has been a long-standing problem in nuclear physics. Here we propose one possible solution. The central idea of this proposal is to take the advantages of two existing models, the Projected Shell Model (PSM) and the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM), to construct a multi-shell shell model. The PSM is an efficient method of coupling quasi-particle excitations to the high-spin rotational motion, whereas the FDSM contains a successful t...

  10. Efficacy of protein, symbiotic and probiotic supplementation on production performance and egg quality characteristics in molted layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Haseeb; Rahman, Zia Ur

    2016-10-01

    Two hundred white leg horn layers at 70 weeks of age were induced to molt with high dietary zinc (3 g/kg of feed); thereafter, birds were equally and randomly divided (n = 50 each) into four groups keeping G1 as control (CP 16 % diet, no other supplement), G2 (CP 18 % diet), G3 (CP 16 % diet + symbiotic; Perfectin® at 85 mg/L in drinking water daily), and G4 (CP 16 % diet + probiotic; Protexin® at 85 mg/L in drinking water daily). The egg production record was maintained throughout the experiment period, and egg quality parameters were performed at 5 %, peak, and end of post molt production stage. The overall egg production was highest in G2 (74.51 %) followed by G3 (64.95 %) and G4 (65.03 %) and lowest in G1 (58.51 %). The overall egg weight, length, diameter, weight and diameter of albumin and yolk, egg shell thickness as well as egg shell breaking strength increased (P ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. The albumin height, yolk height, yolk index, and haugh unit score decreased (P ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. FCR/12 eggs improved in all the supplemented groups as compared to control (G1). The bacterial contamination of eggs was seen in G1. Conclusively, it was observed in the current experiment that the supplementation with protein, probiotic, and symbiotic did improve the production quality and potential in molted layers.

  11. Primary health clinic toilet/bathroom surface swab sampling can indicate community profile of sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Giffard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The microbiome of built environment surfaces is impacted by the presence of humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that analysis of surface swabs from clinic toilet/bathroom yields results correlated with sexually transmitted infection (STI notifications from corresponding human populations. We extended a previously reported study in which surfaces in toilet/bathroom facilities in primary health clinics in the Australian Northern Territory (NT were swabbed then tested for nucleic acid from the STI agents Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. This was in the context of assessing the potential for such nucleic acid to contaminate specimens collected in such facilities. STIs are notifiable in the NT, thus allowing comparison of swab and notification data. Methods An assumption in the design was that while absolute built environment loads of STI nucleic acids will be a function of patient traffic density and facility cleaning protocols, the relative loads of STI nucleic acids from different species will be largely unaffected by these processes. Another assumption was that the proportion of swabs testing positive for STIs provides a measure of surface contamination. Accordingly, “STI profiles” were calculated. These were the proportions that each of the three STIs of interest contributed to the summed STI positive swabs or notifications. Three comparisons were performed, using swab data from clinics in remote Indigenous communities, clinics in small-medium towns, and a single urban sexual health clinic. These data were compared with time and place-matched STI notifications. Results There were significant correlations between swab and notifications data for the both the remote Indigenous and regional data. For the remote Indigenous clinics the p values ranged from 0.041 to 0.0089, depending on data transformation and p value inference method. Further, the swab data appeared to strongly indicate

  12. Validation of a same-day real-time PCR method for screening of meat and carcass swabs for Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Krause, Michael; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    swabs). The relative accuracy was 99%, relative detection level 100%, relative sensitivity 103% and relative specificity 100%. The collaborative trial included six laboratories testing minced meat, poultry neck-skins, and carcass swabs as un-inoculated samples and samples artificially contaminated....... Partly based on results obtained in this study, the method has obtained NordVal approval for analysis of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. The PCR method was transferred to a production laboratory and the performance was compared with the BAX Salmonella test on 39 pork samples artificially......Background: One of the major sources of human Salmonella infections is meat. Therefore, efficient and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain is necessary. Validation of alternative methods is needed to prove that the performance is equal to established methods. Very few...

  13. Isolation of lymphotropic baboon herpesvirus (HVP) from oral swabs of hamadryas baboons of the Sukhumi monkey colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrba, V Z; Lapin, B A; Timanovskaya, V V; Dzhachvliany, M C; Kokosha, L V; Chuvirov, G N; Djatchenko, A G

    1980-01-01

    Ways of lymphotropic baboon herpesvirus (HVP) secretion and its excretion into the environment were investigated. Oral swabs and feces from the Sukhumi main stock hamadryas baboons characterized by a high risk for malignant lymphoma and the baboon stock living in isolation in the forest were used as materials for the investigations. Macaque groups of the Sukhumi stock were used as controls. It could be shown that the HVP was resistent in the oral cavity of the main stock baboons and was isolated from oral swabs of these animals both from those with malignant lymphoma and clinically healthy individuals. No virus was isolated from feces of these animals. The virus could not be isolated from oral swabs of the isolated baboon stock and macaques.

  14. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of

  15. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, Jens; Schougaard, Hans

    2007-01-01

    and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were......The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...

  16. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were......The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...

  17. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells.

  18. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. The argonaut shell: gas-mediated buoyancy control in a pelagic octopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Julian K.; Norman, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Argonauts (Cephalopoda: Argonautidae) are a group of rarely encountered open-ocean pelagic octopuses with benthic ancestry. Female argonauts inhabit a brittle ‘paper nautilus’ shell, the role of which has puzzled naturalists for millennia. The primary role attributed to the shell has been as a receptacle for egg deposition and brooding. Our observations of wild argonauts have revealed that the thin calcareous shell also functions as a hydrostatic structure, employed by the female argonaut to precisely control buoyancy at varying depths. Female argonauts use the shell to ‘gulp’ a measured volume of air at the sea surface, seal off the captured gas using flanged arms and forcefully dive to a depth where the compressed gas buoyancy counteracts body weight. This process allows the female argonaut to attain neutral buoyancy at depth and potentially adjust buoyancy to counter the increased (and significant) weight of eggs during reproductive periods. Evolution of this air-capture strategy enables this negatively buoyant octopus to survive free of the sea floor. This major shift in life mode from benthic to pelagic shows strong evolutionary parallels with the origins of all cephalopods, which attained gas-mediated buoyancy via the closed-chambered shells of the true nautiluses and their relatives. PMID:20484241

  20. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in conjunctival swabs of cats by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Julia Cristina; Benvenga, Graziella U; Ferreira, Helena Lage; Pereira, Vanessa F; Keid, Lara B; Soares, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa

    2017-06-01

    Although some studies have investigated the potential role of cats as a reservoir for Leishmania, their role in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still poorly understood. Molecular diagnostic techniques are an important tool in VL diagnosis, and PCR shows high sensitivity and specificity for Leishmania spp. detection. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a method that permits quantitative analysis of a large number of samples, resulting in more sensitive, accurate, and reproducible measurements of specific DNA present in the sample. This study compared real-time PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR (cPCR) for detection of Leishmania spp. in blood and conjunctival swab (CS) samples of healthy cats from a non-endemic area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of all CS samples, 1.85% (2/108) were positive for Leishmania spp. by both cPCR as qPCR (kappa index = 1), indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. The DNA from the two CS-cPCR- and CS-qPCR-positive samples was further tested with a PCR test amplifying the Leishmania spp. discriminative rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1), of which one sample generated a 300-350-bp DNA fragment whose size varies according to the Leishmania species. Following sequencing, the fragment showed 100% similarity to a GenBank L. infantum sequence obtained from a cat in Italy. In conclusion, the association of qPCR and CS proved to be effective for detection of Leishmania in cats. Conjunctival swab samples were shown to be a practical and better alternative to blood samples and may be useful in the diagnosis and studies of feline leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.