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Sample records for sw iberian river

  1. Inorganic arsenic speciation at river basin scales: The Tinto and Odiel Rivers in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, A.M. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: aguasanta.miguel@dgeo.uhu.es; Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Casiot, C.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Egal, M. [Laboratoire Hydrosciences, UMR 5569, Universite Montpellier 2, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)

    2009-04-15

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers are heavily affected by acid mine drainage from mining areas in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. In this work we have conducted a study along these rivers where surface water samples have been collected. Field measurements, total dissolved metals and Fe and inorganic As speciation analysis were performed. The average total concentration of As in the Tinto river (1975 {mu}g L{sup -1}) is larger than in the Odiel river (441 {mu}g L{sup -1}); however, the mean concentration of As(III) is almost four times higher in the Odiel. In wet seasons the mean pH levels of both rivers (2.4 and 3.2 for the Tinto and Odiel, respectively) increase slightly and the amount of dissolved total arsenic tend to decrease, while the As(III)/(V) ratio strongly increase. Besides, the concentration of the reduced As species increase along the water course. As a result, As(III)/(V) ratio can be up to 100 times higher in the lower part of the basins. An estimation of the As(III) load transported by both rivers into the Atlantic Ocean has been performed, resulting in about 60 kg yr{sup -1} and 2.7 t yr{sup -1} by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, respectively. - Total arsenic concentration decreases along the water basins, however the As(III)/(V) ratio increases.

  2. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  3. The reactivation of the SW Iberian passive margin: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joao; Rosas, Filipe; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter; Almeida, Pedro; Gutscher, Marc-André; Riel, Nicolas; Ribeiro, António

    2016-04-01

    On the morning of the 1st of November of 1755 a major earthquake struck offshore the Southwest Iberian margin. This was the strongest earthquake ever felt in Western Europe. The shake, fire and tsunami devastated Lisbon, was felt as far as Finland and had a profound impact on the thinkers of that time, in particular on the Enlightenment philosophers such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Kant. The Great Lisbon Earthquake is considered by many as the event that marks the birth of modern geosciences; and made of this region one of the most well studied areas in the world. After the 1755 earthquake, Kant and others authors wrote several treaties dealing with the causes and dynamics of earthquakes and tsunamis and were close to identify some key elements of what we now call plate tectonics. More than two hundred years later, in the year of 1969, the region was struck by another major earthquake. This was precisely during the period in which the theory of plate tectonics was being built. Geoscientists like Fukao (1973), Purdy (1975) and Mackenzie (1977) immediately focused their attention in the area. They suggested that these events were related with "transient" subduction of Africa below Iberia, along the East-West Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary. Several years later, Ribeiro (1989) suggested that instead of Africa being subducted below Iberia, it was the West Iberian passive margin that was being reactivated, a process that may, in time, lead to the formation of a new subduction zone. In the turning of the millennium, a subducting slab was imaged bellow the Gibraltar Straits, a remanent of the Western Mediterranean arc system that according to Gutscher et al. (2002) was related with ongoing subduction. Recently, it was proposed that a causal link between the Gibraltar subduction system and the reactivation of the SW Iberian margin might exist. In addition, the large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence is inducing compressive stresses along the West Iberian margin. The margin

  4. Palaeofloods and ancient fishing weirs in NW Iberian rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Sanjurjo-Sanchez, J.; Goy-Dizc, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 15-m-thick, fluvial sedimentary record of the NW Iberian lower Miño River was studied. Grain-size analyses were performed and twelve samples were dated using optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques, documenting a 1300-yr-old reconstructed fluvial record that does not match with known

  5. Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: 1. Hydrochemical characteristics and pollutant load of the Tinto and Odiel rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jose M; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Canovas, Carlos R; Olias, Manuel; Ayora, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt is probably the worst case in the world of surface water pollution associated with mining of sulphide mineral deposits. The Iberian Pyrite Belt is located in SW Iberian Peninsula, and it has been mined during the last 4,500 years. The central and eastern part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt is drained by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, which receive most of the acidic leachates from the mining areas. As a result, the main channels of the Tinto and Odiel rivers are very rich in metals and highly acidic until reaching the Atlantic Ocean. A significant amount of the pollutant load transported by these two rivers is delivered during the rainy season, as is usual in rivers of Mediterranean climate regions. Therefore, in order to have an accurate estimation of the pollutant loads transported by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, a systematic sampling on a weekly basis and a high temporal resolution sampling of floods events were both performed. Results obtained show that metal fluxes are strongly dependent on the study period, highlighting the importance of inter-annual studies involving dry and wet years.

  6. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  7. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification

  8. Geomorphic status of regulated rivers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Besné, P; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A; Aristi, I; Díez, J R; Ibisate, A; Larrañaga, A; Elosegi, A; Batalla, R J

    2015-03-01

    River regulation by dams modifies flow regimes, interrupts the transfer of sediment through channel networks, and alters downstream bed dynamics, altogether affecting channel form and processes. So far, most studies on the geomorphic impacts of dams are restricted to single rivers, or even single river stretches. In this paper we analyse the geomorphic status of 74 river sites distributed across four large basins in the Iberian Peninsula (i.e. 47 sites located downstream of dams). For this purpose, we combine field data with hydrological data available from water agencies, and analyse historical (1970) and current aerial photographs. In particular, we have developed a Geomorphic Status (GS) index that allows us to assess the physical structure of a given channel reach and its change through time. The GS encompasses a determination of changes in sedimentary units, sediment availability, bar stability and channel flow capacity. Sites are statistically grouped in four clusters based on contrasted physical and climate characteristics. Results emphasise that regulation changes river's flow regime with a generalized reduction of the magnitude and frequency of floods (thus flow competence). This, in addition to the decrease downstream sediment supply, results in the loss of active bars as they are encroached by vegetation, to the point that only reaches with little or no regulation maintain exposed sedimentary deposits. The GS of regulated river reaches is negatively correlated with magnitude of the impoundment (regulation). Heavily impacted reaches present channel stabilization and, in contrast to the hydrological response, the distance and number of tributaries do not reverse the geomorphic impact of the dams. Stabilization limits river dynamics and may contribute to the environmental degradation of the fluvial ecosystem. Overall, results describe the degree of geomorphological alteration experienced by representative Iberian rivers mostly because of regulation

  9. Assessing Soil Quality in Areas Affected by Sulfide Mining. Application to Soils in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The characterization, evaluation and remediation of polluted soils is one of the present environmental challenges to be addressed in the coming years. The origin of trace elements in soils can be either geogenic or anthropogenic, but only the latter is interesting from a legal point of view. The hazard of the pollutants in the soils not only depends on their total concentration, but particularly on their availability. The mobility of the trace elements depends on their speciation, and it is also affected by several soil parameters. Mining activity is one of the most important anthropogenic causes of soil pollution. As a case study, this work is focused in the Riotinto mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt, IPB, SW Spain. The IPB is one of the most important metallogenic provinces in the world and it has been exploited for thousands of years. The disposal of mining residues has produced important sources of contamination by trace elements and acidic waters affecting soils and rivers. In addition to these problems, the closure of mines in the Pyrite Belt at the end of the 20th Century has led to a great loss of employment, which has caused the development of an intensive agriculture of citrus fruits as a new source of income. The intensive growing of citrus fruits and the traditional subsistence agriculture have been developed surrounding the mining areas and on floodplains near to mining sites. The level of soil pollution has not been taken into account in these cases, nor has its impact on the health of the inhabitants of these areas. Therefore, it is of great interest to study the current state of the cultivated soils and the sources and types of contaminants derived from mining activity in order to program its decontamination, where appropriate, according to legislation. In order to know the present and future hazard posed by the soils chemical and mineralogical speciation has been carried out, given that the availability of a metal depends on the

  10. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. seasonal variation in water quality of orle river basin, sw nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    The seasonal variation of water quality of Orle River and its tributatries in S.W. Nigeria was investigated forthnightly or two ... KEYWORD: water quality, river basin, wet and dry seasons; pollution. ..... Environmental Modeling and Software,.

  12. A spatial dynamic model to assess piospheric land degradation processes of SW Iberian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herguido Sevillano, Estela; Ibáñez, Javier; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Iberian open wooded rangelands (known as dehesas or montados) constitute valuable agro-silvo-pastoral systems traditionally considered as highly sustainable. Nevertheless, in the recent decades, those systems are undergoing changes of land use and management practices that compromise its sustainability. Some of those changes, as the rising construction of watering points and the high spatial fragmentation and livestock movement restriction associated to fencing, show an aggregated effect with livestock, producing an impact gradient over soil and vegetation. Soil compaction related to livestock pressure is higher around watering points, with bare soil halos and patches of scarce vegetation or nude soil developing with higher frequency in areas close to them. Using the freeware Dinamica EGO as environmental modeling platform, we have developed a theoretic spatial dynamic model that represents some of the processes of land degradation associated to livestock grazing in dehesa fenced enclosures. Spatial resolution is high since every cell in the model is a square unit area of 1 m2. We paid particular attention to the relationships between soil degradation by compaction (porosity), livestock pressure, rainfall, pasture growth and shrub cover and bare soil generation. The model considers pasture growth as related to soil compaction, measured by the pore space in the top 10 cm soil layer. Annual precipitation is randomly generated following a normal distribution. When annual precipitation and pore space increase, also does pasture growth. Besides, there is a feedback between pasture growth and pore space, given that pasture roots increases soil porosity. The cell utility for livestock function has been defined as an exponential function of the distance of a cell to watering points and the amount of pasture present in it. The closer the cell to a pond and the higher the amount of pasture, the higher is cell utility. The latter is modulated by a normal random variable to

  13. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. Nigeria. ... Abstract. The water quality of small streams in Auchi area of Edo State, S.W. Nigeria was investigated with a view to ... and ecosystems. The study was carried out

  14. Cirrus clouds properties derived from polarized micro pulse lidar (p-mpl) observations at the atmospheric observatory `el arenosillo' (sw iberian peninsula): a case study for radiative implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila, Ana del; Gómez, Laura; Vilaplana, José Manuel; Sorribas, Mar; Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen

    2018-04-01

    Cirrus (Ci) clouds are involved in Climate Change concerns since they affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Recently, a polarized Micro Pulse Lidar (P-MPL), standard system within NASA/MPLNET has been deployed at the INTA/Atmospheric Observatory `El Arenosillo' (ARN), located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. Hence, the INTA/P-MPL system is used for Ci detection over that station for the first time. Radiative effects of a Ci case observed over ARN are examined, as reference for future long-term Ci observations. Optical and macrophysical properties are retrieved, and used for radiative transfer simulations. Data are compared to the measured surface radiation levels and all-sky images simultaneously performed at the ARN station.

  15. Palaeoenvironments of the last Neanderthals in SW Europe (MIS 3): Cova del Coll Verdaguer (Barcelona, NE of Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; Allué, E.; Vaquero, M.; López-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Domènech, R.; Martinell, J.; Carrión, J. S.; Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Arnold, L. J.; Benson, A.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Skinner, A. R.; Julià, R.

    2017-12-01

    Marine isotope stage 3 (MIS 3) was characterised by marked oscillations of extreme cold episodes with very short warm events during the stadial, and several regional differences have been recorded in the ice cores and marine deposits. The aim of this study is to reconstruct this period by evaluating both terrestrial and regional responses. Cova del Coll Verdaguer, a site located on the Iberian Peninsula, preserves a sedimentary deposit dated to between 34 and 56 ka BP and provides an opportunity for evaluating the impact of climate changes on the regional landmass during a period that coincided with the last Neanderthal population on the Iberian Peninsula. Several dating methods, including U-series, electron spin resonance, amino acid racemization and radiocarbon (14C), were applied to the site and the ages obtained show good agreement. The biotic evidence obtained is substantial, comprising floristic data from palynology and charcoal analysis, and faunal data from large and small mammals, birds and gastropods. Environmental reconstruction points to an initially open meadow landscape at the base of the sequence (∼56 ka) that progressively changes to a woodland environment dominated by conifers (∼34 ka). The presence of few thermophilous taxa, in contrast with lower latitudes of the Iberian Peninsula, is also detected. The environmental conditions of mid-altitude, Mediterranean, limestone mountains for the last Neanderthal populations appear to have been dominated by a forested landscape comprising boreal or mixed coniferous forest, characterised by a low usable biomass with poor comestible plant resources and dispersed herbivore populations.

  16. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in both Europe and USA. ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere corresponding to the core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. Over the North Atlantic ARs are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin allowing the identification and a comprehensive characterization of the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula over the 1948-2012 period. The extreme precipitation days in the Iberian Peninsula were assessed recently by us (Ramos et al., 2014) and their association (or not) with the occurrence of AR is analyzed in detail here. The extreme precipitation days are ranked by their magnitude and are obtained after considering 1) the area affected and 2) the precipitation intensity. Different rankings are presented for the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also for the six largest Iberian river basins (Minho, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro) covering the 1950-2008 period (Ramos et al., 2014). Results show that the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western domains (Portugal

  17. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR

    2014-05-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the extended winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. These events are usually associated with low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months can be linked to Mediterranean low pressure systems. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and making use of data from relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented here based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily gridded precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2008, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands, and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal, with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. Through this objective method for ranking daily precipitation events the magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point and taking into account the daily precipitation normalised departure from climatology. Different precipitation rankings are presented considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are the water vapour (WV) core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. They are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. They are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV

  18. New petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (Ossa Morena Zone, SW Iberian Massif, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, A.; Santos, J. F.; Azevedo, M. R.; Mendez, M. H.; Ribeiro, S.

    2010-07-01

    The Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton is a late to post-tectonic Variscan intrusion occurring in the Ossa Morena Zone (Iberian Variscan Chain). The dominant lithological types are tonalites and granodiorites, but the internal area of the massif is composed of gabbro-dioritic rocks. Field evidence shows that the intrusion is heterogeneous at mesoscopic scale suggesting that the emplacement of mafic and felsic magmas was contemporaneous. Petrographic and geochemical studies reveal that the different lithologic types define a continuous sequence with compositions varying from metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and a typical calc-alkaline signature. In Harker variation diagrams, it is possible to observe systematic rectilinear correlations pointing to the involvement of magma mingling/mixing processes in the petrogenesis of this sequence. Rb-Sr isotopic data, using a mineral-mineral pair from a granodiorite sample, yielded an age of 298 Ma, interpreted as a cooling age after igneous crystallization. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Picophytoplankton and carbon cycle on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribas-Ribas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four surveys (Jun’06 and Nov’06; Feb’07 and May’07 were carried out on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Iberian Peninsula to relate the spatio-temporal distribution of the carbon cycle parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved organic carbon to picophytoplankton biomass and community composition. In addition, the net ecosystem production and the picophytoplankton contribution to the air-sea CO2 exchange process were investigated. The results showed that chlorophyll-a, carbon cycle parameters and picophytoplankton composition showed large seasonality, and the Guadalquivir Estuary plays an important role in the contribution of nutrient and suspended particular material over the year. Regarding picophytoplankton composition, the flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were the main populations in the studied area and their temporal and spatial distributions were complementary: the Prochlorococcus population showed its maximum concentration in May’07 and Jun’06 and in the surface oceanic water, whereas the Synechococcus population was at its maximum during Feb’07 and Nov’06, and off the Guadalquivir Estuary and Bay of Cádiz. In addition, a relationship between the studied parameters and the fugacity of CO2 was also observed, suggesting that primary production is an important factor in the regulation of this parameter in the studied area. The calculated carbon budget showed that the area acts as a carbon sink on an annual basis.

  20. Monitoring the Extent of Contamination from Acid Mine Drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain Using Hyperspectral Imagery

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    Asuncion Riaza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring mine waste from sulfide deposits by hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to predict surface water quality by quantitatively estimating acid drainage and metal contamination on a yearly basis. In addition, analysis of the mineralogy of surface crusts rich in soluble salts can provide a record of annual humidity and temperature. In fact, temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence from mine wastes at a mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Huelva, Spain has been achieved using hyperspectral airborne Hymap data. Furthermore, climate variability estimates are possible based on oxidation stages derived from well-known sequences of minerals, by tracing sulfide oxidation intensity using archive spectral libraries. Thus, airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used to provide a short-term record of climate change, and represent a useful set of tools for assessing environmental geoindicators in semi-arid areas. Spectral and geomorphological indicators can be monitored on a regular basis through image processing, supported by field and laboratory spectral data. In fact, hyperspectral image analysis is one of the methods selected by the Joint Research Centre of the European Community (Ispra, Italy to study abandoned mine sites, in order to assess the enforcement of the European Mine Waste Directive (2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries (Official Journal of the European Union, 11 April 2006. The pyrite belt in Andalucia has been selected as one of the core mission test sites for the PECOMINES II program (Cracow, November 2005, using imaging spectroscopy; and this technique is expected to be implemented as a monitoring tool by the Environmental Net of Andalucía (REDIAM, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

  1. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Angels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2007-09-05

    An ethnobotanical study has been carried out in the high river Ter valley (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) a small area located in the eastern Pyrenees, with 294 km(2) and 4526 inhabitants. Through 42 interviews with 60 informants of a mean age of 71.1, 220 species belonging to 71 botanical families were reported, 90.6% of which were used in human medicine and 7.8% in veterinary therapy. The present paper is focused on human medicinal plant uses. One fungal and four vascular plant species have not, or have very rarely been cited as medicinal, and for other taxa some very scarcely reported medicinal uses have been recorded (110 uses concerning 78 species).

  2. New petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data for the Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton (Ossa Morena Zone, SW Iberian Massif, Portugal

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    Antunes, A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Reguengos de Monsaraz pluton is a late to post-tectonic Variscan intrusion occurring in the Ossa Morena Zone (Iberian Variscan Chain. The dominant lithological types are tonalites and granodiorites, but the internal area of the massif is composed of gabbro-dioritic rocks. Field evidence shows that the intrusion is heterogeneous at mesoscopic scale suggesting that the emplacement of mafic and felsic magmas was contemporaneous. Petrographic and geochemical studies reveal that the different lithologic types define a continuous sequence with compositions varying from metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and a typical calc-alkaline signature. In Harker variation diagrams, it is possible to observe systematic rectilinear correlations pointing to the involvement of magma mingling/mixing processes in the petrogenesis of this sequence. Rb-Sr isotopic data, using a mineral-mineral pair from a granodiorite sample, yielded an age of 298 Ma, interpreted as a cooling age after igneous crystallization.

    El plutón de Reguengos de Monsaraz es una intrusión varisca tardi- a post- tectónica localizada en la Zona de Ossa Morena (Cadena Varisca Ibérica. Los tipos litológicos dominantes son las tonalitas y las granodioritas aunque la zona mas interna del macizo está formada por rocas gabro-dioríticas. Las evidencias de campo muestran que todos los tipos litológicos son heterogéneos a escala mesoscópica y sugieren que el emplazamiento de los magmas máficos y félsicos fue contemporáneo. Los estudios petrográficos y geoquímicos muestran que los diferentes litotipos definen una secuencia continua con una afinidad calcoalcalina típica y composiciones variando desde metaluminosas a peraluminosas. En los diagramas de Harker se observan correlaciones rectilíneas sistemáticas, lo que sugiere que la mezcla de magmas tuvo un papel decisivo en su petrogénesis. Los datos isotópicos de Rb-Sr, usando un par mineral-mineral de una granodiorita

  3. Harmful algal blooms (HABs), dissolved organic matter (DOM), and planktonic microbial community dynamics at a near-shore and a harbour station influenced by upwelling (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Sofia; Reñé, Albert; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Vaqué, Dolors

    2011-05-01

    The surface microalgal community, including harmful species, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and bacterial and viral populations were studied during an annual cycle (November 2007-October 2008) in a Near-shore (NS) and a Harbour (H) station located in an upwelling area (Sagres, SW Iberian Peninsula). The higher water residence time, water stability and shallowness of harbours in comparison with open waters likely contributed to the differences found between stations regarding chemical variables, statistical correlations and harmful algal proliferations. Also, several differences were noticed from a previous assessment ( Loureiro et al., 2005) including higher SST, lower nitrate and chlorophyll a concentrations, along with a shift in the microplankton community structure from diatom to nanoflagellate predominance. These variations feasibly reflect the response of this dynamic system to regional environmental modifications contributing to the understanding of common patterns in environmental change trends. The division of the sampling period into (1) non-upwelling (Non-Uw), (2) "spin-up" of upwelling (SU-Uw), and (3) "spin-down" and relaxation-downwelling (SD-Rel) stages allowed the identification of natural groupings of microplankton samples by Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and viruses were the most significant abiotic and biotic variables, respectively, contributing to the dissimilarities between these stages (SIMPER analysis) and, therefore, potentially affecting the microplankton community structure. Harmful algal species and a stable viral community appeared to be favoured by SD-Rel conditions. Data seem to indicate that both Gymnodinium catenatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, the most abundant potentially harmful species, have been imported into the sampling area. Also, the H location, together with potential retention sites developing around the Cabo de São Vicente upwelling centre, may contribute to the local

  4. A geochemical approach to the restoration plans for the Odiel River basin (SW Spain), a watershed deeply polluted by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Francisco; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Cánovas, Carlos R; Nieto, Jose M; Olías, Manuel; Ayora, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The Odiel River Basin (SW Spain) drains the central part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a world-class example of sulfide mining district and concomitantly of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution. The severe AMD pollution and the incipient state of remediation strategies implemented in this region, coupled with the proximity of the deadline for compliance with the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), urge to develop a restoration and water resources management strategy. Furthermore, despite the presence of some reservoirs with acid waters in the Odiel basin, the construction of the Alcolea water reservoir has already started. On the basis of the positive results obtained after more than 10 years of developing a specific passive remediation technology (dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS)) for the highly polluted AMD of this region, a restoration strategy is proposed. The implementation of 13 DAS treatment plants in selected acid discharges along the Odiel and Oraque sub-basins and other restoration measurements of two acidic creeks is proposed as essential to obtain a good water quality in the future Alcolea reservoir. This restoration strategy is also suggested as an economically and environmentally sustainable approach to the extreme metal pollution affecting the waters of the region and could be considered the starting point for the future compliance with the WFD in the Odiel River Basin.

  5. Modern Sedimentation off the Kaoping River, SW Taiwan: A Comparison with Eel River's S2S System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, C.; Lin, H.; Lin, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Kaoping (KP) River in SW Taiwan has a watershed area of 3257 km2 and an annual sediment discharge of 49 MT. Although the sediment yield of the KP River basin (1.5×104 ton km-2 yr^{- 1}) is the 4th highest among Taiwan's catchment basins, it is nearly one order of magnitude higher than that of the Eel River's basin (~1.8×103 ton km-2 yr-1; the highest in the U.S.). The KP canyon extends almost immediately seaward from the river's mouth and terminates in the northwestern corner of the South China Sea. The head of the canyon is characterized by high and steep walls exceeding 600 m. The KP river's source-to-sink system offers a dramatic case of mountainous rivers at active margins for S2S study. Here we report some results about modern sedimentation in KP river's dispersal system. Seventy-six sediment cores collected from an area of ~3000 km2 were analyzed for fallout nuclides 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb by gamma spectrometry. From profiles of excess 210Pb and 137Cs sediment accumulation rates in the coring sites were estimated, which vary from 0.06 to 1.6 cm/yr, with the highest rates (>1 cm/yr) distributed in the upper slope (exported out of the study area via the KP canyon to the deep sea by gravity-driven turbidity or hyperpycnal flows.

  6. Climate-induced changes in river water temperature in North Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Benedicto

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of climate change on the thermal regime of 12 rivers in the Northern Iberian Peninsula by using a non-linear regression model that employs air temperature as the only input variable. Prediction of future air temperature was obtained from five regional climate models (RCMs) under emission scenario Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Prior to simulation of water temperature, air temperature was bias-corrected (B-C) by means of variance scaling (VS) method. This procedure allows an improvement of fit between observed and estimated air temperature for all climate models. The simulation of water temperature for the period 1990-2100 shows an increasing trend, which is higher for the period of June-August (summer) and September-November (autumn) (0.0275 and 0.0281 °C/year) than that of winter (December-February) and spring (March-May) (0.0181 and 0.0218 °C/year). In the high air temperature range, daily water temperature is projected to increase on average by 2.2-3.1 °C for 2061-2090 relative to 1961-1990. During the coldest days, the increment of water temperature would range between 1.0 and 1.7 °C. In fact, employing the numbers of days that water temperature exceeded the upper incipient lethal temperature (UILT) for brown trout (24.7 °C) has been noted that this threshold is exceeded 14.5 days per year in 2061-2090 while in 1961-1990, this values was exceeded 2.6 days per year of mean and 3.6 days per year in observation period (2000-2014).

  7. Application of the SWAT model to an AMD-affected river (Meca River, SW Spain). Estimation of transported pollutant load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Fernandez de Villarán, R.; Domingo Santos, J. M.; Nieto, J. M.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Cánovas, C. R.

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThe Meca River is highly contaminated by acid mine drainage coming from the Tharsis mining district, belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt. This river is regulated by the Sancho reservoir (58 hm 3), with a pH close to 4.2. In this work, the load transported by the Meca River to the Sancho reservoir has been assessed. Due to the lack of streamflow data, the hydrological behaviour of the Meca River basin has been simulated using the SWAT model. The model has been calibrated against registered daily inflows of the Sancho reservoir (1982-2000), excluding the hydrological years 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 that were kept for the validation. The results were satisfactory; the evaluation coefficients for monthly calibration were: r = 0.85 (Pearson's correlation coefficient), NSE = 0.83 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient) and DV = 1.08 (runoff volume deviation). The main uncertainty was the calibration during low water because of the poor accuracy in the measurement of the inputs to the reservoir in these conditions. Discharge and dissolved concentration relationships for different elements were obtained from hydrochemical samplings, which allowed us to estimate the element pollutant load transported to the reservoir: 418 ton/year of Al, 8024 ton/year of SO 4, 121 ton/year of Zn, etc. Based on these loads, concentrations in the reservoir were calculated for some elements. Apart from Mn and Sr, good adjustment between calculated and measured values was observed (±20% for Ca, Co, Li, Mg, Na, Ni, Zn and SO 4). Capsule: Hydrological model combined with water quality data show how pollution by AMD can generate huge loads of contaminants acidifying streams and reservoirs.

  8. The Atlantic-Mediterranean watershed, river basins and glacial history shape the genetic structure of Iberian poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya-Sanz, D; Heuertz, M; López-de-Heredia, U; De-Lucas, A I; Hidalgo, E; Maestro, C; Prada, A; Alía, R; González-Martínez, S C

    2012-07-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies have elucidated the effects of Pleistocene glaciations and of Pre-Pleistocene events on populations from glacial refuge areas. This study investigates those effects in riparian trees (Populus spp.), whose particular features may convey enhanced resistance to climate fluctuations. We analysed the phylogeographic structure of 44 white (Populus alba), 13 black (Populus nigra) and two grey (Populus x canescens) poplar populations in the Iberian Peninsula using plastid DNA microsatellites and sequences. We also assessed fine-scale spatial genetic structure and the extent of clonality in four white and one grey poplar populations using nuclear microsatellites and we determined quantitative genetic differentiation (Q(ST) ) for growth traits in white poplar. Black poplar displayed higher regional diversity and lower differentiation than white poplar, reflecting its higher cold-tolerance. The dependence of white poplar on phreatic water was evidenced by strong differentiation between the Atlantic and Mediterranean drainage basins and among river basins, and by weaker isolation by distance within than among river basins. Our results suggest confinement to the lower river courses during glacial periods and moderate interglacial gene exchange along coastlines. In northern Iberian river basins, white poplar had lower diversity, fewer private haplotypes and larger clonal assemblies than in southern basins, indicating a stronger effect of glaciations in the north. Despite strong genetic structure and frequent asexual propagation in white poplar, some growth traits displayed adaptive divergence between drainage and river basins (Q(ST) >F(ST)), highlighting the remarkable capacity of riparian tree populations to adapt to regional environmental conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Cirrus clouds properties derived from polarized micro pulse lidar (p-mpl observations at the atmospheric observatory ‘el arenosillo’ (sw iberian peninsula: a case study for radiative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águila Ana del

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus (Ci clouds are involved in Climate Change concerns since they affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Recently, a polarized Micro Pulse Lidar (P-MPL, standard system within NASA/MPLNET has been deployed at the INTA/Atmospheric Observatory ‘El Arenosillo’ (ARN, located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. Hence, the INTA/P-MPL system is used for Ci detection over that station for the first time. Radiative effects of a Ci case observed over ARN are examined, as reference for future long-term Ci observations. Optical and macrophysical properties are retrieved, and used for radiative transfer simulations. Data are compared to the measured surface radiation levels and all-sky images simultaneously performed at the ARN station.

  10. Analysis of the most important river plumes on the Atlantic and Mediterranean Iberian coast by means of satellite imagery

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    Diego Fernandez Novoa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rivers discharges cause the formation of buoyant plumes in the adjacent coastal area at their mouths, which are characterized by low-salinity water and controlled by outflow inertia, rotation (Coriolis effects, buoyancy, wind, and tide forcing. The turbid plumes influence the adjacent coastal area, since they control the patterns of nutrients, sediments and/or pollutants of fluvial origin on the coastal ocean and can promote strong physical and chemical changes on seawater. These changes affect the biological characteristics of the area, such as primary production, species composition, abundance and distribution of existing microorganism, which demonstrates its high ecological importance. The characterization of the most important river plumes along the Atlantic Iberian coast and the influence of the main forcing drivers (river discharge, wind and tide on them, was carried out through the analysis of plume mean-state images calculated using water leaving radiance data (nLw555 obtained from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor onboard the Aqua satellite during 2003-2013. Satellite data are downloaded from Ocean Color web site (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov. Daily high-resolution L1 files from MODIS-Aqua were processed through SeaDAS software. Composite images, interpolated to a regular pixel grid with an approximate resolution of 500m, were built for different synoptic conditions of river discharge, wind regimes and tide, in order to obtain a representative average plume image of each situation and river for the posterior analysis. Results showed that the river discharge is the main forcing factor in the river plume extension. Wind effect is noticeable under high river discharge and tide is important for the estuarine outflow regimes although with some remarkable similarities and differences between the Atlantic rivers due to their intrinsic characteristics.

  11. Modelling critical factors affecting the distribution of the vulnerable endemic Eastern Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus guiraonis in Mediterranean rivers

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    E. J. OLAYA-MARIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Luciobarbus guiraonis (Eastern Iberian barbel is an endemic fish species restricted to Spain, mainly distributed in the Júcar River Basin District. Its study is important because there is little knowledge about its biology and ecology. To improve the knowledge about the species distribution and habitat requirements, nonlinear modelling was carried out to predict the presence/absence and density of the Eastern Iberian barbel, based on 155 sampling sites distributed throughout the Júcar River Basin District (Eastern Iberian Peninsula. We used multilayer feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANN to represent nonlinear relationships between L. guiraonis descriptors and variables regarding the physical habitat and biological components (macroinvertebrates, fish, riparian forest. The gradient descent algorithm was implemented to find the optimal model parameters; the importance of the ANN’s input variables was determined by the partial derivatives method. The predictive power of the model was evaluated with the Cohen’s kappa (k, the correctly classified instances (CCI, and the area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC plots. The best model predicted presence/absence with a high performance (k= 0.66, CCI= 87% and AUC= 0.85; the prediction of density was moderate (CCI = 62%, AUC=0.71 and k= 0.43. The fundamental variables describing the presence/absence were; solar radiation (the highest contribution was observed between 2000 and 4200 WH/m2, drainage area (with the strongest influence between 3000 and 5.000 km2, and the proportion of exotic fish species (with relevant contribution between 50 and 100%. In the density model, the most important variables were the coefficient of variation of mean annual flows (relative importance of 50.5% and the proportion of exotic fish species (24.4%. The models provide important information about the relation of L. guiraonis with biotic and abiotic variables, this new knowledge can

  12. Millennial-scale climatic variability between 340 000 and 270 000 years ago in SW Europe: evidence from a NW Iberian margin pollen sequence

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    S. Desprat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new high-resolution marine pollen record from NW Iberian margin sediments (core MD03-2697 covering the interval between 340 000 and 270 000 years ago, a time period centred on Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 9 and characterized by particular baseline climate states. This study enables the documentation of vegetation changes in the north-western Iberian Peninsula and therefore the terrestrial climatic variability at orbital and in particular at millennial scales during MIS 9, directly on a marine stratigraphy. Suborbital vegetation changes in NW Iberia in response to cool/cold events are detected throughout the studied interval even during MIS 9e ice volume minimum. However, they appear more frequent and of higher amplitude during the 30 000 years following the MIS 9e interglacial period and during the MIS 9a-8 transition, which correspond to intervals of an intermediate to high ice volume and mainly periods of ice growth. Each suborbital cold event detected in NW Iberia has a counterpart in the Southern Iberian margin SST record. High to moderate amplitude cold episodes detected on land and in the ocean appear to be related to changes in deep water circulation and probably to iceberg discharges at least during MIS 9d, the mid-MIS 9c cold event and MIS 9b. This work provides therefore additional evidence of pervasive millennial-scale climatic variability in the North Atlantic borderlands throughout past climatic cycles of the Late Pleistocene, regardless of glacial state. However, ice volume might have an indirect influence on the amplitude of the millennial climatic changes in Southern Europe.

  13. Life-history variability of non-native centrarchids in regulated river systems of the lower River Guadiana drainage (south-west Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F; Collares-Pereira, M J

    2010-02-01

    Life-history variability of two non-native centrarchids, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, was evaluated in three stream stretches of the lower River Guadiana drainage (south-west Iberian Peninsula) with different degrees of regulated flows. Abundance, condition and population structure differed among populations for both species, but invasion success was lower in the least regulated river. Lepomis gibbosus were abundant and had multiple age classes in the three river sites, whereas M. salmoides were less abundant and mainly represented by young-of-the-year fish. Juvenile growth in L. gibbosus was similar in all three populations, though longevity was slightly greater in the population from the River Guadiana mainstream. Lepomis gibbosus exhibited a long reproductive season, but the duration of season, size at maturity and reproductive effort varied among populations. The life-history differences found demonstrate the importance of species adaptation to local conditions which might favour their invasion success. Lepomis gibbosus were more adaptable and resilient to local conditions, whereas M. salmoides seemed dependent on reservoirs and large rivers for maintenance of riverine populations.

  14. Hydrological and sedimentary analysis of two recent flash floods in a Mediterranean basin with major changes in land uses and channel shape (Sió River, NE Iberian Peninsula)

    OpenAIRE

    Balasch Solanes, Josep Carles; García-Rodríguez, David; Tuset Mestre, Jordi; Ruiz Bellet, Josep Lluís; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Jacquet, Eisharc; Barriendos Valve, Mariano; Castelltort Aiguabella, Xavier; Pino González, David

    2017-01-01

    Two important rain events occurred in November 2015 and November 2016 in the Sió River basin (150 km2), a small tributary of the Segre River, within the Ebro River basin (NE Iberian Peninsula), caused two considerable flash floods. Peer Reviewed

  15. Microbial Diversity and Its Relationship to Physicochemical Characteristics of the Water in Two Extreme Acidic Pit Lakes from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Santofimia

    Full Text Available The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB hosts one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic mine wastes and pit lakes. The mineralogical and textural characteristics of the IPB ores have favored the oxidation and dissolution of metallic sulfides, mainly pyrite, and the subsequent formation of acidic mining drainages. This work reports the physical properties, hydrogeochemical characteristics, and microbial diversity of two pit lakes located in the IPB. Both pit lakes are acidic and showed high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals. Concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals were higher in the Nuestra Señora del Carmen lake (NSC by one order of magnitude than in the Concepción (CN lake. The hydrochemical characteristics of NSC were typical of acid mine waters and can be compared with other acidic environments. When compared to other IPB acidic pit lakes, the superficial water of CN is more diluted than that of any of the others due, probably, to the strong influence of runoff water. Both pit lakes showed chemical and thermal stratification with well defined chemoclines. One particular characteristic of NSC is that it has developed a chemocline very close to the surface (2 m depth. Microbial community composition of the water column was analyzed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. The microorganisms detected in NSC were characteristic of acid mine drainage (AMD, including iron oxidizing bacteria (Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and facultative iron reducing bacteria and archaea (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidiphilium, Actinobacteria, Acidimicrobiales, Ferroplasma detected in the bottom layer. Diversity in CN was higher than in NSC. Microorganisms known from AMD systems (Acidiphilium, Acidobacteria and Ferrovum and microorganisms never reported from AMD systems were identified. Taking into consideration the hydrochemical characteristics of these pit lakes and the spatial distribution of the identified

  16. Uncertainty of the peak flow reconstruction of the 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bellet, Josep Lluís; Castelltort, Xavier; Balasch, J. Carles; Tuset, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    There is no clear, unified and accepted method to estimate the uncertainty of hydraulic modelling results. In historical floods reconstruction, due to the lower precision of input data, the magnitude of this uncertainty could reach a high value. With the objectives of giving an estimate of the peak flow error of a typical historical flood reconstruction with the model HEC-RAS and of providing a quick, simple uncertainty assessment that an end user could easily apply, the uncertainty of the reconstructed peak flow of a major flood in the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) was calculated with a set of local sensitivity analyses on six input variables. The peak flow total error was estimated at ±31% and water height was found to be the most influential variable on peak flow, followed by Manning's n. However, the latter, due to its large uncertainty, was the greatest contributor to peak flow total error. Besides, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation; all three methods gave similar peak flows. Manning's equation gave almost the same result than HEC-RAS. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed.

  17. Occurrence and in-stream attenuation of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in Iberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Vicenç; von Schiller, Daniel; García-Galán, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Corominas, Lluís; Petrovic, Mira; Poch, Manel; Barceló, Damià; Sabater, Sergi

    2015-01-15

    A multitude of pharmaceuticals enter surface waters via discharges of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and many raise environmental and health concerns. Chemical fate models predict their concentrations using estimates of mass loading, dilution and in-stream attenuation. However, current comprehension of the attenuation rates remains a limiting factor for predictive models. We assessed in-stream attenuation of 75 pharmaceuticals in 4 river segments, aiming to characterize in-stream attenuation variability among different pharmaceutical compounds, as well as among river segments differing in environmental conditions. Our study revealed that in-stream attenuation was highly variable among pharmaceuticals and river segments and that none of the considered pharmaceutical physicochemical and molecular properties proved to be relevant in determining the mean attenuation rates. Instead, the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) influenced the variability of rates among river segments, likely due to its effect on sorption to sediments and suspended particles, and therefore influencing the balance between the different attenuation mechanisms (biotransformation, photolysis, sorption, and volatilization). The magnitude of the measured attenuation rates urges scientists to consider them as important as dilution when aiming to predict concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  19. Evolution of the morphology of the river Dragonja (SW Slovenia) due to land-use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, S. D.; van Huissteden, J.; Vandenberghe, J.; Van Dam, O.; de Gier, J.; Pleizier, I. D.

    2005-07-01

    The effects of increasing agricultural land use on fluvial morphology have received much attention in fluvial research. However, in several regions in Europe, a reversing trend of decreasing agricultural activity and land abandonment, followed by reforestation, is observed. The response of fluvial morphology deserves attention because of its large impacts on landscape and riverine habitats. With the help of geomorphological mapping, multi-date aerial photography and a range of dating techniques, we reconstructed the evolution of the morphology of the riverbed and the floodplain of the Dragonja river in southwestern Slovenia. The results of this study show that the fluvial morphology in this Mediterranean catchment has changed considerably as a result of shifts in agricultural land use, in particular large-scale land abandonment in the second half of the 20th century. Until the first half of the 19th century, floodplain aggradation prevailed. Probably around 1870, a large erosion event occurred from which the floodplain did not fully recover. A terrace standing 2.5 m above the present floodplain was formed. Natural reforestation, due to depopulation since World War II, caused a reduction in discharge and sediment supply to the river. The decreased intensity and frequency of floods allowed invasion of the riverbed by vegetation, causing narrowing and incision of the riverbed. This resulted in the formation of a terrace, which now stands 1.5 m above the present-day river. This terrace is about 60 years old. However, the largest increase in forest area occurred since 1975, which intensified this process of riverbed narrowing and incision, creating a local terrace at 0.5 m at 0.5 m above the presently meandering river.

  20. Tolerance to cadmium in Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlorophyta) strains isolated from an extreme acidic environment, the Tinto River (SW, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of selected concentrations of Cd on the growth and ultrastructure of three strains of Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from a highly acidic river, Rio Tinto (SW Spain) were examined. The river is characterized by its extreme physico-chemical conditions in terms of low pH, mean 2.2 and high concentrations of heavy metals. Growth, Cd accumulation, chlorophyll a, influence of Fe in Cd toxicity and ultrastructural localization were determined. The strains were cultured in both, artificial chemically defined media as well as in natural water from the river. Since iron is the main component of the river water, the effect of different concentrations of this element in relation with Cd toxicity was also analysed. The three strains analysed showed comparable growth and ultrastructural changes. Cd concentration corresponding to 50% growth inhibition (EC 5 ) was 0.2 mM when cells were grown in artificial media. When cells were grown in natural water, no significant differences were found between the controls and the Cd supplemented media even at the highest concentration of 0.8 mM. At an inhibitory level of 0.1 mM of Cd, increasing the concentration of iron up to 90 or 180 mM resulted in a dramatic recovery in algal growth rates in artificial media, reaching normal growth curves. The accumulation of Cd depended on dose and time in the artificial media. The maximal accumulation of Cd was reached after 3 days for all Cd doses, and remained almost unchanged in the subsequent period of time. Chlorophyll a amount depended on dose but not on time in the artificial growth media. At the ultrastructural level, an increase in the periplasmalemmal space was observed due to the presence of a large number of vacuoles, together with a decrease in the relative volume of the nucleus when the cells were incubated in the presence of Cd. Pyrenoid and starch granules were observed and accumulation of spherical electron-dense bodies were also detected. X-ray spectra of these bodies for

  1. Tolerance to cadmium in Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlorophyta) strains isolated from an extreme acidic environment, the Tinto River (SW, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, Angeles [Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera de Ajalvir Km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: aaguilera@cbm.uam.es; Amils, Ricardo [Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera de Ajalvir Km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Biologia Molecular (UAM-CSIC), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-30

    The effects of selected concentrations of Cd on the growth and ultrastructure of three strains of Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from a highly acidic river, Rio Tinto (SW Spain) were examined. The river is characterized by its extreme physico-chemical conditions in terms of low pH, mean 2.2 and high concentrations of heavy metals. Growth, Cd accumulation, chlorophyll a, influence of Fe in Cd toxicity and ultrastructural localization were determined. The strains were cultured in both, artificial chemically defined media as well as in natural water from the river. Since iron is the main component of the river water, the effect of different concentrations of this element in relation with Cd toxicity was also analysed. The three strains analysed showed comparable growth and ultrastructural changes. Cd concentration corresponding to 50% growth inhibition (EC{sub 5}) was 0.2 mM when cells were grown in artificial media. When cells were grown in natural water, no significant differences were found between the controls and the Cd supplemented media even at the highest concentration of 0.8 mM. At an inhibitory level of 0.1 mM of Cd, increasing the concentration of iron up to 90 or 180 mM resulted in a dramatic recovery in algal growth rates in artificial media, reaching normal growth curves. The accumulation of Cd depended on dose and time in the artificial media. The maximal accumulation of Cd was reached after 3 days for all Cd doses, and remained almost unchanged in the subsequent period of time. Chlorophyll a amount depended on dose but not on time in the artificial growth media. At the ultrastructural level, an increase in the periplasmalemmal space was observed due to the presence of a large number of vacuoles, together with a decrease in the relative volume of the nucleus when the cells were incubated in the presence of Cd. Pyrenoid and starch granules were observed and accumulation of spherical electron-dense bodies were also detected. X-ray spectra of these bodies for

  2. Groundwater chemistry characterization using multi-criteria approach: The upper Samalá River basin (SW Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Arianna; Franchino, Elisa; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Malandrino, Mery; Bianco Prevot, Alessandra; Hernández Sac, Humberto Osvaldo; Coyoy, Israel Macario; Sac Escobar, Edwin Osvaldo; Hernández, Ardany

    2017-10-01

    Improving understanding on groundwater chemistry is a key priority for water supply from groundwater resources, especially in developing countries. A hydrochemical study was performed in an area of SW Guatemala (Samalà River basin), where water supply to population is groundwater-based and no systematic studies on its groundwater resources have been performed so far. Traditional hydrochemical analyses on major ions and some trace elements metals coupled with chemometric approach were performed, including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results evidence that chemical differentiation is linked to the spatial distribution of sampled waters. The most common hydrochemical facies, bicarbonate calcium and magnesium, is linked to infiltration of meteoric waters in recharge areas represented by highlands surrounding Xela caldera, a wide plateau where most of population is concentrated. This trend undergoes chemical evolution in proximity of active volcanic complexes in the southern area, with enrichment in sulphate, chloride and magnesium. Chemical evolution also occurs towards the centre of Xela caldera due to slow circulation in aquifer and consequent sodium enrichment due to ion exchange with the porous medium. Water quality did not reveal severe concerns, even though some sources of contamination could be identified; in particular, agriculture and urban wastewater could be responsible for observed threshold exceedances in nitrate and lead. This integrated multi-approach to hydrochemical data interpretation yielded to the achievement of important information that poses the basis for future groundwater protection in an area where main water features were almost unknown.

  3. Applicability of TOPMODEL in the mountainous catchments in the upper Nysa Kłodzka river basin (SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorska, Justyna; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    River basins located in the Central Sudetes (SW Poland) demonstrate a high vulnerability to flooding. Four mountainous basins and the corresponding outlets have been chosen for modeling the streamflow dynamics using TOPMODEL, a physically based semi-distributed topohydrological model. The model has been calibrated using the Monte Carlo approach—with discharge, rainfall, and evapotranspiration data used to estimate the parameters. The overall performance of the model was judged by interpreting the efficiency measures. TOPMODEL was able to reproduce the main pattern of the hydrograph with acceptable accuracy for two of the investigated catchments. However, it failed to simulate the hydrological response in the remaining two catchments. The best performing data set obtained Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.78. This data set was chosen to conduct a detailed analysis aiming to estimate the optimal timespan of input data for which TOPMODEL performs best. The best fit was attained for the half-year time span. The model was validated and found to reveal good skills.

  4. New records of Trichoptera in reference Mediterranean-climate rivers of the Iberian Peninsula and north of Africa: taxonomical, faunistical and ecological aspects

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    Bonada, N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichoptera is a very rich order in the Western Mediterranean, but knowledge of caddisflies in the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa is still not complete. We present records of caddisflies collected in 114 sites of the Mediterranean climate region of the Iberian Peninsula and the western Rif. We also provide notes on ecological aspects and taxonomical remarks on some species. Atotal of 86 species were identified and 8 species extended their distribution range. Considering the four differentiated geological regions in the western Mediterranean Basin during the Tertiary, 60 species were collected in the Iberian plate region, 29 in the Transition, 30 in the Betic and 18 in the Rif. Local richness was not significantly different between the four regions but significant differences were found among several river ecotypes within regions. Temporary sites had lower local richness than other ecotypes in all regions except in the Rif, whereas headwaters had similar richness in any region regardless of their geology. The Rif region had the lowest Trichoptera richness, which is not only the result of the scarcity of faunistic studies in the area but also of the high frequency of temporary rivers and the isolation of the area. Our results suggest that conservation measures addressed to preserve the biodiversity of the Western Mediterranean should be enforced, especially in the Rif region.

    El orden Trichoptera es rico en especies en la zona del Mediterráneo Occidental, pero el conocimiento de este grupo en la Península Ibérica y el norte de África resta aún de ser completo. Presentamos datos de tricópteros recolectados en 114 localidades de la región Mediterránea de la Península Ibérica y del Rif occidental. Además, proporcionamos datos sobre la ecología de algunas especies así como notas taxonómicas. Se identificaron un total de 86 especies y el rango de distribución aumentó para 8 de ellas. Sesenta especies se recolectaron en la

  5. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

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    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption.

  6. Error of the modelled peak flow of the hydraulically reconstructed 1907 flood of the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Castelltort, Xavier; Carles Balasch, J.; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of the uncertainty of the results of the hydraulic modelling has been deeply analysed, but no clear methodological procedures as to its determination have been formulated when applied to historical hydrology. The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty of the resulting peak flow of a typical historical flood reconstruction. The secondary objective was to identify the input variables that influenced the result the most and their contribution to peak flow total error. The uncertainty of 21-23 October 1907 flood of the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) in the town of Xerta (83,000 km2) was calculated with a series of local sensitivity analyses of the main variables affecting the resulting peak flow. Besides, in order to see to what degree the result depended on the chosen model, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation. The peak flow of 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta, reconstructed with HEC-RAS, was 11500 m3·s-1 and its total error was ±31%. The most influential input variable over HEC-RAS peak flow results was water height; however, the one that contributed the most to peak flow error was Manning's n, because its uncertainty was far greater than water height's. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed. The peak flow was 12000 m3·s-1 when calculated with the 2D model Iber and 11500 m3·s-1 when calculated with the Manning equation.

  7. Multiproxies (benthic foraminifera, ostracods and biopolymers approach applied to identify the environmental partitioning of the Guadiana River Estuary (Iberian Peninsula

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    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Guadiana River is the fourth longest river in Europe and is a natural frontier between southern Portugal and Spain. This river was historically used to transport minerals exploited in the region since the Roman Empire and therefore suffered human interventions that have been intensified after the industrial revolution. The Guadiana River has in its limits the Guadiana Valley Natural Park, which is of great value for the Conservation of Geobiodiversity. This study mainly aims to identify zones with the environmental characteristics in the estuarine area of the Guadiana River based on the distribution and ecology of microorganisms (ostracods and foraminifera associated with physicochemical parameters and sedimentological and geochemical (carbohydrate, lipid, protein, total organic carbon and total sulfur data. Fifty-five foraminifera taxa were identified along the estuary with dominance of Ammonia tepida and Miliammina fusca and 13 ostracods taxa with dominance Leptocythere lacertosa and Loxoconcha elliptica. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA performed using biotic and abiotic variables indicated that pH, grain size, total organic carbon (TOC and lipids were the most influent factors in the distribution of these organisms. Four zones were identified in the Guadiana River estuary: i Low estuary - region with the largest marine influence with sandy sediment, higher salinity and total sulfur and mainly represented by the dominance of estuarine species of foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Cribroelphidium vadescens and by the ostracods (Darwinula stevensoni, Semicytherura sulcata and Urocythereis oblonga; ii Intermediate estuary - region characterized by neutral pH and sandy sediment enriched in carbohydrates; this region is characterized by the presence of the ostracods species Cytherois fischeri and Neocytherideis subulata and by calcareous and agglutinated species in foraminiferal assemblages; iii Upper estuary - silt, high TOC, proteins and

  8. New records of Trichoptera in reference Mediterranean-climate rivers of the Iberian Peninsula and north of Africa: taxonomical, faunistical and ecological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bonada, N.; Zamora-Muñoz, C.; El Alami, M.; Múrria, C.; Prat, N.

    2008-01-01

    Trichoptera is a very rich order in the Western Mediterranean, but knowledge of caddisflies in the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa is still not complete. We present records of caddisflies collected in 114 sites of the Mediterranean climate region of the Iberian Peninsula and the western Rif. We also provide notes on ecological aspects and taxonomical remarks on some species. Atotal of 86 species were identified and 8 species extended their distribution range. Considering the four differ...

  9. Effects of extreme rainfall events on the distribution of selected emerging contaminants in surface and groundwater: The Guadalete River basin (SW, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Candela, Lucila; Torres-Fuentes, Nivis; Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; Paniw, Maria; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2017-12-15

    This study is focused on the Guadalete River basin (SW, Spain), where extreme weather conditions have become common, with and alternation between periods of drought and extreme rainfall events. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur when heavy rainfall events exceed the capacity of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), as well as pollution episodes in parts of the basin due to uncontrolled sewage spills and the use of reclaimed water and sludge from the local WWTP. The sampling was carried out along two seasons and three campaigns during dry (March 2007) and extreme rainfall (April and December 2010) in the Guadalete River, alluvial aquifer and Jerez de la Frontera aquifer. Results showed minimum concentrations for synthetic surfactants in groundwater (contaminants increased in December 2010 as the heavy rainfall caused the river to overflow. In surface water, surfactant concentrations showed similar trends to groundwater observations. In addition to surfactants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed in the third campaign, 22 of which were detected in surface waters. Two fragrances (OTNE and galaxolide) and one analgesic/anti-inflammatory (ibuprofen) were the most abundant PPCPs (up to 6540, 2748 and 1747ng·L -1 , respectively). Regarding groundwater, most PPCPs were detected in Jerez de la Frontera aquifer, where a synthetic fragrance (OTNE) was predominant (up to 1285ng·L -1 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The 2-3 November 2015 flood of the Sió River (NE Iberian Peninsula): a flash flood that turns into a mudflow downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Rodríguez, Rafael; Tuset, Jordi; Castelltort, Xavier; Barriendos, Mariano; Pino, David; Mazón, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical and recent evidence shows that many floods in the interior of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) usually have such a great sediment load that can even alter the hydraulic behaviour of the flow. This is especially true in catchments with a great proportion of agricultural soils, which are the main source of sediment. The night of 2-3 November 2015 torrential rains fell on the headwaters of the Sió River catchment (508 km2); the subsequent flood caused four deaths and many damages along the stream. The hydrological, hydraulic and sedimentary characteristics of this recent flood have been analysed in order to gain a better insight on the characteristics of the major historical floods in the same catchment. The rainfall height on the headwaters was between 139 and 146 mm in ten hours, with a maximum intensity of about 50 mm·h-1. In the rest of the catchment it rained much less (22-71 mm). The agricultural soils in the headwaters show evidence of intense erosion by laminar and concentrated Hortonian overland flow in their superficial layer (Ap1; 10 cm), which uncovered the more compact underlying layer (Ap2). The peak flow in the headwaters (Oluges) was 90 m3·s-1 (that is, a specific peak flow near 1 m3·s-1·km-2) and it diminished downstream: 40 m3·s-1 in the centre of the catchment (Oluges + 27 km) and 15 m3·s-1 in the outlet (Oluges + 54 km). The suspended sediment load was 10-15% in volume in the headwaters and, judging from recorded images and eyewitnesses, it increased as the flow moved downstream, turning the flash flood into a mudflow. This concentration gain was most probably caused by the flood wave's water loss due to the dryness of the riverbed and translated in an increased viscosity that ultimately altered the hydraulic behaviour of the flow, slowing it down. This process of water loss has been observed in flash floods in dry riverbeds in arid and semiarid areas such as Negev (Israel) and Atacama (Chile). Historical floods in neighbouring

  11. A contribution to improved flood magnitude estimation in base of palaeoflood record and climatic implications – Guadiana River (Iberian Peninsula

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    J. A. Ortega

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Guadiana River has a significant record of historical floods, but the systematic data record is only 59 years. From layers left by ancient floods we know about we can add new data to the record, and we can estimate maximum discharges of other floods only known by the moment of occurrence and by the damages caused. A hydraulic model has been performed in the area of Pulo de Lobo and calibrated by means of the rating curve of Pulo do Lobo Station. The palaeofloods have been dated by means of 14C y 137Cs. As non-systematic information has been used in order to calculate distribution functions, the quantiles have changed with respect to the same function when using systematic information. The results show a variation in the curves that can be blamed on the human transformations responsible for changing the hydrologic conditions as well as on the latest climate changes. High magnitude floods are related to cold periods, especially at transitional moments of change from cold to warm periods. This tendency has changed from the last medium-high magnitude flood, which took place in a systematic period. Both reasons seem to justify a change in the frequency curves indicating a recent decrease in the return period of big floods over 8000 m3 s−1. The palaeofloods indicate a bigger return period for the same water level discharge thus showing the river basin reference values in its natural condition previous to the transformation of the basin caused by anthropic action.

  12. Fluvial diffluence episodes reflected in the Pleistocene tufa deposits of the River Piedra (Iberian Range, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Pardo, G.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Pleistocene deposits of the valley of the River Piedra (NE Spain) are represented by thick tufas with small amounts of detrital material; the development of these deposits correlates with marine isotopic stages 9, 7, 6, and 5. The sedimentary scenario in which they formed mostly corresponded to stepped fluvial systems with barrage-cascade and associated dammed areas separated by low gradient fluvial stretches. Mapping and determining the sedimentology and chronology of these deposits distinguished two main episodes of fluvial diffluence that originated as a result of the temporary blockage of the river — a consequence of the vertical growth of tufa barrages in the main channel. In both episodes, water spilt out toward a secondary course from areas upstream of barrages where the water level surpassed the height of the divide between the main and secondary course. As a consequence, extensive and distinct tufa deposits with very varied facies formed over a gently inclined area toward and, indeed, within the secondary course. The hydrology of this secondary course was episodic, fed only by surface water. The two diffluence episodes detected occurred during MIS 7 and 7-6 and were interrupted by incision events, reflected by detrital deposits at the base of each tufa sedimentation stage in the main channel. Incision, which caused the breakage of the barrages, allowed water to again flow through the main channel. No evidence of diffluence was seen in any younger (MIS 5 to present-day) tufa deposits. The proposed diffluence model might help explain other carbonate fluvial systems in which (1) tufas appear in areas with no permanent water supply, and (2) tufas are absent over extensive areas despite conditions favourable to their formation.

  13. Environmental stressors as a driver of the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in polluted Iberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Maja; Dolédec, Sylvain; de Castro-Catala, Nuria; Ginebreda, Antoni; Sabater, Sergi; Muñoz, Isabel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-07-01

    We used the trait composition of macroinvertebrate communities to identify the effects of pesticides and multiple stressors associated with urban land use at different sites of four rivers in Spain. Several physical and chemical stressors (high metal pollution, nutrients, elevated temperature and flow alterations) affected the urban sites. The occurrence of multiple stressors influenced aquatic assemblages at 50% of the sites. We hypothesized that the trait composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages would reflect the strategies that the assemblages used to cope with the respective environmental stressors. We used RLQ and fourth corner analysis to address the relationship between stressors and the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrates. We found a statistically significant relationship between the trait composition and the exposure of assemblages to environmental stressors. The first RLQ dimension, which explained most of the variability, clearly separated sites according to the stressors. Urban-related stressors selected taxa that were mainly plurivoltine and fed on deposits. In contrast, pesticide impacted sites selected taxa with high levels of egg protection (better egg survival), indicating a potentially higher risk for egg mortality. Moreover, the trait diversity of assemblages at urban sites was low compared to that observed in pesticide impacted sites, suggesting the homogenization of assemblages in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regional development of river basins in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi Area, SW Finland, 2000 BP - 8000 AP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, A.E.K.; Virkki, H.; Palmu, J.-P.; Hokkanen, K.; Kaija, J.

    2006-12-01

    Biosphere assessment forms one of the main components in Posiva's Safety Case portfolio and includes analyses of terrain and ecosystem development. Shoreline displacement and changes in surface hydrology form one part of these analyses. In this report, the regional development of the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi area in the time period 2000 BP - 8000 AP was examined by taking into account changes in the surface flow patterns of the Lapinjoki and Eurajoki river basins. A hydrological model, EULA, was developed and applied to investigate the past and future hydrological regimes and changes in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi study area. As detailed assessment of erosion and sedimentation effects were not within the scope of this study, only their general effects were evaluated. The digital elevation models (DEM) for different time stages (2000, 1500, 1000 and 500 BP; 100, 300, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, 6000, 7000 and 8000 AP) were compiled taking into account the land uplift and tilting of the Earth's crust. With the aid of various sophisticated GIS tools, the boundaries of the main river basins, the flow patterns of rivers and development of lakes during each stage were modelled. The yearly discharge rates of rivers Eurajoki and Lapinjoki were also evaluated with the assumption that present climatic features prevail during the whole time period 2000 BP - 8000 AP. Finally, the probability of significant changes in the surface water flow routes were estimated during different stages. (orig.)

  15. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Olias, Manuel; Vazquez-Suñé, Enric; Ayora, Carlos; Nieto, Jose Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12–16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2–4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of freshwater releases on the acidic Tinto river

  16. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canovas, Carlos Ruiz, E-mail: carlos.ruiz@dgeo.uhu.es [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC). c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, University of Huelva, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Olias, Manuel [Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, University Pablo de Olavide. Ctra.de Utrera km 1, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Vazquez-Sune, Enric; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC). c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Nieto, Jose Miguel [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12-16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2-4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the influence of freshwater releases on the

  17. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  18. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river system – river Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Göransson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the treatment plant. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the influence of rainfall, surface runoff, and river water flow on the temporal and spatial variability of the turbidity in the regulated river system by employing statistical analysis of an extensive data set. A six year long time series of daily mean values on precipitation, discharge, and turbidity from six stations along the river were examined primarily through linear correlation and regression analysis, combined with nonparametric tests and analysis of variance. The analyses were performed on annual, monthly, and daily bases, establishing temporal patterns and dependences, including; seasonal changes, impacts from extreme events, influences from tributaries, and the spatial variation along the river. The results showed that there is no simple relationship between discharge, precipitation, and turbidity, mainly due to the complexity of the runoff process, the regulation of the river, and the effects of Lake Vänern and its large catchment area. For the river Göta Älv, significant, positive correlations between turbidity, discharge, and precipitation could only be found during periods with high flow combined with heavy rainfall. Local precipitation does not seem to have any significant impact on the discharge in the main river, which is primarily governed by precipitation at catchment scale. The discharge from Lake Vänern determines the base level for the turbidity in the river

  19. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Olias, Manuel; Vazquez-Suñé, Enric; Ayora, Carlos; Miguel Nieto, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12-16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2-4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river system – River Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    M. Larson; D. Bendz; G. Göransson

    2013-01-01

    The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the t...

  1. Metal-fluxes characterization at a catchment scale: Study of mixing processes and end-member analysis in the Meca River watershed (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, C. R.; Macías, F.; Olías, M.; López, R. Pérez; Nieto, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Fluxes of acidity and contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) sources to the receiving surface water bodies were studied in a mining-impacted watershed (Meca River, SW Spain) using a novel methodology based on the joint application of EMMA and MIX codes. The application of EMMA and elemental ratios allowed delimiting the end-members responsible for water quality variations at a catchment scale. The further application of MIX quantified the significant impact of AMD on the river quality; less than 10% of AMD relative contribution is enough to maintain acidic conditions during most of the year. The mixing model also provided information about the element mobility, distinguishing those elements with a quasi-conservative behavior (e.g., Cu, Zn, Al, Co or Ni) from those affected by mineral precipitation/dissolution (e.g., K, Si, Na, Sr, Ca, Fe, Pb, or As). Floods are the main driver of dissolved and, mainly particulate, contaminants in the catchment. Thus, the first rainfall events in November only accounted for 19% of the annual Meca flow but yielded between 26 and 43% of the net acidity and dissolved metal loads (mainly, Fe, As and Pb). Concerning particulate transport, around 332 tons of particulate Fe, 49 tons of Al, 0.79 tons of As and 0.37 tons of Pb were recorded during these first floods. The particulate As concentration can be up to 34 times higher than the dissolved one during floods and between 2 and 4 times higher for Fe, Pb and Cr. This integrated modeling approach could be a promising and useful tool to face future restoration plans in derelict mines worldwide. This approach would allow prioritizing remedial measures, achieving an environmental and cost-effective restoration of degraded areas.

  2. Anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gas (CH4 and N2O) emissions in the Guadalete River Estuary (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos, M.; Sierra, A.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations of CH 4 and N 2 O have been measured seasonally during 2013 in the Guadalete River Estuary, which flows into the Cadiz Bay (southwestern Spanish coast). It has been intensely contaminated since 1970. Currently it receives wastewater effluents from cities and direct discharges from nearby agriculture crop. Eight sampling stations have been established along 18 km of the estuary. CH 4 and N 2 O were measured using a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Additional parameters such as organic matter, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and chlorophyll were determinate as well, in order to understand the relationship between physicochemical and biological processes. Gas concentrations increased from the River mouth toward the inner part, closer to the wastewater treatment plant discharge. Values varied widely within 21.8 and 3483.4 nM for CH 4 and between 9.7 and 147.6 nM for N 2 O. Greenhouse gas seasonal variations were large influenced by the precipitation regime, masking the temperature influence. The Guadatete Estuary acted as a greenhouse gas source along the year, with mean fluxes of 495.7 μmol m −2 d −1 and 92.8 μmol m −2 d −1 for CH 4 and N 2 O, respectively. - Highlights: • The estuary acts as a source of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide. • Anthropogenic inputs affect the distribution of the greenhouse gases. • Dissolved gases presented an important longitudinal gradient. • Seasonal variations highly depended on the precipitation regimen

  3. Testing a river basin model with sensitivity analysis and autocalibration for an agricultural catchment in SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TATTARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling tools are needed to assess (i the amounts of loading from agricultural sources to water bodies as well as (ii the alternative management options in varying climatic conditions. These days, the implementation of Water Framework Directive (WFD has put totally new requirements also for modeling approaches. The physically based models are commonly not operational and thus the usability of these models is restricted for a few selected catchments. But the rewarding feature of these process-based models is an option to study the effect of protection measures on a catchment scale and, up to a certain point, a possibility to upscale the results. In this study, the parameterization of the SWAT model was developed in terms of discharge dynamics and nutrient loads, and a sensitivity analysis regarding discharge and sediment concentration was made. The SWAT modeling exercise was carried out for a 2nd order catchment (Yläneenjoki, 233 km2 of the Eurajoki river basin in southwestern Finland. The Yläneenjoki catchment has been intensively monitored during the last 14 years. Hence, there was enough background information available for both parameter setup and calibration. In addition to load estimates, SWAT also offers possibility to assess the effects of various agricultural management actions like fertilization, tillage practices, choice of cultivated plants, buffer strips, sedimentation ponds and constructed wetlands (CWs on loading. Moreover, information on local agricultural practices and the implemented and planned protective measures were readily available thanks to aware farmers and active authorities. Here, we studied how CWs can reduce the nutrient load at the outlet of the Yläneenjoki river basin. The results suggested that sensitivity analysis and autocalibration tools incorporated in the model are useful by pointing out the most influential parameters, and that flow dynamics and annual loading values can be modeled with reasonable

  4. Simulation of Runoff Changes Caused by Cropland to Forest Conversion in the Upper Yangtze River Region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengtao; Wang, Yanhui; Coles, Neil; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    The "Grain for Green Project" is a country-wide ecological program to converse marginal cropland to forest, which has been implemented in China since 2002. To quantify influence of this significant vegetation change, Guansihe Hydrological (GSH) Model, a validated physically-based distributed hydrological model, was applied to simulate runoff responses to land use change in the Guansihe watershed that is located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in Southwestern China with an area of only 21.1 km2. Runoff responses to two single rainfall events, 90 mm and 206 mm respectively, were simulated for 16 scenarios of cropland to forest conversion. The model simulations indicated that the total runoff generated after conversion to forest was strongly dependent on whether the land was initially used for dry croplands without standing water in fields or constructed (or walled) paddy fields. The simulated total runoff generated from the two rainfall events displayed limited variation for the conversion of dry croplands to forest, while it strongly decreased after paddy fields were converted to forest. The effect of paddy terraces on runoff generation was dependent on the rainfall characteristics and antecedent moisture (or saturation) conditions in the fields. The reduction in simulated runoff generated from intense rainfall events suggested that afforestation and terracing might be effective in managing runoff and had the potential to mitigate flooding in southwestern China. PMID:26192181

  5. Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR

  6. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Maron, Philippe; Amouroux, David

    2014-01-01

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day −1 ) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day −1 ), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day −1 ) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d −1 , in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d −1 ). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d −1 ) may also limit Hg T inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d −1 ). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the coastal zone. - Highlights:

  7. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France); Maron, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Ingénieur Appliquées à la Mécanique et au Génie Electrique, Institut Supérieur Aquitain du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Allée du Parc Montaury, 64600 Anglet (France); Amouroux, David, E-mail: david.amouroux@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day{sup −1}) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day{sup −1}), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day{sup −1}) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d{sup −1}, in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d{sup −1}) may also limit Hg{sub T} inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the

  8. Theorizing Iberian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Robert Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of scholars invested in Iberian Studies are asking how peninsular literary and cultural studies might be reimagined, and reinvigorated, by placing the Spanish and Portuguese canons into critical dialogue with each other, and with Galician, Catalan, Basque/Euskadi, and Latin American and North African immigrant writers, cultural…

  9. Determination of 54 pesticides in waters of the Iberian Douro River estuary and risk assessment of environmentally relevant mixtures using theoretical approaches and Artemia salina and Daphnia magna bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Amaral, Sofia; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2017-11-01

    As a case study, the estuary of the international Douro River (Iberian Peninsula) was sampled over a year (2010) at six sampling sites to determine the presence of 56 pesticides of different categories (insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides). 96% of measured pesticides were detected in 79% of the quantified samples. Individual average pesticide concentrations ranged from 39 to 1 265ng/L, indicating a ubiquitous presence of the selected compounds; moreover, twelve pesticides were above the 2013/39/EU Directive limits. Due to its highly impacted profile, a theoretical hazard assessment was done considering the average and maximum environmental mixtures of all measured pesticides to identify the most sensitive trophic level. For both environmental mixtures, the theoretical approach suggested that invertebrates were the most sensitive group. Therefore, short-time exposure assays using both invertebrates Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, were done using the referred mixtures. Data demonstrated significant toxic effects ─ high mortality rate and abnormal swimming behaviour ─ of the exposed animals. Both approaches (theoretical and experimental) support the analytical results, alerting for an intervention on this estuarine environment and of other comparable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Holocene climate dynamics and construction of the pesqueiras in the NW Iberian Lower Miño River: an OSL approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Sanjurjo-Sanchez, J.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the Lower Miño River basin a 15-m thick sandy fluvial sequence is found at the town of Chan de Vide, some 55 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean. The deposit is exceptional because it is the only known sandy deposit in the upstream reaches of the Lower Miño area, which is dominated by

  11. Runoff Variability in the Scott River (SW Spitsbergen in Summer Seasons 2012–2013 in Comparison with the Period 1986–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franczak Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available River runoff variability in the Scott River catchment in the summer seasons 2012 and 2013 has been presented in comparison to the multiannual river runoff in 1986–2009. Both in particular seasons and in the analysed multiannual, high variability of discharge rate was recorded. In the research periods 2012–2013, a total of 11 952 water stages and 20 flow rates were measured in the analysed cross-section for the determination of 83 daylong discharges. The mean multiannual discharge of the Scott River amounted to 0.96 m3·s−1. The value corresponds to a specific runoff of 94.6 dm3·s−1·km2, and the runoff layer 937 mm. The maximum values of daily discharge amounted to 5.07 m3·s−1, and the minimum values to 0.002 m3·s−1. The highest runoff occurs in the second and third decade of July, and in the first and second decade of August. The regime of the river is determined by a group of factors, and particularly meteorological conditions affecting the intensity of ablation, and consequently river runoff volume. We found a significant correlation (0.60 in 2012 and 0.67 in 2013 between the air temperature and the Scott River discharge related to the Scott Glacier ice melt.

  12. Chronology of fluvial terrace sequences for large Atlantic rivers in the Iberian Peninsula (Upper Tagus and Duero drainage basins, Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pablo G.; Roquero, Elvira; López-Recio, Mario; Huerta, Pedro; Martínez-Graña, Antonio M.

    2017-06-01

    This work analyses the chronology of fluvial terrace sequences of the two most important fluvial basins from central Spain draining to the Atlantic Ocean (Upper Tagus and Duero drainage basins). Both basins evolved under similar Mediterranean climatic conditions throughout the Pleistocene and present comparable number of fluvial terraces (16-17) after excluding the higher terrace levels of the Tagus (T1-T5) entrenched in the Raña surface. These higher ;rañizo terraces; was formed in response to fan-head trenching in this high alluvial piedmont (+220 m) and therefore not properly controlled by Quaternary fluvial downcutting. The study accomplishes the implementation of multiple regression analyses for terrace height-age relationships. To transform relative terrace heights above the present river thalwegs (i.e. +100 m) in numerical ages a ;height-age transference function; has been developed on the basis of preliminary statistical geochronological approaches proposed for Central Spain. The resultant height-age transference function gather 73 published geochronological data for terrace sequences, featuring a 3rd Order Polynomial Function (R2 0.90). This function describes the overall trend of valley downcutting for the last c. 2.3 Ma in Central Spain and is used to assign numerical ages to terrace levels at different relative elevation.

  13. Phylogeography, historical demography and distribution modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Perea

    2015-12-01

    freshwater species inhabiting seasonally fluctuating river systems.

  14. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803, in the River Ulla (Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Nachón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of fecundity is a key step to quantify the reproductive potential of individual fish and to understand the stock-recruitment relationship, increasing the knowledge of the state of a stock and improving the assessment of the spawning stock biomass. For the present work we investigated the fecundity and gonad development in anadromous female twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803, during the upstream spawning migration in the River Ulla. Thirty-four females were sampled with trammel nets between April and June 2011 in seating areas for this species, located at 24 km and 20 km from the Atlantic Ocean respectively. Fish were lengthed to the nearest millimetre, weighed to the nearest gram and aged by using scales. Factor condition (K was estimated as K= (TW/TL^3*100 where TW is fish total weight (g and TL is fish total length (cm. The ovaries from each female were removed and weighted to the nearest 0.01 gram. Approximately one gram samples were taken from the anterior, central and posterior regions of each ovary and preserved in 70 % ethanol. The number of eggs in each subsample was counted and the fecundity computed from the mean. Individual fecundity (F was computed and F was divided by the weight of the fish to estimate relative fecundity (FR. Also the gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated to assess changes in fish maturity and spawning stage during the upstream migration. Female age ranged from 4 to 7 years and values of TL, TW, K and GSI were [mean ± SE (range]: 493 ± 7.3 mm (408-562 mm; 1,112 ± 53.7 g (592-1,626 g; 0.91 ± 0.02 (0.67-1.09 and 12.5 ± 0.47 (6.6-21.4 respectively. The value of fecundity (F was [mean ± SE (range]: 96,471 ± 6,493 oocytes (24,962 to 182,154 oocytes, while the relative fecundity (Fr was [mean ± SE (range]: 87,142 ± 3,592 oocytes (25,319 to 129,189 oocytes. A significant correlation (Spearman´s ρ test, p<0.05 between fecundity and all parameters has been determined. As observed in previous

  15. Progress in studies on hydrological impacts of degrading permafrost in the Source Area of Yellow River on NE Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Ma, Q.; Jin, X.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost degradation substantially impacts hydrological processes in the Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR). Deepening active layer has directly led to a reduction of surface runoffs, alters the generation and dynamics of slope runoffs and groundwater, leading to a deepening of groundwater flow paths. At present, however, there is only a limited understanding of the hydrological impact mechanisms of degrading permafrost. On the basis of analyzing and evaluating the current states, changing history and developing trends of climate, permafrost and hydrological processes, this program aims at further and better quantifying the nature of these mechanisms linking the degrading permafrost with changing hydrological processes. The key scientific themes for this research are the characterization of interactions between ground freezing-thawing and hydrogeology in the SAYR. For this study, a coupling is made between geothermal states and the occurrences of taliks in river systems, in order to understand how expanding taliks control groundwater and surface-water interactions and how these interactions might intensify or weaken when the climate warms and dries persistently. Numerical models include freeze-thaw dynamics coupled to groundwater and surface flow processes. For the proper parameterization of these models, field and laboratory studies are conducted with a focus on the SAYR. Geophysical investigations are employed for mapping permafrost distribution in relation to landscape elements. Boreholes and water wells and observation sites for the hydrothermal processes and water tables are used for establishing the current thermal state of frozen ground and talik and monitor their changes over time, and serve to ground-truth surface geophysical observations. Boreholes and wellbores, water wells and active layer sites have provided access to the permafrost and aquifer systems, allowing the dating of ground-water and -ice and soil strata for elucidating the regional

  16. Anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gas (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) emissions in the Guadalete River Estuary (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, M.; Sierra, A.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J.M.

    2015-01-15

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O have been measured seasonally during 2013 in the Guadalete River Estuary, which flows into the Cadiz Bay (southwestern Spanish coast). It has been intensely contaminated since 1970. Currently it receives wastewater effluents from cities and direct discharges from nearby agriculture crop. Eight sampling stations have been established along 18 km of the estuary. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were measured using a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Additional parameters such as organic matter, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and chlorophyll were determinate as well, in order to understand the relationship between physicochemical and biological processes. Gas concentrations increased from the River mouth toward the inner part, closer to the wastewater treatment plant discharge. Values varied widely within 21.8 and 3483.4 nM for CH{sub 4} and between 9.7 and 147.6 nM for N{sub 2}O. Greenhouse gas seasonal variations were large influenced by the precipitation regime, masking the temperature influence. The Guadatete Estuary acted as a greenhouse gas source along the year, with mean fluxes of 495.7 μmol m{sup −2} d{sup −1} and 92.8 μmol m{sup −2} d{sup −1} for CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, respectively. - Highlights: • The estuary acts as a source of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide. • Anthropogenic inputs affect the distribution of the greenhouse gases. • Dissolved gases presented an important longitudinal gradient. • Seasonal variations highly depended on the precipitation regimen.

  17. New Zircon U-Pb Age Constrain of the Origin of Devil's River Uplift (SW Texas) and Insights into the Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic Evolution of the Southern Margin of Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Dickerson, P. W.; Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Devils River Uplift (DRU) in SW Texas records the evolution of the southern Laurentian margin from Grenvillian orogenesis and assembly of Rodinia, to its fragmentation by rifting, and to the amalgamation of Pangaea. It was cored by a well (Shell No. 1 Stewart), penetrating Precambrian gneisses and Cambrian metasediments and sandstones. New zircon LA-ICP-MS data from a total of 10 samples elucidate the crystallization and depositional ages, as well as the detrital provenance, of Precambrian and Cambrian rocks from the DRU. Zircons from five Precambrian crystalline basement samples (6000-9693') yield uniform U-Pb crystallization ages of 1230 Ma that are similar to ages for young gneisses of the Valley Spring Domain (Llano uplift) in central Texas, where they mark the cessation of arc magmatism within the Grenville orogenic belt. The 1230 Ma igneous basement is overlain by L.-M. Cambrian metasedimentary rocks ( 4000-6000') with maximum depositional ages of 533-545 Ma. Detrital zircons from Cambrian strata are dominated by a 1070-1080 Ma population, likely derived from basement units exposed in Texas (Llano uplift, Franklin Mts.), with minor contributions from local 1230 Ma Precambrian basement and the 1380-1500 Ma Granite Rhyolite Province. The L.-M. Cambrian interval is dominated (>80%) by Neoproterozoic detrital magmatic zircons with two major distinct age clusters at 570-700 Ma and 780-820 Ma, supporting a two-stage Rodinia rift model and providing strong evidence for major Cryogenian-Eocambrian intraplate magmatism along the southern margin of Rodinia. Moreover, detrital zircon signatures for L.-M. and U. Cambrian strata strongly correlate with those from the Cuyania terrane of W. Argentina - notably the W. Sierras Pampeanas (Sa. Pie de Palo, Sa. de Maz): 1230 Ma from metasandstones (PdP); 1081-1038 Ma from metasiliciclastics (PdP, SdM); Cryogenian-Eocambrian [774 & 570 Ma] plutons (SdM, PdP). In summary, these new zircon U-Pb data from DRU in SW Texas show

  18. Post-depositional redistribution of trace metals in reservoir sediments of a mining/smelting-impacted watershed (the Lot River, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audry, Stephane; Grosbois, Cecile; Bril, Hubert; Schaefer, Joerg; Kierczak, Jakub; Blanc, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Mining/smelting wastes and reservoir sediment cores from the Lot River watershed were studied using mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS, EMPA) and geochemical (redox dynamics, selective extractions) approaches to characterize the main carrier phases of trace metals. These two approaches permitted determining the role of post-depositional redistribution processes in sediments and their effects on the fate and mobility of trace metals. The mining/smelting wastes showed heterogeneous mineral compositions with highly variable contents of trace metals. The main trace metal-bearing phases include spinels affected by secondary processes, silicates and sulfates. The results indicate a clear change in the chemical partitioning of trace metals between the reservoir sediments upstream and downstream of the mining/smelting activities, with the downstream sediments showing a 2-fold to 5-fold greater contribution of the oxidizable fraction. This increase was ascribed to stronger post-depositional redistribution of trace metals related to intense early diagenetic processes, including dissolution of trace metal-bearing phases and precipitation of authigenic sulfide phases through organic matter (OM) mineralization. This redistribution is due to high inputs (derived from mining/smelting waste weathering) at the water-sediment interface of (i) dissolved SO 4 promoting more efficient OM mineralization, and (ii) highly reactive trace metal-bearing particles. As a result, the main trace metal-bearing phases in the downstream sediments are represented by Zn- and Fe-sulfides, with minor occurrence of detrital zincian spinels, sulfates and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Sequestration of trace metals in sulfides at depth in reservoir sediments does not represent long term sequestration owing to possible resuspension of anoxic sediments by natural (floods) and/or anthropogenic (dredging, dam flush) events that might promote trace metal mobilization through sulfide oxidation. It is estimated that, during a major

  19. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  20. Riparian bird density decline in response to biocontrol of Tamarix from riparian ecosystems along the Dolores River in SW Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Biocontrol of invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the arid Southwest using the introduced tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda elongata) has been hypothesized to negatively affect some breeding bird species, but no studies to date have documented the effects of beetle-induced defoliation on riparian bird abundance. We assessed the effects of tamarisk defoliation by monitoring defoliation rates, changes in vegetation composition, and changes in density of six obligate riparian breeding bird species at two sites along the Dolores River in Colorado following the arrival of tamarisk beetles. We conducted bird point counts from 2010 to 2014 and modeled bird density as a function of native vegetation density and extent of defoliation using hierarchical distance sampling. Maximum annual defoliation decreased throughout the study period, peaking at 32–37% in 2009–2010 and dropping to 0.5–15% from 2011–2014. Stem density of both tamarisk and native plants declined throughout the study period until 2014. Density of all bird species declined throughout most of the study, with Song Sparrow disappearing from the study sites after 2011. Blue Grosbeak, Yellow-breasted Chat, and Yellow Warbler densities were negatively related to defoliation in the previous year, while Lazuli Bunting exhibited a positive relationship with defoliation. These findings corroborate earlier predictions of species expected to be sensitive to defoliation as a result of nest site selection. Tamarisk defoliation thus had short-term negative impacts on riparian bird species; active restoration may be needed to encourage the regrowth of native riparian vegetation, which in the longer-term may result in increased riparian bird density.

  1. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Abdolbaset

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild food plants (WFPs contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR, Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Methods Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. Results A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp. are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Conclusion Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity

  2. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset; Langenberger, Gerhard; Sauerborn, Joachim

    2012-05-05

    Wild food plants (WFPs) contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR), Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp.) are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity on the preference and use of wild food plants. There is a big

  3. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lira, Jaime; Linderholm, Anna; Olaria, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Iberian horses supports this suggestion. To test this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages, against previously published sequences. Only the medieval Iberian sequence appeared in the D1 group...... wild mares during an early Iberian domestication or restocking event, whereas the D1 group probably was introduced into Iberia in later historical times....

  4. An Iberian climatology of solar radiation obtained from WRF regional climate simulations for 1950-2010 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, João; Salgado, Rui; Magarreiro, Clarisse; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Costa, Maria João; Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2017-12-01

    The mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is used over the Iberian Peninsula to generate 60 years (1950-2010) of climate data, at 5 km resolution, in order to evaluate and characterize the incident shortwave downward radiation at the surface (SW ↓), in present climate. The simulated values of SW ↓ in the period 2000-2009 were compared with data measured in Spanish and Portuguese meteorological stations before and a statistical BIAS correction was applied using data from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), on board four different satellites. The spatial and temporal comparison between WRF results and observations show a good agreement for the analyzed period, although the model overestimates observations. This overestimation has a mean normalized bias of about 7% after BIAS correction (or 17% for original WRF output). Additionally, the present simulation was confronted against another previously validated WRF simulation performed with different resolution and set of parametrizations, showing comparable results. WRF adequately reproduces the observational features of SW ↓ with correlation coefficients above 0.8 in annual and seasonal basis. 60 years of simulated SW ↓ over the Iberian Peninsula were produced, which showed annual mean values that range from 130 W/m2, in the northern regions, to a maximum of around 230 W/m2 in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (IP). SW ↓ over IP shows a positive gradient from north to south and from west to east, with local effects influenced by topography and distance to the coast. The analysis of the simulated cloud fraction indicates that clear sky days are found in > 30% of the period at the southern area of IP, particularly in the Algarve (Portugal) and Andalusia (Spain), and this value increases significantly in the summer season for values above 80%.

  5. Ascent ability of brown trout, Salmo trutta, and two Iberian cyprinids − Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei, and northern straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma duriense − in a vertical slot fishway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ronda, Fco. Javier; Bravo-Cordoba, F.J.; Fuentes-Perez, J.F.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Passage performance of brown trout (Salmo trutta), Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), and northern straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) was investigated in a vertical slot fishway in the Porma River (Duero River basin, Spain) using PIT telemetry. We analysed the effects of different fishway discharges on motivation and passage success. Both cyprinid species ascended the fishway easily, performing better than the trout despite their theoretically weaker swimming performance. Fishway discharge affected fish motivation although it did not clearly influence passage success. Observed results can guide design and operation criteria of vertical slot fishways for native Iberian fish.

  6. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  7. The Late Cretaceous Alkaline Igneous Province in the Iberian Peninsula, and its tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, N. M. S.

    1982-04-01

    The Iberian Province consists of the following: the three subvolcanic, syenitic, major intrusive complexes of Monchique, Sines and Sintra in W. and SW Portugal, together with their basanitic/lamprophyric minor intrusive suites; basanitic volcanic complexes around Lisbon; at least some of a widespread suite of basanitic to theralitic minor intrusives in west central Portugal; about 80 small basanitic/lamprophyric to nepheline syenitic intrusions scattered through the Pyrenees, NE Spain, the French Corbières, and off the coast of NW Spain; and the Ormonde Seamount of the Gorringe Bank off the SW coast of Portugal. Most of these occurrences have been dated isotopically or from field evidence as Late Cretaceous. Geological and petrological details of the various occurrences are compiled and reviewed. Primary basanitic magmas were probably parental to the entire Province, and generated syenitic magmas by differentiation processes; oversaturated rocks were produced by alkali loss and perhaps also by crustal involvement. The Iberian Province is related to the opening of the N. Atlantic, specifically that of the Bay of Biscay.

  8. 1st Iberian Robotics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Ferre, Manuel; ROBOT2013; Advances in robotics

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the ROBOT 2013: FIRST IBERIAN ROBOTICS CONFERENCE and it can be said that included both state of the art and more practical presentations dealing with implementation problems, support technologies and future applications. A growing interest in Assistive Robotics, Agricultural Robotics, Field Robotics, Grasping and Dexterous Manipulation, Humanoid Robots, Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Marine Robotics, has been demonstrated by the very relevant number of contributions. Moreover, ROBOT2013 incorporates a special session on Legal and Ethical Aspects in Robotics that is becoming a topic of key relevance. This Conference was held in Madrid (28-29 November 2013), organised by the Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo en Robótica (SEIDROB) and by the Centre for Automation and Robotics - CAR (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)), along with the co-operation of Grupo Temático de Robótica CEA-GT...

  9. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  10. Crustal parameters in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, E.

    1988-06-01

    The structure of the crust in the Iberian Peninsula has been investigated for the last 15 years by Spanish and Portuguese groups in close collaboration with other European institutions. The first experiments were carried out in Portugal (Mueller et al., 1973) with the aim of investigating the crustal structure of the Hercynian belt in the southwest corner of the Iberian peninsula. Other experiments have been subsequently realized to study different aspects of the crust in various regions of Portugal. In Spain the main effort has been focused in Alpine areas, with the first experiments in the Alboran Sea and the Betic Cordilleras (Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in Spain, 1974-1975, 1977; Working Group for Deep Seismic Sounding in the Alboran Sea, 1974-1975, 1978). Follow-up experiments until 1981 completed the work in the Betic Cordillera. Extensive experiments were carried out in the Pyrenees in 1978. Further surveys covered the Balearic Islands in 1976, the Valencia Trough in 1976 and 1983, and the Celtiberian Chain (or Iberic system) in 1981. The Hercynian belt has only been studied in detail in the northwest corner of Spain in 1982, with smaller studies in the central Iberian Massif in 1976 and 1986. Mostaanpour (1984) has compiled some crustal parameters (crustal thickness, average crustal velocity and Pn velocity) for western Europe. Meanwhile, more complete data are available for the Iberian Peninsula. The results presented here were derived from a large number of seismic refraction experiments which have been carried out mostly along or close to coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore explosions of various sizes were used as the energy source in most cases, in addition to some quarry blasts. Unfortunately this leaves most of the inner part of the Iberian Peninsula unsurveyed. Our purpose is to summarize some of the crustal parameters obtained so far and to detail the appropriate literature for the interested reader.

  11. Iberian fish records in the vertebrate collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeles, Amaia A; Galicia, David; Miranda, Rafael

    2016-10-11

    The study of freshwater fish species biodiversity and community composition is essential for understanding river systems, the effects of human activities on rivers, and the changes these animals face. Conducting this type of research requires quantitative information on fish abundance, ideally with long-term series and fish body measurements. This Data Descriptor presents a collection of 12 datasets containing a total of 146,342 occurrence records of 41 freshwater fish species sampled in 233 localities of various Iberian river basins. The datasets also contain 148,749 measurement records (length and weight) for these fish. Data were collected in different sampling campaigns (from 1992 to 2015). Eleven datasets represent large projects conducted over several years, and another combines small sampling campaigns. The Iberian Peninsula contains high fish biodiversity, with numerous endemic species threatened by various menaces, such as water extraction and invasive species. These data may support the development of large biodiversity conservation studies.

  12. Assessing climate change impacts on the Iberian power system using a coupled water-power model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Madsen, Henrik; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a negative impact on the power system of the Iberian Peninsula; changes in river runoff are expected to reduce hydropower generation, while higher temperatures are expected to increase summer electricity demand, when water resources are already limited. However,...... to balance agricultural, power, and environmental objectives in the operation of Iberian reservoirs, though some impacts could be mitigated by better alignment between temporal patterns of irrigation and power demands....... patterns of electricity demand caused by temperature changes, and changes in irrigation water use caused by temperature and precipitation changes. A stochastic dynamic programming approach was used to develop operating rules for the integrated system given hydrological uncertainty. We found that changes...

  13. Characteristics of storms that contribute to extreme precipitation events over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Ordoñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Floods correspond to one of the most deadly natural disasters in the Iberian Peninsula during the last century. Quite often these floods are associated to intense low pressure systems with an Atlantic origin. In recent years a number of episodes have been evaluated on a case-by-case approach, with a clear focus on extreme events, thus lacking a systematic assessment. In this study we focus on the characteristics of storms for the extended winter season (October to March) that are responsible for the most extreme rainfall events over large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events during the extended winter is used based on the most comprehensive database of high resolution (0.2º latitude by 0.2º longitude) gridded daily precipitation dataset available for the Iberian Peninsula. The magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the total area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point (taking into account the daily normalised departure from climatology). Different precipitation rankings are studied considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula (Duero, Ebro, Tagus, Minho, Guadiana and Guadalquivir). Using an objective cyclone detecting and tracking scheme [Trigo, 2006] the storm track and characteristics of the cyclones were obtained using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the 1979-2008 period. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclone positions when the precipitation extremes occur will be analysed over the considered sub-domains (Iberia, Portugal, major river basins). In addition, we distinguish the different cyclone characteristics (lifetime, direction, minimum pressure, position, velocity, vorticity and radius) with significant impacts in precipitation over the different domains in the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa

  14. The climate of the Common Era off the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Teresa; Rufino, Marta; Salgueiro, Emília; Oliveira, Dulce; Gomes, Sandra; Oliveira, Paulo; Costa, Ana; Mil-Homens, Mário; Drago, Teresa; Naughton, Filipa

    2017-12-01

    reveals a clear difference between the NW Iberia and the Algarve records. While off NW Iberia variability is low, the Algarve shows large-amplitude decadal variability with an inverse relationship between SST and river input. Such conditions suggest a shift in the EA mode, from negative between 1900 and 1970 CE to positive after 1970, while NAO and SCAND remain in a positive phase. The particularly noticeable rise in SST at the Algarve site by the mid-20th century (±1970), provides evidence for a regional response to the ongoing climate warming. The reported findings have implications for decadal-scale predictions of future climate change in the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Thermal regime of warm-dry permafrost in relation to ground surface temperature in the Source Areas of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, SW China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Dongliang; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai; Bense, Victor F.; He, Ruixia; Ma, Qiang; Gao, Shuhui; Jin, Xiaoying; Lu¨, Lanzhi

    2018-01-01

    Ecology, hydrology, and natural resources in the source areas of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers (SAYYR) are closely linked to interactions between climate and permafrost. However, a comprehensive study of the interactions is currently hampered by sparsely- and unevenly-distributed monitoring sites

  16. The nature of crustal reflectivity at the southwest Iberian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, G. G.; Torne, M.; Carbonell, R.; Melchiorre, M.; Vergés, J.; Fernàndez, M.

    2017-11-01

    Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired over the northern margin of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian margin) places new constraints on the upper crustal structure of the Guadalquivir-Portimão Bank. The data presented have been processed with optimized stacking and interval velocity models, a better approach to multiple attenuation, preserved amplitude information to derive the nature of seismic reflectivity, and accurate time-to-depth conversion after migration. The reprocessed data reveal a bright upper crustal reflector just underneath the Paleozoic basement that spatially coincides with the local positive free-air gravity high called the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High. To investigate the nature of this reflector and to decipher whether it could be associated with pieces of mantle material emplaced at upper crustal levels, we calculated its reflection coefficient and compared it to a buried high-density ultramafic body (serpentinized peridotite) at the Gorringe Bank. Its reflection coefficient ratio with respect to the sea floor differs by only 4.6% with that calculated for the high-density ultramafic body of the Gorringe Bank, while it differs by 35.8% compared to a drilled Miocene limestone unconformity. This means that the Gulf of Cádiz reflector has a velocity and/or density contrast similar to the peridotite at the Gorringe Bank. However, considering the depth at which it is found (between 2.0 and 4.0 km) and the available geological information, it seems unlikely that the estimated shortening from the Oligocene to present is sufficient to emplace pieces of mantle material at these shallow levels. Therefore, and despite the similarity in its reflection coefficient with the peridotites of the Gorringe Bank, our preferred interpretation is that the upper crustal Gulf of Cádiz reflector represents the seismic response of high-density intracrustal magmatic intrusions that may partially contribute to the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High.

  17. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  18. {sup 210}Pb-Excess and Sediment Accumulation Rates at the Iberian Continental Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Soares, A. M. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Sediments from the continental shelf, slope, and rise at the continental margin of northern Portugal and the adjacent Iberian abyssal basin were analysed for 210Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 14}C. Pb-210 derived sedimentation rates at the continental shelf off the Portuguese coast were 0.2-0.6 cm/a. In some cores from fine sediment deposits at the outer shelf, the {sup 210}Pb excess continuum was interrupted and sediment layers were missing, suggesting that events such as sediment slides could have occurred. Higher sedimentation rates were determined in locations at the rise of the continental slope, confirming enhanced deposition by sediment slides. In the deeper Iberian Abyssal Basin, using the {sup 14}C age of sediment layers the sedimentation rate was determined at 3.2 cm/ka, thus four orders of magnitude lower than at the continental shelf. The spatial distribution of sedimentation rates determined by radionuclide based chronologies, suggested that fine sediments from river discharges are deposited mainly at the outer continental shelf. These deposits may became unstable with time and, occasionally, originate sediment slides that are drained by the canyons and reach the deep sea. The Iberian abyssal basin receives some advective contribution of these sediment slides and the sedimentation rate is one order of magnitude higher than in other abyssal basins of the NE Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  19. An invasion risk map for non-native aquatic macrophytes of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argantonio Rodríguez-Merino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater systems are particularly susceptible to non-native organisms, owing to their high sensitivity to the impacts that are caused by these organisms. Species distribution models, which are based on both environmental and socio-economic variables, facilitate the identification of the most vulnerable areas for the spread of non-native species. We used MaxEnt to predict the potential distribution of 20 non-native aquatic macrophytes in the Iberian Peninsula. Some selected variables, such as the temperature seasonality and the precipitation in the driest quarter, highlight the importance of the climate on their distribution. Notably, the human influence in the territory appears as a key variable in the distribution of studied species. The model discriminated between favorable and unfavorable areas with high accuracy. We used the model to build an invasion risk map of aquatic macrophytes for the Iberian Peninsula that included results from 20 individual models. It showed that the most vulnerable areas are located near to the sea, the major rivers basins, and the high population density areas. These facts suggest the importance of the human impact on the colonization and distribution of non-native aquatic macrophytes in the Iberian Peninsula, and more precisely agricultural development during the Green Revolution at the end of the 70’s. Our work also emphasizes the utility of species distribution models for the prevention and management of biological invasions.

  20. Groundwater influence on soil moisture memory and land-atmosphere interactions over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the memory introduced in soil moisture fields by groundwater long timescales of variation in the semi-arid regions of the Iberian Peninsula with the LEAFHYDRO soil-vegetation-hydrology model, which includes a dynamic water table fully coupled to soil moisture and river flow via 2-way fluxes. We select a 10-year period (1989-1998) with transitions from wet to dry to again wet long lasting conditions and we carry out simulations at 2.5 km spatial resolution forced by ERA-Interim and a high-resolution precipitation analysis over Spain and Portugal. The model produces a realistic water table that we validate with hundreds of water table depth observation time series (ranging from 4 to 10 years) over the Iberian Peninsula. Modeled river flow is also compared to observations. Over shallow water table regions, results highlight the groundwater buffering effect on soil moisture fields over dry spells and long-term droughts, as well as the slow recovery of pre-drought soil wetness once climatic conditions turn wetter. Groundwater sustains river flow during dry summer periods. The longer lasting wet conditions in the soil when groundwater is considered increase summer evapotranspiration, that is mostly water-limited. Our results suggest that groundwater interaction with soil moisture should be considered for climate seasonal forecasting and climate studies in general over water-limited regions where shallow water tables are significantly present and connected to land surface hydrology.

  1. The phylogeographical history of the Iberian steppe plant Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae): a test of the abundant-centre hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Collazos, E; Sanchez-Gómez, P; Jiménez, F; Catalán, P

    2009-03-01

    The geology and climate of the western Mediterranean area were strongly modified during the Late Tertiary and the Quaternary. These geological and climatic events are thought to have induced changes in the population histories of plants in the Iberian Peninsula. However, fine-scale genetic spatial architecture across western Mediterranean steppe plant refugia has rarely been investigated. A population genetic analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism variation was conducted on present-day, relict populations of Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae). This species exhibits high individual/population numbers in the middle Ebro river valley and, according to the hypothesis of an abundant-centre distribution, these northern populations might represent a long-standing/ancestral distribution centre. However, our results suggest that the decimated southern and central Iberian populations are more variable and structured than the northeastern ones, representing the likely vestiges of an ancestral distribution centre of the species. Phylogeographical analysis suggests that F. loscosii likely originated in southern Spain and then migrated towards the central and northeastern ranges, further supporting a Late Miocene southern-bound Mediterranean migratory way for its oriental steppe ancestors. In addition, different glacial-induced conditions affected the southern and northern steppe Iberian refugia during the Quaternary. The contrasting genetic homogeneity of the Ebro valley range populations compared to the southern Iberian ones possibly reflects more severe bottlenecks and subsequent genetic drift experienced by populations of the northern Iberia refugium during the Pleistocene, followed by successful postglacial expansion from only a few founder plants.

  2. Framework and evolution of Hercynian mineralization in the Iberian Meseta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermerhorn, L.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Hercynian cycle, starting in Late Precambrian times and terminated at the end of the Palaeozoic, is associated in the Iberian Peninsula with the deposition of a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources. The most famous of these are the base-metal sulphides of the Iberian Pyrite

  3. Are Iberian endemics Iberian? A case-study using water beetles of family Dytiscidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribera, Ignacio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships and the geographical origin of 27 of the 34 species and of 3 of the 9 subspecies of Iberian endemic Dytiscidae are studied, based on species level phylogenies constructed with two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I. All Iberian endemic species for which more than one specimen was included were monophyletic with the exception of the complex Deronectes aubei sanfilippoi Fery & Brancucci, 1997-D. delarouzei (Jac. Du Val, 1857. The genus Stictotarsus as presently defined is polyphyletic, containing three different lineages: the S. duodecimpustulatus group —including the Iberian endemic S. bertrandi (Legros, 1956—, Trichonectes otini (Guignot, 1941 (new combination and the S. griseostriatus and S. roffii groups, which are in need of a new generic name. The genus Oreodytes is found to be paraphyletic, although with low bootstrap support. The species Nebrioporus (Nebrioporus martinii (Fairmaire, 1858 (new combination is transferred from the subgenus Zimmermannius to Nebrioporus. The Iberian populations of Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 and the endemic subspecies Oreodytes davisii rhianae Carr, 2001, O. sanmarkii alienus (Sharp, 1872 and Hydroporus normandi normandi Régimbart, 1903 do not form well characterised lineages, as measured with the mitochondrial markers used in this study. The Iberian endemic species of Dytiscidae are divided in three groups according to the type of vicariant origin: 1 within-Iberian species, when the sister species (or clade of the Iberian endemic is also and Iberian endemic; 2 Iberian/European, when the sister occurs in Europe north of the Pyrenees; and 3 Iberian/North African, when the sister occurs in North Africa. Within-Iberian endemics are found to be on average older than Iberian/European and Iberian/North African species, they have

  4. The assessment of the habitat and water quality requirements of the stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium and noble crayfish (Astacus astacus species in the rivers from the Anina Mountains (SW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pârvulescu L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The species Austropotamobius torrentium and Astacus astacus are two species known in the EU directives to require deeper understanding of their autecologic requirements before any sustainable conservation effort could be successfully applied. Therefore, the paper aims to analyze the occurrence of these two species of crayfish in the Anina Mountains (Romania in relation to several physical-chemical indicators measured on site. The results suggest that the anthropogenic impacts registered in some of the sampling sites (e.g. organic pollution and river bed modification might have triggered the disappearance of both species from the areas of the water sheds situated downstream villages and towns, deforestation sites and sewage treatment plants. The analysis suggest that both species might have similar ecologic requirements, with a BMWP score of 8 (out of a possible 10, therefore good indicators of pristine aquatic environments and with a possible toleration to pollution but only up to a moderate level. Nevertheless, the lack of cohabitation of the populations of both species at a local scale was discussed along with two possible explaining hypotheses: behavioral exclusion or different times and/or modalities of dispersal history.

  5. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  6. The climate of the Common Era off the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abrantes

    2017-12-01

    SCAND. The Industrial Era reveals a clear difference between the NW Iberia and the Algarve records. While off NW Iberia variability is low, the Algarve shows large-amplitude decadal variability with an inverse relationship between SST and river input. Such conditions suggest a shift in the EA mode, from negative between 1900 and 1970 CE to positive after 1970, while NAO and SCAND remain in a positive phase. The particularly noticeable rise in SST at the Algarve site by the mid-20th century (±1970, provides evidence for a regional response to the ongoing climate warming. The reported findings have implications for decadal-scale predictions of future climate change in the Iberian Peninsula.

  7. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  8. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  9. The Iberian Plate: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canerot, J.

    2016-10-01

    The plate tectonics theory generally leads us to consider that Iberia was an independent plate separated from Europe by the North Pyrenean Fault (NPF). The NPF has been commonly interpreted as a transform fault associated with a huge counterclockwise transverse and rotational movement that allowed the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the relative eastward motion of Iberia during the Mesozoic. According to some interpretations, this movement may have generated an interplate gap several hundreds of km wide, which led to the creation of an oceanic crust during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. However, field studies recently carried out in the Pyrenees do not support these interpretations. The North Pyrenean Fault (NPF) of Tertiary age is observed in the central and eastern Pyrenees, where pioneering researchers defined it as separating the North Pyrenean Zone from the Axial Zone.However, this fault cannot be identified in the western part of the range to the west of the Ossau valley. Consequently, the geodynamic evolution of Iberia has always been dependent on Europe, especially during the failed oceanic rifting in the Mid-Cretaceous. Indeed, during this period, a central zone of crustal thinning occupied by turbiditic basins separated the European from the Iberian continental crust, with a very localized mantle exhumation found only in the Mauleon basin. Therefore, far from being an interplate range, the Pyrenees can neither be considered as an intraplate unit. We can define this orogenic belt as resulting from the Tertiary tectonic inversion of a Mid-Cretaceous rift system. According to this new interpretation, Iberia would not have been an isolated plate but represented an unstable, outlying part of Europe. Rather than displaying the features of a rigid lithospheric unit with well-defined boundaries, Iberia grouped together different crustal blocks undergoing specific movements at particular times. During the Mesozoic, normal, reverse or strike

  10. Ultrasonic monitoring of Iberian fat crystallization during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona, E; García-Pérez, J V; Santacatalina, J V; Peña, R; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of ultrasonic measurements to characterize the crystallization process and to assess the textural changes of Iberian fat and Iberian ham during cold storage. The ultrasonic velocity was measured in two types of Iberian fats (Montanera and Cebo) during cold storage (0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 °C) and in vacuum packaged Iberian ham stored at 6°C for 120 days. The fatty acid profile, thermal behaviour and textural properties of fat were determined. The ultrasonic velocity and textural measurements showed a two step increase during cold storage, which was related with the separate crystallization of two fractions of triglycerides. It was observed that the harder the fat, the higher the ultrasonic velocity. Likewise, Cebo fat resulted harder than Montanera due to a higher content of saturated triglycerides. The ultrasonic velocity in Iberian ham showed an average increase of 55 m/s after 120 days of cold storage due to fat crystallization. Thus, non-destructive ultrasonic technique could be a reliable method to follow the crystallization of fats and to monitor the changes in the textural properties of Iberian ham during cold storage.

  11. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, J. R.; Aguilar, E.; Ashcroft, L.

    2017-11-01

    Drought variability and change was assessed across the Iberian Peninsula over more than 100 years expanding through the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 Iberian time series were quality controlled and homogenized to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), driven only by precipitation, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), based on the difference between the precipitation and the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), were computed at annual and seasonal scale to describe the evolution of droughts across time. The results confirmed that a clear temperature increase has occurred over the entire Iberian Peninsula at the annual and seasonal scale, but no significant changes in precipitation accumulated amounts were found. Similar drought variability was provided by the SPI and SPEI, although the SPEI showed greater drought severity and larger surface area affected by drought than SPI from 1980s to 2010 due to the increase in atmospheric evaporative demand caused by increased temperatures. Moreover, a clear drying trend was found by the SPEI for most of the Iberian Peninsula at annual scale and also for spring and summer, although the SPI did not experience significant changes in drought conditions. From the drying trend identified for most of the Iberian Peninsula along the twentieth century, an increase in drought conditions can also be expected for this region in the twenty-first century according to future climate change projections and scenarios.

  12. Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956, first record of a representative of the suborder Bathyodontina (Nematoda, Mononchida in the Iberian fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Santiago, R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956 Hopper & Cairns, 1956, collected in sand dunes of SW Iberian peninsula, is studied. Description, measurements and illustrations (LM pictures are provided. Iberian specimens are briefly compared to other known populations of the species. And a compendium of Bathyodontus species, including a key to their identification, is also given. This is the first record of a representative of the nematode suborder Bathyodontina in the Iberian-Balearic range and in the Mediterranean region.Se estudia la especie Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956 Hopper y Cairns, 1956, recolectada en dunas de arena en el suroeste peninsular. Se presentan una descripción, medidas e ilustraciones (fotografías con microscopía óptica. Los ejemplares ibéricos se comparan brevemente con otras poblaciones conocidas de la misma especie. Y se ofrece un compendio de las especies del género Bathyodontus, incluida una clave para su identification. Se trata de la primera cita de un miembro del suborden Bathyodontina en el ámbito Ibero-balear y en la región Mediterránea.

  13. Assessment of chlorophyll variability along the northwestern coast of Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, A.; Alvarez, I.; Vaz, N.; Varela, R.; Gomez-Gesteira, M.; Dias, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The northwestern coast of the Iberian Peninsula is characterized by a high primary production mainly supported by coastal upwelling, creating an extraordinary commercial interest for fisheries and aquaculture. Considering chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) as an indicator of primary production, its spatio-temporal variability was researched in this study in the surface water of this upwelling region from 1998 to 2007. Satellite derived Chl-a, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Ekman transport data as well as the inflow of the main rivers discharging into the study area were used to investigate the origin of the Chl-a concentration. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of weekly Chl-a images was performed, as well as correlation analysis between Chl-a concentration, Ekman transport and river discharge. EOF results suggest that the highest Chl-a concentration occurs near the coast up to 60 km offshore. The interannual variability of Chl-a, SST and Ekman transport was also studied considering summer and winter months. Generally, 2005, 2006 and 2007 were the most productive years during the summer months with high Chl-a concentrations along the coast associated to the strong upwelling conditions observed. Otherwise, 1998 seemed to be the most productive year during winter. The absence of upwelling favorable conditions together with localized low SST and considerable discharges, suggests that the high Chl-a concentrations observed during this period are mainly due to the entrance of nutrients through river runoff. However, in winter, high concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), associated with river runoff, are present in the ocean surface, leading to an erroneous strong signal of the satellite. During winter correlations of 0.58 and 0.49 were found between Chl-a concentration and Douro and Minho discharges, respectively, evidencing that high Chl-a concentration was related with river runoff. Otherwise, during summer, Chl-a and Ekman transport exhibited a

  14. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2013-04-01

    Peninsula but also most major river basins in the Iberian Peninsula (Minho, Douro, Tejo, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro). A selection of historical events will allow a quantitative evaluation both of the method and of the meteorological conditions in different regions of the Iberian Peninsula of the most anomalous events. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) through project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). Belo-Pereira, M., E. Dutra, and P. Viterbo (2011) Evaluation of global precipitation data sets over the Iberian Peninsula, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D20101, doi:10.1029/2010JD015481. Herrera et. al. (2012) Development and Analysis of a 50 year high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset over Spain (Spain02) International Journal of Climatology 32:74-85 DOI: 10.1002/joc.2256.

  15. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  16. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Meat mixture detection in Iberian pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Somovilla, V; España-España, F; De Pedro-Sanz, E J; Gaitán-Jurado, A J

    2005-11-01

    Five homogenized meat mixture treatments of Iberian (I) and/or Standard (S) pork were set up. Each treatment was analyzed by NIRS as a fresh product (N=75) and as dry-cured sausage (N=75). Spectra acquisition was carried out using DA 7000 equipment (Perten Instruments), obtaining a total of 750 spectra. Several absorption peaks and bands were selected as the most representative for homogenized dry-cured and fresh sausages. Discriminant analysis and mixture prediction equations were carried out based on the spectral data gathered. The best results using discriminant models were for fresh products, with 98.3% (calibration) and 60% (validation) correct classification. For dry-cured sausages 91.7% (calibration) and 80% (validation) of the samples were correctly classified. Models developed using mixture prediction equations showed SECV=4.7, r(2)=0.98 (calibration) and 73.3% of validation set were correctly classified for the fresh product. These values for dry-cured sausages were SECV=5.9, r(2)=0.99 (calibration) and 93.3% correctly classified for validation.

  18. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment geochemistry and accumulation rates on the northeastern shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guerra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geochemistry, total organic carbon and total nitrogen of three sediment cores collected in the Gulf of Cádiz and the Guadalquivir prodelta areas in Spain were investigated. The C/N ratio, mostly around 10, seems to indicate a predominantly marine origin for the sedimentary organic matter. Major and minor elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na, P, S and trace elements (Mn, Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Pb, Hg showed significant differences in bulk chemical composition between the two areas. Despite the effects of bioturbation, vertical changes in downcore profiles of heavy metals occur only in the cores of the Cádiz area, although the concentrations keep to low levels. The relatively high concentrations of Zr and Y, elements commonly associated with the heavy minerals fraction, at the top of cores from the Cádiz area are attributed to an enrichment of heavy minerals related to selective transport that concentrates this fraction. 137Cs and 210Pb activities in one of the two sediment cores collected in the Gulf of Cádiz were also measured. The distribution of excess 210Pb was used to determine the modern (last 100 yr mass accumulation rate and the depth of sediment mixing on the continental shelf of the gulf. Estimated sediment accumulation rate was 0.1 g cm-2 yr-1. The uppermost 4 cm had uniform excess 210Pb activity profiles above a region of steadily decreasing 210Pb activity, and this phenomenon was attributed to sediment mixing (bioturbation. 137Cs activity was lower than 3 Bq kg-1 and the profile does not show evidence of fallout peaks.

  20. Geochemical processes in an acidic mine lake in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: San Telmo pit lake (SW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Cánovas, Carlos; Nieto Liñán, José Miguel; Olías Álvarez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study provides information on the physicochemical processes of water and sediments from San Telmo pit lake. It is a valuable tool to evaluate best treatment remediation options in the long term. This lake has a meromictic nature, is highly acidic (pH of 2.8) and pH- buffered by Fe(III) precipitation. In San Telmo sediments, iron reduction and sulphide oxidation may be thermodynamically favoured due to low pH values in pore waters and the abundance of schwertmannite. The...

  1. Changes in present and future circulation types frequency in northwest Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María N Lorenzo

    Full Text Available The aim of the work described herein was to study projection scenarios in order to find changes in the synoptic variability of the northwest Iberian Peninsula in the 21st century. To this end, we investigated the changes in the frequency of the different circulation types computed for the study area using three different models used in the IPCC 4(th assessment report. The circulation types were computed using the procedure known as Lamb circulation types. The control simulation for the late 20th century was evaluated objectively from the results obtained using data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, as to evaluate the ability of the model to reproduce the present climate. We have compared not only seasonal mean sea level pressure fields but also the mean seasonal frequency of circulation types. The results for the end of the 21st century show a decrease in the frequency of cyclonic, W, and SW circulation types in the spring and summer months. This trend also appears in the autumn, with a concomitant increase in the anticyclonic types.

  2. Changes in present and future circulation types frequency in northwest Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, María N; Ramos, Alexandre M; Taboada, Juan J; Gimeno, Luis

    2011-01-21

    The aim of the work described herein was to study projection scenarios in order to find changes in the synoptic variability of the northwest Iberian Peninsula in the 21st century. To this end, we investigated the changes in the frequency of the different circulation types computed for the study area using three different models used in the IPCC 4(th) assessment report. The circulation types were computed using the procedure known as Lamb circulation types. The control simulation for the late 20th century was evaluated objectively from the results obtained using data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, as to evaluate the ability of the model to reproduce the present climate. We have compared not only seasonal mean sea level pressure fields but also the mean seasonal frequency of circulation types. The results for the end of the 21st century show a decrease in the frequency of cyclonic, W, and SW circulation types in the spring and summer months. This trend also appears in the autumn, with a concomitant increase in the anticyclonic types.

  3. Coupled water-energy modelling to assess climate change impacts on the Iberian Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Madsen, H.; Riegels, N.

    and marginal costs of the power producers. Two effects of climate change on the power system were studied: changes in the hydropower production caused by changes in precipitation and temperature, and changes in the electricity demand over the year caused by temperature changes. A rainfall-runoff model......Water resources systems and power systems are strongly linked; water is needed for most power generation technologies, and electricity is required in every stage of water usage. In the Iberian Peninsula, climate change is expected to have a negative impact on the power system: changes in runoff...... was established to estimate the impact of precipitation and temperature changes on reservoir inflows. The model was calibrated using observed precipitation, temperature and river discharge time series. Potential evapotranspiration was estimated from temperature data, and snow accumulation/melt was modelled using...

  4. Sedimentological characteristics and seafloor failure offshore SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, analysis results reveal two main deposition zones are located at the flank of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon and Lower Fangliao Basin offshore SW Taiwan. The non-event related sediments deposited in past 150 years (i.e., 632 Mt km-2 was delivered and transported from Gaoping River by suspension process with tides and coastal currents and gradually spread out offshore. Meanwhile, the total mass of accumulation sediments is 1922 Mt km-2, accounting for 40% Gaoping River’s sediment load and suggesting that the deposition process is mainly controlled by natural hazards. Sedimentation rates in much of the study area, except in the main deposition zones, are less than 0.5 cm yr-1 (5 m kyr-1. Compared with the studies at the instability seafloor caused by high sedimentation rates (~30 m kyr-1, the offshore southwestern Taiwan is relatively stable. In this study, we also discovered a series of sediment waves located on the upper continental slope between Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons, which is related to the creeping process on seafloor. In summary, our results reveal the fluid activities, existence of weak layers and earthquake triggering are potential factors which might induced seafloor failures offshore southwestern Taiwan.

  5. Potamogeton schweinfurthii in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first records for the Iberian Peninsula of Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn., a species distributed mainly in Africa that was not discovered in Europe until 2005, where it is assumed to be indigenous but it has generally been confused with P. lucens. The Iberian specimens, which for the most part are from recent collections, have been identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular studies. We have detected 8 localities, 4 in the northeastern area of the Peninsula (Catalonia and Navarra and 4 from the West (south and north of Portugal and western Andalusia. Our studies show that it is a very rare species on a regional level. Although it is a mainly tropical and subtropical species, we have found that P. schweinfurthii (both natural populations and those cultivated has a high tolerance to climates with severe winters and frequent frosts. The large proportion of populations found in anthropogenic habitats, and the fact that most European records are from the past half-century, suggest that P. schweinfurthii may have experienced a recent expansion favoured by the construction of large number of artificial water bodies in the Mediterranean region. This raises the possibility that P. schweinfurthii in Europe is a species that forms temporary populations and has a naturally unstable area.Se aportan las primeras citas de Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn. en la Península Ibérica, una especie de área básicamente africana que no fue descubierta en Europa hasta 2005, donde se supone que es autóctona y en general había sido confundida con P. lucens. Los ejemplares ibéricos han sido identificados por sus caracteres morfológicos y por estudios moleculares y, en su mayor parte, proceden de recolecciones recientes. Se ha detectado en 8 localidades, 4 del noreste peninsular (Cataluña y Navarra y 4 del oeste (sur y norte de Portugal y Andalucía occidental. Según la información actualmente disponible, se trataría de

  6. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Testing Framework for Critical Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs ([1]). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.

  8. Arthroscopic Hip Labral Repair: The Iberian Suture Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Allston J.; Andersen, Jason S.; Mannava, Sandeep; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Howse, Elizabeth A.; Winter, S. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic hip labral repair has beneficial short-term outcomes; however, debate exists regarding ideal surgical labral repair technique. This technical note presents an arthroscopic repair technique that uses intrasubstance labral suture passage to restore the chondrolabral interface. This “Iberian suture technique” allows for an anatomic repair while posing minimal risk of damage to the labral and chondral tissues.

  9. Lacunarity, predictability and predictive instability of the daily pluviometric regime in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the daily pluviometric regime of the Iberian Peninsula is analysed from the point of view of its lacunarity, predictability and predictive instability. The database consists of daily pluviometric records obtained from 43 rain gauges in Spain and Portugal for the period 1950–1990. Five different series are generated for every rain gauge. The first series is constituted by the consecutive daily amounts. The other four consist of dry spell lengths with respect to daily amount thresholds of 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mm/day. A dry spell length is defined as the number of consecutive days with rainfall amounts below one of these thresholds. The empirical lacunarity for every rain gauge is well reproduced by two power laws, the exponents varying notably from one gauge to another. The spatial distribution of the lacunarity is characterised by a north to south or southeast gradient, thus suggesting that this parameter can be a useful tool to distinguish between different pluviometric regimes. The predictability of the five series is quantified by means of the rescaled analysis and the interpretation of the Hurst exponent. Its patterns reveal that most part of the Iberian Peninsula shows signs of persistence for the daily rainfall and the dry spell series, although persistence is only clearly manifested in some small domains. The instability of possible predictive algorithms is analysed through the Lyapunov exponents. They are only computed for the series of daily amounts and for dry lengths respect to the threshold level of 0.1 mm/day due to the short number of dry spells for larger threshold levels. The series of daily amounts depict the highest instability along the Mediterranean coast. The series of dry spells show an increasing instability from NE to SW Spain, with a relevant nucleus of high Lyapunov values in the south-western Atlantic coast. As a summary, lacunarity and Hurst and Lyapunov exponents depict a relevant spatial

  10. Osteological differentiation among Iberian Pelodytes (Anura, Pelodytidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Herráiz, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphological differentiation among Pelodytes species is analysed based on a sample of disarticulated bones from the main osteological regions of the male adult skeleton. A set of 35 interspecifically diagnostic characters, analysed under different outgroup hypotheses, clearly shows that P. ibericus and P. punctatus are a sister-group with respect to P. caucasicus. The Caucasian species retains a very primitive morphology, with only 17-23 % derived character-states, while both living Iberian species reach percentages of derivation over 68 %. There is little difference between P. ibericus and P. punctatus in their relative degree of evolutionary transformation, and when using P. caucasicus as the outgroup the percentage of derived character-states is 45 and 60 % respectively. Differentiation rates are calculated in darwin units for several characters, and we show that the skull components have higher rates than the traits directly related with locomotion. Several adult growth trajectories, different between species, are described and identified as diverse allometric heterochronies. Three factors have been detected that might have grouped several characters as coevolutionary units. These factors are: a an ontogenetic factor, operating through heterochronic processes, expressed as a tendency to reduce ossification; b a functional morphological integration, detected in the elements involved in skull size and proportions; and c an ecomorphological factor, presumably an adaptive response, can be assumed for characters related to limb shape.Se analiza la diferenciación morfológica en Pelodytes mediante el análisis comparado de una muestra de elementos óseos desarticulados procedentes de las principales regiones del esqueleto macho adulto. Un conjunto de 35 rasgos interespecíficamente diferenciales, analizada bajo diversos grupos externos, permite inferir que P. ibericus y P. punctatus forman un grupo hermano frente a P. caucasicus. La especie

  11. Weather Types, temperature and relief relationship in the Iberian Peninsula: A regional adiabatic processes under directional weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Cortesi, Nicola; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed at monthly scale the spatial distribution of Pearson correlation between monthly mean of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures with weather types (WTs) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), represent them in a high spatial resolution grid (10km x 10km) from MOTEDAS dataset (Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). The WT classification was that developed by Jenkinson and Collison, adapted to the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara, using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The spatial distribution of Pearson correlations shows a clear zonal gradient in Tmax under the zonal advection produced in westerly (W) and easterly (E) flows, with negative correlation in the coastland where the air mass come from but positive correlation to the inland areas. The same is true under North-West (NW), North-East (NE), South-West (SW) and South-East (SE) WTs. These spatial gradients are coherent with the spatial distribution of the main mountain chain and offer an example of regional adiabatic phenomena that affect the entire IP (Peña-Angulo et al., 2015b). These spatial gradients have not been observed in Tmin. We suggest that Tmin values are less sensitive to changes in Sea Level Pressure and more related to local factors. These directional WT present a monthly frequency over 10 days and could be a valuable tool for downscaling processes. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298 Peña-Angulo, D., Trigo, R., Cortesi, C., González-Hidalgo, J.C. (2015b): The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

  12. New insights into the early life ecology of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792 in the northern Iberian Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atlantic Iberian estuaries, sardines tend to be a minor component of the ichthyoplankton assemblages, with rare occurrence largely restricted to estuarine mouths. However, this was not the case of the Lima estuary (NW Portugal, where sardines were the most abundant and frequently occurring marine taxon of the larval fish assemblages. Abundance of sardines collected during a two-year survey (2002-2004 ranged from 0.5 to 60.8 larvae/100 m3, with the majority still showing yolk and unpigmented eyes. Moreover, 80% of sardines were 8 days old or less and the total length ranged from 2 to 16 mm. Seasonal variations of sardine occurrence in the Lima estuary correlated with temporal variations of salinity and temperature in the water column. The unusually high river-flow observed during the winter of 2002-2003, which preceded the spring-summer abundance peak, seemed to act as a signal for the estuarine recruitment that was encountered. In addition, the estuarine occurrence of sardine larvae was also correlated with the intensity of summer upwelling, which was responsible for coastal depletion of sardine larvae resulting in estuarine low catches during the summer of 2002. The Lima estuary also revealed another peculiarity related to the lack of temporal synchrony between coastal spawning activity and occurrence of larvae within the estuary. The abundance peaks of newly-hatched larvae (autumn 2002 and spring-summer 2003 did not coincide with the winter-spring spawning pattern described earlier for the northern Iberian coast. Modifications of the spawning strategy of the northern Iberian sardine stock are discussed based on these new insights into the early life of S. pilchardus.

  13. Non-stationary influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and winter temperature on oak latewood growth in NW Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Vicente; García-González, Ignacio

    2012-09-01

    The properties of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as period, amplitude, and teleconnection strength to extratropical regions, have changed since the mid-1970s. ENSO affects the regional climatic regime in SW Europe, thus tree performance in the Iberian Peninsula could be affected by recent ENSO dynamics. We established four Quercus robur chronologies of earlywood and latewood widths in the NW Iberian Peninsula. The relationship between tree growth and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), the atmospheric expression of ENSO, showed that only latewood growth was correlated negatively with the SOI of the previous summer-autumn-winter. This relationship was non-stationary, with significant correlations only during the period 1952-1980; and also non-linear, with enhanced latewood growth only in La Niña years, i.e. years with a negative SOI index for the previous autumn. Non-linear relationship between latewood and SOI indicates an asymmetric influence of ENSO on tree performance, biassed towards negative SOI phases. During La Niña years, climate in the study area was warmer and wetter than during positive years, but only for 1952-1980. Winter temperatures became the most limiting factor for latewood growth since 1980, when mean regional temperatures increased by 1°C in comparison to previous periods. As a result, higher winter respiration rates, and the extension of the growing season, would probably cause an additional consumption of stored carbohydrates. The influence of ENSO and winter temperatures proved to be of great importance for tree growth, even at lower altitudes and under mild Atlantic climate in the NW Iberian Peninsula.

  14. Single-grain and multi-grain OSL dating of river terrace sediments in the Tabernas Basin, SE Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geach, M.R.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2015-01-01

    River terraces represent important records of landscape response to e.g. base-level change and tectonicmovement. Both these driving forces are important in the southern Iberian Peninsula. In this study,Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating was used to date two principal river terraces...

  15. Biogenic magnetite, detrital hematite, and relative paleointensity in Quaternary sediments from the Southwest Iberian Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Margari, V.; Skinner, L. C.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kesler, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic properties of late Quaternary sediments on the SW Iberian Margin are dominated by bacterial magnetite, observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with contributions from detrital titanomagnetite and hematite. Reactive hematite, together with low organic matter concentrations and the lack of sulfate reduction, lead to dissimilatory iron reduction and availability of Fe(II) for abundant magnetotactic bacteria. Magnetite grain-size proxies (κARM/κ and ARM/IRM) and S-ratios (sensitive to hematite) vary on stadial/interstadial timescales, contain orbital power, and mimic planktic δ18O. The detrital/biogenic magnetite ratio and hematite concentration are greater during stadials and glacial isotopic stages, reflecting increased detrital (magnetite) input during times of lowered sea level, coinciding with atmospheric conditions favoring hematitic dust supply. Magnetic susceptibility, on the other hand, has a very different response being sensitive to coarse detrital multidomain (MD) magnetite associated with ice-rafted debris (IRD). High susceptibility and/or magnetic grain-size coarsening, mark Heinrich stadials (HS), particularly HS2, HS3, HS4, HS5, HS6 and HS7, as well as older Heinrich-like detrital layers, indicating the sensitivity of this region to fluctuations in the position of the polar front. Relative paleointensity (RPI) records have well-constrained age models based on planktic δ18O correlation to ice-core chronologies, however, they differ from reference records (e.g. PISO) particularly in the vicinity of glacial maxima, mainly due to inefficient normalization of RPI records in intervals of enhanced hematite input.

  16. New data on distribution of Cypripedium macranthon sw. on the territory of Altai krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vazhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.

  17. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Anar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. ...

  18. Anthropometric history of the Iberian world. Lessons we have learned

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Martínez-Carrión

    2011-01-01

    Recent research of anthropometric history within the Iberian world shed new light on trends in nutritional status, health, living standards, and biological welfare since ancient times. It has been shown that nutrition was not worse during the middle Ages than at the beginning of modern times, and that the height of the Portuguese and Spaniards did not differ much from that enjoyed by other Europeans in the Age of Enlightenment. At the beginning of industrialization height deteriorated in both...

  19. Marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula and nearby waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Laiz, Gemma; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands. Exotic species included Ianiropsis serricaudis (first record for the Iberian Peninsula and Lusitanian marine province), Paracerceis sculpta (first record for the Alboran Sea ecoregion), Paradella dianae , Paranthura japonica (earliest record for the Iberian Peninsula) and Sphaeroma walkeri . Photographs with morphological details for identification for non-taxonomic experts are provided, their worldwide distribution is updated and patterns of invasion are discussed. We report an expansion in the distribution range of all species, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas. Ianiropsis serricaudis and Paranthura japonica are polyvectic, with shellfish trade and recreational boating being most probable vectors for their introduction and secondary spread. The subsequent finding of the studied species in additional marinas over the years points at recreational boating as a vector and indicates a future spread. We call for attention to reduce lags in the detection and reporting of small-size exotics, which usually remain overlooked or underestimated until the invasion process is at an advanced stage.

  20. The Permanent GPS Network In The Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Bastos, L.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Noomen, R.

    In recent years, the number of permanent GPS sites in the Iberia Peninsula has in- creased significantly: in the beginning of 1996 there were just 2 sites with publicly available data. This number had risen to 15 by the end of 1999, and recently (end of 2001), it has reached 18. For many sites, the observation time-span is already suffi- ciently long to derive a reliable estimate of the motion of the stations. Combined with the relatively good geographical distribution of the sites, this velocity field contains unique information to study the tectonics of the Iberian Peninsula, both internally and with respect to the rest of Europe. In the framework of a combined DEOS-AOUP research project called GIN (GPS Iberian Network), the data of all available GPS sites in the region (including some in North Africa, the Azores Archipelago and France) are being processed on a daily basis since the middle of 2000 (with backward processing extending to January 1996). Following this project, DEOS became an official LAC (Local Analysis Centre) of EU- REF in the beginning of 2001. The DEOS weekly solutions are included in the official EUREF analysis chain, resulting in weekly coordinate solutions for the entire EU- REF network. The two solutions (GIN &EUREF) are computed by the DEOS-AOUP group using the same software, but applying different strategies. The differences in the solutions are analysed in order to pinpoint data problems and processing errors. Furthermore, the GIN velocity field is compared with the one derived from the offi- cial EUREF solution. Special attention is paid to the different procedures to link the solutions into a unified reference frame. Finally, this paper presents a preliminary interpretation of the contemporary tectonics of the Iberian Peninsula based on the derived velocity fields. There is evidence of significant intra-plate deformation in the Iberia region and there are indications that the Iberian block exhibits a differential motion with respect to

  1. Subjunctive dependents in Iberian Romance: A Reprojection account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel J. Gallego

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward an analysis of subjunctive dependent clauses in Iberian Romance based on Hornstein and Uriagereka’s (2002 treatment of binary quantifiers. The main idea is that Chomsky’s (2004 Transfer operation can be associated to the effect of these quantifiers; more specifically, it is argued that indicative mood, contrary to subjunctive mood, operates as a binary quantifier, thus triggering the application of Transfer.

  2. Analysis of the efficiency of the Iberian power futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitan Herraiz, Alvaro; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Market efficiency is analysed for the Iberian Power Futures Market and other European Power Markets, as well as other fuel markets through evaluation of ex-post Forward Risk Premium. The equilibrium price from compulsory call auctions for distribution companies within the framework of the Iberian Power Futures Market is not optimal for remuneration purposes as it seems to be slightly upward biased. In the period considered (August 2006-July 2008), monthly futures contracts behave similarly to quarterly contracts. Average risk premia have been positive in power and natural gas markets but negative in oil and coal markets. Different hypotheses are tested regarding increasing volatility with maturity and regarding Forward Risk Premium variations (decreasing with variance of spot prices during delivery period and increasing with skewness of spot prices during delivery period). Enlarged data sets are recommended for stronger test results. Energy markets tend to show limited levels of market efficiency. Regarding the emerging Iberian Power Futures Market, price efficiency is improved with market development of all the coexistent forward contracting mechanisms and with further integration of European Regional Electricity Markets. (author)

  3. Passerine bird communities of Iberian dehesas: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellería, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian dehesas are a man-made habitat composed of scattered oaks (Quercus spp. and extensive grass cover occupying three million ha in south-western Iberia. This paper compares the structure of the passerine bird communities in this region with other bird assemblages of Iberian woodlands. Although forest bird numbers in the southern half of the Iberian peninsula are decreasing, the dehesas show the highest richness in breeding birds, seemingly as the result of the increased presence of border and open-habitat birds. A low intra-habitat turnover of species was observed in the dehesas, with birds recorded at a sampling point accounting for a high percentage of the total richness of the community. This can be related to the low spatial patchiness of this habitat. In winter, the dehesas continued to maintain many bird species, but showed bird densities similar to other woodlands. This pattern, as well as the scarcity of some common forest passerines during the breeding period, could result from the removal of the shrub layer typical of Mediterranean woodlands.

  4. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Variability of Shelf Growth Patterns along the Iberian Mediterranean Margin: Sediment Supply and Tectonic Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Durán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinoform depositional features along the Iberian Mediterranean margin are investigated in this study, with the aim of establishing the causes of their varied shapes and other characteristics. We have analyzed the broad-scale margin physiography and seismic stratigraphic patterns based on high-resolution bathymetric data and previously interpreted seismic data. In addition, we have evaluated regional supply conditions and the uplift-subsidence regime of the different shelf sectors. The upper Quaternary record is strongly dominated by shelf-margin regressive wedges affected by the prevailing 100 ka cyclicity. However, the margins exhibit considerable lateral variability, as the result of the balance between the amount of sediment supply and the uplift-subsidence relationship. Three major shelf sectors with distinct morpho-sedimentary features have been defined. The relatively narrow northern shelves (Roses, La Planassa and Barcelona are supplied by discrete river outlets that collectively constitute a linear source and are mainly affected by tectonic tilting. The wide middle shelves (Ebro Shelf, the Gulf of Valencia, and the Northern Arc receive the sediment supply from the large Ebro River and other medium rivers. Although the tectonic regime changes laterally (strong subsidence in the north and uplift in the south, shelf growth is maintained by lateral advection of sediments. The southern shelves (the Southern Arc and the northern Alboran Shelf are very abrupt and narrow because of the uplifting Betic Cordillera, and the torrential fluvial regimes that determine a very efficient sediment by-pass toward the deep basin. Submarine canyons deeply incised in the continental margin constitute a key physiographic feature that may enhance the transport of sediment to the deep sea or individualize shelf sectors with specific sedimentation patterns, as occurs in the Catalan margin.

  6. Extreme precipitation and floods in the Iberian Peninsula and its socio-economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Pereira, S.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula can induce floods and landslides that have often major socio-economic impacts. The DISASTER database gathered the basic information on past floods and landslides that caused social consequences in Portugal for the period 1865-2015. This database was built under the assumption that social consequences of floods and landslides are sufficient relevant to be reported by newspapers, that provide the data source. Three extreme historical events were analysed in detail taking into account their associated wide socio-economic impacts. The December 1876 record precipitation and flood event leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers (Tagus and Guadiana). As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. The 20-28 December 1909 event recorded the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2015, having triggered the highest floods in 200 years at the Douro river's mouth and causing 89 fatalities in both Portugal and Spain northern regions. More recently the deadliest flash-flooding event affecting Portugal since, at least, the early 19th century, took place on the 25 and 26 November 1967 causing more than 500 fatalities in the Lisbon region. We provide a detailed analysis of each of these events, including their human impacts, precipitation analyses based on historical datasets and the associated atmospheric circulation conditions from reanalysis datasets. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project FORLAND - Hydrogeomorphologic risk in Portugal: driving forces and application for land use planning [PTDC / ATPGEO / 1660/2014] funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal. A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/ SFRH/BPD/84328/2012). The financial support for attending

  7. Assessment of darkling beetle fauna after implementation of an environmental restoration program in the southern Iberian Peninsula affected by the Aznalcóllar toxic spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ana M; Bujalance, José L; Hidalgo, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of the Follow up Restoration Program of animal communities that colonize the Guadiamar River Basin. In 1998, the area was affected by a release of toxic sludge after the retention walls of the Aznalcóllar Mines (southern Iberian Peninsula) broke. The main objective of this study was to assess the current state of the population of Tenebrionidae, one of the most representative groups of edaphic Coleoptera inhabiting the Guadiamar River Basin. This paper analyses the progress made by the darkling beetle community six years after the disaster occurred and the Restoration Program was implemented. The study is based on faunistic data from systematic sampling carried out for six years to monitor plots distributed across the damaged area. To make an overall assessment of the tenebrionid fauna in relation to adjacent areas qualitative and quantitative ecological indices were applied, and temporal follow up and biogeographical comparisons were also made. The results indicate that, on the whole, tenebrionid fauna was somewhat affected by the Aznalcóllar Mine spill, and that a greater loss of fauna was detected closer to the accident site. The analysis of the temporal population dynamic suggests that the most affected zones are undergoing a process of re-colonization. However, this process varies widely by species and has not yet reached the expected levels of a non-affected river basin in the southern Iberian Peninsula.

  8. Quantifying the impact of an upwelling filament on the physical-chemical-biological interactions off SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, A.; Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, C.; Cardeira, S.; Madureira, M.; Rita, F.; Relvas, P.

    2017-12-01

    Upwelling filaments are mesoscale structures of cold water that stretch seaward in a tongue-like shape with origin in the coastal upwelling zone. Filaments off the Iberian Peninsula are recurrent, showing similarities with those in the Californian coast. The Cape São Vicente, the SW tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the root of recurrent filaments observed in the satellite imagery during the upwelling season. However, the understanding of its physical and chemical impact on the biological productivity is rather limited. There, a relatively small filament ( 80 km long) was investigated through remote sensing and in situ multidisciplinary observations during an upwelling favourable wind relaxation event, but just after an intense upwelling period. A total of 42 CTD+Rosette casts up to 400 m depth were distributed on an almost regular grid of 15 km mean spacing guided by guided by satellite SST imagery transmitted to the ship in near-real time. The parameters sampled during the sea campaign included: velocity field sampled along the ship track through a hull-mounted 38 kHz RDI ADCP, meteorological variables, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, cadmium, lead and zinc. The extent of the impact of the filament was evaluated by quantifying the cross-shelf transports of several properties. The amounts conveyed by the filament were much stronger than those expected by the wind-driven Ekman mechanism, showing that it represents an efficient feature for the exchange of water, dissolved and particulate matter from the productive shelf towards the oligotrophic offshore region. Considering the periods of strong upwelling events and the extent of their duration along the year, the amounts of exported matter will certainly enhance the biological productivity of these waters, including its fisheries. These filament data contribute to better understand the physical-chemical-biological interactions of this regional ecosystem.

  9. Bottom current processes along the Iberian continental margin; Procesos sedimentarios por corrientes de fondo a lo largo del margen continental iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, E.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Ercilla, G.; Roque, C.; Van Rooij, D.; Garcia, M.; Juan, C.; Mena, A.; Brackenridge, R.; Jane, G.; Stow, D.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.

    2015-07-01

    The products of bottom current circulation around the Iberian continental margin are characterised by large erosional and depositional features formed under a variety of geological and oceanographic contexts. The Iberian margins are influenced by several water masses that mainly interact along the upper and middle con- tinental slopes, as well as along the lower slope with the abyssal plains being influenced to a lesser extent. The main depositional features occur along the Ceuta Contourite Depositional System (CDS) within the SW Alboran Sea, in the Gulf of Cadiz (the most studied so far), the western margins of the Portugal/Galician mar- gin, the Ortegal Spur and the Le Danois Bank or Cachucho. Moreover, erosional contourite features have also been recently indentified, most notably terraces, abraded surfaces, channels, furrows and moats. The majority of these features are formed under the influence of the Mediterranean water masses, especially by the interaction of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) with the seafloor. The MOW is characterized as relatively warm (13 degree centigrade) and with a high salinity (∼36.5), giving it a high density relative to the surrounding water masses, hence constituting an important contribution to the global thermohaline circulation, making it one of the most studied water masses surrounding Iberia. The development of both depositional and ero- sional contourite features does not only depend on the bottom-current velocity but also on several other important controlling factors, including: 1) local margin morphology affected by recent tectonic activity; 2) multiple sources of sediment supply; 3) water-mass interphases interacting with the seafloor; and 4) glacioeustatic changes, especially during the Quaternary, when the increasing influence of the bottom cur- rent has been observed during the cold stages. The main objective of this special volume contribution is to provide a review and description of the regional along

  10. Oblique strain partitioning and transpression on an inverted rift: The Castilian Branch of the Iberian Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente, G. de; Vegas, R.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Wees, J.D.A.M. van; Casas-Sáinz, A.; Sopeña, A.; Sánchez-Moya, Y.; Arche, A.; López-Gómez, J.; Olaiz, A.; Fernández-Lozano, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Iberian Chain is a wide intraplate deformation zone formed by the tectonic inversion during the Pyrenean orogeny of a Permian-Mesozoic basin developed in the eastern part of the Iberian Massif. The N-S convergence between Iberia and Eurasia from the Late Cretaceous to the Lower Miocene times

  11. Estuarine characteristics of the lower reaches of the River Periyar (Cochin backwater)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Varma, P.U.; Balachandran, K.K.; Pylee, A.; Joseph, T.

    Lower reaches of river Periyar were studied to assess longitudinal extent of salt water intrusion into the system during different seasons and also its effect on the flushing of pollutants introduced by the industries. During SW monsoon season due...

  12. Multiple imputation of rainfall missing data in the Iberian Mediterranean context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Juan Javier; Caselles, Vicente; Estrela, María José

    2017-11-01

    Given the increasing need for complete rainfall data networks, in recent years have been proposed diverse methods for filling gaps in observed precipitation series, progressively more advanced that traditional approaches to overcome the problem. The present study has consisted in validate 10 methods (6 linear, 2 non-linear and 2 hybrid) that allow multiple imputation, i.e., fill at the same time missing data of multiple incomplete series in a dense network of neighboring stations. These were applied for daily and monthly rainfall in two sectors in the Júcar River Basin Authority (east Iberian Peninsula), which is characterized by a high spatial irregularity and difficulty of rainfall estimation. A classification of precipitation according to their genetic origin was applied as pre-processing, and a quantile-mapping adjusting as post-processing technique. The results showed in general a better performance for the non-linear and hybrid methods, highlighting that the non-linear PCA (NLPCA) method outperforms considerably the Self Organizing Maps (SOM) method within non-linear approaches. On linear methods, the Regularized Expectation Maximization method (RegEM) was the best, but far from NLPCA. Applying EOF filtering as post-processing of NLPCA (hybrid approach) yielded the best results.

  13. Trace metal concentrations in sediments from the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Blasco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal sediment concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in surface sediments (0 to 5 cm from 11 sampling stations in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (the Ria Formosa and the Guadiana River, the Ría de Huelva and the Bay of Cadiz were determined in two seasonal periods (autumn 2006 and spring 2007. No seasonal metal concentration pattern was identified, as similar values were found in both periods. The highest concentrations of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium were reported in the Ria of Huelva area, and those of mercury and nickel in the Bay of Cadiz. The hazard potential index (HPiM was determined to assess the potential risk associated with metal contamination (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, taking into account extractable (presumed bioavailable fractions of these metals and site-specific sediment quality values. When the HPiM is > 1 there is risk, and according to this index Ría de Huelva is polluted whereas the Bay of Cadiz is not.

  14. Iberian ATLAS Cloud response during the first LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Villaplana, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Borges, G; Borrego, C; Carvalho, J; David, M; Espinal, X; Fernández, A; Gomes, J; González de la Hoz, S; Kaci, M; Lamas, A; Nadal, J; Oliveira, M; Oliver, E; Osuna, C; Pacheco, A; Pardo, JJ; del Peso, J; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Wolters, H

    2011-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is based on a tiered hierarchy that ranges from Tier0 (CERN) down to end-user's own resources (Tier3). According to the same computing model, the role of the Tier2s is to provide computing resources for event simulation processing and distributed data analysis. Tier3 centers, on the other hand, are the responsibility of individual institutions to define, fund, deploy and support. In this contribution we report on the operations of the ATLAS Iberian Cloud centers facing data taking and we describe some of the Tier3 facilities currently deployed at the Cloud.

  15. Dispersion measurements from Sofar floats on the Iberian Abyssal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.M.; Gmitrowicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Tracks of SOFAR floats launched on the Iberian Abyssal Plain are presented. The floats were launched in two groups in early October 1984 and mid-February 1985 to a nominal depth of 2500 m. Of these floats, 4 from the first deployment and 2 from the second functioned properly. Float signals were recorded by four autonomous listening stations at a depth of 1900 m. These preliminary results show the tracks of floats up to July 1986 and represent 3600 float days of information. The main task of the experiment was to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  16. Artificial dam lakes as suitable habitats for exotic invertebrates: Ostracoda ecology and distribution in reservoirs of the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escrivà A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs are the most common deep lakes in Spain, as a consequence of water needs and dry climate. Although these aquatic systems can play an important ecological role in such an area with few large natural lakes, they can also provide new habitats for exotic species, which can colonize ecosystems that native species have not explored yet. Here we present our results for a biannual survey of the ostracod fauna from 24 reservoirs in Xúquer River basin. We check which variables affect ostracod presence, test for differences between winter and summer assemblages, and compare our data with previous available ostracod records from the same river drainage network. Our results reveal that ostracod presence is positively related to high diversity of the invertebrate community and reservoir volume, and negatively with phosphorus concentration. Among the 22 species found, it is noteworthy the first Iberian record of Ilyocypris getica and the second European record of Candonocypris novaezelandiae. Ostracod assemblages significantly vary between summer and winter, and strong differences are found between ostracod communities of reservoirs and those from their connected rivers. Remarkably higher frequency of exotic species in the reservoirs confirms previous findings about the facilitation that artificial ecosystems confer to aquatic invasions.

  17. Deciphering Fluvial-Capture-Induced Erosional Patterns at the Continental Scale on the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, L.; Munoz Martin, A.; De Vicente, G.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The process of river incision into bedrock dictates the landscape response to changes in climate and bedrock uplift in most unglaciated settings. Hence, understanding processes of river incision into bedrock and their topographic signatures are a basic goal of geomorphology. Formerly closed drainage basins provide an exceptional setting for the quantification of long term fluvial dissection and landscape change, making them valuable natural laboratories. Internally drained basins are peculiar because they trap all the sediment eroded within the watershed; as closed systems they do not respond to the base level of the global ocean and deposition is the dominant process. In that context, the opening of an outward drainage involves a sudden lowering of the base level, which is transmitted upstream along fluvial channels in the form of erosional waves, leading to high incision and denudation rates within the intrabasinal areas. Through digital topographic analysis and paleolandscape reconstruction based on relict deposits and landscapes on the Iberian Peninsula, we quantify the volume of sediments eroded from formerly internally drained basins since capture. Mapping of fluvial dissection patterns reveals how, and how far, regional waves of incision have propagated upstream. In our analysis, erosional patterns are consistent with the progressive establishment of an outward drainage system, providing a relative capture chronology for the different studied basins. Divide migration inferred from chi maps supports the interpretations based on fluvial dissection patterns and volumes, providing clues on how landscaped changed and how drainage integration occurred within the studied watersheds. [Funded by S2013/MAE-2739 and CGL2014-59516].

  18. Robot 2015 : Second Iberian Robotics Conference : Advances in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, António; Lima, Pedro; Montano, Luis; Muñoz-Martinez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers accepted for presentation and discussion at ROBOT 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 19th-21th, 2015. ROBOT 2015 is part of a series of conferences that are a joint organization of SPR – “Sociedade Portuguesa de Robótica/ Portuguese Society for Robotics”, SEIDROB – Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo de la Robótica/ Spanish Society for Research and Development in Robotics and CEA-GTRob – Grupo Temático de Robótica/ Robotics Thematic Group. The conference organization had also the collaboration of several universities and research institutes, including: University of Minho, University of Porto, University of Lisbon, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, University of Aveiro, University of Zaragoza, University of Malaga, LIACC, INESC-TEC and LARSyS. Robot 2015 was focussed on the Robotics scientific and technological activities in the Iberian Peninsula, although open to research and delegates from other...

  19. Essential habitat for sardine juveniles in Iberian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Rodríguez-Climent

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In a period when the Iberian sardine stock abundance is at its historical minimum, knowledge of the sardine juvenile’s distribution is crucial for the development of fishery management strategies. Generalized additive models were used to relate juvenile sardine presence with geographical variables and spawning grounds (egg abundance and to model juvenile abundance with the concurrent environmental conditions. Three core areas of juvenile distribution were identified: the Northern Portuguese shelf (centred off Aveiro, the coastal region in the vicinity of the Tagus estuary, and the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. Spatial differences in the relationship between juvenile presence and egg abundances suggest that essential juvenile habitat might partially differ from the prevailing spawning grounds. Models also depicted significant relationships between juvenile abundance, temperature and geographical variables in combination with salinity in the west and with zooplankton in the south. Results indicate that the sardine juvenile distribution along the Iberian Peninsula waters are an outcome of a combination of dynamic processes occurring early in life, such as egg and larva retention, reduced mortality and favourable feeding grounds for both larvae and juveniles.

  20. Restructuring and generation of electrical energy in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, E. Fernandez; Bernat, J. Xiberta

    2007-01-01

    Portugal and Spain are on the threshold of the creation of an Iberian electricity market. In order to help its development, the power of the electric interconnection between the countries has been increased and market mechanisms designed to resolve congestion, should it arise. A system of joint supply for the Iberian Peninsula will lead to single price for the whole area except at times when the interconnection is saturated, in which case prices will be somewhat higher in the importing zone. In the medium term, the hope is that both systems will have very similar generating equipment and that their variable costs will equalize due to the substitution of the most obsolete equipment with combined cycle power stations, and to the increase of exchange capacity. The coming into effect of this market will bring about improvements in the security and efficiency of supply in both countries. There will also be some obstacles to overcome, such as, for example, the current regulatory frame deficiencies on power generation, the contacts which exist at present in Portugal between the producers and the National Electricity Network, the asymmetry of the distribution channels in each country, the differences in rates and the limited capacity for exchange. (author)

  1. Pleistocene and Holocene Iberian flora: a complete picture and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sampériz, Penélope

    2010-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the location and composition of Iberian vegetation types during the whole Pleistocene and Holocene periods shows a complex patched landscape with persistence of different types of ecosystems, even during glacial times. In addition, recent, high-resolution palaeoecological records are changing the traditional picture of post-glacial vegetation succession in the Iberian Peninsula. The main available charcoal and pollen sequences include, coniferous and deciduous forest, steppes, shrublands, savannahs and glacial refugia during the Pleistocene for Meso-thermophytes (phytodiversity reservoirs), in different proportions. This panorama suggests an environmental complexity that relates biotic responses to climate changes forced by Milankovitch cycles, suborbital forcings and by the latitudinal and physiographic particularities of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, many factors are critical in the course of vegetational developments and strong regional differences are observed since the Early Pleistocene. Currently, the flora of Iberia is located in two biogeographical/climatic regions: the Eurosiberian and the Mediterranean. The first one includes northern and northwestern areas of the peninsula, where post-glacial responses of vegetation are very similar to Central Europe, although with some particularities due to its proximity to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean region. The second one comprises the main territory of Iberia and shows more complex patterns and singularities, now and in the past. Steppe landscapes dominated extensive areas over all the territory during the cold spells of the Quaternary, especially during the Late Pleistocene up to the Last Glacial Maximum, but differences in composition of the dominant taxa (Compositae versus Artemisia) are observed since the Early Pleistocene, probably related to moisture regional gradients. Coastal shelves and intramountainous valleys, even in continental areas, are spots of floristic

  2. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-06-14

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African-Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African-Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures.

  3. The Castleisland radon Survey (Sw Ireland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, C. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); O' sullivan, F. [London Univ. College, Dept of Geomatic Engineering, London, (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: In September 2003, following the identification of a house near Castleisland in County Kerry (Sw Ireland) with a seasonally adjusted annual average radon concentration of 49,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, the Radiological Protection of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) undertook to carry out a localised radon survey, the so-called 'Castleisland Radon Survey' (C.R.S.). The aim was to investigate the possibility that similarly extreme radon concentrations could be present in other houses in the surrounding area. A studied area of 400 km{sup 2} was designated around the town of Castleisland, divided in four 10 x 10 km{sup 2} grid squares, and all of the approximately 2,500 householders living in this area were invited to participate. Four hundred and eighteen householders responded to the invitation (17% response rate) but only 383 completed the survey. Fourteen percent of these 383 homes were found to have an annual average radon concentration above the Irish national Reference Level for domestic dwellings of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} while 2% were found to be above 800 Bq/m{sup 3}. An arithmetic mean of 147 Bq/m{sup 3} and a geometric mean of 70 Bq/m{sup 3} were calculated for the four studied grid squares. These can be compared with the respective values of 98 and 56 Bq/m3 calculated for the same area by the Irish National Radon Survey (N.R.S.). Similar trends are observed on a grid square by grid square basis where in one of them in particular, the C.R.S. allowed us to predict that 21% of all houses would have radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, against 6% predicted by the N.R.S.. This clearly indicates that the extent of the radon problem in the area has been underestimated by the N.R.S.. Two of the four grid squares investigated are currently designated as High Radon Areas (where 10% or more of all houses are predicted to exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}) based on the results from the N.R.S.. If one was to use predictions based on the results from the C.R.S., all four grid

  4. Assessing methods for developing crop forecasting in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, A. V. M.; Capa Morocho, M. I.; Baethgen, W.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Han, E.; Ruiz Ramos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal climate prediction may allow predicting crop yield to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate variability and its extremes. It has been already demonstrated that seasonal climate predictions at European (or Iberian) scale from ensembles of global coupled climate models have some skill (Palmer et al., 2004). The limited predictability that exhibits the atmosphere in mid-latitudes, and therefore de Iberian Peninsula (PI), can be managed by a probabilistic approach based in terciles. This study presents an application for the IP of two methods for linking tercile-based seasonal climate forecasts with crop models to improve crop predictability. Two methods were evaluated and applied for disaggregating seasonal rainfall forecasts into daily weather realizations: 1) a stochastic weather generator and 2) a forecast tercile resampler. Both methods were evaluated in a case study where the impacts of two seasonal rainfall forecasts (wet and dry forecast for 1998 and 2015 respectively) on rainfed wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize in IP were analyzed. Simulated wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize were computed with the crop models CERES-wheat and CERES-maize which are included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at several locations in Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. These methodologies would allow quantifying the benefits and risks of a seasonal climate forecast to potential users as farmers, agroindustry and insurance companies in the IP. Therefore, we would be able to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse ones. ReferencesPalmer, T. et al., 2004. Development of a European multimodel ensemble system for seasonal-to-interannual prediction (DEMETER). Bulletin of the

  5. Surface ozone measurements in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Huelva, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Jose A Adame; Bolívar, Juan P; de la Morena, Benito A

    2010-02-01

    at El Arenosillo and Valverde stations remains very uniformed until 20:00 UTC. These levels could be due to the photochemical production in situ and also to the horizontal and vertical ozone transport at El Arenosillo from the reservoir layers in the sea and in the case of Valverde, the horizontal transport, thanks to the marine breeze. Finally, the data have been evaluated relative to the thresholds defined in the European Ozone Directive. The threshold to protect human health has been exceeded during the spring and summer months mainly at El Arenosillo and Valverde. The vegetation threshold has also been frequently exceeded, ranging from 131 days at Cartaya up to 266 days at Valverde. The results in the seasonal and daily variations demonstrate that El Arenosillo and Valverde stations show higher ozone concentrations than Cartaya and Huelva during the spring and summer months. Under meteorological conditions characterized by land-sea breeze circulation, the daytime sea breeze transports the emissions from urban and industrial sources in the SW further inland. Under this condition, the area located downwind to the NE is affected very easily by high ozone concentrations, which is the case for the Valverde station. Nevertheless, according to this circulation model, the El Arenosillo station located at the coast SE from these sources is not directly affected by their emissions. The ozone concentrations observed at El Arenosillo can be explained by the ozone residual layer over the sea, similar to other coastal sites in the Mediterranean basin. The temporal variations of the ozone concentrations have been studied at four measurement sites in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The results obtained point out that industrial and urban emissions combined with specific meteorological conditions in spring and summer cause high ozone levels which exceed the recommended threshold limits and could affect the vegetation and human health in this area. This work is the first

  6. Screening of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria for potential probiotic use in Iberian dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Martín, Alberto; Benito, María José; Nevado, Francisco Pérez; de Guía Córdoba, María

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria and bifibobacteria strains as potential probiotic cultures during the processing of Iberian dry fermented sausages. A total of 1000 strains were isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages (363), and human (337) and pig faeces (300) in different culture media. Around 30% of these strains, mainly isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages in LAMVAB agar, were pre-selected for testing as potential probiotics by their ability to grow adequately at the pH values and NaCl concentrations of these meat products during the ripening process. Of the in vitro investigations used to predict the survival of a strain in conditions present in the gastro intestinal tract, exposure to pH 2.5 showed itself to be a highly discriminating factor with only 51 out of 312 pre-selected strains resisting adequately after 1.5h of exposure. All acid-resistant isolates identified as lactobacilli originated from human faeces (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum) and pig faeces (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus murinus, and Lactobacillus vaginalis). Pediococcus acidilactici strains were isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages and pig faeces, whereas the greatest number of Enterococcus strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium, with this species being isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages, and human and pig faeces. Most of these strains are promising probiotic meat culture candidates suitable for Iberian dry fermented sausages.

  7. The validity and reliability of the handheld SW-100 autokeratometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghosasere Iyamu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The agreement of new instruments or clinical tests with other instruments or tests defines the possibility of these being used interchangeably. Aim: To investigate the validity and reliability of the SW-100 autokeratometer using a Bausch & Lomb (B&L keratometer as the ‘gold standard’. Methods: Eighty subjects (80 right eyes aged between 21 and 38 years were recruited. For intra-test repeatability, two measurements of the corneal radius of curvature were taken with the SW-100 and B&L keratometers. Forty of the 80 subjects participated in the inter-test repeatability measurement. Results: Corneal radius of curvature was found to be statistically different between the two instruments (p < 0.001, with the SW-100 providing slightly flatter values of 0.11 mm and 0.05 mm for the horizontal and vertical meridians, respectively, than the B&L keratometer. The average corneal curvature was 0.07 mm flatter with the SW-100 autokeratometer than with the B&L device. Agreement between the SW-100 and B&L keratometers’ axes was 45% within ± 5°, 60.3% within ± 10°, 78.8% within ± 15°, 80.3% within ± 20°, and 88.7% within ± 40°. Intertest repeatability was better for the B&L device than the SW-100 and showed no significant difference between the two sessions. Both instruments demonstrated comparable intrasession repeatability. As such, both instruments were comparatively reliable (per coefficients of repeatability. The range of limits of agreement of ± 0.14 mm (horizontal meridian and ± 0.17 mm (vertical meridian between the SW-100 and B&L devices showed good agreement. Conclusion: The results suggest that the SW-100 autokeratometer is a reliable and objective instrument that, however, provides flatter radii of curvature measurements than the B&L keratometer. A compensating factor incorporated into the instrument could reduce the difference between the two instruments and make them more interchangeable.

  8. Shelves of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands (I): Morphology and sediment types; Plataformas de la Peninsula Iberica y las Islas Baleares (I): Morfologia y tipos de sedimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Salas, L. M.; Duran, R.; Mendes, I.; Galparsoro, I.; Lobo, F. J.; Barcenas, P.; Rosa, F.; Ribo, M.; Garcia-Gil, S.; Ferrin, A.; Carrara, G.; Roque, C.; Canals, M.

    2015-07-01

    Here we present a synthesis of bed forms and sediment types on the shelves surrounding the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, after the integration several pieces of bathymetric, morphological and sedimentological datasets. The Iberian and Balearic shelves are divided into segments according to the large scale margin configuration, fluvial sediment supply and hydrodynamic regime. Their geological settings and large-scale sedimentation patterns place the investigated shelves into two broad categories: abrupt, steep and narrow sediment-starved shelves, illustrated by the Cantabrian shelf, and gentle, smooth and wide sediment-fed shelves, such as the shelves off some major flivial systems. An in-depth classification was subsequently attempted, based on morpho-sedimentary types. Under this approach, the Iberian and Balearic shelves can be classified as: (1) storm-dominated shelves, with erosional rocky floors, frequent abrasion sur- faces and coarse-grained sediments; (2) current-dominated shelves, showing a good equilibrium between sediment fluxes and coastal and shallow ocean circulation, with laterally extensive muddy belts; (3) sediment supply-dominated shelves, where extensive sub aqueous deltas develop off river mouths; and (4) wave-dominated shelves that occur off coastal stretches with minor and/or multiple fluvial sediment sources and enhanced littoral current. (Author)

  9. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  10. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  11. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  12. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  13. Future Drought Projections over the Iberian Peninsula using Drought Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valdecasas Ojeda, M.; Yeste Donaire, P.; Góngora García, T. M.; Gámiz-Fortis, S. R.; Castro-Diez, Y.; Esteban-Parra, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, drought events are the cause of numerous annual economic losses. In a context of climate change, it is expected an increase in the severity and the frequency of drought occurrences, especially in areas such as the Mediterranean region. This study makes use of two drought indices in order to analyze the potential changes on future drought events and their effects at different time scales over a vulnerable region, the Iberian Peninsula. The indices selected were the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which takes into account the global warming through the temperature, and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), based solely on precipitation data, at a spatial resolution of 0.088º ( 10 km). For their computation, current (1980-2014) and future (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) high resolution simulations were carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over a domain centered in the Iberian Peninsula, and nested in the 0.44 EUROCORDEX region. WRF simulations were driven by two different global bias-corrected climate models: the version 1 of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM1) and the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM-LR), and under two different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Future projections were analyzed regarding to changes in mean, median and variance of drought indices with respect to the historical distribution, as well as changes in the frequency and duration of moderate and severe drought events. In general, results suggest an increase in frequency and severity of drought, especially for 2071-2100 period in the RCP 8.5 scenario. Results also shown an increase of drought phenomena more evident using the SPEI. Conclusions from this study could provide a valuable contribution to the understanding of how the increase of the temperature would affect the drought variability in the Mediterranean regions which is necessary for a suitable

  14. Interannual variation of larval fish assemblages in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula in relation to summer oceanographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Júnior Paulo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted during July 1994 and July 1995 in the Gulf of Cádiz with the aim of describing composition, abundance, distribution patterns and interannual variations of larval fish assemblages. Interannual differences were found in this study. In 1994, higher salinities were observed at external sites, though in 1995, higher values were observed at intermediate sites. The upper water column was warmer in 1994 and had less fish larvae density. During 1994, Sardinella aurita and Engraulis encrasicolus were abundant but spatial location was opposite. In 1995, abundance of both species was very different, but with similar spatial pattern. Cluster analysis revealed well-defined groups of stations and assemblages of larvae, primarily related to bathymetry. The "inshore assemblage" occupied the shallow coast area; its characteristics species being closely related to the estuarine system, mainly comprising Engraulis encrasicolus and Gobiidae. The "shelf assemblage" occupied the continental shelf and its characteristics species consisted of larvae whose adults inhabited the shelf province and spawn in the same zone, like Sardinella aurita and Trachurus spp. Interannual variations in composition and extension of the subgroups could be attributed to the main circulation patterns, continental water discharge and spawning strategies of fishes.

  15. First description of a tooth of the extinct giant shark "Carcharocles megalodon" (Agassiz, 1835) found in the province of Seville (SW Iberian Peninsula) (Otodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Gavilán, José Luis; Toscano Grande, Antonio; Muñiz Guinea, Fernando; Delgado, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Fossil remains of the extinct giant shark Carcharocles megalodon (Agassiz, 1835) are rare in interior Andalusia (Southern Spain). For the first time, a fossil tooth belonging to this paleospecies is described from material found in the province of Seville (Burguillos). Los restos del extinto tiburón gigante Carcharocles megalodon (Agassiz, 1835) son raros en el interior de Andalucía (sur de España). Por primera vez, se describe un diente fósil de esta paleoespecie a partir de m...

  16. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  17. The genus Nigritella (Orchidaceae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Llorenç

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the revision of Nigritella L.C.M. Richard in the Iberian Peninsula, here we recompile information of its variability, taxonomy, nomenclature and chorology. Two taxa are recognized: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. and N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, and the presence of N. corneliana is excluded. Detailed phytodermologic analysis showed that size of guard cells is useful for species identification.Tras la revisión del género Nigritella L.C.M. Richard en la Península Ibérica, se aportan datos sobre la variabilidad, taxonomía, nomenclatura y corología de sus diferentes especies. Se reconocen dos táxones: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. y N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, y se excluye la presencia de N. corneliana. El análisis fitodermológico indica que el tamaño de las células oclusivas es un carácter útil para la identificación de ambas especies

  18. Allergenic pollen in the subdesert areas of the Iberian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariñanos, P; Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Domínguez, E

    2000-01-01

    The yearly distribution of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, two of the most common types of pollen in a rural area located in the southeastern part of the Iberian peninsula, was studied over a 3-year period (1995-1997). The particular bioclimatic conditions of the area, such as its subdesert climate, extreme dryness and high mountain location (1,000 m above sea level), have led to the adaptation and abundance of these species in this area. They usually flower in the second half of the year, and are the main pollen types collected in the samples in that time period. The Artemisia pollen levels recorded are the highest in Spain, since there are several species in the area which flower at different times. Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen counts are also very high. The severity of both pollen types was also analyzed. The height of the sampler was taken into account because the quantities at human height can be considerably higher than those recorded at 20 m off the ground. It was concluded that both pollen types should be considered some of the main causes of allergy in this area.

  19. Fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula is analysed by considering two different series of data: the distance and the elapsed time between consecutive seismic events recorded by the seismic network of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics (AIG. The fractal analyses have been repeated by considering four threshold magnitudes of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0. The re-scaled analysis lets to determine if the seismicity shows strong randomness or if it is characterised by time-persistence and the cluster dimension indicates the degree of time and spatial clustering of the seismicity. Another analysis, based on the reconstruction theorem, permits to evaluate the minimum number of nonlinear equations describing the dynamical mechanism of the seismicity, its 'loss of memory', its chaotic character and the instability of a possible predicting algorithm. The results obtained depict some differences depending on distances or elapsed times and the different threshold levels of magnitude also lead to slightly different results. Additionally, only a part of the fractal tools, the re-scaled analysis, have been applied to five seismic crises in the same area.

  20. 2nd Iberian Nuclear Astrophysics Meeting on Compact Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles; Pons, Jose; Albertus, C.

    2012-02-01

    ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Dr M Ángeles Pérez-García (Área Física Teórica-Universidad de Salamanca & IUFFYM) Dr J A Miralles (Universidad de Alicante) Dr J Pons (Universidad de Alicante) Dr C Albertus (Área Física Nuclear-Universidad de Salamanca & IUFFYM) Dr F Atrio (Área Física Teórica-Universidad de Salamanca & IUFFYM) PREFACE The second Iberian Nuclear Astrophysics meeting was held at the University of Salamanca, Spain on 22-23 September 2011. This volume contains most of the presentations delivered at this international workshop. This meeting was the second in the series following the previous I Encuentro Ibérico de Compstar, held at the University of Coimbra, Portugal in 2010. The main purpose of this meeting was to strengthen the scientific collaboration between the participants of the Iberian and the rest of the southern European branches of the European Nuclear Astrophysics network, formerly, COMPSTAR. This ESF (European Science Foundation) supported network has been crucial in helping to make a broader audience for the the most interesting and relevant research lines being developed currently in Nuclear Astrophysics, especially related to the physics of neutron stars. It is indeed important to emphasize the need for a collaborative approach to the rest of the scientific communities so that we can reach possible new members in this interdisciplinary area and as outreach for the general public. The program of the meeting was tailored to theoretical descriptions of the physics of neutron stars although some input from experimental observers and other condensed matter and optics areas of interest was also included. The main scientific topics included: Magnetic fields in compact stars Nuclear structure and in-medium effects in nuclear interaction Equation of state: from nuclear matter to quarks Importance of crust in the evolution of neutron stars Computational simulations of collapsing dense objects Observational phenomenology In particular, leading

  1. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the Riverside of Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M I; Akerreta, S; Cavero, R Y

    2011-04-26

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in the Riverside of Navarra. Thereby, it will extend and complement a recent previous study carried out in the Northern Navarra. This paper aim to collect, analyse and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in the Riverside of Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 2554.4km(2) and 144,674 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 147 informants (mean age 76 years; the percentage of men and women was almost 50%) in 34 locations, identified the plants reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 90 medicinal plants belonging to 39 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 99% of the pharmaceutical uses (541). The species with the highest number of cites are Santolina chamaecyparissus ssp. squarrosa, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis and Urtica dioica. All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. The percentage of internal uses is three times higher than external uses. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 11 new or scarcely cited uses for 8 medicinal plants. For 50% of the species (4) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 50% have only one or two references. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the Middle Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in the Middle Navarra (Iberian Peninsula). Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in this area with 3622.2 km(2) and 404,634 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 276 informants (mean age 72; 46% women, 54% men) in 111 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 198 medicinal plants belonging to 60 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1401 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Santolina chamaecyparissus ssp. squarrosa, Jasonia glutinosa and Chamaemelum nobile with a long tradition of use in Navarra. All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. The most common mode of administration is oral, while the second most common is topical. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 80 new or scarcely cited uses for 14 medicinal plants. For 36% of the species (5) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 64% (9) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of pre-cure freezing of Iberian ham on proteolytic changes throughout the ripening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge; Barat, Jose Manuel; Aristoy, María Concepción; Antequera, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effect of pre-cure freezing Iberian hams on proteolysis phenomena throughout the ripening process. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN), peptide nitrogen (PN) and amino acid nitrogen (AN) as well as amino acid and dipeptide evolution followed the same trend in both refrigerated (R) and pre-cure frozen (F) Iberian hams during processing. At the different stages of ripening, there were no differences in the content of NPN and AN while F dry-cured hams had higher levels of PN than R hams at the final step. This seemed to be more related to the salt content (lower in F than in R hams) than to the pre-cure freezing treatment. Most amino acids and dipeptides detected showed higher concentrations in F than in R Iberian hams at the green stage, being rather similar at the intermediate phases. At the final stage, the effects of pre-cure freezing of Iberian hams were not well defined, higher levels of some amino acids and dipeptides were found in R than in F Iberian hams whereas other amino acids were lower in R than in F hams. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Shrub expansion has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic. This phenomenon has been partially attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century. However, relationships among shrub expansion, grazing, and human disturbance have been studied little. SW Greenland...... is a subarctic to low-arctic region with a long and complex land-use history and only modest temperature increases over the past 50 years (0.2 °C decade-1), but changes in shrub cover have not previously been studied in this region. We compiled historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898......–1974) and repeated the photos in 2010 and 2011. Sixty-four photo pairs were cropped into 133 smaller units and classified by aspect, substrate stability, muskoxen grazing, and human disturbance. The photo material was evaluated by 22 experts with respect to changes in shrub cover, revealing a general increase across...

  5. Reconstructing the interacting effects of base level, climate, and tectonic uplift in the lower Miño River terrace record: A gradient modelling evaluation/ March 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Balen, van R.T.; Desprat, S.; Vidal-Romani, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the lower Miño River terraces in the NW Iberian Peninsula has been a topic of debate since the 1940s. Various hypotheses about their main controlling factors have been put forward, but general consensus is still lacking. Field studies of terrace distribution and the weathering of

  6. Multi-scale tectonic controls on fluvial terrace formation in a glacioeustatically-dominated river system: inference from the lower Min¿o terrace record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis is to untangle the interacting effects of climate, glacioeustacy, and regional, and local tectonics on fluvial terrace formation. The NW Iberian lower Miño River valley was chosen as a study site, because for this region, a very detailed, long-term,

  7. Acrostichum, a Pioneering Fern of Floodplain Areas from the Late Oligocene Sariñena Formation of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreno-Domínguez

    Full Text Available Acrostichum is considered today an opportunistic fern in disturbed areas, which indicates the first stages of colonisation of such zones. However, in the fossil record, Acrostichum appears related to fluvio-lacustrine environments, freshwater marshes and mangrove deposits. We report here for first time fossil evidence of Acrostichum that reveals a pioneering behaviour of this fern in the colonisation of perturbed communities in Europe, which corroborates previous assumptions about the paleobiology of Acrostichum. Plant remains were collected from the Chattian (late Oligocene La Val fossil site (Estadilla, Huesca, northeastern Spain belonging to the Sariñena Formation, which mainly embraces crevasse splays, levees and floodplain deposits. Evidence shows that Acrostichum grew within the levee's vegetal community or close to/on the river banks as well as on floodplain areas and closer to/on the shores of ephemeral ponds. But most importantly, the observed co-existence of Equisetum and Acrostichum remains in the same beds indicates that such strata represent short-lived inundated terrains, e.g., floodplains where the water table was temporarily stagnant. Evidence shows wetland environments dominated by pioneering taxa, implying a pioneering role for Acrostichum during the late Oligocene in the Iberian Peninsula.

  8. Trace element partitioning and soil particle characterisation around mining and smelting areas at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva, SW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopin, E.I.B. [School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: edith.chopin@univ-reims.fr; Alloway, B.J. [School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    Trace elements may present an environmental hazard in the vicinity of mining and smelting activities. However, the factors controlling trace element distribution in soils around ancient and modern mining and smelting areas are not always clear. Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva are located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt in SW Spain. Tharsis and Riotinto mines have been exploited since 2500 B.C., with intensive smelting taking place. Huelva, established in 1970 and using the Flash Furnace Outokumpu process, is currently one of the largest smelter in the world. Pyrite and chalcopyrite ore have been intensively smelted for Cu. However, unusually for smelters and mines of a similar size, the elevated trace element concentrations in soils were found to be restricted to the immediate vicinity of the mines and smelters, being found up to a maximum of 2 km from the mines and smelters at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva. Trace element partitioning (over 2/3 of trace elements found in the residual immobile fraction of soils at Tharsis) and soil particles examination by SEM-EDX showed that trace elements were not adsorbed onto soil particles, but were included within the matrix of large trace element-rich Fe silicate slag particles (i.e. 1 mm o at least 1 wt.% As, Cu and Zn, and 2 wt.% Pb). Slag particle large size (1 mm o) was found to control the geographically restricted trace element distribution in soils at Tharsis, Riotinto and Huelva, since large heavy particles could not have been transported long distances. Distribution and partitioning indicated that impacts to the environment as a result of mining and smelting should remain minimal in the region.

  9. Larval connectivity studies in the Western Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, Jesus; Nolasco, Rita; Queiroga, Henrique

    2010-05-01

    The study of the connectivity between populations is one of the 'hot' applications of numerical models of the ocean circulation. An IBM (Individual Based model) was developed, using Carcinus manenas larvae crab as a model. A set of particles was used as a representation of larvae, in order to study their larval life cycle, including the larval growth, larval mortality (both depending on temperature and salinity), larval dispersal by currents, diel vertical migration, and larval recruitment. The life cycle of every larvae in the ocean, was modeled from zoeae 1 stage to megalopae stage, during typical periods of 30-50 days. Larvae were initialized in 14 estuarine systems of the Atlantic Western Iberian Peninsula, from January to July. In every period, a number of 225 larvae are initialized in everyone of the 14 considered estuaries, with fortynighly periodicity. The larvae evolves during the (variable, depending mainly on temperature) period of growth in the ocean, and when a larvae reach the age for recruit, if it is located in the neighborhood of the considered estuarine systems, the larvae is accounted as a recruited larvae in that place. With this methodology, a connectivity matrix can be computed, acconting for the 225 larvae emitted in every estuary, the number of larvae that reaches the every place. The connectivity matrix depends strongly on the current regime along the Atlantic coast of Iberian Peninsula, and has been calculated for the present circulation, for the period 2001 to 2009, for runs with realistic forcing with NCEP2 and Quikscat (for winds) forcing. The connectivity matrix, have also been calculated for climatological runs. For the present climatological conditions, it is observed the prevalence of southward transport for the period January-July, because the prevalence of Northerly winds along the west coast of IP in the COADS present time climatology. Strong dispersal is observed at the Northern estuaries, during winter with strong loss of

  10. Regulation causes nitrogen cycling discontinuities in Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schiller, Daniel; Aristi, Ibon; Ponsatí, Lídia; Arroita, Maite; Acuña, Vicenç; Elosegi, Arturo; Sabater, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    River regulation has fundamentally altered large sections of the world's river networks. The effects of dams on the structural properties of downstream reaches are well documented, but less is known about their effect on river ecosystem processes. We investigated the effect of dams on river nutrient cycling by comparing net uptake of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), phosphorus (TDP) and organic carbon (DOC) in river reaches located upstream and downstream from three reservoir systems in the Ebro River basin (NE Iberian Peninsula). Increased hydromorphological stability, organic matter standing stocks and ecosystem metabolism below dams enhanced the whole-reach net uptake of TDN, but not that of TDP or DOC. Upstream from dams, river reaches tended to be at biogeochemical equilibrium (uptake≈release) for all nutrients, whereas river reaches below dams acted as net sinks of TDN. Overall, our results suggest that flow regulation by dams may cause relevant N cycling discontinuities in rivers. Higher net N uptake capacity below dams could lead to reduced N export to downstream ecosystems. Incorporating these discontinuities could significantly improve predictive models of N cycling and transport in complex river networks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Alluvial plain dynamics and human occupation in SW Amazonia during the Holocene: A paleosol-based reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Rodrigues, Leonor; Veit, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The present study reconstructs Holocene fluvial dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin through the analysis of 36 stratigraphic profiles taken along a 300 km long transect across the Llanos de Moxos (LM), in the Bolivian Amazon. Based on 50 radiocarbon ages from paleosols intercalated with fluvial sediments, the most important changes in floodplain dynamics on a millennial scale are reconstructed and the links between pre-Columbian cultural processes and environmental change in the region explored. Results show that the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses, as inferred from the number and age of the cored paleosols, is stable from 8k cal. yrs BP to 4k cal. yrs BP and increases significantly from 4k to 2k cal. yrs BP, following the strengthening of el Niño/la Niña cycle and an increase in average precipitation. Fluvial activity then decreases and reaches its minimum after 2k cal BP. A comparison between the stratigraphic record and the archaeological record shows a match between periods of landscape stability in SW Amazonia (low river activity) and periods of pre-Columbian human occupation. The first Amazonians lived in the LM until 4k yrs. BP, when an abrupt increase in the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses forced the abandonment of the region. After two thousand years of archaeological hiatus, which matches the period of highest river activity in the region, agriculturists reoccupied the Bolivian Amazon.

  12. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pozo

    Full Text Available A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. All together a total of 42 potentially novel bat herpesviruses were partially characterized. Thirty-two of them were tentatively assigned to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily while the remaining 10 were allocated into the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. Significant diversity was observed among the novel sequences when compared with type herpesvirus species of the ICTV-approved genera. The inferred phylogenetic relationships showed that most of the betaherpesviruses sequences fell into a well-supported unique monophyletic clade and support the recognition of a new betaherpesvirus genus. This clade is subdivided into three major clades, corresponding to the families of bats studied. This supports the hypothesis of a species-specific parallel evolution process between the potentially new betaherpesviruses and their bat hosts. Interestingly, two of the betaherpesviruses' sequences detected in rhinolophid bats clustered together apart from the rest, closely related to viruses that belong to the Roseolovirus genus. This suggests a putative third roseolo lineage. On the contrary, no phylogenetic structure was detected among several potentially novel bat-hosted gammaherpesviruses found in the study. Remarkably, all of the possible novel bat herpesviruses described in this study are linked to a unique bat species.

  13. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Aznar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan Emilio

    2016-01-01

    A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. All together a total of 42 potentially novel bat herpesviruses were partially characterized. Thirty-two of them were tentatively assigned to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily while the remaining 10 were allocated into the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. Significant diversity was observed among the novel sequences when compared with type herpesvirus species of the ICTV-approved genera. The inferred phylogenetic relationships showed that most of the betaherpesviruses sequences fell into a well-supported unique monophyletic clade and support the recognition of a new betaherpesvirus genus. This clade is subdivided into three major clades, corresponding to the families of bats studied. This supports the hypothesis of a species-specific parallel evolution process between the potentially new betaherpesviruses and their bat hosts. Interestingly, two of the betaherpesviruses' sequences detected in rhinolophid bats clustered together apart from the rest, closely related to viruses that belong to the Roseolovirus genus. This suggests a putative third roseolo lineage. On the contrary, no phylogenetic structure was detected among several potentially novel bat-hosted gammaherpesviruses found in the study. Remarkably, all of the possible novel bat herpesviruses described in this study are linked to a unique bat species.

  14. Rayleigh wave ellipticity across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez García, Clara; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spectral amplitude ratios between horizontal and vertical components (H/V ratios) from seismic records are useful to evaluate site effects, predict ground motion and invert for S velocity in the top several hundred meters. These spectral ratios can be obtained from both ambient noise and earthquakes. H/V ratios from ambient noise depend on the content and predominant wave types: body waves, Rayleigh waves, a mixture of different waves, etc. The H/V ratio computed in this way is assumed to measure Rayleigh wave ellipticity since ambient vibrations are dominated by Rayleigh waves. H/V ratios from earthquakes are able to determine the local crustal structure at the vicinity of the recording station. These ratios obtained from earthquakes are based on surface wave ellipticity measurements. Although long period (>20 seconds) Rayleigh H/V ratio is not currently used because of large scatter has been reported and uncertainly about whether these measurements are compatible with traditional phase and group velocity measurements, we will investigate whether it is possible to obtain stable estimates after collecting statistics for many earthquakes. We will use teleseismic events from shallow earthquakes (depth ≤ 40 km) between 2007 January 1 and 2012 December 31 with M ≥ 6 and we will compute H/V ratios for more than 400 stations from several seismic networks across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco for periods between 20 and 100 seconds. Also H/V ratios from cross-correlations of ambient noise in different components for each station pair will be computed. Shorter period H/V ratio measurements based on ambient noise cross-correlations are strongly sensitive to near-surface structure, rather than longer period earthquake Rayleigh waves. The combination of ellipticity measurements based on earthquakes and ambient noise will allow us to perform a joint inversion with Rayleigh wave phase velocity. Upper crustal structure is better constrained by the joint inversion compared

  15. Analysis of volatile compounds from Iberian hams: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on the study of the volatile compounds in raw and dry-cured Iberian hams. Different volatile compounds are identified and studies carried out by different authors are presented. This article reviews the analytical methods that have been used to determine the different volatiles of these samples. Furthermore, all volatile compounds identified (a total of 411 volatiles have been collected in several tables according to different series of compounds: hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and ethers, lactones, terpenes and chloride compounds, nitrogenous compounds, sulfur compounds and carboxylic acids. This review can be useful in subsequent research due to the complexity of the study.

    En este artículo se proporciona información sobre el estudio de los compuestos volátiles del jamón ibérico tanto fresco como curado. Se presentan los diferentes compuestos volátiles identificados por distintos autores. Además, se evalúan los métodos analíticos que han sido utilizados para determinar dichos compuestos volátiles en este tipo de muestras. Todos los compuestos identificados y descritos en esta revisión (un total de 411 compuestos volátiles han sido agrupados en diversas tablas de acuerdo a las diferentes familias a que pertenecen: hidrocarburos, aldehídos, cetonas, alcoholes, ésteres y éteres, lactonas, terpenos, compuestos halogenados, compuestos nitrogenados, compuestos de azufre y ácidos carboxílicos. Debido a la complejidad de este estudio, la presente revisión puede ser muy útil en investigaciones posteriores.

  16. Evidence for artificial magnetite coating on Iberian armoury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A metallographic study of two pre-roman Iberian arms, affected by a cremation process, revealed the presence of an outer magnetite layer, providing highly protective properties. This layer is extraordinarily tenacious and of very homogeneous thickness, indicating an intentional manufacturing process rather than an accidental formation during the severe heating/cooling cycles the artefact suffered. Up to date, the intentional production of these types of layers has been attributed to a welding process of three different metallic sheets, here an alternative model is proposed, allowing, as could be simulated in the laboratory, the virtually exclusive formation of a magnetite coating.

    Se presenta un estudio metalográficos de dos armas prerromanas afectadas por un proceso de cremación. Las armas poseen un recubrimiento exterior de magnetita que las confieren unas altas propiedades de protección frente a la corrosión. Esta capa es extraordinariamente tenaz y posee un espesor muy homogéneo, indicando que son producto de un proceso de fabricación intencionado más que una formación accidental durante los varios ciclos de calentamiento/ enfriamiento que han sufrido los objetos. Hasta la fecha, la producción intencional de este tipo de recubrimientos ha sido atribuida a un proceso de soldadura de tres láminas metálicas diferentes. En este trabajo se propone un modelo alternativo de formación, el cual permite una simulación en el laboratorio en la que se forma exclusivamente una capa de magnetita.

  17. Standardization and optimization of arthropod inventories-the case of Iberian spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel

    2009-01-01

    and optimization of sampling protocols, especially for mega-diverse arthropod taxa. This study had two objectives: (1) propose guidelines and statistical methods to improve the standardization and optimization of arthropod inventories, and (2) to propose a standardized and optimized protocol for Iberian spiders......, by finding common results between the optimal options for the different sites. The steps listed were successfully followed in the determination of a sampling protocol for Iberian spiders. A protocol with three sub-protocols of varying degrees of effort (24, 96 and 320 h of sampling) is proposed. I also...

  18. Invasive species and habitat degradation in Iberian streams: an analysis of their role in freshwater fish diversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Clavero, Miguel; Blanco-Garrido, Francisco; Prenda, José

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean endemic freshwater fish are among the most threatened biota in the world. Distinguishing the role of different extinction drivers and their potential interactions is crucial for achieving conservation goals. While some authors argue that invasive species are a main driver of native species declines, others see their proliferation as a co-occurring process to biodiversity loss driven by habitat degradation. It is difficult to discern between the two potential causes given that few invaded ecosystems are free from habitat degradation, and that both factors may interact in different ways. Here we analyze the relative importance of habitat degradation and invasive species in the decline of native fish assemblages in the Guadiana River basin (southwestern Iberian Peninsula) using an information theoretic approach to evaluate interaction pathways between invasive species and habitat degradation (structural equation modeling, SEM). We also tested the possible changes in the functional relationships between invasive and native species, measured as the per capita effect of invasive species, using ANCOVA. We found that the abundance of invasive species was the best single predictor of natives' decline and had the highest Akaike weight among the set of predictor variables examined. Habitat degradation neither played an active role nor influenced the per capita effect of invasive species on natives. Our analyses indicated that downstream reaches and areas close to reservoirs had the most invaded fish assemblages, independently of their habitat degradation status. The proliferation of invasive species poses a strong threat to the persistence of native assemblages in highly fluctuating environments. Therefore, conservation efforts to reduce native freshwater fish diversity loss in Mediterranean rivers should focus on mitigating the effect of invasive species and preventing future invasions.

  19. Spatial patterns of mesozooplankton communities in the Northwestern Iberian shelf during autumn shaped by key environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Rula; Garrido, Susana; Santos, A. Miguel P.; dos Santos, Antonina

    2017-11-01

    The autumn mesozooplankton community structure and spatial distribution was investigated in relation to the prevalent hydrographic conditions at the Northwestern Iberian shelf (38.5°-41.6°N), a major spawning ground for small pelagic fish species. Copepods clearly dominated the mesozooplankton community, followed by Cladocera, Appendicularia, Cirripedia, Bivalvia larvae and Chaetognata. Three different groups were identified according to their distribution: a northern coastal group (A), a southern coastal group with two stations in the northern area (B), and a shelf group (C), each delimited to areas with distinct oceanographic conditions. The boundary between the coastal groups A and B was coincident with areas of prominent geographic features, particularly a submarine canyon (Nazaré canyon) and a cape (Cabo Carvoeiro), both inducing abrupt changes in the local/regional patterns of water mass circulation. Group B includes a few northern stations that can be related to river discharges while the southern stations can be defined by upwelling conditions at that time. The distribution of some relevant species can be related to biophysical variables (temperature, salinity, Chlorophyll a). Some copepod taxa were generally coincident with high concentrations of chlorophyll a abundance (e.g. Temora spp., Oncaea spp.), while the distribution of other groups such as Cladocera or bivalve veliger larvae was correlated to temperature and/or salinity gradients caused by river discharges. Other important taxa as Paracalanus and Clausocalanus spp. or Oithona spp. showed no particular influence of any of the measured hydrological variables. This work is the first description of mesozooplankton assemblages and their distribution pattern in a broad area off Western Iberia during autumn. It contributes to understanding the dynamics of zooplankton in the area, increasing the knowledge of the drivers of plankton community variability and providing information about their potential

  20. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  1. Tracking climate change in oligotrophic mountain lakes: Recent hydrology and productivity synergies in Lago de Sanabria (NW Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina-Enríquez, Margarita; Recio, Clemente; Vega, José Carlos; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2017-07-15

    Mountain lakes are particularly sensitive to global change as their oligotrophic conditions may be rapidly altered after reaching an ecological threshold, due to increasing human impact and climate change. Sanabria Lake, the largest mountain lake in the Iberian Peninsula and with a recent history of increased human impact in its watershed, provides an opportunity to investigate recent trends in an oligotrophic, hydrologically-open mountain lake, and their relationship with climate, hydrological variability and human pressure. We conducted the first systematic and detailed survey of stable isotope compositions of Sanabria Lake and Tera River together with limnological analyses during 2009-2011. δ 18 O lakewater and δD lakewater seasonal fluctuations are strongly linked to river discharges, and follow the monthly mean isotopic composition of precipitation, which is controlled by NAO dynamics. δ 13 C POM and δ 13 C DIC revealed higher contribution of allochthonous organic matter in winter and spring due to higher river inflow and lower primary productivity. Increased phytoplankton biomass in late summer correlated significantly with higher pH and Chl-a, and higher nutrient input and lower river inflow. However, the small δ 13 C POM seasonal amplitude underlines the stability of the oligotrophic conditions and the isotopic variation in POM and DIC reflect small seasonal fluctuations mostly as a consequence of strong throughflow. The stability of hydrology and productivity patterns is consistent with Holocene and last millennium reconstructions of past limnological changes in Sanabria Lake. The results of this study indicate that trophic state in this hydrologically-open mountain lake is strongly controlled by climate variability, but recent changes in human-land uses have increased sediment delivery and nutrients supply to the lake and have to be considered for management policies. Monitoring surveys including isotope techniques provide snapshots of modern isotope

  2. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    In the Eastern Mediterranean sea, the climate succession of the last deglaciation is documented and dated in marine cores by the d18-O variation of foraminiferal cal- cite and pollen records. The Last Glacial Maximum is identified by a large abundance of grass pollen from a prairie-type vegetal cover with low annual precipitation in the mountainous north and east borderlands of the sea, where the pollen mainly origi- nates. During the first phase of the last deglaciation, the Bolling/Allerod chronozone, the moisture availability increases and makes possible the spread of a deciduous for- est, as shown by the increasing pollen abundance of the deciduous oak. The cold and arid Younger Dryas is identified by a reversal to semi-desert conditions, with the in- crease of sage-brush (Artemisia) and the saline-tolerant Chenopodiaceae. The climate of the earliest Holocene is Optimum for at least 3000 years (9000-6000yr BP), with the largest spread of the deciduous forest at low-middle elevations signalling wet sum- mers and of the Pistacia woodland at low elevations signalling mild, no-frost winters. This is the time when the most recent sapropel deposited in the eastern Mediterranean under anoxic bottom conditions generated by a surface lid of lower salinity due to the concomitant largest floods of the Nile River fed by the strongest African monsoon rains in the Ethiopian Highlands. In SW Asia, the pollen records of lakes and marshes have been correlated with those of the marine cores, thereby obtaining a robust time-frame. In that area, the archaeo- logical data of human settlements are independently dated by 14C. Thus the archaeo- logical succession can be securely set against the well-dated climatic succession. The Late Palaeolithic populations of SW Asia were wandering hunter-gatherers in the prairies of the Last Glacial Maximum, where they already collected wild wheat, barley and fruit. With the Bolling/Allerod wetter and warmer climate, they began to settle in

  3. Tumulus 20 of the Iberian necropolis of Tútugi (Galera, Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ariza, Mª Oliva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Here the results from the excavation of Tumulus 20 of the Iberian Necropolis of Tútugi are presented. This tumulus was robbed in 1916, but the materials were recovered and published by Cabré and Motos in 1920. Among the artefacts was the Dama de Galera (Lady of Galera. The excavation has uncovered a structural complex with two phases of construction. The first phase consists of a quadrangular chamber with an access passageway, both carved into the rock, and with a central pillar of adobe that possibly supported a ceiling. In the second phase, the chamber was filled in with rocks and earth, and the rock was cut to form a circular platform of 13 m in diameter, which was painted red. In the centre of this platform a quadrangular space serving as an entrance corridor was constructed as a projection of the underground structures. This building in the open air was framed within an Cypriot-ingot-shaped platform painted in white.

    Se presentan aquí los resultados obtenidos de la excavación del Túmulo 20 de la Necrópolis ibérica de Tútugi. Este túmulo fue saqueado en 1916 y los materiales fueron recuperados y publicados por Cabré y Motos en 1920, entre ellos se encontraba la Dama de Galera. La excavación ha puesto al descubierto un complejo estructural con dos fases constructivas. La primera fase consta de una cámara cuadrangular con pasillo de acceso, ambos excavados en la roca, y con un pilar central de adobe que posiblemente sostenía el techo. En una segunda fase la cámara es rellenada por piedras y tierra y se recortaría la roca para conformar una plataforma circular de 13 m de diámetro que es pintada de rojo. En el centro de esta plataforma se construye, como proyección de las estructuras subterráneas, un espacio cuadrangular con corredor de entrada. Este edificio al aire libre queda enmarcado dentro de la plataforma por la forma del lingote chipriota pintado en blanco.

  4. Linking seasonal climate forecasts with crop models in Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Mirian; Ines, Amor; Baethgen, Walter; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Han, Eunjin; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Translating seasonal climate forecasts into agricultural production forecasts could help to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse conditions. In this study, we use seasonal rainfall forecasts and crop models to improve predictability of wheat yield in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Additionally, we estimate economic margins and production risks associated with extreme scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecast. This study evaluates two methods for disaggregating seasonal climate forecasts into daily weather data: 1) a stochastic weather generator (CondWG), and 2) a forecast tercile resampler (FResampler). Both methods were used to generate 100 (with FResampler) and 110 (with CondWG) weather series/sequences for three scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecasts. Simulated wheat yield is computed with the crop model CERES-wheat (Ritchie and Otter, 1985), which is included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at two locations in northeastern Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. Once simulated yields were obtained, an assessment of farmer's gross margin for different seasonal climate forecasts was accomplished to estimate production risks under different climate scenarios. This methodology allows farmers to assess the benefits and risks of a seasonal weather forecast in IP prior to the crop growing season. The results of this study may have important implications on both, public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance companies) sectors. Acknowledgements Research by M. Capa-Morocho has been partly supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UCM-UPM) and MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) References Hoogenboom, G. et al., 2010. The Decision

  5. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  6. Predictive models of threatened plant species distribution in the Iberian arid south-east

    OpenAIRE

    Benito, Blas M.

    2013-01-01

    Poster on the distribution of three rare, endemic and endangered annual plants of arid zones in the south-eastern Iberian peninsula. Presented in the workshop "Predictive Modelling of Species Distribution: New Tools for the XXI Century (Baeza, Spain, november 2005).

  7. The contribution of vegetation and landscape configuration for predicting environmental change impacts on Iberian birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triviño, Maria; Thuiller, Wilfried; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    of distributions, but they are rarely considered in such assessments. We explore the consequences of using simulated vegetation structure and composition as well as its associated landscape configuration in models projecting global change effects on Iberian bird species distributions. Both present-day and future...

  8. Evolution and genome specialization of Brucella suis biovar 2 Iberian lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogério; de Sá, Maria Inácia Corrêa; Dias, Ricardo

    2017-09-12

    Swine brucellosis caused by B. suis biovar 2 is an emergent disease in domestic pigs in Europe. The emergence of this pathogen has been linked to the increase of extensive pig farms and the high density of infected wild boars (Sus scrofa). In Portugal and Spain, the majority of strains share specific molecular characteristics, which allowed establishing an Iberian clonal lineage. However, several strains isolated from wild boars in the North-East region of Spain are similar to strains isolated in different Central European countries. Comparative analysis of five newly fully sequenced B. suis biovar 2 strains belonging to the main circulating clones in Iberian Peninsula, with publicly available Brucella spp. genomes, revealed that strains from Iberian clonal lineage share 74% similarity with those reference genomes. Besides the 210 kb translocation event present in all biovar 2 strains, an inversion with 944 kb was presented in chromosome I of strains from the Iberian clone. At left and right crossover points, the inversion disrupted a TRAP dicarboxylate transporter, DctM subunit, and an integral membrane protein TerC. The gene dctM is well conserved in Brucella spp. except in strains from the Iberian clonal lineage. Intraspecies comparative analysis also exposed a number of biovar-, haplotype- and strain-specific insertion-deletion (INDELs) events and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could explain differences in virulence and host specificities. Most discriminative mutations were associated to membrane related molecules (29%) and enzymes involved in catabolism processes (20%). Molecular identification of both B. suis biovar 2 clonal lineages could be easily achieved using the target-PCR procedures established in this work for the evaluated INDELs. Whole-genome analyses supports that the B. suis biovar 2 Iberian clonal lineage evolved from the Central-European lineage and suggests that the genomic specialization of this pathogen in the Iberian Peninsula

  9. Holocene oceanographic changes in SW Labrador Sea, off Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Pearce, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages supported by selected geochemical data from three marine sediment cores collected in Placentia Bay, SE Newfoundland, are used to construct an ~13,000-year-long record of regional oceanographic changes in the SW Labrador Sea. The area is located in the boundary zo....... The Northern Hemisphere neoglacial cooling around 2.8 cal. kyr BP was characterized off SE Newfoundland by a further stabilization of the current system, dominated by the LC with some continued influx of GS water....

  10. The Robust Software Feedback Model: An Effective Waterfall Model Tailoring for Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipaldi, Massimo; Gotz, Christoph; Ferraguto, Massimo; Troiano, Luigi; Bruenjes, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The selection of the most suitable software life cycle process is of paramount importance in any space SW project. Despite being the preferred choice, the waterfall model is often exposed to some criticism. As matter of fact, its main assumption of moving to a phase only when the preceding one is completed and perfected (and under the demanding SW schedule constraints) is not easily attainable. In this paper, a tailoring of the software waterfall model (named “Robust Software Feedback Model”) is presented. The proposed methodology sorts out these issues by combining a SW waterfall model with a SW prototyping approach. The former is aligned with the SW main production line and is based on the full ECSS-E-ST-40C life-cycle reviews, whereas the latter is carried out in advance versus the main SW streamline (so as to inject its lessons learnt into the main streamline) and is based on a lightweight approach.

  11. Mineralogy and origin of atmospheric particles in the industrial area of Huelva (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, J. M.; Carretero, M. I.; Galán, E.

    The mineralogy of atmospheric particles at the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, south of Huelva (a highly industrialized city in the SW Spain), was characterized in view to identify source origins. In spite of the small amount of sample collected, mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis system, using an adequate sample preparation methodology. Sedimentable (SP) and aerosols particles were sampled an one-week basis every two months for one year. Quartz, calcite and feldspars were found to be the major minerals in both fractions, and phyllosilicates, dolomite and gypsum were also identified in lower content. Minor mineral particles included barite, apatite, sphalerite and pyrite. SEM studies revealed the additional presence of chalcopyrite in both SP and aerosols, and of chalcocite-covellite, halite and sylvite in the latter. Siderite, hematite and ankerite were only detected in the SP fraction. The concentrations of the previous minerals increased in summer by effect of the limited rain and the resulting scarcity of atmosphere washing. Non-mineral particles detected by SEM in SP and aerosol fractions included spherical, biological and compositionally complex particles. The main source of mineral particles was found to be the soil suspension in addition to the metallurgical and fertilizer production industries in the area.

  12. Morphogenesis and grain size variation of alluvial gold recovered in auriferous sediments of the Tormes Basin (Iberian Peninsula) using a simple correspondence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, S.; Merinero, R.; Lozano, R.; Orea, I.

    2015-12-01

    With present techniques it is difficult to determine whether the gold particles present at fluvial placers have come from one or multiple sources. Knowledge of this would be useful in prospecting for larger gold deposits. The aim of the present work was to test the potential of a technique based on modern visual and classic statistical methods to determine the single or multisource origin of gold particles at different sites in the Tormes Basin (Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Massif, Iberian Peninsula). This basin contains numerous lode and placer gold deposits that have been exploited since ancient times. Today, gold nuggets (usually associated with quartz, 0.2-6 g in weight, 0.53-3.74 cm long and mostly discoidal in shape and of intermediate roundness) can be recovered from the sediments of the upper reaches of the River Tormes. These nuggets, as well as small gold particles collected at three gravel pits from across the basin (all of which showed abrasion marks) were examined by optical and/or environmental scanning electron microscopy, and the differences in their dimensions and morphological features noted. Simple correspondence analysis of the sphericity and roundness of the nuggets and particles was used to morphologically classify the gold samples collected at each location. The gold nuggets were best classified as elongated rods of intermediate roundness. Surprisingly, the gold particles from the most upstream and downstream gravel pits were best described as discs/sub-discs of rounded appearance, while those from the intermediate gravel pit were discs of intermediate roundness. Analysis of the variance followed by the Tukey honest significant differences test revealed the particles from the most upstream gravel pit to be significantly more flattened and smaller. These were therefore transported further from their source than the particles collected at the other two pits. These results suggest that multiple sources of sedimentary gold exist in the

  13. Environmental set-up and tidal propagation in a tropical estuary with dual connection to the sea (SW Coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Rafeeq, M.; Shivaprasad, A.; Vijayakumar, K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    at the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, UK (Bell et al., 2000). The present paper largely follows the techniques described in Sunder and Shetye., 2005, where the tidal propagation in Mandovi-Zuari estuarine network was studied using one month WL data at 13... rivers is estimated to be 22.41 X10 3 Mm 3 . Runoff is not uniformly distributed; 60-70 % of the runoff is during the SW monsoon period (June-September), while during the pre-monsoon period (April-May) virtually there was no significant runoff. Table...

  14. Ancient bronze horse muzzles of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés Estallo, Ignasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse muzzles and Bronze muzzles are unique equestrian tools that have been referred to in scattered accounts throughout history. Nevertheless, the majority of these objects have received short descriptions and an overall study is still missing. The lack of a comprehensive study hinges on the over looked importance of these items and the superficial manner that have characterized their documentation. Both these reasons have limited observations on chronology and archaeological investigation. The recent identification of new unpublished exemplars among the Museums’ collections in Barcelona and Lleida has encouraged the authors of this paper to start a new study dedicated to these objects. Starting from a catalogue inclusive of all muzzles and muzzles currently known in the Iberian Peninsula, an attempt will be made to propose an accurate description, typological classification and, for some of the items, a revision of the decorative scenes that have marked their place in bronze horse muzzle and muzzle chronology. The formal development and the chronological framework here proposed refer to those of the exemplars found in Greece and in Italy. The broadening of the geographical area will allow reconsideration of those social phenomena that have in the past determined the diffusion of elements in horse tack throughout most of the western Peninsula in the Mediterranean.

    Los bozales y las muserolas en bronce para caballo constituyen unos excepcionales complementos ecuestres cuyo conocimiento se encuentra disperso en una extensa bibliografía. De muchos ejemplares apenas se ha publicado una breve descripción y nunca hasta el presente han sido objeto de un estudio monográfico, quizás por el desaliento que produce el desconocimiento de su procedencia en unos casos, o la superficial noticia del contexto de aparición en la mayoría de ellos, hecho que ha limitado las consideraciones cronológicas y de asociación. La identificación de nuevos

  15. The return of the Iberian lynx to Portugal: local voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Fernandes, Margarida; Espírito-Santo, Clara; Frazão-Moreira, Amélia

    2018-01-11

    Ethnographic research can help to establish dialog between conservationists and local people in reintroduction areas. Considering that predator reintroductions may cause local resistance, we assessed attitudes of different key actor profiles to the return of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to Portugal before reintroduction started in 2015. We aimed to characterize a social context from an ethnoecological perspective, including factors such as local knowledge, perceptions, emotions, and opinions. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 131) in three different protected areas and observed practices and public meetings in order to describe reintroduction contestation, emotional involvement with the species, and local perceptions about conservation. Detailed content data analysis was undertaken and an open-ended codification of citations was performed with the support of ATLAS.ti. Besides the qualitative analyses, we further explored statistic associations between knowledge and opinions and compared different geographical areas and hunters with non-hunters among key actors. Local ecological knowledge encompassed the lynx but was not shared by the whole community. Both similarities and differences between local and scientific knowledge about the lynx were found. The discrepancies with scientific findings were not necessarily a predictor of negative attitudes towards reintroduction. Contestation issues around reintroduction differ between geographical areas but did not hinder an emotional attachment to the species and its identification as a territory emblem. Among local voices, financial compensation was significantly associated to hunters and nature tourism was cited the most frequent advantage of lynx presence. Materialistic discourses existed in parallel with non-economic factors and the existence of moral agreement with its protection. The considerable criticism and reference to restrictions by local actors concerning protected areas and conservation

  16. Genetic analysis of maternal ability in Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Rodrigañez, J; Silio, L

    1994-01-12

    A practical measure of milk yield of the sow is the weight of the litter at three weeks of age when the piglet growth is entirely dependent on the milking ability of the dam. Genetic parameters of litter size at birth (LS) and litter weight at 21 days (LW21) were estimated using a DFREML procedure from records of 4883 litters (2,049 for LW21) of Iberian breed. Preliminary analysis showed negligible maternal genetic effects. The model for both traits included the fixed effects of farrowing period (86 levels), parity (6) and inbreeding coefficients of dam (Fd) and litter (F(1) ) as co-variables, and three random effects-additive genetic value, permanent environmental effect and residual on both traits. Heritability and repeatability estimates were 0.064 and 0.126 (LS) and 0.163 and 0.270 (LW21) respectively. Estimated genetic and phenotypic correlations were 0.214 and 0.043. The inbreeding depression per 10 % increase of Fd or F(1) was -0.150 or -0.170 in live piglets and -0.983 or -1.023 kg of litter weight. When the model for LW21 included the dam inbreeding and the number of suckling piglets as co-variables, the heritability and repeatability estimates were 0.243 and 0.431 respectively. A complementary analysis was carried out on individual records (weight at 21 days) of 26206 piglets farrowed by 1317 sows. The model included the fixed effects of sex, farrowing period, parity, and the inbreeding coefficients of dam and individual, as co-variables. A total of four random effects were also included: direct and maternal genetic effects, common environmental effects and residual. Estimates of heritability, maternal heritability and common environmental coefficient were, respectively, 0.019, 0.163 and 0.128, reinforcing the evidence of genetic variance for milk producing ability in Iberian sows. The estimated values of inbreeding depression for piglet weight at 21 days were -0.072 and -0.098 kg per 10 % increase in dam or litter inbreeding. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Genetische

  17. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Sintes, E.; Herndl, G.J.; Varela, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production

  18. Las facies Keuper al SW de la provincia de Soria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando, S.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sedimentological analysis of the materials that correspond to the Keuper facies in the area situated between the Iberian Ranges and the Central System. Acording to the obtained data, two main aspects are emphasized: - During the Upper Triassic, a c1ear retreat of the roast line towards the East took place, since this area constituted the litoral zone during the sedimentation of the Rot and Muschelkalk. - Facies change lateraly from West to East as proximal alluvial Can sediments pass into facies interpreted as distal alluvial fans and continental sabkha environment.Se analizan, desde el punto de vista sedimentológico, unos materiales correspondientes a las facies Keuper entre la Cordillera Ibérica y el Sistema Central. Dos aspectos resaltan tras este análisis: - Desplazamiento de la línea de costa (que durante la sedimentación del Rot y del Muschelkalk estaba situada en esta zona hacia el Este. - Marcado cambio lateral de facies desde el Oeste hacia el Este, pasando de unas facies proximales-medias de abanico aluvial a unas facies distales y ambiente de sabkha continental.

  19. Woody debris transport modelling by a coupled DE-SW approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Elisabetta; Petaccia, Gabriella; Sibilla, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The presence of wood in rivers is gaining more and more attention: on one side, the inclusion of woody debris in streams is emphasized for its ecological benefits; on the other hand, particular attention must be paid to its management, not to affect hydraulic safety. Recent events have shown that wood can be mobilized during floodings (Comiti et al. 2008, Lange and Bezzola 2006), aggravating inundations, in particular near urban areas. For this reason, the inclusion of woody debris influence on the prediction of flooded areas is an important step toward the reduction of hydraulic risk. Numerical modelling plays an important role to this purpose. Ruiz-Villanueva et al. (2014) use a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the kinetics of cylindrical woody debris transport, taking into account also the hydrodynamic effects of wood. The model here presented couples a Discrete Element approach (DE) for the calculation of motion of a cylindrical log with the solution of the Shallow Water Equations (SW), in order to simulate woody debris transport in a two-dimensional stream. In a first step, drag force, added mass force and side force are calculated from flow and log velocities, assuming a reference area and hydrodynamic coefficients taken from literature. Then, the equations of dynamics are solved to model the planar roto-translation of the wooden cylinder. Model results and its physical reliability are clearly affected by the values of the drag and side coefficients, which in turn depend upon log submergence and angle towards the flow direction. Experimental studies to evaluate drag and side coefficients can be found for a submerged cylinder, with various orientations (Gippel et al. 1996; Hoang et al. 2015). To extend such results to the case of a floating (non-totally submerged) cylinder, the authors performed a series of laboratory tests whose outcomes are implemented in the proposed DE-SW model, to assess the effects of these values on the dynamic of woody

  20. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  1. Shelves around the Iberian Peninsula (II): Evolutionary sedimentary patterns; Las plataformas continentales de la Peninsula Iberica (II): Patrones sedimentarios evolutivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, F. J.; Duran, R.; Roque, C.; Ribo, M.; Carrera, G.; Mendes, I.; Ferrin, A.; Fernandez-Salas, L. M.; Garcia-Gil, S.; Galpalsoro, I.; Rosa, F.; Barcenas, P.

    2015-07-01

    We present a synthetic view of continental-shelf evolutionary patterns around the Iberian Peninsula, focusing on proposed sequence stratigraphy interpretations and attempting a comparison between Atlantic- and Mediterranean-type shelf-margin constructions. Most of the studied shelves show a dominance of regressive to low stand deposition through successive pro gradations, particularly evident in the Pliocene-Quaternary, documenting the influence of glacio-eustasy. Transgressive to high stand development predating the Last Glacial Maximum seems to be favoured off major rivers, but the highest variability is seen during post glacial evolution. Transgressive deposits tend to show a higher spatial variability, ranging from pro graded para sequences to extensive sand sheets. Holocene high- stand deposits usually show a more homogeneous character, with development of proximal wedge-shaped deposits and a distal sheet-like deposition. Atlantic continental shelves off Iberia display three different types of shelf growth: depositional shelves, shelves with restricted pro gradation and erosional shelves. They result from the interplay between depositional and hydrodynamic regimes, with the occurrence of a latitudinal gradation from erosional shelves in the Cantabrian continental shelf to depositional shelves in the northern Gulf of Cadiz shelf. Some shelf sectors do not correspond to this general pattern, as shelf sedimentation is mainly controlled by morpho-structural features (e.g., ria environments and shelves crossed by major tectonic accidents). The Mediterranean continental shelves of Iberia show two basic types, high- versus low-supply shelves, and their growth patterns are mainly a response to the amount of fluvial supply. The low-supply style is clearly the most frequent type, and it may show further complexity according to the occurrence of submarine canyons and/or morpho-structural control. (Author)

  2. Planktic foraminiferal responses to orbital scale oceanographic changes off the western Iberian margin over the last 900 kyr: Results from IODP site U1391

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. D.; Verma, K.; Jaiswal, S.; Alonso-Garcia, M.; Li, B.; Abrantes, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents planktic foraminiferal assemblage records of the last 900 kyr from the SW Iberian margin (IODP Site U1391). The faunal records show the history of surface oceanographic changes on glacial/interglacial scales before and after the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE), a period when a major shift in the climate pattern was recorded in other regions. Temporal variations in relative abundances of characteristic species/groups are used to infer changes in the latitudinal position of the polar/Arctic water (% Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral and Turborotalita quinqueloba), influence of the transitional subpolar water mass (% N. pachyderma dextral), and subtropical water (% tropical/subtropical species/group). Past changes in the upwelling intensity and productivity pattern associated with seasonal trade wind strength are inferred from the abundance variations of Globigerina bulloides and G. bulloides + Globigerinita glutinata, respectively. Faunal data reveal the influence of cold water masses (polar/subpolar) at the examined site was more pronounced during glacial stages except for marine isotope stage (MIS) 14 and 16. The magnitude of the polar/subpolar water mass invading the study area was at maximum before the MBE during MIS 18, 20 and 22, resulting in a situation like the present day Arctic Front. Interglacial periods prior to the MBE were also relatively colder than those of the post-MBE. Our faunal based inferences are in agreement with the ice-rafted debris (IRD) concentration and N. pachyderma sinistral records of the subpolar North Atlantic sites. Based on faunal proxies, we recorded major and rapid changes in upwelling intensity and related productivity during glacial Terminations. Both the upwelling intensity and productivity significantly increased after the MBE, particularly during the interglacials MIS 7, 9 and 11. Our productivity record parallels the EPICA CH4 record suggesting teleconnections between trade winds induced productivity and the

  3. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules...

  4. Twentieth century overview of heavy metals in the Galician Rias (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, R.; Cobelo-Garcia, A

    2003-03-01

    All information published on metals in this region up to the year 2000 is reviewed from a biogeochemical viewpoint. - The 18 Galician Rias, comprising 25% of the Iberian Peninsula coastline, form a unique system within the European continental Atlantic coast and provide a useful reference area for studies of metals. These rias are sensitive to anthropogenic influence due to the socioeconomic importance generated in these areas by industry, aquaculture, port activities, fishing, tourism and, accordingly, several islands lying within close proximity to the rias have recently been declared natural parks. Aquaculture in the Galician Rias is a growth industry and in 2000 the rias supported 3386 mussel rafts producing 2.5x10{sup 8} kg year{sup -1}, i.e. 40% of European Union total seafood production. The Galician Rias are partially stratified estuaries with positive residual circulation with fresh (runoff lower than 100 m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) and salt water mixing inside the basins. This behaviour has direct consequences on metal fluxes whereby the rias behave as a barrier and accumulate metals in the sediments. Metals tend to deposit close to point sources and remobilization occurs inside the ria, leading to a seaward decrease in metal concentration. With the exception of the Ulla (Arosa Ria) and Eume (Ares-Betanzos Ria) head rivers and the Lagares river (Vigo Ria) the available data suggest that riverine freshwater inputs are not the main source of contamination. Metal studies reported in the literature mainly relate to Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, and to a lesser extent Hg and Sn. Studies of other harmful metals such as Ag, Se and As are notably lacking. In addition, the studies have been localized and mainly restricted to the surface sediment. Data of heavy metals in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter and biota is scarce in the mainstream literature and should be considered in the future research. From the entire Galician coast, data from seven

  5. Twentieth century overview of heavy metals in the Galician Rias (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prego, R.; Cobelo-Garcia, A.

    2003-01-01

    All information published on metals in this region up to the year 2000 is reviewed from a biogeochemical viewpoint. - The 18 Galician Rias, comprising 25% of the Iberian Peninsula coastline, form a unique system within the European continental Atlantic coast and provide a useful reference area for studies of metals. These rias are sensitive to anthropogenic influence due to the socioeconomic importance generated in these areas by industry, aquaculture, port activities, fishing, tourism and, accordingly, several islands lying within close proximity to the rias have recently been declared natural parks. Aquaculture in the Galician Rias is a growth industry and in 2000 the rias supported 3386 mussel rafts producing 2.5x10 8 kg year -1 , i.e. 40% of European Union total seafood production. The Galician Rias are partially stratified estuaries with positive residual circulation with fresh (runoff lower than 100 m 3 s -1 ) and salt water mixing inside the basins. This behaviour has direct consequences on metal fluxes whereby the rias behave as a barrier and accumulate metals in the sediments. Metals tend to deposit close to point sources and remobilization occurs inside the ria, leading to a seaward decrease in metal concentration. With the exception of the Ulla (Arosa Ria) and Eume (Ares-Betanzos Ria) head rivers and the Lagares river (Vigo Ria) the available data suggest that riverine freshwater inputs are not the main source of contamination. Metal studies reported in the literature mainly relate to Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, and to a lesser extent Hg and Sn. Studies of other harmful metals such as Ag, Se and As are notably lacking. In addition, the studies have been localized and mainly restricted to the surface sediment. Data of heavy metals in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter and biota is scarce in the mainstream literature and should be considered in the future research. From the entire Galician coast, data from seven rias of socio

  6. Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneses, Javier; Centeno, Efraim

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO 2 -emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO 2 -emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO 2 -emission prices over Euro 15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies)

  7. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  8. The international pressures on the energy market in Iberian America and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavos Coimbra, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses Brazilian nuclear energy history, and addresses recent events, such as the international political pressures, the International Atomic Energy Agency/IAEA position, the new facts about nuclear energy in the world, the international energy market and the Iberian-America, the news about the Brazilian nuclear energy area, the best opportunities of good business in the Brazilian nuclear sector, the Brazilian Government and the Brazilian public position, in relation to International Law. (author)

  9. Latin Feminine Personal Names of Greek origin coming from the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Striano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Greek Personal Names in the Latin inscriptions coming from the Iberian Peninsula is considerable. Furthermore, from the evidence found in religious centres it is clear that these inscriptions comprise a broad chronological period reaching to Medieval times. This paper shows that the Phonetic and Morphological adaptation of these names was very limited in Latin. Consequently, the fact that the various forms of these Greek names did not expand outside the closed community which bore them is justified.

  10. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  11. The Renewables Influence on Market Splitting: the Iberian Spot Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carvalho Figueiredo; Patrícia Pereira da Silva; Pedro Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the influence of wind power generation on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. We use logit models to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices together with explanatory variables like, wind speed, available transmission capacity and electricity demand. The results show that the probability of market splitting increases with the increase of wind power generation. The European intercon...

  12. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente José

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa, and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Results Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica, Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica, and red deer (Cervus elaphus. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama, mouflon (Ovis aries and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. Conclusions In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for

  13. Late Strunian age : a key time frame for VMS deposit exploration in the Iberian Pyrite Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, João Xavier; Pereira, Zélia; Rosa, Carlos J. P.; Rosa, Diogo R. N.; Oliveira, José Tomás; Relvas, Jorge M. R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Estimate of geological environments favorable for the formation of massive sulphide deposits is an important goal to the exploration companies working in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), the main European VMS base metals province, with giant deposits such as Neves Corvo, Aljustrel (Portugal), Rio Tinto and Tharsis (Spain). Palynostratigraphic research programs using more than 40 exploration boreholes (>30 km length) allowed the dating of the sediments of the Volcano-Sedimentary Comp...

  14. Centaurea inexpugnabilis, a new species from section Acrocentron for the Iberian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Ferrer-Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species for the genus Centaurea L. (sect. Acrocentron, Asteraceae is described: C. inexpugnabilis, sp. nov. This plant has been found in the Mallos de Riglos (Riglos, Huesca, Spain, and its distribution is currently limited to the northeastern of the Iberian Peninsula. A description and diagnosis, iconography and several tables showing the main diagnostic characters to differentiate it from its related species is reported.

  15. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  16. Antero de Quental, Iberista: Iberianism as Organizing Principle and Evolving Intellectual Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Patrick Newcomb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In scholarship on Portugal’s Geração de 70 , Antero de Quental (1842-1891 is commonly remembered as the group’s intellectual guide or as a poet, with his sociopolitical prose unfortunately receiving less attention. This paper will propose iberianism – an intellectual current that advocates closer ties between Portugal and Spain – as an organizing principle of Quental’s prose, with his iberianist commitment evolving from an early advocacy of an Iberian federation through an interest in a common “peninsular race” and a defense of the beleaguered First Spanish Republic (1873-1874, to more fatalistic reflections on prospects for Spanish-Portuguese union. I will present Quental’s position in relation to earlier iberianists (J. F. Henriques Nogueira and federalists (P.-J. Proudhon, and will analyze Quental’s Causas da decadência dos povos peninsulares (1871 as a transitional text in the author’s evolving iberianism.

  17. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Fraga

    Full Text Available The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  18. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Calama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  19. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  20. Winter precipitation over the Iberian peninsula and its relationship to circulation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rodríguez-Puebla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter precipitation variability over the Iberian peninsula was investigated by obtaining the spatial and temporal patterns. Empirical Orthogonal Functions were used to describe the variance distribution and to compress the precipitation data into a few modes. The corresponding spatial patterns divide the peninsula into climatic regions according to precipitation variations. The associated time series were related to large scale circulation indices and tropical sea surface temperature anomalies by using lag cross-correlation and cross-spectrum. The major findings are: the most influential indices for winter precipitation were the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic/West Russian pattern; coherent oscillations were detected at about eight years between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation and some dynamic consequences of the circulation on precipitation over the Iberian peninsula were examined during drought and wet spells. In the end statistical methods have been proposed to downscale seasonal precipitation prediction. Keywords: Winter precipitation, circulation indices, Iberian peninsula climate, climate variations, precipitation trend

  1. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  2. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Manso, R.; Lucas-Borja, M.E.; Espelta, J.M.; Piqué, M.; Bravo, F.; Peso, C. del; Pardos, M.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  3. Empirical evaluation of the efficiency of the Iberian power futures market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Capitán Herráiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market efficiency is analysed for the Iberian Power Futures Market and other European Power Markets, as well as other fuel markets through evaluation of ex-post Forward Risk Premium. The equilibrium price from compulsory call auctions for distribution companies within the framework of the Iberian Power Futures Market is not optimal for remuneration purposes as it seems to be slightly upward biased, though such a premium is not significant (only around 2% above the average of Settlement Prices. In the period considered (August 2006 to September 2008, monthly futures contracts behave similarly to quarterly contracts. Average risk premia have been positive in power and natural gas markets but negative in oil and coal markets. Different hypotheses are tested regarding increasing volatility with maturity and regarding Forward Risk Premium correlations (negative with variance of spot prices during delivery period and positive with skewness of spot prices during delivery period. Enlarged data sets are recommended for stronger test results. Energy markets tend to show limited levels of market efficiency. Regarding the emerging Iberian Power Futures Market, price efficiency is improved with market development and with further integration of European Regional Power Markets.

  4. Modelling larval dispersal dynamics of common sole (Solea solea) along the western Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susanne E.; Teles-Machado, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Peliz, Álvaro; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2017-08-01

    Individual-based coupled physical-biological models have become the standard tool for studying ichthyoplankton dynamics and assessing fish recruitment. Here, common sole (Solea solea L.), a flatfish of high commercial importance in Europe was used to evaluate transport of eggs and larvae and investigate the connectivity between spawning and nursery areas along the western Iberian coast as spatio-temporal variability in dispersal and recruitment patterns can result in very strong or weak year-classes causing large fluctuations in stock size. A three-dimensional particle tracking model coupled to Regional Ocean Modelling System model was used to investigate variability of sole larvae dispersal along the western Iberian coast over a five-year period (2004-2009). A sensitivity analysis evaluating: (1) the importance of diel vertical migrations of larvae and (2) the size of designated recruitment areas was performed. Results suggested that connectivity patterns of sole larvae dispersal and their spatio-temporal variability are influenced by the configuration of the coast with its topographical structures and thus the suitable recruitment area available as well as the wind-driven mesoscale circulation along the Iberian coast.

  5. Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

    2013-10-01

    The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative 'Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

  6. Shallow gas in the Iberian continental margin; Gas somero en el margen continental Iberico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gil, S.; Cartelle, V.; Blas, E. de; Carlos, A. de; Diez, R.; Duran, R.; Ferrin, A.; Garcia-Moreiras, I.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Iglesias, J.; Martinez-Carreno, N.; Munoz Sobrino, C.; Ramirez-Perez, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The shallow gas reservoirs in marine sediments from the Iberian margin or their escapes can be detected by using direct methods: (1) the measurement of high concentrations of methane or other hydrocarbons in the water column or sediment cores, (2) the identification of chemosynthetic communities and/or authigenic car- bonates in the seafloor, and (3) identification (using underwater videos) of pockmarks or carbonate mounds and mud volcanoes associated with the fluid escapes; or by indirect technical characterization of anomalies in acoustic records such as: (1) the presence of acoustic plumes in echo-sounders records, (2) the identification of acoustic blanking and/or acoustic turbidity in the high resolution seismic records, (3) the interpretation of reflectivity and (4) morphologies of pockmarks or seamounts in sidescan sonar and multibeam echo sounder records. This article is a compilation of acoustic-seismic, sedimentologic and morphologic evidence associated to the presence of shallow gas (accumulations or escapes) that appear in the Iberian margin and hat have been published in various papers. The description is divided into geographical sectors, beginning in the north-eastern end of the Mediterranean margin and ending at the easternmost area of the Cantabrian margin, following a clockwise direction around the Iberian Peninsula. (Author)

  7. Natural regeneration in Iberian pines: A review of dynamic processes and proposals for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calama, R.; Manso, R.; Lucas-Borja, M.E.; Espelta, J.M.; Piqué, M.; Bravo, F.; Peso, C. del; Pardos, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Designing adequate silvicultural systems for natural regeneration of a forest species requires sound knowledge of the underlying ecological subprocesses: flowering and fruiting, seed dispersal and predation, seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling survival. The main objective of the present work is to carry out a review on the current knowledge about the different subprocesses governing the regeneration process for the main Iberian Pinus species, in order to propose scientifically based management schedules. Area of study: The review focuses on the five main native Pinus species within their most representative areas in the Iberian Peninsula: Pinus nigra in Cuenca mountains, Pinus sylvestris in Sierra de Guadarrama, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea in the Northern Plateau and Pinus halepensis in Catalonia Material and methods: Firstly, currently available information on spatiotemporal dynamics and influential factors is introduced for each subprocess and species. Secondly, current regeneration strategies are characterized and the main bottlenecks are identified. Finally, alternative silvicultural practices proposed on the light of the previous information are presented. Main results: Different climate-mediated bottlenecks have been identified to limit natural regeneration of the Iberian pine species, with seed predation and initial seedling survival among the most influential. New approaches focusing on more gradual regeneration fellings, extended rotation periods, prevent big gaps and program fellings on mast years are presented. Research highlights: Natural regeneration of the studied species exhibit an intermittent temporal pattern, which should be aggravated under drier scenarios. More flexible management schedules should fulfil these limitations.

  8. Activities of Project 'Cooperation and development with Latin America and Iberian in Biological Dosimetry of Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, Nora B.; Taja, Maria R.; Giorgio, Marina di; Garcia Lima, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Olivares, Pilar; Moreno, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria J.; Espinosa, Marco

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 the GRIAPRA Group (Latin American and Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies) was established with the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Spain. In 1998 began the biennial Collaborative Working Project 'Cooperation and Development with Latin America in Biological Dosimetry', partially supported by the Extremadura Government, Spain, initially involving five countries: Argentina, Cuba, Peru, Portugal and Spain. The general aim of the project is to create an Latin American and Iberian Biological Dosimetry Laboratories Coordinated Group in order to: give mutual cooperation and to other countries if required, in the case of radiological accident; contribute to enhance the technical capabilities of the participant laboratories; promote the installment of laboratories on this field in countries that does not have it yet through the training of human resources and providing the necessary equipment and, finally, perform jointly research activities in biological dosimetry. The activities designed in order to accomplish the project specific aims for the 1998-2000 period have been achieved. Description and results are presented. (author)

  9. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.

    2017-11-01

    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  10. Legacy effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in a eutrophic lake catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is a shallow lake (maximum depth 2.9 m). In the 1960s it became apparent that the Lower Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. Long-term monitoring data are also available for the catchment area including the lake from the Environment Agency.The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large river basins like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for a small rural basin. Recent declines in nitrate concentration may reflect less intensive agricultural activity, lower fertiliser inputs in particular, but there may also be a legacy effect in the shallow groundwater system. Phosphorus concentrations in stream and lake water have also shown declining concentrations but a phosphorus legacy in the surficial lake sediments means that algal blooms continue to develop in most summers, as indicated by a continued rise in summer pH levels. Further field observation at the sediment-water interface is needed to better understand the biogeochemical drivers and the balance between N and P limitation in the lake. Successful management of the Nature Reserve requires better understanding of the links between hydrological and biogeochemical processes operating

  11. Hydrogeology of Pico Frentes Karst system (Iberian range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, P.; Sanz, E.; Menendez-Pidal, I.

    2016-07-01

    The karst system of Pico Frentes has developed within an Upper Cretaceous calcareous series whose welldefined folded geometry determines that its aquifer reserves are held mainly in three hydraulically-connected synclines, with a groundwater capacity of between 5 and 7 hm3 . The recharge to this unconfined peneplain aquifer is autogenous and diffuse. On a large scale, groundwater flow is directed by the base of the synclines, while on a small scale, it flows along groundwater conduits towards the Fuentetoba Spring (210 l/s) and source of the River Mazos (50 l/s), following a highly variable flow regime of low inertia, with other smaller discharges emanating during periods of high water. Analysis of hydrographs of these springs indicates a very variable rate system and little power regulating natural, characteristic of a typical karstic aquifer, with great capacity for renewal and low residence time. Using hydrogram simulations of these upwellings using a mathematical rainfall-runoff model, a detailed quantification of the average water balance was made for a twenty-year time series. This water balance consists of 16,86 hm3 rainfall (100%); natural recharge, 8,35 hm3 (49,53%); EVT 8,50 hm3 (50,41%); pumped groundwater abstractions, 0,01hm3 (0,06%); surface runoff, 0 hm3, groundwater transfers to other aquifer, 0 hm3. (Author)

  12. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  13. Past, present and future distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: ecological and evolutionary clues from species distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Acevedo

    Full Text Available The application of species distribution models (SDMs in ecology and conservation biology is increasing and assuming an important role, mainly because they can be used to hindcast past and predict current and future species distributions. However, the accuracy of SDMs depends on the quality of the data and on appropriate theoretical frameworks. In this study, comprehensive data on the current distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis were used to i determine the species' ecogeographical constraints, ii hindcast a climatic model for the last glacial maximum (LGM, relating it to inferences derived from molecular studies, and iii calibrate a model to assess the species future distribution trends (up to 2080. Our results showed that the climatic factor (in its pure effect and when it is combined with the land-cover factor is the most important descriptor of the current distribution of the Iberian hare. In addition, the model's output was a reliable index of the local probability of species occurrence, which is a valuable tool to guide species management decisions and conservation planning. Climatic potential obtained for the LGM was combined with molecular data and the results suggest that several glacial refugia may have existed for the species within the major Iberian refugium. Finally, a high probability of occurrence of the Iberian hare in the current species range and a northward expansion were predicted for future. Given its current environmental envelope and evolutionary history, we discuss the macroecology of the Iberian hare and its sensitivity to climate change.

  14. Past, present and future distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: ecological and evolutionary clues from species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Melo-Ferreira, José; Real, Raimundo; Alves, Paulo Célio

    2012-01-01

    The application of species distribution models (SDMs) in ecology and conservation biology is increasing and assuming an important role, mainly because they can be used to hindcast past and predict current and future species distributions. However, the accuracy of SDMs depends on the quality of the data and on appropriate theoretical frameworks. In this study, comprehensive data on the current distribution of the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) were used to i) determine the species' ecogeographical constraints, ii) hindcast a climatic model for the last glacial maximum (LGM), relating it to inferences derived from molecular studies, and iii) calibrate a model to assess the species future distribution trends (up to 2080). Our results showed that the climatic factor (in its pure effect and when it is combined with the land-cover factor) is the most important descriptor of the current distribution of the Iberian hare. In addition, the model's output was a reliable index of the local probability of species occurrence, which is a valuable tool to guide species management decisions and conservation planning. Climatic potential obtained for the LGM was combined with molecular data and the results suggest that several glacial refugia may have existed for the species within the major Iberian refugium. Finally, a high probability of occurrence of the Iberian hare in the current species range and a northward expansion were predicted for future. Given its current environmental envelope and evolutionary history, we discuss the macroecology of the Iberian hare and its sensitivity to climate change.

  15. Long-term changes in composition and distribution patterns in the Iberian herpetofaunal communities since the latest Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbal-Chinesta, Josep Francesc; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre

    2018-03-01

    The climate has undergone significant changes since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and in the course of the Holocene, parallel to important cultural transformations and migrations in the human communities. The faunal record has also suffered the effects of climate change. Amphibians and reptiles in particular have been shown to be highly sensitive because they are very susceptible to temperature alterations due to their ectothermy. This research presents the first approach to the Iberian paleobiogeography of the different species of amphibians and reptiles from the Late Pleistocene (MIS3) to present times, based on a comparative synthesis of the latest research published in recent years and the fossil record of the 58 archaeo-paleontological sites with significant assemblages. The paleoherpetofaunal associations make it possible to establish two major biotic regions during the Late Pleistocene. The first biotic region was located in the center and south of the Iberian Peninsula, with thermophilic species as the most representative taxa. The second biotic region was formed by the Atlantic-Cantabrian facade and the northeast Iberian area, dominated by hygrophilous and Euro-Siberian species, with an absence of Mediterranean species. After the Last Glacial Maximum there was an unprecedented concurrence in the northern Iberian Peninsula of autochthonous taxa from that area with thermophilic species. In the early Holocene, new species with no previous record in the Iberian Peninsula entered northern Iberia from eastern Mediterranean refugia. Finally, the introduction of North African species was the last significant biogeographical change during the Middle-Late Holocene.

  16. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  17. Growth inhibitory alkaloids from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Eri; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Koji

    2004-03-01

    Plant growth inhibitory alkaloids were isolated from the extract of mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.] leaves. Their chemical structures were established by ESI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra analysis. The I50 value (concentration required for 50% inhibition of control) for root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seedlings was 400 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 500 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 100 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. On the other hand, the minimum concentration exhibiting inhibitory effect on shoot growth of cress seedlings was 10 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 100 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 1 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. Among these compounds, a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of cress seedlings.

  18. Adaptation of Arabidopsis thaliana to the Yangtze River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Pan; Hou, Xing-Hui; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jia-Fu; Li, Zi-Wen; Han, Ting-Shen; Niu, Xiao-Min; Yang, Li; Xu, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Min; Tan, Dunyan; Tian, Zhixi; Gu, Hongya; Guo, Ya-Long

    2017-12-28

    Organisms need to adapt to keep pace with a changing environment. Examining recent range expansion aids our understanding of how organisms evolve to overcome environmental constraints. However, how organisms adapt to climate changes is a crucial biological question that is still largely unanswered. The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent system to study this fundamental question. Its origin is in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, but it has spread to the Far East, including the most south-eastern edge of its native habitats, the Yangtze River basin, where the climate is very different. We sequenced 118 A. thaliana strains from the region surrounding the Yangtze River basin. We found that the Yangtze River basin population is a unique population and diverged about 61,409 years ago, with gene flows occurring at two different time points, followed by a population dispersion into the Yangtze River basin in the last few thousands of years. Positive selection analyses revealed that biological regulation processes, such as flowering time, immune and defense response processes could be correlated with the adaptation event. In particular, we found that the flowering time gene SVP has contributed to A. thaliana adaptation to the Yangtze River basin based on genetic mapping. A. thaliana adapted to the Yangtze River basin habitat by promoting the onset of flowering, a finding that sheds light on how a species can adapt to locales with very different climates.

  19. [Overexpression of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in SW480 rectal cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yang; Wan, Hongxing; Chai, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) gene in the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of rectal cancer cells. Methods Human rectal cancer SW480 cells were cultured and transfected with pCDNA3.1-NDRG2 and empty vector (SW480-Ve). SW480 cells were set as a control group. Cell proliferation was detected in SW480 cells, SW480-Ve cells and SW480-NDRG2 cells by MTT assay; cell migration distance in the three groups at 24, 48, 72 hours was tested by wound healing assay; apoptosis rate was determined in the three groups at 48 hours by flow cytometry; the expressions of Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2 proteins in the three groups were examined by Western blotting. Results After the cells were cultured for 7 days, cell survival rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; the cell survival rate decreased gradually with the prolongation of the culture time; and it had no significant difference between SW480-Ve group and SW480 group. Cell migration distance in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells, and it had also no significant difference between SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells. The apoptosis rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly higher than that in SW480 group and SW480-Ve group, and SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells had no significant difference in the rate. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480-NDRG2 group were significantly higher than those in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly lower in SW480-NDRG2 group than in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; and the expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2 proteins were not significantly different between SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells. Conclusion Overexpression of NDRG2 can inhibit the proliferation, reduce cell migration, and promote cell apoptosis by regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480 cells.

  20. Spawning and nursery habitat of the wedge sole Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau, 1881 in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva García-Isarch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton samples and hydrological data were obtained in an inshore area, between the mouths of the Rivers Guadalquivir and Guadiana (Gulf of Cádiz, SW Spain during monthly surveys carried out from March 2002 to March 2003. Horizontal and temporal distributions of wedge sole (Dicologlossa cuneata egg and larval abundances were analysed during this annual cycle in relation to environmental parameters. This area proved to be an important spawning and nursery ground for the species, which showed a winter-spring reproductive strategy with a long reproductive period lasting from autumn until early summer. Spawning areas were located in the shallowest waters (above 30 m depth between the mouths of the Rives Guadiana and Tinto-Odiel, and to a lesser extent in the coastal zone between the mouths of the Rivers Tinto-Odiel and Guadalquivir. The spawning habitat was mainly determined by the distribution of the adults, the bathymetry and the temperature, and a preference for shallow and colder waters was observed. The inshore zone between the mouths of the Rivers Tinto-Odiel and Guadalquivir is the main nursery ground, with the greatest larval concentration and productivity in the area, due to the influence of the River Guadalquivir. The presence of recruits in this area may be linked to these favourable conditions for larval growth and survival.

  1. Theoretical calculation of shakeup intensities using Xa--SW wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, J.S.; Loubriel, G.

    1981-01-01

    The ground and 1s core hole state molecular wave functions of CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF obtained from Xa--SW calculations using the touching spheres (TS) and overlapping spheres (OS) approximations are used to calculate the intensity of shakeup satellites observed in their ls core level photoelectron spectra. The sudden approximation was assumed in the calculation. In case of TS Xa--SW wave functions, the one electron overlap integral inside the intersphere was calculated via Green's theorem. For OS Xa--SW wave functions, the integration over the awkwardly shaped intersphere region was circumvented by distributing the intersphere charge into the atomic spheres according to the charge partition scheme suggested by Case and Karplus. Our results show that there are no significant differences between the shakeup energies calculated from the TS and OS approximations. However, shakeup intensities calculated from TS Xa--SW wave functions are more reliable and in better numerical agreement with experiment

  2. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  3. Wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean using MIKE 21 SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wave prediction and hindcast studies are important in ocean engineering, coastal ... wave data can be used for the assessment of wave climate in offshore and coastal areas. In the .... for the change in performance during SW monsoon.

  4. Redefinition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz L. Szlachetko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton is presented. The genera are briefly described and illustrated. A list of Microstylis species is added. Four new nomenclatural combinations are proposed.

  5. Iberian-Tartessian scripts/graffiti in Iruna-Veleia (Basque Country, North Spain: findings in both Iberia and Canary Islands-Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arnaiz-Villena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 760 officially recognized scripts on ceramics from Iruña-Veleia excavated by the archaeology firm Lurmen S.L. (approximately between years 2002-2008 have been analyzed. A number of these ceramics contains scripts which may be assimilated to Iberian/Tartessian writings. This number may be underestimated since more studies need to be done in already available and new found ceramics. This is the second time that Iberian writing is found by us in an unexpected location together with the Iberian-Guanche inscriptions of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands. On the other hand, naviform scripting, usually associated to Iberian rock or stone engraving may have also been found in Veleia. Strict separation, other than in time and space stratification, between Iberian and (South Tartessian culture and script is doubted.

  6. Dosimetric properties of a Solid Water High Equivalency (SW557) phantom for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Fujio

    2017-07-01

    The dosimetric properties of the recently developed SW557 phantom have been investigated by comparison with those of the existing SW457 phantom in megavoltage photon beams. The electron fluence ratio φ pl w , and chamber ionization ratio k pl , of water to SW457 and water to SW557 for 4-15MV photons were calculated as a function of depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and compared with measured values. Values of φ pl w for SW457 were in the range of 1.004-1.014 for 4MV, and 1.014-1.018 for 15MV photons. The φ pl w for SW557 ranged from 1.005 to 1.008 for 4MV and from 1.010 to 1.015 for 15MV photons and the variation of φ pl w with depth for each beam energy was within ±0.5%. Values of k pl were obtained with a PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionization chamber. The k pl for SW457 ranged from 0.997 to 1.011 for 4-15MV photons. Values of k pl for SW557 were almost unity for 4 and 6MV photons, while in the case of 10 and 15MV photons they were less than 1.006, excepting the build-up region. The measured and calculated k pl values of water to SW557 were in the range of 0.997-1.002 and 1.000-1.006, respectively, for 4-15MV photons, at a depth of 10cm with a source-to-axis distance of 100cm. The measured and calculated k pl values were in agreement within their uncertainty ranges. As a water-equivalent phantom, SW557 can be used with a dosimetric difference within±0.6%, for 4-15MV photons, and is more water-equivalent than SW457 in megavoltage photon beams. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hot topics in Modern Cosmology - SW9 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.; Sigl, G.; Biondi, R.; Volkov, M.; Noller, J.; Starobinsky, A.; Toporensky, A.; Renaux, S.; Pilo, L.; Comelli, D.; Slagter, R.; Novello, M.; Padilla, A.; Antunes, V.; Kamenshchik, A.; Vernieri, D.; Kaloper, N.; Denkiewics, T.; Gohar, H.; Zahariade, G.; Frusciante, N.; Von Strauss, M.

    2016-01-01

    This 9. Spontaneous Workshop (SW9) brought together specialists on recent insights in Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The aim was to stimulate debate on common topics in views of providing us with innovating ideas. SW9 topics includes: 1) Cosmological parameters - Anomalies in CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background); 2) Dark matter and neutrinos; 3) Gravity - Dark energy; 4) Singular universes; and 5) Cosmological Large Scale Structures - Magnetic Fields; This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  8. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  9. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  10. Disentangling migratory routes and wintering grounds of Iberian near-threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants are suffering drastic declines in the last decades. Causes beneath this problem are complex due to the wide spatial and temporal scale involved. We aim to reveal migratory routes, stopover areas, wintering grounds, and migratory strategies for the most southwestern populations of the near-threatened European Roller Coracias garrulus in order to identify conservation key areas for the non-breeding stage of this species. To this end, we used tracking data from seven satellite transmitters fitted to birds breeding in different populations throughout the Iberian Peninsula and four geolocators fitted to individuals in a southeastern Iberian population. Precise satellite data were used to describe daily activity patterns and speed in relation to the main regions crossed during the migration. Individuals from the most southwestern Iberian populations made a detour towards the Atlantic African coast whereas those from northeastern populations followed a straight north-to-south route. We identified important stopover areas in the Sahel belt, mainly in the surroundings of the Lake Chad, and wintering grounds on southwestern Africa farther west than previously reported for the species. Concerning the migratory strategy, satellite data revealed: 1 a mainly nocturnal flying activity, 2 that migration speed depended on the type of crossed habitat, with higher average speed while crossing the desert; and 3 that the migration was slower and lasted longer in autumn than in spring. The studied populations showed weak migratory connectivity, suggesting the confluence of birds from a wide range of breeding grounds in a restricted wintering area. Therefore, we suggest to target on defining precisely key areas for this species and identifying specific threats in them in order to develop an appropriate global conservation programme for the European Roller.

  11. Persistent genetic signatures of colonization in Brachionus manjavacas rotifers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Africa; Montero-Pau, Javier; Lunt, David H; Serra, Manuel; Campillo, Sergi

    2007-08-01

    Recent phylogeographical assessments have consistently shown that continental zooplankton display high levels of population subdivision, despite the high dispersal capacity of their diapausing propagules. As such, there is an apparent paradox between observed cosmopolitanism in the zooplankton that is associated with long-distance dispersal, and strong phylogeographical structures at a regional scale. Such population dynamics, far from migration-drift equilibrium, have been shown in the rotifer species complex Brachionus plicatilis, a group of over a dozen species inhabiting salt lakes and coastal lagoons worldwide. Here we present the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of one of these species, Brachionus manjavacas, in the Iberian Peninsula, where it often co-occurs with the morphologically similar species B. plicatilis sensu stricto. We obtained sequences from 233 individuals from diapausing eggs and clonal cultures from 16 lakes in the Iberian Peninsula, and a Tunisian lake. Two strongly supported deep mitochondrial DNA clades were found (A and B). Phylogenetic and nested clade analysis showed that clade A has a strong phylogeographical structure, with a strong similarity of phylogeographical patterns between B. manjavacas clade A and B. plicatilis s.s. These include (i) signatures of allopatric fragmentation between central and southern populations, and (ii) range expansions in the Iberian Peninsula, both likely to have occurred during the Pleistocene. We find evidence for a glacial refugium in the Guadiana basin. Clades A and B co-occurred in several of these lakes because of range expansion and secondary contact between both clades. The co-occurrence between B. plicatilis s.s. and B. manjavacas is not recent, and both species might have experienced similar environmental challenges during the Pleistocene. The strong correlation of genetic and geographical distance found suggests that historical events can lead to such correlation, mirroring the effects of

  12. Ecophysiology Tracks Phylogeny and Meets Ecological Models in an Iberian Gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, C; Carretero, M A

    2015-01-01

    Because fitness of ectotherms, including reptiles, is highly dependent on temperature and water availability, the study of ecophysiological traits, such as preferred temperature (T p) and water loss rates (WLRs), may provide mechanistic evidence on the restricting factors to the species ranges. The Moorish gecko, Tarentola mauritanica, is a species complex with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. In the Iberian Peninsula, two sister parapatric forms of the complex, known as the Iberian and the European clades, are found. Ecological models previously performed using presence records and bioclimatic variables suggest niche divergence between both lineages correlated with precipitation rather than with temperature. In this study, we test this correlative hypothesis using ecophysiological evidence. In the laboratory, we analyzed the T p and WLRs for 84 adult males from seven distinct populations ascribed to one of the two lineages present in Iberia. Specifically, we evaluated the existence of trait conservatism versus adaptation among populations, lineages, or both. In addition, we tested for a trade-off between water and thermal traits and assessed whether climate regime of sampling localities had any influence on the ecophysiological patterns found. We found that T p is quite conserved at both the population and lineage levels and independent from body size. In contrast, water loss experiments revealed some variation among populations, but the regression analysis failed to detect correlation between T p and WLR at any level. Overall, the European lineage displayed a trend for higher water loss and was more diverse among populations when compared with the Iberian lineage. The lack of correspondence between ecophysiological traits and local climatic conditions favors phylogenetic signal versus adaptation. This suggests divergent evolutionary responses to the environment, mainly acting on water ecology, in both lineages, which may account for the differences in their

  13. Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Barral-Arca

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula has been the focus of attention of numerous studies dealing with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variation, most of them targeting the control region segment. In the present study we sequenced the control region of 3,024 Spanish individuals from areas where available data were still limited. We also compiled mtDNA haplotypes from the literature involving 4,588 sequences and 28 population groups or small regions. We meta-analyzed all these data in order to shed further light on patterns of geographic variation, taking advantage of the large sample size and geographic coverage, in contrast with the atomized sampling strategy of previous work. The results indicate that the main mtDNA haplogroups show primarily clinal geographic patterns across the Iberian geography, roughly along a North-South axis. Haplogroup HV0 (where haplogroup U is nested is more prevalent in the Franco Cantabrian region, in good agreement with previous findings that identified this area as a climate refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, prior to a subsequent demographic re-expansion towards Central Europe and the Mediterranean. Typical sub-Saharan and North African lineages are slightly more prevalent in South Iberia, although at low frequencies; this pattern has been shaped mainly by the transatlantic slave trade and the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The results also indicate that summary statistics that aim to measure molecular variation, or AMOVA, have limited sensitivity to detect population substructure, in contrast to patterns revealed by phylogeographic analysis. Overall, the results suggest that mtDNA variation in Iberia is substantially stratified. These patterns might be relevant in biomedical studies given that stratification is a common cause of false positives in case-control mtDNA association studies, and should be also considered when weighting the DNA evidence in forensic casework, which is strongly dependent on haplotype

  14. Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral-Arca, Ruth; Pischedda, Sara; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Pastoriza, Ana; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; López-Soto, Manuel; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has been the focus of attention of numerous studies dealing with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, most of them targeting the control region segment. In the present study we sequenced the control region of 3,024 Spanish individuals from areas where available data were still limited. We also compiled mtDNA haplotypes from the literature involving 4,588 sequences and 28 population groups or small regions. We meta-analyzed all these data in order to shed further light on patterns of geographic variation, taking advantage of the large sample size and geographic coverage, in contrast with the atomized sampling strategy of previous work. The results indicate that the main mtDNA haplogroups show primarily clinal geographic patterns across the Iberian geography, roughly along a North-South axis. Haplogroup HV0 (where haplogroup U is nested) is more prevalent in the Franco Cantabrian region, in good agreement with previous findings that identified this area as a climate refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), prior to a subsequent demographic re-expansion towards Central Europe and the Mediterranean. Typical sub-Saharan and North African lineages are slightly more prevalent in South Iberia, although at low frequencies; this pattern has been shaped mainly by the transatlantic slave trade and the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The results also indicate that summary statistics that aim to measure molecular variation, or AMOVA, have limited sensitivity to detect population substructure, in contrast to patterns revealed by phylogeographic analysis. Overall, the results suggest that mtDNA variation in Iberia is substantially stratified. These patterns might be relevant in biomedical studies given that stratification is a common cause of false positives in case-control mtDNA association studies, and should be also considered when weighting the DNA evidence in forensic casework, which is strongly dependent on haplotype frequencies.

  15. Roaring high and low: composition and possible functions of the Iberian stag's vocal repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Passilongo

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed description of the rutting vocalisations of free-ranging male Iberian deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus, Hilzheimer 1909, a geographically isolated and morphologically differentiated subspecies of red deer Cervus elaphus. We combine spectrographic examinations, spectral analyses and automated classifications to identify different call types, and compare the composition of the vocal repertoire with that of other red deer subspecies. Iberian stags give bouts of roars (and more rarely, short series of barks that are typically composed of two different types of calls. Long Common Roars are mostly given at the beginning or at the end of the bout, and are characterised by a high fundamental frequency (F0 resulting in poorly defined formant frequencies but a relatively high amplitude. In contrast, Short Common Roars are typically given in the middle or at the end of the bout, and are characterised by a lower F0 resulting in relatively well defined vocal tract resonances, but low amplitude. While we did not identify entirely Harsh Roars (as described in the Scottish red deer subspecies (Cervus elaphus scoticus, a small percentage of Long Common Roars contained segments of deterministic chaos. We suggest that the evolution of two clearly distinct types of Common Roars may reflect divergent selection pressures favouring either vocal efficiency in high pitched roars or the communication of body size in low-pitched, high spectral density roars highlighting vocal tract resonances. The clear divergence of the Iberian red deer vocal repertoire from those of other documented European red deer populations reinforces the status of this geographical variant as a distinct subspecies.

  16. A review of the arcuate structures in the Iberian Variscides; constraints and genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R.; Ribeiro, A.; Romão, J.; Coke, C.; Moreira, N.

    2016-06-01

    The main Ibero-Armorican Arc (IAA) is essentially defined by a predominant NW-SE trend in the Iberian branch and an E-W trend in the Brittany one. However, in northern Spain it presents a 180° rotation, sometimes known as the Cantabrian Arc (CA). The relation between both arcs is controversial, being considered either as a single arc due to one tectonic event, or as the result of a polyphasic process. According to the last assumption, there is a later arcuate structure (CA), overlapping a previous major one (IAA). Whatever the models, they must be able to explain the presence of a Variscan sinistral transpression in Iberia and a dextral one in Armorica, and a deformation spanning from the Devonian to the Upper Carboniferous. Another arcuate structure, in continuity with the CA, the Central-Iberian Arc (CIA) was recently proposed mainly based upon on magnetic anomalies, geometry of major folds and Ordovician paleocurrents. The critical review of the structural, stratigraphic and geophysical data supports both the IAA and the CA, but as independent structures. However, the presence of a CIA is highly questionable and could not be supported. The complex strain pattern of the IAA and the CA could be explained by a Devonian - Carboniferous polyphasic indentation of a Gondwana promontory. In this model the CA is essentially a thin-skinned arc, while the IAA has a more complex and longer evolution that has led to a thick-skinned first order structure. Nevertheless, both arcs are essentially the result of a lithospheric bending process during the Iberian Variscides.

  17. Analysis of the relationship between the monthly temperatures and weather types in Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Angulo, Dhais; Trigo, Ricardo; Nicola, Cortesi; José Carlos, González-Hidalgo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the relationship between the atmospheric circulation and weather types and the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula is modeled (period 1950-2010). The temperature data used were obtained from a high spatial resolution (10km x 10km) dataset (MOTEDAS dataset, Gonzalez-Hidalgo et al., 2015a). In addition, a dataset of Portuguese temperatures was used (obtained from the Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere). The weather type classification used was the one developed by Jenkinson and Collison, which was adapted for the Iberian Peninsula by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), using Sea Level Pressure data from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis dataset (period 1951-2010). The analysis of the behaviour of monthly temperatures based on the weather types was carried out using a stepwise regression procedure of type forward to estimate temperatures in each cell of the considered grid, for each month, and for both maximum and minimum monthly average temperatures. The model selects the weather types that best estimate the temperatures. From the validation model it was obtained the error distribution in the time (months) and space (Iberian Peninsula). The results show that best estimations are obtained for minimum temperatures, during the winter months and in coastal areas. González-Hidalgo J.C., Peña-Angulo D., Brunetti M., Cortesi, C. (2015a): MOTEDAS: a new monthly temperature database for mainland Spain and the trend in temperature (1951-2010). International Journal of Climatology 31, 715-731. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4298

  18. Zilsel's Thesis, Maritime Culture, and Iberian Science in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Henrique; Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.

  19. Regional Climate Modelling of the Western Iberian Low-Level Wind Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Semedo, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is one the less studied boundary layer wind jet features in the Eastern Boundary Currents Systems (EBCS). These regions are amongst the most productive ocean ecosystems, where the atmosphere-land-ocean feedbacks, which include marine boundary layer clouds, coastal jets, upwelling and inland soil temperature and moisture, play an important role in defining the regional climate along the sub-tropical mid-latitude western coastal areas. Recently, the present climate western Iberian CLLJ properties were extensively described using a high resolution regional climate hindcast simulation. A summer maximum frequency of occurrence above 30% was found, with mean maximum wind speeds around 15 ms-1, between 300 and 400m heights (at the jet core). Since the 1990s the climate change impact on the EBCS is being studied, nevertheless some lack of consensus still persists regarding the evolution of upwelling and other components of the climate system in these areas. However, recently some authors have shown that changes are to be expected concerning the timing, intensity and spatial homogeneity of coastal upwelling and of CLLJs, in response to future warming, especially at higher latitudes, namely in Iberia and Canaries. In this study, the first climate change assessment study regarding the Western Iberian CLLJ, using a high resolution (9km) regional climate simulation, is presented. The properties of this CLLJ are studied and compared using two 30 years simulations: one historical simulation for the 1971-2000 period, and another simulation for future climate, in agreement with the RCP8.5 scenario, for the 2071-2100 period. Robust and consistent changes are found: 1) the hourly frequency of occurrence of the CLLJ is expected to increase in summer along the western Iberian coast, from mean maximum values of around 35% to approximately 50%; 2) the relative increase of the CLLJ frequency of occurrence is higher in the north off western Iberia

  20. High resolution projections for the western Iberian coastal low level jet in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Semedo, Alvaro

    2017-09-01

    The Iberian coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is one of the less studied boundary layer wind jet features in the Eastern Boundary Currents Systems (EBCS). These regions are amongst the most productive ocean ecosystems, where the atmosphere-land-ocean feedbacks, which include marine boundary layer clouds, coastal jets, upwelling and inland soil temperature and moisture, play an important role in defining the regional climate along the sub-tropical mid-latitude western coastal areas. Recently, the present climate western Iberian CLLJ properties were extensively described using a high resolution regional climate hindcast simulation. A summer maximum frequency of occurrence above 30 % was found, with mean maximum wind speeds around 15 ms-1, between 300 and 400 m heights (at the jet core). Since the 1990s the climate change impact on the EBCS is being studied, nevertheless some lack of consensus still persists regarding the evolution of upwelling and other components of the climate system in these areas. However, recently some authors have shown that changes are to be expected concerning the timing, intensity and spatial homogeneity of coastal upwelling, in response to future warming, especially at higher latitudes, namely in Iberia and Canaries. In this study, the first climate change assessment study regarding the Western Iberian CLLJ, using a high resolution (9 km) regional climate simulation, is presented. The properties of this CLLJ are studied and compared using two 30 years simulations: one historical simulation for the 1971-2000 period, and another simulation for future climate, in agreement with the RCP8.5 scenario, for the 2071-2100 period. Robust and consistent changes are found: (1) the hourly frequency of occurrence of the CLLJ is expected to increase in summer along the western Iberian coast, from mean maximum values of around 35 % to approximately 50 %; (2) the relative increase of the CLLJ frequency of occurrence is higher in the north off western Iberia; (3

  1. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the southwest Iberian Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Rodriguez, S.; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo Molina, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009–2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain...... be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure...

  2. A comparison of daily evaporation downscaled using WRFDA model and GLEAM dataset over the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José González-Rojí, Santos; Sáenz, Jon; Ibarra-Berastegi, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    GLEAM dataset was presented a few years ago and since that moment, it has just been used for validation of evaporation in a few places of the world (Australia and Africa). The Iberian Peninsula is composed of different soil types and it is affected by different weather regimes, with different climate regions. It is this feature which makes it a very interesting zone for the study of the meteorological cycle, including evaporation. For that purpose, a numerical downscaling exercise over the Iberian Peninsula was run nesting the WRF model inside ERA Interim. Two model configurations were tested in two experiments spanning the period 2010-2014 after a one-year spin-up (2009). In the first experiment (N), boundary conditions drive the model. The second experiment (D) is configured the same way as the N case, but 3DVAR data assimilation is run every six hours (00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z) using observations obtained from the PREPBUFR dataset. For both N and D runs and ERA Interim, the evaporation of the model runs was compared to GLEAM v3.0b and v3.0c datasets over the Iberian Peninsula, both at the daily and monthly time scales. GLEAM v3.0a was not used for validation as it uses for forcing radiation and air temperature data from ERA Interim. Results show that the experiment with data assimilation (D) improve the results obtained for N experiment. Moreover, correlations values are comparable to the ones obtained with ERA Interim. However, some negative correlation values are observed at Portuguese and Mediterranean coasts for both WRF runs. All of these problematic points are considered as urban sites by the NOAH land surface model. Because of that, the model is not able to simulate a correct evaporation value. Even with these discrepancies, better results than for ERA Interim are observed for seasonal Biases and daily RMSEs over Iberian Peninsula, obtaining the best values inland. Minimal differences are observed for the two GLEAM datasets selected.

  3. Radiological study of the pelvic limb in the growing Iberian pig [ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayoral, A.I.; Regodon, S.; Franco, A.; Lignereux, Y.; Robina, A.

    1997-01-01

    The chronology of ossification of the pelvic limb of the growing Iberian pig is analyzed by the radiological method, from birth to 482 days(16 months). Forty eight individuals have been used, 24 males and 24 females born from eight gilts; all were castrated and distributed within 6 age groups : birth (1 day), weaning (58 days), preparation ( >, 234 days), beginning ( >, 352 days), half ( >, 424 days) and end ( >, 482 days) of fattening. The appearance and the evolution of the ossification centers are observed, as well as some phenomena occurring during the fusion of the ossification centers [fr

  4. A morphological gap for Iberian Zospeum filled: Zospeum percostulatum sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae a new species from Asturias (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zospeum percostulatum sp. n. from Cueva de La Herrería (Llanes, Asturias is described. It is characterized by a relatively large shell (1.4–1.8 mm height, conical, with ovate aperture, continuous peristome and thickened parietal callus; shell costulate except two first whorls; without any sort of inner formations. It is the first clearly costulate Iberian species, filling a morphological gap in the Iberian clade, and the largest species from the Cantabrian region, being the first species described from Asturias.

  5. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  6. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  7. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  8. Interaction of tectonic and depositional processes that control the evolution of the Iberian Gulf of Cadiz margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, A.; Nelson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an integrated view of the growth patterns and factors that controlled the evolution of the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin based on studies of the tectonic, sedimentologic and oceanographic history of the area. Seven sedimentary regimes are identified, but there are more extensive descriptions of the late Cenozoic regimes because of the larger data base. The regimes of the Mesozoic passive margin include carbonate platforms, which become mixed calcareous-terrigenous deposits during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary. The Oligocene and Early Miocene terrigenous regimes developed, in contrast, over the active and transcurrent margins near the African-Iberian plate boundary. The top of the Gulf of Cadiz olistostrome, emplaced in the Late Miocene, is used as a key horizon to define the 'post-orogenic' depositional regimes. The Late Miocene progradational margin regime is characterized by a large terrigenous sediment supply to the margin and coincides with the closing of the Miocene Atlantic-Mediterranean gateways. The terrigenous drift depositional regime of the Early Pliocene resulted from the occurrence of high eustatic sea level and the characteristics of the Mediterranean outflow currents that developed after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. The Late Pliocene and Quaternary regimes are dominated by sequences of deposits related to cycles of high and low sea levels. Deposition of shelf-margin deltas and slope wedges correlate with regressive and low sea level regimes caused by eustasy and subsidence. During the highstand regimes of the Holocene, inner shelf prograding deltas and deep-water sediment drifts were developed under the influence of the Atlantic inflow and Mediterranean outflow currents, respectively. A modern human cultural regime began 2000 years ago with the Roman occupation of Iberia; human cultural effects on sedimentary regimes may have equalled natural factors such as climate change. Interplay of tectonic and

  9. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  10. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland

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    Krawczyk Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills. Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm. Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  11. Long-term patterns in Iberian hare population dynamics in a protected area (Doñana National Park) in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Effects of weather conditions and plant cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012). The results suggest that its populations are in decline. The flooding of parts of the marshland in June, July and October favor hare abundance in the ecotone. Hare abundance in the marshland increases as the flooded surface area increases in October. These effects are more pronounced if the rains are early (October) and partially flood the marsh. By contrast, when marsh grasses and graminoids are very high and thick (as measured using the aerial herbaceous biomass [biomass marshland] as a proxy), the abundance of hares decreases dramatically as does the area of the marsh that is flooded (in November). © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Lithosphere Across the Variscan Orogen (Iberian Autochthonous Domain, NW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Ribeiro, J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Dias da Silva, Í.; Nascimento, C.; Silva, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    A new magnetotelluric (MT) survey comprising 17 MT soundings throughout a 30 km long N30°W transect in the Iberian autochthons domain of NW Iberia (Central Iberian Zone) is presented. The 2-D inversion model shows the resistivity structure of the continental crust up to 10 km depth, heretofore unavailable for this region of the Variscan Orogen. The MT model reveals a wavy structure separating a conductive upper layer underlain by a resistive layer, thus picturing the two main tectonic blocks of a large-scale D2 extensional shear zone (i.e., Pinhel shear zone). The upper layer represents a lower grade metamorphic domain that includes graphite-rich rocks. The lower layer consists of high-grade metamorphic rocks that experienced partial melting and are associated with granites (more resistive) emplaced during crustal thinning. The wavy structure is the result of superimposed crustal shortening responsible for the development of large-scale D3 folds (e.g., Marofa synform), later deflected and refolded by a D4 strike-slip shear zone (i.e., Juzbado-Penalva do Castelo shear zone). The later contribution to the final structure of the crust is marked by the intrusion of postkinematic granitic rocks and the propagation of steeply dipping brittle fault zones. Our study demonstrates that MT imaging is a powerful tool to understand complex crustal structures of ancient orogens in order to design future prospecting surveys for mineral deposits of economic interest.

  13. Export Promotion Aims and Reality: A Comparison of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éltető Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the international crisis in 2008-2009, the role of exports in economic growth came into focus in most countries. Exports of EU Member States gained momentum from 2010 onward but with certain changes in their structure and direction. In several countries, the turn towards non-EU areas, such as China or Latin America was part of the state export strategy. On the one hand, our article describes these foreign trade strategies and their institutional framework of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European governments, detecting possible similarities. On the other hand, we analyse recent export data. This way we can get a picture on the structure and direction of exports of periphery economies and this can be compared to the aims of the given states. Our hypothesis is that there is a gap between the reality and the intentions of the governments. The size of this gap varies and is influenced by certain factors such as the different involvement of multinational companies in foreign trade or the different economic structure of these countries. In our paper we list which countries adopted a government strategy and with what aim. We provide a short literature review on state trade promotion policies and discuss these policies and their institutions in the Baltic, Visegrád and Iberian countries.

  14. Drought-induced weakening of growth-temperature associations in high-elevation Iberian pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Galván, J.; Büntgen, Ulf; Ginzler, Christian; Grudd, Håkan; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Labuhn, Inga; Julio Camarero, J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth/climate relationship of theoretically temperature-controlled high-elevation forests has been demonstrated to weaken over recent decades. This is likely due to new tree growth limiting factors, such as an increasing drought risk for ecosystem functioning and productivity across the Mediterranean Basin. In addition, declining tree growth sensitivity to spring temperature may emerge in response to increasing drought stress. Here, we evaluate these ideas by assessing the growth/climate sensitivity of 1500 tree-ring width (TRW) and 102 maximum density (MXD) measurement series from 711 and 74 Pinus uncinata trees, respectively, sampled at 28 high-elevation forest sites across the Pyrenees and two relict populations of the Iberian System. Different dendroclimatological standardization and split period approaches were used to assess the high- to low-frequency behavior of 20th century tree growth in response to temperature means, precipitation totals and drought indices. Long-term variations in TRW track summer temperatures until about 1970 but diverge afterwards, whereas MXD captures the recent temperature increase in the low-frequency domain fairly well. On the other hand summer drought has increasingly driven TRW along the 20th century. Our results suggest fading temperature sensitivity of Iberian high-elevation P. uncinata forest growth, and reveal the importance of summer drought that is becoming the emergent limiting factor of tree ring width formation in many parts of the Mediterranean Basin.

  15. Influence of finite-time Lyapunov exponents on winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaboa-Paz, Daniel; Lorenzo, Nieves; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2017-05-01

    Seasonal forecasts have improved during the last decades, mostly due to an increase in understanding of the coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics, and the development of models able to predict the atmosphere variability. Correlations between different teleconnection patterns and severe weather in different parts of the world are constantly evolving and changing. This paper evaluates the connection between winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and the large-scale tropospheric mixing over the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) have been calculated from 1979 to 2008 to evaluate this mixing. Our study suggests that significant negative correlations exist between summer FTLE anomalies and winter precipitation over Portugal and Spain. To understand the mechanisms behind this correlation, summer anomalies of the FTLE have also been correlated with other climatic variables such as the sea surface temperature (SST), the sea level pressure (SLP) or the geopotential. The East Atlantic (EA) teleconnection index correlates with the summer FTLE anomalies, confirming their role as a seasonal predictor for winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula.

  16. Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea: Copepoda in the Iberian Peninsula: climate implications on host–parasite interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Hernández Javier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-native parasitic anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea may induce anaemia, malformations, reduced growth and increased susceptibility to secondary infection to its hosts. The objectives of this study were to (i compile a list of the host species of L. cyprinacea in the Iberian Peninsula and (ii assess if climate may impact on infestation levels of the parasite. There were two primary sources for data collection: (i fish sampling in the Tormes Basin (Ávila, central Spain during August 2010 and 2016 and (ii data retrieved from publications containing relevant information about L. cyprinacea. Eleven temperature variables were obtained from Worldclim. Next, the relationship between infestation levels of the anchor worm (prevalence, intensity and abundance and temperature was tested using mixed models. Fifteen cyprinids species among 18 species are host of L. cyprinacea in the Iberian Peninsula. Infestation levels of the anchor worm are highly connected to temperature. Finally, the possible implications of global warming for host–parasite interactions are discussed.

  17. Biogeographic evaluation of the dragonflies and damselflies in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana-Bria, L.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are one of the most diverse groups of animals in terrestrial ecosystems, and are thus a good model system to study macrogeographic patterns in species’ distributions. Here we perform a biogeographical analysis of the dragonflies and damselflies in the Valencian Country (Eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the species present in this territory with those in the adjacent territories of Catalonia and Aragon, and with those present in the whole Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we update the list of species of dragonflies and damselflies in the Valencian territory (65 species, and discuss the current status of two of them: Macromia splendens and Lindenia tetraphylla. Our results highlight that the Valencian Country has a higher proportion of Ethiopian elements but a lower proportion of Eurosiberian elements than Catalonia and Aragon. We also emphasize the importance of volunteer work in providing new knowledge on this group of iconic insects, and the relevance of museum collections in preserving them. The role of climate change in the distribution of Odonata is also discussed.

  18. A shift in the spatial pattern of Iberian droughts during the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domínguez-Castro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, series of drought occurrence and drought extension in the Iberian Peninsula are constructed for the 1600–1750 period from seven rogation series. These rogation ceremony records come from Bilbao, Catalonia, Zamora, Zaragoza, Toledo, Murcia and Seville. They are distributed across the Peninsula and include the areas with the most characteristic Iberian climate types, influenced by the Atlantic and the Mediterranean conditions, described from modern data. A seasonal division of the series shows that spring is a critical season for rogation series in most of Iberia, being Bilbao the only site were the highest number of rogations is detected for a different season. The annual analysis of the series shows a dramatic difference between the first half of the 17th century when droughts are characterized by its local character; and the rest of the period, when they affect to broader regions or even to the whole Peninsula. The analysis of spring series confirms the existence of the two periods detected in the annual analysis. Finally, secondary documentary sources are used to further characterise the two most extended droughts in the period, 1664 and 1680, and to verify the extension of the areas affected by droughts recorded through rogation series.

  19. Isopod fauna, excluding Epicaridea, from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas (Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Castelló

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 isopod species from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas were found, including the first record of Munna fabricii, Monodanthura maroccana, Campecopea hirsute, and Natatolana gallica from the Mediterranean; Synisoma nadejda and Uromunna petiti from the Atlantic; and Munna fabricii, Uromunna petiti, Monodanthura maroccana, Stellanthura cryptobia and Natatolana gallica from the Iberian waters. This article includes the previous records from the Iberian waters for all the species. The greatest number of species were found in Tarifa (16 species, located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. According to depth, the distribution of species was as follows: 18 species were collected in the intertidal zone, mostly Dynamene edwardsi and Ischyromene lacazei; 33 species were found between 1 and 10 m, 13 species were found between 11 and 20 m, and 6 species were found between 21 and 28 m, mostly Janira maculosa. According to habitat, 16 species were collected on soft bottoms, 2 species on Zostera, and 22 species on algae substrata, mostly Halopteris, Asparagopsis and Cystoseira. The most diverse genus was Cymodoce (5 species. This paper contributes to the taxonomic, faunistic and biogeographical knowledge of the benthic communities from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas.

  20. Sizing energy storage systems to make PV tradable in the Iberian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltram, H.; Perez, E.; Aparicio, N.; Vidal, R.; Belenguer, E. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Castello de la Plana (Spain). Electrical Engineering Area; Piqueres, T. [Energia Solar Aplicada (ESA), Valencia (Spain). Technical Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is intended to provide some reference values for the ratings required by an energy storage system, to be integrated in a large-scale PV power plant placed at any location of the Iberian Peninsula, to operate it according to an energy management strategy (EMS) whic allowed its participation in the Iberian electricity market while minimizing the economic penalties. The proposed EMS produces a constant-by-hours power reference to be tracked by the PV plant with storage and, in that way, mitigate the stochastic nature of the PV production. This operation mode will enable PV power plants to take part reliably in the different electricity markets, profiting the intraday market sessions to continuously refine the power production commitment. Different configurations of the EMS are analysed, introducing on each of them different meteorologically-based adjustments which allow minimizing the energy capacity required by the storage system. The proposals are analysed through one-year long simulations which use real-world data and PV power forecasting models extracted from solar databases. (orig.)

  1. Evolution of extreme Total Water Levels along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Rasilla Álvarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the evolution of storminess along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula through the calculation of extreme (1% Total Water Levels (eTWL on both observed (tide gauge and buoy data and hindcasted (SIMAR-44 data. Those events were first identified and then characterized in terms of oceanographic parameters and atmospheric circulation features. Additionally, an analysis of the long-term trends in both types of data was performed. Most of the events correspond to a rough wave climate and moderate storm surges, linked to extratropical disturbances following a northern track. While local atmospheric conditions seem to be evolving towards lesser storminess, their impact has been balanced by the favorable exposure of the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula to the increasing frequency and strength of distant disturbances crossing the North Atlantic. This evolution is also correctly reproduced by the simulated long-term evolution of the forcing component (meteorological sea level residuals and wave run up of the Total Water Level values calculated from the SIMAR 44 database, since sea level residuals have been experiencing a reduction while waves are arriving with longer periods. Finally, the addition of the rate of relative sea level trend to the temporal evolution of the atmospheric forcing component of the Total Water Level values is enough to simulate more frequent and persistent eTWL.

  2. High resolution reconstruction of monthly autumn and winter precipitation of Iberian Peninsula for last 150 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation over Iberian Peninsula (IP) presents large values of interannual variability and large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions in the north and dry regions in the southern plains. Unlike other European regions, IP was poorly monitored for precipitation during 19th century. Here we present a new approach to fill this gap. A set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo R.M. and DaCamara C.C., 2000) derived from a recent SLP dataset, the EMULATE (European and North Atlantic daily to multidecadal climate variability) Project, was used to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to March during 1851-1947. Principal Component Regression Analysis was chosen to develop monthly precipitation reconstruction back to 1851 and calibrated over 1948-2003 period for 3030 monthly precipitation series of high-density homogenized MOPREDAS (Monthly Precipitation Database for Spain and Portugal) database. Validation was conducted over 1920-1947 at 15 key site locations. Results show high model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 during validation period. Lower CV values were achieved in western area of IP. Trigo, R. M., and DaCamara, C.C., 2000: "Circulation weather types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int. J. Climatol., 20, 1559-1581.

  3. High resolution reconstruction of monthly precipitation of Iberian Peninsula using circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R.; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) is highly variable and shows large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions, to the north, and dry regions in the inland plains and southern areas. In this work, a high-density monthly precipitation dataset for the IP was coupled with a set of 26 atmospheric circulation weather types (Trigo and DaCamara, 2000) to reconstruct Iberian monthly precipitation from October to May with a very high resolution of 3030 precipitation series (overall mean density one station each 200 km2). A stepwise linear regression model with forward selection was used to develop monthly reconstructed precipitation series calibrated and validated over 1948-2003 period. Validation was conducted by means of a leave-one-out cross-validation over the calibration period. The results show a good model performance for selected months, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) around 0.6 for validation period, being particularly robust over the western and central sectors of IP, while the predicted values in the Mediterranean and northern coastal areas are less acute. We show for three long stations (Lisbon, Madrid and Valencia) the comparison between model and original data as an example to how these models can be used in order to obtain monthly precipitation fields since the 1850s over most of IP for this very high density network.

  4. Phylogeographic distribution of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus isolates in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortey, Martí; Bertran, Kateri; Toskano, Jennifer; Majó, Natàlia; Dolz, Roser

    2012-01-01

    Viral population dynamics of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) field strains isolated in the Iberian Peninsula since the first outbreak in the 1990s have been analysed. Low levels of genetic variability and a global purification selection pattern were reported in 480 base pairs of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene, indicating a lack of a selection-driven immune escape in the evolutive pathway of the virus. The viral population structure of vvIBDV strains in the Iberian Peninsula showed a strong relationship between geography and phylogeny, with two main groups observed. A global comparison among vvIBDV strains also showed an association with sequences from the same country. The low variability, the strong purifying selection and the geographical pattern observed point to a picture where the virus evolves slowly, occupying the same geographical niche for a long time. The scenario depicted fits well with the biological features of the virus: being able to remain viable for long periods of time due to a strong environmental resistance, and as an immunosuppressive agent, capable per se of annihilating temporally the immune system of the host.

  5. Drought trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the last 112 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Ramos, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is often affected by drought events with strong influences in ecosystems and the related social and economic impacts (Gouveia et al. 2012, Trigo et al., 2013). In the last decades the severity of droughts in Iberia have increased due to the higher atmospheric evaporative demand (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014). The need for a deeper knowledge of drought frequency, duration and intensity over the Iberian Peninsula during the last 112 years is reinforced by the findings showing that the period of 1970-2010 over the Mediterranean region was considered drier when compared with 1901-1970. Together with the increasing dryness, the projections point for an increase of drought conditions during the twenty-first century (Hoerling et al., 2012) will tend to exacerbate these problems. The evolution of drought in the Iberian Peninsula was analyzed, using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), for the period 1901-2012, and the sub-periods 1901-1937, 1938-1974 and 1975-2012. We have used SPI and SPEI for the time scale of 12 months, as obtained from CRU TS3.21 database between 1901 and 2012, using a spatial resolution of 0.5°. The drought indices were analyzed in order to identify significant trends during the entire period and sub-periods. Trends in annual precipitation and PET were also performed. Drought's duration, magnitude and time spanned between drought events were computed. SPI and SPEI significant trends show areas with opposite signals in the period 1901-2012, following precipitation patterns. Precipitation trends are significant and positive in the Northwestern region of the IP, and significant and negative in the Southern areas. SPEI identified dryer conditions and an increase in the area affected by droughts, which is in agreement with the increase in PET on the majority of the territory. The same spatial differences were identified in the drought duration, magnitude and

  6. Population structure of Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Quartau, J A; Bruford, M W

    2008-02-01

    We assess the genetic history and population structure of Cicada barbara in Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula, based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The divergence between Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula populations was strongly corroborated by the molecular data, suggesting genetically isolated populations with a low level of gene flow. The Ceuta population from Spanish North Africa was more similar to the Iberian populations than the surrounding Moroccan populations, suggesting that the Strait of Gibraltar has not been acting as a strict barrier to dispersal while the Rif Mountains have. The Iberian Peninsula specimens showed a signature of demographic expansion before that which occurred in Morocco, but some of the assumptions related to the demographic parameters should be considered with caution due to the small genetic variation found. The high haplotype diversity found in Morocco implies higher demographic stability than in the Iberian Peninsula populations. These results do not, however, suggest a Moroccan origin for Iberian cicadas; but the most northwest region in Africa, such as Ceuta, might have acted as a southern refuge for Iberian cicadas during the most severe climatic conditions, from where they could expand north when climate improved. The separation of two subspecies within C. barbara (C. barbara lusitanica and C. barbara barbara) finds support with these results.

  7. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, M.; Umr 5805; Ifremer Team

    2003-04-01

    The Canyon of Capbreton extending in the Bay of Biscay (SW France) is the deepest canyon in the world. Its structure and morphology was studied using new multibeam bathymetry, acoustic imagery and high-resolution seismic data. The canyon head appears only 250 m away from the coast line and runs westward parallel to the north coast of Spain for 160 km due to structural control, then turns northward, widens and abruptly disappears in the continental rise by 3500 m water depth. Its northern margin is flat and progrades clearly westward. Conversely the southern margin is steep and progrades towards the north (i.e. towards the canyon). Down to 800 m water depth, the canyon deeply incises the continental shelf and the axial channel is meandering (sinuosity of 1.9). The canyon shows both major and minor stream beds, perched tributary valleys, nested terraces and abandoned meanders. The terraces have three morphologies: (1) flat, (2) with a raised side or (3) with a horseshoe structure. These morphologies have been interpreted as overbank deposits or nested levees (1 and 2) or as the result of meander abandon (3). Terraces of types (1) and (2) contain mainly fine deposits resulting from decantation of the top of turbulent surges that flow in the canyon. Westward (800 to 2000 m water depth) the main talweg remains sinuous (1.7). On the southern margin, several straight or slightly sinuous S-N tributary valleys are followed by alignments of pockmarks that also indicate a structural control. On the northern margin, a single large tributary valley with a sinuous central talweg, flowing from the upper Aquitaine continental slope, is interpreted as a giant slump scar due to sediment instability. This valley is bordered to the west by a topographic high with sediment waves on the external flank that might be interpreted as a sedimentary levee. The canyon recorded a recent turbidite activity. An 18 cm-thick turbidite was deposited at 650 m water depth by a turbidity current

  8. Evidence of widespread Cretaceous remagnetisation in the Iberian Range and its relation with the rotation of Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.T.; Lowrie, W.; Osete, M.L.; Meléndez, G.

    1998-01-01

    A palaeomagnetic investigation has been carried out at 13 sites of Jurassic age in the Iberian Range (northern Spain). Two components of remanent magnetisation have been found at each site. A primary high-temperature component shows an average counterclockwise rotation with respect to the north of

  9. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  10. Influence of physicochemical characteristics and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Onandi, Nerea; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Ávila, Marta; Garde, Sonia; Nuñez, Manuel; Picon, Antonia

    2017-09-01

    The volatile fraction of 30 Iberian dry-cured hams of different physicochemical characteristics and the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600MPa on volatile compounds were investigated. According to the analysis of variance carried out on the levels of 122 volatile compounds, intramuscular fat content influenced the levels of 8 benzene compounds, 5 carboxylic acids, 2 ketones, 2 furanones, 1 alcohol, 1 aldehyde and 1 sulfur compound, salt concentration influenced the levels of 1 aldehyde and 1 ketone, salt-in-lean ratio had no effect on volatile compounds, and water activity influenced the levels of 3 sulfur compounds, 1 alcohol and 1 aldehyde. HPP-treated samples of Iberian ham had higher levels of 4 compounds and lower levels of 31 compounds than untreated samples. A higher influence of HPP treatment on volatile compounds than physicochemical characteristics was observed for Iberian ham. Therefore, HPP treatment conditions should be optimized in order to diminish its possible effect on Iberian ham odor and aroma characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. S-type granite generation and emplacement during a regional switch from extensional to contractional deformation (Central Iberian Zone, Iberian autochthonous domain, Variscan Orogeny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Gama, C.; Hofmann, M.; Gärtner, A.; Linnemann, U.

    2018-01-01

    Zircon grains extracted from S-type granites of the Mêda-Escalhão-Penedono Massif (Central Iberian Zone, Variscan Orogen) constrain the timing of emplacement and provide information about potential magma sources. Simple and composite zircon grains from three samples of S-type granite were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. New U-Pb data indicate that granites crystallized in the Bashkirian (318.7 ± 4.8 Ma) overlapping the proposed age range of ca. 321-317 Ma of the nearby S-type granitic rocks of the Carrazeda de Anciães, Lamego and Ucanha-Vilar massifs. The timing of emplacement of such S-type granites seems to coincide with the waning stages of activity of a D2 extensional shear zone (i.e. Pinhel shear zone) developed in metamorphic conditions that reached partial melting and anatexis (ca. 321-317 Ma). Dykes of two-mica granites (resembling diatexite migmatite) are concordant and discordant to the compositional layering and S2 (main) foliation of the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Pinhel shear zone. Much of the planar fabric in these dykes was formed during magmatic crystallization and subsequent solid-state deformation. Field relationships suggest contemporaneity between the ca. 319-317 Ma old magmatism of the study area and the switch from late D2 extensional deformation to early D3 contractional deformation. Inherited zircon cores are well preserved in these late D2-early D3 S-type granite plutons. U-Pb ages of inherited zircon cores range from ca. 2576 to ca. 421 Ma. The spectra of inherited cores overlap closely the range of detrital and magmatic zircon grains displayed by the Ediacaran to Silurian metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of the Iberian autochthonous and parautochthonous domains. This is evidence of a genetic relationship between S-type granites and the host metamorphic rocks. There is no substantial evidence for the addition of mantle-derived material in the genesis of these late D2-early D3 S-type granitic rocks. The ɛNd arrays of heterogeneous

  12. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanham, D; Bidoglio, G

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WF prod, agr ) and consumption (WF cons, agr ) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVW i, agr ) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WF cons, agr, tot exceeds the WF prod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVW i, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WF prod, agr, tot exceeds the WF cons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WF cons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WF cons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  13. Microsatellite variation in Donax trunculus from the Iberian Peninsula, with particular attention to Galician estuaries (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantón, A.; Arias-Pérez, A.; Freire, R.; Fernández-Pérez, J.; Nóvoa, S.; Méndez, J.

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variation and population structure information is essential for conservation and stock management policies. The wedge clam Donax trunculus is an important fishing resource in the Iberian Peninsula and in some areas, such as the northwestern Spain, wild stocks have decreased greatly. Despite this, information is mainly from the southwestern Atlantic to the northwestern Mediterranean of the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, fifteen microsatellite loci were examined at 17 localities along the Iberian Peninsula to characterize its genetic diversity and population structure. Particular attention was paid to the northwestern Atlantic area, and to test if the pattern previously described for this species is confirmed when localities distributed across the Atlantic coast are included and different microsatellite markers are used. All localities displayed similar allelic richness values and heterozygosity levels but when genetic diversity levels were compared among groups of localities, tests were significant and samples from the northwestern area (Galicia) showed the lowest values. The analysis of population structure indicated that localities from the Atlantic coast are genetically homogeneous although some samples showed significant pairwise Fst values. These values were low and Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation did not show a consistent structure along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Atlantic samples were genetically different from those located in Mediterranean coast, which may be explained by the existence of the Almeria-Oran front. Moreover, Fuengirola, locality situated in the Alboran Sea between the Strait of Gibraltar and Mediterranean Sea, showed significant differences from all remaining localities included in the study. Overall, the data showed the existence of genetic homogeneity along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and support the three management units (Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern

  14. Evaluation of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sarcoptic mange diagnosis and assessment in the Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Granados, José Enrique; Serrano, Emmanuel; Dellamaria, Debora; Casais, Rosa; Rossi, Luca; Puigdemont, Anna; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús María; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón Casimiro; Citterio, Carlo; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2016-10-21

    Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species worldwide including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), in which mortalities over 90 % of the population have been reported. No efficient diagnostic methods are available for this disease, particularly when there are low mite numbers and mild or no clinical signs. In this study, three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) developed for dog (ELISA A), Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica parva) (ELISA B) and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) (ELISA C), were evaluated to detect specific antibodies (IgG) to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex sera. Serum samples from 131 Iberian ibexes (86 healthy and 45 scabietic) were collected from 2005 to 2012 in the Sierra Nevada Natural and National Parks (southern Spain). Based on visual inspection, ibexes were classified into one of three categories, namely healthy (without scabietic compatible lesions), mildly affected (skin lesions over less than 50 % of the body surface) and severely affected (skin lesions over more than 50 % of the body surface). The optimal cut-off point, specificity, sensitivity and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated, and the agreement between tests was determined. Moreover, differences in the optical density (OD) related to scabies severity have been evaluated for the best test. ELISA C showed better performance than the two other tests, reaching higher values of sensitivity (93.0 %) and specificity (93.5 %) against the visual estimation of the percentage of affected skin, chosen as the gold standard. Significantly higher concentrations of specific antibodies were observed with this test in the mildly and severely infested ibexes than in healthy ones. Our results revealed that ELISA C was an optimal test to diagnose sarcoptic mange in the Iberian ibex. Further studies characterizing immune response during the course of the disease, including spontaneous or drug

  15. Potential predictability of a Colombian river flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Quishpe-Vásquez, César; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    In this study the predictability of an important Colombian river (Cauca) has been analysed based on the use of climatic variables as potential predictors. Cauca River is considered one of the most important rivers of Colombia because its basin supports important productive activities related with the agriculture, such as the production of coffee or sugar. Potential relationships between the Cauca River seasonal streamflow anomalies and different climatic variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation (Pt), temperature over land (Tm) and soil water (Sw) have been analysed for the period 1949-2009. For this end, moving correlation analysis of 30 years have been carried out for lags from one to four seasons for the global SST, and from one to two seasons for South America Pt, Tm and Sw. Also, the stability of the significant correlations have been also studied, identifying the regions used as potential predictors of streamflow. Finally, in order to establish a prediction scheme based on the previous stable correlations, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied on the potential predictor regions has been carried out in order to obtain a representative time series for each predictor field. Significant and stable correlations between the seasonal streamflow and the tropical Pacific SST (El Niño region) are found for lags from one to four (one-year) season. Additionally, some regions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans also show significant and stable correlations at different lags, highlighting the importance that exerts the Atlantic SST on the hydrology of Colombia. Also significant and stable correlations are found with the Pt, Tm and Sw for some regions over South America, at lags of one and two seasons. The prediction of Cauca seasonal streamflow based on this scheme shows an acceptable skill and represents a relative improvement compared with the predictability obtained using the teleconnection indices associated with El Niño. Keywords

  16. The late-Variscan peraluminous Valdepeñas pluton (southern Central Iberian Zone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errandonea-Martín, J.; Carracedo-sánchez, M.; Sarrionandia, F.; Santos Zalduegui, J.F.; García de Madinabeitia, S.; Gil-Ibarguchi, J.I.

    2017-07-01

    The Valdepeñas pluton is the easternmost outcrop of the Cáceres-Valdepeñas magmatic alignment (southern Central Iberian Zone). This massif is constituted by a cordierite-bearing porphyritic monzogranite and may be grouped within the so-called “Serie Mixta” granitoids. The Valdepeñas monzogranite is of magnesian [FeOt/(FeOt+MgO)~0.76], alkali-calcic [(Na2O+K2O)–CaO=7.8–8.5] and peraluminous (A/CNK=1.14–1.20). Multielemental- and REE-normalized patterns are comparable to those of similar rocks in the Nisa- Alburquerque-Los Pedroches magmatic alignment, and slightly differ from those of the Montes de Toledo batholith, both in the southern Central Iberian Zone. The U-Pb zircon age of 303±3Ma is consistent with the late-orogenic character of the intrusion and is in accordance with most of the granitic peraluminous intrusions in the southern Central Iberian Zone. 86Sr/87Sr300Ma ratios (0.707424–0.711253), εNd300Mavalues (-5.53 to -6.68) and whole-rock major and trace element compositions of the studied rocks, suggest that the parental magma of the Valdepeñas monzogranite could derive from a crustal metaigneous source. The U-Pb ages (552–650Ma) of inherited zircon cores found in Valdepeñas monzogranite samples match those often found in Lower Paleozoic metavolcanics and granitic orthogneisses of Central Iberia and, furthermore, point to Upper Neoproterozoic metaigneous basement rocks as possible protoliths at the magma source. Based on the solubility of monazite in peraluminous melts, the estimated emplacement temperature of the studied monzogranite is 742–762ºC. The results obtained in this work would contribute to a better understanding of the origin of the “Serie Mixta” granitoids.

  17. Detecting quasi-oscillations in the monthly precipitation regimes of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Morala

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A spectral analysis of the time series corresponding to the main monthly precipitation regimes of the Iberian Peninsula was performed using two methods, the Multi-Taper Method and Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis. The Multi-Taper Method gave a preliminary view of the presence of signals in some of the time series. Monte Carlo Singular Spectrum Analysis discriminated between potential oscillations and noise. From the results of the two methods it is concluded that there exist three significant quasi-oscillations at the 95% level of confidence: a 5.0 year quasi-oscillation and a long-term trend in the Atlantic pattern of March, a 3.2 year quasi-oscillation in the Cantabrian pattern of January, and a 4.0 year quasi-oscillation in the Catalonian pattern of February. These quasi-oscillations might be related to climatic variations with similar periodicities over the North Atlantic Ocean. The possible simultaneity of high values of precipitation generated by the significant quasi-oscillations and high sea–level pressures was studied by means of composite maps. It was found that high values of precipitation generated by the oscillations of the Atlantic patterns of January and March exist simultaneously with a specific high pressure structure over the North Atlantic Ocean, that allow cyclonic perturbations to cross the Iberian Peninsula. During the non-wet years, this high pressure structure moves northwards, keeping the track of the low pressure centers to the north, far from the Iberian Peninsula. On the other hand, high values of precipitation generated by the oscillation of the Cantabrian pattern of January exist simultaneously with a high pressure structure over the Galicia region and the Cantabrian Sea, that allow a northerly flow over the region. Also, a positive trend in the NAO index for March has been found, starting in the sixties, which is not evident for other winter months. This trend agrees with the decreasing trend found in the

  18. Modelling Chemical Patterns of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as PBDEs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) or PAHs, are widespread and generated in a multitude of anthropogenic (and natural for PAHs) processes and although they are found in the environment at low concentrations, possess an extraordinary carcinogenic capacity (Baussant et al., 2001) and high ecotoxicity due to their persistence in different matrices (air, soil, water, living organisms). In particular, PAHs are originated by combustion processes or release from fossil fuels and can be transported in the atmosphere over long distances in gaseous or particulate matter (Baek et al., 1991). The establishment of strategies for sampling and chemical transport modelling of SVOCs in the atmosphere aiming the definition and validation of the spatial, temporal and chemical transport patterns of contaminants can be achieved by an integrated system of third-generation models that represent the current state of knowledge in air quality modelling and experimental data collected in field campaigns. This has implications in the fields of meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and even climate change. In this case, an extensive database already obtained on levels of atmospheric PAHs from biomonitoring schemes in the Iberian Peninsula fuelled the establishment of the first models of behaviour for PAHs. The modelling system WRF+CHIMERE was implemented with high spatial and temporal resolution to the Iberian Peninsula in this first task (9 km for the Iberian Peninsula, 3 km to Portugal, 1 hour), using PAHs atmospheric levels collected over a year-long sampling scheme comprising 4 campaigns (one per season) in over 30 sites. Daily information on meteorological parameters such as air temperature, humidity, rainfall or wind speed and direction was collected from the weather stations closest to the sampling sites. Diagnosis and forecasts of these meteorological variables using MM5 or WRF were used to feed a chemistry transport model

  19. Volumetric runoff coefficients for experimental rural catchments in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación V.; Molina, Cecilio; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Ayuso, José L.; Casalí, Javier; Cid, Patricio; Dafonte, Jorge; Duarte, Antonio C.; Farguell, Joaquim; Giménez, Rafael; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Helena; Gómez, Jose A.; González-Hidalgo, J. Carlos; Keizer, J. Jacob; Lucía, Ana; Mateos, Luciano; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. Luz; Schnabel, Sussane; Serrano-Muela, M. Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of runoff and peaks therein is essential for designing hydraulic infrastructures and for assessing the hydrological implications of likely scenarios of climate and/or land-use change. Different methods are available to calculate runoff coefficients. For instance, the runoff coefficient of a catchment can be described either as the ratio of total depth of runoff to total depth of rainfall or as the ratio of peak flow to rainfall intensity for the time of concentration (Dhakal et al. 2012). If the first definition is considered, runoff coefficients represent the global effect of different features and states of catchments and its determination requires a suitable analysis according to the objectives pursued (Chow et al., 1988). In this work, rainfall-runoff data and physical attributes from small rural catchments located in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) were examined in order to compare the representative values of runoff coefficients using three different approaches: i) statistical analysis of rainfall-runoff data and their quantiles (Dhakal et al., 2012); ii) probabilistic runoff coefficients from the rank-ordered pairs of observed rainfall-runoff data and their relationships with rainfall depths (Schaake et al., 1967); iii) finally, a multiple linear model based on geomorphological attributes. These catchments exhibit great variety with respect to their natural settings, such as climate, topography and lithology. We present a preliminary analysis of the rainfall-runoff relationships as well as their variability in a complex context such as the Iberian Peninsula where contrasted environmental systems coexist. We also discuss reference parameters representing runoff coefficients commonly included into hydrological models. This study is conceived as the first step to explore further working protocols and modeling gaps in a very susceptible area to the climate change such as the Iberian Peninsula's, where the analysis of runoff coefficients is

  20. Sr-Nd isotope systematics of xenoliths in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Iwata, Masatoshi; Iizumi, Shigeru; Nureki, Terukazu.

    1993-01-01

    Based on new and previously published Sr and Nd isotope data, we examined the petrogenetic relationship between deep crust- and upper mantle-derived xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks and Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan. The deep crust- and upper mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan have comparable initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in their respective districts. This may suggest that these xenoliths were genetically related to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan, and that regional variations in Sr and Nd isotope ratios observed in the granitoid rocks are attributed to differences in the geochemistry of the magma sources. (author)

  1. Water quality responses to the interaction between surface water and groundwater along the Songhua River, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Jieqiong; Wang, Jinsheng; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Zhu, Chen

    2018-03-01

    Investigation of surface water and groundwater interaction (SW-GW interaction) provides basic information for regional water-resource protection, management, and development. In this survey of a 10-km-wide area along both sides of the Songhua River, northeast China, the hydrogeochemical responses to different SW-GW interactions were studied. Three types of SW-GW interactions were identified—"recharge", "discharge", and "flow-through"—according to the hydraulic connection between the surface water and groundwater. The single factor index, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis of the hydrogeochemistry and pollutant data illuminated the hydrogeochemical response to the various SW-GW interactions. Clear SW-GW interactions along the Songhua River were revealed: (1) upstream in the study area, groundwater usually discharges into the surface water, (2) groundwater is recharged by surface water downstream, and (3) discharge and flow-through coexist in between. Statistical analysis indicated that the degree of hydrogeochemical response in different types of hydraulic connection varied, being clear in recharge and flow-through modes, and less obvious in discharge mode. During the interaction process, dilution, adsorption, redox reactions, nitrification, denitrification, and biodegradation contributed to the pollutant concentration and affected hydrogeochemical response in the hyporheic zone.

  2. Geologic and geophysical maps and volcanic history of the Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW Quadrangles, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Tracey J.; Miller, David; Langenheim, Victoria; Fleck, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW 7.5' quadrangles are located in Box Elder County, northwestern Utah (figure 1; plate 1). The northern boundary of the map area is 8.5 miles (13.7 km) south of the Utah-Idaho border, and the southern boundary reaches the edge of mud flats at the north end of Great Salt Lake. Elevations range from 4218 feet (1286 m) along the mud flats to 5078 feet (1548 m) in the Wildcat Hills. Deep Creek forms a prominent drainage between the Wildcat Hills and Cedar Hill. The closest towns are the ranching communities of Snowville, Utah (10 miles [16 km] to the northeast) (figure 1), and Park Valley, Utah (10 miles [16 km] to the west).The Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW 7.5' quadrangles are located entirely within southern Curlew Valley, which drains south into Great Salt Lake, and extends north of the area shown on figure 1 into Idaho. Curlew Valley is bounded on the west by the Raft River Mountains and on the east by the Hansel Mountains (figure 1). Sedimentary and volcanic bedrock exposures within the quadrangles form the Wildcat Hills, Cedar Hill, and informally named Middle Shield (figure 1). Exposed rocks and deposits are Permian to Holocene in age, and include the Permian quartz sandstone and orthoquartzite of the Oquirrh Formation (Pos), tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Salt Lake Formation (Ts), Pliocene basaltic lava flows (Tb) and dacite (Tdw), Pleistocene rhyolite (Qrw) and basalt (Qb), and Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits of alluvial, lacustrine, and eolian origin. Structurally, the map area is situated in the northeastern Basin and Range Province, and is inferred to lie within the hanging wall of the late Miocene detachment faults exposed in the Raft River Mountains to the northwest (e.g., Wells, 1992, 2009; figure 1).This mapping project was undertaken to produce a comprehensive, large-scale geologic map of the Wildcat Hills, as well as to improve understanding of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of

  3. Perturbative determination of c{sub SW} with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept., Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We determine the improvement factor c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. c{sub SW} is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient c{sub NGI} for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

  4. Trends of rural tropospheric ozone at the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, S; Rodríguez, A; Souto, J A; Casares, J J; Bermúdez, J L; Soto, B

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone levels around urban and suburban areas at Europe and North America had increased during 80's-90's, until the application of NO(x) reduction strategies. However, as it was expected, this ozone depletion was not proportional to the emissions reduction. On the other hand, rural ozone levels show different trends, with peaks reduction and average increments; this different evolution could be explained by either emission changes or climate variability in a region. In this work, trends of tropospheric ozone episodes at rural sites in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed and compared to others observed in different regions of the Atlantic European coast. Special interest was focused on the air quality sites characterization, in order to guarantee their rural character in terms of air quality. Both episodic local meteorological and air quality measurements along five years were considered, in order to study possible meteorological influences in ozone levels, different to other European Atlantic regions.

  5. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Elites and peripheries: educational innovation and cultural transferences in the Iberian Peninsula during Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmele Artetxe Sánchez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between the configuration of educational institutions in theoretical and historical perspective and the phenomenon of the formation of elites? In this paper we consider that the answer to this question demands expanding our vision in the study of the elites. A vision that has to link studies on education with social processes and actors. This emphasis entails a more dynamic analysis where society presents itself without a theoretical corset, without reductionisms, composed of connected realities such as «the cultural», «the material» or «the social». The present monograph that we present in this editorial must be situated in this line of research insofar as it addresses the double dimension of fragmentation between center and periphery, proposing to address both the historical relations within the Iberian Peninsula and its historical relations towards Europe.

  8. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  9. Evaluation of the Mineral Status of Two Ecosystems for Sustainable Goat Rearing in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vilallonga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral status in two ecosystems typical of the Iberian Peninsula was evaluated. Ecosystem I was formed by forests and ecosystem II by hilly areas. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and selenium in soils, rations and serum were measured. The concentratons of iron, copper, zinc and selenium were also checked in liver. Ecosystem I showed higher values of every mineral, except for phosphorus. Seasonal differences were recorded for rations and serum, with higher values in spring. The rations produced by both ecosystems met the mineral requirements of goats in lactation. Thus, both ecosystems are suitable for the development of an ecological goat farming system. However, extra supply of minerals, particularly calcium, may be needed in the maximum productions periods.

  10. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  11. Proceedings of the 2nd Iberian Nuclear Astrophysics Meeting on Compact Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pons, J; Albertus, C

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains most of the links to the presentations delivered at this international workshop. This meeting was the second in the series following the previous I Encuentro Ib\\'erico de Compstar, held at the University of Coimbra, Portugal in 2010. The main purpose of this meeting was to strengthen the scientific collaboration between the participants of the Iberian and the rest of the southern European branches of the European Nuclear Astrophysics network, formerly, COMPSTAR. This ESF (European Science Foundation) supported network has been crucial in helping to make a broader audience for the the most interesting and relevant research lines being developed currently in Nuclear Astrophysics, especially related to the physics of neutron stars. The program of the meeting was tailored to theoretical descriptions of the physics of neutron stars although some input from experimental observers and other condensed matter and optics areas of interest was also included.

  12. The Iberian genus Paraphaenops Jeannel, 1916 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechini): Morphology, phylogeny and geographical distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuño, Vicente M.; Sendra, Alberto; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    ) and one nuclear (LSU) gene fragments evidenced a strong divergence for all markers considered between P. breuilianus and the new species P. fadriquei sp. nov. The strong genetic differences between the two taxa contrast singularly with the extreme morphological homogeneity of the genus. The ecological......The species Paraphaenops breuilianus (Jeannel, 1916) is an Iberian iconic cave beetle with “aphaenopsian” facies, monospecific until now. An extensive field work over the last years allowed the revision of this peculiar genus using the combinations of morphological, molecular and ecological...... approaches and led to the description of new taxa Paraphaenops fadriquei Ortuño and Faille sp. nov., Paraphaenops breuilianus espanoli Ortuño and Faille ssp. nov. and the full larval diagnosis of the third larval instar of the type species. The sequencing of two mitochondrial (cox1, rrnl + tRNA-Leu + nad1...

  13. The science-policy interface: Perceptions and strategies of the Iberian 'new water culture' expert community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a normative consensus that science should contribute to decision-making in environmental policy, given that science provides a means of understanding natural systems, human impacts upon them, and the consequences of those impacts for human systems. Despite this general agreement, however, the means through which science is transmitted into policy is contested. This paper envisions several of the competing characterisations of the science-policy interface as a continuum with the endpoints of 'fortress science' and 'co-production', and applies this continuum in an empirical analysis of the transboundary expert community promoting a 'new water culture' on the Iberian Peninsula. In engaging directly with members of this community, the paper finds that these characterisations are better seen as strategies among which scientists and their communities may choose and over which they may disagree. These trade-offs and disagreements in turn have implications for policy impact.

  14. Giant calcite concretions in aeolian dune sandstones; sedimentological and architectural controls on diagenetic heterogeneity, mid-Cretaceous Iberian Desert System, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arribas, M.E.; Rodríguez-López, J.P.; Meléndez, N.; Soria, A.R.; de Boer, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Aeoliandunesandstones of the Iberian erg system (Cretaceous, Spain) host giantcalciteconcretions that constitute heterogeneities of diagenetic origin within a potential aeolian reservoir. The giantcalciteconcretions developed in large-scale aeoliandune foresets, at the transition between aeoliandune

  15. Middle and late Holocene climate change and human impact inferred from diatoms, algae and aquatic macrophyte pollen in sediments from Lake Montcortès (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T.; Rull, V.; Corella, J.P.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Gomà, J.

    2011-01-01

    During the middle and late Holocene, the Iberian Peninsula underwent large climatic and hydrologic changes, but the temporal resolution and regional distribution of available palaeoenvironmental records is still insufficient for a comprehensive assessment of the regional variability. The high

  16. First data of Iberian Nematomorpha, with redescription of Gordius aquaticus Linnaeus, G. plicatulus Heinze, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, de Leonor Cristina; Ribera, Ignacio; Bilton, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Four species of Nematomorpha are recorded from NE Spain, representing the first reliable data on the group in the Iberian peninsula. Gordius aquations Linnaeus, 1758, G. plicatulus Heinze, 1937, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano, 1888) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour, 1828) are redescribed

  17. Building global and diffuse solar radiation series and assessing decadal trends in Girona (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbó, Josep; González, Josep-Abel; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of solar radiation was initiated in Girona, northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, in the late 1980s. Initially, two pyranometers were installed, one of them equipped with a shadowband for measuring the diffuse component. Two other pyranometers currently exist, both ventilated and one of them shadowed, with a sphere, and a pyrheliometer for measuring direct radiation. Additional instruments for other shortwave and longwave components, clouds, and atmospheric aerosols have been installed in recent years. The station is subject to daily inspection, data are saved at high temporal resolution, and instruments are periodically calibrated, all in accordance with the directions of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network. The present paper describes how the entire series of global solar radiation (1987-2014) and diffuse radiation (1994-2014) were built, including the quality control process. Appropriate corrections to the diffuse component were made when a shadowband was employed to make measurements. Analysis of the series reveals that annual mean global irradiance presents a statistically significant increase of 2.5 W m-2 (1.4 %) decade-1 (1988-2014 period), mainly due to what occurs in summer (5.6 W m-2 decade-1). These results constitute the first assessment of solar radiation trends for the northeastern region of the Iberian Peninsula and are consistent with trends observed in the regional surroundings and also by satellite platforms, in agreement with the global brightening phenomenon. Diffuse radiation has decreased at -1.3 W m-2 (-2 %) decade-1 (1994-2014 period), which is a further indication of the reduced cloudiness and/or aerosol load causing the changes.

  18. Precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula: an overview of the CLIPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João A.; Gonçalves, Paulo M.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rocha, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    The main aims of the project "Climate change of precipitation extreme episodes in the Iberian Peninsula and its forcing mechanisms - CLIPE" are 1) to diagnose the climate change signal in the precipitation extremes over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and 2) to identify the underlying physical mechanisms. For the first purpose, a multi-model ensemble of 25 Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations, from the ENSEMBLES project, is used. These experiments were generated by 15 RCMs, driven by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) under both historic conditions (1951-2000) and SRES A1B scenario (2001-2100). In this project, daily precipitation and mean sea level pressure, for the periods 1961-1990 (recent past) and 2021-2100 (future), are used. Using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) on a daily basis, a precipitation extreme is defined by the pair of threshold values (Dmin, Imin), where Dmin is the minimum number of consecutive days with daily SPI above the Imin value. For both past and future climates, a precipitation extreme of a specific type is then characterised by two variables: the number of episodes with a specific duration in days and the number of episodes with a specific mean intensity (SPI/duration). Climate change is also assessed by changes in their Probability Density Functions (PDFs), estimated at sectors representative of different precipitation regimes. Lastly, for the second objective of this project, links between precipitation and Circulation Weather Regimes (CWRs) are explored for both past and future climates. Acknowledgments: this work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project CLIPE (PTDC/AAC-CLI/111733/2009).

  19. Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL), a drilling project in a geochemical Mars terrestrial analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Parro, V.; Manfredi, J. A.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Briones, C.; Gómez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.; Sanz, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL) is a drilling project specifically designed to characterize the subsurface ecosystems operating in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), in the area of Peña de Hierro, and responsible of the extreme acidic conditions existing in the Rio Tinto basin [1]. Rio Tinto is considered a good geochemical terrestrial analogue of Mars [2, 3]. A dedicated geophysical characterization of the area selected two drilling sites (4) due to the possible existence of water with high ionic content (low resistivity). Two wells have been drilled in the selected area, BH11 and BH10, of depths of 340 and 620 meters respectively, with recovery of cores and generation of samples in anaerobic and sterile conditions. Preliminary results showed an important alteration of mineral structures associated with the presence of water, with production of expected products from the bacterial oxidation of pyrite (sulfates and ferric iron). Ion chromatography of water soluble compounds from uncontaminated samples showed the existence of putative electron donors (ferrous iron, nitrite in addition of the metal sulfides), electron acceptors (sulfate, nitrate, ferric iron) as well as variable concentration of metabolic organic acids (mainly acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate), which are strong signals of the presence of active subsurface ecosystem associated to the high sulfidic mineral content of the IPB. The system is driven by oxidants that appear to be provided by the rock matrix, only groundwater is needed to launch microbial metabolism. The geological, geomicrobiological and molecular biology analysis which are under way, should allow the characterization of this ecosystem of paramount interest in the design of an astrobiological underground Mars exploration mission in the near future.

  20. 400 Years of summer hydroclimate from stable isotopes in Iberian trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Barriendos, Mariano; Schleser, Gerhard H.; Helle, Gerhard; Leuenberger, Markus; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Cook, Edward R.

    2017-07-01

    Tree rings are natural archives that annually record distinct types of past climate variability depending on the parameters measured. Here, we use ring-width and stable isotopes in cellulose of trees from the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (IP) to understand regional summer hydroclimate over the last 400 years and the associated atmospheric patterns. Correlations between tree rings and climate data demonstrate that isotope signatures in the targeted Iberian pine forests are very sensitive to water availability during the summer period, and are mainly controlled by stomatal conductance. Non-linear methods based on extreme events analysis allow for capturing distinct seasonal climatic variability recorded by tree-ring parameters and asymmetric signals of the associated atmospheric features. Moreover, years with extreme high (low) values in the tree-ring records were characterised by coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns with reduced (enhanced) moisture transport onto the northwestern IP. These analyses of extremes revealed that high/low proxy values do not necessarily correspond to mirror images in the atmospheric anomaly patterns, suggesting different drivers of these patterns and the corresponding signature recorded in the proxies. Regional hydroclimate features across the broader IP and western Europe during extreme wet/dry summers detected by the northwestern IP trees compare favourably to independent multicentury sea level pressure and drought reconstructions for Europe. Historical records also validate our findings that attribute non-linear moisture signals recorded by extreme tree-ring values to distinct large-scale atmospheric patterns and allow for 400-year reconstructions of the frequency of occurrence of extreme conditions in late spring and summer hydroclimate.

  1. Natural history and immature stage morphology of Spialia Swinhoe, 1912 in the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Hernández-Roldán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new data on the ecology, natural history and geographic distribution of the recently described skipper Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila, 2016 and compare its immature stage morphology with the sympatric species S. sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. Spialia rosae uses species of Rosa L. (Rosaceae as larval host-plants and prefers montane habitats, while S. sertorius feeds on Sanguisorba minor Scop. (Rosaceae and inhabits lower altitudes. Rosa corymbifera Borkh. and R. tomentosa Sm. are documented for the first time as foodplants of S. rosae. We report Microgaster australis Thomson, 1895 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae as a larval parasitoid of S. rosae. Details of the immature stages of S. rosae and S. sertorius are shown using scanning electron microscope photographs, confirming the similar immature stage morphology, at least as regards the Iberian S. sertorius. In both species, the egg has high radial ribs, the last instar larva has branched setae covering the head, and the pupa has setae with pointed tips, barrel-like cuticular formations, and hairy mesothoracic tubercles. By extensive sampling of the species of Spialia in the region of Segovia, Central Spain, we extend the previously known geographic distribution of S. rosae to 56 new 100 km2 MGRS squares, which represents a 155 % increase. Spialia rosae is present in the northern part of the interior plateau and in the main mountain systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The main threats to the populations of S. rosae are its limited distribution range and the possible effects of climate change due to its specialization in montane habitats. The conservation status of S. rosae was previously regarded as Data Deficient (DD. With the addition of new data the species can now be evaluated as Least Concern (LC.

  2. Paraglacial dynamics in Little Ice Age glaciated environments in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Marc; Serrano, Enrique; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio; Palacios, David

    2017-04-01

    Three Iberian mountain ranges encompassed glaciers during the Little Ice Age (LIA): the Pyrenees, Cantabrian Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The gradual warming trend initiated during the second half of the XIX century promoted the progressive shrinking of these glaciers, which completely melted during the first half of the 20th century in the Cantabrian Mountains and Sierra Nevada and reduced by 80% of their LIA extent in the Pyrenees. Currently, the formerly glaciated environments are located within the periglacial belt and still present to a major or lesser degree signs of paraglacial activity. LIA moraines are devoid of vegetation and composed of highly unstable sediments that are being intensely mobilized by slope processes. Inside the moraines, different landforms and processes generated following LIA glacial retreat have generated: (i) buried ice trapped within rock debris supplied from the cirque walls, which has also generated rock glaciers and protalus lobes; (ii) semi-permanent snow fields distributed above the ice-patches remnants of the LIA glaciers, and (iii) small periglacial features such as frost mounds, sorted circles and solifluction landforms generated by processes such as solifluction and cryoturbation. Present-day morphodynamics is mostly related to seasonal frost conditions, though patches of permafrost have formed in some areas in contact with the buried ice. This 'geomorphic permafrost' is undergoing a process of degradation since it is not balanced with present-day climate conditions. This is reflected in the occurrence of multiple collapses and subsidences of the debris cover where the frozen bodies sit. In the highest areas of the Pyrenees there is a permafrost belt next to the small glaciated environments in the highest massifs. Finally, we propose a model for paraglacial activity in Iberian mountain ranges and compare it to other mid-latitude mountain environments as well as to other past deglaciation stages.

  3. Evolutionary history of Lissotriton helveticus: multilocus assessment of ancestral vs. recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, Ernesto; García-París, Mario

    2011-07-01

    The Pleistocene was characterized by climatic changes that greatly altered the distribution of organisms. Population extinctions, bottlenecks, isolation, range expansions and contractions were often associated with glaciations, leaving signatures in the spatial patterns of genetic diversity across species. Lissotriton helveticus belongs to a Pan-European lineage of newts that were strongly affected by glaciations and represent an excellent model to analyse the effect of generalized climatic changes in phylogeographic patterns. We studied the genetic diversity of the species using data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes analyzed in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to investigate the historical processes shaping spatial patterns of genetic diversity. Mitochondrial haplotypes cluster in four different groups present in the Iberian Peninsula and of Pleistocene origin, probably by allopatric fragmentation. Nuclear genes present no obvious geographic structure patterns, suggesting gene flow and generalized incomplete lineage sorting. Populations north of the Pyrenees are closely related to those from northeastern Iberia, suggesting recent range expansion from this region. Historical demographic analyses indicate a demographic expansion starting about 100,000years ago and more recent population declines. Compared to other Lissotriton species, L. helveticus includes only relatively young genetic lineages, suggesting a Central European pre-Pleistocene distribution followed by complete extirpation of the species during glaciations in that area. Historical demographic trends in the Iberian Peninsula are reversed with respect to the more Mediterranean species Lissotriton boscai, indicating different responses of both species to climate changes. Diversity patterns among Lissotriton species seem to be defined by four main factors: ancestral distributions, colonization capabilities, interactions with other species and effective population sizes. Differences in these

  4. Management of a caseous lymphadenitis outbreak in a new Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) stock reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Velarde, Roser; Salinas, Jesús; Borge, Carmen; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Serrano, Emmanuel; Gassó, Diana; Bach, Ester; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; López-Olvera, Jorge R; Lavín, Santiago; León-Vizcaíno, Luís; Mentaberre, Gregorio

    2014-12-10

    In 2010, an Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) stock reservoir was established for conservation purposes in north-eastern Spain. Eighteen ibexes were captured in the wild and housed in a 17 hectare enclosure. Once in captivity, a caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) outbreak occurred and ibex handlings were carried out at six-month intervals between 2010 and 2013 to perform health examinations and sampling. Treatment with a bacterin-based autovaccine and penicillin G benzatine was added during the third and subsequent handlings, when infection by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was confirmed. Changes in lesion score, serum anti-C. pseudotuberculosis antibodies and haematological parameters were analyzed to assess captivity effects, disease emergence and treatment efficacy. Serum acute phase proteins (APP) Haptoglobin (Hp), Amyloid A (SAA) and Acid Soluble Glycoprotein (ASG) concentrations were also determined to evaluate their usefulness as indicators of clinical status. Once in captivity, 12 out of 14 ibexes (85.7%) seroconverted, preceding the emergence of clinical signs; moreover, TP, WBC, eosinophil and platelet cell counts increased while monocyte and basophil cell counts decreased. After treatment, casualties and fistulas disappeared and both packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin concentration significantly increased. Hp, SAA and ASG values were under the limit of detection or showed no significant differences. A role for captivity in contagion rate is suggested by the increase in antibody levels against C. pseudotuberculosis and the emergence of clinical signs. Although boosted by captivity, this is the first report of an outbreak of caseous lymphadenitis displaying high morbidity and mortality in wild ungulates. Treatment consisting of both vaccination and antibiotic therapy seemed to prevent mortality and alleviate disease severity, but was not reflected in the humoural response. Haematology and APP were not useful indicators in our study, perhaps due

  5. Evaluating the market splitting determinants: evidence from the Iberian spot electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho; Silva, Patrícia Pereira da; Cerqueira, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the main determinants on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. Iberia stands as an ideal case-study, where the high level deployment of wind power is observed, together with the implementation of the market splitting arrangement between the Portuguese and the Spanish spot electricity markets. Logit and non-parametric models are used to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices as a function of the explanatory variables representing the main technologies in the generation mix: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power, together with the available transfer capacity and electricity demand. Logit models give preliminary indications about market splitting behaviour, and then, notwithstanding the demanding computational challenge, a non-parametric model is applied in order to overcome the limitations of the former models. Results show an increase of market splitting probability with higher wind power generation or, more generally, with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity such as nuclear power generation. The European interconnection capacity target of 10% of the peak demand of the smallest interconnected market might be insufficient to maintain electricity market integration. Therefore, pro-active coordination policies, governing both interconnections and renewables deployment, should be further developed. -- Highlights: •Assess determinants on market splitting behaviour of Iberian electricity markets. •Logit and non-parametric models to express market splitting probability response. •Explanatory variables: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power; ATC and demand. •Results: increase of market splitting probability with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity. •Coordination policies governing both interconnections and renewables deployment

  6. Genome size variation and incidence of polyploidy in Scrophulariaceae sensu lato from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mariana; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, genomic studies using DNA markers have strongly influenced the current phylogeny of angiosperms. Genome size and ploidy level have contributed to this discussion, being considered important characters in biosystematics, ecology and population biology. Despite the recent increase in studies related to genome size evolution and polyploidy incidence, only a few are available for Scrophulariaceae. In this context, we assessed the value of genome size, mostly as a taxonomic marker, and the role of polyploidy as a process of genesis and maintenance of plant diversity in Scrophulariaceae sensu lato in the Iberian Peninsula. Large-scale analyses of genome size and ploidy-level variation across the Iberian Peninsula were performed using flow cytometry. One hundred and sixty-two populations of 59 distinct taxa were analysed. A bibliographic review on chromosome counts was also performed. From the 59 sampled taxa, 51 represent first estimates of genome size. The majority of the Scrophulariaceae species presented very small to small genome sizes (2C ≤ 7.0 pg). Furthermore, in most of the analysed genera it was possible to use this character to separate several taxa, independently if these genera were homoploid or heteroploid. Also, some genome-related phenomena were detected, such as intraspecific variation of genome size in some genera and the possible occurrence of dysploidy in Verbascum spp. With respect to polyploidy, despite a few new DNA ploidy levels having been detected in Veronica, no multiple cytotypes have been found in any taxa. This work contributed with important basic scientific knowledge on genome size and polyploid incidence in the Scrophulariaceae, providing important background information for subsequent studies, with several perspectives for future studies being opened.

  7. Evaluation of the trading development in the Iberian Energy Derivatives Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitán Herráiz, Álvaro; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of the Iberian Energy Derivatives Market in its first five and a half years is assessed in terms of volume, open interest and price. The continuous market shows steady liquidity growth. Its volume is strongly correlated to that of the Over The Counter (OTC) market, the amount of market makers, the enrolment of financial agents and generation companies belonging to the integrated group of last resort suppliers, and the OTC cleared volume in its clearing house. The hedging efficiency, measured through the ratio between the final open interest and the cleared volume, shows the lowest values for the Spanish base load futures as they are the most liquid contracts. The ex-post forward risk premium has diminished due to the learning curve and the effect of the fixed price retributing the indigenous coal fired generation. This market is quite less developed than the European leaders headquartered in Norway and Germany. Enrolment of more traders, mainly international energy companies, financial agents, energy intensive industries and renewable generation companies is desired. Market monitoring reports by the market operator providing post-trade transparency, OTC data access by the energy regulator, and assessment of the regulatory risk can contribute to efficiency gains. - Highlights: ► The continuous traded volumes in the Iberian power futures market grow steadily. ► Those volumes are correlated to OTC volumes and the enrolment of key players. ► Most liquid contracts show the smallest hedging ratio. ► Regulation fixing the coal fired generation price affects spot and forward prices. ► The overall efficiency can grow via market monitoring reports and OTC data access.

  8. North Atlantic Oscillation and moisture transport towards the Iberian Peninsula during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of interannual variability in winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Recent works have identified the most important sources of moisture that supply the IP during different seasons of the year, including the nearby western Mediterranean and the tropical-subtropical North Atlantic corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the IP, and the IP itself (Gimeno et al., 2010). However, although rainfall is directly related to the moisture supply, the relationship between the water vapor transported towards IP and the NAO phase remains unclear. In this work the moisture transport towards IP was analyzed using a Lagrangian diagnosis method, which relies on the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. This methodology computes budgets of evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) by evaluating changes in the specific humidity along back-trajectories. Here we have computed (for each day) the evolution of moisture of the particles bound for Iberia up to 10 days prior to their arrival. The analysis was constrained to the winter (DJF) season, responsible for the largest fraction of precipitation, for the 20 years of ECMWF Reanalyses ERA40 dataset from 1980 to 2000. The contribution of the NAO phase on the water budgets is examined using composites of the obtained (E - P) fields for the 5 most extreme positive and negative NAO years of the study period. Results confirm that the IP is dominated by positive (negative) E-P anomalies during positive (negative) NAO phase. Additionally an anomalous water vapor sink (source) region located approximately over the Gulf Stream is found during positive (negative) NAO phase. Gimeno L., Nieto R., Trigo R.M. , Vicente-Serrano S.M, Lopes-Moreno J.I., (2010) "Where does the Iberian Peninsula moisture come from? An answer based on a Lagrangian approach". J. Hydrometeorology, 11, 421-436 DOI: 10.1175/2009JHM1182.1.

  9. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Flores, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  10. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  11. Hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism for terrestrial vertebrates in SW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, López-López; Luigi, Maiorano; Alessandra, Falcucci; Emilio, Barba; Luigi, Boitani

    2011-09-01

    The Mediterranean basin, and the Iberian Peninsula in particular, represent an outstanding "hotspot" of biological diversity with a long history of integration between natural ecosystems and human activities. Using deductive distribution models, and considering both Spain and Portugal, we downscaled traditional range maps for terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, breeding birds, mammals and reptiles) to the finest possible resolution with the data at hand, and we identified hotspots based on three criteria: i) species richness; ii) vulnerability, and iii) endemism. We also provided a first evaluation of the conservation status of biodiversity hotspots based on these three criteria considering both existing and proposed protected areas (i.e., Natura 2000). For the identification of hotspots, we used a method based on the cumulative distribution functions of species richness values. We found no clear surrogacy among the different types of hotspots in the Iberian Peninsula. The most important hotspots (considering all criteria) are located in the western and southwestern portions of the study area, in the Mediterranean biogeographical region. Existing protected areas are not specifically concentrated in areas of high species richness, with only 5.2% of the hotspots of total richness being currently protected. The Natura 2000 network can potentially constitute an important baseline for protecting vertebrate diversity in the Iberian Peninsula although further improvements are needed. We suggest taking a step forward in conservation planning in the Mediterranean basin, explicitly considering the history of the region as well as its present environmental context. This would allow moving from traditional reserve networks (conservation focused on "patterns") to considerations about the "processes" that generated present biodiversity.

  12. Characterization of the main Iberian Peninsula and French Atlantic turbid plumes using MODIS satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Novoa, Diego

    2018-01-01

    A river plume can be defined as a water mass with different properties than surrounding ocean water, in terms of salinity, temperature, composition and color, due to the influence of a river discharge. This is because river inputs provide fresh water, nutrients, sediments, organic and inorganic material and/or contaminants, among others, into the ocean, modifying the physical, chemical and biological conditions of the coastal areas under influence. Therefore, plumes play a key role in the aff...

  13. On SW-minimal models and N=1 supersymmetric quantum Toda-field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallwitz, S.

    1994-04-01

    Integrable N=1 supersymmetric Toda-field theories are determined by a contragredient simple Super-Lie-Algebra (SSLS) with purely fermionic lowering and raising operators. For the SSLA's Osp(3/2) and D(2/1;α) we construct explicitly the higher spin conserved currents and obtain free field representations of the super W-algebras SW(3/2,2) and SW(3/2,3/2,2). In constructing the corresponding series of minimal models using covariant vertex operators, we find a necessary restriction on the Cartan matrix of the SSLA, also for the general case. Within this framework, this restriction claims that there be a minimum of one non-vanishing element on the diagonal of the Cartan matrix. This condition is without parallel in bosonic conformal field theory. As a consequence only two series of SSLA's yield minimal models, namely Osp(2n/2n-1) and Osp(2n/2n+1). Subsequently some general aspects of degenerate representations of SW-algebras, notably the fusion rules, are investigated. As an application we discuss minimal models of SW(3/2, 2), which were constructed with independent methods, in this framework. Covariant formulation is used throughout this paper. (orig.)

  14. Unravelling the role of SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Betancor, Sofia; Gansicke, Boris; Long, Knox; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo

    2005-08-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables whose properties contradict all predictions made by the current CV evolution theories. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assessment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. There is one particular behavior of the SW Sex stars that can allow us to overcome this problem: SW Sex stars exhibit low states during which accretion onto the white dwarf decreases or shuts off completely. Only during this rare occasions we can directly observe the white dwarf and the donor star in these systems, and measurements of the white dwarf temperature, spectral type of the donor, mass and distance to the system can be carried out. With this aim in mind, we have set up a long-term monitoring of a group of five SW Sex stars using the 1.3 m telescope at CTIO. Here we propose to activate follow-up TOOs to obtain optical spectra of the low states to accurately determine the fundamental properties of these systems.

  15. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  16. Hot topics in modern cosmology - SW6 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starobinsky, A.A.; Gorbunov, D.; Reverberi, L.; Arbuzova, E.; Arbuzov, A.; Maeda, K.; Borowiec, A.; Moschella, U.; Karshenboim, S.; Tinyakov, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Deffrayet, C.; Pilo, L.; Rham, C. de; Fasiello, M.; Tolley, A.; Chernodub, M.; Kunze, K.; Berezhiani, Z.; Kamyshkov, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This spontaneous workshop (SW) brings together specialists on recent insights in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. The aim is to stimulate debates on common topics in views of providing the scientific community with innovating ideas. The main topics are gravity, dark matter and cosmological models. This document is made of the slides of the presentations.

  17. sw-SVM: sensor weighting support vector machines for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jrad, N; Congedo, M; Phlypo, R; Rousseau, S; Flamary, R; Yger, F; Rakotomamonjy, A

    2011-10-01

    In many machine learning applications, like brain-computer interfaces (BCI), high-dimensional sensor array data are available. Sensor measurements are often highly correlated and signal-to-noise ratio is not homogeneously spread across sensors. Thus, collected data are highly variable and discrimination tasks are challenging. In this work, we focus on sensor weighting as an efficient tool to improve the classification procedure. We present an approach integrating sensor weighting in the classification framework. Sensor weights are considered as hyper-parameters to be learned by a support vector machine (SVM). The resulting sensor weighting SVM (sw-SVM) is designed to satisfy a margin criterion, that is, the generalization error. Experimental studies on two data sets are presented, a P300 data set and an error-related potential (ErrP) data set. For the P300 data set (BCI competition III), for which a large number of trials is available, the sw-SVM proves to perform equivalently with respect to the ensemble SVM strategy that won the competition. For the ErrP data set, for which a small number of trials are available, the sw-SVM shows superior performances as compared to three state-of-the art approaches. Results suggest that the sw-SVM promises to be useful in event-related potentials classification, even with a small number of training trials.

  18. Does SW Monsoon Influence Total Suspended Matter Flux into the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    Seasonal enhancement in the flux of total suspended matter (TSM) has been attributed to climatology of the SW monsoon (SWM) in time-series trap experiments conducted in the Arabian Sea. To determine the influence of climate on TSM flux, synoptic...

  19. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  20. Geochemistry of calcareous sediments from the SW Carlsberg Ridge: Evidence for deeper carbonate compensation depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Ambre, N.V.

    Concentration of Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Si, Ti, P and CaCO sub(3) show wide range for the calcareous sediments from SW Carlsberg Ridge (CR). Compared with the average pelagic clays, the CR sediments are enriched by Mg, Ni, Co, and Zn...

  1. Nitrogen Dynamics in the Westerschelde Estuary (Sw Netherlands) Estimated by Means of the Ecosystem Model Moses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Herman, P.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A tentative nitrogen budget for the Westerschelde (SW Netherlands) is constructed by means of a simulation model with thirteen spatial compartments. Biochemical and chemical processes in the water column are dynamically modeled; fluxes of dissolved constituents across the water-bottom interface are

  2. Contrasting styles of Sn-W mineralisation in peninsular Thailand and SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, D. A. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Sn-W deposits of SW England and SE Asia are associated with crustally derived granitic rocks with late volatile-enriched (F, Li, B, P) differentiates. In peninsular Thailand, primary ores are principally pegmatitic, and hydrothermal vein systems are only locally important. In SW England, wolframite and cassiterite mainly occur in hydrothermal vein systems, and are associated with greisening and tourmalinisation; mineralised pegmatites are rare. These two styles of mineralisation are thought to arise because of differences in the character of late magmatic processes. In peninsular Thailand, late-stage tourmaline-bearing granitic rocks are enriched in B, but not Li and F, compared to earlier biotite granites. Similar late-stage granitic rocks occur also in SW England, but a later topaz granite, enriched in F, Li and P, also occurs. The Thai pegmatitic Sn-W deposits are thought to have formed by late magmatic crystallisation from an aqueous phase enriched in metals and derived by exsolution from a B and metal-rich magma, whereas the SW England mineralisation involved essentially post-magmatic hydrothermal processes. Complexing agents (especially F) and metals may have been derived from granitic or country rocks during hydrothermal circulation at the current level of emplacement.

  3. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  4. Monitoring the potential introduction of the Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis variant (swCT) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morré, S. A.; Catsburg, A.; de Boer, M.; Spaargaren, J.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Schirm, J.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; van Steenbergen, J.; Swaan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the actions of public health experts in cooperation with specialists in sexually transmitted diseases (STD), epidemiologists and (molecular) microbiologists to investigate the possible introduction of the swCT variant in the Netherlands: 1. Investigating trends in CT

  5. Lateglacial and early Holocene tephrostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Store Slotseng basin, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes in the surr...

  6. Keurmerk voor sociaal aannamebeleid. Prestatieladder Socialer Ondernemer ook bruikbaar voor SW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.

    2012-01-01

    De Prestatieladder Socialer Ondernemen (PSO) geeft bedrijven die meer dan gemiddeld bijdragen aan werkgelegenheid voor personen met een afstand tot de arbeidsmarkt een erkenning. De PSO is 14 juni gelanceerd door TNO en ontwikkeld in samenwerking met onder andere zeven SW-bedrijven.ln dit artikeì de

  7. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  8. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  9. Supporting Document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for SX-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  10. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  11. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  12. Evaluating the Consistency of the 1982–1999 NDVI Trends in the Iberian Peninsula across Four Time-series Derived from the AVHRR Sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations’ carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982–1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast. PMID:22205868

  13. Evaluating the consistency of the 1982-1999 NDVI trends in the Iberian Peninsula across four time-series derived from the AVHRR sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations' carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982-1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast.

  14. Late Quaternary river channel migrations of the Kura River in Transcaucasia - tectonic versus climatic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Gärtner, Andreas; Hoth, Silvan; Umlauft, Josefine; Godoladze, Tea; Faust, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale river channel migrations either in the form of avulsions or combing, i.e. progressive lateral migrations, are global phenomena during the Late Quaternary. Such channel migrations were triggered by tectonics, climate change, human activity or a combination of those factors. River channel migrations have the potential to cause significant human and economic losses. Thus, a more thorough knowledge about underlying causes and process rates is essential. Furthermore, such studies will elucidate the sensitivity or robustness of rivers to different external and internal forcing-agents, i.e. they help to identify the dominant drivers of regional landscape evolution. The Caucasus region is part of the active collision zone between the Africa-Arabian and the Eurasian plates, and is characterized by high current tectonic activity. Furthermore, significant environmental changes took place during the Late Quaternary, i.e. the shrinking or even disappearance of glaciers in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus or fundamental changes of the vegetation cover varying between woodland and grassland-dominated vegetation. The Kura River is the main gaining stream of the Transcaucasian Depression located between the Greater Caucasus Mountains in the north and the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south, and receives several tributaries from both mountain ranges. This study focusses on the middle course of the Kura River in eastern Georgia, SE of the city of Tbilisi. Integration of fluvial geomorphology, geochronology, heavy mineral analyses and seismo-tectonic analyses demonstrates that this part of the Kura River underwent large-scale channel migrations up to >10 km during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. It is interpreted that these movements followed both tectonic and climatic triggers: Whereas SW-ward migrations were caused by tectonic uplift in and SW-directed advance of the Kura fold and thrust belt as part of the Greater Caucasus, NE-ward migrations occurred during cold

  15. Micromammal biostratigraphy of the Alcoy Basin (Eastern Spain): remarks on the Mio-Pliocene boundary of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansino, S.; Fierro, I.; Tossal, A.; Montoya, P.; Ruiz-Sánchez, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The study of 13 micromammal localities in the southern section of the Gormaget ravine (Alcoi Basin, SE Spain) and another 4 localities in the northern section has allowed us to define four local biozones in the dawn of the Pliocene, possibly recording the Mio-Pliocene boundary. The great density of localities close to the Mio-Pliocene boundary has enabled us to achieve a great resolution in the biozonation of the earliest Pliocene, only comparable in the Iberian Peninsula to the record of the Teruel Basin (NE Spain). We interpret these biozones in the light ofthe Neogene Mammal units and the European Land Mammal Ages, and correlate them with other local biozones defined for the same time span in the Iberian Peninsula.

  16. A New World Engendered: Intersections. The Making of the Iberian Transatlantic Empires – XVI to XIX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Stolke

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the intersections developed under the colonial Spanish empire among gender relations, feminine sexuality concepts, family honor and State regulation. The way the multiple moral, social, juridical and religious norms in relation to sexuality and relations between women and men interacted with the social/political inequalities in the Iberian colonial experience will be analyzed. The New World provides a particularly clear example of the dynamic intersections between contemporary ideas and ideals about sex/gender and race/ethnicity and social class that became manifest on the new identification systems, classification and social discrimination forged in the consolidation of the Iberian American colonial society. It also becomes an example of the consequences that the sexual morality and the prevailing gender stereotypes have had in all the aspects of women’s lives.

  17. Micromammal biostratigraphy of the Alcoy Basin (Eastern Spain): remarks on the Mio-Pliocene boundary of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansino, S.; Fierro, I.; Tossal, A.; Montoya, P.; Ruiz-Sánchez, F.J.

    2017-11-01

    The study of 13 micromammal localities in the southern section of the Gormaget ravine (Alcoi Basin, SE Spain) and another 4 localities in the northern section has allowed us to define four local biozones in the dawn of the Pliocene, possibly recording the Mio-Pliocene boundary. The great density of localities close to the Mio-Pliocene boundary has enabled us to achieve a great resolution in the biozonation of the earliest Pliocene, only comparable in the Iberian Peninsula to the record of the Teruel Basin (NE Spain). We interpret these biozones in the light ofthe Neogene Mammal units and the European Land Mammal Ages, and correlate them with other local biozones defined for the same time span in the Iberian Peninsula.

  18. Strain indicators and magnetic fabric in intraplate fault zones: Case study of Daroca thrust, Iberian Chain, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Simón, J. L.; Izquierdo-Llavall, E.; Aldega, L.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Osácar, M. C.; Pueyo-Anchuela, Ó.; Ansón, M.; García-Lasanta, C.; Corrado, S.; Invernizzi, C.; Caricchi, C.

    2018-04-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been applied to the study of shallow fault zones, although interpretation of the results requires establishing clear relationships between petrofabric and magnetic features, magnetic behaviour of fault rocks, and an extensive knowledge of P-T conditions. In this work, we demonstrate that magnetic methods can be applied to the study of heterogeneous fault zones, provided that a series of requisites are met. A major fault zone within the Iberian plate (Daroca thrust), showing transpressional movements during Cenozoic time was chosen for this purpose, because of the exceptional outcrops of fault gouge and microbreccia and its relevance within the context of the northeastern Iberian Plate. Magnetic fabrics were analysed and the results were compared with foliation and S-C structures measured within the fault zone. Clay mineral assemblages suggest maximum burial depths shallower than 2 km (kinematic indicators are consistent with a reverse movement for most of the fault zone.

  19. Daily gridded datasets of snow depth and snow water equivalent for the Iberian Peninsula from 1980 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-González, Esteban; López-Moreno, J. Ignacio; Gascoin, Simon; García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Revuelto, Jesús; Ceballos, Antonio; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María; Essery, Richard

    2018-02-01

    We present snow observations and a validated daily gridded snowpack dataset that was simulated from downscaled reanalysis of data for the Iberian Peninsula. The Iberian Peninsula has long-lasting seasonal snowpacks in its different mountain ranges, and winter snowfall occurs in most of its area. However, there are only limited direct observations of snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE), making it difficult to analyze snow dynamics and the spatiotemporal patterns of snowfall. We used meteorological data from downscaled reanalyses as input of a physically based snow energy balance model to simulate SWE and SD over the Iberian Peninsula from 1980 to 2014. More specifically, the ERA-Interim reanalysis was downscaled to 10 km × 10 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF outputs were used directly, or as input to other submodels, to obtain data needed to drive the Factorial Snow Model (FSM). We used lapse rate coefficients and hygrobarometric adjustments to simulate snow series at 100 m elevations bands for each 10 km × 10 km grid cell in the Iberian Peninsula. The snow series were validated using data from MODIS satellite sensor and ground observations. The overall simulated snow series accurately reproduced the interannual variability of snowpack and the spatial variability of snow accumulation and melting, even in very complex topographic terrains. Thus, the presented dataset may be useful for many applications, including land management, hydrometeorological studies, phenology of flora and fauna, winter tourism, and risk management. The data presented here are freely available for download from Zenodo (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.854618). This paper fully describes the work flow, data validation, uncertainty assessment, and possible applications and limitations of the database.

  20. The Archaeology of Architecture. New models of analysis applied to structures of Alta Andalusia in the Iberian period

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Julia

    1998-01-01

    New theories of architectural space, based on the philosophy of Lao-Tsé emerged at the end of nineteenth century. Interior space was now considered the core of architecture. Developing concepts of the movement of the human body in this space, new contributions focused on the detailed study of architecture have led to the creation of a new discipline called the Archaeology of Architecture. New models of analysis, based on access and visibility, are applied to the interior space of Iberian dome...

  1. Late Pleistocene deglaciation chronology in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula using cosmic-ray produced 21Ne in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Mosquera, D.; Marti, K.; Romani, J.R. Vidal; Weigel, A.

    2000-01-01

    Late Pleistocene glaciations in the NW Iberian Peninsula over Serra de Queixa and Serra de Xures, all with granite substrata, were studied by mass spectrometry using cosmogenic 21 Ne. Rock cores were drilled in glacial polished surfaces and push-moraine boulders, and were analyzed to determine their integral exposure time to cosmic rays. First results, which are consistent with the relative geomorphologic model estimates, allow the identification of at least three different glacial stages, with the latest terminating about 15 ka BP

  2. Characterization of Stream Channel Evolution Due to Extensional Tectonics Along the Western Margin of North Boulder Basin (Bull Mountain), SW Montana with the Use of Geologic Mapping and Thermochronologic (U-Th/He) Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, K.; Douglas, B. J.; Yanites, B.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape response to active tectonics, such as fault motion or regional uplift, can be recorded in river profiles as changes in slope (i.e. knickpoints) or topography. North Boulder basin region (SW Montana), experienced two separate phases of extension, from 45 - 35 Ma and again beginning 14 Ma to the present, producing basin-and-range style fault-blocks. Focusing on the Bull Mountain region, located on the western margin of the North Boulder basin, data is collected to test the hypothesis that Bull Mountain is located on the hanging wall of a half-graben. Our objective is to elucidate the active tectonics of the study area within a regional context by utilizing river profile analysis and thermochronometric data. High-resolution (distribution of water, which is an important commodity in SW Montana for ranchers and farmers. Thus, the ability to discern the probability of recurring tectonic events and the effects on the regional watersheds, could help facilitate solutions before these events take place.

  3. How climate change will affect sessile stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in mountain streams of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, José M.; Alonso, Carlos; García de Jalón, Diego; Solana, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Streamflow and temperature regimes are determinant for the availability of suitable physical habitat for instream biological communities. Iberian brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations live in a climatic border in which summer water scarcity and raising temperatures will compromise their viability throughout the current century. Due to their impaired mobility, sessile stages of trout life cycle (i.e. eggs and larvae) are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changing conditions. At a given spawning redd, thermal habitat is limited by the length of the period at which suitable temperatures occur. At the same time, suitable physical habitat is limited by the instream flow regime during spawning and incubation of eggs and larvae. Temperature and flow do also interact, thus producing synergistic effects on both physical and thermal habitats. This study is aimed at quantitatively predicting thermal and physical habitat loss for the sessile stages of brown trout life cycle due to clime change, in mountain streams at the rear edge of the species natural distribution using high-resolution spatial-temporal simulations of the thermal and physical habitat. Two streams of Central Spain have been studied (Cega and Lozoya streams). Daily temperature and flow data from ad hoc downscaled IPCC (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) predictions were used as input variables. Physical habitat changes were simulated from previously predicted stream flow data by means of hydraulic simulation tools (River2D). By taking into account the thermal tolerance limits and the proportion of lost physical habitat, limiting factors for the reproduction of brown trout in the study area were determined. The general increase of mean temperatures shortens the duration of the early developmental stages. This reduction of the sessile period is rather similar in both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios by 2050. Differences between both scenarios become greater by 2099. The duration of sessile developmental is reduced

  4. Atmospheric Rivers in Europe: impacts, predictability, and future climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Tome, R.; Sousa, P. M.; Liberato, M. L. R.; Lavers, D.; Trigo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years a strong relationship has been found between Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) and extreme precipitation and floods across western Europe, with some regions having 8 of their top 10 annual maxima precipitation events related to ARs. In the particular case of the Iberian Peninsula, the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western river basins is noteworthy, while for the eastern and southern basins the impact of ARs is reduced. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin, allowing the identification of major ARs affecting western European coasts in the present climate and under different climate change scenarios. We have used both reanalyzes and six General Circulation models under three climate scenarios (the control simulation, the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios). The western coast of Europe was divided into five domains, namely the Iberian Peninsula, France, UK, Southern Scandinavia and the Netherlands, and Northern Scandinavia. It was found that there is an increase in the vertically integrated horizontal water transport which led to an increase in the AR frequency, a result more visible in the high emission scenarios (RCP8.5) for the 2074-2099 period. Since ARs are associated with high impact weather, it is important to study their predictability. This assessment was performed with the ECMWF ensemble forecasts up to 10 days for winters 2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16 for events that made landfall in the Iberian Peninsula. We show the model's potential added value to detect upcoming ARs events, which is particularly useful to predict potential hydrometeorological extremes. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the project FORLAND - Hydrogeomorphologic risk in Portugal: driving forces and application for land use planning [PTDC / ATPGEO / 1660/2014] funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal. A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT

  5. Lessons learned from the ATLAS performance studies of the Iberian Cloud for the first LHC running period.

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Martínez, V; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; del Peso, J; Delfino, M; Gomes, J; González de la Hoz, S; Pacheco Pages, A; Salt, J; Sedov, A; Villaplana, M; Wolters, H

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we describe the performance of the Iberian (Spain and Portugal) ATLAS cloud during the first LHC running period (March 2010-January 2013) in the context of the GRID Computing and Data Distribution Model. The evolution of the resources for CPU, disk and tape in the Iberian Tier-1 and Tier-2s is summarized. The data distribution over all ATLAS destinations is shown, focusing on the number of files transferred and the size of the data. The status and distribution of simulation and analysis jobs within the cloud are discussed. The Distributed Analysis tools used to perform physics analysis are explained as well. Cloud performance in terms of the availability and reliability of its sites is discussed. The e ffect of the changes in the ATLAS Computing Model on the cloud is analyzed. Finally, the readiness of the Iberian Cloud towards the fi rst Long Shutdown (LS1) is evaluated and an outline of the foreseen actions to take in the coming years is given. The shutdown will be a good opportunity to...

  6. Καλπε: The Etymology of the Oldest Place Names on the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Kamari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the issue of the origin of toponym Καλπε (Calpe, which can be rightfully called one of the oldest place names on the Iberian Peninsula. For a long time, the etymology of Καλπε has troubled the minds of historians, geographers, and linguists. However, only a few of them seriously studied the origin of the place name. In spite of that, mainly Iberian and Greek versions of the origin of the toponym have been reviewed to study this question, thereby leaving aside other points of view. Based on the data of Ancient Greek and Roman sources in which it is written that the Phoenicians and Semitized Iberian tribes Bastetani or Baestuli lived around Καλπε, the conclusions have been made about their role and importance in the appearance of the place name. Furthermore, the work uses linguistic comparative data which testify the probability of Semitic origin of the toponym.

  7. Widespread secondary contact and new glacial refugia in the halophilic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Sergi; Serra, Manuel; Carmona, María José; Gómez, Africa

    2011-01-01

    Small aquatic organisms harbour deep phylogeographic patterns and highly structured populations even at local scales. These patterns indicate restricted gene flow, despite these organisms' high dispersal abilities, and have been explained by a combination of (1) strong founder effects due to rapidly growing populations and very large population sizes, and (2) the development of diapausing egg banks and local adaptation, resulting in low effective gene flow, what is known as the Monopolization hypothesis. In this study, we build up on our understanding of the mitochondrial phylogeography of the halophilic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the Iberian Peninsula by both increasing the number of sampled ponds in areas where secondary contact is likely and doubling sample sizes. We analyzed partial mitochondrial sequences of 252 individuals. We found two deep mitochondrial DNA lineages differing in both their genetic diversity and the complexity of their phylogeographic structure. Our analyses suggest that several events of secondary contact between clades occurred after their expansion from glacial refugia. We found a pattern of isolation-by-distance, which we interpret as being the result of historical colonization events. We propose the existence of at least one glacial refugium in the SE of the Iberian Peninsula. Our findings challenge predictions of the Monopolization hypothesis, since coexistence (i.e., secondary contact) of divergent lineages in some ponds in the Iberian Peninsula is common. Our results indicate that phylogeographic structures in small organisms can be very complex and that gene flow between diverse lineages after population establishment can indeed occur.

  8. Widespread secondary contact and new glacial refugia in the halophilic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Campillo

    Full Text Available Small aquatic organisms harbour deep phylogeographic patterns and highly structured populations even at local scales. These patterns indicate restricted gene flow, despite these organisms' high dispersal abilities, and have been explained by a combination of (1 strong founder effects due to rapidly growing populations and very large population sizes, and (2 the development of diapausing egg banks and local adaptation, resulting in low effective gene flow, what is known as the Monopolization hypothesis. In this study, we build up on our understanding of the mitochondrial phylogeography of the halophilic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the Iberian Peninsula by both increasing the number of sampled ponds in areas where secondary contact is likely and doubling sample sizes. We analyzed partial mitochondrial sequences of 252 individuals. We found two deep mitochondrial DNA lineages differing in both their genetic diversity and the complexity of their phylogeographic structure. Our analyses suggest that several events of secondary contact between clades occurred after their expansion from glacial refugia. We found a pattern of isolation-by-distance, which we interpret as being the result of historical colonization events. We propose the existence of at least one glacial refugium in the SE of the Iberian Peninsula. Our findings challenge predictions of the Monopolization hypothesis, since coexistence (i.e., secondary contact of divergent lineages in some ponds in the Iberian Peninsula is common. Our results indicate that phylogeographic structures in small organisms can be very complex and that gene flow between diverse lineages after population establishment can indeed occur.

  9. Identification of gene pools used in restoration and conservation by chloroplast microsatellite markers in Iberian pine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Hernández-Tecles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To contribute to the characterization of the origin of material used in afforestation, restoration or conservation activities by using Cp-SSR markers. Area of study: We used information from the natural range of Iberian pines, from Spain. Materials and methods: We used Iberian pines as an example to undertook gene pool characterization based on a wide Iberian sample of 97 populations from five Pinus species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus uncinata. Haplotypes from each analyzed tree (derived from nine chloroplast microsatellites markers in P. halepensis and six in the rest of the species were obtained. Based on this information we subdivided each species in regions (considering both genetic structure and its application in afforestation, restoration and conservation programs and tested the assignation of populations to the different groups based on the genetic distance among samples. Main results: The rate of successful identification of populations among the different species was very high (> 94 % for P. nigra, P. sylvestris and P. uncinata, high (81 % for P. pinaster, and low (< 65 % for P. halepensis. Research highlights: Chloroplast DNA markers from extensive population datasets can be used to assign the origin of the forest reproductive material in some pine species.

  10. Lessons learned from the ATLAS performance studies of the Iberian Cloud for the first LHC running period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, V; Hoz, S González de la; Salt, J; Villaplana, M; Borges, G; Gomes, J; Borrego, C; Pages, A Pacheco; Sedov, A; Peso, J del; Delfino, M; Wolters, H

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we describe the performance of the Iberian (Spain and Portugal) ATLAS cloud during the first LHC running period (March 2010-January 2013) in the context of the GRID Computing and Data Distribution Model. The evolution of the resources for CPU, disk and tape in the Iberian Tier-1 and Tier-2s is summarized. The data distribution over all ATLAS destinations is shown, focusing on the number of files transferred and the size of the data. The status and distribution of simulation and analysis jobs within the cloud are discussed. The Distributed Analysis tools used to perform physics analysis are explained as well. Cloud performance in terms of the availability and reliability of its sites is discussed. The effect of the changes in the ATLAS Computing Model on the cloud is analyzed. Finally, the readiness of the Iberian Cloud towards the first Long Shutdown (LS1) is evaluated and an outline of the foreseen actions to take in the coming years is given. The shutdown will be a good opportunity to improve and evolve the ATLAS Distributed Computing system to prepare for the future challenges of the LHC operation.

  11. Identification of gene pools used in restoration and conservation by chloroplast microsatellite markers in Iberian pine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; De las Heras, Jorge; Lorenzo, Zaida; Navascués, Miguel; Alia, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To contribute to the characterization of the origin of material used in afforestation, restoration or conservation activities by using Cp-SSR markers. Area of study: We used information from the natural range of Iberian pines, from Spain. Materials and methods: We used Iberian pines as an example to undertook gene pool characterization based on a wide Iberian sample of 97 populations from five Pinus species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus uncinata). Haplotypes from each analyzed tree (derived from nine chloroplast microsatellites markers in P. halepensis and six in the rest of the species) were obtained. Based on this information we subdivided each species in regions (considering both genetic structure and its application in afforestation, restoration and conservation programs) and tested the assignation of populations to the different groups based on the genetic distance among samples. Main results: The rate of successful identification of populations among the different species was very high (> 94 %) for P. nigra, P. sylvestris and P. uncinata, high (81 %) for P. pinaster, and low (< 65 %) for P. halepensis. Research highlights: Chloroplast DNA markers from extensive population datasets can be used to assign the origin of the forest reproductive material in some pine species.

  12. Identification of gene pools used in restoration and conservation by chloroplast microsatellite markers in Iberian pine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; De las Heras, Jorge; Lorenzo, Zaida; Navascués, Miguel; Alia, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To contribute to the characterization of the origin of material used in afforestation, restoration or conservation activities by using Cp-SSR markers. Area of study: We used information from the natural range of Iberian pines, from Spain. Materials and methods: We used Iberian pines as an example to undertook gene pool characterization based on a wide Iberian sample of 97 populations from five Pinus species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus uncinata). Haplotypes from each analyzed tree (derived from nine chloroplast microsatellites markers in P. halepensis and six in the rest of the species) were obtained. Based on this information we subdivided each species in regions (considering both genetic structure and its application in afforestation, restoration and conservation programs) and tested the assignation of populations to the different groups based on the genetic distance among samples. Main results: The rate of successful identification of populations among the different species was very high (> 94 %) for P. nigra, P. sylvestris and P. uncinata, high (81 %) for P. pinaster, and low (< 65 %) for P. halepensis. Research highlights: Chloroplast DNA markers from extensive population datasets can be used to assign the origin of the forest reproductive material in some pine species.

  13. The Punta Lucero Quarry site (Zierbena, Bizkaia): a window into the Middle Pleistocene in the Northern Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Sala, Nohemi; Arceredillo, Diego; García, Nuria; Martínez-Pillado, Virginia; Rios-Garaizar, Joseba; Garate, Diego; Solar, Gonzalo; Libano, Iñaki

    2015-08-01

    The period between the end of the Early Pleistocene and the mid-Middle Pleistocene (roughly between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma BP) is of great interest in Western Europe. It witnessed several climatic oscillations and changes in the fauna, the demise of a hominin species and the appearance of another, along with important cultural and technological changes. Thus, the few available sites with these chronologies is vital to the understanding of the tempo and mode of these changes. Middle Pleistocene sites in the Northern Iberian Peninsula are very rare. Here we present the study of the site found at the Punta Lucero Quarry (Biscay province, Northern Iberian Peninsula), which includes for the first time the complete collection from the site. The fossil association from this site includes several ungulates, such as a Megacerine deer, Cervus elaphus, large bovids (likely both Bos primigenius and Bison sp. are present), Stephanorhinus sp., and carnivores, such as Homotherium latidens, Panthera gombaszoegensis, Canis mosbachensis and Vulpes sp. This association is typical of a middle Middle Pleistocene chronology and would be the oldest macro-mammal site in the Eastern Cantabrian region. This site would likely correspond to a chronology after Mode 1 technological complex and before the arrival of Mode 2 technology in this region. Thus, it offers a glimpse into the paleoecological conditions slightly prior to or contemporaneous with the first Acheulian makers in the northern fringe of the Iberian Peninsula.

  14. Crustal deformation pattern of the Morocco-Iberian area: constraints from 14 years of GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo; Fernandez, Josè

    2014-05-01

    We present an improved rendition of crustal motion field of the Morocco-Iberian area, based on an extensive GPS dataset covering about 14 years of observations from 1999.00 up to 2013.79 in order to provide a detailed spatial resolution of geodetic velocity and strain-rate fields. In particular, we included all available data from public continuous GPS stations, considering also data coming from networks developed mainly for mapping, engineering and cadastre purposes. In addition to continuous GPS sites, we included data from 31 episodic GPS sites located in Morocco with surveys spanning the 1999-2006 time interval, whose data are available through the UNAVCO archive (www.unavco.org). All GPS data were processed by using the GAMIT/GLOBK software, taking into account precise ephemerides from the IGS (International GNSS Service; http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov) and Earth orientation parameters from the International Earth Rotation Service (http://www.iers.org). To improve the overall configuration of the network and tie the regional measurements to an external global reference frame, data coming from more than 25 continuously operating global tracking stations, largely from the IGS and EUREF permanent networks, were introduced in the processing. All stations were organized (and processed) into seven sub-networks of about 40-50 sites each, on average, sharing a few common sites to provide ties between them. Finally, by using the GLORG module of GLOBK, the GAMIT-solutions and their full covariance matrices were combined to estimated a consistent set of positions and velocities in the ITRF2008 reference frame by minimizing the horizontal velocity of the continuously operating global tracking stations mentioned above. To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern over the study area, we aligned our estimated GPS velocities to an Eurasian and a Nubian fixed reference frames. In addition, by taking into account the observed GPS horizontal velocity field and

  15. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  16. Trends of coastal and oceanic ST along the Western Iberian Peninsula over the period 1975- 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; deCastro, M.; Álvarez, I.; Sousa, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature is observed to have different trends at coastal and oceanic locations along the western Iberian Peninsula (from 43.25oN to 37.25oN and from 9.75°W to 14.75°W) from 1975 to 2006. This period corresponds with the last warming period in the area under study. The analysis was carried out by means of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) package. Reanalysis of ocean climate variability are available at monthly scale with a horizontal resolution of 0.5o- 0.5o and a vertical resolution of 40 levels which allows us to obtain information beneath the sea surface levels (http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~ocean/). Only the first 21 vertical levels (from 5.0 m to 729.35 m) were considered since the most important changes in the heat content observed in the world ocean during the last decades, correspond to the upper 700m (Levitus et al., 2009). Warming was observed to be considerably higher at ocean locations than at coastal ones at the same latitude. This behavior is observed throughout the water column. Ocean warming ranged from values on the order of 0.3 °C dec-1 near surface to 0.1 °C dec-1 at 500 m depth. On the contrary, the coastal warming is much smaller, reaching values close to 0.2 °C dec-1 near surface and decreasing rapidly at values below 0.1 °C dec-1 for depths on the order of 50 m. Actually, coastal warming is practically negligible under 50 m. The different warming rates near coast and at ocean locations have been previously described for SST by the authors (Santos et al, 2011, 2012). The weaker coastal warming compared with the ocean warming at the same latitude was related to the presence of coastal upwelling. Coastal upwelling is the most importing forcing mechanism in the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula pumping cold water from below to near surface layers. In this sense, the heat diffusion from the atmosphere is constrained to near surface area by advection, which mixes deeper colder water with warmer surface water. The heat content

  17. Analysis of the convective timescale during the major floods in the NE Iberian Peninsula since 1871

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, David; Reynés, Artur; Mazon, Jordi; Carles Balasch, Josep; Lluis Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi; Barriendos, Mariano; Castelltort, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Floods are the most severe natural hazard in the western Mediterranean basin. They cause most of the damages and most of the victims. Some of the selected floods caused more than one hundred casualties each and a large quantity of damages in infrastructures. In a previous work (Balasch, et al., 2015), using the PREDIFLOOD database (Barriendos et al., 2014) we studied the atmospheric conditions that occurred during some of the most important floods occurred in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula in the last centuries: 1874, 1875, 1894, 1897, 1898, 1901, 1907, 1913, 1919, 1932, 1937, 1940, 1962, 1963, 1977, 1994, 1996, and 2000. We analyzed the atmospheric synoptic situations at the time of each flood from the data provided by NOAA 20th Century Reanalysis and we compared it to the rainfall spatial distributions obtained with the hydrological modeling. In this work we enlarge the previous investigation by analyzing the evolution of a convective index proposed by Done et al. (2006) and modified by Molini et al. (2011). This index, called convective time scale, is obtained from the evolution of CAPE and is used to separate equilibrium and non-equilibrium convection. In the former, CAPE generated by large-scale processes is balanced by the consumption due to convection. In the second case, CAPE is created by large-scale processes over a long time and is rapidly consumed during outbreaks of convection. Both situations produced a totally different evolution of CAPE with low and approximately constant values in the first case and large and variable values in the second. Additionally, from this index it can be estimated the rainfall rate. We use data provided by NOAA 20th Century Reanalysis, to calculate the convective time scale and to analyze its evolution and horizontal distribution. We study the correspondence between the convective timescale, the season when the flood occurred, duration of the rainfall, and the specific peak flow rate of the flood. Finally, for the

  18. Seed morphology of Iberian species of the genus Aconitum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Julià

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A biometric-morphological study of' the seeds of the taxons of the genus Aconitum L. occurring in the Iberian peninsula is given. The following features are treated: 1 arrangement of the seeds on the follicle, 2 definition of the parameters (general shape and ornamentation of the episperm, 3 biometry, and 4 description of the seeds of the Iberian taxa. Microcharacteristics related to the seed coat, shape and ornamentation or the insertion base (hilum and surrounding cells have been found most useful in differentiating the taxa; furthermore, they may provide more phylogenetic information than other features. The results given agree generally with those reported by other authors (Seitz, 1969; Cappeleti & Poldini, 1984 but some important discrepancies have been noted with reference to seminal morphology, particularly episperm ornamentation in the species A. anthora. A. napellus s.l., A. burnatii and A. vulparia subsp. ranunculifolium. Seminal polymorphism is frequently observed in different geographically isolated colonies or the same species or subspecies. both in the Iberian Peninsula and in Central and Southern Europe. We conclude that polymorphism is further evidence of the phenotypical flexibility of this genus, probably owing to genetic drift in the populations. This flexibility is particularly important in colonizing species or wide ecological valence (A . napellus, s. l.; A. vulparia s.l..

    [ca] Es presenta un estudi morfològica-biomètric de les granes dels tàxons del gènere Aconitum L. presents a la Península Ibèrica. Es tracten aspectes que fan referència a: 1 disposició de les granes al fol-licle. 2 definició de paràmetres (forma general i ornamentació de l'episperma, 3 biometria i 4 descripció de les granes dels representants ibèrics. Els microcaràcters relacionats fonamentalment amb el relleu epispèrmic, forma i ornamentació de la base d'inserció (hílum i

  19. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  20. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L −1 (mean of 45 ng · L −1 ), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L −1 for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L −1 for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains of the Iberian

  1. Spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ausín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of the spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution through the water column of the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system was performed. From July 2011 to June 2012, monthly sampling at various water depths was conducted at two parallel stations located at 42° N. Total coccosphere abundance was higher at the outer-shelf station, where warmer, nutrient-depleted waters favoured coccolithophore rather than phytoplanktonic diatom blooms, which are known to dominate the inner-shelf location. In seasonal terms, higher coccosphere and coccolith abundances were registered at both stations during upwelling seasons, coinciding with high irradiance levels. This was typically in conjunction with stratified, nutrient-poor conditions (i.e. relaxing upwelling conditions. However, it also occurred during some upwelling events of colder, nutrient-rich subsurface waters onto the continental shelf. Minimum abundances were generally found during downwelling periods, with unexpectedly high coccolith abundance registered in subsurface waters at the inner-shelf station. This finding can only be explained if strong storms during these downwelling periods favoured resuspension processes, thus remobilizing deposited coccoliths from surface sediments, and hence hampering the identification of autochthonous coccolithophore community structure. At both locations, the major coccolithophore assemblages were dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, small Gephyrocapsa group, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda, Syracosphaera spp., Coronosphaera mediterranea, and Calcidiscus leptoporus. Ecological preferences of the different taxa were assessed by exploring the relationships between environmental conditions and temporal and vertical variability in coccosphere abundance. These findings provide relevant information for the use of fossil coccolith assemblages in marine sediment records, in order to infer past

  2. Spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausín, Blanca; Zúñiga, Diana; Flores, Jose A.; Cavaleiro, Catarina; Froján, María; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolás; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Arbones, Belén; Santos, Celia; de la Granda, Francisco; Castro, Carmen G.; Abrantes, Fátima; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Salgueiro, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution through the water column of the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system was performed. From July 2011 to June 2012, monthly sampling at various water depths was conducted at two parallel stations located at 42° N. Total coccosphere abundance was higher at the outer-shelf station, where warmer, nutrient-depleted waters favoured coccolithophore rather than phytoplanktonic diatom blooms, which are known to dominate the inner-shelf location. In seasonal terms, higher coccosphere and coccolith abundances were registered at both stations during upwelling seasons, coinciding with high irradiance levels. This was typically in conjunction with stratified, nutrient-poor conditions (i.e. relaxing upwelling conditions). However, it also occurred during some upwelling events of colder, nutrient-rich subsurface waters onto the continental shelf. Minimum abundances were generally found during downwelling periods, with unexpectedly high coccolith abundance registered in subsurface waters at the inner-shelf station. This finding can only be explained if strong storms during these downwelling periods favoured resuspension processes, thus remobilizing deposited coccoliths from surface sediments, and hence hampering the identification of autochthonous coccolithophore community structure. At both locations, the major coccolithophore assemblages were dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, small Gephyrocapsa group, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda, Syracosphaera spp., Coronosphaera mediterranea, and Calcidiscus leptoporus. Ecological preferences of the different taxa were assessed by exploring the relationships between environmental conditions and temporal and vertical variability in coccosphere abundance. These findings provide relevant information for the use of fossil coccolith assemblages in marine sediment records, in order to infer past environmental conditions, of

  3. Sensitivity of fire weather index to different reanalysis products in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bedia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires are a major concern on the Iberian Peninsula, and the establishment of effective prevention and early warning systems are crucial to reduce impacts and losses. Fire weather indices are daily indicators of fire danger based upon meteorological information. However, their application in many studies is conditioned to the availability of sufficiently large climatological time series over extensive geographical areas and of sufficient quality. Furthermore, wind and relative humidity, important for the calculation of fire spread and fuel flammability parameters, are relatively scarce data. For these reasons, different reanalysis products are often used for the calculation of surrogate fire danger indices, although the agreement with those derived from observations remains as an open question to be addressed.

    In this study, we analyze this problem focusing on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI – and the associated Seasonal Severity Rating (SSR – and considering three different reanalysis products of varying resolutions on the Iberian Peninsula: NCEP, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim. Besides the inter-comparison of the resulting FWI/SSR values, we also study their correspondence with observational data from 7 weather stations in Spain and their sensitivity to the input parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity.

    As a general result, ERA-Interim reproduces the observed FWI magnitudes with better accuracy than NCEP, with lower/higher correlations in the coast/inland locations. For instance, ERA-Interim summer correlations are above 0.5 in inland locations – where higher FWI magnitudes are attained – whereas the corresponding values for NCEP are below this threshold. Nevertheless, departures from the observed distributions are generally found in all reanalysis, with a general tendency to underestimation, more pronounced in the case of NCEP. In spite of these limitations, ERA-Interim may still

  4. Transfer function modeling of the monthly accumulated rainfall series over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Vidal L.; Garcia, Jose A.; Serrano, Antonio; De la Cruz Gallego, Maria [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    In order to improve the results given by Autoregressive Moving-Average (ARMA) modeling for the monthly accumulated rainfall series taken at 19 observatories of the Iberian Peninsula, a Discrete Linear Transfer Function Noise (DLTFN) model was applied taking the local pressure series (LP), North Atlantic sea level pressure series (SLP) and North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) as input variables, and the rainfall series as the output series. In all cases, the performance of the DLTFN models, measured by the explained variance of the rainfall series, is better than the performance given by the ARMA modeling. The best performance is given by the models that take the local pressure as the input variable, followed by the sea level pressure models and the sea surface temperature models. Geographically speaking, the models fitted to those observatories located in the west of the Iberian Peninsula work better than those on the north and east of the Peninsula. Also, it was found that there is a region located between 0 N and 20 N, which shows the highest cross-correlation between SST and the peninsula rainfalls. This region moves to the west and northwest off the Peninsula when the SLP series are used. [Spanish] Con el objeto de mejorar los resultados porporcionados por los modelos Autorregresivo Media Movil (ARMA) ajustados a las precipitaciones mensuales acumuladas registradas en 19 observatorios de la Peninsula Iberica se han usado modelos de funcion de transferencia (DLTFN) en los que se han empleado como variable independiente la presion local (LP), la presion a nivel del mar (SLP) o la temperatura de agua del mar (SST) en el Atlantico Norte. En todos los casos analizados, los resultados obtenidos con los modelos DLTFN, medidos mediante la varianza explicada por el modelo, han sido mejores que los resultados proporcionados por los modelos ARMA. Los mejores resultados han sido dados por aquellos modelos que usan la presion local como variable de entrada, seguidos

  5. Structural and climatic determinants of demographic rates of Scots pine forests across the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà-Cabrera, Albert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Vayreda, Jordi; Retana, Javier

    2011-06-01

    The demographic rates of tree species typically show large spatial variation across their range. Understanding the environmental factors underlying this variation is a key topic in forest ecology, with far-reaching management implications. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) covers large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, the Iberian Peninsula being its southwestern distribution limit. In recent decades, an increase in severe droughts and a densification of forests as a result of changes in forest uses have occurred in this region. Our aim was to use climate and stand structure data to explain mortality and growth patterns of Scots pine forests across the Iberian Peninsula. We used data from 2392 plots dominated by Scots pine, sampled for the National Forest Inventory of Spain. Plots were sampled from 1986 to 1996 (IFN2) and were resampled from 1997 to 2007 (IFN3), allowing for the calculation of growth and mortality rates. We fitted linear models to assess the response of growth and mortality rates to the spatial variability of climate, climatic anomalies, and forest structure. Over the period of approximately 10 years between the IFN2 and IFN3, the amount of standing dead trees increased 11-fold. Higher mortality rates were related to dryness, and growth was reduced with increasing dryness and temperature, but results also suggested that effects of climatic stressors were not restricted to dry sites only. Forest structure was strongly related to demographic rates, suggesting that stand development and competition are the main factors associated with demography. In the case of mortality, forest structure interacted with climate, suggesting that competition for water resources induces tree mortality in dry sites. A slight negative relationship was found between mortality and growth, indicating that both rates are likely to be affected by the same stress factors. Additionally, regeneration tended to be lower in plots with higher mortality. Taken together, our results

  6. Groundwater dependant vegetation identified by remote sensing in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Pascoa, Patrícia; Kurz-Besson, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater Dependant Ecosystems (GDEs) are defined as ecosystems whose composition, structure, and function depend on the water supplies from groundwater aquifers. Within GDEs, phreatophytes are terrestrial plants relying on groundwater through deep rooting. They can be found worldwide but are mostly adapted to environments facing scarce water availability or recurrent drought periods mainly in semi-arid to arid climate geographical areas, such as the Mediterranean basin. We present a map of the potential distribution of GDEs over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) obtained by remote sensing and identifying hotspots corresponding to the most vulnerable areas for rainfed vegetation facing the risk of desertification. The characterization of GDEs was assessed by remote sensing (RS), using CORINE land-cover information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from VEGETATION recorded between 1998 and 2014 with a resolution of 1km. The methodology based on Gou et al (2015) relied on three approaches to map GDEs over the IP by: i) Detecting vegetation remaining green during the dry periods, since GDEs are more likely to show high NDVI values during summer of dry years; ii) Spotting vegetation with low seasonal changes since GDEs are more prone to have the lowest NDVI standard deviation along an entire year, and iii) Discriminating vegetation with low inter-annual variability since GDEs areas should provide the lowest NDVI changes between extreme wet and dry years. A geospatial analysis was performed to gather the potential area of GDEs (obtained with NDVI), vegetation land cover types (CORINE land cover) and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index SPEI). This analysis allowed the identification of hotspots of the most vulnerable areas for rainfed vegetation regarding water scarcity over the Iberian Peninsula, where protection measures should be urgently applied to sustain rainfed ecosystem and agro

  7. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.pombal@usc.es [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  8. Geomorphological and sedimentary processes of the glacially influenced northwestern Iberian continental margin and abyssal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llave, Estefanía; Jané, Gloria; Maestro, Adolfo; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Mink, Sandra

    2018-07-01

    The offshore region of northwestern Iberia offers an opportunity to study the impacts of along-slope processes on the morphology of a glacially influenced continental margin, which has traditionally been conceptually characterised by predominant down-slope sedimentary processes. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter and ultrahigh-resolution seismic reflection profile data are integrated and analysed to describe the present-day and recent geomorphological features and to interpret their associated sedimentary processes. Seventeen large-scale seafloor morphologies and sixteen individual echo types, interpreted as structural features (escarpments, marginal platforms and related fluid escape structures) and depositional and erosional bedforms developed either by the influence of bottom currents (moats, abraded surfaces, sediment waves, contourite drifts and ridges) or by gravitational features (gullies, canyons, slides, channel-levee complexes and submarine fans), are identified for the first time in the study area (spanning 90,000 km2 and water depths of 300 m to 5 km). Different types of slope failures and turbidity currents are mainly observed on the upper and lower slopes and along submarine canyons and deep-sea channels. The middle slope morphologies are mostly determined by the actions of bottom currents (North Atlantic Central Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water, Labrador Sea Water and North Atlantic Deep Water), which thereby define the margin morphologies and favour the reworking and deposition of sediments. The abyssal plains (Biscay and Iberian) are characterised by pelagic deposits and channel-lobe systems (the Cantabrian and Charcot), although several contourite features are also observed at the foot of the slope due to the influence of the deepest water masses (i.e., the North Atlantic Deep Water and Lower Deep Water). This work shows that the study area is the result of Mesozoic to present-day tectonics (e.g. the marginal platforms

  9. Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Malenda, H. F.; Briggs, M. A.; Singha, K.; González-Pinzón, R.; Gooseff, M. N.; Tyler, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The exchange of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW), including dissolved constituents and energy, represents a critical yet challenging characterization problem for hydrogeologists and stream ecologists. Here we describe the use of a suite of high spatial resolution remote sensing techniques, collected using a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), to provide novel and complementary data to analyze GW-SW exchange. sUAS provided centimeter-scale resolution topography and water surface elevations, which are often drivers of exchange along the river corridor. Additionally, sUAS-based vegetation imagery, vegetation-top elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index mapping indicated GW-SW exchange patterns that are difficult to characterize from the land surface and may not be resolved from coarser satellite-based imagery. We combined these data with estimates of sediment hydraulic conductivity to provide a direct estimate of GW "shortcutting" through meander necks, which was corroborated by temperature data at the riverbed interface.

  10. Origin of carbonate concretions from mud mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula); Origen de las concreciones carbonatadas de los monticulos de fango en el Golfo de Cadiz (SO Peninsula Iberica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejas, M.; Taberner, C.; Pueyo, J. J.; Giralt, S.; Mata, M. P.; Gibert, J. M. de; Diaz del Rio, V.

    2015-07-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz displays a number of structures that are associated with fluid circulation (mud volcanoes, mud mounds and pockmarks).This area has been used as natural laboratory for the sedimentological, bio- logical and biogeochemical studies of these environments. Analysis of the associated authigenic carbonates has been widely used as a proxy to yield insights into the circulation and chemical composition of these flu- ids. A study of carbonate concretions from the Iberico, Cornide and Arcos mud mounds in the Diasom Field was undertaken to better understand the origin and type of fluids from which these concretions precipitated. The concretions display varying morphologies, some of which correspond to bioturbation traces. X-ray dif- fractions revealed that these carbonate concretions are mainly composed of dolomite, Fe-rich dolomite, high magnesium calcite (HMC) and ankerite. The δ{sup 1}3 C values of carbonate minerals ranged between -48.3 and-10.9 V-PDB, which suggests that the main processes involved in their genesis are organic matter oxidation, bac- terial sulphate-reduction (BSR) and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). The origin of the methane is main- ly thermogenic, and only few concretions yielded δ{sup 1}3C values lower than -40 V-PDB, suggesting oxidation of microbial methane. Fluids involved in the carbonate precipitation are interpreted as being related to gas hydrate destabilisation (δ{sup 18}O fluid-V-SMOW values higher than +2%) and, to a lesser extent, modified seawater enriched in {sup 18}O due to rock-water interaction. Nevertheless, the highest δ{sup 1}8O fluid-V-SMOW values suggest that the influence of other deep-seated fluids due to clay-mineral dehydration cannot be ruled out. (Author)

  11. Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barbería, F J; Carranza, J; Sánchez-Prieto, C

    2015-01-01

    Teeth in Cervidae are permanent structures that are not replaceable or repairable; consequently their rate of wear, due to the grinding effect of food and dental attrition, affects their duration and can determine an animal's lifespan. Tooth wear is also a useful indicator of accumulative life energy investment in intake and mastication and their interactions with diet. Little is known regarding how natural and sexual selection operate on dental structures within a species in contrasting environments and how these relate to life history traits to explain differences in population rates of tooth wear and longevity. We hypothesised that populations under harsh environmental conditions should be selected for more hypsodont teeth while sexual selection may maintain similar sex differences within different populations. We investigated the patterns of tooth wear in males and females of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Southern Spain and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus) across Scotland, that occur in very different environments, using 10343 samples from legal hunting activities. We found higher rates of both incisor and molar wear in the Spanish compared to Scottish populations. However, Scottish red deer had larger incisors at emergence than Iberian red deer, whilst molars emerged at a similar size in both populations and sexes. Iberian and Scottish males had earlier tooth depletion than females, in support of a similar sexual selection process in both populations. However, whilst average lifespan for Iberian males was 4 years shorter than that for Iberian females and Scottish males, Scottish males only showed a reduction of 1 year in average lifespan with respect to Scottish females. More worn molars were associated with larger mandibles in both populations, suggesting that higher intake and/or greater investment in food comminution may have favoured increased body growth, before later loss of tooth efficiency due to severe wear. These results

  12. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  13. A review of sediment quantity issues: examples from the River Ebro and adjacent basins (Northeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, Ramon J; Vericat, Damià

    2011-04-01

    Sediment flows naturally through the drainage network, from source areas to deposition zones. Sedimentary disequilibrium in rivers and coastlines is related to the imbalance within the fluvial system caused mostly by dams, instream mining, and changes in land use. This phenomenon is also responsible for ecological perturbations in rivers and streams. A broad need exists to establish comprehensive management strategies (soft measures) that would go beyond site-specific engineering practices (technical measures) typically taken to solve particular problems. Long-term programs are also required to monitor sediment transport in river basins, in order to assess the magnitude and variability of sediment transfer and potential deficits. This paper shows examples of rivers with important sediment disequilibrium in the Ebro and adjacent basins. These basins, like most in the Iberian Peninsula, experience sediment discontinuity in the catchment-river-coast system. Reservoir siltation is the main quantitative issue. Land use change and especially gravel mining downstream from dams accentuate the process. We also present and discuss recent developments on water and sediment management undertaken to improve the morphosedimentary dynamics of rivers. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  14. Radioactive influence of some phosphogypsum piles located at the SW Spain in their surrounding soils and salt-marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, J. P.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the SW of Spain, just in the confluence of the mouths of the Tinto and Odiel River and in the vicinity of Huelva town, there is a big industrial complex which includes between others an industry devoted during more than 40 years to the production of phosphoric acid, by treating sedimentary phosphate rock by the so-called "wet acid method". As a by-product of the mentioned process it have been produced historically huge amounts of a compound called phosphogypsum, which composition is mostly di-hydrate calcium sulphate containing some of the impurities of heavy metals and natural radionuclides originally present in the raw material. Due to the lack of market for this by-product, it has been mostly piled over some salt-marshes located in the vicinity of the industry, on the bank of the Tinto River. About 100 million tons of phosphogypsum have been piled in an area covering more than 1000 hectares, constituting a clear environmental and radiological anomaly in the zone. The phosphogypsum piles set do not conform obviously a close system. They are interacting with the nearby environment mostly by leaching waters releases from the waters accumulated in them either for its previous use in transporting in suspension the PG from the factory or by rainfall. These waters leaks contain in solution enhanced amounts of heavy metals and radionuclides that can provoke the chemical and radioactive contamination in surroundings soil and salt-marshes areas. In this communication the radioactive influence by the phosphogypsum piles in the surrounding terrestrial environment is evaluated. This contamination is mostly due to radionuclides belonging to the uranium series, which are present originally in the raw material treated in the industry, and afterwards in the generated phosphogypsum, in enhanced amounts in relation to typical soils. In addition, the different dynamics and behavior of different radionuclides will be discussed and analyzed. The gained information in this study

  15. ESTABILIDAD DE ANTOCIANINAS EN JUGO Y CONCENTRADO DE AGRAZ (VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS IN JUICE AND CONCENTRATE OF AGRAZ(VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de la estabilidad térmica y de almacenamiento de las antocianinas en jugo y concentrado de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. siguiendo una cinética de primer orden. La degradación de las antocianinas con la temperatura fue modelada adecuadamente con la ecuación de Arrhenius. El efecto del pH en la estabilidad térmica de las antocianinas en los concentrados de agraz se estudió a seis diferentes valores (3,0 - 8,0 en buffer citrato-fosfato. La degradación de las antocianinas fue mayor para el jugo que para el concentrado. Una disminución significante en la estabilidad de las antocianinas del concentrado se observó a pH cercano a 5,0.The kinetics of thermal and storage stabilities of anthocyanins in agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. juice and concentrate were studied with first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. The effect of pH on thermal stability of anthocyanins in concentrate of agraz was studied at six different pHs (3.0 - 8.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The results indicated that anthocyanins degradation was higher in juice than concentrate. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at pHs above 5.0.

  16. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  17. Mapping the genetic and clinical characteristics of Gaucher disease in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Giraldo Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaucher disease (GD is due to deficiency of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. It is panethnic, but its presentation reveals ethnicity-specific characteristics. Methods We evaluated the distribution, and clinical and genetic characteristics of GD patients in the Iberian Peninsula (IP. We analysed geographical distribution, demographic, genetic and clinical data, age at diagnosis, type, and years of therapy in 436 GD patients from the IP. Results The prevalence of GD was 1/149,000 inhabitants; 88.3% were type 1, 6.7% type 2, and 5.0% type 3. The mean age at diagnosis in type 1 was 28.7 years. A total of 72.7% were classified as having mild forms, 25.5% moderate, and 1.7% severe. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were present in 56% and 55%, respectively. Bone disease and hepatomegaly were reported in 62% and 68%, respectively, and were more likely in asplenic than in non-splenectomized patients. Sixty-nine mutant alleles were identified, and five mutations accounted for 75% of the GBA alleles. Several patients described in our series had interesting phenotypes. A total of 58.7% of patients had received enzyme replacement therapy and 12.6% were treated with miglustat. Conclusions A broad spectrum of GBA mutations is present in the IP, with 98.2% of type 1 GD being mild and 23.0% never treated. These data highlight genetic and phenotypic heterogeneities among geographic populations.

  18. Mapping the genetic and clinical characteristics of Gaucher disease in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Gaucher disease (GD) is due to deficiency of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. It is panethnic, but its presentation reveals ethnicity-specific characteristics. Methods We evaluated the distribution, and clinical and genetic characteristics of GD patients in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). We analysed geographical distribution, demographic, genetic and clinical data, age at diagnosis, type, and years of therapy in 436 GD patients from the IP. Results The prevalence of GD was 1/149,000 inhabitants; 88.3% were type 1, 6.7% type 2, and 5.0% type 3. The mean age at diagnosis in type 1 was 28.7 years. A total of 72.7% were classified as having mild forms, 25.5% moderate, and 1.7% severe. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were present in 56% and 55%, respectively. Bone disease and hepatomegaly were reported in 62% and 68%, respectively, and were more likely in asplenic than in non-splenectomized patients. Sixty-nine mutant alleles were identified, and five mutations accounted for 75% of the GBA alleles. Several patients described in our series had interesting phenotypes. A total of 58.7% of patients had received enzyme replacement therapy and 12.6% were treated with miglustat. Conclusions A broad spectrum of GBA mutations is present in the IP, with 98.2% of type 1 GD being mild and 23.0% never treated. These data highlight genetic and phenotypic heterogeneities among geographic populations. PMID:22429443

  19. Effect of exercise on skeletal muscle proteolytic enzyme activity and meat quality characteristics in Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Bote, C J; Toldrá, F; Daza, A; Ferrer, J M; Menoyo, D; Silió, L; Rodríguez, M C

    2008-05-01

    The effects of physical activity on performance, carcass traits, Psoas major lysosomal and exoprotease acitivies and meat quality were studied in 24 castrated male Iberian pigs during the last fattening period (from 111.1±SD: 5.2kg). Pigs were randomly distributed in three groups. Two groups receiving the same diet were reared in confinement, one housed in individual pens of 8m(2) (sedentary group) and the other was housed outdoor with daily (up to 2km) forced walking (exercise group). And one group was reared under the traditional production system walking daily several km and fed mostly with acorn from Quercus ilex and Quercus rotundifolia and grass (free-range group). No differences were found in performance and carcass traits. In exercised pigs a lower activity of cathepsin B+L and total cathepsins (P<0.05) was observed. Exercise induced the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidases II and III and arginyl aminopeptidase and the activation of dipeptidyl peptidases IV and leucyl aminopeptidase (P<0.05). Although no effects on total free amino acids in Psoas major muscle were observed the concentration of branched chain amino acids decreased in the free-range pig group probably related to an increase in physical activity. Exercise had no effects in Psoas major postmortem tenderness and water holding capacity.

  20. Cartas Chilenas and Cartas Marruecas: between the enlightenment appeal and the iberian tradition

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    Marcelo Fernando de Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cartas Chilenas, published in book in 1845, was known by readers only in manuscripts in 1789, some months before the episode of Conjuração Mineira, which was the main reason for the incarceration of Thomás Antônio Gonzaga and his banishment to Mozambique. On the other hand, an incomplete version of Cartas Marruecas was published in 1789 in Correo de Madri, after the death of the author José de Cadalso, who passed away during his period in the Army, as a consequence of a British attack in the south of Spain in 1782. Both of the texts belong to an epistolary literary tradition, whose first important work was the Persian Letters, written by Montesquieu. By following the chronological order of both texts, the aim of this essay is to demonstrate that, despite their inspiration in the French Enlightenment, either Cadalso or Gonzaga were more influenced by social and cultural features experienced in the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the Old Regime.

  1. Iberian urbanism in Contestania | En torno al urbanismo ibérico de la Contestania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Abad Casal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The organization of the poblamiento and the origin of the models of Iberian dispersion and distribution, from the historical works developed within the framework of the old Contestania and of their surroundings are studied. Changes in the patterns of establishment throughout second half of the first millenium b.C. and the existence of a regular urban pattern in the origins of some establishments, mainly coastal, are documented . We paid attention to phenomena of modulation, internal organization and its more outstanding buildings. | Se estudia la organización del poblamiento y el origen de los modelos de dispersión y distribución ibéricos, a partir de los trabajos históricos desarrollados en el marco de la antigua Contestania y de su entorno. Se documenta un cambio en los patrones de asentamiento a lo largo de la segunda mitad del primer milenio antes de nuestra era. Se destaca la existencia de un patrón urbano regular en los orígenes de algunos asentamientos, sobre todo costeros. Se estudian los fenómenos de modulación detectados, su organización interna y la de sus edificios más destacados.

  2. Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filipe; Davis, Simon J M; Pereira, Luísa; McEvoy, Brian; Bradley, Daniel G; Amorim, António

    2006-07-01

    Highly adaptable and versatile populations of domestic sheep, the result of millennia of intense husbandry, are found in almost every corner of the world. Here we describe a genetic survey of sheep from the western fringe of its European distribution. We studied the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 161 individuals belonging to 7 Portuguese sheep breeds. Our study revealed a high level of genetic diversity, with an average breed haplotype diversity of 0.983, substantially above that observed in central European breeds, as well as the presence of maternal lineages until now only found in the Middle East and Asia. A broad north-south pattern describes the most important trend in the Portuguese sheep population with a southern population clearly distinct from most other breeds. A recurrent influx of new genetic diversity, probably via the Mediterranean Sea, may explain these patterns and appears to corroborate the importance of this maritime route in the history of both mankind and livestock. Zooarchaeological studies of sheep bones from southern Portugal indicate a marked size increase during the Moslem period that may reflect an improvement of this animal--perhaps part of the well known "Arab agricultural revolution" in Andalusia. This could have been a time when the gene pool of Iberian sheep was substantially enriched and may help to explain the history of modern sheep breeds in this peninsula.

  3. GPS horizontal deformation model in the southern region of the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa (SPINA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [es

  4. Why coastal upwelling is expected to increase along the western Iberian Peninsula over the next century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Magda Catarina; deCastro, Maite; Alvarez, Ines; Gomez-Gesteira, Moncho; Dias, João Miguel

    2017-08-15

    Former studies about coastal upwelling along the Western Iberian Peninsula (WIP) using historical data indicated contradictory results, showing either its strengthening or reduction, while previous studies using Global Climate Models (GCMs) indicated that global warming is likely to intensify this phenomenon although predicting different rates and not justifying the patterns found. Taking advantage of the recent high spatial resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) projections from EURO-CORDEX project (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP 8.5), detailed higher accuracy estimations of the spatio-temporal trends of Upwelling Index (UI) along the WIP coast were performed in this study, integrating the coastal mesoscale effects within the framework of climate change. Additionally, this research brings new insights about the origin of the WIP coastal upwelling intensification over the next century. These new projections clarified the upwelling strengthening rates predicted along the coast of the WIP from 2006 to 2099 revealing more prominent changes in the northern limit of the region (25-30m 3 s -1 km -1 per decade between 41.5 and 42.5°N). Trends observed at high latitudes of the region were found to be induced by the displacement of the Azores High, which will intensify (0.03hPa per decade) and drift northeastward (10km per decade) during the 21st century. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epiphytic bryophytes of Quercus forests in Central and North inland Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore García Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns are governed by a complex network of interacting factors. Studies directed to disentangle the most important factors affecting diversity have frequently shown divergent results, which has encouraged a rewarding debate about the relative importance of each factor. Scale dependency has been identified as a direct cause of at least part of such divergences. However, studies with spatially-explicit measurements at different scales are costly and therefore they are relatively scarce despite their importance. Here, we present a database to disentangle the cross-scale variation in the importance of factors affecting the diversity of epiphytic bryophyte communities in Quercus dominated forests (Quercus ilex L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus faginea Lam. in the North-western region of the Iberian Peninsula. We provide species-per-site abundance information with more than 9000 entries and an environmental table containing 20 in situ measured variables at three different scales (forest, stand, and sample. The database will help to advance the research of cross-scale effects of diversity patterns while at the same time providing valuable information on the distribution of a poorly known group of organisms. 

  6. Trends of Rural Tropospheric Ozone at the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

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    S. Saavedra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone levels around urban and suburban areas at Europe and North America had increased during 80’s–90’s, until the application of NOx reduction strategies. However, as it was expected, this ozone depletion was not proportional to the emissions reduction. On the other hand, rural ozone levels show different trends, with peaks reduction and average increments; this different evolution could be explained by either emission changes or climate variability in a region. In this work, trends of tropospheric ozone episodes at rural sites in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed and compared to others observed in different regions of the Atlantic European coast. Special interest was focused on the air quality sites characterization, in order to guarantee their rural character in terms of air quality. Both episodic local meteorological and air quality measurements along five years were considered, in order to study possible meteorological influences in ozone levels, different to other European Atlantic regions.

  7. Warming patterns in regional climate change projections over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Navarro, J.J.; Montavez, J.P.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Jerez, S. [Murcia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Garcia-Valero, J.A. [Murcia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Delegacion Territorial en Murcia (ES). Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET); Gonzalez-Rouco, J.F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera

    2010-06-15

    A set of four regional climate change projections over the Iberian Peninsula has been performed. Simulations were driven by two General Circulation Models (consisting of two versions of the same atmospheric model coupled to two different ocean models) under two different SRES scenario. The XXI century has been simulated following a full-transient approach with a climate version of the mesoscale model MM5. An Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis (EOF) is applied to the monthly mean series of daily maximum and minimum 2-metre temperature to extract the warming signal. The first EOF is able to capture the spatial structure of the warming. The obtained warming patterns are fairly dependent on the month, but hardly change with the tested scenarios and GCM versions. Their shapes are related to geographical parameters, such as distance to the sea and orography. The main differences among simulations mostly concern the temporal evolution of the warming. The temperature trend is stronger for maximum temperatures and depends on the scenario and the driving GCM. This asymmetry, as well as the different warming rates in summer and winter, leads to a continentalization of the climate over the IP. (orig.)

  8. A regional climate simulation over the Iberian Peninsula for the last millennium

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    J. J. Gómez-Navarro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution (30 km regional paleoclimate simulation of the last millennium over the Iberian Peninsula (IP is presented. The simulation was performed with a climate version of the mesoscale model MM5 driven by the global model ECHO-G. Both models were driven by the same reconstructions of several external forcing factors. The high spatial resolution of the regional model allows climatologists to realistically simulate many aspects of the climate in the IP, as compared to an observational data set in the reference period 1961–1990. Although the spatial-averaged values developed by the regional model are tightly driven by the boundary conditions, it is capable to develop a different realisation of the past climate at regional scales, especially in the high-frequency domain and for precipitation. This has to be considered when comparing the results of climate simulations versus proxy reconstructions. A preliminary comparison of the simulation results with reconstructions of temperature and precipitation over the IP shows good agreement in the warming trends in the last century of the simulation, although there are large disagreements in key periods such as the precipitation anomalies in the Maunder Minimum.

  9. Marked hybridization and introgression in Ophrys sect. Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrim, Helena; Monteiro, Filipa; Sousa, Eva; Pinto, Manuel J; Fay, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    Orchids in the genus Ophrys represent extraordinary cases of tight coevolution between plants and their pollinators, and as a result, they present opportunities for studying hybridization, or a lack thereof, during speciation. However, few studies assess the real effect of hybridization in diversification. The three most representative species of section Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula-O. dyris, O. fusca, and O. lutea-were chosen to study evolutionary relationships and examine speciation. Using eight specific nuclear microsatellite loci, 357 individuals from 28 locations were studied; 142 of these samples were also studied with four plastid microsatellite loci. Data were analyzed using Bayesian cluster analysis, a median-joint network, and multivariate analysis. Many O. dyris and O. fusca specimens had three or four alleles and were therefore treated as tetraploid. Ophrys dyris is poorly genetically separated from O. fusca, and pure populations are rare. Ophrys fusca and O. lutea are distinct, but hybrids/introgressed individuals were detected in most of the populations and supported by plastid haplotypes. Ophrys fusca is subdivided into three well-delimited genetic lineages with a strict geographic correspondence confirmed by plastid haplotypes. Because postzygotic barriers are weak, leakage in this highly specialized orchid-pollinator system contributes to hybridization and introgression. These leakages may have occurred during periods of past climate change, promoting homogenization and the potential for generations of new biodiversity via production of novel genotypes/phenotypes interacting with pollinators. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Biogeographical region and host trophic level determine carnivore endoparasite richness in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalino, L M; Santos, M J; Fernandes, C; Santos-Reis, M

    2011-05-01

    We address the question of whether host and/or environmental factors might affect endoparasite richness and distribution, using carnivores as a model. We reviewed studies published in international peer-reviewed journals (34 areas in the Iberian Peninsula), describing parasite prevalence and richness in carnivores, and collected information on site location, host bio-ecology, climate and detected taxa (Helminths, Protozoa and Mycobacterium spp.). Three hypotheses were tested (i) host based, (ii) environmentally based, and (iii) hybrid (combination of environmental and host). Multicollinearity reduced candidate variable number for modelling to 5: host weight, phylogenetic independent contrasts (host weight), mean annual temperature, host trophic level and biogeographical region. General Linear Mixed Modelling was used and the best model was a hybrid model that included biogeographical region and host trophic level. Results revealed that endoparasite richness is higher in Mediterranean areas, especially for the top predators. We suggest that the detected parasites may benefit from mild environmental conditions that occur in southern regions. Top predators have larger home ranges and are likely to be subjected to cascading effects throughout the food web, resulting in more infestation opportunities and potentially higher endoparasite richness. This study suggests that richness may be more affected by historical and regional processes (including climate) than by host ecological processes.

  11. Genetic identification of Iberian rodent species using both mitochondrial and nuclear loci: application to noninvasive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, S; Pauperio, J; Searle, J B; Alves, P C

    2013-01-01

    Species identification through noninvasive sampling is increasingly used in animal conservation genetics, given that it obviates the need to handle free-living individuals. Noninvasive sampling is particularly valuable for elusive and small species such as rodents. Although rodents are not usually assumed to be the most obvious target for conservation, of the 21 species or near-species present in Iberia, three are considered endangered and declining, while several others are poorly studied. Here, we develop a genetic tool for identifying all rodent species in Iberia by noninvasive genetic sampling. To achieve this purpose, we selected one mitochondrial gene [cytochrome b (cyt-b)] and one nuclear gene [interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)], which we first sequenced using tissue samples. Both genes allow for the phylogenetic distinction of all species except the sibling species Microtus lusitanicus and Microtus duodecimcostatus. Overall, cyt-b showed higher resolution than IRBP, revealing a clear barcoding gap. To allow these markers to be applied to noninvasive samples, we selected a short highly diagnostic fragment from each gene, which we used to obtain sequences from faeces and bones from owl pellets. Amplification success for the cyt-b and IRBP fragment was 85% and 43% in faecal and 88% and 64% in owl-pellet DNA extractions, respectively. The method allows the unambiguous identification of the great majority of Iberian rodent species from noninvasive samples, with application in studies of distribution, spatial ecology and population dynamics, and for conservation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A new form in the protohistoric pottery from the Iberian Peninsula: clepsidra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Sieso, Juan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally considered by European Archaeology as water clocks, clepsydras have a use that is closer to etymological meaning: “water thieves”. In this paper we study and systematize clepsydras found in the Iberian Peninsula, whit the function of capturing and distributing liquids, both for domestic purposes of storing and cooking and in ceremonies at sanctuaries and burials.

    Tradicionalmente consideradas por la Arqueología Europea como relojes de agua, las clepsidras tienen también una funcionalidad que está directamente relacionada con su etimología: “ladrones de agua”. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio y sistematización de las distintas clepsidras documentadas en la Península Ibérica, con la funcionalidad de captar y distribuir líquidos, tanto en el ámbito doméstico para almacenaje o cocina, como en el ceremonial en santuarios y enterramientos.

  13. Check list of the Iberian and Balearic orchids. 2. Ophrys L. - Spiranthes Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the taxa of the family Orchidaceae found in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is presented in alphabetical order. This section includes the genera from Ophrys to Spiranthes, down to the rank of variety, but excluding hybrids. We have gathered together the correct names, with their corresponding place of publication, synonyms and indicatio locotypica. Also included are some observations in those genera and species that present nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. Lectotypes for Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot. and O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot are designated hereSe presenta un catalogo, ordenado alfabéticamente, de los taxones de la familia Orchidaceae incluidos en los géneros Ophrys a Spiranthes, presentes en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, excluidos híbridos. Se recogen todos los nombres, hasta el rango varietal, mencionados de dicho ambito geográfico, con su correspondiente lugar de publicación; por supuesto, los considerados correctos, sus sinonimos e indicatio locotypica. Se incluyen, cuando se estiman oportunas, observaciones de índole nomenclatural y taxonómico. Se designan los lectotipos de Orchis broteroana Rivas Goday & Bellot, y O. mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis Rivas Goday & Bellot.

  14. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae from the Iberian coasts

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    Gómez Garreta, Amelia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The gametophytes of Padina pavonica (L. Thivy have received little attention in literature. Both female and predominantly male monoecious gametophytes of P. pavonica are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. A detailed description of the morphology and the disposition of oogonia and antheridia is presented. In addition, a comparison with literature data on this and other Padina species is carried out.Los gametófitos de Padina pavonica (L. Thivy han sido escasamente reseñados en la bibliografía. En este trabajo se señala por primera vez en las costas de la Península Ibérica la presencia de gametófitos fértiles de P. pavonica, tanto femeninos como monoicos predominantemente masculinos. Se presenta una detallada descripción de la disposición y la morfología de los oogonios y anteridios. Asimismo, se realiza una comparación con los datos bibliográficos de esta especie y con los de otras especies de Padina

  15. Ore prospecting in the Iberian Pyrite Belt using seismic and potential-field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, João; Pinto, Carlos; Sousa, Pedro; Matos, João Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Ore prospecting using gravimetric and magnetic data has become one of the traditional approaches used in past decades, often complemented with electric and electromagnetic methods. However, due to the problem of non-uniqueness inherent to potential-field modelling, constraints provided by structural methods such as seismic reflection are often used. During the exploration of polymetallic massive sulfide minerals in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, Figueira de Cavaleiros sector, located in the Sado Tertiary Basin, several gravimetric and magnetic anomalies were considered to be interesting targets. In order to reduce any ambiguity in the gravimetric modelling and to confirm the geological model of the area, two seismic reflection profiles were acquired. The interpretation of these profiles was assisted by three mechanical boreholes, two of which were located in the research area to make a seismostratigraphic interpretation. Unfortunately, the gravimetric modelling suggests that the anomaly has a lithological and structural origin and is not related to massive sulfides. Nevertheless, a good agreement between the seismic and potential-field data was achieved and new insights into the geological model for the region were obtained from this work, with accurate data about the Tertiary cover and Palaeozoic basement

  16. Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo. A Bronze Age hoard with metallic materials from the southern Iberian Meseta

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    Urbina Martínez, Dionisio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the results of the preliminary study carried out on a new group of metallic materials of the Final Bronze Age, recovered at the end of 2008 in the archaeological excavations at the settlement of Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo, Spain. Its geographical situation far away from the main zones of distribution of this type of finds, the singularity of the materials, and the evidence of Atlantic and Mediterranean relations make these materials a remarkable sample for the study of the Final Bronze Age in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Se exponen los resultados del primer estudio realizado sobre un nuevo conjunto de materiales metálicos del Bronce Final recuperado a finales de 2008 en las excavaciones arqueológicas del yacimiento de Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo, España. La localización geográfica del hallazgo, lejos de las principales zonas de dispersión conocidas para este tipo de conjuntos, la singularidad de los objetos que integra, y las relaciones atlánticas y mediterráneas que evidencian sus materiales, lo convierten en un ejemplo destacado para el estudio de este período en el centro de la Península Ibérica.

  17. Snowfall in the Northwest Iberian Peninsula: Synoptic Circulation Patterns and Their Influence on Snow Day Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Merino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a decrease in snowfall attributed to the effects of global warming (among other causes has become evident. However, it is reasonable to investigate meteorological causes for such decrease, by analyzing changes in synoptic scale patterns. On the Iberian Peninsula, the Castilla y León region in the northwest consists of a central plateau surrounded by mountain ranges. This creates snowfalls that are considered both an important water resource and a transportation risk. In this work, we develop a classification of synoptic situations that produced important snowfalls at observation stations in the major cities of Castilla y León from 1960 to 2011. We used principal component analysis (PCA and cluster techniques to define four synoptic patterns conducive to snowfall in the region. Once we confirmed homogeneity of the series and serial correlation of the snowfallday records at the stations from 1960 to 2011, we carried out a Mann-Kendall test. The results show a negative trend at most stations, so there are a decreased number of snowfall days. Finally, variations in these meteorological variables were related to changes in the frequencies of snow events belonging to each synoptic pattern favorable for snowfall production at the observatory locations.

  18. Seamounts along the Iberian continental margins; Los montes submarinos en los margenes continentales de Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.; Fernandez-Puga, M. C.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.; Iglesias, J.; Palomino, D.; Roque, C.; Ercilla, G.; Diaz-del-Rio, V.

    2015-07-01

    Seamounts are first-order morphological elements on continental margins and in oceanic domains, which have been extensively researched over recent decades in all branches of oceanography. These features favour the development of several geological processes, and their study gives us a better understanding of their geological and morphological domains. The seamounts around Iberia are numerous and provide excellent examples of the geo diversity of these morphological elements. Here we present a compilation of 15 seamounts around the Iberian Peninsula. These seamounts have different origins related to the geodynamic evolution (volcanism, extensional or compressive tectonics, and diapirism) of the domains where they are located. The current configuration of their relief has been influenced by Neogene-Quaternary tectonics. Their positioning controls the current morpho-sedimentary processes in the basins and on the margins, and high- lights the fact that downslope processes on seamount flanks (mass flows, turbidite flows, and landslides) and processes parallel to seamounts (contouritic currents) correspond to the major geological features they are associated with them. Biogenic structures commonly develop on the tops of seamounts where occasionally isolated shelves form that have carbonate-dominated sedimentation. (Author)

  19. Celtiberian ceramic productions from the Central Iberian range (Spain): Chemical and petrographic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igea, J.; Perez-Arantegup, J.; Lapuente, P.; Saiz, M. E.; Burillo, F.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an extended program on archaeometric research of the Celtiberian production centres situated along the Central Iberian Range, ceramic fragments of different vessel types from two selected Celtiberian workshops were analyzed: La Rodriga (Guadalajara, Spain) and Allueva II (Teruel, Spain), dated from the 3nd to the 2st centuries BC. The characterization was focused on the chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, and subjected to commonlyused multivariate statistical methods to distinguish between ceramic materials and to discriminate among different compositional groups in each production centre. The analysis was completed by performing petrographic characterization, textural observations, colour measurement and mineralogical analysis of the pieces by means of XRD. The compositional variations from major, minor and trace elements allowed to establish two subgroups in La Rodriga and one ceramic group in Allueva II. The chemical composition differences were confirmed by the petrographic characteristics and the mineralogical composition of the ceramic fabrics. These results enabled us to complete the preliminary archaeometric study in order to improve the knowledge on cultural and commercial influences in this important Celtiberian territory. (Author) 22 refs.

  20. Agerinia smithorum sp. nov., a new early Eocene primate from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenias-Gual, Joan; Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    The new species Agerinia smithorum (Adapiformes, Primates) from the early Eocene of the Iberian Peninsula is erected in this work. An emended diagnosis of the genus is provided, together with a broad description of the new species and comparisons with other samples assigned to Agerinia and other similar medium-sized cercamoniines. The new species is based on the most complete specimen of this genus published to date, a mandible preserving the alveoli of the canine and P1 , the roots of the P2 and all teeth from P3 to M3 . It was found in Casa Retjo-1, a new early Eocene locality from Northeastern Spain. The studied specimen is clearly distinguishable from other cercamoniines such as Periconodon, Darwinius, and Donrussellia, but very similar to Agerinia roselli, especially in the similar height of P3 and P4 and the general morphology of the molars, therefore allowing the allocation to the same genus. However, it is undoubtedly distinct from A. roselli, having a less molarized P4 and showing a larger paraconid in the M1 and a tiny one in the M2 , among other differences. The body mass of A. smithorum has also been estimated, ranging from 652 to 724 g, similar to that of A. roselli. The primitive traits shown by A. smithorum (moderately molarized P4 , large paraconid in the M1 and small but distinct in the M2 ) suggest that it could be the ancestor of A. roselli. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ethnobotany of Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): plants used in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Angels; Vallès, Joan

    2007-03-01

    The present paper deals with plants used in veterinary medicine in Montseny. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Montseny massif, which is situated in north-east Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), covers 826 km(2) and has a population of 80,000. The information was obtained through 120 ethnobotanical interviews to 180 informants. Out of 584 species reported, 351 are claimed to be used in the health field (human and veterinary medicine), 280 in human and animal food and 236 have another kind of popular use. Medicinal species represent around 16.5% of Montseny's vascular flora. In a previous paper we addressed plant use in human medicine, and the present paper deals with veterinarian uses. As a reflection of the importance of rural life in the region, at least until recent times, a substantial number of medicinal plants (89 species, representing 6% of the flora of the territory and 6.4% of all medicinal use-reports in the region) is used in veterinary medicine. These remedies are mostly for cows, calves, sheep, pigs and horses, and secondarily, to poultry, rabbits and dogs. The main ailments treated are postnatal problems, intestinal troubles, wounds and dermatological problems. In many cases, the use of these remedies in veterinary medicine is fully consistent with their use in human medicine.

  2. Diversity of introduced terrestrial flatworms in the Iberian Peninsula: a cautionary tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Álvarez-Presas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many tropical terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae have been introduced around the globe. One of these species is known to cause significant decline in earthworm populations, resulting in a reduction of ecological functions that earthworms provide. Flatworms, additionally, are a potential risk to other species that have the same dietary needs. Hence, the planarian invasion might cause significant economic losses in agriculture and damage to the ecosystem. In the Iberian Peninsula only Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 had been cited till 2007. From that year on, four more species have been cited, and several reports of the presence of these animals in particular gardens have been received. In the present study we have: (1 analyzed the animals sent by non-specialists and also the presence of terrestrial planarians in plant nurseries and garden centers; (2 identified their species through morphological and phylogenetic molecular analyses, including representatives of their areas of origin; (3 revised their dietary sources and (4 used Species Distribution Modeling (SDM for one species to evaluate the risk of its introduction to natural areas. The results have shown the presence of at least ten species of alien terrestrial planarians, from all its phylogenetic range. International plant trade is the source of these animals, and many garden centers are acting as reservoirs. Also, landscape restoration to reintroduce autochthonous plants has facilitated their introduction close to natural forests and agricultural fields. In conclusion, there is a need to take measures on plant trade and to have special care in the treatment of restored habitats.

  3. Streptococcus caprae sp. nov., isolated from Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, A I; Mentaberre, G; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on a novel Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism isolated from tonsil samples of two Iberian ibexes. The micro-organism was identified as a streptococcal species based on its cellular, morphological and biochemical characteristics. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison studies confirmed its identification as a member of the genus Streptococcus, but the organism did not correspond to any species of this genus. The nearest phylogenetic relative of the unknown coccus from ibex was Streptococcus porci 2923-03T (96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Analysis based on rpoB and sodA gene sequences revealed sequence similarity values lower than 86.0 and 83.8 %, respectively, from the type strains of recognized Streptococcus species. The novel bacterial isolate was distinguished from Streptococcus porci and other Streptococcus species using biochemical tests. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus caprae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DICM07-02790-1CT ( = CECT 8872T = CCUG 67170T).

  4. On the SW Sex-type eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS0756+0858

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Hernandez, Mercedes Stephania; González-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; García-Díaz, Maria Teresa, E-mail: gag@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, Baja California 22800 (Mexico)

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic and photometric study of SDSS J075653.11+085831. X-ray observations were also attempted. We determined the orbital period of this binary system to be 3.29 hr. It is a deep eclipsing system, whose spectra show mostly single-peaked, Balmer emission lines and a rather intense He II line. There is also the presence of faint (often double-peaked) He I emission lines as well as several absorption lines, Mg I being the most prominent. All of these features point toward the affiliation of this object with the growing number of SW Sex-type objects. We developed a phenomenological model of an SW Sex system to reproduce the observed photometric and spectral features.

  5. On the SW Sex-type eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS0756+0858

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Hernandez, Mercedes Stephania; González-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; García-Díaz, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic and photometric study of SDSS J075653.11+085831. X-ray observations were also attempted. We determined the orbital period of this binary system to be 3.29 hr. It is a deep eclipsing system, whose spectra show mostly single-peaked, Balmer emission lines and a rather intense He II line. There is also the presence of faint (often double-peaked) He I emission lines as well as several absorption lines, Mg I being the most prominent. All of these features point toward the affiliation of this object with the growing number of SW Sex-type objects. We developed a phenomenological model of an SW Sex system to reproduce the observed photometric and spectral features.

  6. swLORETA: a novel approach to robust source localization and synchronization tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; Dolan, Kevin; Hadamschek, Volker; Tass, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) is a widely used technique for source localization. However, this technique still has some limitations, especially under realistic noisy conditions and in the case of deep sources. To overcome these problems, we present here swLORETA, an improved version of sLORETA, obtained by incorporating a singular value decomposition-based lead field weighting. We show that the precision of the source localization can further be improved by a tomographic phase synchronization analysis based on swLORETA. The phase synchronization analysis turns out to be superior to a standard linear coherence analysis, since the latter cannot distinguish between real phase locking and signal mixing

  7. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptation of SW-846 methodology for the organic analysis of radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Schenley, R.L.; Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E. Jr.; Fleming, G.S.; Harmon, S.H.; Wachter, L.J.; Garcia, M.E.; Edwards, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Modifications to SW-846 sample preparation methodology permit the organic analysis of radioactive mixed waste with minimum personal radiation exposure and equipment contamination. This paper describes modifications to SW-846 methods 5030 and 3510-3550 for sample preparation in radiation-zoned facilities (hood, glove box, and hot cell) and GC-MS analysis of the decontaminated organic extracts in a conventional laboratory for volatile and semivolatile organics by methods 8240 and 8270 (respectively). Results will be presented from the analysis of nearly 70 nuclear waste storage tank liquids and 17 sludges. Regulatory organics do not account for the organic matter suggested to be present by total organic carbon measurements. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  9. 5-Geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin inhibits colon cancer (SW480) cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jaiprakash R; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Kim, Jinhee; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Chetti, Mahadev B; Nam, Sang-Yong; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2013-03-01

    For the first time, three coumarins were isolated from the hexane extract of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and purified by flash chromatography. The structures were identified by NMR (1D, 2D) and mass spectral analyses as 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, limettin, and isopimpinellin. These compounds inhibited human colon cancer (SW-480) cell proliferation, with 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin showing the highest inhibition activity (67 %) at 25 µM. Suppression of SW480 cell proliferation by 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin was associated with induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation. In addition, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, and induction of apoptosis was demonstrated through the activation of tumour suppressor gene p53, caspase8/3, regulation of Bcl2, and inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin has potential as a cancer preventive agent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  11. Speculative dynamic vectorization to assist static vectorization in a HW/SW co-designed environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R.; Martinez, A.; Gonzalez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Compiler based static vectorization is used widely to extract data level parallelism from computation intensive applications. Static vectorization is very effective in vectorizing traditional array based applications. However, compilers inability to reorder ambiguous memory references severely limits vectorization opportunities, especially in pointer rich applications. HW/SW co-designed processors provide an excellent opportunity to optimize the applications at runtime. The availability of dy...

  12. Compaction and evolution of rock properties and rock physics diagnostics of Albatross discovery, SW Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The Albatross discovery is located approximately 140 km northwest of Hammerfest (city of midnight sun), Norway in the central part of Hammerfest Basin, SW Barents Sea. The Albatross discovery included within Snøhvit field development project (the first gas development project in the Barents Sea) with two other discoveries, Snøhvit and Askeladd, in the area. The reservoirs contain gas and condensate in the Lower and Middle Jurassic sandstones of the Stø Formation. The study focuses compaction ...

  13. Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastlines, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Asharaf, T.T.M.; Nair, R.P.; Sanjana, M.C.; Muraleedharan, G.; Kurup, P.G.

    Sciences Vol. 30, March , 2001, pp 9-17 Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastline, SW coast of India T T Mohamed Asharaf National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Cochin, 682 014, India and Ratish P Nair, M.... 2D), the prominent direction was MOHAMED ASHARAF et al. : WAVE STATISTICS AND SPECTRA 11 Fig. 2Direction surface plots of January-June INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL 30, MARCH 2001 12 Fig. 2  (Contd) ... Direction surface...

  14. Physico-chemical behaviour of underground waters after October 1, 1995 Dinar earthquake, SW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woith, H.; Milkereit, C.; Maiwald, U.; Pekdeger, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports the investigations conducted by a team of the German Earthquake Task Force arrived in the city of Dinar (SW Turkey) after the October 1, 1994 earthquake. The investigations recorded post-seismic changes in water discharge, water temperature and conductivity. In the first month after the event, the groundwater discharge increased at springs located within the down-thrown block, whereas a slight decrease was observed at sites on the hanging wall

  15. Alkaloids in Solanum torvum Sw (Solanaceae): (With 2 Tables & 1 Figure)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Amador, MC; Muñoz Ocotero, V; García Castañeda, JM; González Esquinca, AR

    2007-01-01

    A comparison was made between plants of Solanum torvum Sw that grow in Chiapas, Mexico, and plants of the same species originating from India. This was effected to establish either similarities or differences between these plants in total alkaloid contents and presence of solasodine, an important alkaloid for the partial synthesis of steroids. The total alkaloid content (0.12%) of the plants coming from Chiapas and India was the same. However, solasodine was found only in the plants of Chiapa...

  16. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  17. Subsurface geomicrobiology in a Mars terrestrial analogue, Río Tinto (SW, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Gómez, F.; González-Toril, E.; Rodríguez, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Sanz, J. L.; Díaz, E.; Stoker, C.

    2008-09-01

    Since its discovery, only few years ago, subsurface geomicrobiology is a matter of growing interest [1]. From a fundamental point of view, it seeks to determine whether life can be sustained in the absence of radiation. From an astrobiological point of view, it is an interesting model for life in other planetary bodies, e.g., Mars, as well as early life on Earth. Río Tinto is an unusual extreme acidic environment due to its size (around 100 km), constant acidic pH (mean pH 2.3), high concentrations of heavy metals and high level of microbial diversity [2]. Río Tinto rises in the core of the Iberian Pyritic Belt, one of the biggest sulfidic ore deposits in the world [3]. Today it is well stablished that the extreme characteristics of Río Tinto are not due to acid mine drainage from mining activity, as has been suggested in the past. To explore the hypothesis that a continuous underground reactor of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich sulfidic minerals of the Iberian Pyritic Belt is responsible for the extreme conditions found in the system, a drilling project has been developed to detect evidence of subsurface microbial activity and potential resources to support these microbial communities in situ (MARTE project) [4]. Here we report a search for subsurface life in volcanically hosted massive sulfidic deposits from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Aseptic core samples were obtained within and down-gradient from the massive sulfide deposits and formation water was sampled within the resulting bore holes. Microbial activity was detected in un-contaminated samples by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Aerobic iron- and sulfide- oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic denitrifying thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea have been identified. Potential energy fluxes detected in the system include oxidation of reduced iron and sulfur, or hydrogen gas coupled to nitrite, sulfate, ferric iron, inorganic

  18. To Eat or Not To Eat? The Diet of the Endangered Iberian Wolf (Canis lupus signatus in a Human-Dominated Landscape in Central Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Tinoco Torres

    Full Text Available Livestock predation by large carnivores and their persecution by local communities are major conservation concerns. In order to prevent speculations and reduce conflicts, it is crucial to get detailed and accurate data on predators' dietary ecology, which is particularly important in human dominated landscapes where livestock densities are high. This is the case of the endangered Iberian wolf in Portugal, an endemic subspecies of the Iberian Peninsula, which has seen its population distribution and abundance decline throughout the 20th century. Accordingly, the diet of the Iberian wolf was analyzed, using scat analysis, in a humanized landscape in central Portugal. From 2011 to 2014, a total of 295 wolf scats were collected from transects distributed throughout the study area, prospected on a monthly basis. Scat analysis indicated a high dependence of Iberian wolf on livestock. Domestic goat predominated the diet (62% of the scats, followed by cow (20% and sheep (13%; the only wild ungulate present in the scat analysis was the wild boar (4% of the scats. Our results show that even though livestock constitute most part of wolves diet, different livestock species may represent different predation opportunities. We conclude that the high levels of livestock consumption may be a result of low diversity and density of wild ungulates that settles livestock as the only abundant prey for wolves. Our findings help on the understanding of the Iberian wolf feeding ecology and have implications for conflict management strategies. Finally, management implications are discussed and solutions are recommended.

  19. Light-Time Effect and Mass Transfer in the Triple Star SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper all the photoelectric times of minimum for the triple star SW Lyn have been analyzed in terms of light-time e ect due to the third-body and secular period decreases induced by mass transfer process. The light-time orbit determined recently by Ogloza et al.(1998 were modi ed and improved. And it is found that the orbital period of SW Lyn have been decreasing secularly. The third-body revolves around the mass center of triple stars every 5y.77 in a highly eccentric elliptical orbit(e=0.61. The third-body with a minimum mass of 1.13M may be a binary or a white dwarf. The rate of secular period-decrease were obtained as ¡âP/P = -12.45 x 10^-11, implying the mass-transfer from the massive primary star to the secondary. The mass losing rate from the primary were calculated as about 1.24 x 10^-8M /y. It is noticed that the mass-transfer in SW Lyn system is opposite in direction to that deduced from it's Roche geometry by previous investigators.

  20. The primary role of the SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Gaensicke, Boris; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Long, Knox; Marsh, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Munoz-Darias, Teodoro; Shahbaz, Tariq; Schmidtobreick, Linda; Schreiber, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables (CVs) which plays a fundamental role in our understanding of CV structure and evolution. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assesment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. We are monitoring the brightness of a number of SW Sex stars and request here Gemini/GMOS-N ToO time to obtain orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy if one of them enters a low state, since this is the only opportunity for studying the stellar components individually. These data will be used to accurately measure the binary parameters, white dwarf temperature, and distance to the system for a SW Sex star for the first time. The measured stellar masses and radii will especially be a precious input to the theory of compact binary evolution as a whole.

  1. Unravelling the role of the SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Steeghs, Danny; Gaensicke, Boris; Marsh, Tom; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Schmidtobreick, Linda; Long, Knox; Schreiber, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables (CVs) whose properties contradict all predictions made by the current CV evolution theories. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assesment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. We are monitoring the brightness of a number of SW Sex stars and request here Gemini/GMOS-N ToO time to obtain orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy if one of them enters a low state, since this is the only opportunity for studying the stellar components individually. These data will be used to accurately measure the mass ratio of the system which, combined with the orbital inclination derived from modelling of either the disc eclipses in the high state or the ellipsoidal modulation in the low state, will eventually provide the first detailed system parameters for any SW Sex star.

  2. Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

    2014-02-01

    Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions.

  3. Effect of nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid and docosahexanoic acid production by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auma, Khairunnisa; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2018-04-01

    A local isolate, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 has been verified to have high content of docosahexanoic acid (DHA). However, the effect of different nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid concentration and DHA content in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 is still unknown. Hence, this study is focused in using six different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources to grow Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 in optimized Burja medium. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) gave the highest biomass concentration of 15.97 g/L followed by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) with 13.37 g/L at 96 hr. These two nitrogen sources had significant effect on the biomass concentration (pDHA content in lipid showed cultivation using MSG reached 47.9% (4.95 g/L). Statistical analysis using least significant difference (LSD) showed significant lipid production (pDHA productivity (0.052 g/L hr-1) was obtained in medium containing MSG. This study proves that nitrogen component in the medium significantly affects the biomass concentration, lipid and DHA content.

  4. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Hinse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010. The two candidate companions are of stellar to substellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system’s primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behavior. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically viable explanation for measured eclipse timing variations. We conclude that dynamical considerations reveal that the proposed SW Lyncis multi-body system most likely does not exist or the companions have significantly different orbital properties from those conjectured in Kim et al. (2010.

  5. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  6. Ecology, reproductive biology and conservation of Picris willkommii (Schultz Bip.) Nyman (Asteraceae): an endemic, protected species from therophytic grasslands of South-Western Iberian Peninsula; Ecologia, biologia reproductiva y conservacion de Picris willkommii (Schultz Bip.) Nyman (Asteraceae): endemismo protegido integrado en pastos terofiticos del suroeste de la Peninsula Iberica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo Sanchez-Movellan, F. J.; Butler Sierra, I.; Bastida Milian, F.

    2009-07-01

    Current knowledge of the biology of Picris willkommii and his grade of threat, seem not to be sufficient to ensure long term persistence of this plant species endemic to the South-Western Iberian Peninsula. In Spain, main populations of the species are narrowly restricted to therophytic grasslands around the town of Ayamonte, by the Guadiana river drainage. Results of the present study indicate that P. willkommii behaves as a very versatile, colonizing species in most of the habitats of their natural range, where it appears to be well suited to the cyclic disturbance dynamics imposed by local, traditional land uses, i.e. extensive rain-fed agriculture. Moreover, it is easy to grow under controlled conditions. Results could be helpful for conservation and population recovery purposes, as recent changes in land use, shifting from agricultural traditional systems to urban expansion or alternative agricultural systems, pose at risk P. willkommii populations due to habitat loss. (Author) 35 refs.

  7. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) (NODC Accession 9700075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, phytoplankton, chlorophyll, and other data were collected from net and bottle casts in the SW Atlantic Ocean (limit-20 W) from the Almirante Saldanha...

  8. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  9. The Characteristics of Seismogenic Zones in SW Taiwan: Implications from Studying Mechanisms of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Chang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Wen, Yi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    Due to the complicated geomorphology and geological conditions, the southwest (SW) Taiwan suffers the invasion of various natural disasters, such as landslide, mud flow and especially the threat of strong earthquakes as result of convergence between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate. Several disastrous earthquakes had occurred in this area and often caused serious hazards. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the correlation between seismic activity and seismogenic structures in SW Taiwan. Previous studies have indicated that before the failure of rock strength, the behaviors of micro-earthquakes can provide essential clues to help investigating the process of rock deformation. Thus, monitoring the activity of micro-earthquakes plays an important role in studying fault rupture or crustal deformation before the occurrence of a large earthquake. Because the time duration of micro-earthquakes activity can last for years, this phenomenon can be used to indicate the change of physical properties in the crust, such as crustal stress changes or fluid migration. The main purpose of this research is to perform a nonlinear waveform inversion to investigate source parameters of micro-earthquakes which include the non-double couple components owing to the shear rupture usually associated with complex morphology as well as tectonic fault systems. We applied a nonlinear waveform procedure to investigate local stress status and source parameters of micro-earthquakes that occurred in SW Taiwan. Previous studies has shown that microseismic fracture behaviors were controlled by the non-double components, which could lead to cracks generating and fluid migration, which can result in changing rock volume and produce partial compensation. Our results not only giving better understanding the seismogenic structures in the SW Taiwan, but also allowing us to detect variations of physical parameters caused by crack propagating in stratum. Thus, the derived source

  10. Land-Sea Correlation of Holocene Records in NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Alvare, R.; Costas, S.; Bernardez, P.; Frances, G.; Alejo, I.

    2005-12-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations in the temperate region of the Northeast Atlantic have been established by comparing marine and terrestrial proxies. This work is based on suction-cores collected in the Cies Islands lagoon (NW Spain) and vibro-cores from the adjacent continental shelf. The lower Holocene marine record (9400-7000 yr BP) consists on sandy transgressive facies overlying fluvial Pleistocene deposits. During this time the continental shelf was dominated by high energy processes linked to the progressive and fast sea level rise. The rate of sea level rise sharply decelerated at 7000 yr BP and a high productive marine environment was fully established, as revealed by planktonic foraminifera assemblages and biogeochemical markers. In the terrestrial areas, peat deposits were formed beginning around 6000 yr BP in the deeper parts of the paleo-relief that was developed above the granitic basement. The peat was deposited in a fresh-water shallow coastal lake under warm and humid conditions that are brought about by prevailing SW winds. From 4800 yr BP, a progressive rainfall decrease provoked the lowering of the lake level and a weaker fluvial influence on the adjacent shelf. The prevailing eastern winds caused significantly drier conditions between 4000 and 3200 yr BP. During this period the coastal lake dried and the peat layer was covered by aeolian deposits. At the continental shelf a strong stratification of the water column induced a fall in the productivity. The end of this period is marked by the increase of storm regimes caused by a shift to prevailing SW winds. The last 3000 years are characterized by humid and warm conditions, and the enhancement of upwelling regime and terrestrial sediment supply. In Cies Islands, a sand barrier-lagoon complex was developed as a consequence of both the sea level rise and the inundation of the lower areas in the island.

  11. Seasonal water quality variations in a river affected by acid mine drainage: the Odiel River (South West Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olias, M.; Nieto, J.M.; Sarmiento, A.M.; Ceron, J.C.; Canovas, C.R

    2004-10-15

    This paper intends to analyse seasonal variations of the quality of the water of the Odiel River. This river, together with the Tinto River, drains the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a region containing an abundance of massive sulphide deposits. Because of mining activity dating back to prehistoric times, these two rivers are heavily contaminated. The Odiel and Tinto Rivers drain into a shared estuary known as the Ria of Huelva. This work studies dissolved contaminant data in water of the Odiel River collected by various organisations, between October 1980 and October 2002, close to the rivers entry into the estuary. Flow data for this location were also obtained. The most abundant metals in the water, in order of abundance, are zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu). Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are also present but in much lower quantities. The quality of the river water is linked to precipitation; the maximum sulphate, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb concentrations occur during the autumn rains, which dissolve the Fe hydroxysulphates that were precipitated during the summer months. In winter, the intense rains cause an increase in the river flow, producing a dilution of the contaminants and a slight increase in the pH. During spring and summer, the sulphate and metal concentration (except Fe) recover and once again increase. The Fe concentration pattern displays a low value during summer due to increased precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides. The arsenic concentration displays a different evolution, with maximum values in winter, and minimum in spring and summer as they are strongly adsorbed and/or coprecipitated by the f