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Sample records for sw groups

  1. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  2. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  3. The Bero Volganic Group: New Lithological, Stratigraphic, and Geochemical Data of this Extension of the Parana-Etendeka Igneous Province into SW Angola with Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J.; Swart, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Bero Volcanic Group, an extension of the Etendeka-Paraná Igneous Province into SW Angola, forms the eroded basement to the on-shore Namibe Basin, an Early Cretaceous-Cenozoic terrestrial and marine sedimentary sequence. The igneous suite outcrops between latitudes 14.68o and 15.25o S and comprises quartz latite rheoignimbrites/lavas, tholeiitic basaltic lavas, pyroclastic/volcaniclastic deposits, minor aeolian sandstones, and mafic tholeiitic dykes and gabbroic sheets. Quartz latite lithologies dominate. In the Rio Bero area in the S quartz latites are underlain by several thin flows of basalt interbedded with, and underlain by, thin discontinuous lenses of aeolian sandstone. This sequence is consistent with the general stratigraphic sequence in the northern Etendeka of Namibia. To the N basalts and aeolian sandstones are absent and the quartz latites lie directly on Precambrian basement rocks in places. To date, data for a quartz latite correlated with a Chapecó rhyolites of the Paraná are available from only one locality in Angola. This study's wider sampling and major and trace element and radiogenic isotope analysis reveals the following: (1) all mafic rocks are high-Ti, the lavas being equivalent to the Khumiba/Urubici type; (2) mafic dykes cutting the quartz latites having affinities to the Paranapanema-Ribeira mafic lavas; (3) five quartz latite geochemical types are present, three of which are known from Etendeka/Paraná (Sarusas/Guarapuava, Khoraseb/Ourinhos and Ventura) and their stratigraphic relationships in Angola are consistent with those in the Etendeka and Paraná; (4) their Angolan occurrence significantly extends the area covered by, and potential eruptive volumes of, these silicic types; (5) two other quartz latite types are unknown in the Etendeka and Paraná and are probably products of low-volume, local eruptions. The Chinguau type is geochemically similar to the low-Ti quartz lalites of the southern Etendeka but has lower Epsilon Nd

  4. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  5. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic...... to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...... from more southerly habitats are better adapted to climatic conditions in a warmer Greenland compared with local provenances. To answer the first question historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898–1974) were compiled. The photos were repeated in 2010 and 2011 and 64 photo pairs were...

  6. Laboratory Characterization of Solid Grade SW Brick

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Erin M; Akers, Stephen A; Reed, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of solid Grade SW brick...

  7. Intercomparison of radiation codes for Mars Models: SW and LW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savijarvi, H. I.; Crisp, D.; Harri, A.-M.

    2002-09-01

    We have enlarged our radiation scheme intercomparison for Mars models into the SW region. A reference mean case is introduced by having a T(z) -profile based on Mariner 9 IRIS observations at 35 fixed- altitude points for a 95.3 per cent CO2-atmosphere plus optional trace gases and well-mixed dust at visible optical depths of 0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 5.0. A Spectrum Resolving (line-by-line) multiple scattering multi-stream Model (SRM, by Crisp) is used as the first-principles reference calculation. The University of Helsinki (UH) old and new (improved) Mars model schemes are also included. The intercomparisons have pointed out the importance of dust and water vapour in the LW, while the CO2 spectral line data difference effects were minimal but nonzero. In the shortwave, the results show that the CO2 absorption of solar radiation by the line-by-line scheme is relatively intense, especially so at low solar height angles. This is attributed to the (often neglected) very weak lines and bands in the near-infrared. The other trace gases are not important but dust, of course, scatters and absorbs strongly in the shortwave. The old, very simple, UH SW scheme was surprisingly good at low dust concentrations, compared to SRM. It was however considerably improved for both low and high dust amounts by using the SRM results as benchmark. Other groups are welcome to join.

  8. Black hole Spin in Sw J1644+57 and Sw J2058+05

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Recently a hard X-ray transient event, Sw J1644+57, was discovered by the Swift satellite. It likely marks the onset of a relativistic jet from a supermassive black hole, possibly triggered by a tidal disruption event. Another candidate in the same category, Sw J2058+05, was also reported. The low event rate suggests that only a small fraction of TDEs launch relativistic jets. A common speculation is that these rare events are related to rapidly spinning black holes. We attribute jet launchin...

  9. Epigenetically maintained SW13+ and SW13- subtypes have different oncogenic potential and convert with HDAC1 inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, McKale R.; Daggett, Juliane J.; Pascual, Agnes S.; Lam, Jessica M.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Cooper, Kimbal E.; Hull, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    The BRM and BRG1 tumor suppressor genes are mutually exclusive ATPase subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The human adrenal carcinoma SW13 cell line can switch between a subtype which expresses these subunits, SW13+, and one that expresses neither subunit, SW13-. Loss of BRM expression occurs post-transcriptionally and can be restored via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. However, most previously used HDAC inhibitors are toxic and broad-spectrum, providing little insight into the mechanism of the switch between subtypes. In this work, we explore the mechanisms of HDAC inhibition in promoting subtype switching and further characterize the oncogenic potential of the two epigenetically distinct SW13 subtypes. SW13 subtype morphology, chemotaxis, growth rates, and gene expression were assessed by standard immunofluorescence, transwell, growth, and qPCR assays. Metastatic potential was measured by anchorage-independent growth and MMP activity. The efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in inducing subtype switching was determined by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Histone modifications were assessed by western blot. Treatment of SW13- cells with HDAC1 inhibitors most effectively promotes re-expression of BRM and VIM, characteristic of the SW13+ phenotype. During treatment, hyperacetylation of histone residues and hypertrimethylation of H3K4 is pronounced. Furthermore, histone modification enzymes, including HDACs and KDM5C, are differentially expressed during treatment but several features of this differential expression pattern differs from that seen in the SW13- and SW13+ subtypes. As the SW13- subtype is more proliferative while the SW13+ subtype is more metastatic, treatment with HDACi increases the metastatic potential of SW13 cells while restoring expression of the BRM tumor suppressor. When compared to the SW13- subtype, SW13+ cells have restored BRM expression, increased metastatic capacity, and significantly different expression of a variety of

  10. Comparative palynological analysis of Lygodium venustum Sw. and L. volubile Sw. (Lygodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN P. RAMOS GIACOSA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lygodium Sw. is one of the few climbing ferns in the world. The spores of L. venustum Sw. and L. volubile Sw. were studied using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. This work is based on herbarium material. The spores are trilete, triangular, with straight to convex sides in polar view. The equatorial diameter is 72-104 µm, and the polar diameter is 64-84 µm. The ornamentation in L. venustum is verrucate-tuberculate while in L. volubile, it is verrucate-tuberculate in the proximal face but with a few ridges on the distal face, where a micro-ornamentation constituted by verrrucae and tubercles is observed. An equatorial ridge is also present. The exospore is two-layered; in L. venustum, it is smooth in contrast with the ornamented exospore of L. volubile. The perispore of the two species analyzed is similar. This wall is four-layered with particular elements arranged radially in the middle layer. On the spores surface of both species, few spheroids are observed. The results introduced in the current study may be useful for the systematics of the genus as well as for phylogenetic purposes.O gênero Lygodium Sw. é um das poucas samambaias trepadoras no mundo. Os esporos de L. venustum Sw. e L. volubile Sw. foi estudados com microscopias de luz e eletrônicas de transmissão e varredura. Este trabalho é baseado em material de herbário. Os esporos são trilete, triangular com lados retos para convexo em vista polar. O equatorial diâmetro é 72-104 µm e o diâmetro polar é 64-84 µm. O ornamentação em L. venustum é verrucose-tuberculoso enquanto em L. volubile é verrucose-tuberculoso no proximal cara e com poucos cume no distal cara, em que um micro-ornamentação constituída por verrugas e tubérculos é observado. Um cume equatorial também está presente. O exosporo é de dois camadas, em L. venustum é liso em contraste com o exosporo ornamentado de L. volubile. O perisporo é similar nas duas esp

  11. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative damage in SW872 cells | Boyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using real time quantitative PCR, enhanced HMGB1 mRNA expressions were evidenced in hyperglycemic-‐treated SW872 cell line. Our data clearly indicate that hyperglycemia treatments result in an increase in oxidative damage in SW872 cell lines that may affect its functionality. Oxidative stress drives the activation of ...

  12. SW radiative effect of aerosol in GRAPES_GFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiying

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol particles can scatter and absorb solar radiation, and so change the shortwave radiation absorbed by the atmosphere, reached the surface and that reflected back to outer space at TOA. Since this process doesn't interact with other processes, it is called direct radiation effect. The clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in GRAPES_GFS of China Meteorological Administration are overestimated in Northern multitudes and Tropics. The main source of these errors is the absence of aerosol SW effect in GRAPES_GFS. The climatic aerosol mass concentration data, which include 13 kinds of aerosol and their 14 SW bands optical properties are considered in GRAPES_GFS. The calculated total optical depth, single scatter albedo and asymmetry factor are used as the input to radiation scheme. Compared with the satellite observation from MISER, the calculated total optical depth is in good consistent. The seasonal experiments show that, the summer averaged clear sky radiation fluxes at the surface are improved after including the SW effect of aerosol. The biases in the clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in Northern multitudes and Tropic reduced obviously. Furthermore, the weather forecast experiments also show that the skill scores in Northern hemisphere and East Asia also become better.

  13. Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw exhibitsin vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities andin vivo hypolipidemic effect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ESPINOSA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae is a shrub that occurs in forests of Southern Brazil; its leaves are widely used in folk medicine as a depurative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic agent. The objective of this study was to perform the phytochemical description and to evaluate the pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EE of C. sylvestris Sw. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of the EE ofC. sylvestris Sw on the glucose levels and lipid profile in blood serum of rats submitted to a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and Methods: In vitro assay: the detection of chemical groups was done through chemical reactions with the development of color or precipitate and by chromatographic profile; the antioxidant activity was measured by the method of reduction of DPPH free radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was evaluated by the broth microdilution method, and the Minimum Bactericide Concentration and the Minimum Fungicide Concentration were performed in Petri dishes; the cytotoxic activity was measured by the Artemia salina test. In vivo assay: diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated with EE of C. sylvestris Sw (300 mg/kg for 45 days, and the glycaemia and lipid profile were analyzed. Results: The EE showed a Lethal Dose50 of 724.76 μg.mL-1 and important antioxidant, fungicide and fungistatic activities. The EE showed better antimicrobial activity regarding the microorganismsStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andSalmonella setubal. Conclusion: The EE of C. sylvestris Sw produces a significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL levels without any significant alteration in the glycaemia. The EE of C. sylvestris Sw presents antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and it exhibits a potent hypolipidemic effect.

  14. MEK/ERK signaling pathway in apoptosis of SW620 cell line and inhibition effect of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Jin, Zhi-Liang; Xu, Hai

    2016-01-01

    To study the involvement of MAPK MEK/ERK signaling transduction pathway in the apoptosis process of SW620 tumor cell line and the inhibition effect of resveratrol. SW620 cell lines were divided into 5 groups, namely, control group, PD98059 group, low-dose resveratrol group, mid-dose resveratrol group and high-dose resveratrol group. The inhibition rate of cell proliferation was detected by MTT method. The expression of apoptotic molecules and MEK/ERK signaling pathway related proteins were assayed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Compared with control group, the proliferation of cells treated with resveratrol was significantly inhibited. In the case of apoptotic molecules, the expression of Bax, Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 was increased significantly while the expression of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl2 was decreased significantly in resveratrol groups with a dose-dependent manner. In the case of molecules in MEK/ERK signaling pathway, the expression of Ras, Raf, MEK and ERK1/2 was decreased significantly in resveratrol groups with a dose-dependent manner. PD98059 and resveratrol can effectively inhibit the proliferation of SW620 through inhibiting the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yun Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPKα blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPKα in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPKα. Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPKα and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPKα in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPKα and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  16. Particle Swarm Optimization for HW/SW Partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhalim, M. B.; Habib, S. E. &#;D.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent introduction of the Particle Swarm Optimization technique to solve the HW/SW partitioning problem is reviewed, along with its “re-exited PSO” modification. The re-exited PSO algorithm is a recently-introduced restarting technique for PSO. The Re-exited PSO proved to be highly effective for solving the HW/SW partitioning problem. Efficient cost function formulation is of a paramount importance for an efficient optimization algorithm. Each component in the design...

  17. Warm molecular gas in the M17 SW nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Spaans, M.; Hogerheijde, M.; Güsten, R.; Corbett, IF

    2010-01-01

    High resolution maps of the (12)CO J = 6 -> 5 line and the [C I] (3) P(2) (3)P(1) (370 mu m) fine-structure transition in the Galactic nebula M17 SW are presented. The maps were obtained using the dual color multiple pixel receiver CHAMP(+) on the APEX dagger telescope.

  18. Simulated reflected SW-radiation and its characteristic variation at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulated reflected SW-radiation and its characteristic variation at Ilorin, Nigeria. EB Babatunde, OA Falaiye, CC Uhuegbu. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 17 (Supplement) 2005: pp. 193-201. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  19. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    is a subarctic to low-arctic region with a long and complex land-use history and only modest temperature increases over the past 50 years (0.2 °C decade-1), but changes in shrub cover have not previously been studied in this region. We compiled historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898...

  20. Geochemistry of crystalline basement rocks SW Ugep, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical data on low-grade metasedimentary phyllites and schists of SW Ugep show that they were derived from predominantly pelitic parent rocks. They form a supracrustal cover on an orthogneiss of granitic composition. The metasediments are enriched in Si02, Al203 and Zr but improverished in Ni. Intrusion of ...

  1. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Leaves of Mitracarpus vilosus (SW)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacognostic investigation on fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of leaf of Mitracarpus vilosus (S.W) D.C was carried out to determine its macromorphological, micromorphological and chemomicromorphological profiles. Qualitative and quantitative studies indicated presence of amphicribal vascular bundle ...

  2. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990).

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Prosopis Juliflora (Sw.) Dc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Prosopis Juliflora (Sw.) Dc. Leaves. R Thakur, R Singh, P Saxena, A Mani. Abstract. Background: The ethnobotanical importance of Prosopis juliflora is well-known in the folkloric system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Although, the study related to the antibacterial ...

  4. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  5. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  6. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  7. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  8. Metals in Racomitrium lanuginosum from Arctic (SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago) and alpine (Karkonosze, SW Poland) tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2018-02-19

    Arctic-alpine tundra habitats are very vulnerable to the input of relatively small amounts of xenobiotics, and thus their level in such areas must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we collected the terrestrial widespread moss Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. in Spitsbergen in the Arctic moss lichen tundra and, for comparison, in the Arctic-alpine tundra in the Karkonosze (SW Poland). Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in this species and in the parent rock material were measured. We tested the following hypothesis: R. lanuginosum from Spitsbergen contains lower metal levels than the species from the Karkonosze collected at altitudes influenced by long-range transport from former Black Triangle industry. Principal component and classification analysis (PCCA) ordination revealed that mosses of Spitsbergen were distinguished by a significantly higher Na concentration of marine spray origin and mosses of Karkonosze were distinguished by significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn probably from long-range atmospheric transport. The influence of the polar station with a waste incinerator resulted in significantly higher Co, Li, and Ni concentrations in neighbouring mosses in comparison with this species from other sites. This investigation contributes to the use of R. lanuginosum as a bioindicator for metal contamination in Arctic and alpine tundra regions characterised by severe climate habitats with a restricted number of species. This moss enables the control of pollution usually brought solely by long-range atmospheric transport in high mountains as well as in Arctic areas.

  9. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  10. Pile group program for full material modeling and progressive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Strain wedge (SW) model formulation has been used, in previous work, to evaluate the response of a single pile or a group of piles (including its : pile cap) in layered soils to lateral loading. The SW model approach provides appropriate prediction f...

  11. Satellite Attitude Sensing Model and Their S/w Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Shin Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an attitude sensing S/W system, one of modules of Mission Analysis System(MAS, which simulates attitude sensing data as almost the same as the real sensor of a satellite in orbit. When attitude elements(¥á,¥ä of a satellite and positions of Earth, Moon, and Sun are given, the S/W system calculates look angles and dihedral angles of each celestial bodies relative to the rotations axis of the satellite. It consists of two sub-modules : One is ephemeris service module which consider the perturbations of four planets(Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn for positions of Sun and Moon and 4 x 4 earth gravitational potential terms for a satellite's position. The other is attitude simulation module which generates attitude sensing data. Varying the rotational axis of a satellite and it's orbital elements, we simulated the generating attitude sensing data with this S/W system and discussed their results.

  12. Geometric-kinematic characteristics of the main faults in the W-SW of the Lut Block (SE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Boshrabadi, Ahmad; Khatib, Mohamad Mahdi; Raeesi, Mohamad; Mousavi, Seyed Morteza; Djamour, Yahya

    2018-03-01

    The area to the W-SW of the Lut Block in Iran has experienced numerous historical and recent destructive earthquakes. We examined a number of faults in this area that have high potential for generating destructive earthquakes. In this study a number of faults are introduced and named for the first time. These new faults are Takdar, Dehno, Suru, Hojat Abad, North Faryab, North Kahnoj, Heydarabad, Khatun Abad and South Faryab. For a group of previously known faults, their mechanism and geological offsets are investigated for the first time. This group of faults include East Nayband, West Nayband, Sardueiyeh, Dalfard, Khordum, South Jabal-e-Barez, and North Jabal-e-Barez. The N-S fault systems of Sabzevaran, Gowk, and Nayband induce slip on the E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE fault systems. The faulting patterns appear to preserve different stages of fault development. We investigated the distribution of active faults and the role that they play in accommodating tectonic strain in the SW-Lut. In the study area, the fault systems with en-echelon arrangement create structures such as restraining and releasing stepover, fault bend and pullapart basin. The main mechanism for fault growth in the region seems to be 'segment linkage of preexisting weaknesses' and also for a limited area through 'process zone'. Estimations are made for the likely magnitudes of separate or combined failure of the fault segments. Such magnitudes are used in hazard analysis of the region.

  13. Healing activity of Casearia sylvestris Sw. in second-degree scald burns in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Evandro Pedro; Trombini, Letícia Nava; Rodrigues, Rafaela; Portella, Décio Luis; Werner, Adriana Carolina; Ferraz, Miriele Cristina; de Oliveira, Robson Vicente Machado; Cogo, José Carlos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; Aranha, Norberto; Gerenutti, Marli

    2015-06-26

    Every year thousands of people are victims of burns, mainly scald burns. Many of these victims have small size wounds and superficial partial thickness and do not seek specialized medical care. As in Brazil Casearia sylvestris Sw., popularly known as guaçatonga is widely used for its analgesic, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory activities, this study sought to evaluate the effects of its hydroalcoholic extract in healing process of burns injuries. The obtained extract was validated applying a thin layer chromatography and sophisticated validation method using Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that is necrotic and inflammatory, and by which guaçatonga extract was able to neutralize the irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by the venom. After induction of the scald injury, the animals were treated daily with saline solution spray; spray containing extract; biofilm; or biofilm impregnated with extract. Significant differences were observed between the four groups studied considering: extension of the healing area, neovascularization, fibroblast proliferation, and epithelialization. The anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effects of C. sylvestris Sw. suggests a potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of inflammatory conditions in second-degree scald burn injuries, as well as, counteracting against the in vitro paralysis induced by B. jararacussu venom.

  14. Establishing a first archaeointensity record for the SW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Florian; Cassidy, John; Hill, Mimi J.; Shaw, John; Sheppard, Peter

    2010-09-01

    The dearth of archaeomagnetic intensity data from the southern hemisphere is a limiting factor in evaluating models of global geomagnetic field evolution during the Holocene. Here we present high quality microwave archaeointensity data obtained from 34 ceramic fragments (21 archaeological contexts) from the Duke of York Islands, Fiji and Vanuatu, SW Pacific. Complementary Thellier-type experiments, corrected for anisotropy give good agreement with the microwave results. The majority of the new data prior to 250 AD exhibit significantly lower intensity than predicted by current global field models (CALS3k.3 and ARCH3k) for the region, with an apparent intensity minimum at 250 BC reaching as low as 50% of the present-day field strength. Between 400 AD and 1500 AD, the data are broadly consistent with the global field models but with a 20% higher field between 1200 and 1400 AD. These new results therefore imply that the geomagnetic field has a greater range of variability than predicted and that further data from the region are essential to better constrain the global field models. The results also demonstrate that establishing an archaeomagnetic reference curve for dating SW Pacific ceramic artefacts is feasible, which has potentially significant implications for Pacific archaeological research.

  15. Effects of taxol and ionizing radiation on cytotoxicity and prostaglandin production in KB, RPMI-2650, SW-13 and L929

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keon Il; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    The author evaluated the effects of taxol, a microtubular inhibitor, as a possible radiation sensitizer and the production of prostaglandins on three human cancer cell lines (KB, RPMI-2650 and SW-13) and one murine cell line (L929). Each cell line was divided into four groups (control, taxol only, radiation only and combination of taxol and radiation). The treatment consisted of a single irradiation of 10 Gy and graded doses (5, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 nM) of taxol for a 24-h period. The cytotoxicity of taxol alone was measured at 1 day after (1-day group) and 4 days after (4-day group) the treatment. The survival ratio of cell was analyzed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dimethyl tetrazolium bromide) test. Prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGI2) were measured in the culture medium by a radioimmunoassay. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. There was a significantly in creased cytotoxicity of KB cells in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. There was a high correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.82741, 4-day group R=0.84655). 2. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of RPMI-2650 cells treated with high concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. Also there was a high correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in 4-day group (R=0.93917). 3. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of SW-13 cell treated with high concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. However no high correlation was observed between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.46362, 4-day group R=0.65425). 4. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of L929 cells treated with low concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. At the same time, there was a low correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.34237, 4-day group R=0.23381). 5. In 1-day group of L929 cells, higher

  16. Effects of PKM2 Gene Silencing on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Colorectal Cancer LS-147T and SW620 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Ran; Guan, Lin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jia-Ni

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the effects of pyruvate kinase (PK) M2 gene silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) LS-147T and SW620 cells. CRC LS-147T and SW620 cells highly expressing PKM2 were randomly selected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and then assigned into the blank (no transfection), PKM2-shRNA (transfection with shRNA) and empty plasmid (transfection with empty plasmid) groups. Immunofluorescence was applied to detect PKM2 protein expression. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were conducted to assess mRNA and protein expression of PKM2, p53 and p21. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cell cycle and apoptosis rate, and a senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining kit was used to assess cell senescence. PKM2 exhibited high mRNA expression among CRC LS-147T and SW620 cells with remarkable protein expression noted in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PKM2-shRNA group exhibited reduced PKM2 mRNA and protein expression, whereas p53 and p21 expression was increased compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. Cell proliferation in PKM2-shRNA cells decreased significantly compared with the blank group and empty plasmid groups. The PKM2-shRNA group exhibited more cells in the G1 phase and fewer cells in the G2/M phase compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. In addition, the PKM2-shRNA group exhibited significantly increased apoptosis rates and β-galactosidase activity compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups. Our study demonstrates that PKM2 gene silencing suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in LS-147T and SW620 cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  18. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules...

  19. Effects of Krill Oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480. Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  20. Perbandingan Morfologi Dua Jenis Anggrek Epifit pada Pohon Rambutan ( Nephelium lappaceum L. : Acriopsis liliifolia (J.Koenig Seidenf. dan Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The stem of rambutan tree (Nephelium lappaceum has suitable microenvironment for the growth of epiphytic flora, due to its rugose stem. Therefore, it may trap and collect plant debrish or other organic material as well as rain drops. One of plant group found on the rambutan tree is orchid (Orchidaceae. This study aimed to observed the morphology of epihytic orchids on rambutan tree. The result showed two orchid species, Acriopsisliliifolia (J. Koenig Seidenf. and Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.

  1. Perbandingan Morfologi Dua Jenis Anggrek Epifit pada Pohon Rambutan ( Nephelium lappaceum L.) : Acriopsis liliifolia (J.Koenig) Seidenf. dan Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.

    OpenAIRE

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2016-01-01

    The stem of rambutan tree (Nephelium lappaceum) has suitable microenvironment for the growth of epiphytic flora, due to its rugose stem. Therefore, it may trap and collect plant debrish or other organic material as well as rain drops. One of plant group found on the rambutan tree is orchid (Orchidaceae). This study aimed to observed the morphology of epihytic orchids on rambutan tree. The result showed two orchid species, Acriopsisliliifolia (J. Koenig) Seidenf. and Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.

  2. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek

    Full Text Available Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men.This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%, were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma.With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  3. Travel time seismic tomography on Reykjanes, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Ágústsson, Kristjan; Blanck, Hanna; Metz, Malte; Franke, Steven; Pàll Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David; Flovenz, Ólafur; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur

    2017-04-01

    We present updated tomographic results obtained using seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We focus on the 3D velocity images using local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity model by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and velocity lateral anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. In a second step, we performed inversion of the Vp/Vs ratio. Results indicate a low Vp/Vs ratio anomaly at depth suggesting the absence of large magmatic body under Reykjanes, unlike results obtained at other geothermal field, sucha as Krafla and Hengill. We discuss implications of those results in the light of recent IDDP drilling in Reykjanes.

  4. Multicycle sediments on the continental shelf of Cadiz (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Mas, J. M.; Moral, J. P.; Sánchez, A.; Dominguez, S.; Muñoz-Perez, J. J.

    2003-07-01

    The study of recent sedimentation in the Gulf of Cadiz continental shelf (SW Europe) is of interest due to its proximity to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Atlantic and Mediterranean waters are interchanged and the Western Mediterranean Alpidic Orogen closes through the Gibraltar Arch. The existence of relict materials hinders the distinction of the past and present hydrodynamic regimes in present day sediments. An adequate combination of techniques has allowed the establishment of the multicyclic character of the sediments, as well as the stages undergone by the terrigenous grains. Different stages were identified: eolian and energetic fluvial provenance, chemical alterations acquired in a pedological environment, and a marine coastal origin. To verify the source areas, textural and mineralogical features of marine sediments were compared with those found in geological units from fluvial basins. Three zones were differentiated: (a) a sandy littoral, which receives local sediment supplies; (b) a clayey zone between the Guadalquivir River and Cadiz, controlled by contributions from this river provenant of the Iberian Massif and Betic Mountain range; and (c) a sandy continental shelf, between Cadiz and the Cape of Trafalgar, with a low rate of supplies coming from the Guadalete and Barbate rivers, which include materials from the Occidental Betic Mountain range and Neogene units.

  5. Antibothropic action of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra-Francischinelli, M; Silva, M G; Andréo-Filho, N; Gerenutti, M; Cintra, A C O; Giglio, J R; Leite, G B; Cruz-Höfling, M A; Rodrigues-Simioni, L; Oshima-Franco, Y

    2008-06-01

    Casearia sylvestris Sw., popularly known in Brazil as 'guaçatonga', has been used as antitumor, antiseptic, antiulcer, local anaesthetic and healer in folk medicine. Snakebite envenomation by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) constitutes a relevant public health hazard capable of inducing serious local damage in victims. This study examined the pharmacological action of apolar and polar C. sylvestris leaf extracts in reverting the neuromuscular blockade and myonecrosis, which is induced by Bjssu venom and its major toxin bothropstoxin-I on the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. The polar methanol extract (ME) was by far the most efficacious. ME not only prevented myonecrosis and abolished the blockade, but also increased ACh release. Such facilitation in neuromuscular transmission was observed with ME alone, but was accentuated in preparations incubated with ME plus venom or toxin. This established synergy opens an interesting point of investigation because the venom or toxin in contact with ME changes from a blocking to a facilitating effect. It is suggested that rutin, known to have potent antioxidant properties, and one of the components present in the ME, could have a role in the observed effects. Since commercial rutin did not reproduce the ME effects, it is likely that a rutin-containing phytocomplex is neutralizing the bothropic envenoming effects. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  7. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 proteins. Results: Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P < 0.01. Artesunate can effectively inhibit the expression of cancer cell ICAM-1 gene proteins, and was time- and concentration-dependant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Artesunate can significantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  8. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  9. Structures and cytotoxic activity relationship of casearins, new clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, H; Nakayama, M; Kojima, H; Takeya, K; Itokawa, H; Schenkel, E P; Motidome, M

    1991-03-01

    Casearins G-R, new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes have been isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae). Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical conversions, and their structure-activity relationships have been discussed.

  10. Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastlines, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Asharaf, T.T.M.; Nair, R.P.; Sanjana, M.C.; Muraleedharan, G.; Kurup, P.G.

    A series of 12 monthly graphical three-dimensional plots were produced for Valiathura, SW coast of India, taking significant wave height, zero up-crossing period and direction as the three axes. Joint distributions of significant wave height...

  11. Redefinition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz L. Szlachetko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton is presented. The genera are briefly described and illustrated. A list of Microstylis species is added. Four new nomenclatural combinations are proposed.

  12. Hot topics in Modern Cosmology - SW9 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.; Sigl, G.; Biondi, R.; Volkov, M.; Noller, J.; Starobinsky, A.; Toporensky, A.; Renaux, S.; Pilo, L.; Comelli, D.; Slagter, R.; Novello, M.; Padilla, A.; Antunes, V.; Kamenshchik, A.; Vernieri, D.; Kaloper, N.; Denkiewics, T.; Gohar, H.; Zahariade, G.; Frusciante, N.; Von Strauss, M.

    2016-01-01

    This 9. Spontaneous Workshop (SW9) brought together specialists on recent insights in Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The aim was to stimulate debate on common topics in views of providing us with innovating ideas. SW9 topics includes: 1) Cosmological parameters - Anomalies in CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background); 2) Dark matter and neutrinos; 3) Gravity - Dark energy; 4) Singular universes; and 5) Cosmological Large Scale Structures - Magnetic Fields; This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  13. Tectono-thermal evolution of the Atlas system - SW Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, G.; Negro, F.; Babault, J.; Foeken, J.; Stuart, F.; Kober, F.; Ivy-Ochs, S.

    2009-04-01

    In Morocco, the High and Middle Atlas of Morocco are intra-continental fold-thrust belts situated in the southern foreland of the Rif orogen. The High Atlas and its eastern continuation in Algeria and Tunisia is an ENE-WSW to E-W trending belt about 2000kms long and 100kms wide. It is a key natural laboratory because it 1) is the southern and westernmost expression of Alpine-Himalayan orogeny, and 2) encompasses Pre-Cambrian to recent evolution of the region. Phases of shortening and exhumation of this orogen remain however ill constrained and the few available quantitative, data do not allow the present-day high topography (over 4000m) to be explained. In order to put constrains on the recent orogenic growth of the Atlas system, we investigated the temperature-time history of rocks combining extensive low-temperature thermochronological analysis (Fission tracks and (U-Th)/He on zircon and apatite), and sub-recent denudation rates using cosmogenic Neon and Beryllium analysis. The target area is a NE-SW oriented transect between Marrakech and Igherm crossing the different structural segments of the western Atlas away from present-day fault systems. Results are much contrasted from one domain to the other: Pre-Cambrian bedrocks from the Anti-Atlas domain yield old Fission-Track ages on zircon (380-300 Ma), apatite (180-120 Ma) but also U-Th/He (150-110 Ma) still on apatite that are discussed in another contribution. U-Th/He ages on apatite are many from the High-Atlas (#>20) and much younger ranging between ~35 and 5 Ma. We performed a detailed vertical profile in the axial zone of the High-Atlas. Age-elevation relationship suggests that exhumation increased towards 1.0 km/my by the Late Miocene (~13-12 Ma). Further, continental series of Cretaceous age from the adjacent Sub-Atlas domains indicate total resetting to temperatures greater than 80°C suggesting that a post Cretaceous sedimentary pile of at least 3 kilometres in thickness is missing. The timing of the

  14. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  15. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  16. Preliminary Results of EEWS Parameters for SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Marta; Buforn, Elisa; Pro, Carmen; Zollo, Aldo; Pazos, Antonio; Lozano, Lucia; Carrilho, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    SW Iberia is an area where potential large and damaging earthquakes may occur such as the 1755 (Lisbon Imax=X), 1969 (S. Vicente Cape Ms=8,1) or 1964 (Gulf of Cádiz Ms=6.5) shocks. We have estimated the peak displacement (Pd) and mean period (τc) for a rapid estimation of the potential damage for earthquakes occurring in this region (ALERT-ES project), from the first seconds of the beginning of P-waves. This estimation is carried out by the correlation of these parameters with the magnitude and the peak ground velocity (PGV) of recorded shocks. The database is formed by earthquakes with epicentres at S. Vicente Cape and Gulf of Cadiz regions, occurred on the period 2006-2011 with magnitude larger than 3.8 and recorded at regional distances (less than 500 km) at real time broad-band seismic stations. We have studied different lengths of time-windows (2 to 20s) and applied different filters. Due to the off-shore foci occurrence and the bad azimuthal coverage, we have corrected the Pd parameter by the radiation pattern obtained from focal mechanisms of the largest earthquakes of this region. We have normalized the Pd value to a reference distance (200 km) and after that we have obtained empirical correlation laws for Pd and τc versus magnitude. We have also obtained an empirical correlation between Pd parameter and the PGV estimated over the total seismogram. The PGV could be correlated to the earthquakes damages through the Modified Mercalli Intensity (IMM). Applying the scaling laws obtained (Pd and PGV), we have estimated the theoretical intensity maps for the 2007 and 2009 earthquakes occurred in this area.

  17. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  18. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  19. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills. Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm. Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  20. Novel virus influenza A (H1N1sw in South-Eastern France, April-August 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nougairède

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, the first cases of pandemic (H1N1-2009 influenza [H1N1sw] virus were detected in France. Virological surveillance was undertaken in reference laboratories of the seven French Defence Zones. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results of virological analyses performed in the Public Hospitals of Marseille during the first months of the outbreak. (i Nasal swabs were tested using rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and two RT-PCR assays. Epidemiological characteristics of the 99 first suspected cases were analyzed, including detection of influenza virus and 18 other respiratory viruses. During three months, a total of 1,815 patients were tested (including 236 patients infected H1N1sw virus and distribution in age groups and results of RIDT were analyzed. (ii 600 sera received before April 2009 and randomly selected from in-patients were tested by a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay for antibody to the novel H1N1sw virus. (iii One early (May 2009 and one late (July 2009 viral isolates were characterized by sequencing the complete hemagglutinine and neuraminidase genes. (iiii Epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of cases that occurred in July 2009 in a summer camp were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents new virological and epidemiological data regarding infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in Europe. Distribution in age groups was found to be similar to that previously reported for seasonal H1N1. The first seroprevalence data made available for a European population suggest a previous exposure of individuals over 40 years old to influenza viruses antigenically related to the pandemic (H1N1-2009 virus. Genomic analysis indicates that strains harbouring a new amino-acid pattern in the neuraminidase gene appeared secondarily and tended to supplant the first strains. Finally, in contrast with previous reports, our data support the use of RIDT for the detection of infection in

  1. Dew chemistry near a motorway in SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Błaś, M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this project is to show the influence of a large linear source of air pollution on dew formation and chemistry. Dew sampling was performed during the growing season of 2009 at 3 sites near Wroclaw in SW Poland in the vicinity of A4 motorway which connects southern part of Poland with Germany and other EU countries. The road crosses in this part a rural landscape from WSW to ENE direction. The traffic is notoriously heavy, even at night, and lorries constitute about one third of vehicles. Two of the sampling sites were set in a distance of 30 meters from the motorway edge on the opposite sides (SE and NW) of the road to monitor dew efficiency and chemistry depending on wind direction. The third one was set 1.25 km to the NNW of the former pair to represent background rural conditions beyond the road influence. All three sites and the motorway are surrounded by vast arable grounds with intense agriculture activity. Three insulated plane radiative condensers, each 1 m2 in area, inclined at 15°, were installed at measurement sites. Two series of measurements were performed: the first in April lasted twenty days including several days without sampling, the second in September was continuous and lasted eleven days. Altogether there were nineteen dew or hoar frost sampling days, nine in April and ten in September. Basic meteorological data were gathered three times daily. Water yield of three condensers was compared to meteorological data and between each other. The research findings show that the most favorable weather conditions corresponding to high amounts of dew or hoar frost were characterized by synoptic scale warm air advection, high relative humidity, moderate wind speed i.e. 2-3 m/s and radiative weather. The samples from condenser located in calm air site usually had less volume than the other in windy place. The motorway heat source imposed a strong impact on efficiency of dew. The condenser on the leeward site of the road was characterized

  2. District Energy Corporation SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davlin, Thomas [District Energy Corporation, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2014-06-06

    The overall deliverable from the project is the design, construction and commissioning of a detention facility heating and cooling system that minimizes ownership costs and maximizes efficiency (and therefore minimizes environmental impact). The primary deliverables were the proof of concept for the application of geothermal systems for an institutional facility and the ongoing, quarterly system operating data downloads to the Department of Energy . The primary advantage of geothermal based heat pump systems is the higher efficiency of the system compared to a conventional chiller, boiler, cooling tower based system. The higher efficiency results in a smaller environmental foot print and lower energy costs for the detention facility owner, Lancaster County. The higher efficiency for building cooling is primarily due to a more constant compressor condensing temperature with the geothermal well field acting as a thermal “sink” (in place of the conventional system’s cooling tower). In the heating mode, Ground Couple Heat Pump (GCHP) systems benefits from the advantage of a heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) of approximately 3.6, significantly better than a conventional gas boiler. The geothermal well field acting as a thermal “source” allows the heat pumps to operate efficiently in the heating mode regardless of ambient temperatures. The well field is partially located in a wetland with a high water table so, over time, the project will be able to identify the thermal loading characteristics of a well field located in a high water table location. The project demonstrated how a large geothermal well field can be installed in a wetland area in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Finally, the SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant project demonstrates the benefits of providing domestic hot water energy, as well as space heating, to help balance well filed thermal loading in a cooling dominated application. During the period of August 2012 thru

  3. Ostracoda and foraminifera as short-term tracers of environmental changes in very polluted areas: the Odiel Estuary (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, F.; Gonzalez-Regalado, M.L.; Borrego, J.; Abad, M.; Pendon, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of 17 cores collected in the Odiel Estuary (SW Spain) permits delimiting the recent evolution of this zone during the past decades and the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ostracoda and Foraminifera. In the upper estuary, the coincidence of acid waters, prolonged subaerial exposure, and coarse sediments may explain the absence or the disappearance of these microorganisms during the industrial period (1966-1985) in the major part of this area. In the lower estuary, sedimentary evolution and industrial wastes are the main factors influencing both the distribution and trends of the populations of these two groups. Finally, the main changes observed in the marine estuary are due to the sedimentary effects of the construction of two banks and the dredging of the main estuarine channel. - In a polluted estuary, the meiofaunal assemblages experience different changes even in adjacent sedimentary environments, closely related to anthropogenic and natural causes

  4. Targeting of slug sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma SW1736 cells to doxorubicin via PUMA upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Anbing; Jiao, Xuelong; Chen, Dong; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers and often shows resistance to multimodal therapeutic approaches. It has been shown that the transcriptional repressor Slug inhibits the chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We evaluated whether targeting of Slug could augment doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis of ATC cells. We also determined changes in PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression levels to identify possible mechanisms of their combined actions. Methods SW1736 cells were transfected with Slug siRNA or/and PUMA siRNA and then exposed to DOX (0.1, 1, and 5 mM) for selected times. Scrambled siRNA was used as a control. The effects on cell viability were determined via MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assays and annexin V staining, and was confirmed by flow cytometry analyses. Slug and PUMA levels were determined using western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. We used a subcutaneous implanted tumor model of SW1736 cells in nude mice to assess the effects of Slug silencing in combination with DOX on tumor development. Apoptosis was assessed via TUNEL assay. Results Targeting of Slug using siRNA combined with DOX led to lower cell viability than treatment with DOX alone in SW1736 cells. TUNEL and flow cytometry analyses showed that targeting of Slug enhanced DOX-induced apoptosis of SW1736 cells. In addition, targeting of Slug increased PUMA expression, and targeting of PUMA restored the chemoresistance of SW1736/Slug siRNA cells to DOX. Conclusions Knockdown of Slug enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX in SW1736 cells via induction of PUMA upregulation. Our results suggest that targeting of Slug has good potential for the development of new therapeutic strategies for ATC.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Bacillus cereus SW7-1 in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guan-Nan; Xia, Xue-Juan; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Sendegeya, Parfait; Zhu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial diseases of silkworms cause significant reductions in sericulture and result in huge economic loss. This study aimed to identify and characterize a pathogen from diseased silkworm. SW7-1, a pathogenic bacterial strain, was isolated from the diseased silkworm. The strain was identified on the basis of its bacteriological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The colony was round, slightly convex, opaque, dry, and milky on a nutrient agar medium, the colony also exhibited jagged edges. SW7-1 was Gram-positive, without parasporal crystal, and 0.8-1.2 by 2.6-3.4 µm in length, resembling long rods with rounded ends. The strain was positive to most of the physiological biochemical tests used in this study. The strain could utilize glucose, sucrose, and maltose. The results of its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that SW7-1 shared the highest sequence identity (>99%) with Bacillus cereus strain 14. The bacterial strain was highly susceptible to gentamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin and moderately susceptible to tetracycline and rifampicin. It exhibited resistance to other antibiotics. SW7-1 had hemolytic activity and could produce extracellular casease, lipase, and amylase. SW7-1 could reproduce septicemia-like symptoms with high mortality rate when re-fed to healthy silkworm. .The median lethal concentration (LC50) was 5.45 × 10(4) cfu/ml. Thus, SW7-1 was identified as B. cereus, which is a pathogen for silkworm and human infections are possible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Lateglacial and early Holocene tephrostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Store Slotseng basin, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes in the surr......The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes...

  7. Magma reservoir conditions beneath Tsurumi volcano, SW Japan: Evidence from amphibole thermobarometry and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Shiho; Ishibashi, Hidemi; Suwa, Yukiko; Yasuda, Atsushi; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Ohkura, Takahiro; Takemura, Keiji

    2017-05-01

    Calcic amphibole phenocrysts in the Tsurumidake summit (TS) lava, which was produced during the most recent eruption at Tsurumi Volcano (SW Japan) at around 7.5-10.5 ka, have been analyzed to determine the pre-eruptive conditions, such as temperature (T), pressure (P), oxygen fugacity (fO2), SiO2 content (SiO2melt), and FeO*/MgO ratio (FeO*/MgOmelt), of coexisting silicate melts in the magma reservoir beneath the volcano. Although most of the amphibole phenocrysts have been completely decomposed to a fine-grained opaque symplectite, 6% of the grains remain intact. The degree of amphibole breakdown (DAB), defined as the ratio of the area of symplectite to the area of symplectite plus relict amphibole in each phenocryst, varies from 20% to 100%. Compositional zoning was not observed in the amphibole grains, however, two distinct groups of amphibole phenocrysts have been identified based on their chemical compositions: group-I amphiboles, which are relatively Si-poor, and [6]Al-rich, and have a relatively high Mg# [100Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +)]; and group-II amphiboles, which are Si-rich, and [6]Al-poor, and have a relatively low Mg#. Empirical equations for geothermobarometry, oxygen barometry and chemometry that exclusively rely on the amphibole composition were applied to estimate the T-P-fO2-SiO2melt-FeO*/MgOmelt conditions of the silicate melts with which the amphibole crystals equilibrated. The results show that group-I and group-II amphiboles equilibrated with andesitic melts (group-I melts) and dacitic-rhyolitic melts (group-II melts), respectively. The T-P-fO2 conditions of group-I melts were estimated as 374-483 MPa ( 13.9-17.9 km depth), 950 °C, and NNO + 1.3, respectively, and those of group-II melts were 93-242 MPa ( 3.4-9.0 km depth), 824-913 °C, and NNO + 0.6-1.7, respectively. The estimated T-P-fO2-SiO2melt-FeO*/MgOmelt conditions were almost constant for group-I melts, whereas the T, ΔNNO, and FeO*/MgOmelt values of group-II melts decreased with increasing

  8. LREE Enrichments of Altered Alkaline Pyroclastics at Kuyubasi Region Burdur, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoglu, Murat; Tugcan Unluer, Ali; Doner, Zeynep; Kocaturk, Huseyin; Sezai Kırıkoǧlu, M.

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the Kuyubasi region of Burdur, Bucak district, Inner Isparta Apex, SW Anatolia, Turkey, the investigation carried out for the potential in-situ enrichments of REE in highly altered alkaline tuffs originated from Golcuk volcano. This volcano is the most significant product of the widely known post collisional, Afyon-Isparta potassic-ultrapotassic volcanic province in southwestern Turkey. Partial melting of oceanic crust and subcontinental lithospheric mantle resulted in the formation of florocarbonates and pyrochlore group minerals which are responsible for the LREE enrichment in Golcuk volcanics. These extrusive rocks are mainly trachyandesites, augite-trachytes, porphyry trachytes and tephriphonolite dikes which are formed in several eruptive cycles. Pyroclastics from the last eruptions can be encountered in various locations beneath the Isparta apex. The pyroclastics in study area described as mafic crystal metatuffs which predominantly consist of calcic-plagioclase with clinopyroxene, K-feldspar, and quartz set in a hyalo-microcrystalline tuffaceous matrix of microcrystalline aggregates of kaolinized and sericitized feldspar, biotite, chlorite, quartz, and dusty iron oxide. The results indicate high values for the LREE elements such as La (251-369 ppm), Ce (412-660 ppm), Sc (45-48 ppm). The average ΣREE content of samples are 1012 ppm. These results are compatible with the samples from Golcuk Caldera which is located 30 km north of study area in terms of LREE contents (La and Ce values are 400-500 ppm and 500-600 ppm respectively). Key words: Rare earth elements (REE), Pyroclastic occurrences, Bucak region, Burdur, Southwest Turkey *This research was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) project. Principal Investigator (PI) of this ongoing TUBITAK, CAYDAG-114Y646 project is Prof.Dr. M. Sezai KIRIKOGLU.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Lupa gold field, SW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of AS, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were determined in water, stream sediments, soil, and mine tailings from Lupa Gold Field (LGF), SW Tanzania, in order to assess their pollution levels. As, Cd and Cr were determined by automated Graphite Furnace Absorption Spectrophotometry. Cu and Pb were analysed ...

  10. Deformation processes in mantle peridotites : with emphasis on the Ronda peridotite of SW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, D. van der

    1993-01-01

    This thesis aims to study upper mantle deformation processes in a case study of the Ronda peridotite in the Alpine Betic Cordilleras of SW Spain. The choice for this massif is motivated by its following characteristics: (i) pioneering geochemical and geological studies have shown that the W

  11. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  12. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  13. Nitrogen Dynamics in the Westerschelde Estuary (Sw Netherlands) Estimated by Means of the Ecosystem Model Moses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Herman, P.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A tentative nitrogen budget for the Westerschelde (SW Netherlands) is constructed by means of a simulation model with thirteen spatial compartments. Biochemical and chemical processes in the water column are dynamically modeled; fluxes of dissolved constituents across the water-bottom interface are

  14. Lower Maastrichtian cyclostratigraphy of the Bidart section (Basque Country, SW France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothée; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Maastrichtian limestone-marl alternations of Bidart (SW France) allows the hypothesis of orbital control on lithological cycles to be evaluated. Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), oxygen and carbon isotope measurements, sampled at a high resolution, are analyzed usin...

  15. Hot topics in modern cosmology - SW6 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starobinsky, A.A.; Gorbunov, D.; Reverberi, L.; Arbuzova, E.; Arbuzov, A.; Maeda, K.; Borowiec, A.; Moschella, U.; Karshenboim, S.; Tinyakov, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Deffrayet, C.; Pilo, L.; Rham, C. de; Fasiello, M.; Tolley, A.; Chernodub, M.; Kunze, K.; Berezhiani, Z.; Kamyshkov, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This spontaneous workshop (SW) brings together specialists on recent insights in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. The aim is to stimulate debates on common topics in views of providing the scientific community with innovating ideas. The main topics are gravity, dark matter and cosmological models. This document is made of the slides of the presentations.

  16. Contrasting styles of Sn-W mineralisation in peninsular Thailand and SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, D. A. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Sn-W deposits of SW England and SE Asia are associated with crustally derived granitic rocks with late volatile-enriched (F, Li, B, P) differentiates. In peninsular Thailand, primary ores are principally pegmatitic, and hydrothermal vein systems are only locally important. In SW England, wolframite and cassiterite mainly occur in hydrothermal vein systems, and are associated with greisening and tourmalinisation; mineralised pegmatites are rare. These two styles of mineralisation are thought to arise because of differences in the character of late magmatic processes. In peninsular Thailand, late-stage tourmaline-bearing granitic rocks are enriched in B, but not Li and F, compared to earlier biotite granites. Similar late-stage granitic rocks occur also in SW England, but a later topaz granite, enriched in F, Li and P, also occurs. The Thai pegmatitic Sn-W deposits are thought to have formed by late magmatic crystallisation from an aqueous phase enriched in metals and derived by exsolution from a B and metal-rich magma, whereas the SW England mineralisation involved essentially post-magmatic hydrothermal processes. Complexing agents (especially F) and metals may have been derived from granitic or country rocks during hydrothermal circulation at the current level of emplacement.

  17. A revision of the genus Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae) in New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1988-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the genus Ardisia Sw. in New Guinea, the Moluccas and the Aru Is. (but excluding the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Is.), comprising 7 subgenera with a total of 31 species, of which 3 species are new to science. A key to the subgenera and keys to the species, full

  18. Keurmerk voor sociaal aannamebeleid. Prestatieladder Socialer Ondernemer ook bruikbaar voor SW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.

    2012-01-01

    De Prestatieladder Socialer Ondernemen (PSO) geeft bedrijven die meer dan gemiddeld bijdragen aan werkgelegenheid voor personen met een afstand tot de arbeidsmarkt een erkenning. De PSO is 14 juni gelanceerd door TNO en ontwikkeld in samenwerking met onder andere zeven SW-bedrijven.ln dit artikeì de

  19. New antitumor principles, casearins A-F, for Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, H; Totsuka, N; Morita, H; Takeya, K; Iitaka, Y; Schenkel, E P; Motidome, M

    1990-12-01

    New antitumor clerodane diterpenes, named casearins A-F, have been isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae). These structures have been completely elucidated by two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, and chemical evidences.

  20. Introduction, establishment and expansion of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Oosterschelde (SW Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaal, A.C.; Kater, B.J.; Wijsman, J.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was first introduced as an exotic species by oyster farmers in 1964 in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands). The initial phase is not well documented but first natural spatfall was recorded in 1975. Excessive spatfall occurred in 1976 and this is considered

  1. Supporting Document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for SX-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  2. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  3. Sublittoral hard substrate communities of the southern Delta area, SW Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijver, de M.J.

    1989-01-01

    During 1985 and 1986, sublittoral communities on hard substrates in the southern Delta area, SW Netherlands, were investigated at 79 stations. The stations were distributed over 20 localities situated in the saline Lake Grevelingen, the Oosterschelde estuary and the SE North Sea. The percentage

  4. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  5. Seasonal and interannual phytoplankton production in a sub-Arctic tidewater outlet glacier fjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Pedersen, T.; Arendt, K. E.; Mortensen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes seasonal patterns and proposes likely drivers of an unusual phytoplankton primary production pattern in the outer-sill region of a tidewater outlet glacierinfluenced fjord (Godthåbsfjord) in SW Greenland. It is based on monthly measurements of pelagic primary production...

  6. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  7. Palynological evidence for late-Holocene human occupation recorded in two wetlands in SW Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermoere, M; Bottema, S; Vanhecke, L; Waelkens, M; Paulissen, E; Smets, E

    2002-01-01

    Pollen diagrams from mountain lakes and marshes in SW Turkey show evidence of intensive anthropogenic influence in the landscape between 3500 and 1300 BP. Three cores from within the territory of the classical city Sagalassos (Western Taurus, Pisidia) were palynologically analysed to make a

  8. Evaluation of the Swedish Web-Version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR): Secondary Step in the Development of a Mobile Phone App to Measure Postoperative Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Karuna; Jaensson, Maria; Eriksson, Mats; Nilsson, Ulrica

    2016-09-28

    The majority of all surgeries are performed on an outpatient basis (day surgery). The Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) app is an app for the Swedish Web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR), developed to assess and follow-up on postoperative recovery after day surgery. The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate the extent to which the paper and app versions of the SwQoR provide equivalent values; (2) to contribute evidence as to the feasibility and acceptability of a mobile phone Web-based app for measuring postoperative recovery after day surgery and enabling contact with a nurse; and (3) to contribute evidence as to the content validity of the SwQoR. Equivalence between the paper and app versions of the SwQoR was measured using a randomized crossover design, in which participants used both the paper and app version. Feasibility and acceptability was evaluated by a questionnaire containing 16 questions regarding the value of the app for follow-up care after day surgery. Content validity evaluation was based on responses by day surgery patients and the staff of the day surgery department. A total of 69 participants completed the evaluation of equivalence between the paper and app versions of the SwQoR. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the SwQoR was .89 (95% CI 0.83-0.93) and .13 to .90 for the items. Of the participants, 63 continued testing the app after discharge and completed the follow-up questionnaire. The median score was 69 (inter-quartile range, IQR 66-73), indicating a positive attitude toward using an app for follow-up after day surgery. A total of 18 patients and 12 staff members participated in the content validity evaluation. The item-level content validity index (I-CVI) for the staff group was in the 0.64 to 1.0 range, with a scale-level content validity index (S-CVI) of 0.88. For the patient group, I-CVI was in the range 0.30 to 0.92 and S-CVI was 0.67. The content validity evaluation of the SwQoR, together with

  9. Seismological structures of the subducted Philippine Sea plate and the overriding SW Japan arc, - Reinterpretation of the wide-angle reflection data in the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Kurashimo, Eiji; Abe, Susumu; Yokota, Ken; Iidaka, Takashi; Katao, Hiroshi; Higashinaka, Motonori; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    Our recent reinterpretation for seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data in eastern Kii Peninsula, SW Japan, provided new structural information on the uppermost part of the subducted Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and overriding the SW Japan arc, including the landward reflectivity variation in the vicinity of the plate boundary and the large scale structural change within the SW Japan arc. The Kii peninsula is located in the eastern part of the well-known subduction zone along the Nankai trough where offshore M8-class megathrust earthquakes repeatedly occur. The plate boundary beneath this Peninsula is in the stable or conditionally stable regime except for its southernmost tip, which corresponds to the northwestern end of the rupture area at the last event (1944 Tonankai earthquake (M7.9)). The surface geology of the overriding SW Japan arc is divided to two parts by the E-W trending Median Tectonic Line (MTL), the most prominent tectonic boundary in SW Japan. South of the MTL, Cretaceous-Jurassic accretionary complexes are exposed, whose northernmost unit consists of high P-T metamorphic rocks (the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt (SMB)). The region north of the MTL is occupied by older accretionary complexes, partly suffered from the Cretaceous magmatic intrusions. Our seismic data from five dynamite shots were acquired in 2006 along 80-km line almost perpendicular to the Nankai trough. The structure of the SW Japan arc was obtained both from intensive wide-angle reflection analysis and advanced reflection processing by seismic interferometry technique. The former analysis delineated clear structural change in the uppermost crust across the MTL. In the latter processing, we retrieved virtual shot records at 512 receiver points from free-surface backscattered waves by the deconvolution interferometry. The subsequent CRS (Common Reflection Surface)/MDRS (Multi-Dip Reflection Surfaces) methods provided an enhanced image within the island arc, including a northward

  10. SW480 colorectal cancer cells that naturally express Lgr5 are more sensitive to the most common chemotherapeutic agents than Lgr5-negative SW480 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planutis, Andrius K; Holcombe, Randall F; Planoutene, Marina V; Planoutis, Kiastoutis S

    2015-10-01

    Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a colorectal cancer (CRC) stem cell marker. The role of Lgr5-expressing stem cells in resistance to chemotherapy is controversial. The notion that Lgr5-expressing cells are more chemotherapy resistant is supported by some data; other data do not support this notion. We hypothesized that Lgr5-expressing cells would be more chemotherapy sensitive, as Lgr5 is usually a marker of dividing cells. We tested this hypothesis by exploiting two natural variants of SW480 CRC cells: the less-differentiated Lgr5-expressing floating fraction and the more-differentiated Lgr5-depleted attached fraction. We estimated chemotherapy sensitivity using an XTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. We confirmed that the detected chemotherapy sensitivity differences were Lgr5-driven by overexpressing Lgr5. SW480 CRC cells that naturally express Lgr5 are those that are floating, and they are more sensitive to the chemotherapeutic compounds irinotecan (maximum difference approximately two times, 0.0001exception, Lgr5-overexpressing cells did not show this increase in sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil. Remarkably, Lgr5 reduced the number of floating cells two-fold (instead of increasing it, as one would expect from a stemness-determining factor) and slightly increased the number of attached differentiated cells at a significantly high transfection efficiency for these SW480 cells (∼30%). These results suggest that Lgr5, although purported to be a cancer stem cell marker, is not sufficient to promote floating in these colon cancer cells. In conclusion, CRC cells that naturally express Lgr5 are more sensitive to the most commonly used CRC chemotherapeutic compounds than those that are naturally Lgr5 negative.

  11. From palaeotectonics to neotectonics in the Neotethys realm: The importance of kinematic decoupling and inherited structural grain in SW Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veen, J. H.; Boulton, S. J.; Alçiçek, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    In order to asses young, i.e. "neotectonic" fault kinematics and the relation with plate-tectonic processes in SW Turkey we focused on the questions: 1) what produced the structural grain, i.e. how and when are faults generated, 2) what was/is the kinematic behaviour of these faults and 3) during which period(s) were these faults active? Firstly, the distribution of faults has been investigated using a lineament analysis performed on satellite imagery and digital elevation models. We define five main tectonic domains in SW Turkey: 1 and 2) the Northern and Southern Western Anatolian extensional provinces; 3) the eastern Hellenic arc (including Rhodes Island and the submarine Anaximander mountains); 4) The Lycian Taurides and 5) the western limb of the Isparta Angle. Lineament analysis reveals dominance of three lineament groups, i.e. NNE-, ENE-, and WNW-trending, in all identified domains. Variations in the relative importance of lineament groups exist and are attributed to the specific tectonic evolution of each domain. A synthesis of recently published field data shows that the onset of activity of related fault groups is neither synchronous, nor uniform. The "structural grain" for the neotectonic deformation in SW Turkey is formed during the last stage of palaeotectonic deformation (stage 1), which is dominated by the onset of the Menderes Massif exhumation along a top-N major detachment, the Datça break-away fault [Seyitoğlu, G., Işık, V., and Çemen, İ., 2004. Complete Tertiary exhumation history of the Menderes massif, western Turkey: an alternative working hypothesis. Terra Nova, 16, 358-364.], and related SE-ward sliding of the Lycian Nappes in the footwall of this fault. This stage is characterized by spatially variable types of deformation that are delineated by, from NW to SE, the Datça Fault around the Menderes-Lycian contact zone and the Lycian frontal thrust zone, respectively. The kinematic decoupling along these structures explains the co

  12. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  13. ESTABILIDAD DE ANTOCIANINAS EN JUGO Y CONCENTRADO DE AGRAZ (VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS IN JUICE AND CONCENTRATE OF AGRAZ(VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de la estabilidad térmica y de almacenamiento de las antocianinas en jugo y concentrado de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. siguiendo una cinética de primer orden. La degradación de las antocianinas con la temperatura fue modelada adecuadamente con la ecuación de Arrhenius. El efecto del pH en la estabilidad térmica de las antocianinas en los concentrados de agraz se estudió a seis diferentes valores (3,0 - 8,0 en buffer citrato-fosfato. La degradación de las antocianinas fue mayor para el jugo que para el concentrado. Una disminución significante en la estabilidad de las antocianinas del concentrado se observó a pH cercano a 5,0.The kinetics of thermal and storage stabilities of anthocyanins in agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. juice and concentrate were studied with first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. The effect of pH on thermal stability of anthocyanins in concentrate of agraz was studied at six different pHs (3.0 - 8.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The results indicated that anthocyanins degradation was higher in juice than concentrate. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at pHs above 5.0.

  14. Simulation/Emulation Techniques: Compressing Schedules With Parallel (HW/SW) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Mark L.; Hoang, June

    2014-01-01

    NASA has always been in the business of balancing new technologies and techniques to achieve human space travel objectives. NASA's Kedalion engineering analysis lab has been validating and using many contemporary avionics HW/SW development and integration techniques, which represent new paradigms to NASA's heritage culture. Kedalion has validated many of the Orion HW/SW engineering techniques borrowed from the adjacent commercial aircraft avionics solution space, inserting new techniques and skills into the Multi - Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Orion program. Using contemporary agile techniques, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products, early rapid prototyping, in-house expertise and tools, and extensive use of simulators and emulators, NASA has achieved cost effective paradigms that are currently serving the Orion program effectively. Elements of long lead custom hardware on the Orion program have necessitated early use of simulators and emulators in advance of deliverable hardware to achieve parallel design and development on a compressed schedule.

  15. Simulink-based HW/SW codesign of embedded neuro-fuzzy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneri, L M; Chiaberge, M; Lavagno, L

    2000-06-01

    We propose a semi-automatic HW/SW codesign flow for low-power and low-cost Neuro-Fuzzy embedded systems. Applications range from fast prototyping of embedded systems to high-speed simulation of Simulink models and rapid design of Neuro-Fuzzy devices. The proposed codesign flow works with different technologies and architectures (namely, software, digital and analog). We have used The Mathworks' Simulink environment for functional specification and for analysis of performance criteria such as timing (latency and throughput), power dissipation, size and cost. The proposed flow can exploit trade-offs between SW and HW as well as between digital and analog implementations, and it can generate, respectively, the C, VHDL and SKILL codes of the selected architectures.

  16. Adaptation of SW-846 methodology for the organic analysis of radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Schenley, R.L.; Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E. Jr.; Fleming, G.S.; Harmon, S.H.; Wachter, L.J.; Garcia, M.E.; Edwards, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Modifications to SW-846 sample preparation methodology permit the organic analysis of radioactive mixed waste with minimum personal radiation exposure and equipment contamination. This paper describes modifications to SW-846 methods 5030 and 3510-3550 for sample preparation in radiation-zoned facilities (hood, glove box, and hot cell) and GC-MS analysis of the decontaminated organic extracts in a conventional laboratory for volatile and semivolatile organics by methods 8240 and 8270 (respectively). Results will be presented from the analysis of nearly 70 nuclear waste storage tank liquids and 17 sludges. Regulatory organics do not account for the organic matter suggested to be present by total organic carbon measurements. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Turbulence Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ERDC), has developed a robust multidimensional mass conservative finite element hydrodynamic and constituent transport numerical code Adaptive...density stratification. This is not possible at present because ADH-SW3 considers eddy viscosity and diffusivity as elemental properties. ERDC/CHL CR-15...Ouellet. 1987. A three-dimensional finite element model for the study of steady and non-steady natural flows. Elsevier Oceanography Series, No. 45

  19. Physico-chemical behaviour of underground waters after October 1, 1995 Dinar earthquake, SW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woith, H.; Milkereit, C.; Maiwald, U.; Pekdeger, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports the investigations conducted by a team of the German Earthquake Task Force arrived in the city of Dinar (SW Turkey) after the October 1, 1994 earthquake. The investigations recorded post-seismic changes in water discharge, water temperature and conductivity. In the first month after the event, the groundwater discharge increased at springs located within the down-thrown block, whereas a slight decrease was observed at sites on the hanging wall

  20. Palaeoceanographic interpretation of a seismic profile from the southern Mozambique Ridge, SW Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Watkeys, M. K.; Kretzinger, W.; Frank, M.; Heuer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic reflection data from the southern Mozambique Ridge, SW Indian Ocean, show indications for a modification in the oceanic circulation system. In the absence of an age-depth model based on a drill site information gathered from the study of radiogenic isotopes of ferromanganese nodules and crusts were used. Major reorganisations in the Indian Ocean circulation system led to the onset of current controlled sedimentation in the vicinity of the Mozambique Ridge at 14 Ma. The modific...

  1. Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

    2014-02-01

    Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions.

  2. Apigenin Inhibits Human SW620 Cell Growth by Targeting Polyamine Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apigenin is a nonmutagenic flavonoid that has antitumor properties. Polyamines are ubiquitous cellular polycations, which play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of cancer cells. Highly regulated pathways control the biosynthesis and degradation of polyamines. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC is the rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism, and spermidine/spermine-N1-Acetyl transferase (SSAT is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of polyamines. In the current study, the effect of increasing concentrations of apigenin on polyamine levels, ODC and SSAT protein expression, mRNA expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was investigated in SW620 colon cancer cells. The results showed that apigenin significantly reduced cell proliferation, decreased the levels of spermidine and spermine, and increased previously downregulated putrescine contents. Apigenin also enhanced SSAT protein and mRNA levels and the production of reactive oxygen species in SW620 cells, though it had no significant effect on the levels of ODC protein or mRNA. Apigenin appears to decrease the proliferation rate of human SW620 cells by facilitating SSAT expression to induce polyamine catabolism and increasing ROS levels to induce cell apoptosis.

  3. Computer Simulation of Single-Well Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SW-SAGD), SUPRI TR-119

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Keith T.; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    1999-08-09

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an effective method of producing heavy oil and bitumen. In a typical SAGD approach, steam is injected into a horizontal well located directly above a horizontal producer. A steam chamber grows around the injection well and helps displace heated oil toward the production well. Single-well (SW) SAGD attempts to create a similar process using only one horizontal well. This may include steam injection from the toe of the horizontal well with production at the heel. Obvious advantages of SW-SAGD include cost savings and utility in relatively thin reservoirs. However, the process is technically challenging. To improve early-time response of SW-SAGD, it is necessary to heat the near-wellbore area to reduce oil viscosity and allow gravity drainage to take place. Ideally heating should occur with minimal circulation or bypassing of stream. Since project economics are sensitive to early production response, we are interested in optimizing the start -up procedure.

  4. Light-Time Effect and Mass Transfer in the Triple Star SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper all the photoelectric times of minimum for the triple star SW Lyn have been analyzed in terms of light-time e ect due to the third-body and secular period decreases induced by mass transfer process. The light-time orbit determined recently by Ogloza et al.(1998 were modi ed and improved. And it is found that the orbital period of SW Lyn have been decreasing secularly. The third-body revolves around the mass center of triple stars every 5y.77 in a highly eccentric elliptical orbit(e=0.61. The third-body with a minimum mass of 1.13M may be a binary or a white dwarf. The rate of secular period-decrease were obtained as ¡âP/P = -12.45 x 10^-11, implying the mass-transfer from the massive primary star to the secondary. The mass losing rate from the primary were calculated as about 1.24 x 10^-8M /y. It is noticed that the mass-transfer in SW Lyn system is opposite in direction to that deduced from it's Roche geometry by previous investigators.

  5. New data on distribution of Cypripedium macranthon sw. on the territory of Altai krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vazhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.

  6. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Hinse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010. The two candidate companions are of stellar to substellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system’s primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behavior. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically viable explanation for measured eclipse timing variations. We conclude that dynamical considerations reveal that the proposed SW Lyncis multi-body system most likely does not exist or the companions have significantly different orbital properties from those conjectured in Kim et al. (2010.

  7. SWATCH: common control SW for the uTCA-based upgraded CMS L1 Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jim; Bunkowski, Karol; Cali, Ivan; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Lazaridis, Christos; Thea, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    The CMS L1 Trigger electronics are composed of a large number of different cards based on the VMEBus standard. The majority of the system is being replaced to adapt the trigger to the higher collision rates the LHC will deliver after the LS1, the first phase on the CMS upgrade program. As a consequence, the software that controls, monitors and tests the hardware will need to be re-written. The upgraded trigger will consist of a set of general purpose boards of similar technology that follow the TCA specification, thus resulting in a more homogeneous system. A great effort has been made to identify the common firmware blocks and components shared across different cards, regardless of the role they play within the trigger data path. A similar line of work has been followed in order to identify all possible common functionalities in the control software, as well as in the database where the hardware initialisation and configuration data are stored. This will not only increase the homogeneity on the software and database sides, but it will also reduce the manpower needed to accommodate the online SW to the changes on hardware. Due to the fact that the upgrade will take place in different stages, it has been taken into consideration that these new components had to be integrated in the current SW framework. This paper presents the design of the control SW and configuration database for the upgraded L1 Trigger.

  8. SWATCH: common control SW for the uTCA-based upgraded CMS L1 Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, Jim; Bunkowski, Karol; Cali, Ivan; Larrea, Carlos Ghabrous; Lazaridis, Christos; Thea, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The CMS L1 Trigger electronics are composed of a large number of different cards based on the VMEBus standard. The majority of the system is being replaced to adapt the trigger to the higher collision rates the LHC will deliver after the LS1, the first phase on the CMS upgrade program. As a consequence, the software that controls, monitors and tests the hardware will need to be re-written. The upgraded trigger will consist of a set of general purpose boards of similar technology that follow the TCA specification, thus resulting in a more homogeneous system. A great effort has been made to identify the common firmware blocks and components shared across different cards, regardless of the role they play within the trigger data path. A similar line of work has been followed in order to identify all possible common functionalities in the control software, as well as in the database where the hardware initialisation and configuration data are stored. This will not only increase the homogeneity on the software and database sides, but it will also reduce the manpower needed to accommodate the online SW to the changes on hardware. Due to the fact that the upgrade will take place in different stages, it has been taken into consideration that these new components had to be integrated in the current SW framework. This paper presents the design of the control SW and configuration database for the upgraded L1 Trigger. (paper)

  9. Effect of nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid and docosahexanoic acid production by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auma, Khairunnisa; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2018-04-01

    A local isolate, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 has been verified to have high content of docosahexanoic acid (DHA). However, the effect of different nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid concentration and DHA content in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 is still unknown. Hence, this study is focused in using six different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources to grow Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 in optimized Burja medium. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) gave the highest biomass concentration of 15.97 g/L followed by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) with 13.37 g/L at 96 hr. These two nitrogen sources had significant effect on the biomass concentration (pLSD) showed significant lipid production (p<0.05) when cultivated in MSG compared to other five nitrogen sources. The highest DHA productivity (0.052 g/L hr-1) was obtained in medium containing MSG. This study proves that nitrogen component in the medium significantly affects the biomass concentration, lipid and DHA content.

  10. The Internal Consistency of Key Process Areas in the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for Software (SW-CMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Ho-Won

    2002-01-01

    ...) assessments conducted during the period of January 2000 through April 2002. The results suggest that the SW-CMM maturity is a three-dimensional construct, with 'Project Implementation' representing the maturity level 2 key process areas (KPAs...

  11. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  12. Microbial community in the potential gas hydrate area Kaoping Canyon bearing sediment at offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. Y.; Hung, C. C.; Lai, S. J.; Ding, J. Y.; Lai, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep sub-seafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass plays a potentially important role in long-term controls of global biogeochemical cycles. The research team from Taiwan, supported by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), has been demonstrated at SW offshore Taiwan that indicated this area is potential gas hydrate region. Therefore, the Gas Hydrate Master Program (GHMP) was brought in the National Energy Program-Phase II (NEP-II) to continue research and development. In this study, the microbial community structure of potential gas hydrate bearing sediments of giant piston core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan were investigated. This core was found many empty spaces and filling huge methane gas (>99.9 %) that might dissociate from solid gas hydrate. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant members of Archaea were ANME (13 %), SAGMEG (31 %) and DSAG (20 %), and those of Bacteria were Chloroflexi (13 %), Candidate division JS1 (40 %) and Planctomycetes (15 %). Among them, ANME-3 is only distributed at the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) of 750 cmbsf, and sharing similarity with the Hydrate Ridge clone HydBeg92. ANME-1 and SAGMEG distributed below 750 cmbsf. In addition, DSAG and Candidate division JS1 are most dominant and distributed vertically at all tested depths from 150-3600 cmbsf. Combine the geochemical data and microbial phylotype distribution suggests the potential of gas hydrate bearing sediments at core MD-178-10-3291 (KP12N) from the Kaoping Canyon offshore SW of Taiwan.

  13. Acetylcarnitine potentiates the anticarcinogenic effects of butyrate on SW480 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimrani, Ihsan; Dionne, Serge; Saragosti, Dan; Qureshi, Ijaz; Levy, Emile; Delvin, Edgar; Seidman, Ernest G

    2015-08-01

    Butyrate is a potent anticarcinogenic compound against colon cancer cells in vitro. However, its rapid metabolism is hypothesized to limit its anticancer benefits in colonic epithelial cells. Carnitine, a potent antioxidant, is essential to fatty acid oxidation. The aims of this study were to identify a colon cancer cell line capable of transporting carnitine. We evaluated the effect of carnitine and acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) on the response of colon carcinoma cells to butyrate. We explored the mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenic benefit. SW480 cells were incubated with butyrate ± carnitine or ALCAR. Carnitine uptake was assessed using [3H]-carnitine. Apoptosis and cell viability were assessed using an ELISA kit and flow cytometry, respectively. Modulation of proteins implicated in carnitine transport, cell death and proliferation were assessed by western blotting. SW480 cells were found to transport carnitine primarily via the OCTN2 transporter. Butyrate induced SW480 cell death occurred at concentrations of 2 mM and higher. Cells treated with the combination of butyrate (3 mM) with ALCAR exhibited increased mortality. The addition of carnitine or ALCAR also increased butyrate-induced apoptosis. Butyrate increased levels of cyclin D1, p21 and PARP p86, but decreased Bcl-XL and survivin levels. Butyrate also downregulated dephospho-β-catenin and increased acetylated histone H4 levels. Butyrate and carnitine decreased survivin levels by ≥25%. ALCAR independently induced a 20% decrease in p21. These results demonstrate that butyrate and ALCAR are potentially beneficial anticarcinogenic nutrients that inhibit colon cancer cell survival in vitro. The combination of both agents may have superior anticarcinogenic properties than butyrate alone.

  14. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae) in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae) in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee) and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet) and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee) were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  15. Deconstructing mammal dispersals and faunal dynamics in SW Europe during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Maria Rita

    2014-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationships between climate change and faunal dynamics in south-west Europe, disentangling the asynchronous and diachronous dispersal bioevents of large mammals across geographical and ecological boundaries, analysing biodiversity and its changes through time. The analysis of local versus regional biological dynamics may shed new light on whether turnovers and ecological and evolutionary changes developed because of global climate changes and related phenomena, or because of intrinsic biological factors. The SW European Quaternary fossil record is particularly suitable for studying the role of climate change at local and regional levels because of the complex physiographic and climatic heterogeneity of the study area, the presence of important geographical/ecological barriers and the complex history of invasions of species of varying geographical origin and provenance. The data base consists of taxonomically revised lists of large mammal species from selected SW European local faunal assemblages ranging in age from the Early to the late Middle Pleistocene (middle Villafranchian to early Aurelian European Land Mammal Ages). The new biochronological scheme proposed here allows for the comparison of local turnovers and biodiversity trends, yielding a better understanding of the action of geographical/ecological barriers that either prevented the range of some taxa from reaching some regions or caused delays in the dispersal of a taxon in some territories. The results obtained provide evidence that major environmental perturbations, triggering dispersal events and removing keystone species, modified the structure of the pre-existing mammalian faunas, merging previously independently-evolved taxa into new palaeo-communities. The coupled action of climatic changes and internal biotic dynamics thus caused the Quaternary SW European faunal complexes to significantly restructure. Diachroneity in local turnover across the study area

  16. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic crude extract from Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Micheline N; da Silveira, Márcia R; Danielski, Lucineia G; Florentino, Drielly; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Piovezan, Anna P

    2013-06-03

    Casearia sylvestris Sw. is widely used in popular medicine to treat inflammatory conditions. To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) taken from Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae). The effect of the HCE from this plant (3-300 mg/kg) on the reduction of inflammatory response to carrageenan was investigated in pleurisy in rats (intrapleural, 2% in 0.2 mL) or paw edema in mice (intraplantar, 300 μg/20 μL, right hind paw). The plant anti-inflammatory action was assessed by its capability in inhibiting cell migration, enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and production of nitrite/nitrate or edema. The in vitro antioxidant activity of this extract against lipid peroxidation and damage to proteins was assessed as possible pathways to contribute as anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (739.3 ± 11.9 μm) was reduced by HCE (30 mg/kg: 462.8 ± 28.38 μm) to similar extents as dexametasone (365.1 ± 16.7). In pleurisy, treatment of the animals with HCE (100mg/kg: 0.010 ± 0.001 mU/mg of protein) also reduced MPO activity augmented by carrageenan (0.020 ± 0.001 mU/mg of protein) as well as leukocytes migration (carrageenan: 17.8890 ± 2.3900 leukocytes/mL, HCE 100mg/kg: 7.0880 ± 9631 leukocytes/mL). Significant effects were also observed in animals treated with different doses of HCE in biochemical tests for oxidative stress analysis. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of HCE from Casearia sylvestris Sw. suggests a potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in treatment of inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  19. Geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic volcanic and associated potassic granitic rocks of the Ngualla area of the Ubendian Belt, SW Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulibonywa, Tulibako; Manya, Shukrani; Torssander, Peter; Maboko, Makenya A. H.

    2017-05-01

    The Ngualla area of the Lupa terrane in the Ubendian Belt of SW Tanzania is underlain by well-preserved greenschist facies calc-alkaline volcanic rocks which have been intruded by low-Sr, peraluminous K-rich granites. The Ngualla volcanic rocks are subdivided into four groups: the basaltic andesites-trachyandesites, Group I porphyritic dacites-trachytes, Group II porphyritic dacites-trachytes, and rhyolites. The basaltic andesites-trachyandesites were emplaced at ∼1943 Ma and their most primitive members are characterized by MgO contents of up to 7.43 wt % at a SiO2 content of 54.0 wt %, Ni contents of up to 170 ppm and Mg# of up to 62. They show fractionated REE patterns (La/YbCN = 11.5-36.5), sub-chondritic Zr/Hf (37.8-43.9) and Nb/Ta (7.14-20.0) ratios, εNd (1943 Ma) values of -3.33 to -6.24 and TDM ages of 2521-2883 Ma. These geochemical features are consistent with derivation of the basaltic andesites-trachyandesites by at least 0.1% partial melting of garnet peridotite mantle, followed by 50-80% fractional crystallization involving the removal of 61% clinopyroxene, 20% hornblende, 4% plagioclase and 15% orthopyroxene. The magmas were contaminated by Neoarchaean crustal materials incorporated in the Ubendian Belt during their ascent to the surface. The evolution of these magmas led to the formation of Group I porphyritic dacites-trachytes and rhyolites in a Palaeoproterozoic continental arc setting. The Group II porphyritic dacites-trachytes (1871 ± 5 Ma) were coevally emplaced with the low-Sr, peraluminous K-granites (1878 ± 15 Ma) forming a felsic plutonic-volcanic suite. Despite some differences, these rocks share geochemical features including negative Eu anomalies (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.19 for the dacites and 0.5 for the granites) and εNd (1871 Ma) values of -5.72 for the dacites and εNd (1878 Ma) values of -6.00 to -11.2 for the granites. These geochemical features are consistent with the generation of the ∼1.87 Ga Ngualla felsic plutonic

  20. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustache Yvan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  1. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Eustache

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  2. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.) with the analysis of flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Upatham Meesawat; Theera Srisawat; Ladda Eksomtramage; Kamnoon Kanchanapoom

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.) was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76) had approximately two times DNA content than di...

  3. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Donana National Park, SW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz-Hansen, O.; Montes, C.; Duarte, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Donana marsh (SW Spain) was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic) was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m(-2) d(-1......), and gross production rates exceeding community respiration rates by, on average, 43%. Net community production increased greatly with increasing irradiance, with the threshold irradiance for communities to become net autotrophic ranging from 42 to 255 mu E m(-2) s(-1), with net heterotrophic at lower...... autotrophic benthic compartment (average P/R = 1.58)...

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae), a neotropical medicinal tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, M M; Billot, C; Bouvet, J-M; Favreau, B; Zucchi, M I; Palmieri, D A; Gimenes, M A

    2008-07-01

    Casearia sylvestris Sw. is a widespread neotropical tree utilized in popular medicine. Recent research ranked Casearia as one of the most promising genus in the search of drugs against cancer. Despite its wide distribution and pharmacological importance, no microsatellite markers have yet been developed for this genus. In this study, we provide 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci specifically designed for C. sylvestris, used to analyse 90 individuals distributed in two populations from São Paulo state, Brazil. On average, 12.3 alleles per locus were identified, showing the ability of the markers to detect microsatellite polymorphism in this species. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Sulfur and lead isotope characteristics of the Pontes e Lacerda gold deposits, SW Amazonian Craton Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Babinski; M; Iyer, S

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the characterization of the S and Pb isotope signatures in sulfides from the Pontes e Lacerda mesothermal gold deposits located in the SW sector of Amazonian craton. Stable and radiogenic isotopes have played an important role in the study of ore deposited and hydrothermal processes and they are most useful when can be used together. The purpose of this study is to constrain the sources and the mechanisms of gold deposition in Pontes e Lacerda region which may be a helpful contribution to an exploratory model in the area (au)

  6. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  7. Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the SW Hellenic ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzanis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A region of definite accelerating seismic release rates has been identified at the SW Hellenic Arc and Trench system, of Peloponnesus, and to the south-west of the island of Kythera (Greece. The identification was made after detailed, parametric time-to-failure modelling on a 0.1° square grid over the area 20° E – 27° E and 34° N–38° N. The observations are strongly suggestive of terminal-stage critical point behaviour (critical exponent of the order of 0.25, leading to a large earthquake with magnitude 7.1 ± 0.4, to occur at time 2003.6 ± 0.6. In addition to the region of accelerating seismic release rates, an adjacent region of decelerating seismicity was also observed. The acceleration/deceleration pattern appears in such a well structured and organised manner, which is strongly suggestive of a causal relationship. An explanation may be that the observed characteristics of distributed power-law seismicity changes may be produced by stress transfer from a fault, to a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities, i.e. a region defined by the stress field required to rupture a fault with a specified size, orientation and rake. Around a fault that is going to rupture, there are bright spots (regions of increasing stress and stress shadows (regions relaxing stress; whereas acceleration may be observed in bright spots, deceleration may be expected in the shadows. We concluded that the observed seismic release patterns can possibly be explained with a family of NE-SW oriented, left-lateral, strike-slip to oblique-slip faults, located to the SW of Kythera and Antikythera and capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes MS ~ 7. Time-to-failure modelling and empirical analysis of earthquakes in the stress bright spots yield a critical exponent of the order 0.25 as expected from theory, and a predicted magnitude and critical time perfectly consistent with the figures given above. Although we have determined an approximate location

  8. Timing of Svecofennian crustal growth and collisional tectonics in Åland, SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Ehlers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to quantify the time parameter in the tectonomagmatic evolution of what has been called the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex (SSAC of SW Finland, advanced radiometric dating techniques have here been applied to rock groups of key importance in that area. In this paper we report the results of 131 high-resolution ionmicroprobe spot analyses (SIMS of zircons, and 33 measurements using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS on zircon, monazite and titanite, and employing both large-sample multi-grain as well as single-grain techniques. The Torsholma area of the Åland archipelago, situated between southern Finland and central Sweden, is a key structural area significant to resolve the time dimension in Svecofennian tectonics. There a collage of imbricated rock slabs was formed by tectonic shortening representing the culmination of large-scale penetrative Svecofennian deformation. Another structurally significant feature investigated is the South FinlandShear Zone (SFSZ that transects the southwest-Finnish archipelago and further east follows the southern coast of Finland. This shear zone forms the southern limit of the c. 1830 Ma Late Svecofennian Granite and Migmatite Zone (LSGM and also features deformations of a later stage when the considered region of Svecofennian crust was consolidated. The obtained age results and their tectonic analysis can be summarized as follows. The Enklinge volcanic sequence (1885±6 Ma is within error limits coeval with the intrusion of abundant early-kinematic gneissose granodiorites whose average age of 1884±5 Ma marks the formation of new crust in this region. Some of these geisses contain a significant amount of 2000–2080 Ma zircon. Although many Svecofennian granitoids are known to contain heterogeneous zircon populations, mainly formed c. 1890 Ma ago but also containing an inherited component, the Kökar gneiss is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case where inheritance from c. 2030

  9. Identification of the Novel TMEM16A Inhibitor Dehydroandrographolide and Its Anticancer Activity on SW620 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Sui

    Full Text Available TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, is highly amplified and expressed in human cancers and is involved in the growth and metastasis of some malignancies. Inhibition of TMEM16A represents a novel pharmaceutical approach for the treatment of cancers and metastases. The purpose of this study is to identify a new TMEM16A inhibitor, investigate the effects of this inhibitor on the proliferation and metastasis of TMEM16A-amplified SW620 cells, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in vitro. We identified a novel small-molecule TMEM16A inhibitor dehydroandrographolide (DP. By using patch clamp electrophysiology, we showed that DP inhibited TMEM16A chloride currents in Fisher rat thyroid (FRT cells that were transfected stably with human TMEM16A and in TMEM16A-overexpressed SW620 cells but did not alter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR chloride currents. Further functional studies showed that DP suppressed the proliferation of SW620 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using MTT assays. Moreover, DP significantly inhibited migration and invasion of SW620 cells as detected by wound-healing and transwell assays. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that knockdown of human TMEM16A decreased the inhibitory effect of DP on the proliferation of SW620 cells and that TMEM16A-dependent cells (SW620 and HCT116 were more sensitive to DP than TMEM16A-independent cells (SW480 and HCT8. In addition, we found that treatment of SW620 cells with DP led to a decrease in TMEM16A protein levels but had no effect on TMEM16A mRNA levels. The current work reveals that DP, a novel TMEM16A inhibitor, exerts its anticancer activity on SW620 cells partly through a TMEM16A-dependent mechanism, which may introduce a new targeting approach for an antitumour therapy in TMEM16A-amplified cancers.

  10. The Effects of NDRG2 Overexpression on Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness of SW48 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestan, Ali; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Hamidinia, Maryam; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world. The expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is down-regulated in CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells. SW48 cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing NDRG2. After stable transfection, the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on cell migration, invasion and cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) activities were also investigated using matrigel transwell assay, wound healing assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. MTT assay showed that overexpression of NDRG2 caused attenuation of SW48 cell proliferation. Transwell and wound healing assay revealed that NDRG2 overexpression led to inhibition of migration, invasion, and motility of SW48 cells. The overexpression of NDRG2 also reduced the activity of secreted MMP-9. The results of this study suggest that NDRG2 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells, which likely occurs via suppression of MMP-9 activity.

  11. Effects of Lidocaine on HT-29 and SW480 Colon Cancer CellsIn Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundscherer, Anika C; Malsy, Manuela; Bitzinger, Diane I; Wiese, Christoph H R; Gruber, Michael A; Graf, Bernhard M

    2017-04-01

    Evidence is growing that the risk of cancer dissemination may be enhanced during the perioperative period. Whether particular anesthetic techniques influence oncological outcome is still under discussion. For pain management, lidocaine can be administered perioperatively by intravenous, intraperitoneal or epidural infusion. Here we investigated the effect of lidocaine on colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and SW480) in vitro. ELISA BrdU (Roche) for cell proliferation and FITC Annexin V detection kit (BD Pharming) for apoptosis analysis were applied. Cell-cycle profiles were investigated by flow cytometry. Cell-cycle arrest was induced in both cell lines by 1000 μM lidocaine, while no inhibition of cell proliferation was detected. Apoptosis decreased in SW480 but not in HT-29 cells. Lidocaine induces cell-cycle arrest in both colon carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The effective drug concentration can be obtained by local infiltration. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Active tectonics in Southern Portugal (SW Iberia) inferred from GPS data. Implications on the regional geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Mendes, Virgílio Brito; Figueiredo, Paula; Silveira, António Brum da; Pagarete, Joaquim; Ribeiro, António; Dias, Ruben; Ressurreição, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    A GPS-based crustal velocity field for the SW Portuguese territory (Algarve region, SW Iberia) was estimated from the analysis of data from a network of campaign-style GPS stations set up in the region since 1998, complemented with permanent stations, covering an overall period of 16.5 years. The GPS monitoring sites were chosen attending to the display of the regional active faults, in an attempt to detect and monitor any related crustal straining. The residual horizontal velocities relative to Eurasia unveil a relatively consistent pattern towards WNW, with magnitudes that noticeably increase from NNE to SSW. Although the obtained velocity field does not evidence a sharp velocity gradient it suggests the presence of a NW-SE trending crustal shear zone separating two domains, which may be slowly accumulating a slightly transtensional right-lateral shear strain. Based on the WNW velocity differential between the northeastern block and the southwestern block, a shear strain rate accumulation across the shear zone is estimated. This ongoing crustal deformation is taken as evidence that a nearby major active structure, the São Marcos - Quarteira fault, may be presently accumulating strain, therefore being potentially loaded for seismic rupture and the generation of a large magnitude earthquake. Further inferences are made concerning the interseismic dynamic loading of other major onshore and offshore active structures located to the west.

  13. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  14. In Vitro Antiproliferative Effects of Sulforaphane on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line SW620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Andělová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF has been reported to possess chemopreventive efficiency towards various malignancies including colon cancer. Here, we investigated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of SF on colon cancer cell line SW620. We found that SF at concentrations of 10–50 μM inhibits cell viability and proliferation of SW620 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 being 26 μM (24 h, 24.4 μM (48 h and 18 μM (72 h. Also, in the same cells SF caused DNA damage and chromatin condensation after 24 h and 48 h as revealed by phospho-H2A.X western blot analysis and DAPI staining of nuclei. These changes were accompanied by the elevated activity of caspase 3, although after 20 μM SF concentration only. Together, these results indicate that SF suppresses growth of human metastacic colonocytes and induces apoptotic cell death.

  15. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  16. Dry deposition and concentration of marine aerosols in a coastal area, SW Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mats E. R.; Franzén, Lars G.

    The present paper introduces a model for the dry deposition of marine aerosols in a coastal area of SW Sweden. The model, incorporating wind speed and distance from shore, is based on repeated measurements of salt impingement on specially designed salt traps in dense profiles from the shore and inland. The measurements show that the deposited salts include two significantly different components, one dynamic containing large droplets, with short residence time in the air, deposited close to the shore, the other one being microscopic droplets, with long residence time in the air and with a low deposition velocity (principally, the system is similar to that of mineral particles, i.e. saltating dune sand vs loess). The deposition of marine aerosols has various effects on the terrestrial environments. Aside from those associated to human activities, i.e. technical effects on outdoor electrical installations, increased corrosion of cars, etc. there are others associated to natural ecosystems. Hence, salts are important contributors to major and trace elements for plant growth. On the other hand, the deposition of windborne salt spray is believed to form an important stress factor on forests and especially to exposed stands of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L.). In this latter sense it is the authors' opinion that the rising number of westerly gales reported on the Swedish west coast during the last two decades might give an important contribution to the increasing amounts of damage observed from coniferous forests in SW Sweden.

  17. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  18. KRAS exon 2 mutations influence activity of regorafenib in an SW48-based disease model of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaj, Peter; Primo, Stefano; Wang, Yan; Heinemann, Volker; Zhao, Yue; Laubender, Ruediger Paul; Stintzing, Sebastian; Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Jung, Andreas; Gamba, Sebastian; Bruns, Christiane Josephine; Modest, Dominik Paul

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of KRAS mutation variants on the activity of regorafenib in SW48 colorectal cancer cells. Activity of regorafenib was evaluated in isogenic SW48 KRAS wild-type (WT) and mutant cells. Subcutaneous xenografts (KRAS WT and G12C mutant variants) in NOD/SCID mice were analyzed to elucidate the effect of regorafenib treatment in vivo. Compared with KRAS WT cells, all mutant variants seemed associated with some degree of resistance to regorafenib-treatment in vitro. In vivo, activation of apoptosis (TUNEL) and reduction of proliferation (Ki67) after treatment with regorafenib were more pronounced in KRAS WT tumors as compared with G12C variants. In SW48 cells, exon 2 mutations of the KRAS gene may influence antitumor effects of regorafenib.

  19. Detection of Cytotoxic Activity of Lectin on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma (Sw480 and Epithelial Cervical Carcinoma (C33-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirandeli Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a heterogeneous class of proteins that recognize the carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates with high specificity. Numerous studies have shown that lectins are capable of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties displayed by malignant cells or tissues. The present work was performed to investigate the effects of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius lectins on proliferation, colony formation, and alteration of DNA synthesis of human malignant cells. Tepary bean lectin showed dose dependent  effects on the inhibition of viability as well as on colony formation in two human malignant cells lines (C33-A, Sw480; By contrast, tepary bean lectin only showed significant effects on DNA synthesis on Sw480 cells. Our results provide evidence of the anti- proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the tepary bean lectins on C33-A and Sw480 cells lines.

  20. Pliocene Quaternary faulting in the Lycian Taurides - new insights into the neotectonic evolution of SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veen, J.; Huibregtse, J.; Zwart, L.

    2003-04-01

    The submarine Anaximander Mountains connect the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs and form a zone that accommodates the different tectonic regimes along these arcs. The Lycian Tauride Mountains in southwestern Turkey are situated just north of the Anaximander Mts. and likely have a comparable neotectonic evolution. The Lycian Taurides comprise the Bey Daglari positioned between the Lycian Nappes in the west and the Antalya Nappe Complex in the east. Here we focus on two tectonic basins, the Kasaba and Esen Çay basins, that are located in the Bey Daglari and Lycian Nappes respectively. Until the Langhian, NW-SW compression associated with the emplacement of the Lycian Nappes, caused (ductile) folding of the Bey Daglari autochthon and syntectonic sedimentation in a NE-SW trending foreland-type basin. After foreland deposition of Upper Miocene (Langhian-Serravallian) conglomerates, a phase of S-vergent thrusting and reverse faulting started, probably related to the late Miocene - Early Pliocene Aksu phase. Fault data from the Kasaba basin show that the Pliocene-Recent tectonic evolution is characterized by extension, although no sedimentary basins formed. From slickensides, striae and other kinematic indicators, in combination with stratigraphical and geomorphological information, 3 extensional fault phases are inferred: (1) ?Pliocene (post Miocene) WNW-ESE extension, forming approximately N-S trending asymmetrical grabens. (2) More recent (?Pleistocene) NE-SW extension that resulted in large 135^o tilt-block basins that are cut by less pronounced 070^o left lateral strike-slip faults. The Pleistocene - Recent period is dominated by N-S extension that resulted in formation of 90^o -100^o normal faults and reactivation of older (normal) faults. Although extension prevails, exhumation and lowering of base level, evident from crosscutting scree, point at relative uplift. From the structural data of the Esen Çay Basin, 2 extensional phases are inferred: (1) Pliocene E

  1. Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA(2) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Saulo L; Calgarotto, Andrana K; Chaar, Jamal S; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2008-11-01

    The Casearia sylvestris SW (Flacourtiaceae) is utilized in folk medicine (Brazil and all Latin American) to treat several pathologic processes as inflammation, cancer, microbial infection and snake bites. Studies showed that C. sylvestris aqueous extract can inhibit many toxic effects caused by snake venoms (or caused by phospholipase A(2) isolated) from different species, mainly of Bothrops genus. Inhibition of enzymatic and myotoxic activities, decrease of edema formation and increase of the survival rate of rats injected with lethal doses of bothropic venoms are some toxic effects inhibited by C. sylvestris. In this study, four ellagic acid derivatives from aqueous extracts of C. sylvestris were isolated, characterized, and tested against effects from both total venom and PLA(2) (Asp 49 BthTX-II) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. The isolated compounds were as follows: ellagic acid (A), 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid (B), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (C), 3-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxy ellagic acid (D). The inhibition constant values (Ki) for enzymatic activity, as well the IC(50) values found in the edematogenic and myotoxic activities, indicate that the ellagic acid is the best inhibitor of these activities, while compounds C and D are the substances with lowest capacity on inhibiting these same effects. Our results show that the presence of hydroxyls at position 3 or 3' (compounds A and B) increases the capacity of these derivatives on inhibiting these toxic effects. However, the presence of methoxyl groups at position 3 or 3' reduced, but did not completely inhibit the capacity of compounds C and D on inhibiting all the toxic effects studied.

  2. Hydroalcoholic crude extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw. reduces chronic post-ischemic pain by activation of pro-resolving pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovezan, Anna P; Batisti, Ana P; Benevides, Maria L A C S; Turnes, Bruna L; Martins, Daniel F; Kanis, Luiz; Duarte, Elisa C W; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bueno, Paula C P; Seed, Michael P; Norling, Lucy V; Cooper, Dianne; Headland, Sarah; Souza, Patrícia R P S; Perretti, Mauro

    2017-05-23

    Casearia sylvestris Sw. is widely used in popular medicine to treat conditions associated with pain. The present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic crude extract of Casearia sylvestris (HCE-CS) and contribution of pro-resolving mediators on mechanical hyperalgesia in a mouse model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Swiss mice were subjected to ischemia of the right hind paw (3h), then reperfusion was allowed. At 10min, 24h or 48h post-ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), different groups of animals were treated with HCE-CS (30mg/Kg, orally [p.o]), selected agonists at the pro-resolving receptor ALX/FPR2 (natural molecules like resolvin D1 and lipoxin A4 or the synthetic compound BML-111; 0.1-1µg/animal) or vehicle (saline, 10mL/Kg, s.c.), in the absence or presence of the antagonist WRW4 (10µg, s.c.). Mechanical hyperalgesia (paw withdrawal to von Frey filament) was asseseed together with histological and immunostainning analyses. In these settings, pro-resolving mediators reduced mechanical hyperalgesia and HCE-CS or BML-111 displayed anti-hyperalgesic effects which was markedly attenuated in animals treated with WRW4. ALX/FPR2 expression was raised in skeletal muscle or neutrophils after treatment with HCE-CS or BML-111. These results reveal significant antihyperalgesic effect of HCE-CS on CPIP, mediated at least in part, by the pathway of resolution of inflammation centred on the axis modulated by ALX/FPR2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proliferation is associated with 2-deoxy-D-[1-{sup 3}H]glucose uptake by T47D breast tumour and SW480 and SW620 colonic tumour cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Timothy A.D.; Titley, Jennifer C.; McCready, V. Ralph

    1998-07-01

    The interpretation of therapy-induced changes in the uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose by tumours, detected using PET, is dependent on which tumour characteristics are associated with its uptake. In this study the relationship between proliferation (S-phase fraction) and the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-[1-{sup 3}H]glucose by T47D breast tumour and SW480 and SW620 colonic tumour cells was measured between 2 and 12 days after seeding. Strong correlations (p<0.001) were observed between viable cell number and the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-[1-{sup 3}H]glucose/flask by each of the cell lines. Uptake of this compound was also found to correlate with S phase fraction in the T47D line (p<0.05) and the SW480 (p<0.01) and the SW620 (p<0.001) colonic tumour lines. The findings of the present study suggest that therapy-induced changes in the uptake of this compound may at least partially reflect changes in proliferative fraction.

  4. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Stevens and its application to physically map the Sw-5 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, MI; Prins, M; Stevens, MR; Hille, J; Goldbach, RW; Spassova, Mariana I.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Goldbach, Rob W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sw-5 gene is a dominantly inherited resistance gene in tomato and functional against a number of tospovirus species. The gene has been mapped on chromosome 9, tightly linked to RFLP markers CT220 and SCAR421. To analyse the Sw-5 locus, a BAC genomic library was constructed of tomato cv. Stevens,

  5. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    In the Eastern Mediterranean sea, the climate succession of the last deglaciation is documented and dated in marine cores by the d18-O variation of foraminiferal cal- cite and pollen records. The Last Glacial Maximum is identified by a large abundance of grass pollen from a prairie-type vegetal cover with low annual precipitation in the mountainous north and east borderlands of the sea, where the pollen mainly origi- nates. During the first phase of the last deglaciation, the Bolling/Allerod chronozone, the moisture availability increases and makes possible the spread of a deciduous for- est, as shown by the increasing pollen abundance of the deciduous oak. The cold and arid Younger Dryas is identified by a reversal to semi-desert conditions, with the in- crease of sage-brush (Artemisia) and the saline-tolerant Chenopodiaceae. The climate of the earliest Holocene is Optimum for at least 3000 years (9000-6000yr BP), with the largest spread of the deciduous forest at low-middle elevations signalling wet sum- mers and of the Pistacia woodland at low elevations signalling mild, no-frost winters. This is the time when the most recent sapropel deposited in the eastern Mediterranean under anoxic bottom conditions generated by a surface lid of lower salinity due to the concomitant largest floods of the Nile River fed by the strongest African monsoon rains in the Ethiopian Highlands. In SW Asia, the pollen records of lakes and marshes have been correlated with those of the marine cores, thereby obtaining a robust time-frame. In that area, the archaeo- logical data of human settlements are independently dated by 14C. Thus the archaeo- logical succession can be securely set against the well-dated climatic succession. The Late Palaeolithic populations of SW Asia were wandering hunter-gatherers in the prairies of the Last Glacial Maximum, where they already collected wild wheat, barley and fruit. With the Bolling/Allerod wetter and warmer climate, they began to settle in

  6. SW modul TCP/IP a Modbus pro OS FreeRTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastný, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Cieľom tejto práce je zoznámenie sa s operačným systémom FreeRTOS a jeho využitia pri realizácií zariadení. V práci je rovnako rozobraté využitie SW modulu LwIP (TCP/IP stack) a FreeMODBUS. Následne je navrhnuté ukážkové zariadenie, jednoduchý operátorský panel. Ten komunikuje pomocou rozhrania ethernet s využitím protokolu Modbus TCP s pripojenými PLC na separátnej sieti. Úlohou zariadenia je plniť funkciu webserveru, HID a súčasne slúžiť ako zdroj reálneho času. The aim of this work is t...

  7. Comportement de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. Sw. dans la basse Ruzizi et le Mosso (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancoppenolle, R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl Sw in lower Ruzizi and Mosso (Burundi. This paper describes the requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis in two ecological regions : Mosso (1 280 m alt. and lower Ruzizi (800 m alt.. This legume was introduced in 1953 into the grasslands of the east and in 1970 into lower Ruzizi, with the aim of improving the value of the natural pastures using leguminous plants. At Mosso, soil and climatic conditions were favourable for Stylosanthes and it grew well. However, since 1981. Anthracnose has severely reduced its growth and until a solution is found its general introduction will not be possible. In lower Ruzizi plant development was limited by low rainfall (670, 4 mm per year and soils with a low water retention capacity (sand dunes. For this region, it is necessary to identify cultivars resistant to drought and devise a method of establishing these cultivars on sand dunes.

  8. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  9. Monitoring physical properties of a submarine groundwater discharge source at Kalogria Bay, SW Peloponnissos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An impressive SGD in Kalogria Bay (SW Peloponnissos was surveyed for the first time in 2006, revealing the existence of 2 major and 2 minor point sources of freshwater (salinity ~l-2; the discharge was ~ 1000 m3 h−1. The major point source was located in a karstic cavity at 25 m depth. In July 2009, and for a period of one year, the site was monitored intensively. During summer, the underwater discharge was not very strong, the water was flowing from many dispersed points, and salinity range was 20–36. During autumn and winter, flow velocity increased considerably (> 1 m s−1, and the SGDs discharged water of low salinity (< 2. Gradually, the smaller SGDs ceased their operation, and the major SGD emanated brackish water during spring and summer, thus hampering the possibilities of freshwater exploitation, in a touristic area which suffers from great aridity and water demand is high during summer.

  10. Effect of morphactine on differentiation and development of Cymbidium Sw. protocorms cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kukułczanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenetic effect of morphactine IT 3456 on meristematic tissue of Cymbidium Sw. was investigated within the dose range 0.01 to 10 ppm in in vitro culture on liquid and agar-solidified medium. In the doses applied, morphactine increased the number of protocorms differentiating from isolated meristematic tissues, and, in dependence on the dose, affected their shape and proliferation. Morphactine retards, and in large doses completely inhibits, the development of rhizoids, shoots and roots. Various developmental anomalies were observed under the influence of morphactine: leaf syncotylia, and their deformation, thickening, shortening, flattening and branching of shoots as well as formation of 2-3 shoots by one protocorm and development of secondary protocorms on the leaves.

  11. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: a.palau@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  12. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  13. Physiological responses of coastal phytoplankton (Visakhapatnam, SW Bay of Bengal, India) to experimental copper addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2017-10-01

    Trace amount of copper (Cu) is essential for many physiological processes; however, it can be potentially toxic at elevated levels. The impact of variable Cu concentrations on a coastal phytoplankton community was investigated along a coastal transect in SW Bay of Bengal. A small increase in Cu supply enhanced the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic silica, total pigment, phytoplankton cell and total bacterial count. At elevated Cu levels all these parameters were adversely affected. δ 13 C POM and δ 15 N POC reflected a visible signature of both beneficial and toxic impacts of Cu supply. Skeletonema costatum, the dominant diatom species, showed higher tolerance to increasing Cu levels relative to Chaetoceros sp. Cyanobacteria showed greater sensitivity to copper than diatoms. The magnitude of Cu toxicity on the phytoplankton communities was inversely related to the distance from the coast. Co-enrichment of iron alleviated Cu toxicity to phytoplankton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Abscisic Acid Levels during Early Seed Development in Sechium edule Sw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieri, Paolo; Perata, Pierdomenico; Lorenzi, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Nello

    1989-01-01

    The time-course growth of single tissues in pollinated and unpollinated ovules of Sechium edule Sw. is described in relation to the endogenous levels of abscisic acid. Quantitation of abscisic acid (ABA) in the minute amounts of material obtained after ovule dissection has been performed by using a highly specific and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody raised against free (S)-ABA. While the absolute amount of ABA rises in both types of ovules, only in unpollinated ones does this leads to an increase in the hormone concentration. Infact in pollinated ovules the rapid growth following pollination prevents, through a dilution effect, the increase in ABA concentration. Growth patterns and endogenous ABA levels are similar for integuments and nucellus tissues either in pollinated or unpollinated ovules. It is suggested that the growth inhibition induced by the increase in ABA concentration after anthesis could be counteracted by the pollination triggered fast ovule growth. PMID:16667185

  15. In Vivo Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Nello; Lorenzi, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-[14C]kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA12, GA4, GA7 and 16, 17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA15 alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-[14C]kaurene to ent-kaurenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-α-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs. PMID:16667553

  16. In Vivo Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, N; Lorenzi, R

    1990-07-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-[(14)C]kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA(12), GA(4), GA(7) and 16, 17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA(15) alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-[(14)C]kaurene to ent-kaurenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-alpha-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs.

  17. Abscisic Acid Levels during Early Seed Development in Sechium edule Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieri, P; Perata, P; Lorenzi, R; Ceccarelli, N

    1989-12-01

    The time-course growth of single tissues in pollinated and unpollinated ovules of Sechium edule Sw. is described in relation to the endogenous levels of abscisic acid. Quantitation of abscisic acid (ABA) in the minute amounts of material obtained after ovule dissection has been performed by using a highly specific and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody raised against free (S)-ABA. While the absolute amount of ABA rises in both types of ovules, only in unpollinated ones does this leads to an increase in the hormone concentration. Infact in pollinated ovules the rapid growth following pollination prevents, through a dilution effect, the increase in ABA concentration. Growth patterns and endogenous ABA levels are similar for integuments and nucellus tissues either in pollinated or unpollinated ovules. It is suggested that the growth inhibition induced by the increase in ABA concentration after anthesis could be counteracted by the pollination triggered fast ovule growth.

  18. Evolutionary analysis of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Galipienso, Luis; Soler, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando; Rubio, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene Sw-5 can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.

  19. Comparative study of uranium concentration in water samples of SW and NE Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Komal; Bajwa, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    Since the commencement of the earth, radiations and natural radioactivity has always been a part of environment. Uranium is heaviest naturally occurring element which is widespread in nature, mainly occurs in granites mineral deposits. The natural weathering of rocks such as granite dissolves the natural uranium, which goes into groundwater by leaching and precipitation called illumination process. People are always exposed to certain amount of uranium from air, water, soil and food as it is usually present in these components. About 85% of ingested uranium enter into human body through drinking water which makes it very important to estimate uranium concentration in potable water. Uranium and some other heavy metals may increase the risk of kidney damage, cancer diseases where experimental evidence suggests that respiratory and reproductive system are also affected by uranium exposure. In the present study comparative study of uranium concentration in potable water samples of SW and NE Punjab has been analysed

  20. Back analysis of an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide near the SW of Xiaoliuqiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Houh Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurred in the offshore of SW Taiwan on 26 December 2006 with a magnitude of 7, the Pingtung earthquake had triggered numbers of submarine landslides. This event provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate the back analysis approach to evaluate the in situ shear strength parameters. According to the chirp sonar images of the seabed near the SW Xiaoliuqiu obtained before and after the earthquake were adopted to establish the slope profile and identified the location of a circular sliding surface. Consequently, the in situ, effective strength parameters under the critical condition can be calculated by back slope stability analysis. Submarine sediment sampler was obtained via gravity sampling method and the laboratory tests were performed to determine the index properties and strength parameters. Test results indicate the cored sediment has the characteristics of normally consolidated (NC clay. The effective friction angle (φ’ is 15.3° with cohesion (c’ of 19.4 kPa. The effective and total stress methods were used to perform the back analysis. The strength parameters derived from back analysis of effective and total stress methods all indicate values approach the CIU triaxial tests results. Consequently, the representativeness of the marine sediment characteristics obtained from laboratory tests is identified. The total stress approach yields an undrained strength ratio cu/σ'vo of 0.26 which well fit the ratio used in geotechnical practice for estimating NC clay. According to the analytical approach, the landslide was applied seismic forces (seismic coefficient kh = 0.14 and generated excess pore pressure of 31 kPa at the sliding surface.

  1. ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Catherine A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The native annual tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is found primarily in large ephemeral populations (typically for less than 3 growing seasons after fires in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems and in small persistent populations (for many growing seasons in isolated washes typically along roadsides throughout the Great Basin Desert of the SW USA. This distribution pattern is due to its unusual germination behavior. Ephemeral populations are produced by the germination of dormant seeds from long-lived seed banks which are stimulated to germinate by a combination of unidentified positive cues found in wood smoke and the removal of inhibitors leached from the unburned litter of the dominant vegetation. Persistent populations may result where these inhibitors do not exist, as in washes or along disturbed roadsides. To determine if this germination behavior has influenced population structure, we conducted an AFLP (244 individuals, ISSR (175 individuals and ISSR+ AFLP (175 individuals analysis on plants originating from seed collected from populations growing in 11 wash and burns over 11 years from the SW USA. Results Genetic variance as measured by both ISSR and AFLP markers was low among sites and comparatively higher within populations. Cluster analysis of the Utah samples with samples collected from Arizona, California, and Oregon as out-groups also did not reveal patterns. AMOVA analysis of the combined AFLP and ISSR data sets yielded significantly low genetic differentiation among sites (Φct, moderate among populations within sites (Φsc and higher genetic differentiation within populations (Φst. Conclusions We conclude that the seed dormancy of this post-fire annual and its resulting age structure in conjunction with natural selection processes are responsible for significantly low among sites and comparatively high within-population genetic variation observed in this species.

  2. Evaluation of thermal performance in fields subjected to steam injection (SW-SAGD mode), Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, F.; Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The first well to operate the SW-SAGD process in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela was built in 2006 by Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA). SW-SAGD is a thermal recovery process consisting in the injection of steam through a horizontal well pipe insulation. In order to follow the behavior of steam and the movement of heated fluids in such a process better, PDVSA installed a monitoring system composed of high temperature fiber optic and thermocouple type sensors. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal behavior of reservoirs in wells under the SW-SAGD process. A pilot test has been conducted over the last 3 years. Results show an increase in production and estimations show a recovery factor twice as high as in other wells. This study demonstrated that SW-SAGD is an excellent alternative solution to stimulate reservoirs in the Orinoco oil belt and valuable information on the reservoir's thermal behavior was established.

  3. swDMR: A Sliding Window Approach to Identify Differentially Methylated Regions Based on Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a widespread epigenetic modification that plays an essential role in gene expression through transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. The emergence of whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS represents an important milestone in the detection of DNA methylation. Characterization of differential methylated regions (DMRs is fundamental as well for further functional analysis. In this study, we present swDMR (http://sourceforge.net/projects/swDMR/ for the comprehensive analysis of DMRs from whole genome methylation profiles by a sliding window approach. It is an integrated tool designed for WGBS data, which not only implements accessible statistical methods to perform hypothesis test adapted to two or more samples without replicates, but false discovery rate was also controlled by multiple test correction. Downstream analysis tools were also provided, including cluster, annotation and visualization modules. In summary, based on WGBS data, swDMR can produce abundant information of differential methylated regions. As a convenient and flexible tool, we believe swDMR will bring us closer to unveil the potential functional regions involved in epigenetic regulation.

  4. Late-Quaternary variations in clay minerals along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence of climatic variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Sukhija, B.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Paropkari, A.L.

    Down-core variations in illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite (the major clays) in two sup(14)C-dated cores collected along the SW continental margin of India show that illite and chlorite have enhanced abundance during 20-17, 12.5, 11-9.5, and 5...

  5. Contrasting variability in foraminiferal and organic paleotemperature proxies in sedimenting particles of the Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fallet, U.; Ullgren, J.E; Castañeda, I.S.; van Aken, H.M.; Schouten, S.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Brummer, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate sea surface temperature (SST) proxies are important for understanding past ocean and climate systems. Here, we examine material collected from a deep-moored sediment trap in the Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean) to constrain and compare both inorganic (delta O-18, Mg/Ca) and organic

  6. Increased chromosome exchange frequencies in iodo-deoxyuridine-sensitized human SW-1573 cells after gamma-irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; van Bree, C.; Veltmaat, M. A.; Ludwików, G.; Kipp, J. B.; Barendsen, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    The induction of chromosome exchanges was investigated in SW-1573 human lung tumour cells radiosensitized with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and irradiated with gamma-rays. Following treatment chromosome 2 and X were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA

  7. 77 FR 46684 - In the Matter of: Universal Industries Limited, Inc., 3050 SW 14th Place Unit 3, Boynton Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Regulations; or C. Benefitting in any way from any transaction involving any item exported or to be exported... Limited, Inc., 3050 SW 14th Place Unit 3, Boynton Beach, FL 33426; Order Denying Export Privileges On..., Inc. (``Universal'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C...

  8. Multi-temporal InSAR evidence of ground subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal: the Montellano aquifer (SW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Constán, A.; Ruiz-Armenteros, A.M.; Lamas-Fernández, F.; Martos-Rosillo, S.; Delgado, J.M.; Bekaert, D.P.S.; Sousa, J.J.; Gil, A.J.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Hanssen, R.F.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the InSAR technique to analyse ground subsidence due to intensive exploitation of an aquifer for agricultural and urban purposes in the Montellano town (SW Spain). The detailed deformation maps clearly show that the spatial and temporal extent of subsidence is controlled by

  9. Human induced soil erosion and the implications on crop yield in a small mountainous Mediterranean catchment (SW-Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, Maarten; Dusar, Bert; Verstraeten, Gert; Renssen, Hans; Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haen, Koen; Bakker, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Many hillslopes in the limestone dominated Taurus Mountain Range (SW Turkey) are characterized by severely depleted soils, while a significant amount of sediment is being stored in the valley bottoms. The same holds true for the 11.4 km2 endorheic Gravgaz basin in the vicinity of the

  10. Lithospheric mantle beneath NE part of Bohemian Massif and its relation to overlying crust: new insights from Pilchowice xenolith suite, Sudetes, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2017-12-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene basanite from Pilchowice (Sudetes Mts., SW Poland) carries numerous small xenoliths of mantle peridotite, mostly harzburgite. The Pilchowice xenolith suite is dominated by harzburgites and dunites containing olivine Fo 90.2-91.5 (group A). The peridotites of group B (olivine Fo 88.6-89.4), and C (olivine Fo 83.2-86.5) are subordinate. The peridotites suffered from significant melt extraction (20-30%) and were subsequently subjected to metasomatism. Three different trace element compositional patterns of group A clinopyroxene occur, which are typical of silicate melt, carbonatite melt and silicate-carbonatite melt metasomatism, whereas groups B and C were affected by silicate melt metasomatism only. The Pilchowice basanite occurs at the contact of Karkonosze-Izera Block and Kaczawa Complex, two major geological units of Sudetes. The Pilchowice xenolith suite documents underlying lithospheric mantle of composition and depletion degree similar to those described in the whole Lower Silesian mantle domain, which forms NE termination of Saxo-Thuringian zone of the European Variscan orogen. The crustal structure of the orogen is, therefore, not mirrored in the mantellic root.

  11. Factors controlling gully erosion at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.; Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    Gully erosion has been recognized as an important soil degradation process in rangelands of SW Spain. However, little is known about gullying processes at different spatial and temporal scales in these areas. Three different approaches were used in this paper to analyze the factors determining gully erosion intensity and rates at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain. The first approach was based on the monitoring of a permanent valley bottom gully and continuous measurement of rainfall and discharge during the period 2001-2007 in the Parapuños experimental basin. Parapuños is a small catchment (99.5 ha) representative of dehesa land use, with an undulated topography and Mediterranean climate. Gully erosion volume was obtained by means of 28 fixed cross sections measured with a frequency of 6 months. Discharge and rainfall were monitored using a water depth probe installed in a weir at the outlet of the catchment and 6 tipping bucket rain gauges, respectively. The second approach was based on analyzing the development of the same permanent gully located in Parapuños using six series of aerial ortophotographs for the period 1945-2006. This methodology allowed to relate gully evolution with land use and vegetation cover changes. Finally, a relatively new data mining technique, called Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), was applied to construct a model capable of predicting the location of gullies at the regional scale. A large database composed of 36 independent variables related to topography, lithology, soils, rainfall, land use and vegetation cover was used. This statistical technique allowed to determine the importance of the variables involved. This database was gathered in 46 farms representative of rangelands of SW Spain in Extremadura, covering a surface area of 35,459 ha. Farms were quite diverse although their main characteristics were undulating landforms, acid rocks (schists, greywackes and granites), and

  12. [Construction of γ-synuclein eukaryotic expression vector and its effect on invasion and metastasis of colon cancer cell line SW1116 in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Huang, Feng; Zheng, Qiuhong; Wang, Xiaoying; Xu, Yangmei; Gong, Fusheng; Huang, Lijie

    2014-01-01

    To construct γ-synuclein gene eukaryotic expression vector, and to study its effect on the invasion of colon cancer cell line SW1116 and the adhesion between SW1116 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) in vitro. Total RNA was extracted from colon cancer cell line HT29 and the cDNA of γ-synuclein was amplified using RT-PCR. The digested fragment of cDNA coding sequence was linked to the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C1 containing the GFP gene. After identification by sequence analysis, the recombinant plasmid was transfected into colon cancer cell line SW1116 via lipofectamine. The stable cell line was selected with G-418. The invasion in vitro was tested by Transwell invasion chamber assay. HUVECs were previously seeded onto 96-well plates before SW1116 cells seeded, and fluorescence intensity of GFP was detected to represent the amount of adhesion cells by ELISA. Human γ-synuclein eukaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed, which was stably expressed in SW1116 cells and could translate the GFP-γ-synuclein protein in vitro. γ-synuclein facilitated SW1116 cell passing through matrigel and filter membrane(198.4±20.7 vs. 98.8±13.2, Pcells to HUVECs(3.08±0.36 vs. 1.22±0.21, Pcell SW1116 potentiality of invasion and metastasis in vitro.

  13. Kinematics of SW Anatolia implications on crustal deformation above slab tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaptan, Murat; Koç, Ayten; Lefebvre, Côme; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Özacar, Arda A.; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    SW Anatolian tectonics are dominated mainly by emplacement of Lycian Nappes from north to south over the Beydaǧları platform during the early to middle Miocene, which followed by the development of the so called Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ). This fault zone is supposed to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone that accommodated more than 100 km displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. In addition, the FBFZ is collinear with the on-land NE continuation of the Pliny Trench along which the north subducting African slab is thought to be torn apart and retreated from somewhere around the apex of Isparta Angle to its present configuration as a STEP fault. In order to test already proposed evolutionary scenarios, and the feasibility of a STEP fault scenario and tectonic evolution of the region, we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic and kinematic study in the region containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia and more than 2000 fault slip data measured mainly along the FBFZ. According to our preliminary results, except for some local insignificant clockwise rotations - the region underwent counter-clockwise rotation during the early to Late Miocene. The rotation senses and amounts are almost the same everywhere implying that rotation took place uniformly everywhere, as a rigid body rotation or the region underwent no internal rotational deformation. Likewise, rotations in the west and the east of FBFZ are similar for the post-late Miocene implying no internal rotational deformation. In addition to paleomagnetic data, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations mainly along the FBFZ indicated that the faults within the FBFZ are mainly normal in character although minor lateral components are observed at the fault terminations or intersections. These fault slip

  14. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  15. Geoquímica e Geocronologia do Plutonismo Granítico Mesoproterozóico do SW do Estado de Mato Grosso (SW do Cráton Amazônico)

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Cesar Geraldes

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é o estudo geocronológico e da composição química dos granitóides da porção SW do estado do Mato Grosso. A abordagem deste projeto tem relevância para o entendimento da evolução geológica através da identificação, na área de estudo, de eventos de acresção crustal durante o Paleo e Mesoproterozóico que vieram a compor significativa fração do SW Cráton Amazônico. Na região do Terreno Jauru, tonalitos, vulcânicas ácidas e gnaisses analisados pelo método U/Pb em zircões ...

  16. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  17. Isopermutation group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muktibodh, A. S. [Department of Mathematics, Mohota College of Science, NAGPUR-440009 India E-mail: amukti2000@yahoo.com (India)

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  18. Integrating technologies for oil spill response in the SW Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, J.; Neves, A.; Martins, F.; Relvas, P.

    2017-09-01

    An operational oil spill modelling system developed for the SW Iberia Coast is used to investigate the relative importance of the different components and technologies integrating an oil spill monitoring and response structure. A backtrack of a CleanSeaNet oil detection in the region is used to demonstrate the concept. Taking advantage of regional operational products available, the system provides the necessary resolution to go from regional to coastal scales using a downscalling approach, while a multi-grid methodology allows the based oil spill model to span across model domains taking full advantage of the increasing resolution between the model grids. An extensive validation procedure using a multiplicity of sensors, with good spatial and temporal coverage, strengthens the operational system ability to accurately solve coastal scale processes. The model is validated using available trajectories from satellite-tracked drifters. Finally, a methodology is proposed to identifying potential origins for the CleanSeaNet oil detection, by combining model backtrack results with ship trajectories supplied by AIS was developed, including the error estimations found in the backtrack validation.

  19. Turbidity Currents, Submarine Landslides and the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides or slumps may generate turbidity currents consisting of mixture of sediment and water. Large and fast-moving turbidity currents can incise and erode continental margins and cause damage to artificial structures such as telecommunication cables on the seafloor. In this study, we report that eleven submarine cables across the Kaoping canyon and Manila trench were broken in sequence from 1500 to 4000 m deep, as a consequence of submarine landslides and turbidity currents associated with the 2006 Pingtung earthquakes offshore SW Taiwan. We have established a full-scale scenario and calculation of the turbidity currents along the Kaoping canyon channel from the middle continental slope to the adjacent deep ocean. Our results show that turbidity current velocities vary downstream ranging from 20 to 3.7 and 5.7 m/s, which demonstrates a positive relationship between turbidity current velocity and bathymetric slope. The violent cable failures happened in this case evidenced the destructive power of the turbidity current to seafloor or underwater facilities that should not be underestimated.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of conventional land management in privately-owned rangelands of Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Manuel; Herguido, Estela; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2017-04-01

    Extensive grazing is a key factor for the conservation of High Nature Value (HNV) farming systems such as woody rangelands (dehesas or montados) or grasslands (pastizales) in SW Europe. They have been created from clearing the former Mediterranean forest and have been subject to land use and management changes, particularly during recent decades. Environmental and economic consequences of those changes have been scarcely studied so far. In this study, the land management of 10 privately-owned farms (ranging from 200 to 1,000 ha in size) has been analysed from various perspectives: [1] environmental (soil quality, land degradation, tree regeneration, etc.), [2] economic (inputs, outputs, infrastructure and vehicles) and [3] sociodemographic (type of exploitation, generational relay, etc.). Data were obtained through field surveys, aerial image analysis and personal interviews with owners and shepherds. The results showed negative economic consequences (e.g. more expenses on food supply) on farms where soils are more degraded. Approximately 30% of the farms had negative economic balances, compensated by subsidy payments from the European Union. Furthermore, 50% of the samples do not have guaranteed the generational relay. The obtained information is relevant to evaluate the sustainability of these farming systems. However, a larger number of cases is still necessary in order to draw definitive conclusions. Keywords: Dehesas, Land management, Sustainability, Integrated approach

  1. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  2. Carihuayrazo S-W a little Ecuadorian glacier in the way to extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Carihuayrazo S-W glacier is located on the western cordillera in the Ecuadorian Andes. During the last 60 years it has been a dramatical reduction in its ice coverage corresponding to 67%. During the last 15 years an accelerated ice coverage lost has been observed with a value of 37%.The values on the reduction of ice coverage were correlated with the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) location for the Ecuadorian Andes, corresponding to 5100 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). This value was determined over the last 20 years using different measurements over the Antisana 15 glacier (1994-2014). This place is used as a reference to locate the coverage lost for the glaciers in the Ecuadorian Andes. At the moment the Glacier under study doesn't have accumulation area since the more higher altitude was located at 5020 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l), value that is below the equilibrium line altitude. Values for mass balance have been measured during short periods of time with high negative values. According to the observations carried out on this glacier since 2003 there is a high probability that it will disappear in the next ten years . At the moment this glacier is monitoring with special attention in order to document with detail its disappearance.

  3. Settlement patterns of Chthamalus spp. at Praia da Oliveirinha (SW Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Teresa

    1999-07-01

    Recruitment of Chthamalus spp. is intense during spring and summer but the number of settled cypris larvae is very low when compared to the high number of Chthamalus spp. metamorphs. In the summer of 1997 at Praia da Oliveirinha (SW Portugal), two hypotheses were tested: 1) the cypris larvae of Chthamalus spp. metamorphose in one tidal cycle; and 2) the settlement of Chthamalus spp. is higher during diurnal high tide compared with nocturnal high tide. The results indicate that cypris larvae of Chthamalus spp. can metamorphose in one tidal cycle. The hypothesis of higher settlement during diurnal high tide could not be tested at the mid and upper levels of C. montagui distribution due to a significative heterogeneity of variances. At the lower level, the results support this hypothesis. In spite of these data having been collected on a single shore and on a few sampling dates, these results suggest that more studies using different spatial and temporal scales are needed to see if this pattern is general.

  4. Distribution and Characteristics of Seafloor Seepage Features in the Active Margin Offshore of SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. T.; Hsu, H. H.; Liu, C. S.; Su, C. C.; Paull, C. K.; Chen, Y. H.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the active margin offshore of southwest (SW) Taiwan, west-vergent imbricated thrusts, folds and dipping strata are the main structural features. This is also the area where gas hydrates are widely distributed beneath the seafloor. Fluids from deep strata may migrate upwards along porous dipping layers or faults and then vent out to form seafloor seepage features in many of the gas hydrate prospects. A joint survey was conducted in May 2017 using MBARI mapping AUV and miniROV to investigate the seafloor seepage features. Numerous comet-shaped depressions (CSD) are mapped along flanks of several anticlinal ridges, and four carbonate mounds around CSD are observed from the ultra-high-resolution (1-m lateral resolution) bathymetry data collected by AUV. Samples of the carbonate mounds were collected by the mini-ROV, and their mineral compositions contain dolomite and ankerite. The AUV collected chirp sonar profiles and previously collected surface ship multichannel seismic reflection profiles across these seafloor features show that potential fluid migration pathways connect free gas trapped below the base of gas hydrate stability zone and the seafloor in the vicinity of these features. Our study suggests that the CSD could be an indicator of seafloor seepage and may be distribution widely in the active margin setting.

  5. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo gibberellin biosynthesis in endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccarelli, N.; Lorenzi, R. (Universita degli Studi, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-07-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA{sub 12}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 7} and 16,17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA{sub 15} alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene to ent-karuenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-{alpha}-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs.

  7. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height, while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  8. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Doñana National Park, SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Geertz-Hansen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Doñana marsh (SW Spain was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m−2 d−1, and gross production rates exceeding community respiration rates by, on average, 43%. Net community production increased greatly with increasing irradiance, with the threshold irradiance for communities to become net autotrophic ranging from 42 to 255 μE m−2 s−1, with net heterotrophic at lower irradiance. Examination of the contributions of the benthic and the pelagic compartments showed the pelagic compartment to be strongly heterotrophic (average P/R ratio = 0.27, indicating that the metabolism of the pelagic compartment is highly subsidised by excess organic carbon produced in the strongly autotrophic benthic compartment (average P/R = 1.58.

  9. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  10. The Targeted SMAC Mimetic SW IV-134 is a strong enhancer of standard chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yassar M; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Sankpal, Narendra V; Binder, Pratibha S; Liu, Jingxia; Goedegebuure, S Peter; Mach, Robert H; Spitzer, Dirk; Hawkins, William G

    2017-01-17

    Pancreatic cancer is a lethal malignancy that frequently acquires resistance to conventional chemotherapies often associated with overexpression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). We have recently described a novel means to deliver second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetics selectively to cancer cells employing the sigma-2 ligand/receptor interaction. The intrinsic death pathway agonist SMAC offers an excellent opportunity to counteract the anti-apoptotic activity of IAPs. SMAC mimetics have been used to sensitize several cancer types to chemotherapeutic agents but cancer-selective delivery and appropriate cellular localization have not yet been considered. In our current study, we tested the ability of the sigma-2/SMAC drug conjugate SW IV-134 to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. Using the targeted SMAC mimetic SW IV-134, inhibition of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (XIAP) was induced pharmacologically and its impact on cell viability was studied alone and in combination with gemcitabine. Pathway analyses were performed by assessing caspase activation, PARP cleavage and membrane blebbing (Annexin-V), key components of apoptotic cell death. Single-agent treatment regimens were compared with combination therapy in a preclinical mouse model of pancreatic cancer. The sensitizing effect of XIAP interference toward gemcitabine was confirmed via pharmacological intervention using our recently designed, targeted SMAC mimetic SW IV-134 across a wide range of commonly used pancreatic cancer cell lines at concentrations where the individual drugs showed only minimal activity. On a mechanistic level, we identified involvement of key components of the apoptosis machinery during cell death execution. Furthermore, combination therapy proved superior in decreasing the tumor burden and extending the lives of the animals in a preclinical mouse model of pancreatic cancer. We believe that the strong sensitizing capacity of

  11. Anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of gypenosides on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gypenosides (Gyp, the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM. RESULTS: After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. CONCLUSION: The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti

  12. THE CURRENT SPREAD OF INVASIVE NEOPHYTES OF GENUS FALLOPIA IN TOWN HLOHOVEC (SW SLOVAKIA AFTER TEN YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    žaneta PAUKOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the current spread of invasive populations of neophytes, the genus Fallopia (Polygonaceae in town Hlohovec (SW Slovakia in intensively farmed agricultural landscape after ten years. F. bohemica has been the most successfully spreading hybrid. In 2001, it had colonized the area of 1 520 m2 on 54 localities and in 2011 by 120 % more (3 338 m2, 63 localities. The total surface area occupied by F. japonica was small.

  13. Deep-Sea Mega-Epibenthic Assemblages from the SW Portuguese Margin (NE Atlantic) Subjected to Bottom-Trawling Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia P. Ramalho; Sofia P. Ramalho; Lidia Lins; Lidia Lins; Juan Bueno-Pardo; Eliana A. Cordova; Joel M. Amisi; Nikolaos Lampadariou; Ann Vanreusel; Marina R. Cunha

    2017-01-01

    Bottom-trawling fisheries are a common threat to the health of continental margins worldwide. Together with numerous environmental and biological processes, physical disturbance induced by trawlers can largely shape the benthic habitats and their associated assemblages. At the SW Portuguese Margin, crustacean bottom trawlers have exploited deep-sea habitats for a few decades, but its effects on the benthic biodiversity are practically unknown. During the spring-summer of 2013 and 2014, severa...

  14. Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates that overcome the Sw-5 resistance gene in tomato and fitness assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose ARAMBURU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance-breaking (RB isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV that overcome the resistance conferred by the Sw-5 gene in tomato have had only a limited spread since they were first detected in north-eastern Spain in 2002. Symptom expression, homogeneity, stability and the transmission capacity of RB and non-resistance breaking (NRB isolates were biologically compared. The fitness of both types of isolates infecting tomato plants was determined in competition assays. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in a wide range of plant species, except RB isolates in tomato carrying the Sw-5 resistance gene and pepper carrying the Tsw resistance gene. The mechanical transmission of RB isolates to tomato plants with the Sw-5 gene failed in some trials, although NRB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when tested with the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Biological clones from individual local lesions obtained by mechanically inoculating Nicotiana glutinosa in some TSWV field samples showed that they were biologically homogeneous. Mixed infections of RB and wilt-type isolates were not found. The RB isolates were relatively stable because no reversion to NRB isolates was seen after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants. In competition assays between RB and NRB isolates, after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants, the prevalence of a particular isolate was not related to its capacity to overcome Sw-5 gene resistance. The low spread of the RB isolates in Spain does not seem to be related to a loss of fitness in tomato plants or to differences in transmission capacity by thrips, but it could be related to the reduction of the selection pressure of RB isolates as consequence of the gradual replacement of susceptible tomato plants by resistant tomato plants by growers.

  15. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara; Masuelli, Laura; Marchese, Rodolfo; Misiti, Silvia; De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-γ-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-γ-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-γ. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPKα and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-γ activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  16. Comparison of SW and TW non-synchronous accelerating cavities as used in electron beam storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari, A.; Demos, P.T.; Flanz, J.B.; Jacobs, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors relate the parameters of detuned standing wave (SW) and non-synchronous beam travelling wave (TW) accelerating cavities of equivalent equilibrium performance when used to compensate for radiation and parasitic energy losses by electrons circulating in a high energy electron storage ring. The relationship is expressed in terms of the coupling parameter β and cavity tuning angle ψ of the TW accelerator's equivalent SW system. A given TW cavity corresponds to a standing wave system possessing specific settings of β and ψ. This is shown for the constant impedance TW waveguide, for which β and ψ can be expressed as explicit functions of TW cavity length 1, attenuation factor I, RF electric field phase velocity V p , and shunt impedance r. Coupling parameter β depends additionally on SW cavity shunt impedance R. The basis they have used for formulating the equivalence of the two systems follows Travelling Wave Cavity Non-Synchronous Beam Loading theory developed by G.A. Loew and Standing Wave Circuit Analysis theory as described by P.B. Wilson

  17. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Masuelli, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Marchese, Rodolfo [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Misiti, Silvia [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Stigliano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.stigliano@uniroma1.it [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  18. Benthic organisms collected using sediment sampler from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977 (NODC Accession 8100224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms were collected using sediment sampler casts from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977. Data were...

  19. Combined microstructural and mineralogical phase characterization of gallstones in a patient-based study in SW Spain - Implications for environmental contamination in their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Annika; Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; Garrido, Carlos J; Cobo-Cárdenas, Gema

    2016-12-15

    This study explores the environmental impact of metal exposure on humans through detailed phase and structural characterization of gallstones from two environmentally contrasting populations in Huelva Province (SW Spain). A total of 42 gallstone samples, obtained after surgical intervention at the Riotinto Hospital, were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), FTIR-μ-ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) coupled with an optical microscope, and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS), and subsequently classified according to their phase composition and structure. Additionally, the patients were enquired for their living habits in order to analyze the source of possible exposure to metal contamination. The gallstones were classified into pure, mixed and composite cholesterol stones, black and brown pigment stones, and carbonate stones. The patients from the study group residing in a region with acknowledged metal contamination of both natural and anthropogenic origin have a higher risk of metal exposure through contaminated soil, particle matter in the air, and consumption of local water and food products. According to our findings, the metal exposure is related to a higher tendency of forming black pigment stones in the study group in comparison to the control group residing in a natural park with nearly pristine environmental conditions. Moreover, the gallstones from the study group showed to contain more abundant metal components, such as Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn, than those from the control group. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the regional environmental impact of metal exposure on human gallstones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    The Cenozoic basanite from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) belongs to numerous lavas occurring in the NE part of the Central European Volcanic Province. Basanite contains clinopyroxene megacrysts up to 3 cm in size. The clinopyroxene has the composition of aluminian-sodian diopside (mg# 0.61-0.70, 0.08-0.12 atoms Na pfu and 0.88-0.93 atoms Ca pfu). Cr is absent. The REE contents are above the primitive mantle reaching up to 18 x PM at Nd. Primitive-mantle normalized REE patterns show enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=3.81-5.01). The REE patterns of all the megacrysts show deflection in La-Nd. The trace element patterns are characterized by positive Zr, Hf and in some cases also Ta anomalies, and negative U, La, Sr, Ti and Pb ones. In some samples strong depletion (down to 0.01 x PM) in Rb and Ba is observed.The Ostrzyca megacrysts formed cumulate, which crystallized from magma similar to the host basanite, but more fractionated and enriched in REE, particularly in LREE (Lipa et al., 2014). This happened at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km) and the new pulse of basanitic magma entrained the crystals forming the non-solidified cumulate and brought them to the surface (Lipa et al., 2014). Clinopyroxene megacrysts contain large, transparent, euhedral apatite crystals up to 7 mm. The major element composition indicates the fluor-apatite with F content ranging from 0.87 to 1.93 wt.%. Chlorine content is strongly variable between grains (0.05-1.75 wt.%). Apatite is strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=60.39-62.23, about 1000 x PM for LREE and about 10 x PM for HREE). The REE patterns are nearly linear, with slight positive Nd and Gd anomalies. The trace element patterns are characterized by very strong negative anomalies of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti) and Pb, and weaker negative Sr anomaly. Concentration of Yb and Lu is on the level 10 x PM, whereas Rb, Hf and Ti are depleted relative to PM. Apatite preceded clinopyroxene

  1. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  2. Woody debris transport modelling by a coupled DE-SW approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Elisabetta; Petaccia, Gabriella; Sibilla, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The presence of wood in rivers is gaining more and more attention: on one side, the inclusion of woody debris in streams is emphasized for its ecological benefits; on the other hand, particular attention must be paid to its management, not to affect hydraulic safety. Recent events have shown that wood can be mobilized during floodings (Comiti et al. 2008, Lange and Bezzola 2006), aggravating inundations, in particular near urban areas. For this reason, the inclusion of woody debris influence on the prediction of flooded areas is an important step toward the reduction of hydraulic risk. Numerical modelling plays an important role to this purpose. Ruiz-Villanueva et al. (2014) use a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the kinetics of cylindrical woody debris transport, taking into account also the hydrodynamic effects of wood. The model here presented couples a Discrete Element approach (DE) for the calculation of motion of a cylindrical log with the solution of the Shallow Water Equations (SW), in order to simulate woody debris transport in a two-dimensional stream. In a first step, drag force, added mass force and side force are calculated from flow and log velocities, assuming a reference area and hydrodynamic coefficients taken from literature. Then, the equations of dynamics are solved to model the planar roto-translation of the wooden cylinder. Model results and its physical reliability are clearly affected by the values of the drag and side coefficients, which in turn depend upon log submergence and angle towards the flow direction. Experimental studies to evaluate drag and side coefficients can be found for a submerged cylinder, with various orientations (Gippel et al. 1996; Hoang et al. 2015). To extend such results to the case of a floating (non-totally submerged) cylinder, the authors performed a series of laboratory tests whose outcomes are implemented in the proposed DE-SW model, to assess the effects of these values on the dynamic of woody

  3. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  4. TGF-β1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-κB/IL-6/MMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binker, Marcelo G.; Binker-Cosen, Andres A.; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Cosen, Rodica H. de; Cosen-Binker, Laura I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Rac1 mediates TGF-β1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. → NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-β1-challenged SW1990 cells. → TGF-β1-stimulated ROS activate NF-κB in SW1990 cells. → NFκB-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-β1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-β1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-β1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-β1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  5. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  6. Group Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  7. Environmental isotope application to investigate the hydrogeological aquifers of Yarmouk basin SW of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental isotopic variations have been used to investigate the source of recharge and age in the basaltic and deep limestone aquifers system in the Yarmouk basin, SW of Syria. Isotopic results show that recharge of basaltic aquifer is directly related to infiltration of rainwater from high and transitional zones. However, the homogeneity noted of stable and radioactive isotopes values (δ 18 O= -5.58± 0.25%, 14 C=46.2± 4.45 % pmc) in Laja plateau and central zone, confirm the mechanism of common recharge and critical role of this plateau in absorbing great amount of precipitation. In addition these values indicate, to a high rate mixing taking place in this plateau and the central zone. In the Kahiel area, the groundwater is of recent age as shown from the high values of 14 C activity ( 14 C= 66.3 ± 5.3 % pcm) accompanied by enriched 18 O (δ 18 O=-4.7±0.22 %). The recharge of groundwater is related to the leakage of water from dams and drainage network. The tectonic setting in this area constitutes an additional factor in increasing this recharge. Netpath model was used to determine the age of groundwater. the age of groundwater in the basaltic aquifer is generally modern and reaches 2000 y BP in discharge area. Preliminary conclusion of deep limestone aquifer, indicate that its groundwater occur under high piezometric pressure. The salinity is less than 1g/L and the temperature water varied between 35 to 45 degreed centigrade. The low 14 C activities in deep groundwater suggest pleistocene and holocene recharge, although their stable isotopes values indicate recharge by modern meteoric precipitation. The corrected age of this groundwater determined by Netpath model indicate that this age fall between recent water in recharge area and 20 Ky BP. (author)

  8. Glacio-Karstic and chronological evolution of the Akdaǧ rockslide (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakdar, Cihan; Akçar, Naki; Gorum, Tolga; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2015-04-01

    Landslides triggered by bedrock failures are one of the main geohazards in the high mountain areas. They constitute some of the largest landslide deposits on the Earth. This study focuses on the geomorphological evolution of the Akdag rockslide which is located on the southern slope of the Mount Akdag, SW Turkey. The Akdag Massif is characterized by autochthonous carbonates and shales overridden by allochthonous Jurassic-Cretaceous carbonates. Akdag was glaciated at least three times during the Late Pleistocene. There are large karstic depressions developed in these glaciated areas. These karstic depressions are underlain by impermeable flysch deposits. Karstic springs are located along the contact between the flysch and overlying carbonates. This contact seems to be the major failure plane of most mass movements in the massive.Our field mapping shows that the Akdag rockslide is a very large and active slope failure developed between the carbonates and the flysch. Its deposit covers an area of 15 km2 and have a volume of about 7 km3. It is one of the largest (>106 m3) landslides in Turkey. Settlements and their infrastructure have been severely damaged due to this activity. In this study, we employed detailed mapping in the field, spatial and morphometric analysis using GIS and remote sensing technologies, and surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl in order to reconstruct the chronology of the landslide. For the analysis of cosmogenic 36Cl, we collected 18 samples from calcareous boulders within the landslide deposit. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages indicate that the collapse occurred at around 9 ka. Based on the field evidence, we anticipate that the increased water discharge in the springs along the carbonate-flysch contact could played a key role in the failure in the Early Holocene.

  9. A high resolution temporal study of phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the eutrophic Taw Estuary (SW England).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Gerald; Glegg, Gillian A; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J

    2012-09-15

    The Taw Estuary (SW England) is eutrophic as a result of enhanced nutrient inputs from its catchment. However, factors influencing the timing and extent of phytoplankton bloom formation are not fully understood in this system. In this study, high resolution chemical and biological sampling was undertaken in late-winter/spring and summer 2008 in order to gain further insights into bloom dynamics in the Taw Estuary. Temporal variations in chlorophyll a maxima in the upper and middle estuary during summer were controlled by river flow and tidal amplitude, with nutrient limitation probably less important. Concentrations of chlorophyll a were highest during low river flow and neap tides. Increased river flows advected the chlorophyll maximum to the outer estuary, and under highest river discharges, chlorophyll a concentrations were further reduced. This feature was even more pronounced when spring tides coincided with high flows. The main bloom species were the diatoms Asterionellopsis glacialis and Thalassiosira guillardii. Using two multivariate statistical techniques in combination, five distinct physical and biogeochemical states in the Taw estuarine waters were identified. These states can be summarised as: A(1), high chlorophyll a, high temperature, long residence times, nutrient depletion; A(2), strong coastal water influence; B(1), decreasing chlorophyll a, increasing river flow and/or spring tides; B(2), transitional between states A(1) and B(3); B(3), high river flow. It was thus possible to differentiate between contrasting environmental conditions that were either beneficial or detrimental for the development of algal blooms. A conceptual model of diatom - dominated primary production for the Taw Estuary is proposed which describes how physical controls (river flow, tidal state) moderate plankton biomass production in the upper and mid - estuarine regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing carbon sinks in rubber (Hevea brasilensis plantation by changing rotation length in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Moazzam Nizami

    Full Text Available Extension of the rotation length in forest management has been highlighted in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to help the countries in their commitments for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. CO2FIX Model Ver.3.2 was used to examine the dynamics of carbon stocks (C stocks in a rubber plantation in South Western China with the changing rotation lengths. To estimate the efficiency of increasing the rotation length as an Article 3.4 activity, study predicted that the rubber production and C stocks of the ecosystem increased with the increasing rotation (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 years. While comparing the pace of growth both in economical (rubber production and ecological (C stocks terms in each rotation, 40 years rotation length showed maximum production and C stocks. After elongation of 40 year rotation to four consecutive cycles, it was concluded that the total C stocks of the ecosystem were 186.65 Mg ha(-1. The longer rotation lengths showed comparatively increased C stocks in below ground C stock after consecutive four rotations. The pace of C input (Mg C ha(-1 yr(-1 and rubber production indicated that 40 years rotation is best suited for rubber plantation. The study has developed carbon mitigation based on four rotation scenarios. The possible stimulated increase in C stocks of the entire ecosystem after consecutive long rotations indicated that the emphasis must be paid on deciding the rotation of rubber plantation in SW China for reporting under article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol.

  11. DIVERSITY AND GENETIC STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF ARAÇÁ (Psidium guineense Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSON FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guineense Sw , popularly known as araçá, is a fruit tree there is widely distributed in Brazil and belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In northeastern Brazil, araçá occurs along coast and in the Zona da Mata; its fruit looks like guava but is more acidic and has a stronger smell. There is a little information about this species, which increases the difficulty of conserving its genetic resources and exploiting araçá as an economic resource. The objective of this research was the evaluation of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of P. guineense from Pernambuco’s Zona da Mata. One hundred and fourteen individuals and 18 isozyme loci were evaluated, showing 28 alleles. The percentage of polymorphic loci ( and the average number of alleles per locus ( were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively, in this population. The expected heterozygosity , which corresponds to the genetic diversity, ranged from 0.22 to 0.23, a high value when considering that isozymes mark access from the functional genome. The differentiation index among the population was ( = 0.015; therefore, the populations were not different among the sampled places. The inbreeding values ( ranged from - 0.549 to - 0.794, indicating an absence of inbreeding and a greater - than - expected heterozygosity in all the studied populations. The estimated gene flow ( N m for a pair of this population ranged from 3.23 to 20.77, sufficient to avoid genetic differentiation among the population and in accordance with the values of genetic divergence found in this study.

  12. Do the Cotham Member stromatolites of the Late Triassic, SW UK represent extinction "disaster forms"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Y.; Corsetti, F. A.; Greene, S.; Bottjer, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    A widespread and well-preserved horizon (~20cm thick) of alternating stromatolite-dendrolite facies occurs at the top of the Cotham Member of the Lilstock Formation in the Upper Triassic (latest Rhaetian) of the SW UK. The close stratigraphic position to the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) mass extinction interval raises questions about the potential relationship to the mass extinction. Were the Cotham Member stromatolites a result of a decline in taxonomic richness (including decline of bioturbators and grazers) across the Late Triassic extinction episode? Or, were they deposited in a hypersaline lagoon, an environment known to develop microbialites during non-extinction times, and therefore decoupled from the extinction event? Light microscopic observations of thin sections reveal a sparse assemblage of shelly epifauna including molluscs and echinoderm fragments. Carbon and oxygen isotope values of micro-drilled portions of the stromatolites exhibit ∂13C values of -0.1% to -1.7% and ∂18O values of -0.8% to -2.3%. We also observe 2 thin layers (each about 1mm thick) of gypsum pseudomorphs a few centimeters below the first occurrence of stromatolites. On the one hand, the isotopic evidence and the presence of echinoderm fragments (echinoderms/crinoids generally require open marine conditions) would argue against a restricted lagoonal origin for the stromatolites and dendrolites. On the other hand, the presence of evaporite minerals within cm of the stromatolitic units would argue for at least periodic restriction of the depositional environment. Consequently, more work is needed to unequivocally resolve the depositional environment of the Cotham Member stromatolites and their relevance to the T-J mass extinction.

  13. The Manila clam population in Arcachon Bay (SW France): Can it be kept sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Gam, Mériame; Paroissin, Christian; Bru, Noëlle; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2010-02-01

    The venerid clam Ruditapes philippinarum is the most prominent suspension-feeding bivalve inhabiting muddy intertidal seagrass beds in Arcachon Bay (SW France). It is exploited by fishermen, and Arcachon Bay ranks number one in France in terms of production and total biomass of this species. Previous studies revealed a decrease in the standing stock of R. philippinarum since 2003 and unbalanced length-frequency distributions with a lack of juveniles and of adults > 40 mm. Consequently, the population dynamics of this bivalve were studied at four intertidal sites and one oceanic site in Arcachon Bay. As clam size structure did not allow classical dynamics computations, field monitoring was coupled with field experiments (tagging-recapture) over two years. Monitoring of condition index and gonadal maturation stages highlighted a high variability in spawning number and intensity between sites. Recruitment events in the exploited area varied spatially but with uniformly low values. Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) parameters ( K, L∞) were determined using Appeldoorn and ELEFAN methods. In the exploited sites in the inner lagoon, K was relatively high (mean = 0.72 yr - 1 ) but L∞ was low (mean = 41.1 mm) resulting in a moderate growth performance index (Φ' = 2.99). Growth parameters were not correlated with immersion time and L∞ was different between sites. Comparison of mortality coefficients ( Z) between cage experiments and field monitoring suggested that fishing accounts for 65-75% of total adult mortality. Low recruitment, a low growth rate and a normal mortality rate led to low somatic production (4.1 and 8.7 g Shell-Free Dry Weight (SFDW) m - 2 yr - 1 ) and an annual P/ B ratio from 0.44 to 0.92 yr - 1 . Under current conditions, the possibility of a sustainable population in Arcachon Bay will strongly depend on recruitment success and fishing management.

  14. Benthic foraminiferal responses to operational drill cutting discharge in the SW Barents Sea - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Junttila, Juho; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum related exploration activities started in the Barents Sea 1980, reaching 97 exploration wells drilled per January 2013. The biggest operational discharge from drilling operations in the Barents Sea is the release of drill cuttings (crushed seabed and/or bedrock) and water based drilling muds including the commonly used weighing material barite (BaSO4). Barium (Ba), a constituent of barite, does not degrade and can be used to evaluate dispersion and accumulation of drill waste. The environmental impact associated with exploration drilling within the Goliat Field, SW Barents Sea in 2006 was evaluated via a multiproxy investigation of local sediments. The sediments were retrieved in November 2014 at ~350 meters water depth and coring sites were selected at distances of 5, 30, 60, 125 and 250 meters from the drill hole in the eastward downstream direction. The dispersion pattern of drill waste was estimated via measurements of sediment parameters including grain size distribution and water content in addition to heavy metal and total organic carbon contents. The environmental impact was evaluated via micro faunal analysis based on benthic foraminiferal (marine shell bearing protists) fauna composition and concentration changes. Observing the sediment parameters, most notably Ba levels, reveals that dispersion of drill waste was limited to <125 meters from the drill site with drill waste thicknesses decreasing downstream. The abruptness and quantity of drill waste sedimentation initially smothered the foraminiferal fauna at ≤ 30 meters from the drill site, while at a distance of 60 meters, the fauna seemingly survived and bioturbation persisted. Analysis of the live (Nov 2014) foraminiferal fauna reveals a natural species composition at all distances from the drill site within the top sediments (0-5 cm core depth). Furthermore, the fossil foraminiferal fauna composition found within post-impacted top sediment sections, particularly in the cores situated at

  15. Relationships between MODIS and ATSR fires and atmospheric variability in New Caledonia (SW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Moron, Vincent; Mangeas, Morgan; Despinoy, Marc; HéLy, Christelle

    2011-11-01

    We examined the relationships between fires detected by the Along Track Scanning Radiometer, algorithm 2 (ATSR-2) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors and local-scale atmospheric conditions in New Caledonia (SW Pacific ˜165.5°E, 21.5°S) during the 1996-2008 (ATSR) and 2000-2008 (MODIS) time periods. A total of 3707 (MODIS) hotspots, representing 949 distinct fires, and 83 (ATSR) hotspots were observed during the study period. The annual mean frequency of hotspots peaks around the transition between the dry-cool season and the wet-warm season, that is, in September-December, when dry soils and fuels could be combined with increasing temperatures. The antecedent local-scale maximum temperature and rainfall anomalies recorded at the closest meteorological station were analyzed. While the signal in maximum temperature is weak and not robust among the fire records, the local-scale anomalies of rainfall are always clearly negative for at least 3 months before the fires (i.e., between June and December). The Effective Drought Index (EDI), based on rainfall only, and the Fire Weather Index (FWI), which combines rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, show similar behaviors before fires. This suggests that a simple rainfall index, as well as a more comprehensive one, is able to diagnose fire risks. At interannual time scale, cross-correlation analysis reveals that the seasonal June-August Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature index is strongly correlated (r = 0.78 for a second-order polynomial fit) with the monthly frequency of all MODIS hotspots in September-December, suggesting a strong potential predictability of fire variations in New Caledonia with a lead time of 1-4 months.

  16. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  17. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Arlin

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  18. A Novel Halotolerant Thermoalkaliphilic Esterase from Marine Bacterium Erythrobacter seohaensis SW-135

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Huo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase gene, e69, was cloned from Erythrobacter seohaensis SW-135, which was isolated from a tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea in Korea. This gene is 825 bp in length and codes for a 29.54 kDa protein containing 274 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E69 is a new member of the bacterial lipolytic enzyme family IV. This enzyme exhibited the highest level of activity toward p-nitrophenyl (NP butyrate but little or no activity toward the other p-NP esters tested. The optimum temperature and pH of the catalytic activity of E69 were 60°C and pH 10.5, respectively. The enzyme exhibited stable activity over a wide range of alkaline pH values (7.5–9.5. In addition, E69 was found to be a halotolerant esterase as it exhibited the highest hydrolytic activity in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl and was still active in the presence of 3 M NaCl. Moreover, it possessed some degree of tolerance to Triton X-100 and several organic solvents. Through homology modeling and comparison with other esterases, it was suggested that the absence of the cap domain and its narrow substrate-binding pocket might be responsible for its narrow substrate specificity. Sequence and structural analysis results suggested that its high ratio of negatively to positively charged residues, large hydrophobic surface area, and negative electrostatic potential on the surface may be responsible for its alkaline adaptation. The results of this study provide insight into marine alkaliphilic esterases, and the unique properties of E69 make it a promising candidate as a biocatalyst for industrial applications.

  19. Management Implications for the Most Attractive Scenic Sites along the Andalusia Coast (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mooser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coastal scenery assessment was carried out at 50 sites along the 910 km long Andalusia coast (SW Spain using a checklist of 26 natural and human parameters, parameter weighting matrices, and fuzzy logic. A scenic classification was utilised that can rate sites as Class I (natural areas of great scenic beauty to Class V (urbanised areas of poor scenic interest, but, for this study, only natural sites of great scenic value were investigated; 41 sites were included in Class I, 9 in Class II and, apart from four, all of the sites were under some feature of protection—managed by the Andalusia Environmental Agency (RENPA, in Spanish. Sites belong to the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Nijar (24% of sites, the Natural Park of Gibraltar Strait (18%, the Natural Place Acantilado de Maro-Cerro Gordo (12%, and the Natural and National parks of Doñana (8%. Results obtained by means of scenic evaluation constitute a sound scientific basis for any envisaged management plan for investigated coastal areas preservation/conservation and responsible future developments, especially for natural protected areas, which represent the most attractive coastal tourist destinations. With respect to natural parameters, excellent scenic values appeared to be linked to the geological setting and the presence of mountainous landscapes related to the Betic Chain. Human parameters usually show good scores because null or extremely reduced human impacts are recorded, but, at places, conflicts arose between conservation and recreational activities because visitors are often interested in beach activities more so than ecotourism. Low scores of human parameters were often related to litter presence or the unsuitable emplacement of utilities, such as informative panels, litter bins, etc.

  20. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  1. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  2. Mapping Vesta Southern Quadrangle V-14SW: Identification of Dark and Bright Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedemann, N.; Neukum, G.; Kneissl, T.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R.; Ammannito, E.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Schenk, P.; Hiesinger, H.; McCord, T. B.; Buczkowski, D.; Nathues, A.; Büttner, I.; Krohn, K.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-14SW. This quadrangle can be divided into the northern part which is characterized by a comparatively smooth inter-crater plain and the southern part which is more of a tectonically embossed nature. These tectonic features lie at the northern fringes of the complex network of deep grooves and ridges found in the south-pole area (see V-15SP). In the south-eastern part of this quadrangle we observe an isolated depression possibly associated with a distinct scarp. In general, the material of the southern part of this quadrangle has a higher albedo than the northern part. In a number of cases high-albedo features also seem to be topographically elevated. One of the highest albedo features in the southern hemisphere of Vesta has a spot-like appearance in low resolution image data. It is located in the eastern part of this quadrangle and is associated with several radial high-albedo streaks, similar to ray craters found on other solar system bodies. The western part of this quadrangle shows some small low-albedo areas as well as some craters displaying internal dark and bright radial streaks. We are using FC stereo and VIR spectroscopic data in order to constrain the formation and mineralogy of these bright and dark materials. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

  3. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  4. The ALERT-ES Project for earthquakes in Cape San Vicente region, SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, E.; Mattesini, M.; Martin Davila, J.; Goula, X.; Colom, Y.; Zollo, A.; Udias, A.; Pazos, A.; Roca, A. M.; Lozano, L.; Carrilho, F.; Hanka, W.; Madariaga, R. I.; Bezzeghoud, M.

    2011-12-01

    The main goal of the ALERT-ES project ("Sistema de Alerta Sismica Temprana: Aplicacion al Sur de España" ) is to study the feasibility of an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) for the potentially damaging earthquakes that occur in the zone Cape S. Vicente-Gulf of Cadiz (S. Spain). This area is characterized by the occurrence of large and damaging earthquakes such as the 1755 Lisbon (Imax=X) or 1969 S. Vicente Cape (Ms=8,1) events. Most earthquakes in this area have their epicenters offshore at epicentral distances between 150 and 250 kms off the coast line, so a feasibility study is needed before an EEWS system implementation. The project has two different parts: the development of algorithms for the rapid estimation of the magnitude for South Spain earthquakes from the very beginning of P-waves and the development of the corresponding new software modules and their implementation in the EarthWorm and SeisComP systems. A pilot experience will be carried out during the project, using observations from coastal stations and OBS. Broadband records from a selection of 19 earthquakes (M≥4.0) occurred in the period 2006 to 2010 in Cape S. Vicente and Gulf of Cadiz have been used for an off line testing of PRESTO methodology developed at Naples University (Italy). Preliminary results show that for a Mw 6.1 shock with epicenter 200 km SW of Cape of S. Vicente the blind area has a radius of 227 km, providing with a lead-time of 28s in Huelva, 36s in Cadiz and 47s in Seville.

  5. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  6. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha -1 . The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  7. MENEKAN LAJU PENYEBARAN KOLERA DI ASIA DENGAN 3SW (STERILIZATION, SEWAGE, SOURCES, AND WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Anggaraditya Anggaraditya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penyakit taun atau kolera (juga disebut Asiatic cholera adalah penyakit menular di saluran pencernaan yang disebabkan oleh bakterium Vibrio cholerae. Kolera ditemukan pada tahun 1883 karena infeksi Vibrio cholerae, bakteri berbentuk koma. Penemuan ini ditemukan oleh bakteriologi Robert Koch (Jerman, 1843-1910.Penyebab kolera, adalah bakteri Vibrio cholerae, yang merupakan bakteri gram negatif, berbentuk basil (batang dan bersifat motil (dapat bergerak, memiliki struktur antogenik dari antigen flagelar H dan antigen somatik O, gamma-proteobacteria, mesofilik dan kemoorganotrof, berhabitat alami di lingkungan akuatik dan umumnya berasosiasi dengan eukariot. Pada orang yang feacesnya ditemukan bakteri kolera mungkin selama 1-2 minggu belum merasakan keluhan berarti, Tetapi saat terjadinya serangan infeksi maka tiba-tiba terjadi diare dan muntah dengan kondisi cukup serius sebagai serangan akut yang menyebabkan samarnya jenis diare yg dialamiCara pencegahan dan memutuskan tali penularan penyakit kolera adalah dengan prinsip sanitasi lingkungan, terutama kebersihan air dan pembuangan kotoran (feaces pada tempatnya yang memenuhi standar lingkungan. Lainnya ialah meminum air yang sudah dimasak terlebih dahulu, cuci tangan dengan bersih sebelum makan memakai sabun/antiseptik, cuci sayuran dangan air bersih terutama sayuran yang dimakan mentah (lalapan, hindari memakan ikan dan kerang yang dimasak setengah matang. Kolera memang sudah menjadi momok yang menakutkan di dunia, dan belajar dari negara-negara di Asia yang sudah pernah mengalami wabah kolera, dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa pengobatan dengan vaksin tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan.Selain karena tidak menjangkau seluruh warga miskin di sebuah negara, harga vaksin kolera juga dirasa cukup memberatkan anggaran negara-negara yang sedang berkembang di Asia.Cara yang dirasa paling tepat dalam menekan laju penyebara kolera adalah 3SW (Sterilization, Sewage, Sources, and Water

  8. Demographic responses of boreal-montane orchid Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw. populations to contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Jermakowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In an age of changes in species’ geographical ranges, compounded by climatic and anthropogenic impacts, it become important to know which processes and factors influence plant populations and their persistence in the long term. Here we investigated dynamic and fitness components in twelve populations of Malaxis monophyllos (L. Sw., situated in different geographical (regions and ecological (type of habitat units. Although M. monophyllos is a rare species, characterized by highly fragmented, boreal-montane distribution range, in last few decades it successfully colonized secondary habitats in Polish uplands. Our results indicate that M. monophyllos is represented mainly by small populations, which annual spatial and temporal changes might be very high, what affects the ephemeral character of these populations, regardless of the region and type of habitat. This dynamic structure, in turn, is caused by intensive exchange of individuals in populations, as well as by their short above-ground life span. Despite the large range of variation in size and reproductive traits, we can distinguish some regional patterns, which indicate boreal region as the most optimal for M. monophyllos growth and persistence in the long term, and with montane and upland/anthropogenic populations, due to lower reproductive parameters, as the most threatened. Although it should be considered that anthropogenic populations, despite their lower reproductive parameters and instability in the long term, present an intermediate, geographical and ecological character, therefore they may be valuable in shaping, both M. monophyllos’ future range, as well as its potential for response on ongoing and future changes. In general, reproduction is the main factor differentiating of M. monophyllos populations in regions, and we can suspect that it may become the cause of the future differentiation and isolation of these populations, occurring with progressive range fragmentation.

  9. Legacy effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in a eutrophic lake catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is a shallow lake (maximum depth 2.9 m). In the 1960s it became apparent that the Lower Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. Long-term monitoring data are also available for the catchment area including the lake from the Environment Agency.The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large river basins like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for a small rural basin. Recent declines in nitrate concentration may reflect less intensive agricultural activity, lower fertiliser inputs in particular, but there may also be a legacy effect in the shallow groundwater system. Phosphorus concentrations in stream and lake water have also shown declining concentrations but a phosphorus legacy in the surficial lake sediments means that algal blooms continue to develop in most summers, as indicated by a continued rise in summer pH levels. Further field observation at the sediment-water interface is needed to better understand the biogeochemical drivers and the balance between N and P limitation in the lake. Successful management of the Nature Reserve requires better understanding of the links between hydrological and biogeochemical processes operating

  10. Computer programme for the calculation of the geothermal properties of the Swiss molasse in the depth range 0 to 500 m. User's guide to the programme SwEWs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, W.; Keller, B.; Megel, T.

    1999-04-01

    The main aim of this project is the preparation of a data base of geothermal properties for typical rocks of the Swiss Molasse Basin (depth interval 0 to 500 m) combined with a simple evaluation software tool. The project includes the integration of numerous laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity and heat capacity with additional data calculated from geophysical borehole logs. Within the study area, 380 additional data points were generated with sonic and density log data from exploration wells. This new data base characterises in detail the 6 main lithological rock types in the 3 Molasse groups 'OSM', 'OMM' and 'USM' within the Swiss Plateau Molasse. The statistical evaluation of all data illustrates the regional variation of the petrophysical and geothermal parameters. The software tool SwEWS allows the analysis of a specific depth profile defined by the user. Based on the input for the stratal model the programme calculates the geothermal parameters for each horizon together with a temperature profile. The results can be analysed in various tables and a graphic display. For further use the data can also be exported as an ASCII file. Based on this new information and with the aid of the evaluation software tool SwEWS the costs of planned geothermal installations can be optimised by more precise heat extraction simulations with existing software packages like COSOND, TRNSYS, EWS or WPcalc. (author)

  11. Dynamical Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldus, Josef

    The well known symmetry (invariance, degeneracy) dynamical groups or algebras of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians provide quantum numbers (conservation laws, integrals of motion) for state labeling and the associated selection rules. In addition, it is often advantageous to employ much larger groups, referred to as the dynamical groups (noninvariance groups, dynamical algebras, spectrum generating algebras), which may or may not be the invariance groups of the studied system [4.1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. In all known cases, they are Lie groups (LGs), or rather corresponding Lie algebras (LAs), and one usually requires that all states of interest of a system be contained in a single irreducible representation (irrep). Likewise, one may require that the Hamiltonian be expressible in terms of the Casimir operators of the corresponding universal enveloping algebra [4.8,9]. In a weaker sense, one regards any group (or corresponding algebra) as a dynamical group if the Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of its generators [4.10,11,12]. In nuclear physics, one sometimes distinguishes exact (baryon number preserving), almost exact (e.g., total isospin), approximate (e.g., SU(3) of the "eightfold way") and model (e.g., nuclear shell model) dynamical symmetries [4.13]. The dynamical groups of interest in atomic and molecular physics can be conveniently classified by their topological characteristic of compactness. Noncompact LGs (LAs) generally arise in simple problems involving an infinite number of bound states, while those involving a finite number of bound states (e.g., molecular vibrations or ab initio models of electronic structure) exploit compact LG's.

  12. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  13. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  14. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  15. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . These fields are interrelated and each of these fields contributes to the other. 2. Examples and classification. We first give some examples of Lie groups. The most frequently occurring ones are the linear classical groups GLn(R), GLn(C), ...

  16. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S RAGHUNATHAN and T N VENKATARAMANA. ∗. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental ... linear classical groups GLn(R), GLn(C), SOn(R),. SOn(C), Spn(R) and Spn(C). Let us call a con- nected Lie ..... split groups due respectively to C C Moore and. V Deodhar. B Sury solved the congruence subgroup ...

  17. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  18. Effects of Cooperative Learning Groups during Social Studies for Students with Autism and Fourth-Grade Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Erin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Cooperative learning groups were used to integrate two students with autism into a fourth-grade social studies class. Academic performance, academic engagement, peer interactions, and social and behavioral skills were assessed. Benefits were noted both for the target students and their peers for academic outcomes and social interactions. (SW)

  19. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... with which they coexist. To achieve this, the research adopted phenomenology as a method and ethnography as strategy, using participant observation, in-depth interviews, and interviews-to-the-double. The results show that the collective management practice is a crossroad of other practices......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  20. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    2018-01-01

    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/ r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  1. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  2. Alkaline and carbonatite metasomatism of lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland- Pilchowice case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2014-05-01

    The Cenozoic basanites from Pilchowice (SW Poland) form volcanic plug located exactly at Intra- Sudetic Fault. These basanites belong to the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province and contain numerous, usually small (pfu and mg# from 0.915- 0.920 . One xenolith contains clinopyroxene with abundant spongy rims. Primary clinopyroxene is very rare and Al-enriched (mg# 0.92, 0.17 atoms of Al pfu). The spinel is Cr enriched (cr# 0.46-0.68) and is usually associated with clinopyroxene. Orthopyroxene is depleted in REE compared to primitive mantle. Orthopyroxene from majority of xenoliths are strongly LREE depleted ((La/Lu)N = 0.03-0.21). All studied peridotites contain clinopyroxene which is enriched (2 to 70 times) in REE compared to primitive mantle. Clinopyroxene patterns show relative low HREE concentration ((La/Lu)N = 4.75- 19.99), moreover patterns from three samples are convex- upward shaped with inflection point on Nd ((La/Nd)N = 0.36-0.96). Clinopyroxene- poor lithology, high cr# in spinel and LREE- depleted nature of orthopyroxene suggest that upper mantle sampled by Pilchowice basanite is a restite after partial melting. The LREE enriched composition of clinopyroxene suggest that peridotites were metasomatised. Clinopyroxene convex- upward shaped REE plots with inflection point on Nd is typical for metasomatism related with alkaline melt. On the other hand very low ratios of Ti/ Eu (24.8- 738.9) and high (La/ Yb)N (3.5- 17) ratio (Coltorti, 1999) suggest that the metasomatic agent was either a mixture of alkaline silicate melt with carbonatite or peridotite reaction with two independent agents is recorded. This study is a part of MSc thesis of the first author and was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. Coltorti, M., Bonadiman, C., Hinton, R. W., Siena, F. & Upton, B. G. J. (1999). Carbonatite metasomatism of the oceanic upper mantle: Evidence from clinopyroxenes and glasses in

  3. Structural inheritance and coastal geomorphology in SW Brittany, France: An onshore/offshore integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbault, Céline; Duperret, Anne; Le Gall, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine

    2018-04-01

    The Variscan crystalline basement exposed along the SW Brittany coast recorded extensive long-term planation processes during Mesozoic times. Detailed onshore-offshore mapping (600 km2) in the Penmarc'h-Concarneau granitic coastal area reveals a km-scale, deeply fractured submarine rocky shelf. High-resolution offshore imagery (bathymetry and seismic reflection dataset), combined to structural field investigations, on these surfaces allow us to identify a preserved network of both ductile and brittle structures. The inherited fault pattern is dominated by the N160°E-trending and long-lived Concarneau-Toulven fault zone (CTFS) that separates two distinct morphostructural blocks, and strongly influences the seaward limit of the Concarneau submarine rocky shelf, as well as the linear coastline of the Concarneau embayment. The structural imprint of the CTFS decreases progressively westwards with respect to a composite network of large-scale N50°E- and N140°E-oriented faults bounding the seaward edge of the Penmarc'h rocky shelf. The latter in turn splits into three large-scale blocks along N50°E- (La Torche Fault - LTF), N140°E- (Saint Guénolé Fault - SGF) and N160°E-trending normal faults. The morphostructural evolutionary model applied here to the Penmarc'h-Concarneau granitic coastal area resulted from the combined effects of structural Variscan inheritance and post-Variscan tectonics. Paleo-stress analysis of striated fault planes indicates three main Cenozoic tectonic events, inferred to have operated from Eocene to post-Oligocene times. The 3D-architecture of the Concarneau embayment, as a rocky shelf partially sealed with quaternary sediments, chiefly resulted from the reactivation of the CTFS during Eocene and Oligocene times. Further west, the surface of the Penmarc'h rocky shelf was tilted southeastward by the brittle reactivation of the LTF, and dissected by a horst-graben network post-Oligocene in age. The present-day morphology of the Penmarc'h and

  4. Lithofacies characteristics of diatreme deposits: Examples from a basaltic volcanic field of SW Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.; Leone, F.

    2013-04-01

    A deeply eroded diatreme field, consisting in several, decametric-sized, vertical, mainly clastic volcanic bodies of basaltic composition is described for the first time in the Variscan basement of SW Sardinia. The recognition and description of four different lithofacies in these diatremes allowed discussion of the role of the different processes which control magma eruption and conduit infilling, and making general inferences about diatremes. The studied diatremes have a cross-sectional shape from elliptical to sub-triangular, and are slightly elongated nearly parallel to the main foliation of the intruded meta-sedimentary rocks. Foliation of host rocks is locally reoriented or folded close to the contact with the diatremes, suggesting that magma possibly rose to the surface through fissures oriented nearly parallel to host rock foliation. Textural features of the volcanic bodies show many analogies with kimberlitic diatremes, despite the difference in petrography and composition. Juvenile lapilli are mainly made by ghosts of mafic phenocrysts (olivine and clinopyroxene) set in a groundmass formed by plagioclase microlites immersed in a cryptocrystalline, chlorite-rich matrix. The four lithofacies were described mainly based on the shape and physical features of the clasts and textural anisotropy: a globular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (GJLt); an angular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (AJLt); a lithic-rich, lapilli tuff facies LiRLt), and a coherent, lava-like facies (COH). All the clastic lithofacies are generally well sorted and typically lack a fine-grained matrix. Juvenile fragments are lapilli sized and from equant to oblate in axial ratio, and from rounded-globular to very angular in shape. Conversely, lithic clasts are largely variable in shape and size, and are mainly represented by basement-derived clasts. The absence of bedding, the scarcity of the coherent facies and the dominance of clast supported, structureless, volcaniclastic facies

  5. First flight of SMASH, the SwRI Miniature Assembly for Solar Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Shoffner, Michael; Higuera Caubilla, David; Meurisse, Jeremie; Smith, Kelly; Shih, Albert Y.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; DeForest, Craig; Mansour, Nagi N.; Hathaway, David H.

    2016-05-01

    The SwRI Miniature Assembly for Solar Hard X-rays (SMASH) was successfully flown from Antarctica in January (19-30) 2016, as a piggy-back instrument on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) high altitude balloon payload. SMASH is a technological demonstration of a new miniaturized hard X-ray (HXR) detector for use on CubeSats and other small spacecraft, including the proposed CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS).HXRs are the observational signatures of energetic processes on the Sun, including plasma heating and particle acceleration. One of the goals of CubIXSS will be to address the question of how plasma is heated during solar flares, including the relationship between thermal plasma and non-thermal particles. SMASH demonstrated the space-borne application of the commercial off-the-shelf Amptek X123-CdTe, a miniature cadmium telluride photon-counting HXR spectrometer. The CdTe detector has a physical area of 25 mm^2 and 1 mm fully-depleted thickness, with a ~100 micron Be window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar photons from ~5 to ~100 keV with ~0.5-1.0 keV FWHM resolution. Photons are accumulated into histogram spectra with customizable energy binning and integration time. With modest resource requirements (~1/8 U, ~200 g, ~2.5 W) and low cost (~$10K), the X123-CdTe is an attractive solution for HXR measurements from budget- and resource-limited platforms such as CubeSats. SMASH flew two identical X123-CdTe detectors for redundancy and increased collecting area; the supporting electronics (power, CPU) were largely build-to-print using the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat design.We review the SMASH mission, design, and detector performance during the 12-day Antarctic flight. We present current progress on our data analysis of observed solar flares, and discuss future applications of the space-qualified X123-CdTe detector, including the CubIXSS mission

  6. Estudio fitoquímico de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Márquez Hernández

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio fitoquímico preliminar de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W. Se practicó un tamizaje fitoquímico sobre material seco y fresco, en el que se obtuvieron resultados positivos para mucílagos, sustancias reductoras, antocianinas, aminoácidos, taninos y flavonoides. Se determinó que las antocianinas se afectan durante el proceso de secado. Para la realización del estudio químico se maceró el material vegetal con 4 menstruos (fracciones A, B, C y D. A partir de las fracciones A y B se aisló el producto HE1, el cual se analizó por espectroscopia ultravioleta, infrarroja, de resonancia magnética nuclear protónica, de carbono 13, mediante uso de técnicas especiales y por espectrometría de masas, lo que permitió identificarlo como el flavonoide gossypitrina. La fracción C se sometió a un fraccionamiento según el método de absorción-desorción sobre silicagel, lo que permitió la detección de rutina y quercetina. Los flavonoides identificados se reportan por primera vez para la especie.A preliminary phytochemical study of Hibiscus elatus species was undertaken. A phytochemical sieving of fresch dry material made it possible to obtain positive results for mucilages, reducing substances, anthocyamins, aminoacids, tanines and flavonoids. Anthocyamines were determined to be affected during dryng process. For carry ing uot the chemical study, the plant was mecrated into 4 solvents (A, B, C and D fractions. Taking A and B fractions as a basis, product HE1 was isolated and analyzed by ultra - violet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, proton and carbon 13 spectroscopies as well as special techniques and mass spectrometry. This resulted in the identification of this product as gossypitrin flavonoid. Fraction C was fractioned by silicagel absorption - desorption methods which allowed us to detec rutin and quercetin. The identified flavonoids are reported for the first time in this species.

  7. Water acidification trends in a reservoir of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, C R; Olías, M; Macias, F; Torres, E; San Miguel, E G; Galván, L; Ayora, C; Nieto, J M

    2016-01-15

    Scarcity of waters is the main limiting factor of economic development in most arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. The construction of reservoirs may be an optimal solution to assure water availability if the drainage area shows low disturbances. This is the quandary of mining areas where economic development relies on water accessibility. Water acidification trends were investigated in the Sancho Reservoir (SW Spain) in the last 20 years. The acidity (pH3-5) and high dissolved metal concentrations (e.g., 4.4 mg/L of Al, 2.1mg/L of Mn, 1.9 mg/L of Zn) observed in the Sancho, together with the large volume stored (between 37 and 55 Mm(3)), makes this reservoir an extreme case of surface water pollution worldwide. A progressive acidification has been observed since 2003, as evidenced by decreasing pH values and increasing dissolved metal concentrations, especially noticeable after 2007. The increase in the net acidity in the reservoir originates from the higher input of metals and acidity due to the rebound effect after the mining closure in 2001. This trend was not detected in the river feeding the reservoir due to its great hydrological and hydrochemical variability, typical of the Mediterranean climate. Chemical analysis and absolute dating of sediments identified a progressive enrichment in S and metals (i.e., Fe, Zn Cu, Ni, Co and Cd) in the upper 20 cm, which reinforce the year 2002/03 as the onset of the acidification of the reservoir. The decrease of pH values from 4-5 to 3-4 occurred later than the increase in sulfate and metals due to pH-buffering by Al. The acid mine drainage (AMD) pressure has caused an increment of dissolved Fe and other metals, as well as a change in the pH buffering role, exerted now by Fe. These processes were simulated by PHREEQC, which confirms that the acidification trend will continue, causing pH values to reach 2.5 if AMD pressure persists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  9. A millennial-scale record of tidewater glacier advance and retreat, SW Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Danni; Mair, Doug; Rea, Brice; Schofield, Ed; Lea, James; Barr, Iestyn; Kamenos, Nick; Schoenrock, Kate

    2017-04-01

    Tidewater glaciers (TWGs) exert a major control on the short- and long-term mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and have experienced widespread retreat over the last century. However, in many cases inferences on their dynamics, prior to this, are poorly constrained due to a lack of observations and paucity of mapped or mappable deglacial geomorphology. Especially lacking is evidence associated with TWG advance during the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD c. 1300 to 1850). Such data are crucial for numerical model calibration and validation in order to more confidently forward model ice sheet dynamics and projection future sea-level rise. Therefore, empirical data constraints from the palaeo-record, that span such timescales (decadal to millennial), are essential. Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) is the most dynamic TWG in SW Greenland, located c. 100 km inland from Nuuk, at the head of Godthabsfjord. KNS has received considerable research attention over the last decade but glacial geomorphological and numerical dating investigations have been limited. However, the adjacent topography and geomorphology presents a unique opportunity to reconstruct the advance and retreat dynamics over the LIA. We present detailed glacial geomorphological mapping for KNS, which followed a morphostratigraphic approach, using a combination of aerial photos, Landsat, a DEM and field mapping. This identified a three landsystems, which are associated with the LIA, pre-LIA and neoglacial. From the mapping inferences on rapid changes in meltwater routing have been inferred. When KNS reached its LIA maximum (c. 1761), the calving front was c. >22 km further along the fjord than present and a number of ice-dammed lakes were formed. We present new 14C dating from peat underlying lake sediments associated with an ice-dammed lake and buried palaeosols resulting from meltwater re-routing over topographic spillways. The ages support an early and rapid LIA advance phase, with advance rates being

  10. Long-Term Water Quality Studies in a Eutrophic Lake Catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring is the process by which we keep the behaviour of the environment in view, an essential way of discovering whether there are significant undesirable changes taking place. Long-term datasets reveal important patterns for scientists to explain and are essential for testing hypotheses undreamt of at the time monitoring scheme was set up. Many environmental processes take place over relatively long periods of time; very often, subtle processes are embedded within highly variable systems so that their weak signal cannot be extracted without a long record. Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, wetland 116 ha in area which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is open water. In the 1960s it became apparent that the Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in late 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large rivers like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for small rural basins. Other issues to be explored will be the phosphorus legacy in lake sediments and a long-term decline in lake pH. The Slapton water quality record has confirmed that undesirable changes are taking place, revealed evidence of important patterns to be explained, allowed testing of new hypotheses (e.g. links with land-use change) and helped

  11. Hsa-miR-11181 regulates Wnt signaling pathway through targeting of APC2 transcripts in SW480 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokanehiifard, Sadat; Soltani, Bahram M

    2018-01-30

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in differentiation, morphogenesis and development. This signaling pathway is highly regulated at all levels and microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs regulating Wnt signaling. Here, we intended to investigate hsa-miR-11181 (a novel miRNA located in TrkC gene) effect on Wnt signaling pathway in SW480 cell line. TOP/FOP flash assay indicated up-regulation of Wnt signaling, following the overexpression of hsa-miR-11181, verified through RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics analysis predicted APC1, APC2 and Axin1 might be targeted by hsa-miR-11181. Then, RT-qPCR analysis indicated that APC2 and Axin1 have been significantly down-regulated following the hsa-miR-11181 overexpression. However dual luciferase assay analysis supported only APC2 3'-UTR is directly targeted by this miRNA. Then, treatment of SW480 cells with Wnt-inhibitory small molecules supported the effect of hsa-miR-11181 at the inhibitory complex level containing APC2 protein. Consistently, viability of SW480 cells overexpressing hsa-miR-11181 was significantly elevated, measured through MTT assay. Overall, these results suggest that hsa-miR-11181 may play a crucial role in Wnt signaling regulation and confirmed that APC2 3'-UTR is targeted by hsa-miR-11181 and propose the presence of its recognition sites in the promoter or coding regions of Axin1 gene. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Origin of co-existing basalts, high-Mg andesites, and adakites in the SW Japan hot subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, J.; Kunikiyo, T.; Osaka, I.; Shimoshioiri, Y.; Katakuse, M.; Kakubuchi, S.; Nagao, T.; Furuyama, K.; Kamei, A.; Nakajima, J.; Stern, R. J.; Gill, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    In response to subduction of the young, hot Shikoku Basin of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) slab, arc magmas have been active throughout the late Cenozoic (<13 Ma) in the SW Japan arc. Extremely variable magma types occurred including oceanic island-type basalt (OIB), shoshonitc to mildly alkalic to sub-alkalic basalts with arc signatures, high-Mg andesites (HMAs), and adakitic andesites and dacites. The OIB-type basalts preceded the arc-type magmas. Therefore, the transition from OIB- to arc-types was related to opening of the Japan of Sea back-arc basin and subsequent re-initiation of PSP subduction. However, both the origin and tectonic implications of this magmatism are debated. Consequently, we analyzed the bulk rock geochemistry of 340 lava samples from seven Quaternary volcanoes and investigated their sources and melting conditions using a geochemical mass balance model, Arc Basalt Simulator version 4 (ABS4). Comparison to basement granitoids precludes adakite genesis in the lower crust. Instead, the ABS4 model suggests that the adakites are mostly slab melts plus minor interaction with mantle wedge peridotite (PERID). Increasing involvement of PERID during slab melt-fluxed mantle melting explains fairly well the geochemical variations of the shoshonites, mildly alkalic to sub-alkalic basalts, and HMAs. We propose that the generation of various magma types in the late Cenozoic SW Japan arc originated simply by "slab melt-fluxed mantle melting" with large variations in melting conditions including depth, temperature, degree of melting, and flux fractions. Such volcanism has been continuous from 13 Ma (Setouchi HMA) to the present, so that the hot subduction system, involving subduction of the Shikoku Basin spreading ridge, should be continuous since 13 Ma beneath the SW Japan arc. Our results further suggest that this atypically hot system generated diverse primary arc magmas from various degrees of flux melting even though the slab source components and sub

  13. Parâmetros para o controle da qualidade de folhas de Casearia sylvestris SW. - Guaçatonga

    OpenAIRE

    Luz,Sonia Francinl Boszczowski; Sato,Mayumi Eliza O.; Duarte,Márcia do Rocio; Santos,Cid Aimbiré de Moraes

    1998-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer parâmetros farmacognósticos de Casearia sylvestris Sw., Flacourtiaceae, conhecida na medicina popular como guacatonga, para melhorar o controle de qualidade da droga. A espécie é oficializada na Farmacopéia Brasileira I, onde estão descritas apenas as características macroscópicas e microscópicas. São sugeridos novos parâmetros para determinação de resíduo de incineração, extrato seco e doseamento de taninos, como também um perfil cromatográfico em ca...

  14. Gem-quality transparent diaspore (zultanite) in bauxite deposits of the İlbir Mountains, Menderes Massif, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Türk, Necdet; Chamberlain, Steven C.; Akgün, A. Murat

    2010-02-01

    Several m-thick, karst-unconformity-type metabauxite horizons in the İlbir Mountains of SW Turkey host open-space mineralization of gem-quality diaspore (trademarked as zultanite), associated with muscovite, hematite, ilmenite, chloritoid, and younger calcite. The hydrothermal-metamorphogenic mineralization occurs in fracture zones (veins and open structures) that crosscut the metabauxite horizons, but does not extend into the marble host rocks. The white to dark gray marble sequence (over 2,000 m in thickness) is of Cretaceous depositional age and was affected by Alpine (Paleogene) tectonometamorphism which caused the hydrothermal remobilization of primary bauxite components into crosscutting structures.

  15. Critical applications of SW 846 US EPA methods to evaluation of marine samples quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira Silvério

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical evaluation of analytical data is of extreme relevance considering it can be used for comparisons with environmental quality standards and decision-making as related to the management of disposal of dredged sediments and the evaluation of salt and brackish water quality in accordance with CONAMA 357/05 Resolution. It is, therefore, essential that the project manager discusses the environmental agency's technical requirements with the laboratory contracted for the follow-up of the analysis underway and even with a view to possible re-analysis when anomalous data are identified. The main technical requirements are: (1 method quantitation limits (QLs should fall below environmental standards; (2 analyses should be carried out in laboratories whose analytical scope is accredited by the National Institute of Metrology (INMETRO or qualified or accepted by a licensing agency; (3 chain of custody should be provided in order to ensure sample traceability; (4 control charts should be provided to prove method performance; (5 certified reference material analysis or, if that is not available, matrix spike analysis, should be undertaken and (6 chromatograms should be included in the analytical report. Within this context and with a view to helping environmental managers in analytical report evaluation, this work has as objectives the discussion of the limitations of the application of SW 846 US EPA methods to marine samples, the consequences of having data based on method detection limits (MDL and not sample quantitation limits (SQL, and present possible modifications of the principal method applied by laboratories in order to comply with environmental quality standards.Avaliação técnica do resultado analítico é de extrema relevância, pois o mesmo será utilizado para comparação com legislações e tomadas de decisão, tais como, disposição adequada de sedimento dragado e avaliação da qualidade de água superficial salobra e salina

  16. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  17. MicroRNA-184 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of human colon cancer SW480 and HCT116 cells by downregulating C-MYC and BCL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Bing; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Li, Gang; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Qiu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of microRNA-184 (miR-184) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human colon cancer cells through the regulation of C-MYC and BCL-2. Human colon cancer tissues were selected as case group, and adjacent normal tissues were as control group. Human colon cancer SW480 and HCT116 cells were allocated into blank, miR-184 mimic negative control (mimic-NC), miR-184 inhibitor NC (inhibitor-NC), miR-184 mimic, and miR-184 inhibitor groups. Flow cytometry, Annexin V/PI and MTT assay were used to examine the cell cycle, apoptosis and viability. The expressions of C-MYC, BCL-2 and miR-184 were detected via immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). C-MYC and BCL-2 were direct targets to miR-184. The growth of colon cancer cells in the miR-184 mimic group was inhibited and exhibited an increase in apoptosis. Cell growth in the miR-184 mimic group was increased in addition to the inhibition of apoptosis. Compared with miR-184 mimic group, the expressions of C-MYC and BCL-2 in miR-184 inhibitor group were increased. The expressions of C-MYC and BCL-2 in colon cancer tissues exhibited high levels of expression, while miR-184 displayed relatively low levels in comparison to the adjacent normal tissues. An association was detected regarding the expressions of miR-184, C-MYC and BCL-2 with the differentiation, invasion depth and lymph node metastasis. MiR-184 expression was negatively related to C-MYC and BCL-2 expressions. Our study suggested that miR-184 could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of colon cancer cells by down-regulating expressions of C-MYC and BCL-2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  19. The 1590-1520 Ma Cachoeirinha magmatic arc and its tectonic implications for the Mesoproterozoic SW Amazonian craton crustal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Amarildo S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic and chemical data of rocks from the Cachoeirinha suite provide new insights on the Proterozoic evolution of the Rio Negro/Juruena Province in SW Amazonian craton. Six U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses in granitoid rocks of the Cachoeirinha suite yielded ages of 1587-1522 Ma and T DM model ages of 1.88-1.75 Ga (EpsilonNd values of -0.8 to +1.0. In addition, three post-tectonic plutonic rocks yielded U-Pb ages from 1485-1389 Ma (T DM of 1.77-1.74 Ga and EpsilonNd values from -1.3 to +1.7. Variations in major and trace elements of the Cachoeirinha suite rocks indicate fractional crystallization process and magmatic arc geologic setting. These results suggest the following interpretations: (1 The interval of 1590-1520 Ma represents an important magmatic activity in SW Amazonian craton. (2 T DM and arc-related chemical affinity supportthe hypothesis that the rocks are genetically associated with an east-dipping subduction zone under the older (1.79-1.74 Ga continental margin. (3 The 1590-1520 Ma age of intrusive rocks adjacent to an older crust represents similar geological framework along the southern margin of Baltica, corroborating the hypothesis of tectonic relationship at that time.

  20. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on plant regeneration from callus of sea dallisgrass (paspalum vaginatum Sw.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiaoqing; She Jianming; Wang Songfeng; Zhang Xu; Liang Liufang; Dong Mingqiang; Wu Yingying

    2010-01-01

    The pellet embryonic calli of Paspalum vagiantum Sw. cv. Adalay were used for 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. In the callus subculture medium with 2, 4-D 2.0 mg /L and BAP 0.05 mg /L, calli were irradiated at the dose rate 1 Gy /min of 60 Co γ-rays. Results showed that the rate of shoot regeneration was from 94% to 85% when calli irradiated with 20 ∼ 50 Gy; the rate of shoot regeneration was from 76% to 30%, and the rate of plant regeneration was from 44.5% to 8.7% between 60 ∼ 80 Gy. By 60 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation, the rate of shoot regeneration was about 76% in the differentiation medium with BAP 2.0 mg /L, and the relative rate of plant regeneration was 44.5% in the rooting medium with NAA 0.5 mg /L. The result of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers analysis showed that the specific SRAP markers were associated with the somatic mutants. The mutation technique of 60 Co γ-rays has been established in the somatic cell of Paspalum vaginatum Sw. (authors)

  1. Induction of apoptosis by tomato using space mutation breeding in human colon cancer SW480 and HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiahui; Yang, Bin; Feng, Pan; Li, Duo; Zhu, Jiajin

    2010-03-15

    As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning the functional characteristics of tomatoes using space mutation breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-colon cancer effect of tomatoes M1 and M2 using space mutation breeding. In the present study, obvious anti-cancer activity was shown with tomato juice of M1 and M2 and their parent CK treatment in colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HT-29 in cell growth inhibition. In addition, SW480 cells were more sensitive to M1 and M2 than HT-29 cells in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, M1 and M2 induced cell cycle arrest both in G0-G1 and G2/M phases. These data suggest that consumption of tomato using space mutation breeding may provide benefits to inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, tomato production using space mutation breeding may be a good candidate for development as a dietary supplement in drug therapy for colon cancer.

  2. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  3. Thermal structure of pumpellyite-actinolite facies regions in the Sanbagawa belt, Shikoku, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M.

    2003-12-01

    On the basis of the mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks, the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku, SW Japan, has been divided, from low- to high-grade parts, into the chlorite, garnet, albite-biotite and oligoclase-biotite zones (Higashino, 1990). Also, the mineral assemblage of pumpellyite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite or epidote + actinolite + hematite + chlorite, which defines the pumpellyite-actinolite (PA) facies (e.g., Banno, 1998), is widely recognized in metabasites in the chlorite zone (e.g. Banno & Sakai, 1989). However, the detailed study on the PA facies regions has been done only in the Omoiji-Nagasawa area (Nakajima et al., 1977) and Asemigawa-Shirataki area (Nakajima, 1982) in central Shikoku, and thus, it is still hard to solve the regional thermal structure of the PA facies region. This study is aimed to reveal the thermal structure of the PA facies region of the Sanbagawa belt in Shikoku by analyzing the mineral assemblages and mineral chemistries of metabasites from the nine newly studied areas. The studied areas studied belong to the chlorite zone in the Oboke and Besshi units; the Oboke unit structurally underlay the Besshi unit. The mineral assemblages include pumpellyite + epidote + actinolite, epidote + actinolite _ hematite and epidote + Na-amphibole + actinolite + hematite. The metabasites from some areas involve Na-pyroxene-bearing assemblages, but the analyses of the Schreinemakers bundle of Tagiri et al. (1992) show that these assemblages do not define the Na-pyroxene-chlorite subfacies. As the low-grade metamorphic rocks do not have the hematite + pumpellyite paragenesis, its metamorphic temperature is estimated to be higher than the discontinuous reaction temperature of pumpellyite + hematite + quartz = epidote + actinolite + H2O, as shown by Nakajima et al. (1977). It is difficult to detect the difference in temperature in the PA facies regions by analyzing mineral assemblages. To detect the difference in temperature, and then to reveal

  4. Assessing the environmental sensitivity to land degradation. A validation of the MEDALUS method in SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado Contador, J. F.; Schnabel, S.; Gómez Gutiérrez, A.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    In places where drought is one of the main climatic constraints, land degradation and desertification can take place if soils have suffered from a loss of biological production and resilience caused by both, natural and anthropogenic factors. It is important to identify such sensitive areas and to describe the driving forces leading to land degradation in order to properly understand the phenomenon. The main goal of this work is to identify places with different sensitivity to land degradation in Extremadura (Spain) by means of a modeling approach developed in the European Commission funded MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification Land Use) (Kosmas et al., 1999), which identifies such areas on the basis of an index (ESA index, Environmental Sensitive Area index) in which environmental quality (climate, vegetation, soil) as well as anthropogenic factors (management) are included. A geographical information system approach was applied in this study. Sensitivity to degradation is analyzed by combining four quality indexes (soil, climate, vegetation and management). The first three giving information about environmental conditions and the later about man-related factors. Each of those quality indexes result from averaging several parameters involved in their calculation. The study area covered the whole region of the Extremadura (41.633 km²), located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. For the classification of soil cover classes, the CORINE land cover 2000 maps were used and reclassified according to the requirements. Some information was also gathered from the National Forest Inventory. A digital elevation model of 25 m pixel size was used to calculate terrain slope and aspect and the climate data were obtained from the Digital Climatic Atlas of the Iberian Peninsula. Two maps of environmental sensitivity to land degradation with different legend resolution (4 and 8 classes) were established and tested by comparing the results obtained (classes of sensitivity) with

  5. Post-glacial sea-level history for SW Ireland (Bantry Bay) based on offshore evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plets, R. M.; Callard, L.; Cooper, A.; Long, A. J.; Belknap, D. F.; Edwards, R.; Jackson, D.; Kelley, J. T.; Long, D.; Milne, G. A.; Monteys, X.; Quinn, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, progress in remote sensing techniques has helped to constrain the advance and retreat phases of the British-Irish Ice Sheet during and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), both on- and offshore. However, little evidence has been collected to study the pattern of relative sea-level (RSL) change immediately after ice sheet retreat. Glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models suggest a complex RSL pattern around Ireland, influenced by local and regional isostatic movements. Unfortunately, such models are poorly constrained for periods during which RSL was significantly lower than present, particularly the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, owing to the paucity of accurate observational data offshore. This poster presents post-LGM stratigraphic evidence from Bantry Bay (SW Ireland), one of seven areas targeted around the Irish Sea as part of a larger NERC funded project which aims to provide the first field data on the depth and age of the RSL minimum since deglaciation in the Irish Sea Basin. Data examined consists of: multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, pinger sub-bottom and vibrocores (25 sites). Notable features on the multibeam are a bluff line in the outer bay with a maximum height of 10 m in water depths of c. -80 m which forms the western edge of a large sediment lobe. The south-western boundary of this lobe is marked by a series of long (up to 22 km), parallel ridges at depths between -96 m and -131 m, with iceberg scouring evident on the offshore margin. Six seismo-stratigraphic units are interpreted from the pinger data, the most prominent of which can be traced from the inner part of the Bay to the inshore edge of the ridges. This unit sits on an erosional surface, is characterised by a turbid acoustic signature and is identified as alternating sand and clay layers with some traces of organic material and gas. Equal amounts of marine and estuarine foraminifera are present within this unit, whilst the underlying unit has a higher

  6. Seismic tomography and ambient noise reflection interferometry on Reykjanes, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Verdel, Arie; Ágústsson, Kristján; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, Malte; Ryberg, Trond; Weemstra, Cornelius; Hersir, Gylfi; Bruhn, David

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in volcano-seismology and seismic noise interferometry have introduced new processing techniques for assessing subsurface structures and controls on fluid flow in geothermal systems. We present tomographic results obtained from seismic data recorded around geothermal reservoirs located both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 234 seismic stations (including 24 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and August 2015. In order to determine the orientation of the OBS stations, we used Rayleigh waves planar particle motions from large magnitude earthquakes. This method proved suitable using the on-land stations: orientations determined using this method with the orientations measured using a giro-compass agreed. We obtain 3D velocity images from two fundamentally different tomography methods. First, we used local earthquakes to perform travel time tomography. The processing includes first arrival picking of P- and S- phases using an automatic detection and picking technique based on Akaike Information Criteria. We locate earthquakes by using a non-linear localization technique, as a priori information for deriving a 1D velocity model. We then computed 3D velocity models of velocities by joint inversion of each earthquake's location and lateral velocity anomalies with respect to the 1D model. Our models confirms previous models obtained in the area, with enhanced details. Second, we performed ambient noise cross-correlation techniques in order to derive an S velocity model, especially where earthquakes did not occur. Cross-correlation techniques involve the computation of cross- correlation between seismic records, from which Green's functions are estimated. Surface wave inversion of the Green's functions allows derivation of an S wave velocity model. Noise correlation theory furthermore shows that zero-offset P-wave reflectivity at selected station locations can be

  7. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  8. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  9. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  10. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  11. Capillary pressure and saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in sand: High-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter measurements and capillary scaling predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Jung, Jong-Won; Kim, Tae Wook; Kim, Yongman; Dong, Wenming

    2013-08-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration, reliable predictions of CO2 storage require understanding the capillary behavior of supercritical (sc) CO2. Given the limited availability of measurements of the capillary pressure (Pc) dependence on water saturation (Sw) with scCO2 as the displacing fluid, simulations of CO2 sequestration commonly rely on modifying more familiar air/H2O and oil/H2O Pc(Sw) relations, adjusted to account for differences in interfacial tensions. In order to test such capillary scaling-based predictions, we developed a high-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter, allowing accurate Pc and Sw measurements. Drainage and imbibition processes were measured on quartz sand with scCO2-brine at pressures of 8.5 and 12.0 MPa (45°C), and air-brine at 21°C and 0.1 MPa. Drainage and rewetting at intermediate Sw levels shifted to Pc values that were from 30% to 90% lower than predicted based on interfacial tension changes. Augmenting interfacial tension-based predictions with differences in independently measured contact angles from different sources led to more similar scaled Pc(Sw) relations but still did not converge onto universal drainage and imbibition curves. Equilibrium capillary trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined for Pc = 0 during rewetting. The capillary-trapped volumes for scCO2 were significantly greater than for air. Given that the experiments were all conducted on a system with well-defined pore geometry (homogeneous sand), and that scCO2-brine interfacial tensions are fairly well constrained, we conclude that the observed deviations from scaling predictions resulted from scCO2-induced decreased wettability. Wettability alteration by scCO2 makes predicting hydraulic behavior more challenging than for less reactive fluids.

  12. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  13. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  15. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... The formation consists of Imo Shale group and a small portion of the Bende- Ameki group. They consist of mudstone/lignite sequence. ..... University of Benin, Benin City. Kuwar, P. S, Amarita, M, Sarita, S. (2005) Water Quality Assessment and appointment of Pollution Sources of Gomti River (India) using.

  16. Aerosol radiative effect in UV, VIS, NIR, and SW spectra under haze and high-humidity urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Wang, Lunche; Xia, Xiangao; Che, Huizheng; Hu, Bo; Liu, Boming

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol properties derived from sun-photometric observations at Wuhan during a haze period were analyzed and used as input in a radiative transfer model to calculate the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) in ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave (SW) spectra. The results showed that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm increased from 0.32 under clear-air conditions to 0.85 during common haze and 1.39 during severe haze. An unusual inverse relationship was found between the Ångström exponent (AE) and AOD during the haze period at Wuhan. Under high-humidity conditions, the fine-mode median radius of aerosols increased from 0.113 μm to approximately 0.2-0.5 μm as a result of hygroscopic growth, which led to increases in the AOD and decreases in the AE simultaneously. These changes were responsible for the inverse relationship between AE and AOD at Wuhan. The surface ARE in the UV (AREUV), VIS (AREVIS), NIR (ARENIR), and SW (ARESW) spectra changed from -4.46, -25.37, -12.15, and -41.99 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -9.48, -53.96, -29.81, and -93.25 W/m2 during common hazy days and -12.89, -80.16, -55.17, and -148.22 W/m2 during severe hazy days, respectively, and the percentages of AREUV, AREVIS, and ARENIR in ARESW changed from 11%, 61%, and 28%-9%, 54%, and 37%, respectively. Meanwhile, the ARE efficiencies (REE) in SW varied from -206.5 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -152.94 W/m2 during the common haze period and -131.47 W/m2 during the severe haze period. The smallest decreasing rate of the REE in NIR was associated with the increase of ARENIR. The weakened REE values were related to the strong forward scattering and weak backward scattering of fine aerosol particles with increasing size resulting from hygroscopic growth, while the variation of the single scattering albedo showed less impact. Source region analysis by back trajectories and the concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) method showed that black carbon came

  17. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries. XXIX. The Am-type systems SW Canis Majoris and HW Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G.; Clausen, J. V.; Bruntt, H.; Claret, A.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Stefanik, R. P.; Latham, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Accurate physical properties of eclipsing stars provide important constraints on models of stellar structure and evolution, especially when combined with spectroscopic information on their chemical composition. Empirical calibrations of the data also lead to accurate mass and radius estimates for exoplanet host stars. Finally, accurate data for unusual stellar subtypes, such as Am stars, also help to unravel the cause(s) of their peculiarities. Aims: We aim to determine the masses, radii, effective temperatures, detailed chemical composition and rotational speeds for the Am-type eclipsing binaries SW CMa (A4-5m) and HW CMa (A6m) and compare them with similar normal stars. Methods: Accurate radial velocities from the Digital Speedometers of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics were combined with previously published uvby photometry to determine precise physical parameters for the four stars. A detailed abundance analysis was performed from high-resolution spectra obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope (La Palma). Results: We find the masses of the (relatively evolved) stars in SW CMa to be 2.10 and 2.24 M⊙, with radii of 2.50 and 3.01 R⊙, while the (essentially zero-age) stars in HW CMa have masses of 1.72 and 1.78 M⊙, radii of 1.64 and 1.66 R⊙ - all with errors well below 2%. Detailed atmospheric abundances for one or both components were determined for 14 elements in SW CMa ([Fe/H] = +0.49/+0.61 dex) and 16 in HW CMa ([Fe/H] = +0.33/+0.32 dex); both abundance patterns are characteristic of metallic-line stars. Both systems are well fit by current stellar evolution models for assumed bulk abundances of [Fe/H] = +0.05 and +0.23, respectively ([α/Fe] = 0.0), and ages of ~700 Myr and 160 Myr. Based on observations carried out with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at La Palma, the 50 cm Strömgren Automatic Telescope (SAT) at ESO, La Silla, the 1.5 m Wyeth reflector at the Oak Ridge Observatory, Harvard, Massachusetts, USA, and the 1

  18. Deep crustal structure of the conjugate margins of the SW South China Sea from wide-angle refraction seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichot, T.; Delescluse, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Pubellier, M. F.; Qiu, Y.; Meresse, F.; Savva, D.; Watremez, L.; Auxietre, J.

    2013-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal basin of SE Asia. Yet its mechanism of formation is still debated. While the NE part of the SCS northern margin exhibits ~400 km of extended continental crust, its SW part shows nearly 800 km of extended continental crust, which makes it one of the widest rifted margin in the world. In June 2011, Chinese and French scientists conducted a joint geophysical experiment on board the R/V Tan Bao across the SW sub-basin of the SCS. A 1000-km-long wide-angle refraction seismic profile was acquired along the conjugate margins using a total of 50 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS). 41,100 first refraction and 6,622 PmP reflection arrival traveltimes have been picked. A joint reflection and refraction traveltime tomography inversion is performed to obtain a 2-D velocity model of the crustal and upper mantle structures. Based on this new tomographic model, northern and southern margins are found genetically linked since they share common structural characteristics: an average 12-km-thick crust and crustal scale lateral velocity variations. These lateral variations correlate well with seismic reflection observations of the crustal structures. Small-scale normal faults (grabens and horsts, with a spacing of ~15-30 km) are often associated with an apparent tilt of the iso-velocity contours affecting the upper crust. The upper-middle crust shows clear high lateral velocity variations defining low velocity bodies (LVB) bounded by large-scale normal faults (also referred as 'Throughgoing crustal faulting'). Major sedimentary basins are located above the LVBs, interpreted as hanging-wall blocks. The Moho interface remains rather flat (less than 4°) over the extended domain, suggesting that large normal faults root in a ductile lower crust, allowing isostatic compensation of the large normal fault blocks. Along the northern margin, the wavelength of the LVBs decreases from 90 to 45 km as the total crust thins toward the Continent

  19. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, A.M.; Ranker, T.A.; Corn, P.S.; Olmstead, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Anaxyrus boreas species group currently comprises four species in western North America including the broadly distributed A. boreas, and three localized species, Anaxyrus nelsoni, Anaxyrus exsul and Anaxyrus canorus. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, control region, and restriction sites data, identified three major haplotype clades. The Northwest clade (NW) includes both subspecies of A. boreas and divergent minor clades in the middle Rocky Mountains, coastal, and central regions of the west and Pacific Northwest. The Southwest (SW) clade includes A. exsul, A. nelsoni, and minor clades in southern California. Anaxyrus canorus, previously identified as paraphyletic, has populations in both the NW and SW major clades. The Eastern major clade (E) includes three divergent lineages from southern Utah, the southern Rocky Mountains, and north of the Great Basin at the border of Utah and Nevada. These results identify new genetic variation in the eastern portion of the toad's range and are consistent with previous regional studies from the west coast. Low levels of control region sequence divergence between major clades (2.2-4.7% uncorrected pair-wise distances) are consistent with Pleistocene divergence and suggest that the phylogeographic history of the group was heavily influenced by dynamic Pleistocene glacial and climatic changes, and especially pluvial changes, in western North America. Results reported here may impact conservation plans in that the current taxonomy does not reflect the diversity in the group. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil from Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren; Yang, Jing-jing; Shi, Yin-xian; Zhao, Min; Ji, Kai-long; Zhang, Ping; Xu, You-kai; Hu, Hua-bin

    2014-12-02

    Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens Huang) is widely consumed as an indigenous remedy for digestive disorders, detoxification, detumescence and analgesia by the ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna, SW China. A related species, Huajiao (Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc.), has similar uses in traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to scientifically validate the traditional uses by investigating and comparing the chemical composition, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of Maqian and Huajiao. Essential oils were collected from the fruits of Maqian and Huajiao by simultaneous distillation extraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. To assess antimicrobial activity, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) against 7 microbial strains, including 5 food-borne pathogens, were evaluated by serial dilution with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. For anti-inflammatory activity, the cell viability and nitric oxide (NO) production were determined on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by MTS assay and the Griess reagent system, respectively. The essential oil from Maqian is rich in limonene (67.06%) and has strong antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens and spoilage organisms, with MIC ranging from 64 to1024µg/ml and MBC ranging from 64 to 2048µg/ml. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity by significantly inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells at 0.04‰ without effects on cell viability. Furthermore, it showed relatively stronger antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities than the essential oil from Huajiao. Our findings not only justify the use of Maqian as an indigenous remedy for digestive disorders, detoxification, detumescence and analgesia, but also suggest that it could be promoted as a preferred substitute for Huajiao. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of alteration induced by hydrocarbon seepage in an evaporite formation; a case study from the Zagros Fold Belt, SW Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangestani, Majid H.; Validabadi, Khadijeh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemistry of alterations induced by hydrocarbon seepage are investigated. • Occurrence of jarosite, natroalunite, and sulfur were measured using XRD analysis. • Simultaneous decrease of sulfate and increase of carbonate were detected. • Carbon isotope analysis supports a partial contribution of hydrocarbon in carbonates. • Increase of Cr, Co, Ni, V, Cd, U, Cu, and Zn are detected in altered areas. - Abstract: Leaking hydrocarbon and associated fluids produce a reduced environment which initiates diagenetic reactions in the rocks and soils overlying hydrocarbon reservoirs. This article introduces mineralogical and geochemical alterations induced by hydrocarbon seepages in the Gachsaran evaporite Formation, Masjed Soleiman, Zagros Folded Belt, SW Iran, using various geochemical methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed two dominant groups of mineralogical changes in the anomalous zone including: (1) spotty occurrences of jarosite, natroalunite, and sulfur; (2) simultaneous decrease of sulfate and increase of carbonate. The δ 13 C values of carbonate phases vary between −8.9‰ and −32.3‰ which support a partial contribution of hydrocarbon in these phases. pH measurements of rock samples indicated that hydrocarbon seepage causes decrease of pH, though not very significantly. However, pH in areas that show ongoing sour hydrocarbon seepage among rarely pure gypsum beds decrease to −0.09 which produces acid sulfate soil. Trace element concentrations indicated that Cr, Co, Ni, V, Cd, U, Cu, and Zn increase in various patterns around the hydrocarbon seepages excepting the areas with very low pH

  2. Harmful algal blooms (HABs), dissolved organic matter (DOM), and planktonic microbial community dynamics at a near-shore and a harbour station influenced by upwelling (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Sofia; Reñé, Albert; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Vaqué, Dolors

    2011-05-01

    The surface microalgal community, including harmful species, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and bacterial and viral populations were studied during an annual cycle (November 2007-October 2008) in a Near-shore (NS) and a Harbour (H) station located in an upwelling area (Sagres, SW Iberian Peninsula). The higher water residence time, water stability and shallowness of harbours in comparison with open waters likely contributed to the differences found between stations regarding chemical variables, statistical correlations and harmful algal proliferations. Also, several differences were noticed from a previous assessment ( Loureiro et al., 2005) including higher SST, lower nitrate and chlorophyll a concentrations, along with a shift in the microplankton community structure from diatom to nanoflagellate predominance. These variations feasibly reflect the response of this dynamic system to regional environmental modifications contributing to the understanding of common patterns in environmental change trends. The division of the sampling period into (1) non-upwelling (Non-Uw), (2) "spin-up" of upwelling (SU-Uw), and (3) "spin-down" and relaxation-downwelling (SD-Rel) stages allowed the identification of natural groupings of microplankton samples by Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and viruses were the most significant abiotic and biotic variables, respectively, contributing to the dissimilarities between these stages (SIMPER analysis) and, therefore, potentially affecting the microplankton community structure. Harmful algal species and a stable viral community appeared to be favoured by SD-Rel conditions. Data seem to indicate that both Gymnodinium catenatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, the most abundant potentially harmful species, have been imported into the sampling area. Also, the H location, together with potential retention sites developing around the Cabo de São Vicente upwelling centre, may contribute to the local

  3. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S.

    2002-02-01

    , approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such

  4. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    , approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such

  5. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a

  6. Zooplankton biomass and composition in the western Bay of Bengal during late sw monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.; Nair, V.R.; Nair, S.R.S.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Copepoda formed the predominant group except in the southern region where a swarm of pelagic tunicates reduced their contribution to only 19% of the total zooplankton count. Decapod larvae occurred in fairly large numbers all along the coastal...

  7. Occurrence, origin and possible accumulationsof oil in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep (SE Moravia - Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Čížek

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The drilling exploration in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep, in the vicinity of the gas deposit and UGS Dolní Dunajovice encountered the influx of gas, water and oil in Carpathian, Eggenburgian sandstones and Upper Jurassic carbonates. Similar shows were observed in the region at the base of the Jurassic and Miocene in older exploration wells. The new interpretations of 3D seismic and 2D profiles provide a new geological model integrated with petrophysical properties and geochemistry. A molecular and isotopic composition of gas indicates its mixed bacterial and thermal origin. Biomarkers in the new oils suggest a close genetic relationship to the Upper Jurassic marls and economically successful oil accumulations in the southern part of the south-eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif. The new findings increase the prospects of finding new structures with oil and gas accumulations in this region.

  8. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_DAILY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    This data set contains upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=daily; Temporal_Resolution_Range=daily].

  9. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave 3 hourly Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_3HRLY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The SRB data include the average upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=3 hourly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=3 hourly].

  10. Parâmetros para o controle da qualidade de folhas de Casearia sylvestris SW. - Guaçatonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Francinl Boszczowski Luz

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer parâmetros farmacognósticos de Casearia sylvestris Sw., Flacourtiaceae, conhecida na medicina popular como guacatonga, para melhorar o controle de qualidade da droga. A espécie é oficializada na Farmacopéia Brasileira I, onde estão descritas apenas as características macroscópicas e microscópicas. São sugeridos novos parâmetros para determinação de resíduo de incineração, extrato seco e doseamento de taninos, como também um perfil cromatográfico em camada delgada.

  11. Long-term persistence of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil in the colon cancer cell line SW620

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentes, I.K., E-mail: itentes@med.duth.gr [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 6th km Alexandroupolis-Komotini (Dragana), 68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece); Schmidt, W.M. [Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Waehringer Strasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Krupitza, G. [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Steger, G.G.; Mikulits, W. [Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kortsaris, A. [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 6th km Alexandroupolis-Komotini (Dragana), 68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece); Mader, R.M. [Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    Treatment resistance to antineoplastic drugs represents a major clinical problem. Here, we investigated the long-term stability of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil (FU) in an in vitro colon cancer model, using four sub-clones characterised by increasing FU-resistance derived from the cell line SW620. The resistance phenotype was preserved after FU withdrawal for 15 weeks ({approx} 100 cell divisions) independent of the established level of drug resistance and of epigenetic silencing. Remarkably, resistant clones tolerated serum deprivation, adopted a CD133{sup +} CD44{sup -} phenotype, and further exhibited loss of membrane-bound E-cadherin together with predominant nuclear {beta}-catenin localisation. Thus, we provide evidence for a long-term memory of acquired drug resistance, driven by multiple cellular strategies (epithelial-mesenchymal transition and selective propagation of CD133{sup +} cells). These resistance phenomena, in turn, accentuate the malignant phenotype.

  12. Far-ultraviolet Bidirectional Photometry of Apollo Soil 10084: New Results from The Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, U.

    2017-12-01

    We report new measurements of the far-ultraviolet (115-180 nm) bidirectional reflectance of Apollo soil 10084 in the Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC). We find the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) to be featureless in this wavelength region, though with a small blue slope. The angular distribution of the BRDF at Ly-α and 160 nm shows that this mature mare soil, containing nanophase Fe and enriched in Ti, anisotropically scatters light in the forward direction. The phase angle dependence of the BRDF is fitted with Hapke's photometric model with an additional diffuse-directional term. Future plans include measurements of mare and highland soils of differing maturity index (Is/FeO), water ice frost and lunar soil-ice aggregates. Such measurements will help constrain the abundance and distribution of the water ice on the illuminated lunar surface and dark permanently shadowed regions of the moon, as reported by LRO-LAMP.

  13. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  14. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE NOVA-LIKE VARIABLE KQ MONOCEROTIS: A NEW SW SEXTANTIS STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Aaron; Sion, Edward M.; Bond, Howard E.

    2013-01-01

    New optical spectra obtained with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope and archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of the nova-like variable KQ Mon are discussed. The optical spectra reveal Balmer lines in absorption as well as He I absorption superposed on a blue continuum. The 2011 optical spectrum is similar to the KPNO 2.1 m IIDS spectrum we obtained 33 years earlier except that the Balmer and He I absorption is stronger in 2011. Far-ultraviolet IUE spectra reveal deep absorption lines due to C II, Si III, Si IV, C IV, and He II, but no P Cygni profiles indicative of wind outflow. We present the results of the first synthetic spectral analysis of the IUE archival spectra of KQ Mon with realistic optically thick, steady-state, viscous accretion-disk models with vertical structure and high-gravity photosphere models. We find that the photosphere of the white dwarf (WD) contributes very little FUV flux to the spectrum and is overwhelmed by the accretion light of a steady disk. Disk models corresponding to a WD mass of ∼0.6 M ☉ , with an accretion rate of order 10 –9 M ☉ yr –1 and disk inclinations between 60° and 75°, yield distances from the normalization in the range of 144-165 pc. KQ Mon is discussed with respect to other nova-like variables. Its spectroscopic similarity to the FUV spectra of three definite SW Sex stars suggests that it is likely a member of the SW Sex class and lends support to the possibility that the WD is magnetic.

  15. Microseismic Monitoring of Stimulating Shale Gas Reservoir in SW China: 2. Spatial Clustering Controlled by the Preexisting Faults and Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Meng, Xiaobo; Niu, Fenglin; Tang, Youcai; Yin, Chen; Wu, Furong

    2018-02-01

    Microseismic monitoring is crucial to improving stimulation efficiency of hydraulic fracturing treatment, as well as to mitigating potential induced seismic hazard. We applied an improved matching and locating technique to the downhole microseismic data set during one treatment stage along a horizontal well within the Weiyuan shale gas play inside Sichuan Basin in SW China, resulting in 3,052 well-located microseismic events. We employed this expanded catalog to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of the microseismicity in order to constrain migration of the injected fluids and the associated dynamic processes. The microseismicity is generally characterized by two distinctly different clusters, both of which are highly correlated with the injection activity spatially and temporarily. The distant and well-confined cluster (cluster A) is featured by relatively large-magnitude events, with 40 events of M -1 or greater, whereas the cluster in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore (cluster B) includes two apparent lineations of seismicity with a NE-SW trending, consistent with the predominant orientation of natural fractures. We calculated the b-value and D-value, an index of fracture complexity, and found significant differences between the two seismicity clusters. Particularly, the distant cluster showed an extremely low b-value ( 0.47) and D-value ( 1.35). We speculate that the distant cluster is triggered by reactivation of a preexisting critically stressed fault, whereas the two lineations are induced by shear failures of optimally oriented natural fractures associated with fluid diffusion. In both cases, the spatially clustered microseismicity related to hydraulic stimulation is strongly controlled by the preexisting faults and fractures.

  16. SiRNA-mediated IGF-1R inhibition sensitizes human colon cancer SW480 cells to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, Kamal; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed A.; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Babaei, Mohammad Hosein; Arfaee, Ali Jabbary; Madani, Hossein; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Insulin like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) is well-documented to play a key role in radiation response and tumor radiosensitivity, thus offering an attractive clinic drug target to enhance tumor sensitivity to anti-cancer radiotherapy. Material and methods. Human colon carcinoma SW480 cells were transfected with the specific small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) designed to target IGF-1R mRNA. The expression of IGF-1R mRNA and its protein among the transfected and untransfected cells were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assay. The changes in cell radiosensitivity were examined by MTT assay. Results. Transfection of mammalian expression vector pkD containing IGF-1R siRNA was shown to reduce IGF-1R mRNA levels by up to 95%. ELISA assay detected a similar inhibition of IGF-1R protein levels in cells transfected with IGF-1R siRNA. SW480 cells transfected with the expression vector for siRNA significantly rendered cells more sensitive to radiation and the highest radiation enhancement ratio was 2.02 ± 0.08. Conclusion. These data provide the first evidence that specific siRNA fragment (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) targeting human IGF-1R mRNA is able to enhance colon cancer radiosensitivity. Also results indicated that, combining IGF-1R siRNA and radiation significantly enhances antitumor efficacy compared with either modality alone

  17. Modern sediments and Pleistocene reefs from isolated carbonate platforms (Iles Eparses, SW Indian Ocean): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorry, Stéphan J.; Camoin, Gilbert F.; Jouet, Gwénaël; Roy, Pascal Le; Vella, Claude; Courgeon, Simon; Prat, Sophie; Fontanier, Christophe; Paumard, Victorien; Boulle, Julien; Caline, Bruno; Borgomano, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Isolated carbonate platforms occur throughout the geologic record, from Archean to present. Although the respective roles of tectonics, sediment supply and sea-level changes in the stratigraphical architecture of these systems are relatively well constrained, the details of the nature and controls on the variability of sedimentological patterns between and within individual geomorphologic units on platforms have been barely investigated. This study aims at describing and comparing geomorphological and sedimentological features of surficial sediments and fossil reefs from three isolated carbonate platforms located in the SW Indian Ocean (Glorieuses, Juan de Nova and Europa). These carbonate platforms are relatively small and lack continuous reef margins, which have developed only on windward sides. Field observations, petrographic characterization and grain-size analyses are used to illustrate the spatial patterns of sediment accumulation on these platforms. The internal parts of both Glorieuses and Juan de Nova platforms are blanketed by sand dunes with medium to coarse sands with numerous reef pinnacles. Skeletal components including coral, green algae, and benthic foraminifera fragments prevail in these sediments. Europa platform exhibits a similar skeletal assemblage dominated by coral fragments, with the absence of wave-driven sedimentary bodies. Fossil reefs from the Last interglacial (125,000 years BP) occur on the three platforms. At Glorieuses, a succession of drowned terraces detected on seismic lines is interpreted as reflecting the last deglacial sea-level rise initiated 20,000 years ago. These findings highlight the high potential of these platforms to study past sea-level changes and the related reef response, which remain poorly documented in the SW Indian Ocean.

  18. Source Mechanisms of Recent Earthquakes occurred in the Fethiye-Rhodes Basin and Anaximander Seamounts (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the active tectonics of southern Turkey involves integrating earthquake source parameters with the regional tectonics. In this respect, seismological studies have played important roles in deciphering tectonic deformations and existing stress accumulations in the region. This study is concerned with the source mechanism parameters and spatio-temporal finite-fault slip distributions of recent earthquakes occurred along the Pliny-Strabo Trench (PST), which constitutes the eastern part of the Hellenic subduction zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Region, and along the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey). The study area is located at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs along which the African plate plunges northwards beneath the Aegean Sea and the Anatolian block. Bathymetry and topography including large-scale tectonic structures such as the Rhodes Basin, Anaximander Seamounts, the Florence Rise, the Isparta Angle, the Taurus Mountains, and Kyrenia Range also reflect the tectonic complexities in the region. In this study, we performed point-source inversions by using teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) and the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) stations. We obtained source mechanism parameters and finite-fault slip distributions of recent Fethiye-Rhodes earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.0) by comparing the shapes and amplitudes of long period P- and SH-waveforms, recorded in the distance range of 30 - 90 degrees, with synthetic waveforms. We further obtained rupture histories of the earthquakes to determine the fault area (fault length and width), maximum displacement, rupture duration and stress drop. Inversion results exhibit that recent earthquakes show left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms with relatively deeper focal depths (h > 40 km) consistent with tectonic characteristics of the region, for example, the June 10, 2012 Fethiye earthquake (Mw

  19. A synthesis of magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits in the ∼260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province, SW China and northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina Yan; Wei, Bo; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Minh, Dinh Huu; Qi, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits in the ca. 260-Ma Emeishan large igneous province (LIP) are all hosted in relatively small, mafic-ultramafic intrusions with surface areas usually less than 1 km2. These deposits are mainly distributed in the Danba, Panzhihua-Xichang (Panxi), Huili, Yuanmou, Midu, Funing and Jinping regions in SW China and the Ta Khoa region in northern Vietnam. They include Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-dominated, Ni-Cu sulfide-dominated, and PGE-dominated types. Sulfide ores of the Ni-Cu-(PGE) and Ni-Cu sulfide-dominated deposits contain more than 10 vol% sulfides and have low PGE concentrations relative to the ores that contain <3 vol% sulfides in the PGE-dominated deposits. The parental magmas of the host mafic-ultramafic intrusions may have been derived primarily from low-Ti picritic magmas that were produced by high degrees of partial melting of a depleted mantle source. The primary low-Ti picrites of the Emeishan LIP have relatively restricted εNd(t) and γOs(t) isotopic compositions, however, some of the host intrusions exhibit a large range of both εNd(t) (-9.5 to +0.8) and γOs(t) (+5.4 to +77), indicating that they experienced variable degrees of crustal contamination during emplacement. In addition, sulfides from sulfide ores of the Ban Phuc intrusion in northern Vietnam and those from sulfide veins in country rocks have δ34S values ranging from -6.7 to -3.4‰, whereas sulfides from sulfide ores of the Baimazhai No.3, Yingpanjie, Jinbaoshan and Nantianwan intrusions in SW China have highly variable δ34S ranging from -0.2 to +21.4‰, indicating the addition of crustal sulfur into the mantle-derived mafic magmas. Platinum-group minerals (PGM) are abundant in the Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-bearing intrusions, and they span a wide range of composition. More than 130 PGM grains have been identified in the Pt-Pd-rich Jinbaoshan intrusion, whereas only one small froodite (PdBi2) grain was observed in the Ni-Cu sulfide-dominated Baimazhai No. 3

  20. Attack the tumor counterattack-c-FLIP expression in Jurkat-T-cells protects against apoptosis induced by coculture with SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiert, Andreas E; Sendler, Daniel; Burke, Willam F; Choi, Claudia Y; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M

    2012-07-01

    Cancer development relies on a variety of mechanisms that facilitate tumor growth despite the presence of a functioning immune system, employing different mechanisms to escape immune rejection. Tumors may eliminate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and suppress anti-tumor immune responses, a process called "tumor counterattack," based on activation-induced cell death via the FAS/FAS-ligand system. To overcome this tumor-cell survival strategy, we examined the hypothesis that the sensitivity of FAS mediated apoptosis of Jurkat-T-cells can be suppressed by FLIP transfection of Jurkat-T-cells. Jurkat-T-cells were transfected with the FLICE-inhibitory protein FLIP in order to bestow them with a resistance to FAS-receptor-mediated apoptosis. FLIP-transfected and non-transfected Jurkat-T-cells were grown in coincubation with SW620 cells and the rates of apoptosis measured via FACS-analysis of Annexin-V. First, the tumor-counterattack described in the literature was confirmed. About 20% of Jurkat-T-Cells underwent apoptosis in coculture with SW620 cells. After coincubation of SW620 cells with FLIP transfected Jurkat-T-cells the apoptotic rate was significant reduced at levels below 4%. Transfection of Jurkat-T-cells with FLIP reduces the sensitivity of Jurkat-T-cells to FAS-mediated apoptosis and may lead to an improved capability to antagonize the inherent tumor survival strategy of SW620 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrographic features of the western Bay of Bengal in the upper 500 m under the influence of NE and SW monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    monsoon while during SW monsoon, it is characterisEd. by cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres. North of 15 degrees N, the influence of freshwater on the flow is dominant within 100 km from the coast. Beyond 100 km, the flow is influencEd. by the wind forcing...

  2. The NSm proteins of phylogenetically related tospoviruses trigger Sw-5b–mediated resistance dissociated of their cell-to-cell movement function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leastro, Mikhail Oliveira; Oliveira, De Athos Silva; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A.; Kormelink, Richard; Resende, Renato Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The cell-to-cell movement protein (NSM) in members of the tospovirus species Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been recently identified as the effector of the single dominant Sw-5b resistance gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Although most TSWV isolates shows a

  3. Cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells induced by a plant lignan, arctigenin: evaluation of cellular DNA content using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Hee Ju; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Jho, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Minkyun; Nho, Chu Won

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin is a natural plant lignan previously shown to induce G(2)/M arrest in SW480 human colon cancer cells as well as AGS human gastric cancer cells, suggesting its use as a possible cancer chemopreventive agent. Changes in cell and nuclear size often correlate with the functionality of cancer-treating agents. Here, we report that arctigenin induces cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells. Arctigenin clearly induced the formation of giant nuclear shapes in SW480, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopic observation and quantitative determination of nuclear size. Cell and nuclear size were further assessed by flow cytometric analysis of light scattering and fluorescence pulse width after propidium iodide staining. FSC-H and FL2-W values (parameters referring to cell and nuclear size, respectively) significantly increased after arctigenin treatment; the mean values of FSC-H and FL2-W in arctigenin-treated SW480 cells were 572.6 and 275.1, respectively, whereas those of control cells were 482.0 and 220.7, respectively. Our approach may provide insights into the mechanism behind phytochemical-induced cell and nuclear enlargement as well as functional studies on cancer-treating agents.

  4. Natural hybridization between Vanilla claviculata (W. Wright) Sw. and V. barbellata Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae): genetic, morphological, and pollination experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD

    2000-01-01

    Vanilla claviculata (W. Wright) Sw. and V. barbellata Rchb.f. grow sympatrically in the southwestern part of herto Rico. At three localities in the range of the two species, individuals with flowers that appeared different from previously known species were found. To test whether these were hybri...

  5. Long term rise of a free aquifer in Sahel: hydrodynamic and radioisotopic estimations (3H, 14C) of the recharge in SW Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes an hydrodynamic and geochemical survey carried out in SW Niger in order to estimate the impact of rainfall changes and deforestation on the recharge of the uppermost Cretaceous aquifer. 14 C and 3 H activities of the total dissolved inorganic carbon have been used to quantify the long-term recharge of the aquifer. (J.S.)

  6. B-cell translocation gene 3 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer SW480 cells via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D; Qiao, L; Lu, H; Feng, Y

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences have shown that B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3) inhibits metastasis of multiple cancer cells. However, the role of BTG3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its possible mechanism have not yet been reported. In our study, we evaluated BTG3 expression in several CRC cell lines. Then, pcDNA3.1-BTG3 was transfected into SW480 cells. We found that BTG3 was upregulated in SW480 cells after overexpression plasmid transfection. BTG3 overexpression significantly inhibited cell growth and decreased PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and Ki67 levels. BTG3 overexpression markedly downregulated Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1 levels, whereas elevated p27. Overexpression of BTG3 arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase, which was abrogated by p27 silencing. Furthermore, migration, invasion and EMT of SW480 cells were significantly suppressed by BTG3 overexpression. Further investigations showed the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We then used GSK3β specific inhibitor SB-216763 to activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation reversed the effect of BTG3 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, invasion and EMT. In conclusion, BTG3 overexpression inhibited cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest and suppressed the metastasis of SW480 cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. BTG3 may be considered as a therapeutic target in CRC treatment.

  7. Oceanic provenance of lithospheric mantle beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and the two kinds of its "Fe-metasomatism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Kukuła, Anna; Ćwiek, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Our recent studies (Puziewicz et al. 2015, IJES 104:1913-1924, and references therein) show that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath Lower Silesia (SW Poland) and neighbouring part of Upper Lusatia (SE Germany) is dominated by harzburgites. Part of them contain small amounts of clinopyroxene which, despite its primary textural appearance, is a late addition to the protoliths which are residues after extensive (up to 30 %) partial melting. This clinopyroxene was added to the harzburgites in Cenozoic times by alkaline basaltic melts migrating upwards from their asthenospheric sources during rifting in the Variscan foreland of the Alpine-Carpathian chain. The pre-rifting history of the SCLM beneath the region is thus recorded in the olivine and orthopyroxene. The forsterite content in olivine divides the Lower Silesian harzburgites into two groups: A (olivine Fo 90.5 - 92.0), and B (olivine Fo 84.0 - 90.0; for data see Puziewicz et al. 2015, op. cit.). The Al content in orthopyroxene is low and similar in both A and part of B harzburgites, called B1 in the following. The orthopyroxene occurring in the B1 harzburgites contains typically 0.05 - 0.10 atoms of Al per formula unit (corresponding to 0.5 - 2.5 wt. % Al2O3), although slightly lower (down to 0.02 a pfu) and slightly higher (up to 0.13 a pfu) Al contents occur in subordinate number of samples. The Al content in the B1 orthopyroxene is not correlated with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The B2 harzburgites occur only in one site (Księginki). They contain orthopyroxene which Al content exhibits negative correlation with forsterite content in coexisting olivine. The most Al -rich orthopyroxene (0.24 atoms of Al pfu, corresponding to ca. 5.7 wt % Al2O3) coexists with olivine Fo 86.5 in Księginki. The low contents of Al in orthopyroxene is specific for the Lower Silesian/Upper Lusatian domain of European lithospheric mantle. The Al-poor mantle domain below Lower Silesia and upper

  8. "First among Others? Cohen's ""d"" vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Cahan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Standardized effect size measures typically employed in behavioral and social sciences research in the multi-group case (e.g., 2, f2 evaluate between-group variability in terms of either total or within-group variability, such as variance or standard deviation -' that is, measures of dispersion about the mean. In contrast, the definition of Cohen's d, the effect size measure typically computed in the two-group case, is incongruent due to a conceptual difference between the numerator -' which measures between-group variability by the intuitive and straightforward raw difference between the two group means -' and the denominator - which measures within-group variability in terms of the difference between all observations and the group mean (i.e., the pooled within-groups standard deviation, SW. Two congruent alternatives to d, in which the root square or absolute mean difference between all observation pairs is substituted for SW as the variability measure in the denominator of d, are suggested and their conceptual and statistical advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  9. Metabauxite horizons containing remobilized-origin gem diaspore and related mineralization, Milas-Muğla province, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Türk, Necdet; Chamberlain, Steven C.; Murat Akgün, A.

    2010-10-01

    Remobilized-origin gem diaspore and related minerals occur as infill within structurally controlled voids that developed in the upper of two distinct karst unconformity-type metabauxite (diasporite) horizons in the İlbir Mountains area of the Milas-Muğla province, SW Turkey. Colour-change diaspore (trademarked as zultanite) and associated mineral specimens (greenish muscovite, chloritoid, donbassite, specular hematite, ilmenite, goethite, and younger calcite) occur in fracture zones (veins and open structures) that cross-cut the metabauxite horizons. The mineralized fracture zones do not extend into the enclosing marbles, probably because of the ductility contrast between the brittle bauxite and relatively plastic carbonate beds. Thick, white to light gray and dark gray limestone beds were deposited in the İlbir Mountains area during the Cretaceous (146-65 Ma), and contain two stratigraphically distinct karst-fill bauxite horizons. Al-, Fe-, Si- and Ti-rich solutions that infiltrated the karstified limestone probably originated from altered schist and gneiss that surround the basin. The limestone beds (>2000 m thick) were subjected to burial metamorphism, forming marble. Subsequently, the marble block was folded during nappe emplacement toward the SSW as part of late Alpine contractional deformation during the Paleogene (65-23.8 Ma). The upper bauxite horizons within the folded block were cross-cut by fracture zones because of their relatively brittle rheology. At this time, increased pressure and temperature in the bauxite horizons resulted in remobilization of the primary constituents of the bauxite within an aqueous complex, resulting in the crystallization of coarse-grained assemblages in the cross-cutting structures. Ultimately, erosion and mineral exploration revealed the steeply dipping bauxite outcrops and mine workings evident today. This paper focuses on the mine geology of surface outcrops of diasporic bauxite, the upper bauxite horizon within

  10. Deep-Sea Mega-Epibenthic Assemblages from the SW Portuguese Margin (NE Atlantic Subjected to Bottom-Trawling Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia P. Ramalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-trawling fisheries are a common threat to the health of continental margins worldwide. Together with numerous environmental and biological processes, physical disturbance induced by trawlers can largely shape the benthic habitats and their associated assemblages. At the SW Portuguese Margin, crustacean bottom trawlers have exploited deep-sea habitats for a few decades, but its effects on the benthic biodiversity are practically unknown. During the spring-summer of 2013 and 2014, several Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV video transects were used to investigate mega-epibenthic abundance, composition, and diversity in soft-sediment areas subjected to varying trawling pressures off Sines and Setúbal (200–800 m. Differences in mega-epibenthic assemblages were linked with environmental changes (depth, grain size, primary productivity and trawling disturbance. The effect of trawling was assessed between segments with similar habitat characteristics, i.e., muddy-sand bottoms between 300 and 500 m. Areas subjected to intensive trawling pressure showed a generally flattened seabed, with abundant recent trawl marks (up to 3 scars.100 m−1, indicating that the seabed physical integrity was compromised. Significant negative correlations were detected between various mega-epibenthic diversity indices [S, H′, and ET(20] and trawling pressure (h.cell−1.y−1. Furthermore, the distinct mega-epibenthic assemblages and absence of several sessile erect morphospecies at both low and highly disturbed locations by trawling off Sines, namely all seapen morphospecies found in non-trawled areas, demonstrates the negative influence of trawling fisheries on the benthic component of the study area. Also, low dissimilarity between assemblages from the main fishing grounds and the adjacent low-disturbance locations, suggests that the potentially negative influence of trawling can extend beyond the targeted areas (e.g., by the plumes of re-suspended sediments. The

  11. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  12. Phytogeographical characteristics and endemism of the flora of Rogozna Mt. (SW Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papović, O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on presence of area types and area groups, the phytogeographical analysis show that Rogozna Mt. is area with eurasian-submediterranean-centraleuropean-pontic characteristics. Eurasian area type is dominant in the flora of Rogozna Mt. Detailed analysis of the Eurasian area type showed a numerous presence of the species with Central European-Mediterranean (73 and Central European-Mediterranean-Pontic (73 types of distribution. The influence of the Mediterranean region is especially pronounced. There are 117 species with Mediterranean-Submediterranean type of distribution, many of which are endemics or subendemics. Typical Pontic elements of flora are present in very low percent (1.27%, but taxa with Mediterranean-Pontic (14.7% and Central-European-Mediterranean-Pontic (9.38% are numerous. The presence of an imposing number of endemic taxa (51 has a great significance from the aspect of biodiversity and conservation of the area.

  13. Geoheritage and geotourism potential of the Strzelin Hills (Sudetic Foreland, SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solarska Anna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a state of knowledge about geotourism potential of the Strzelin Hills. Still there is no geotouristic infrastructure in the Strzelin Hills that could make available all their advantages for educational purposes. There are being carried out works on inventory and documentation to create a base for a development of geotourism. The geotouristic potential is described on the basis of previously studied and valorized objects of geological and geomorphological heritage. There were inventoried 38 objects of geoheritage. During valorization of 17 geosites and geomorphosites were selected 8 represented objects, which present 10 from the 15 thematic groups. There were briefly described 6 of them in this paper. .

  14. POLLUTION AND SEA WATER IN THALASSOTHERAPY CENTERS OF TUNISIA (SW MEDITERRANEAN COASTAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia BOUCHOUICHA-SMIDA

    2017-04-01

    from 1 to 5.10-2 mg.l-1, Cr from 1 to 17.10-2 mg.l-1 and Hg from 0.2.10-3 to 71.10-2 mg.l-1. Arsenic, Se and anionic detergents concentrations were reached 2, 4 and 10.10-2 mg.l-1, respectively in different TCs. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were below 0.1 mg.l-1 in the majority of TCs and finally anionic detergents measured in sewages TCs reached respectively 5.08 and 0.3mg.l-1 in sewages TCs B and C. The factorial correspondence analysis (FCA showed 3 distinct groups: The FCA has shown that concentrations of the highest total hydrocarbons were registered in TCs A, B, E and F. The second group is represented by center C which is characterized by the highest Hg concentrations and the third group represented mainly by single CT D. The latter group was characterized by the highest concentrations of Cr and Pb and the least concentration of Cd. Except anion detergents in sea water, the other pollutants (Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg and THC exceeded concentrations recorded in the Mediterranean. The presence of these pollutants in the marine environment is due to wastes industrial, agricultural, to geochemical structure and mining and directly by rivers, and precipitations or atmospheric deposits. Thus, we must be vigilant on these pollutants concentrations and their origins. Besides, the NOTH has taken the necessary measures for items that have exceeded the limits set by the standards concentrations, such as Hg and anionic detergents in sewage TCs. Indeed, except the latter two pollutants, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, anionic detergents and THC have not exceeded the limits set by the standard concentrations.

  15. Applicability of TOPMODEL in the mountainous catchments in the upper Nysa Kłodzka river basin (SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorska, Justyna; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    River basins located in the Central Sudetes (SW Poland) demonstrate a high vulnerability to flooding. Four mountainous basins and the corresponding outlets have been chosen for modeling the streamflow dynamics using TOPMODEL, a physically based semi-distributed topohydrological model. The model has been calibrated using the Monte Carlo approach—with discharge, rainfall, and evapotranspiration data used to estimate the parameters. The overall performance of the model was judged by interpreting the efficiency measures. TOPMODEL was able to reproduce the main pattern of the hydrograph with acceptable accuracy for two of the investigated catchments. However, it failed to simulate the hydrological response in the remaining two catchments. The best performing data set obtained Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.78. This data set was chosen to conduct a detailed analysis aiming to estimate the optimal timespan of input data for which TOPMODEL performs best. The best fit was attained for the half-year time span. The model was validated and found to reveal good skills.

  16. Decreasing concentrations of metals in Sphagnum mosses in ombrotrophic mires of the Sudety mountains (SW Poland) since late 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation we focus on the evaluation of changes in metal pollution between 1986 until 2011 by Sphagnum species as bioindicators in 100 km part of the Sudety mountains influenced by the former Black Triangle Region. Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in various Sphagnum species all from ombrotrophic bogs in the Sudety mountains (SW Poland). The tested hypothesis was that overall improvements in pollution control in the former Black Triangle Region between 1986 until recent reduced the amount of metals deposited and accumulated by these plants. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in Sphagnum species were very high in 1986 indicating a heavy pollution of the examined bogs in this period, and significantly higher than in samples collected in 2011. The PCCA ordination showed the similar pattern in all bogs. In 2011 concentration of the Co was significantly higher in hollow species and concentration of Mn was significantly higher in those from hummocks. Differences between hollow/hummock sites were more important than species-specific abilities of Sphagnum mosses to accumulate metals. Species from hollows were better bioindicators of Co and those from hummocks were better bioindicators of Mn pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alluvial plain dynamics and human occupation in SW Amazonia during the Holocene: A paleosol-based reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Rodrigues, Leonor; Veit, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The present study reconstructs Holocene fluvial dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin through the analysis of 36 stratigraphic profiles taken along a 300 km long transect across the Llanos de Moxos (LM), in the Bolivian Amazon. Based on 50 radiocarbon ages from paleosols intercalated with fluvial sediments, the most important changes in floodplain dynamics on a millennial scale are reconstructed and the links between pre-Columbian cultural processes and environmental change in the region explored. Results show that the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses, as inferred from the number and age of the cored paleosols, is stable from 8k cal. yrs BP to 4k cal. yrs BP and increases significantly from 4k to 2k cal. yrs BP, following the strengthening of el Niño/la Niña cycle and an increase in average precipitation. Fluvial activity then decreases and reaches its minimum after 2k cal BP. A comparison between the stratigraphic record and the archaeological record shows a match between periods of landscape stability in SW Amazonia (low river activity) and periods of pre-Columbian human occupation. The first Amazonians lived in the LM until 4k yrs. BP, when an abrupt increase in the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses forced the abandonment of the region. After two thousand years of archaeological hiatus, which matches the period of highest river activity in the region, agriculturists reoccupied the Bolivian Amazon.

  18. The role of rivers in ancient societies, or how man transformed the alluvial landscapes of Khuzestan (SW Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstra, J.; Heyvaert, V.; Verkinderen, P.

    2012-04-01

    For many thousands of years the alluvial plains of Khuzestan (SW Iran) have been subject to intensive settlement and agriculture. Ancient societies depended on the position of major rivers for their economic survival and hence, there is ample evidence of human activities trying to control the distribution of water. Throughout the plains ancient irrigation and settlement patterns are visible, although traces are rapidly disappearing due to expanding modern land use. Aim of this study is to unlock and integrate the rich information on landscape and archaeology, which only survives through the available historical imagery and some limited archaeological surveys. A GIS-based geomorphological mapping procedure was developed, using a variety of imagery, including historical aerial photographs, CORONA, Landsat and SPOT images. In addition, supported by the evidence from previous geological field surveys, archaeological elements were identified, mapped and included in a GIS database. The resulting map layers display the positions of successive palaeochannel belts and extensive irrigation networks, together indicating a complex alluvial history characterized by avulsions and significant human impact. As shown in several case-studies, integrating information from multiple disciplines provides valuable insights in the complex landscape evolution of this region, both from geological and historical perspectives. Remote sensing and GIS are essential tools in such a research context. The presented work was undertaken within the framework of the Interuniversity Attraction Pole "Greater Mesopotamia: Reconstruction of its Environment and History" (IAP 6/34), funded by the Belgian Science Policy.

  19. Characterization and effect of clarified araçá (Psidium guineenses Sw. juice on postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diully Mata Balisteiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian native fruits are excellent sources of bioactive compounds of phenolic nature. Some of these compounds are able to inhibit carbohydrate- metabolizing enzymes (in vitro, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, delaying carbohydrate digestion. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of clarified araçá (Psidium guineenses Sw. juice on postprandial glycemia in humans after consumption of 25 g of available carbohydrates (approximately 50 g of white bread and characterize the phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of araçá juice and pulp. The results showed that the clarified juice had a positive effect on postprandial glycemia reducing the total amount of glucose absorbed, lengthening the time to reach maximum blood glucose concentration, reducing glucose incremental velocity, and decreasing glucose incremental percentage. Both frozen pulp and clarified juice had high amounts of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and proanthocyanidins, among which oligomers (monomers to tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers, decamers, and polymers were detected, and they are probably associated with in vivo effects.

  20. Soil erosion processes and sediment fluxes in a Mediterranean landscape of marls, Campina de Cadiz, SW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, D.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-01-01

    Marl landscapes, especially in the Mediterranean, show evident traces of high present-day and past soil erosion rates. The tendency to develop hill slope channels leads even at moderate rainstorm magnitudes to a significant increase of slope-to-slope connectivity, resulting in high amounts of mass transfer from upper parts of the hill slopes towards foot slopes and valley floors. To analyse the intensity of this transfer a study was conducted focussing on late Holocene sediments correlative to modern-time soil erosion in the marl landscape of SW Spain. Based of field observations and sediment analysis several landscape positions within a medium-scale catchment were explored. Depending on landscape constellation, the sediment characteristics reflect either hill slope processes or alluvial processes or an interchange of them. For a temporal context a method to trace young sediments by analysing nutrients originating from modern-time application of mineral fertiliser was applied. Results show high rates of sedimentation (>1 cm/year) for this young period in several profiles. By identifying the predominant geomorphic components and processes in the study area a conceptual model of the studied system was developed. (Author) 17 refs.

  1. Annular fluid inclusions from a quartz vein intercalated with metapelites from the Besshi area of the Sanbagawa belt, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenta; Hirajima, Takao

    Annular fluid inclusions were found in a foliation-parallel quartz vein intercalated with metapelites from the Besshi area of the Sanbagawa belt, SW Japan. The preserved “foam microstructure” of the quartz vein suggests low differential stress at high temperatures for its formation. Three types of fluid inclusions have been identified: the earliest one, FIA-I, is characterized by two phase inclusions arranged along intragranular planes and mainly composed of aqueous saline fluid and CH4 gas; FIA-II texturally comparable to FIA-I consists of CH4-N2-CO2-H2 gas phase inclusions with rare two-phase inclusions; the latest type, FIA-III, is characterized by arrangements along transgranular planes consisting of two-phase inclusions mainly composed of CH4-N2 vapor in aqueous saline fluid. Amongst them, FIA-I contains annular fluid inclusions, which are attributed to reequilibration due to a confining pressure increase, suggesting that the host rock underwent the compression after the entrapment of FIA-I. Textural observations and chemical characteristics show that FIA-I and -II were trapped during prograde or near the peak metamorphic stage, and that FIA-III was probably trapped at an early stage of the exhumation.

  2. Trace element accumulation in woody plants of the Guadiamar Valley, SW Spain: A large-scale phytomanagement case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Maria T.; Maranon, Teodoro; Murillo, Jose M.; Schulin, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H.

    2008-01-01

    Phytomanagement employs vegetation and soil amendments to reduce the environmental risk posed by contaminated sites. We investigated the distribution of trace elements in soils and woody plants from a large phytomanaged site, the Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain), 7 years after a mine spill, which contaminated the area in 1998. At spill-affected sites, topsoils (0-25 cm) had elevated concentrations of As (129 mg kg -1 ), Bi (1.64 mg kg -1 ), Cd (1.44 mg kg -1 ), Cu (115 mg kg -1 ), Pb (210 mg kg -1 ), Sb (13.8 mg kg -1 ), Tl (1.17 mg kg -1 ) and Zn (457 mg kg -1 ). Trace element concentrations in the studied species were, on average, within the normal ranges for higher plants. An exception was white poplar (Populus alba), which accumulated Cd and Zn in leaves up to 3 and 410 mg kg -1 respectively. We discuss the results with regard to the phytomanagement of trace element contaminated sites. - There is a low trace element transfer from contaminated soils to the aboveground parts of afforested woody plants under a semi-arid climate

  3. Calculations of chemisorption of hydrogen and nitrogen on titanium using Xα-SW and SCF-CI methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two theoretical studies are used as examples of chemisorption on transition metal surfaces. The first calculation employs the SCF-Sα-SW method to determine the electronic structures of several close-packed Ti-Ti and Ti-H systems. The relative importance of Ti s, p, and electron bonding to its Ti neighbors and to H are reported. The roles of the d electrons in the Ti-Ti and Ti-H bond are discussed. The effect of the presence of an H atom on the first few layers of the metal is also studied. The second set of calculations employs the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan SCF formulation supplemented by configuration-interaction (CI) to determine the energetics of adsorption of an N 2 molecule at a Ti surface. These calculations are made tractable by using a Ti core potential and by a unitary localization transformation to define a local surface region of localized lattice plus adsorbate orbitals. The results show that an underlayer of N atoms forms at the octahedral sites. The calculated adsorption energy of 115 kcal/mole compares favorably with experiment. Binding energy contributions in the several successive steps of the calculations are discussed. Eigenvalue spectra for the selected lattice-adsorbate geometries are compared to the UPS experimental data

  4. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ. SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM were successfully cryopreserved using a vitrification technique. Optimal conditions included the culture of mother-plants for 22 days on medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, culture of excised apices on the same medium for 1 day, loading of apices for 20 min with 2M glycerol + 0.4M glycerol, treatment with a series of diluted PVS2 solution (60 % PVS2 followed by 80 % PVS2 solution for 15 min (cultivar Cocoro Blanco [CB]) or 30 min (cultivars CN and Cl) at each concentration), rapid freezing and thawing, washing of shoot-tips with a 1.2 M sucrose solution, followed by recovery on media with progressively decreasing sucrose concentrations until the standard concentration of 0.1 M was reached. The highest survival percentages achieved ranged between 17 and 38 %, depending on the cultivar.

  5. Effects of IAA and IBA on the in vitro rooting of stem cuttings of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José García García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out with the objective of evaluating the response of shoots of chayote [S. edule (Jacq. Sw.] to the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on the in vitro rooting phase. The effect of three culture media, modified from the proposed of Murashige and Skoog (MS was studied: 1- 65% MS salt base, 2- 65% MS salt base + 0.05 mg l-1 of indolebutyric acid (AIB and 3- 65% MS salt base + 3.0 mg l-1-3-indole acetic acid (IAA. The variables evaluated were: number of roots, length and number of shoots per in vitro seedling. The best result were obtained when using 65% MS salt base with 3.0 mg l-1 of IAA. Significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments containing growth regulators was obtained for the variables number of roots and length of in vitro plantlets. In the UNA-730 accession root induction was obtained in a 65% MS salt base culture medium without growth regulators; however, when IAA and IBA was added the induction was 100%. The differences identified in this work with regards to the root induction were probably the combined result of genotype and specific culture conditions. Key words: auxins, chayote, growth regulators, in vitro culture

  6. Production of ethanol from mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.] pods mash by Zymomonas mobilis in submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Celiane Gomes Maia da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Domesticas; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Schuler, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Evandro Leite de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao; Stamford, Tania Lucia Montenegro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao], E-mail: tlmstamford@yahoo.com.br

    2011-01-15

    Mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.], a perennial tropical plant commonly found in Brazilian semi-arid region, is a viable raw material for fermentative processes because of its low cost and production of pods with high content of hydrolyzable sugars which generate many compounds, including ethanol. This study aimed to evaluate the use of mesquite pods as substrate for ethanol production by Z. mobilis UFPEDA- 205 in a submerged fermentation. The fermentation was assessed for rate of substrate yield to ethanol, rate of ethanol production and efficiency of fermentation. The very close theoretical (170 g L{sup -1}) and experimental (165 g L{sup -1}) maximum ethanol yields were achieved at 36 h of fermentation. The highest counts of Z. mobilis UFEPEDA-205 (both close to 6 Log cfu mL{sup -1}) were also noted at 36 h. Highest rates of substrate yield to ethanol (0.44 g ethanol g glucose{sup -1}), of ethanol production (4.69 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and of efficiency of fermentation (86.81%) were found after 30 h. These findings suggest mesquite pods as an interesting substrate for ethanol production using submerged fermentation by Z. mobilis. (author)

  7. Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China.

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    Dianjie Wang

    Full Text Available Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (N, total phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30% of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch.

  8. Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjie; Shen, Youxin; Li, Yuhui; Huang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30%) of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch. PMID:27509199

  9. Deep-sea dives reveal an unexpected hexactinellid sponge garden on the Rio Grande Rise (SW Atlantic). A mimicking habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana; Lopes, Daniela A.; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Long overlooked, sponge grounds are now recognised as important habitats which support high biodiversity. Some of these deep-sea sponge aggregations are formed by hexactinellids, in varying densities, which can occur on both soft and hard substrates. Despite their ecological importance as habitat framework building taxa, hexactinellids have been little studied and only 33 species in this Class were reported from the entire South Atlantic until now. Most of this knowledge was gained from studies conducted on the eastern South America continental slope. Here we report a new hexactinellid sponge garden found by the Shinkai 6500 manned submersible on the Rio Grande Rise, a prominent topographic feature of the deep SW Atlantic. This is the first sponge garden worldwide found to be dominated by the stiff, often dichotomously branching, Sarostegia oculata which may occur in densities of over 5 individuals per square meter. This sponge, of uncertain familial allocation, seems to always carry epibiotic zoanthids, thus mimicking the 3D skeletal framework of actual coral gardens

  10. Dissolved methane during hypoxic events at the Boknis Eck time series station (Eckernförde Bay, SW Baltic Sea

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    H. W. Bange

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved CH4 was measured in the water column at the Boknis Eck (BE time series station in the Eckernförde Bay (SW Baltic Sea on a monthly basis from June 2006 to November 2008. The water column at BE was always supersaturated with CH4 and, therefore, CH4 was released to the atmosphere throughout the sampling period: the mean CH4 surface (1 m saturation at BE was 554±317%. A pulse of enhanced CH4 emissions occurs when the CH4 accumulation in the hypoxic bottom layer during summer is terminated in late summer/autumn. We did not detect a straightforward relationship between periods of enhanced CH4 in the bottom layer and hypoxic events at BE: the sedimentary release of CH4 seemed to be mainly triggered by sedimenting organic material from phytoplankton blooms. We conclude that future CH4 emissions from BE will be determined by the intensity of phytoplankton blooms, which in turn will be influenced by eutrophication. However, hypoxic events seem to have only a modulating effect on the enhancement of sedimentary methanogenesis and the subsequent release of CH4 to the water column.

  11. Dissolved methane during hypoxic events at the Boknis Eck time series station (Eckernförde Bay, SW Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, H. W.; Bergmann, K.; Hansen, H. P.; Kock, A.; Koppe, R.; Malien, F.; Ostrau, C.

    2010-04-01

    Dissolved CH4 was measured in the water column at the Boknis Eck (BE) time series station in the Eckernförde Bay (SW Baltic Sea) on a monthly basis from June 2006 to November 2008. The water column at BE was always supersaturated with CH4 and, therefore, CH4 was released to the atmosphere throughout the sampling period: the mean CH4 surface (1 m) saturation at BE was 554±317%. A pulse of enhanced CH4 emissions occurs when the CH4 accumulation in the hypoxic bottom layer during summer is terminated in late summer/autumn. We did not detect a straightforward relationship between periods of enhanced CH4 in the bottom layer and hypoxic events at BE: the sedimentary release of CH4 seemed to be mainly triggered by sedimenting organic material from phytoplankton blooms. We conclude that future CH4 emissions from BE will be determined by the intensity of phytoplankton blooms, which in turn will be influenced by eutrophication. However, hypoxic events seem to have only a modulating effect on the enhancement of sedimentary methanogenesis and the subsequent release of CH4 to the water column.

  12. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: Application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, R.A., E-mail: rufino.ligero@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Barrera, M. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Barbero, L. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Melendez, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cadiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the {sup 137}Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the {sup 210}Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  13. Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flaviane G; Marquete, Ronaldo; Domingos, Levy T; Rocha, Marco E N; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Mansur, Elisabeth; Moreira, Davyson L

    2017-01-01

    Casearia genus (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as "guaçatonga", "erva-de-tiú", "cafezinho-do-mato". In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%). These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8%) and α-copaene (8.5%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8%) were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

  14. Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIANE G. PEREIRA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Casearia genus (Salicaceae is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as “guaçatonga”, “erva-de-tiú”, “cafezinho-do-mato”. In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%. These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8% and α-copaene (8.5% and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8% were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

  15. The chemical composition of the floral extract of Epipogium aphyllum sw. (Orchidaceae: A clue for their pollination biology

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    Jakubska-Busse Anna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epipogium aphyllum is a rare European obligate mycoheterotrophic orchid lacking chlorophyll. It has not been studied previously with respect to pollination biology. We studied the association between the composition of floral scent emission and its pollination systems. Field observation indicates that the main pollinators of Epipogium aphyllum are representatives of the genus Bombus (Hymenoptera, B. lucorum, B. hortorum, B. terrestris, B. pascuorum and B. proteus, and the genus Apis (Hymenoptera namely A. mellifera. The main potential vector (observed to accidentally carry pollen, is most likely Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera, Syrphidae. The chemical composition of the floral extracts of 4 populations of Epipogium aphyllum Sw. growing naturally in Poland and the Czech Republic was examined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS techniques. According to GC-MS analysis, 9-tricosene, nonadecane, 1-nonadecene and nonacosane predominated in the floral extracts. The studied samples were also characterized by relatively high amounts of benzenoids, e.g. methyl cinnamate, which is known as an attractant to the males of various orchid bees. LC-ESI-MS revealed the presence of flavor compounds such as vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde and its derivative acetovanillone, together with higher amounts of aliphatic and phenolic acids. Additionally, we detected the presence of indole and morphine derivatives.

  16. Spatio-temporal distribution of the dominant Diatom and Dinoflagellate species in the Bay of Tunis (SW Mediterranean Sea

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    O. DALY YAHIA-KEFI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Microphytoplankton composition and its relationships with hydrology and nutrient distributions were investigated over 24 months (December 1993 - November 1995 in the Bay of Tunis ( SW Mediterranean Sea. A new index, the ‘Specific Preference Index’ (SPI obtained by computing the median value of each parameter weighed by the numerical value of each species density was developed. Using this index, the relationships between each species and temperature, salinity and major nutrients were analysed. The distribution of chlorophyll a did not show a clear correlation with microplankton abundance suggesting that other factors contribute to chlorophyll concentration, such as smaller phytoplankton size fractions or detritus. The winter-spring diatom blooms did not show a regular pattern during both years. High nutrient inputs in late summer, associated with mild meteorological conditions, contributed to the development of a large diatom bloom in autumn 1995 where significant silicate depletion was witnessed. Generally, diatoms were more stenotherm than dinoflagellates in the Bay, whereas dinoflagellates were more stenohaline than diatoms. The statistical analyses showed that the two species, Bellerochea horologicalis , and Lithodesmioides polymorpha, var., tunisiense, appeared in a wide range of environmental conditions. An excess of phosphateversus nitrate appeared to be associated with red tides of, Gymnodinium spp, whereas Peridinium quinquecorne, showed the opposite. Phosphate concentrations appear to be crucial in this coastal environment, where diatom blooms are often limited by low silicate availability.

  17. Tissue, age, and sex distribution of thallium in shrews from Doñana, a protected area in SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro

    2007-09-20

    In 1998, the protected area of Doñana, an important natural region in SW Europe, was affected with great amount of acidic waters and sludge from a pyrite mine loaded with toxic metals such as thallium (Tl). Since this ecological catastrophe, several studies have addressed the effects of this pollution on the flora and fauna in this protected area. However, in contrast to other non-essential metals, scarce information on Tl was available after this disaster, especially in terrestrial environments. This study reported a 3- and 10-fold increase in Tl in liver and kidneys, respectively, of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, in the polluted site in comparison with reference animals. Kidneys showed the highest concentrations of this metal in the polluted site, whereas both organs analysed have similar concentrations in the reference site. Although no significant age-dependent variation was found, adults had higher concentrations than juveniles. Moreover, females showed higher concentrations than males. These results demonstrate the high entrance and transfer of Tl in terrestrial food-chains. To the best of my knowledge, these data constitute the first measurements of Tl in mammals from the protected area of Doñana and are among the few available for insectivorous mammals.

  18. Estimation of Pd y τc parameters for earthquakes of the SW Iberia (S. Vicente Cape)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, E.; Pro, C.; Carranza, M.; Zollo, A.; Pazos, A.; Lozano, L.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-04-01

    The S.Vicente Cape (SW Iberia) is a region where potential large and damaging earthquakes may occur, such as the 1755 Lisbon (Imax=X) or 1969 S. Vicente Cape (Ms=8,1) events. In order to study the feasibility of an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) for earthquakes on this region (ALERT-ES project), we have estimated the Pd and τc parameters for a rapid estimation of the magnitude from the first seconds of the beginning of P-waves. We have selected earthquakes occurred on the period 2006-2011 with magnitude larger than 3.8 and recorded at regional distances (less than 500 km) at real time broad-band seismic stations of Instituto Geográfico Nacional , Western Mediterranean and Portuguese National Networks. We have studied time-windows from 2 to 4s and applied different filters. Due to the off-shore focus occurrence and very bad azimuthal coverage, we have corrected the Pd parameter by the radiation pattern obtained from focal mechanisms of the largest earthquakes of this region. We have normalized the Pd value to a reference distance (100 km) and after we have obtained empirical correlation laws Pd and τc to the magnitude, in order to obtain a rapid estimation of the magnitude.

  19. Sewage-induced disturbance on polychaetes inhabiting intertidal mussel beds of Brachidontes rodriguezii off Mar del Plata (SW Atlantic, Argentina.

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    Rodolfo Elías

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous and short-term disturbances are produced on intertidal Brachidontes rodriguezii mussel beds by the sewage outfall of Mar del Plata, SW Atlantic. The effects on the associated polychaetes living on and between mussels were investigated, in both the spatial and short-term temporal scales. Multivariate methods show that the polychaete fauna was influenced by tidal level, total amount of sediment accumulated between mussels, distance from the sewage outfall, organic carbon of interstitial sediments, and sewage volume before and after the summer season. Environmental variables in the water column fitted with a spatial and temporal organic gradient. Capitella ‘capitata’ sp. showed typical opportunistic behaviour in relation to organic enrichment, as did Neanthes succinea, both being numerically dominant near the sewage discharge. Cirratulus sp., Caulleriella alata, and Boccardia polybranchia were common at intermediate distances from the outfall. Syllis prolixa, S. gracilis, and Protoariciella uncinata reached their highest abundance at intermediate stations and were characteristic of the control site. Close to the outfall mussel density and dominance is low, and opportunist polychaetes successfully colonize organically enriched interstitial sediments. At intermediate distances from the outfall sediments retained by mussels reach their maximum values, and density of polychaetes is also high. The control station is characterized by monolayered mussel beds and very low diversity of polychaetes. Opportunistic polychaetes increase in response to short-term increases of sewage discharge during the summer season (November-March.

  20. Molluscan associations from the Pak Phanang Bay (SW Gulf of Thailand) as a record of natural and anthropogenic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro; Sanfilippo, Rossana; Basso, Daniela; Rosso, Antonietta; Di Geronimo, Sebastiano Italo

    2014-08-01

    Recent environmental changes in the Pak Phanang Bay (SW Gulf of Thailand) are investigated by means of mollusc assemblages. The present-day water depth within the bay slightly exceeds 2 m at low tide and the seafloor is almost entirely muddy, except for the outermost part of the embayment which is directly influenced by the longshore drift that is building the Laem Talumpuk sand spit. A multivariate analysis of the molluscan fauna recovered at 16 sampling stations within the bay delineates three thanatofacies and two biofacies. The Bay Mouth thanatofacies, including several infralittoral species, is distributed around the bay entrance; the Tidal Flat thanatofacies, characterized by few brackish and freshwater taxa, occurs in the inner part of the bay; the Channel thanatofacies includes a mixed fauna and is found along the long axis of the bay. All thanatofacies are not older than a few decades. The two biofacies are significantly less diverse than their dead counterparts, and are simply identified as Bay Mouth biofacies and Inner Bay biofacies. The faunal evolution, combined with bathymetric and sedimentological data, confirms that the embayment is undergoing a confinement process. The inner bay has evolved into an undifferentiated tidal flat hosting an oligospecific fauna. The confinement trend and the consequent siltation of the bay, mainly due to natural geomorphologic processes acting since centuries, are likely to have sped up in recent years by interaction with some human activities; among these, the deforestation in the upper Pak Phanang basin and the construction of Uthokaviphatprasit Watergate.

  1. Geochronology of granitic magmatism from Caraculo-Bibala region (SW Angola) and its correlation with Ribeira fold belt (SE Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Heitor de; Tassinari, Colombo C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole-rock analyses of representative granitic rocks from the Bibala-Caraculo region, southwestern Angola, are used to determine the age and evolution of the acid plutonic events in this segment of the Angolan continental crust. The granitoids present a wide range of lithological types and compositions. Three time-intervals have been defined for the magmatism: 1,950 - 1,900 Ma; 1,750 - 1,700 Ma; 1,550 - 1,500 Ma. The oldest, though not very well defined, was obtained for the Chicalengue granitoid, the second one represents the Serra dos Gandarengos and Chonga granitoids and Luchipa-Pungue Granitic Complex and the youngest one comprises the Chicate and Caraculo granitic bodies and Numhino Granitic Complex. The initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios show characteristic values for each time-interval, as follows; 1,950 -1,900 Ma = 0,7015; 1,750 - 1,700 Ma = 0,7060 to 0,7075; 1,550 - 1,500 Ma 0,7048 - 0,7057, suggesting different sources for the granitoids within each geological period. In addition are presented two K-Ar ages for the basic rocks in SW Angola, with values of 1700 and 600 Ma, which represent a minimum ages for these rocks and are probably related to the Damara Orogeny. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Cytotoxic and Antiproliferative Effect of Tepary Bean Lectins on C33-A, MCF-7, SKNSH, and SW480 Cell Lines

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    Carmen Valadez-Vega

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years, several studies have been employing lectin from vegetables in order to prove its toxic effect on various cell lines. In this work, we analyzed the cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and post-incubatory effect of pure tepary bean lectins on four lines of malignant cells: C33-A; MCF-7; SKNSH, and SW480. The tests were carried out employing MTT and 3[H]-thymidine assays. The results showed that after 24 h of lectin exposure, the cells lines showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect, the effect being higher on MCF-7, while C33-A showed the highest resistance. Cell proliferation studies showed that the toxic effect induced by lectins is higher even when lectins are removed, and in fact, the inhibition of proliferation continues after 48 h. Due to the use of two techniques to analyze the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect, differences were observed in the results, which can be explained by the fact that one technique is based on metabolic reactions, while the other is based on the 3[H]-thymidine incorporated in DNA by cells under division. These results allow concluding that lectins exert a cytotoxic effect after 24 h of exposure, exhibiting a dose-dependent effect. In some cases, the cytotoxic effect is higher even when the lectins are eliminated, however, in other cases, the cells showed a proliferative effect.

  3. Groundwater chemistry characterization using multi-criteria approach: The upper Samalá River basin (SW Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Arianna; Franchino, Elisa; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Malandrino, Mery; Bianco Prevot, Alessandra; Hernández Sac, Humberto Osvaldo; Coyoy, Israel Macario; Sac Escobar, Edwin Osvaldo; Hernández, Ardany

    2017-10-01

    Improving understanding on groundwater chemistry is a key priority for water supply from groundwater resources, especially in developing countries. A hydrochemical study was performed in an area of SW Guatemala (Samalà River basin), where water supply to population is groundwater-based and no systematic studies on its groundwater resources have been performed so far. Traditional hydrochemical analyses on major ions and some trace elements metals coupled with chemometric approach were performed, including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results evidence that chemical differentiation is linked to the spatial distribution of sampled waters. The most common hydrochemical facies, bicarbonate calcium and magnesium, is linked to infiltration of meteoric waters in recharge areas represented by highlands surrounding Xela caldera, a wide plateau where most of population is concentrated. This trend undergoes chemical evolution in proximity of active volcanic complexes in the southern area, with enrichment in sulphate, chloride and magnesium. Chemical evolution also occurs towards the centre of Xela caldera due to slow circulation in aquifer and consequent sodium enrichment due to ion exchange with the porous medium. Water quality did not reveal severe concerns, even though some sources of contamination could be identified; in particular, agriculture and urban wastewater could be responsible for observed threshold exceedances in nitrate and lead. This integrated multi-approach to hydrochemical data interpretation yielded to the achievement of important information that poses the basis for future groundwater protection in an area where main water features were almost unknown.

  4. Detrital zircon provenance analysis in the Zagros Orogen, SW Iran: implications for the amalgamation history of the Neo-Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Xiao, Wenjiao; Majidifard, Mahmoud Reza; Zhu, Rixiang; Wan, Bo; Ao, Songjian; Chen, Ling; Rezaeian, Mahnaz; Esmaeili, Rasoul

    2017-06-01

    The Zagros Orogen developed as a result of Arabia-Eurasia collision. New in situ detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic analyses from a Cenozoic sedimentary sequence in SW Iran are used to unravel the amalgamation history of Neo-Tethys. Data indicate that: (1) Paleocene and Eocene strata (58 and 45 Ma, respectively) were sourced from obducted ophiolite and Triassic volcanics, (2) Lower Miocene ( 18 Ma) strata indicate mixed provenance from obducted ophiolite and Iranian magmatic rocks, (3) Mid to Upper Miocene sediments ( 14 to 11.2 Ma) were mainly sourced from Sanandaj-Sirjan zone granitoids to the north, and (4) Lower Pliocene ( 5 Ma) sediments mainly show Arabian age characteristics, with a minor Eurasian affinity component. Two hypotheses are outlined to highlight the key events: Hypothesis A, previously published by several workers, suggests that the sequence studied lay on the Arabia passive margin and that initial collision occurred prior to 18 Ma; Hypothesis B, modified from the Makran model, which is here preferred, suggests that Paleogene to Upper Miocene sediments were sourced from the northern Neo-Tethyan accretionary complex or Eurasia, and carry no input from Arabia, whereas the Lower Pliocene sample shows a mixed provenance from both Arabia and Eurasia, suggesting that collision occurred between 11.2 and 5 Ma.

  5. Expression of CAR in SW480 and HepG2 cells during G1 is associated with cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Makoto; Sugatani, Junko; Takemura, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Kitamura, Naomi; Negishi, Masahiko; Miwa, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes related to drug-metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that CAR protein accumulates during G1 in human SW480 and HepG2 cells. After the G1/S phase transition, CAR protein levels decreased, and CAR was hardly detected in cells by the late M phase. CAR expression in both cell lines was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated suppression of CDK4. Depletion of CAR by RNA interference in both cells and by hepatocyte growth factor treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in decreased MDM2 expression that led to p21 upregulation and repression of HepG2 cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that CAR expression is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 that contributes to MDM2 expression; these findings suggest that CAR may influence the expression of genes involved in not only the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances but also in the cell proliferation

  6. Bergy Bit and Melt Water Trajectories in Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland Observed by the Expendable Ice Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Carlson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Icebergs and bergy bits makes up a significant component of the total freshwater flux from the Greenland Ice Sheet to the ocean. Observations of iceberg trajectories are biased toward larger icebergs and, as a result, the drift characteristics of smaller icebergs and bergy bits are poorly understood. In an attempt to fill this critical knowledge gap, we developed the open-source EXpendable Ice TrackEr (EXITE. EXITE is a low-cost, satellite-tracked GPS beacon capable of high-resolution temporal measurements over extended deployment periods (30 days or more. Furthermore, EXITE can transform to a surface drifter when its host iceberg capsizes or fragments. Here we describe basic construction of an EXITE beacon and present results from a deployment in Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland in August 2016. Overall, EXITE trajectories show out-fjord surface transport, in agreement with a simple estuarine circulation paradigm. However, eddies and abrupt wind-driven reversals reveal complex surface transport pathways at time scales of hours to days.

  7. Total Mercury in Squalid Callista Megapitaria squalida from the SW Gulf of California, Mexico: Tissue Distribution and Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Piñera, Abril K; Escobar-Sánchez, Ofelia; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated the total Hg concentration in different tissues of squalid callista Megapitaria squalida in order to measure Hg distribution in tissue and to estimate human health risk. Samples were obtained by free diving in the SW Gulf of California, Mexico. Concentrations are given on a wet weight basis. A total of 89 squalid callista specimens were obtained, presenting an average Hg concentration of 0.07 ± 0.04 µg g -1 . There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in Hg concentration between tissues (visceral mass = 0.09 ± 0.08 µg g -1 ; mantle = 0.06 ± 0.07 µg g -1 ; muscle = 0.06 ± 0.04 µg g -1 ). The low Hg values found in squalid callista and its low risk quotient (HQ = 0.03) suggest that the consumption of squalid callista does not represent a human health risk. However, HQ calculated using MeHg was > 1, it which could indicate a potential risk related to consumption of clams.

  8. Ichthyoplankton spatial pattern in the inner shelf off Bahía Blanca Estuary, SW Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Mónica Susana; Clara, Menéndez María; Florencia, Biancalana; Mabel, Nizovoy Alicia; Ramón, Torres Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    This study focuses on the composition, abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the inner shelf area off Bahía Blanca Estuary on the SW Atlantic Ocean during late spring. Eggs and larvae of Brevoortia aurea, Engraulis anchoita, Parona signata, Sciaenidae spp. - such as Cynoscion guatucupa and Micropogonias furnieri -, and Odontesthes argentinensis were found. Species richness was low probably as a result of season and shallow depths. Ichthyoplankton abundance reached values close to 10 000 per 10 m -3 (eggs) and 4000 per 10 m -3 (larvae) and displayed a spatial distribution pattern with maximum abundance values restricted to a band parallel to the coast. Differences between egg and larval patterns, probably derived from a different displacement and hydrodynamic behavior, were observed. Egg and larvae distribution patterns were found related with spawning areas and to directly depend on salinity and mesozooplankton. The larvae distribution pattern, in particular, was found to inversely depend on particulate organic carbon. In addition, the geographic location of egg and larvae maxima strongly coincided with a saline front reported for this area in springtime, thus suggesting a direct relationship with it.

  9. Geochemical characterization of the Jurassic Amran deposits from Sharab area (SW Yemen): Origin of organic matter, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate conditions during deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Makeen, Yousif M.; Saeed, Shadi A.; Al-Hakame, Hitham; Al-Moliki, Tareq; Al-Sharabi, Kholah Qaid; Hatem, Baleid Ali

    2017-05-01

    Calcareous shales and black limestones of the Jurassic Amran Group, located in the Sharab area (SW Yemen), were analysed based on organic and inorganic geochemical methods. The results of this study were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during Jurassic time and their relevance to organic matter enrichment during deposition of the Amran calcareous shale and black limestone deposits. The analysed Amran samples have present-day TOC and Stotal content values in the range of 0.25-0.91 wt % and 0.59-4.96 wt %, respectively. The relationship between Stotal and TOC contents indicates that the Jurassic Amran deposits were deposited in a marine environment as supported by biomarker environmental indicators. Biomarker distributions also reflect that the analysed Amran deposits received high contributions of marine organic matter (e.g., algal and microbial) with minor amount of land plant source inputs. Low oxygen (reducing) conditions during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits are indicated from low Pr/Ph values and relatively high elemental ratios of V/Ni and V/(V + Ni). Enrichment in the pyrite grains and very high DOPT and high Fe/Al ratios further suggest reducing bottom waters. This paleo-redox (i.e., reducing) conditions contributed to preservation of organic matter during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits. Semi-arid to warm climatic conditions are also evidenced during deposition of the Amran sediments and consequently increased biological productivity within the photic zone of the water column during deposition. Therefore, the increased bio-productivity in combination with good preservation of organic matter identified as the major mechanisms that gave rise to organic matter enrichment. This contradicts with the low organic matter content of the present-day TOC values of less than 1%. The biomarker maturity data indicate that the analysed Amran samples are of high thermal maturity; therefore, the low present-day TOC

  10. Textures and mineral compositions of the Xinjie layered intrusion, SW China: Implications for the origin of magnetite and fractionation process of Fe-Ti-rich basaltic magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Dong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Xinjie layered intrusion in the Panxi region, SW China, hosts both Fe-Ti oxide and platinum-group element (PGE sulfide mineralization. The intrusion can be divided, from the base upward, into Units I, II and III, in terms of mineral assemblages. Units I and II are mainly composed of wehrlite and clinopyroxenite, whereas Unit III is mainly composed of gabbro. PGE sulfide-rich layers mainly occur in Unit I, whereas thick Fe-Ti oxide-rich layers mainly occur in Unit III. An ilmenite-rich layer occurs at the top of Unit I. Fe-Ti oxides include magnetite and ilmenite. Small amounts of cumulus and intercumulus magnetite occur in Units I and II. Cumulus magnetite grains are commonly euhedral and enclosed within olivine and clinopyroxene. They have high Cr2O3 contents ranging from 6.02 to 22.5 wt.%, indicating that they are likely an early crystallized phase from magmas. Intercumulus magnetite that usually displays ilmenite exsolution occupies the interstices between cumulus olivine crystals and coexists with interstitial clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Intercumulus magnetite has Cr2O3 ranging from 1.65 to 6.18 wt.%, lower than cumulus magnetite. The intercumulus magnetite may have crystallized from the trapped liquid. Large amounts of magnetite in Unit III contains Cr2O3 (<0.28 wt.% much lower than magnetite in Units I and II. The magnetite in Unit III is proposed to be accumulated from a Fe-Ti-rich melt. The Fe-Ti-rich melt is estimated to contain 35.9 wt.% of SiO2, 26.9 wt.% of FeOt, 8.2 wt.% of TiO2, 13.2 wt.% of CaO, 8.3 wt.% of MgO, 5.5 wt.% of Al2O3 and 1.0 wt.% of P2O5. The composition is comparable with the Fe-rich melts in the Skaergaard and Sept Iles intrusions. Paired non-reactive microstructures, granophyre pockets and ilmenite-rich intergrowths, are representative of Si-rich melt and Fe-Ti-rich melt, and are the direct evidence for the existence of an immiscible Fe-Ti-rich melt that formed from an evolved ferro-basaltic magma.

  11. Atum: Scalable Group Communication Using Volatile Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Guerraoui, Rachid; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Pavlovic, Matej; Seredinschi, Dragos-Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Atum, a group communication middleware for a large, dynamic, and hostile environment. At the heart of Atum lies the novel concept of volatile groups: small, dynamic groups of nodes, each executing a state machine replication protocol, organized in a flexible overlay. Using volatile groups, Atum scatters faulty nodes evenly among groups, and then masks each individual fault inside its group. To broadcast messages among volatile groups, Atum runs a gossip protocol across the...

  12. SW-platform for R&D in Applications of Synchrophasor Measurements for Wide-Area Assessment, Control and Visualization in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Morais, Hugo; Pedersen, Allan Henning Birger

    2014-01-01

    , supplied by fossil fuel, are phased out in favor of non - controllable renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy. In particular, the SOSPO project aims to develop real - time stability and security assessment methods as well as wide - area control methods to re - establish stable and secure...... realistic conditions, the future system scenarios are represented in a real time grid simulator that is an integrated part of the platform. The SW - platform provides structured access to any model parameter as well as access to real - time phasor measurement unit (PMU) and remote terminal unit (RTU......, training and demonstration of technologies within electric power and energy. More specifically, the SW - platform exploits the Intelligent Control Lab facilities in PowerLabDK, which provides access to a powerful Real - Time Digital Simulator, a SCAD A system, a full scale experimental power system control...

  13. Navigating the science-policy-practice interface in rural SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Larissa; Zheng, Ying; Oliver, David; Buckerfield, Sarah; Peng, Tao; Wang, Shijie; Waldron, Susan

    2017-04-01

    There is growing academic, funder and government interest in developing effective methods of successfully navigating the science-policy-practice interface. The practice of interaction between the science community and policy and practice is often termed 'knowledge exchange'. This involves the two-way co-production of knowledge between researchers and practitioners to improve the usefulness of science for society. We report here on an examination of current knowledge exchange understanding and practice by critical zone scientists in the UK and China, as well as report on surveys of 24 leaders from county to village levels of governance and 312 farmers. The practitioner data were collected in Puding catchment, Guizhou province, China as part of a joint UK-China funded research programme that is designed to help improve the resiliency of fragile karst agricultural landscapes in this region. We asked each group of participants (scientists, leaders (county, town and village) and farmers) about their experience of knowledge exchange, of working with each other and how they would like to learn. These data show that UK based scientists have more understanding and experience of knowledge exchange than the Chinese scientists. They also demonstrate consistencies in the types of KE processes (farm visits) that were most suitable, and variation between these methods and those that we identified as being suitable in the project proposal (e.g. decision support tool). Semi-structured interviews were used to gain greater insight into the science-policy-practice interface, where it was evident that farmers had little or no direct interaction with scientists, where the majority of training is delivered county-level schemes where scientists are appointed to deliver the training. Between village differences in understanding of critical zone science issues and access to training and advice were evident. All practitioners surveyed were very enthusiastic about the science team returning

  14. The Southwest Research Institute ultraviolet reflectance chamber (SwURC): a far ultraviolet reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Gregory S.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Davis, Michael W.; Escobedo, Stephen M.; Bassett, Eric C.; Patrick, Edward L.; Nagengast, Maggie E.; Fairbanks, Matthew H.; Miles, Paul F.; Parker, Joel W.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Slater, David C.; Stern, S. Alan

    2012-10-01

    We designed and assembled a highly capable UV reflectometer chamber and data acquisition system to provide bidirectional scattering data of various surfaces and materials. This chamber was initially conceived to create laboratory-based UV reflectance measurements of water frost on lunar soil/regolith simulants, to support interpretation of UV reflectance data from the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project ("LAMP") instrument on-board the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. A deuterium lamp illuminates surfaces and materials at a fixed 45° incident beam angle over the 115 to 200 nm range via a monochromator, while a photomultiplier tube detector is scanned to cover emission angles -85° to +85° (with a gap from -60° to -30°, due to the detector blocking the incident beam). Liquid nitrogen cools the material/sample mount when desired. The chamber can be configured to test a wide range of samples and materials using sample trays and holders. Test surfaces to date include aluminum mirrors, water ice, reflectance standards, and frozen mixtures of water and lunar soil/regolith stimulant. Future UV measurements planned include Apollo lunar samples, meteorite samples, other ices, minerals, and optical surfaces. Since this chamber may well be able to provide useful research data for groups outside Southwest Research Institute, we plan to take requests from and collaborate with others in the UV and surface reflection research community.

  15. Age and growth of the southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis in the SW Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cassia

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth of southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis are studied. Sagitta otoliths from 3650 specimens were used for age determination. These were taken during research surveys and commercial catches in the South West Atlantic during 1994 and 1995. The size of fishes ranged from 17 to 60 cm total length, corresponding to ages 0 to 23 years. Females attained a greater asymptotic length (L? 59.74 cm than males (L? 54.72 cm. Comparison of growth curves by the likelihood ratio showed that the differences among females and males were due to the asymptotic length, while the other parameters (K and t0 were not statistically different. The mean weight-at-age, mean length-at-age, and total mortality (Z were estimated. Growth parameters estimated by sex in the period 1994-95, mean size per age group, and the number of individuals per age in the catches show differences with those calculated when the population was in the early stage of exploitation. A predominance of 2 to 9 year old individuals was observed in the total catches in 1994-1995, whereas in the beginning of the fisheries total catches were basically fish 15 to 19 years old.

  16. γ-Tocotrienol and 6-Gingerol in Combination Synergistically Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HT-29 and SW837 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairunnisa' Md Yusof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous bioactive compounds have cytotoxic properties towards cancer cells. However, most studies have used single compounds when bioactives may target different pathways and exert greater cytotoxic effects when used in combination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3 and 6-gingerol (6G in combination by evaluating apoptosis and active caspase-3 in HT-29 and SW837 colorectal cancer cells. MTS assays were performed to determine the anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity effect of γ-T3 (0–150 µg/mL and 6G (0–300 µg/mL on the cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 6G+ γ-T3 for HT-29 was 105 + 67 µg/mL and for SW837 it was 70 + 20 µg/mL. Apoptosis, active caspase-3 and annexin V FITC assays were performed after 24 h of treatment using flow cytometry. These bioactives in combination showed synergistic effect on HT-29 (CI: 0.89 ± 0.02, and SW837 (CI: 0.79 ± 0.10 apoptosis was increased by 21.2% in HT-29 and 55.4% in SW837 (p < 0.05 after 24 h treatment, while normal hepatic WRL-68 cells were unaffected. Increased apoptosis by the combined treatments was also observed morphologically, with effects like cell shrinkage and pyknosis. In conclusion, although further studies need to be done, γ-T3 and 6G when used in combination act synergistically increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in cancer cells.

  17. Monitorização da força da ondulação na base da arriba (Pessegueiro, SW Portugal. Primeiros resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Neves

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available MEASUREMENT OF THE WAVE FORCE AT THE CLIFF BASE (PESSEGUEIRO, SW PORTUGAL. FIRST RESULTS. In this article the characteristicsof a new wave force sensor (EWIN are briefly described. This instrument was bolted to the shore platform of Pessegueiro on a first trial experience in Portugal. The maximum wave force records are also analysed in correlation with the wave climate accured in these occasions.

  18. Drill cutting release in Ingøydjupet, SW Barents Sea from a well drilled in 1987, and its impact on benthic foraminifera

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Julie

    2017-01-01

    In the nearby areas of the SW Barents Sea, large hydrocarbon reserves have been identified. During drilling procedures, drill cuttings are produced and some are released to sea. The disposal of drill cuttings may cause environmental degradation to the marine environment. Increasing petroleum activities, therefore requires further knowledge of ocean current transportation of fine sediment particles (clay and silt) related to cuttings and their effect on the marine environment and fauna includi...

  19. Heterogeneity of the acid phosphatase and ribonuclease from protocorms of the orchids Cymbidium Sw. and changes occurring after treatment with streptomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Morawiecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular forms of the acid phosphatase and RNase in protocorms of Cymbidium Sw. were studied by disc electrophoresis. The effect of streptomycin added to the culture medium on both enzymes was investigated. Significant changes in enzyme activity and electrophoretic patterns occured after addition of streptomycin at the beginning of culture growth. This indicates that the enzymes are affected by streptomycin in early stages of development of the protocorms.

  20. Single-laboratory evaluation of SW-846 Methods 7090/7091 determination of beryllium by flame and furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Summary report January-August 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, V.F.; Darby, D.A.; Thompson, W.E.; Jones, C.L.

    1988-02-01

    The results of a single-laboratory study of the Determination of Beryllium by Flame and Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, are described. The study examined the application of these two powerful beryllium detection methods to the analysis of selected liquid and solid samples after digestion by appropriate SW-846 methods. Method performance data including detection limits, optimum concentration ranges (linearity), spike recoveries, interferences, precision, accuracy, and optimum operating parameters are presented and discussed

  1. Ultra-high temperature granulite-facies metamorphic rocks from the Mozambique belt of SW Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H.; Kröner, A.

    2013-06-01

    The metamorphic rocks in the Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) Mozambique belt of southwestern Tanzania, around the town of Songea, can be subdivided into one- and two pyroxene bearing charnockitic gneisses, migmatitic granitoid gneisses and amphibolite-facies metapelites. Lower-grade amphibolite-facies rocks are rare and can be classified as sillimanite- and/or garnet-bearing metapelites. Most of the studied charnockitic gneisses show excellent corona textures with large orthopyroxene grains rimmed by clinopyroxene, followed by quartz and well developed garnet rims due to the reaction Opx + Pl = Grt + Cpx + Qtz that formed during isobaric cooling. These and other charnockitic gneisses show symplectites of orthopyroxene and An-rich plagioclase that resulted from the breakdown of garnet during isothermal decompression due to the reaction Grt + Cpx + Qtz = Opx + Pl. Geothermobarometric calculations yield up to ~ 1050 °C and up to ~ 12 kbar for peak metamorphic conditions. These are higher temperature and slightly lower pressure conditions than reported for other granulite-facies terrains in the Mozambique belt of Tanzania. Single zircon Pb-Pb evaporation and U-Pb SHRIMP ages for magmatic zircons extracted from two charnockitic and two granitic gneisses cluster in two groups, one at ~ 750 Ma and one at ~ 1150 Ma with the older reflecting the time of emplacement of the igneous precursors, and the younger approximating the time of charnockitization. These protolith ages are similar to those farther east in the Masasi area of southern Tanzania, as well as in northern Mozambique and in southern Malawi, and suggest that the Mozambique belt consists of chronologically heterogeneous assemblages whose pre-metamorphic tectonic setting remains obscure.

  2. Chemotherapeutic potential of two gallic acid derivative compounds from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Saulo L; Chaar, Jamal da S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2009-04-17

    Casearia sylvestris is a plant used in the treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Studies have shown that C. sylvestris presents an interesting antitumoral potential, due to the presence of casearins and some sesquiterpens with antitumoral activity. In this work, we tested the potential chemotherapeutic of two gallic acid-derived compounds isolated from C. sylvestris leaves: isobutyl gallate-3,5-dimethyl ether (IGDE) and methyl gallate-3,5-dimethyl ether (MGDE). We utilized two tumoral models: Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT)/BALB/c mice and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC1)/C57bl/6 mice. MGDE and IGDE increased the survival of mice inoculated with EAT cells and decreased the tumor volume in the LLC1 model, compared to control groups. Both compounds presented similar and low in vitro cytotoxicity against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and did not present any significant toxicity against Lewis lung cancer cells. Since the direct in vitro activity against Ehrlich tumor and Lewis lung cancer cells was low, we investigated the effects of MGDE or IGDE treatment on the activity of total natural killer cells from Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, as a possible explanation for the mechanisms of these compounds in vivo. MGDE and IGDE improved NK cell cytotoxicity against Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while, IGDE completely reversed this effect, when mice were treated with 0.5 mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. The pharmacokinetic studies showed that IGDE remains in the organism for a long period of time, possibly explaining the higher compound efficiency.

  3. Silencing of the hTERT gene by shRNA inhibits colon cancer SW480 cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Qun Liu

    Full Text Available Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT is the key enzyme responsible for synthesizing and maintaining the telomeres on the ends of chromosomes, and it is essential for cell proliferation. This has made hTERT a focus of oncology research and an attractive target for anticancer drug development. In this study, we designed a small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting the catalytic subunit of hTERT and tested its effects on the growth of telomerase-positive human colon carcinoma SW480 cells in vitro, as well as on the tumorigenicity of these cells in nude mice. Transient and stable transfection of hTERT siRNA into colon cancer SW480 cells suppressed hTERT expression, reduced telomerase activity and inhibited cell growth and proliferation. Knocking down hTERT expression in SW480 tumors xenografted into nude mice significantly slowed tumor growth and promoted tumor cell apoptosis. Our results suggest that hTERT is involved in carcinogenesis of human colon carcinoma, and they highlight the therapeutic potential of a hTERT knock-down approach.

  4. Fast amplitude-modulated pulse trains with frequency sweep (SW-FAM) in static NMR of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuniger, Thomas; Hempel, Günter; Madhu, P K

    2006-07-01

    In solid-state NMR of quadrupolar nuclei with half-integer spin I, fast amplitude-modulated (FAM) pulse trains have been utilised to enhance the intensity of the central-transition signal, by transferring spin population from the satellite transitions. In this paper, the signal-enhancement performance of the recently introduced SW-FAM pulse train with swept modulation frequency [T. Bräuniger, K. Ramaswamy, P.K. Madhu, Enhancement of the central-transition signal in static and magic-angle-spinning NMR of quadrupolar nuclei by frequency-swept fast amplitude-modulated pulses, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383 (2004) 403-410] is explored in more detail for static spectra. It is shown that by sweeping the modulation frequencies linearly over the pulse pairs (SW1/tau-FAM), the shape of the frequency distribution is improved in comparison to the original pulse scheme (SWtau-FAM). For static spectra of 27Al (I=5/2), better signal-enhancement performance is found for the SW1/tau-FAM sequence, as demonstrated both by experiments and numerical simulations.

  5. Potential of Pseudoshikonin I Isolated from Lithospermi Radix as Inhibitors of MMPs in IL-1β-Induced SW1353 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Young Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoshikonin I, the new bioactive constituent of Lithospermi radix, was isolated from this methanol extract by employing reverse-phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC using acetonitrile/water solvent system as eluents. The chemical structure was determined based on spectroscopic techniques, including 1D NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, 2D NMR (gCOSY, gHMBC, gHMQC, and QTOF/MS data. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of pseudoshikonin I on matrix-metalloproteinase (MMPs activation and expression in interleukin (IL-1β-induced SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. MMPs are considered important for the maintenance of the extracellular matrix. Following treatment with PS, active MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -13 and TIMP-2 were quantified in the SW1353 cell culture supernatants using a commercially available ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of MMPs in SW1353 cells was measured by RT-PCR. Pseudoshikonin I treatment effectively protected the activation on all tested MMPs in a dose-dependent manner. TIMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated by pseudoshikonin I treatment. Overall, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of pseudoshikonin on MMPs, and we suggest its use as a potential novel anti-osteoarthritis agent.

  6. Comparative evaluation of curcumin and curcumin loaded- dendrosome nanoparticle effects on the viability of SW480 colon carcinoma and Huh7 hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Dehghan Esmatabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity globally. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of death in the world. About 80% of all anticancer drugs are somehow related to natural products. One of the most important of these natural compounds is curcumin, the main component of turmeric that has a wide range of pharmacological activities. Curcumin has been found to suppress cell proliferation and decrease cell viability in various types of cancer cells; however, owing to lack of aqueous solubility, curcumin has shown reduced bioavailability in studies. Recent studies have shown that new 400th generation of dendrosome nanoparticle can increase bioavailability of curcumin and thus enhance the cytotoxic properties.  The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of curcumin alone and in combination with 400th generation dendrosome nanoparticles (DNC on cell viability rate in SW480 and Huh7 cells. Methods: SW480 and Huh7 cells were incubated with different concentrations of curcumin and DNC (0-50μM for 24, 48 and 72 h. Then cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay and IC50 was determined. Results: The results suggested that the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of DNC was stronger than curcumin on SW480 and Huh7 cells. Conclusion: The results suggest DNC as a more effective herbal anticancer agent for colorectal and hepatocellular tumors.

  7. SW.B6-Soa(b) nontaster congenic strains completed and a sucrose octaacetate congenic quartet tested with other bitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, D B; Gannon, K S; Whitney, G

    1996-10-01

    Ten SW.B6 SOA nontaster strains congenic with the SWR/J SOA taster inbred strain were bred via repeated backcross-intercross cycles, with selection for nontasting in each cycle. Preference ratio distributions and phenotypic proportions across cycles at 0.1 mM SOA were consistent with monogenic predictions. The SW.B6 mice completed a congenic quartet with the SWR/J, B6.SW SOA taster and C57BL/6J SOA nontaster strains. The Soa locus controlled avoidance differences within the quartet for SOA, raffinose undecaacetate, glucose pentaacetate and brucine. Background genes not linked to Soa controlled avoidance differences for L-phenylalanine and ethanol. Avoidance of bitter picric acid was influenced by the Soa locus, but avoidance of acetic acid was not. The quartet pattern for quinine HCl was unclear, with indications of both Soa and background effects. Two forms of ribose tetraacetate yielded different patterns. Avoidance differences controlled by the Soa locus were found for the pyranose form; however, all four strains avoided the furanose form. The pleiotropic effects of Soa allele substitution within the quartet were limited to a subset of bitter compounds.

  8. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  9. Chemical composition of essential oil and hexane extract and antioxidant activity of various extracts of Acmella uliginosa (Sw. Cass flowers from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askal Maimulyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant which are used in the prevention and treatment of disease like artherosclerosis, heart stroke, diabetes and cancer and to delay the process of aging. Acmella uliginosa (Sw. Cass is an edible herb traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. Analysis of volatile components in the flower extract used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed the main components of the essential oil were caryophyllene (21.27%, caryophyllene oxide (15.49%, and 3-carene (10.73%. The main components of the hexane extract were N-isobutyl-2E,6Z,8E-decatrienamide (37.80%, α-pinene (4.98% and hexadacanoic acid-methyl ester (4.78%. The antioxidant activity of A. uliginosa (Sw. Cass flower from Indonesia was determined using 1,1, diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The IC50 (defined as the total antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial DPPH radical by 50% of extracts was calculated. A comparative study determined that A. uliginosa (Sw. Cass in methanol extract showed higher antioxidant potential (IC50 = 96.83 μg/mL compared to ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 123.46 μg/mL and n-hexane extract (905.92 μg/mL against DPPH free radicals.

  10. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and of Casearia sylvestris Sw. on cropsEfeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e de Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is characterized by the harmful or benefic effects caused by secondary metabolites, that are produced by plants, microorganisms or fungi and are released in the environment, on the development of natural biological systems or implemented ones. This study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and wild coffee (Casearia sylvestris Sw. on the germination and initial development of mustard (Brassica campestris L., cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. italica, kale (Brassica pekinensis L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. grand rapids, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, turnip (Brassica rapa L., rucola (Eruca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Six concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 100% and compared to control (distilled water, with five replicates of each concentration, being ten seeds of each crop distributed in each replicate. The aqueous extracts of E. globulus and C. sylvestris reduced significantly the percentage of seed germination, the index of germination speed and the initial growth of the above ground part and roots of all cultivated species, being the reduction of these parameters higher with the increment of the aqueous extracts concentration, which led to thicker and atrophied roots with a higher number of absorbent hairs. Therefore, the results indicate an existence of allelopathic potential of E. globulus and C. sylvestris.A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos que metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas, microrganismos ou fungos liberados no ambiente exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de sistemas biológicos naturais ou implantados. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de

  11. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC GLACIER using BT and XBT casts in the NW / SW Pacific Ocean from 25 October 1986 to 31 January 1987 (NODC Accession 8700140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts in the NW / SW Pacific Ocean from USCGC GLACIER. Data were collected from 25 October...

  12. Temperature and current profiles from BT and current profilers from DRIFTING PLATFORMS from the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) and other locations from 01 January 1993 to 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 9600085)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and current data from BT cast and current profilers from DRIFTING PLATFORMS from the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) and other locations. Data was collected by...

  13. Cloud amount/frequency, SALINITY and other data from EL AUSTRAL and PUERTO DESEADO in the SW Atlantic from 1984-08-15 to 1985-08-18 (NODC Accession 9200288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Serial data in this accession was collected in SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) as part of Global Ocean Data Archeaology and Rescue (GODAR) project from ships EL...

  14. Benthic organisms collected using sediment sampler from the SW RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Gulf of Mexico from 1978-02-03 to 1978-10-19 (NODC Accession 8100491)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms were collected using sediment sampler casts from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 03 February 1978 to 19 October 1978. Data were...

  15. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  16. Highly refractory Archaean peridotite cumulates: Petrology and geochemistry of the Seqi Ultramafic Complex, SW Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Szilas

    2018-05-01

    large-scale melting event(s, which resulted in the ultra-depleted cratonic keel under the North Atlantic Craton. Hence, a better understanding of such Archaean ultramafic complexes may provide constraints on the geodynamic setting of Earth's first continents and the corresponding SCLM. Keywords: North Atlantic Craton, Archaean, Dunite, Platinum-group elements, Ultra-depleted mantle, Fiskefjord

  17. Diversity of minor elements in olivines from mantle xenoliths (Wołek Hill, SW Poland) - PIXE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Monika; Munnik, Frans; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Renno, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Wołek Hill is one of the best examined exposures of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Poland (Nowak, 2012). This is related with two facts: a great amount of mantle xenoliths were collected from that outcrop and this is one of two occurrences in Poland were modal metasomatism (related with amphibole crystals presence) was recognized. Wołek Hill is a relatively small exposure and belongs to the Złotoryja Volcanic Field, which is one of the volcanic concentrations in the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province (Ladenberger et al. 2006). Based on previous observations olivine crystals from the inside part of xenoliths occasionally display internal inhomogeneity visible on a BSE image. Such inhomogeneity has been related to olivine "sub-grains" with slightly shifted crystal axis. Those "sub-grains" are visible in optical microscope as transitional lamellae (Nowak, Stawikowski 2009). Besides the mentioned visible inhomogeneity olivine crystals also show diversity in Ca content inside single crystals (sometimes even more than 200 ppm). EPMA standard measurements (15 kV, 20 nA, time: 40 seconds) were limited to beam size and detection limits of the microprobe (most of the obtained results oscillate close to the detection limits - or even below it). Special conditions EPMA analyses (15 kV, 100nA, time: 100s) confirmed the differences in Ca content in the studied olivines, but did not provide any idea on how to interpret the results (Nowak, 2012). In this short summary we present preliminary data of olivine minor element composition (Ca, Zn, Cr, Ti, Co, K and also Mn, Ni, Fe) obtained with Particle Induced X-ray Emission(PIXE) measurements performed at the HZDR in Dresden using a 3 MeV proton beam, 1-1.5 nA current and an acquisition time of 3 hrs for each scan. The size of individual scans varied from ca. 30 μm up to 60-65 μm, with 8 x 8 measurement points - min. 4 μm in diameter. The measurements have been analysed with the GeoPIXE software (Ryan, 2001

  18. Influence of livestock density on the amount and structure of soil microbial communities in rangelands of SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, Manuel; Pulido, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Lavado-Contador, Francisco; Ortega, Raul; Soriano, Miguel; Miralles, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    Rangelands (namely dehesas and montados) occupy more than 90,000 km2 of land in SW Iberian Peninsula. Their natural pastures are permanently grazed by 13 millions of domestic animals. The persistence of soils of high quality is a key factor for keeping their environmental and economic sustainability. The role of soil microbial communities in the biodegradation processes of organic compounds is essential to ensure soil fertility in this kind of human-induced ecosystems. Nevertheless, there are few studies dealing the effects of livestock grazing on soil microbial communities. The main goal of this study is therefore to assess the amount and structure of soil microbial communities in rangelands of SW Spain by comparing different grazing intensities. The study was carried out in 4 fenced areas (sampling sites) belonging to privately-owned farms under different grazing intensities: low, moderate and high. One area excluded to grazing for more than 40 years (located in the Monfragüe National Park, Extremadura) was used as reference sampling site. A total number of 30 soil samples (6 each site) were collected in comparable areas with the same lithology and very similar topographical features. Commercial kit to extract DNA from these soil samples was used for metagenomic analysis. We conducted a sequencing of the amplicons V4-V5 of the 16S rRNA gene with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Illumina MiSeq platform and a relative quantity of bacteria and fungi were accomplished by quantitative qPCR of rRNA 16S and ITS1-5.8S, respectively. The results showed that soils with a high livestock density had the highest content of bacteria per gram of soil (4.77E+09), followed by soils with moderate (3.32E+09) and low livestock density (2.80E+09). The lowest content of microorganisms was found in soils excluded to grazing (2.38E+09). However, soils with moderate and low livestock density showed the greatest amount of fungi per gram of soil (2.31E+10 and 2.22E+10, respectively) and

  19. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  20. Quasi-real-time monitoring of SW radiation budget using geostationary satellite for Climate study and Renewable energy. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Kuze, H.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Nakajima, T.

    2013-12-01

    Solar radiation is the only source of energy that drives the weather and climate of the Earth's surface. Earth is warmed by incoming solar radiation, and emitted energy to space by terrestrial radiation due to its temperature. It has been kept to the organisms viable environment by the effect of heating and cooling. Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. We have shared several topics related to climate change. Energy issues close to the climate change, it is an environmental problems. Photovoltaics is one of the power generation method to converts from solar radiation to electric power directly. It does not emit greenhouse gases during power generation. Similarly, drainage, exhaust, vibration does not emit. PV system can be distributed as a small power supply in urban areas and it can installed to near the power demand points. Also solar thermal is heat generator with high efficiency. Therefor it is an effective energy source that the solar power is expected as one of the mitigation of climate change (IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation). It is necessary to real-time-monitoring of the surface solar radiation for safety operation of electric power system. We introduce a fusion analysis of renewable energy and Quasi-real-time analysis of SW radiation budget. Sample of estimated PV power mapping using geostationary satellite.

  1. Phosphorus addition mitigates N2O and CH4 emissions in N-saturated subtropical forest, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronically elevated nitrogen (N deposition has led to severe nutrient imbalance in forest soils. Particularly in tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems, increasing N loading has aggravated phosphorus (P limitation of biomass production, and has resulted in elevated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O and reduced uptake of methane (CH4, both of which are important greenhouse gases. Yet, the interactions of N and P and their effects on greenhouse gas emissions remain elusive. Here, we report N2O and CH4 emissions together with soil N and P data for a period of 18 months following a single P addition (79 kg P ha−1, as NaH2PO4 powder to an N-saturated, Masson pine-dominated forest soil at TieShanPing (TSP, Chongqing, south-western (SW China. We observed a significant decline in both nitrate (NO3− concentrations in soil water (5 and 20 cm depths and in soil N2O emissions, following P application. We hypothesise that enhanced N uptake by plants in response to P addition, resulted in less available NO3− for denitrification. By contrast to most other forest ecosystems, TSP is a net source of CH4. P addition significantly decreased CH4 emissions and turned the soil from a net source into a net sink. Based on our observation and previous studies in South America and China, we believe that P addition relieves N inhibition of CH4 oxidation. Within the 1.5 years after P addition, no significant increase of forest growth was observed and P stimulation of forest N uptake by understorey vegetation remains to be confirmed. Our study indicates that P fertilisation of N-saturated, subtropical forest soils may mitigate N2O and CH4 emissions, in addition to alleviating nutrient imbalances and reducing losses of N through NO3− leaching.

  2. A modern analog for carbonate source-to-sink sedimentary systems: the Glorieuses archipelago and adjacent basin (SW Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorry, S.; Jouet, G.; Prat, S.; Courgeon, S.; Le Roy, P.; Camoin, G.; Caline, B.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the geomorphological and sedimentological analysis of a modern carbonate source-to-sink system located north of Madagascar (SW Indian Ocean). The sedimentary system is composed of an isolated carbonate platform sited on top of a seamount rising steeply from the seabed located at 3000 m water depth. The slope of the seamount is incised by canyons, and meandering channels occur above lobbed sedimentary bodies at the foot of the slope. The dataset consists of dredges, sediment piston cores, swath bathymetry and seismic (sparker and 2D high-resolution) lines collected from inner platform (less than 5 m deep) to the adjacent deep sedimentary basin. Particle size analysis and composition of carbonate grains are used to characterize the distribution and heterogeneity of sands accumulated on the archipelago. Main results show that composition of carbonate sediments is dominated by segments of Halimeda, large benthic foraminifera, coral debris, molluscs, echinoderms, bryozoans and sponges. According to the shape and the position of sandwaves and intertidal sandbars developed in the back-barrier reef, the present organization of these well-sorted fine-sand accumulations appears to be strongly influenced by flood tidal currents. Seismic lines acquired from semi-enclosed to open lagoon demonstrate that most of the sediment is exported and accumulated along the leeward margin of the platform, which is connected to a canyon network incising the outer slope. Following the concept of highstand shedding of carbonate platforms (Schlager et al., 1994), excess sediment is exported by plumes and gravity flows to the adjacent deep sea where it feeds a carbonate deep-sea fan. Combined observations from platform to basin allow to explain how the Glorieuses carbonate source to sink system has evolved under the influence of climate and of relative sea-level changes since the last interglacial.

  3. Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities from tropical (SE Caribbean) and temperate (NE England and SW Spain) regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent; Horton, Benjamin P.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2018-05-01

    This is the first quantitative study of temporal assemblage turnovers of the relationships between intertidal foraminifera. Time series datasets collected from tropical Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay (Trinidad, SE Caribbean) and temperate Cowpen Marsh (NE England, U.K.) and Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain) were used. The assemblage turnover index (ATI) examined species interrelationships through comparisons of monthly or biweekly species proportional abundances over one or two years. Species contributing to major assemblage turnovers (ATI > x + σ) were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). Foraminiferal species are heterogeneously distributed within the sediment; multiple sample stations at a study location cumulatively represent the foraminiferal metacommunity and clusters represent foraminiferal assemblages. The ATI and CoBI were applied to the proportional abundances of live specimens recorded for the metacommunity and assemblages at each location. At Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay, major assemblage turnovers were driven by the most abundant species and the majority coincided with seasonal change or the arrival of the seasonal Orinoco plume in the Gulf of Paria. Seasonal turnovers of the foraminiferal metacommunities at temperate Cowpen Marsh and Bay of Cádiz occurred during the summer and winter. Major assemblage turnovers in the upper Cowpen Marsh occurred in the summer, and the lower marsh in the winter. Foraminiferans are useful bioindicators for monitoring the health of coastal environments. Understanding foraminiferal population dynamics will allow cyclical changes to be differentiated from abrupt and persistent changes, which are related to anthropogenic disturbances or long-term climate change. The ATI and CoBI are useful indices for quantitatively exploring relationships of foraminiferal populations over time.

  4. The small-sized benthic biota of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (SW Barents Sea slope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwedel, Thomas; Portnova, Daria; Kolar, Ingrid; Mokievsky, Vadim; Schewe, Ingo

    2005-04-01

    R/V POLARSTERN expedition ARK XVIII/1 in summer 2002 provided the opportunity to carry out a sampling programme to assess the activity, biomass and composition of the small-sized benthic biota (size range: bacteria to meiofauna) around the active mud-oozing and methane-seeping Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) on the SW Barents Sea slope, Northern North-Atlantic. A total of 11 stations, covering different areas (e.g., bacterial mat sites, and pogonophoran fields) within the crater, and sites outside the caldera were sampled using a multiple corer. Subsamples were analyzed for various biogenic compounds to estimate the flux of organic matter to the seafloor (sediment-bound chloroplastic pigments indicating phytodetritus), activities (bacterial exo-enzymatic turnover rates) and the total biomass [from bulk parameters, like phospholipid (PL) concentrations in the sediments] of the smallest sediment-inhabiting organisms (range: bacteria to meiofauna). Direct investigations of bacterial numbers and biomasses as well as on meiofauna densities and composition completed our investigations at HMMV. As expected for a comparable small deep-sea area with only minor disparity in water depth between sampling sites, our investigations revealed generally no significant differences in organic matter input from phytodetritus sedimentation between sampling sites inside and outside HMMV. Bacterial exo-enzymatic activities as well as total microbial biomass (TMB) and meiofauna densities, however, exhibited generally higher values at HMMV, compared to sites outside the mud volcano. Enhanced benthic life at HMMV is based on chemosynthetic processes, making the mud volcano a "chemosynthetic oasis" in an otherwise oligotrophic deep-sea environment. As we did not find any indication for bacterial symbioses in the meiofauna, comparably rich meiofaunal assemblages at HMMV are presumably indirectly related to a general enhanced biological production.

  5. Quantifying the impact of an upwelling filament on the physical-chemical-biological interactions off SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, A.; Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, C.; Cardeira, S.; Madureira, M.; Rita, F.; Relvas, P.

    2017-12-01

    Upwelling filaments are mesoscale structures of cold water that stretch seaward in a tongue-like shape with origin in the coastal upwelling zone. Filaments off the Iberian Peninsula are recurrent, showing similarities with those in the Californian coast. The Cape São Vicente, the SW tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the root of recurrent filaments observed in the satellite imagery during the upwelling season. However, the understanding of its physical and chemical impact on the biological productivity is rather limited. There, a relatively small filament ( 80 km long) was investigated through remote sensing and in situ multidisciplinary observations during an upwelling favourable wind relaxation event, but just after an intense upwelling period. A total of 42 CTD+Rosette casts up to 400 m depth were distributed on an almost regular grid of 15 km mean spacing guided by guided by satellite SST imagery transmitted to the ship in near-real time. The parameters sampled during the sea campaign included: velocity field sampled along the ship track through a hull-mounted 38 kHz RDI ADCP, meteorological variables, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, cadmium, lead and zinc. The extent of the impact of the filament was evaluated by quantifying the cross-shelf transports of several properties. The amounts conveyed by the filament were much stronger than those expected by the wind-driven Ekman mechanism, showing that it represents an efficient feature for the exchange of water, dissolved and particulate matter from the productive shelf towards the oligotrophic offshore region. Considering the periods of strong upwelling events and the extent of their duration along the year, the amounts of exported matter will certainly enhance the biological productivity of these waters, including its fisheries. These filament data contribute to better understand the physical-chemical-biological interactions of this regional ecosystem.

  6. Texture and geochemistry of surface horizons of Arctic soils from a non-glaciated catchment, SW Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils and especially the properties of surface horizons of the soils are very important because they are responsible for the rate and character of plant colonization, development of vegetation cover, and influence the rate and depth of thawing of soils and development of active layer of permafrost during summer. The main aim of the present study is to determine and explain the spatial diversity of selected physical and chemical properties of surface horizons of Arctic soils from the non-glaciated Fuglebekken catchment located in the Hornsund area (SW Spitsbergen by means of geostatistical approach. Results indicate that soil surface horizons in the Fuglebekken catchment are characterized by highly variable physical and chemical properties due to a heterogeneous parent material (marine sediments, moraine, rock debris, tundra vegetation types, and non-uniform influence of seabirds. Soils experiencing the strongest influence of seabird guano have a lower pH than other soils. Soils developed on the lateral moraine of the Hansbreen glacier have the highest pH due to the presence of carbonates in the parent material and a lack or presence of a poorly developed and discontinuous A horizon. The soil surface horizons along the coast of the Hornsund exhibit the highest content of the sand fraction and SiO2. The surface of soils occurring at the foot of the slope of Ariekammen Ridge is characterized by the highest content of silt and clay fractions as well as Al2O3, Fe2O3, and K2O. Soils in the central part of the Fuglebekken catchment are depleted in CaO, MgO, and Na2O in comparison with soils in the other sampling sites, which indicates the highest rate of leaching in this part of the catchment.

  7. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnan, Y.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Probst, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. - Highlights: ► We compared metal concentrations registered in contemporary and early 1900's lichens. ► In the past, As, Pb and Cd were enriched due to coal combustion. ► Nowadays, a new mixture of enriched contaminants (Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) was evidenced. ► REE originated from local bedrock and proved an increased dust deposition in the past. ► Lichens recorded both local and long-range atmospheric contamination. - Using lichens registration, past (As, Pb, Cd) and recent (Sb, Sn, Cu) atmospheric pollution from local and long-range transport, as well as dust deposition, was evidenced in SW France.

  8. Evaluation of the potential of the Clare Basin, SW Ireland, for onshore carbon sequestration using electromagnetic geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Joan Campanya i.; Ogaya, Xenia; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker; Ledo, Juanjo; McConnell, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture, sequestration and long-term storage (CCS) is a critically important and intellectually and technologically challenging bridging technology for assisting humanity to migrate from its dependence on fossil fuels to green energy over the next half century. The IRECCSEM project (www.ireccsem.ie) is a Science Foundation Ireland Investigator Project to evaluate Ireland's potential for onshore carbon sequestration in saline aquifers by integrating new electromagnetic geophysical data with existing geophysical and geological data. The main goals of the project are to determine porosity and permeability values of the potential reservoir formation as well as to evaluate the integrity of the seal formation. During the summer of 2014, a magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in the Carboniferous Clare Basin (SW Ireland). Data from a total of 140 sites were acquired, including audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), broadband magnetotelluric (BBMT) and long period magnetotelluric (LMT) data. These new data added to existing MT data acquired at 32 sites during a feasibility pilot survey conducted in 2010. The nominal space between the 2014 sites was 0.6 km between AMT sites, 1.2 km between BBMT sites and 8 km between LMT sites. The electrical resistivity distribution beneath the survey area was constrained using three different types of electromagnetic data: MT impedance tensor responses (Z), geomagnetic transfer functions (GTF) and inter-station horizontal magnetic transfer-functions (HMT). A newly-computed code based on the Generalized Archie's Law and available data from boreholes were used to relate the obtained geoelectrical model to rock properties (i.e. porosity and permeability). The results are compared to independent geological and geophysical data for superior interpretation.

  9. Probability groups as orbits of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattarai, H.N.

    2003-11-01

    The set of double cosets of a group with respect to a subgroup and the set of orbits of a group with respect to a group of automorphisms have structures which can be studied as multigroups, hypergroups or Pasch geometries. When the subgroup or the group of automorphisms are finite, the multivalued products can be provided with some weightages forming so-called Probability Groups. It is shown in this paper that some abstract probability groups can be realized as orbit spaces of groups. (author)

  10. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. First field-based observations of δ2H and δ18O values of event-based precipitation, rivers and other water bodies in the Dzungarian Gobi, SW Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2017-05-01

    For certain remote areas like Mongolia, field-based precipitation, surface and ground water isotopic data are scarce. So far no such data exist for the Mongolian Gobi desert, which hinders the understanding of isotopic fractionation processes in this extreme, arid region. We collected 26 event-based precipitation samples, 39 Bij river samples, and 75 samples from other water bodies in the Dzungarian Gobi in SW Mongolia over a period of 16 months for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. δ 2 H and δ 18 O values in precipitation show high seasonal variation and cover an extreme range: 175 ‰ for δ 2 H and 24 ‰ for δ 18 O values. The calculated local meteoric water line (LMWL) shows the isotopic characteristics of precipitation in an arid region. Individual water samples fall into one of three groups: within, above or below the 95 % confidence interval of LMWL. Data presented provide a basis for future studies in this region.

  12. GOLD CREW SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent for oil spill cleanups should be applied through hand pump sprayer and allowed to presoak, time depending on type of oil and weather conditions. Then apply through power washer or steam powered unit.

  13. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  14. Tecnologia alternativa para a quebra de dormência das sementes de pau-de-balsa (Ochroma lagopus Sw., Bombacaceae Alternative technology for breaking dormancy of balsa wood (Ochroma lagopus Sw., Bombacaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antenor P. Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, teve como objetivo estudar a germinação das sementes de pau-de-balsa (Ochroma lagopus Sw., Bombacaceae em diferentes estágios de maturação aparente dos frutos; a germinação das sementes provenientes de árvores com diferentes diâmetros a altura do peito (DAP e a germinação das sementes tratadas para quebra de dormência. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se a germinação das sementes dos frutos verdes, verdosos (verde amarelado, negros (fruto fechado e negros deiscentes (fruto aberto com painas expostas. No segundo, a germinação das sementes de árvores da mesma idade e com diferentes DAP's: pequeno (5,4 cm, médio (9,1 cm e grande (13,2 cm. No terceiro, a germinação das sementes com diferentes quebra de dormência: testemunha; água por 24 e 48 horas; água a 80ºC até esfriar; H2SO4 por ½ e 1 minuto com e sem paina; queima da paina em peneira metálica; e semeio de sementes com a paina. As sementes germinaram em gerbox sobre papel de filtro, em câmara de germinação, nas temperaturas de 20ºC, 30ºC e 25ºC, no primeiro, segundo e terceiro experimentos, respectivamente. As sementes de pau-de-balsa germinaram melhor e mais rápido quando coletadas de frutos negros a negros deiscentes, ou quando coletadas de árvores com menor e médio diâmetros, ou quando tratadas com água quente a 80ºC até esfriar, ou com ácido sulfúrico por ½ ou 1 minuto com ou sem paina. Os tratamentos com ácido tem a vantagem de quebrar a dormência da semente e dissolver a paina. As sementes recém colhidas e germinadas não apresentaram dormência tegumentar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the germination of "pau-de-balsa" (Ochroma lagopus Sw., Bombacaceae seed as a function of maturation stages of fruits, the germination of seeds harvested from trees with different diameters at height breast (DBH, and the germination of seed with different treatments to break dormancy. In the first experiment, the germination of seeds

  15. Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of mesquite flour (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical comum no semi-árido brasileiro e desenvolve-se em lugares secos, onde dificilmente outras plantas poderiam sobreviver. Suas vagens produzem uma farinha que pode ser usada na alimentação humana, além de vários outros produtos como o mel, licor e um produto similar ao café. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quanto à composição físico-química e microbiológica a farinha de algaroba potencialmente passível de introdução como matéria-prima de interesse comercial. A farinha de algaroba foi analisada quanto ao teor de umidade, cinzas, proteína, lipídios, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, fibra alimentar total e tanino. Os minerais analisados foram cálcio, fósforo, magnésio, ferro, zinco, sódio, potássio, manganês, silício, alumínio e cobre. As análises microbiológicas foram: coliformes a 45 °C.g -1, Bacillus cereus.g -1, Salmonella sp..25 g -1, e bolores e leveduras.g -1. Verificou-se que a farinha de algaroba apresenta elevados níveis de açúcares (56,5 g.100 g -1, razoável teor de proteínas (9,0 g.100 g -1 e baixo teor em lipídios (2,1 g.100 g -1. Quanto aos minerais observou-se a predominância do fósforo (749 mg.100 g -1 e do cálcio (390 mg.100 g -1. As análises microbiológicas apresentaram resultados inferiores ao limite estabelecido pela legislação, sendo considerada apropriada quanto à qualidade higiênico-sanitária. Portanto, conclui-se que esta possui uma elevada concentração de açúcares além de outros nutrientes, como minerais, importantes para o desenvolvimento humano e animal.Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. is a tropical tree legume fairly common in the semi-arid region of Brazil, which thrives in dry environments where other plants would hardly survive. Its seedpods can be made into flour, which is used in human food and other products such as honey, liqueur and a product similar to coffee. The

  16. Deglacial and post-glacial sea-level history for Bantry Bay (SW Ireland) based on offshore evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plets, Ruth; Callard, Louise; Cooper, Andrew; Long, Antony; Belknap, Daniel; Edwards, Robin; Jackson, Derek; Kelley, Joseph; Long, David; Milne, Glenn; Monteys, Xavier; Quinn, Rory

    2014-05-01

    As part of a large NERC funded project, seven areas around the Irish Sea were investigated in order to provide offshore field data on the depth and age of the relative sea-level (RSL) minimum since the post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Such evidence is currently sparse, resulting in poorly constrained glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models, particularly for areas where RSL was significantly lower than present during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. We present offshore geomorphological and stratigraphic evidence for a lower than present sea level from SW Ireland (Bantry Bay), and compare our findings with the current GIA model. Data examined consists of: multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, pinger sub-bottom and vibrocores (25 sites). A bluff line in the outer bay detected on the multibeam in water depths of c. 80 m forms the western edge of a large sediment lobe. The south-western boundary of this lobe is marked by a series of long (up to 22 km), parallel ridges at depths between -96 m and -131 m, with iceberg scouring evident on the offshore margin. This sediment lobe is interpreted as the top of a lowstand delta with the ridges representing ice-marginal submarine morainic or deltaic sediments, reworked by stronger-than-present tidal currents during the lowstand (c. -80 m pre- 14.6 ka cal BP). The bluff line could then represent the eroded northern edge of this lowstand delta. The seismic data show a prominent unit, which can be traced throughout the basin, sitting on an erosional surface and characterised by a turbid acoustic signature. In the cores, this unit is identified as alternating sand and clay layers with some traces of organic material and gas. The micro-palaeontological data shows an increase in marine and estuarine foraminifera in this unit, becoming predominantly marine in the overlying sediments. Based on the integration of all data, we interpret the erosional surface as the transgressive surface, underlying intertidal-estuarine sediments

  17. Hongos causantes de enfermedades postcosecha en chayote (Sechium edule(Jacq. SW. y su control in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero Velazquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusariumsp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  18. The Atlantis Bank Gabbro Massif, SW Indian Ridge: the Largest Know Exposure of the Lower Crust in the Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, H. J.; Kvassnes, A. J.; Kinoshita, H.; MacLeod, C. J.; Robinson, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    Until the discovery of oceanic core complexes little was known and much inferred about the lower ocean crust at slow-spreading ridges. Their study shows the ocean crust isn't simply a uniform layer-cake of pillow lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, but is highly variable in thickness, composition and architecture, and even absent over large regions. The 660 km2 Atlantis Bank Gabbro Massif in the rift-mountains of the SW Indian Ridge flanking the Atlantis II Transform is the magmatic end member for ocean core complexes, and best approximates `average' slow-spread crust. Thus it has been a focus for drilling since its discovery in 1986, leading to the current attempt to drill to Moho there (Project SloMo). There are 3 ODP and IODP drill holes on its crest: 1508-m deep Hole 735B, 158-m deep Hole 1105A, and 809.4-m deep Hole U1473. These provide a 200 Kyr view of lower crustal accretion at a slow-spread ocean ridge. Here we extend this view to 2.7 Myr. Mapping and sampling shows the gabbro massif extends nearly the length of a single 2nd order magmatic ridge segment. With numerous inliers of the dike-gabbro transition at numerous locations, and a crust-mantle boundary, traced for 30-km along the transform wall, it would appear to represent a full section of the lower crust. As Moho is at 5.5 ± 1 km mbsf near Hole 735B, and 4.5 km beneath the transform, it is likely a serpentinization front. The crust-mantle boundary was crossed by dives at 4 locations. In each case gabbros at the base of the crust crystallized from melt that had previously fractionated 50% or more from a likely parent. Thus the gabbro massif must be laterally zoned, and the parental mantle melts had to have been emplaced at the center of the paleo-ridge segment, before intruding laterally to the distal end of the complex. Gabbros on a lithospheric flow line down the center of the massif closely resemble those from the drill holes. This shows that while lateral variations in crustal composition and

  19. Radioactive influence of some phosphogypsum piles located at the SW Spain in their surrounding soils and salt-marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, J. P.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the SW of Spain, just in the confluence of the mouths of the Tinto and Odiel River and in the vicinity of Huelva town, there is a big industrial complex which includes between others an industry devoted during more than 40 years to the production of phosphoric acid, by treating sedimentary phosphate rock by the so-called "wet acid method". As a by-product of the mentioned process it have been produced historically huge amounts of a compound called phosphogypsum, which composition is mostly di-hydrate calcium sulphate containing some of the impurities of heavy metals and natural radionuclides originally present in the raw material. Due to the lack of market for this by-product, it has been mostly piled over some salt-marshes located in the vicinity of the industry, on the bank of the Tinto River. About 100 million tons of phosphogypsum have been piled in an area covering more than 1000 hectares, constituting a clear environmental and radiological anomaly in the zone. The phosphogypsum piles set do not conform obviously a close system. They are interacting with the nearby environment mostly by leaching waters releases from the waters accumulated in them either for its previous use in transporting in suspension the PG from the factory or by rainfall. These waters leaks contain in solution enhanced amounts of heavy metals and radionuclides that can provoke the chemical and radioactive contamination in surroundings soil and salt-marshes areas. In this communication the radioactive influence by the phosphogypsum piles in the surrounding terrestrial environment is evaluated. This contamination is mostly due to radionuclides belonging to the uranium series, which are present originally in the raw material treated in the industry, and afterwards in the generated phosphogypsum, in enhanced amounts in relation to typical soils. In addition, the different dynamics and behavior of different radionuclides will be discussed and analyzed. The gained information in this study

  20. The ecology and distribution of benthic foraminifera at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (SW Barents Sea slope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenburg, J. E.; Mackensen, A.

    2009-08-01

    To investigate a possible influence of submarine methane seepage on benthic foraminiferal communities, Rose Bengal stained ("live") and empty tests of benthic foraminifera were studied from the sediment surface down to 15 cm sub-bottom depth of 12 sites at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV). In addition, one reference site well away from the seep sites, but from similar water depths and the same general hydrographic setting was occupied for comparison. The HMMV is located at 1265 m water depth on the SW Barents Sea continental slope. Distinct living foraminiferal associations at the HMMV are linked to specific sedimentary, microbial, and macrofaunal habitats. In the center of the crater, and in crater areas completely covered by bacterial mats, Cassidulina reniforme is the only, albeit rare, living species. Below the top few millimeters, sediments are anoxic and devoid of living specimens. At the rim of the mud volcano, at sites densely populated by pogonophoran tube worms, three benthic foraminiferal associations are found; (i) a Fontbotia wuellerstorfi-Lobatula lobatula association living attached to the upper parts of pogonophoran tubes, which protrude into oxic water, (ii) a diverse Cassidulina neoteretis association populating dysoxic sediments of the surface centimeter, and (iii) a species-poor Bolivina pseudopunctata association colonizing the subsurface sediments down to four centimeters. Generally, we did not find endemic or seep indicative species or associations at the HMMV. However, the HMMV live faunas dominated by B. pseudopunctata are not found at the reference site nor are they described from comparable water depths and environments without gas seepages from the Norwegian-Greenland Seas. In the center and outer rim of the mud volcano, a C. neoteretis-Reophax guttifer dead association, similar to the one at the reference site, characterizes an assemblage of strongly corroded and partly displaced tests. At bacterial mat sites, a C. reniforme dead

  1. Acetone fraction from Sechium edule (Jacq.) S.w. edible roots exhibits anti-endothelial dysfunction activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Celeste Trejo; Martínez, Gabriela Castro; Martínez, Marisol Méndez; Ferrer, Jesús Enrique Jiménez; Chaverri, José Pedraza; Arrellín, Gerardo; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Campos, Omar Noel Medina; Earl, Galia Lombardo; Cruz, Gerardo Joel Barrita; Hernández, Beatriz; Ramírez, Christian Carlos; Santana, María Angélica; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela

    2018-03-01

    A recent ethnomedical survey on medicinal plants grown in Mexico revealed that Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) is one of the most valued plant species to treat cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Fruits, young leaves, buds, stems, and tuberous roots of the plant are edible. Considering that endothelial dysfunction induced by Angiotensin II plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and is accompanied by a prooxidative condition, which in turn induces an inflammatory state, vascular remodeling, and tissue damage, and that S. edule has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive activity, its capability to control endothelial dysfunction was also assessed. To assess in vivo the anti-endothelial dysfunction activity of the acetone fraction (rSe-ACE) of the hydroalcoholic extract from S. edule roots. Endothelial dysfunction was induced in female C57BL/6J mice by a daily intraperitoneal injection of angiotensin II for 10 weeks. Either rSe-ACE or losartan (as a control) were co-administered with angiotensin II for the same period. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 5, and 10. Kidney extracts were prepared to determine IL1β, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL17, IFNγ, TNFα, and TGFβ levels by ELISA, along with the prooxidative status as assessed by the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The expression of ICAM-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in kidney histological sections. Kidney and hepatic damage, as well as vascular tissue remodeling, were studied. The rSe-ACE fraction administered at a dose of 10mg/kg was able to control hypertension, as well as the prooxidative and proinflammatory status in kidney as efficiently as losartan, returning mice to normotensive levels. Additionally, the fraction was more efficient than losartan to prevent liver and kidney damage. Phytochemical characterization identified cinnamic acid as a major compound, and linoleic, palmitic, and myristic acids as the most abundant

  2. Origin and diagenetic evolution of gypsum and microbialitic carbonates in the Late Sag of the Namibe Basin (SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Gindre-Chanu; Edoardo, Perri; Ian, Sharp R.; Peacock, D. C. P.; Roger, Swart; Ragnar, Poulsen; Hercinda, Ferreira; Vladimir, Machado

    2016-08-01

    Ephemeral evaporitic conditions developed within the uppermost part of the transgressive Late Sag sequence in the Namibe Basin (SW Angola), leading to the formation of extensive centimetre- to metre-thick sulphate-bearing deposits and correlative microbialitic carbonates rich in pseudomorphs after evaporite crystals. The onshore pre-salt beds examined in this study are located up to 25 m underneath the major mid-Aptian evaporitic succession, which is typified at the outcrop by gypsiferous Bambata Formation and in the subsurface by the halite-dominated Loeme Formation. Carbonate-evaporite cycles mostly occur at the top of metre-thick regressive parasequences, which progressively onlap and overstep landward the former faulted (rift) topography, or fill major pre-salt palaeo-valleys. The sulphate beds are made up of alabastrine gypsum associated with embedded botryoidal nodules, dissolution-related gypsum breccia, and are cross-cut by thin satin-spar gypsum veins. Nodular and fine-grained fabrics are interpreted as being diagenetic gypsum deposits resulting from the dissolution and recrystallisation of former depositional subaqueous sulphates, whereas gypsum veins and breccia result from telogenetic processes. The carbonates display a broader diversity of facies, characterised by rapid lateral variations along strike. Thin dolomitic and calcitic bacterial-mediated filamentous microbialitic boundstones enclose a broad variety of evaporite pseudomorphs and can pass laterally over a few metres into sulphate beds. Dissolution-related depositional breccias are also common and indicate early dissolution of former evaporite layers embedded within the microbialites. Sulphate and carbonate units are interpreted as being concomitantly deposited along a tide-dominated coastal supra- to intertidal- sabkha and constitute high-frequency hypersaline precursor events, prior to the accumulation of the giant saline mid-Aptian Bambata and Loeme Formations. Petrographic and geochemical

  3. Assessing Soil Quality in Areas Affected by Sulfide Mining. Application to Soils in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The characterization, evaluation and remediation of polluted soils is one of the present environmental challenges to be addressed in the coming years. The origin of trace elements in soils can be either geogenic or anthropogenic, but only the latter is interesting from a legal point of view. The hazard of the pollutants in the soils not only depends on their total concentration, but particularly on their availability. The mobility of the trace elements depends on their speciation, and it is also affected by several soil parameters. Mining activity is one of the most important anthropogenic causes of soil pollution. As a case study, this work is focused in the Riotinto mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt, IPB, SW Spain. The IPB is one of the most important metallogenic provinces in the world and it has been exploited for thousands of years. The disposal of mining residues has produced important sources of contamination by trace elements and acidic waters affecting soils and rivers. In addition to these problems, the closure of mines in the Pyrite Belt at the end of the 20th Century has led to a great loss of employment, which has caused the development of an intensive agriculture of citrus fruits as a new source of income. The intensive growing of citrus fruits and the traditional subsistence agriculture have been developed surrounding the mining areas and on floodplains near to mining sites. The level of soil pollution has not been taken into account in these cases, nor has its impact on the health of the inhabitants of these areas. Therefore, it is of great interest to study the current state of the cultivated soils and the sources and types of contaminants derived from mining activity in order to program its decontamination, where appropriate, according to legislation. In order to know the present and future hazard posed by the soils chemical and mineralogical speciation has been carried out, given that the availability of a metal depends on the

  4. Crust and Upper Mantle Structure beneath Isparta Angle in SW Turkey from P and S Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, M.; Turkelli, N.; Özacar, A.; Sandvol, E. A.; Teoman, U.

    2015-12-01

    Isparta Angle (IA) constitutes a triangular shape elevated tectonic domain in SW Turkey which contains units stacked with opposing thrust vergences during Late Cretaceous to Miocene. The region which is located at the junction between Aegean and Cyprus arcs separated by a slab tear is now bounded by Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in the west and Akşehir-Afyon Fault Zones (AAFZ) in the east. In the area, seismicity displays ongoing extension along active grabens oriented at different directions. In the past, many competing geodynamic scenarios had been proposed to explain the complex tectonic evolution of the area. In this study, we used both P and S receiver functions (RFs) to present high resolution crustal and upper mantle images down to 200 km. Moho and upper crustal discontinuities were well resolved by P Rfs; however S RFs were utilized to image lithospheric-asthenospheric boundaries having the benefit of being free of multiple conversions. RFs were calculated from 916 teleseismic earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.5) recorded by 42 permanent and temporary broadband stations BU-KOERI/NEMC, DEMP/ERD and Isparta Angle Seismic Experiment deployed by collaboration of BU-KOERI and University of Missouri. Totally, 4501 P and 946 S RFs with the cut-off frequencies of ~1.0 Hz and ~0.5 Hz, respectively, were obtained by applying iterative-time domain deconvolution. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratios were calculated by grid search of maximum amplitude of P RFs(Ps,PpPs and PsPs+PpSs) in depth and Vp/Vs domain. Then, we created 2-D P and S migrated cross-sections to observe crustal and lithospheric-asthenospheric discontinuities beneath the region. P RFs indicates that, average crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio is ~36 km and 1.78 in the region with small changing values close to the edges. Migrated P RFs cross-sections revealed a sharp change in Moho (Moho offset) on the western boundary that spatially correlates with the FBFZ. We also found a relatively flat Moho in the center and

  5. Plankton food-web functioning in anthropogenically impacted coastal waters (SW Mediterranean Sea): An ecological network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Marouan; Grami, Boutheïna; Chaalali, Aurélie; Haraldsson, Matilda; Niquil, Nathalie; Pringault, Olivier; Sakka Hlaili, Asma

    2018-03-01

    The study is the first attempt to (i) model spring food webs in three SW Mediterranean ecosystems which are under different anthropogenic pressures and (ii) to project the consequence of this stress on their function. Linear inverse models were built using the Monte Carlo method coupled with Markov Chains to characterize the food-web status of the Lagoon, the Channel (inshore waters under high eutrophication and chemical contamination) and the Bay of Bizerte (offshore waters under less anthropogenic pressure). Ecological network analysis was used for the description of structural and functional properties of each food web and for inter-ecosystem comparisons. Our results showed that more carbon was produced by phytoplankton in the inshore waters (966-1234 mg C m-2 d-1) compared to the Bay (727 mg C m-2 d-1). The total ecosystem carbon inputs into the three food webs was supported by high primary production, which was mainly due to >10 μm algae. However, the three carbon pathways were characterized by low detritivory and a high herbivory which was mainly assigned to protozooplankton. This latter was efficient in channelling biogenic carbon. In the Lagoon and the Channel, foods webs acted almost as a multivorous structure with a tendency towards herbivorous one, whereas in the Bay the herbivorous pathway was more dominant. Ecological indices revealed that the Lagoon and the Channel food webs/systems had high total system throughput and thus were more active than the Bay. The Bay food web, which had a high relative ascendency value, was more organized and specialized. This inter-ecosystem difference could be due to the varying levels of anthropogenic impact among sites. Indeed, the low value of Finn's cycling index indicated that the three systems are disturbed, but the Lagoon and the Channel, with low average path lengths, appeared to be more stressed, as both sites have undergone higher chemical pollution and nutrient loading. This study shows that ecosystem models

  6. Magma mixing, crustal contamination, contamination before chemical analysis or complex history? The case study from the Wołek Hill, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Monika

    2015-04-01

    Wołek Hill is one of the smallest exposures from ca. 300 occurrences of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Poland. The outcrop is located about 100 km SW from Wrocław and belongs to the Złotoryja Volcanic Field, which is one of the largest volcanic fields in the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province (Ladenberger et al. 2006). The volcanic body, which is about 20 m wide, cross-cuts older Permian volcanic rocks (trachyandesites and rhyolites) and is well exposed in an old abandoned quarry. The occurrence was studied in detail because of great amount of mantle and crustal xenoliths brought to the surface by magma. Wołek Hill is one of the two occurrences in SW Poland where amphibole crystals were recognized as results of modal metasomatism in lithospheric mantle (Nowak et al. 2012). The volcanic rock from Wołek Hill represents complex history, difficult to explain by simple model. The rock was classified as basanite (Nowak, 2012). Its texture is porphyritic to glomeroporphyritic, olivine (Ol) and clinopyroxene (Cpx) occurs as phenocrysts, Cpx is also the dominant phase in the groundmass. Wołek Hill basanite differs from other exposures in Złotoryja Volcanic Field by presence of xenocrysts of Ol and Cpx from mantle rocks and also quartz (Qrtz) and feldspars (Feld) xenocrysts from crustal rocks. Those xenocrysts with additional carbonate veins, probably related with post-volcanic processes, were a great difficulty during rock preparation for whole-rock and isotopic analyses. The complex history of Wołek Hill basanite is visible in its chemical content (slight increase of SiO2, positive Pb anomaly, 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd values), but also in its petrography (e.g. by three types of olivine phenocrysts Fo82-91 with differences in zonation patterns reflecting Fo content; the most abundant are phenocrysts with normal zoning, but also crystals with opposite zoning and oscillatory zoning were recognised). According to available data from the basanite

  7. Andrographolide suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer SW620 cells through the TLR4/NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Jian; Xu, Jian; Jiao, De-Xin; Wang, Jian; Gong, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Jian-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Modern pharmacological research has revealed that andrographolide has various functions, including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects, immunoregulation, treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver injury. The present study investigated whether andrographolide suppresses the proliferation of human colon cancer cell through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) signaling pathway. The MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay were used to evaluate the anticancer effects of andrographolide on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human colon cancer SW620 cells. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the anticancer effects of andrographolide on apoptosis by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide kit. The effects of andrographolide on the activity of caspase-3/9 were measured using ELISA. Western blot analysis was also used to analyze the protein expression of TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), NF-κB-p65 and MMP-9. In the present study, it was found that andrographolide suppressed the cell proliferation, augmented cytotoxicity, evoked cell apoptosis and activated caspase-3/9 activities in human colon cancer SW620 cells. The results revealed that the anti-proliferation effects of andrographolide on the SW620 cells was associated with the inhibition of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB-p65 and MMP-9 signaling activation. The results suggest that andrographolide is a promising drug for treatment of human colon cancer via suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway.

  8. Microtexture and distribution of minerals in hydrothermal Barite-Silica chimney from the Franklin seamount, SW Pacific: Constraints on mode of formation.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, D.; Kota, D.; Das, P.; SuryaPrakash, L.; Khedekar, V.D.; Paropkari, A.L.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    on existing spheres. So it can be hypothesized that the growth of new spheres was likely started through partial melting of parent spheres wall in contact with hot volatile rich fluid inside. Thus fluid-flow channels connect the microspheres into chains....D. and Shevchenko, V.P., 1997. Hydrological and geochemical anomalies associated with hydrothermal activity in SW Pacific marginal and back-arc basins. Marine Geology 142, 7-45. Martinez, F., Taylor, B., Goodliffe, A., 1999. Contrusting styles of seafloor...

  9. Criterios locales para selección de semillas de chayote (sechium edule jacq. sw.) en zonas rurales de chiapas, méxico

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Rodríguez-Larramendi, Luis; Gómez-Castro, Heriberto; Pinto-Ruiz, René; Rodríguez-Galván, Guadalupe; Perezgrovas Garza, Raúl Andrés

    2014-01-01

    En el estudio se identificaron y analizaron los criterios socio-antropológicos fundamentados en etnoagronomía y etnobotánica de los productores para seleccionar semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.) en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores (Chiapas, México). En entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas a 60 productores se describieron los criterios locales para seleccionar las semillas de esta hortaliza, considerando características de color, tamaño y presencia de ...

  10. Nitrogen dynamics in the shallow groundwater of a riparian wetland zone of the Garonne, SW France: nitrate inputs, bacterial densities, organic matter supply and denitrification measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sánchez-Pérez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the role of interactions between surface and sub-surface water of the riparian zone of a large river (the Garonne, SW France. Information is given about the role of surface water in supplying Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC to the riparian zone for nitrate removal processes. The densities of bacteria (up to 3.3 106 cell m L-1 in groundwater are strongly conditioned by the water moving during flood events. Total bacterial densities in groundwater were related to surface water bacterial densities. In sediment, total bacteria are attached mainly to fine particles (90% in the fraction Keywords: riparian zone, nitrate removal, spatial variations, alluvial groundwater

  11. Colomastigids (Amphipoda: Gammaridea: Colomastigidae from the Veracruz Coral Reef System, SW Gulf of Mexico, with a description of two new species associated with sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Winfield

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Colomastix (Amphipoda: Colomastigidae associated with sponges from the Veracruz Coral Reef System, Mexico, SW Gulf of Mexico, are described. The specimens were collected from the sponges Amphimedon compressa and Desmapsamma anchorata at depths between 3 and 12 m. Colomastix sarae n. sp. and Colomastix escobarae n. sp. are compared to other, very similar species of the genus Colomastix. In addition, we provide ecological and distribution information of sponge-inhabiting Colomastix halichondriae, C. irciniae, and C. tridentata collected from this coral reef system.

  12. Assessment of radiation dose due to intake of uranium through ground water and its carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in SW and NE Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigations, Laser Fluorimetry technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in drinking water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps, tube wells of various depths from wide range of locations in the four districts of SW-Punjab, India and two districts of NE - Punjab, India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of these regions

  13. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  14. First results of an INGV project for the integrated analysis of the active tectonics in SW Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Mario; Giovanni, Barreca; Carla, Bottari; Valentina, Bruno; Pierfrancesco, Burrato; Fabrizio, Cultrera; Luigi, Dardanelli; Sofia, De Gregorio; Luigi, Ferranti; Laura, Guzzetta; Paolo, Madonia; Carmelo, Monaco; Claudia, Pipitone; Fabrizio, Pepe; Francesco, Guglielmino

    2017-04-01

    number of high-angle, NNE-SSW-trending, left-lateral strike slip faults are present offshore the town of Sciacca. The offset of the sea floor suggests that the fault movement is still active. Expulsions of fluids along faults have also been observed along the continental shelf where mount-shaped, cold-seep communities formed. Under the hypothesis that earthquakes related to the Castelvetrano-Campobello di Mazara tectonic lineament could have induced the destruction of the ancient town of Selinunte, a re-analysis of the archaeoseismological data on the seismic collapse of Selinunte temples has been performed. The latest seismic event or seismic sequence has been constrained between the 4th and the 6th century A.D.. This event caused oriented collapse in most of the Selinunte temples (e.g. Temples C, D and E), whereas temple G collapsed inwards upon itself. The type of collapse observed in the temple G was matter of debate among scholars and two different hypothesis have been reported so far. Some archaeologists assumed that the temple G was hypaethral, or unroofed with an open central nave and cella, whereas others that the temple was never completed. As regards the geochemistry, the results of measurements of soil CO2 flux carried out in the north-eastern area of Belice Valley highlights the presence of sites with high degassing level (up to 350 g m-2 d-1) with a CO2 supply of crustal origin. The sites with crustal contribution are mainly aligned along NE-SW direction. The tectonic control on the geochemical characterization and flow path of groundwater is particularly evident in the Santa Ninfa gypsum karst structure, located within the area hit by the 1968 seismic sequence, and close to the epicentres of the most energetic seismic events (M>3.0) occurred in the Belice area during the last 30 years. We also collected GPS data from permanent and episodically surveyed station in SW Sicily with a twofold aim: 1) to retrieve new insights about the geodynamics of this sector

  15. Petrogenesis of late Paleozoic-to-early Mesozoic granitoids and metagabbroic rocks of the Tengchong Block, SW China: implications for the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents precise zircon U-Pb, bulk-rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for metagabbro, quartz diorite, and granite units within the Tengchong Block of SW China, which forms the southeastern extension of the Himalayan orogeny and the southwestern section of the Sanjiang orogenic belt, a key region for furthering our understanding of the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys. These data reveal four groups of zircon U-Pb ages that range from the late Paleozoic to the early Mesozoic, including a 263.6 ± 3.6 Ma quartz diorite, a 218.5 ± 5.4 Ma two-mica granite, a 205.7 ± 3.1 Ma metagabbroic unit, and a 195.5 ± 2.2 Ma biotite granite. The quartz diorite in this area contains low concentrations of SiO2 (60.71-64.32 wt%), is sodium-rich, and is metaluminous, indicating formation from magmas generated by a mixed source of metamafic rocks with a significant metapelitic sedimentary material within lower arc crust. The two-mica granites contain high concentrations of SiO2 (73.2-74.3 wt%), are strongly peraluminous, and have evolved Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, all of which are indicative of a crustal source, most probably from the partial melting of felsic pelite and metagreywacke/psammite material. The metagabbros contain low concentrations of SiO2 (50.17-50.96 wt%), are sodium-rich, contain high concentrations of Fe2O3T (9.79-10.06 wt%) and CaO (6.88-7.12 wt%), and are significantly enriched in the Sr (869-894 ppm) and LREE (198.14-464.60 ppm), indicative of derivation from magmas generated by a metasomatized mantle wedge modified by the sedimentary-derived component. The biotite granites are weakly peraluminous and formed from magmas generated by melting of metasedimentary sources dominated by metagreywacke/psammite material. Combining the petrology and geochemistry of these units with the regional geology of the Indosinian orogenic belt provides evidence for two stages of magmatism: an initial stage that generated magmas during partial melting of

  16. Soil compaction related to grazing and its effects on herbaceous roots frequency and soil organic matter content in rangelands of SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Miralles Mellado, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Rangelands in SW Spain occupy a total surface area of approximately 6 million ha and constitute the most representative extensive ranching system of the Iberian Peninsula gathering more than 13 million livestock heads. They are characterised by an herbaceous layer, mostly composed of therophytic species, with a disperse tree cover, mainly holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Q. suber), interspersed with shrubs in many places. This type of land system is of ancient origin and experienced frequent changes in land use in the past, since agricultural, livestock and forestry activities have coexisted within the same farms. In recent decades, livestock farming has become dominant due, in part, to the subsidies of the Common Agriculture Policy. Since Spain joined the European Union in 1986 until the year 2000, the number of domestic animals doubled, particularly cattle, and consequently animal stocking rates have increased on average from 0.40 AU ha-1 up to 0.70 AU ha-1. This increase in animal stocking rates, along with a progressive substitution of cattle instead of sheep in many farms, has led to the occurrence of land degradation processes such as the reduction of grass cover or soil compaction in heavily grazed areas. Previous research has evidenced higher values of soil bulk density and resistance to penetration as well as larger bare surface areas in spring in fenced areas with animal stocking rates above 1 AU ha-1. However, a better understanding of how increasing bulk density or resistance to penetration influence the frequency of herbaceous roots and how a reduction in the frequency of roots affects soil organic matter content in rangelands is still unknown. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine possible relationships between the frequencies of herbaceous roots and soil organic matter content in order to understand the effect of excessive animal numbers on the depletion of soil fertility by reducing progressively the quantity of

  17. Chromites from the Gogoł;ów-Jordanów Serpentinite Massif (SW Poland) - evidence of the arc setting magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtulek, Piotr; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bukała, Michał

    2014-05-01

    The Gogołów-Jordanów Serpentinite Massif (GJSM) is a peridotitic member of the Variscan Ślęża Ophiolite (SW Poland). Chromitite veinlets and pockets occur in the central part of the massif in the Czernica Hill area within completely serpentinized rocks. Chromitites consist of rounded chromite grains up to 4 cm and chlorite filling the interstices. The veins are embedded in serpentine-olivine-chlorite aggregates. Chemical composition of chromite occurring in chromitites defines two varieties. Chromite I (Cr# = 0.49 - 0.58) contains 23.32 - 28.36 wt.% Al2O3, 40.29 - 48.10 wt.% Cr2O3, 15.10 - 15.50 wt.% FeO, 14.50 - 15.50 wt.% MgO and ~0.1 wt.% TiO2. Chromite II (Cr# = 0.71 - 0.73) contains 13.83 - 15.24 wt.% Al2O3, 54.85 - 56.65 wt.% Cr2O3, 16.71 - 18.04 wt.% FeO, 10.62 - 11.59 wt.% MgO and 0.1 wt.% TiO2. Chromite grains are composed mostly of chromite I. Chromite II forms irregular spongy domains up to 150 µm, located at fissures or forming grain rims. The bulk chromitite composition of the massive ores reveals Rb, Ba, Pb and Sb enrichment relative to primitive mantle; Pt and Pd (up to 36 ppb) are also enriched relative to primitive mantle. Other phases coexisting with chromite are chlorite and olivine. Chlorite (Fe# = 0.02) contains 17.5 - 23.0 wt.% Al2O3, 0.6 - 1.8 wt.% Cr2O3 and 31.8 - 34.2 wt.% MgO. Olivine (Fo93.5-96.2) contains 0.44- 0.51 wt.% NiO. Olivine grains are zoned - the low-forsteritic cores are surrounded by high-forsteritic domain. Chromite II and chlorite are secondary phases and were probably formed due to greenschist facies metamorphism. Chromitites are cumuletes of melt blocked during its flow through peridotitic host. Low TiO2 content and moderate chromian number of the GJSM chromitites is typical for chromian spinels originated from melt derived from back arc depleted source (cf. Python et al., 2008, Gonzalez-Jimenez, 2011). The GJSM chromitites are rich in Al and poor in Pt and Pd what is typical for chromitites occurring in the

  18. Interação entre fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e fósforo no desenvolvimento da algaroba [Prosopis juliflora (Sw DC] Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus on growth of Prosopis juliflora (Sw DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lúcia Félix de Aguiar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhou-se, durante 100 dias, o desenvolvimento de mudas de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw DC em relação à presença ou ausência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, nativos ou introduzidos, combinada com adição ou não de fósforo ao solo. Foi usado solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo com pH ácido (4,7 e 2 mg.dm-3 de solo de P extraível por resina. O experimento teve delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial com duas condições de solo (esterilizado ou não, três níveis de fósforo (acréscimo de 0, 50 e 100 kg de P.ha-1 e duas condições de inoculação (inoculado ou não, com quatro repetições. No solo não esterilizado, apenas o diâmetro do colo respondeu à inoculação com esporos de FMA, quando foi usada a dose P100; o aumento de altura, número de folhas e massa seca foi possivelmente devido à adição de fósforo ao solo. No solo esterilizado, a inoculação resultou no aumento de altura, número de folhas, diâmetro de colo e massa seca das mudas na presença ou na ausência de P (P0 e P50, em relação àquelas no solo não-inoculado. Com o aumento da dose de fósforo (P100, os benefícios da inoculação não foram mais verificados, sendo a colonização e a produção de esporos favorecidas pela adição de P ao solo. Prosopis juliflora foi considerada micotrófica facultativa, pois respondeu tanto à inoculação com FMA quanto à adição de fósforo.The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and addition of phosphorus on seedling growth of Prosopis juliflora in sterilized and unsterilized soils was followed during 100 days. A red-yellow podzolic soil, pH of 4.7 and 2 mg Pdm-3, was used. The experiment was carried in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, and factorial arrangement of 2 soil conditions (sterilized and unsterilized × 3 P levels (0, 50 and 100 kg P.ha-1 × 2 mycorrhizal treatments (with and without AMF. In unsterilized soil, only the collar diameter

  19. Experience with Group Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Weiqin

    2006-01-01

    Supervision can take a few different forms. For example, it can be one-to-one supervision and it can also be group supervision. Group supervision is an important process within the scientific community. Many research groups use this form to supervise doctoral- and master students in groups. Some efforts have been made to study this process. For example, Samara (2002) studied the group supervision process in group writing. However, group supervision has not been studied thorough...

  20. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  1. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  2. Effect of sildenafil citrate on interleukin-1β-induced nitric oxide synthesis and iNOS expression in SW982 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ok; Park, Shin-Young; Han, Chang-Woo; Chung, Hyun Kee; Ryu, Dae-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sildenafil citrate on IL-1β-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and iNOS expression in human synovial sarcoma SW982 cells. IL-1β stimulated the cells to generate NO in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The IL-1β-induced NO synthesis was inhibited by guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor, LY83583. When the cells were treated with 8-bromo-cGMP, a hydrolyzable analog of cGMP, NO synthesis was increased upto 5-fold without IL-1β treatment suggesting that cGMP is an essential component for increasing the NO synthesis. Synoviocytes and chondrocytes contain strong cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, which has biochemical features of PDE5. When SW982 cells were pretreated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra), a PDE5 specific inhibitor, sildenafil citrate significantly inhibited IL-1β-induced NO synthesis and iNOS expressions. From this result, we noticed that PDE5 activity is required for IL-1β-induced NO synthesis and iNOS expressions in human synovial sarcoma cells, and sildenafil citrate may be able to suppress an inflammatory reaction of synovium through inhibition of NO synthesis and iNOS expression by cytokines. PMID:18587266

  3. Contribution of larval growth rate vairability to the recruitment of the Bay of Málaga anchovy (SW Mediterranean during 2000-2001 spawning seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Daily growth rates were estimated from larval anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus sampled in their main nursery grounds off the Bay of Málaga (SW Mediterranean during the 2000 and 2001 spawning seasons. Significantly higher growth rates were observed in the 2001 larval population, representing a 20% increase through the larval size classes analysed. The decimated SW Mediterranean anchovy population experienced a successful anchovy recruitment during this year estimated at 13,000 tons for the Bay of Málaga by the acoustic evaluation of small pelagic resources. The size distribution of the recruited anchovy juveniles during 2000 and 2001 showed an increase of approximately 2 cm. Their corresponding anchovy spawning seasonality agrees with the estimates from the growth model fits of each year. Data on the environmental background for the two years sampled are provided by a historical quarterly monitoring project. Zooplankton showed a two-fold significant increase during July 2001, coastwise as well as offshore. No significant changes in surface temperature were observed between years. Instead of the usual summer spawning peak, anchovy peak spawning shifted towards early spring during the 2001 spawning season. The study provides evidence from field data on the relationships of larval growth variability and recruitment.

  4. Establishment and Analysis of Cancer Stem-Like and Non-Cancer Stem-Like Clone Cells from the Human Colon Cancer Cell Line SW480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Akari; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Aiko; Morita, Rena; Saijo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Eri; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Tamura, Yasuaki; Takemasa, Ichiro; Kondo, Toru; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Human cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) can be isolated as side population (SP) cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHhigh) cells or cell surface marker-positive cells including CD44+ cells and CD133+ cells. CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs are unstable in in vitro culture, and CSCs/CICs can differentiate into non-CSCs/CICs and some non-CSCs/CICs can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs. Therefore, experiments using a large amount of CSCs/CICs are technically very difficult. In this study, we isolated single cell clones from SP cells and main population (MP) cells derived from the human colon cancer cell line SW480. SP analysis revealed that SP clone cells had relatively high percentages of SP cells, whereas MP clone cells showed very few SP cells, and the phenotypes were sustainable for more than 2 months of in vitro culture. Xenograft transplantation revealed that SP clone cells have higher tumor-initiating ability than that of MP clone cells and SP clone cell showed higher chemo-resistance compared with MP clone cells. These results indicate that SP clone cells derived from SW480 cells are enriched with CSCs/CICs, whereas MP clone cells are pure non-CSCs/CICs. SP clone cells and MP clone cells are a very stable in vitro CSC/CIC-enriched and non-CSC/CIC model for further analysis.

  5. Updated checklist and identification of areas of endemism of benthic amphipods (Caprellidea and Gammaridea from offshore habitats in the SW Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Winfield

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of the benthic amphipods associated with soft bottoms in the SW Gulf of Mexico has been made and the areas of endemism have been identified. Amphipods were collected in a depth interval of 25 to 3700 m during six cruises from 1994 to 1999. A total number of 56 species were identified, 11 belonging to the suborder Caprellidea and 45 to the suborder Gammaridea. Thirteen species extended their geographical distribution within the Gulf of Mexico and four species were considered new records in the Gulf of Mexico. A biogeographic analysis based on the shared species and the parsimony criterion helped identify three areas of endemism in the SW Gulf of Mexico. They were named: area A, a small area on the continental shelf of the Bay of Campeche; area B, the continental slope of the Bay of Campeche; and area C, the lower continental slope of the Mexican ridges extending into the western Sigsbee abyssal plain. These areas are defined in terms of their complex topography that may help isolate habitats that promote endemicity.

  6. Effect of sildenafil citrate on interleukin-1beta-induced nitric oxide synthesis and iNOS expression in SW982 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ok; Park, Shin-Young; Han, Chang-Woo; Chung, Hyun Kee; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Ryu, Dae-Hyun; Han, Joong-Soo

    2008-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sildenafil citrate on IL-1beta-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and iNOS expression in human synovial sarcoma SW982 cells. IL-1? stimulated the cells to generate NO in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The IL-1beta-induced NO synthesis was inhibited by guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor, LY83583. When the cells were treated with 8-bromo-cGMP, a hydrolyzable analog of cGMP, NO synthesis was increased upto 5-fold without IL-1beta treatment suggesting that cGMP is an essential component for increasing the NO synthesis. Synoviocytes and chondrocytes contain strong cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, which has biochemical features of PDE5. When SW982 cells were pretreated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra), a PDE5 specific inhibitor, sildenafil citrate significantly inhibited IL-1beta-induced NO synthesis and iNOS expressions. From this result, we noticed that PDE5 activity is required for IL-1?-induced NO synthesis and iNOS expressions in human synovial sarcoma cells, and sildenafil citrate may be able to suppress an inflammatory reaction of synovium through inhibition of NO synthesis and iNOS expression by cytokines.

  7. Influence of solar activity on the development of calcareous nannofossils from a Middle Holocene costal paleo-ria (SW Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Armand; Cachão, Mário; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Conceição Freitas, M.

    2015-04-01

    A 27 m long core was recovered from a present day flat-floored small fluvial valley, tributary of the Mira River (SW Portugal) allowing to span almost the complete Holocene sedimentary sequence directly overlaying Paleozoic schists and greywackes. A high resolution study of its micropaleontological content (Alday et al. 2006) was performed and 5 sedimentary stages were established: i) a coccolith-barren lower fluvial stage; ii) a coccolith intermittent lower estuarine stage; iii) a coccolith rich marine (ria) stage; iv) a coccolith intermittent upper estuarine/lagoonal stage and v) a coccolith-barren upper fluvial stage. The usefulness of calcareous nannofossils as natural tracers of the marine sedimentation contributing with valuable information for environmental reconstructions has been thoroughly demonstrated. Here, we present a high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstruction from the interpreted marine (ria) section of the core, between 8.8k and 4.8k cal yr BP using most abundant calcareous nannofossils. Factor Analysis retrieved two major factors from the coccolith assemblages. Factor 1 (24% var.) is related to oceanic affinity community (e.g. Gephyrocapsa muellerae, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera sibogae) whereas Factor 2 (23% var.) is linked to coastal neritic taxa (e.g. Ascidian spicules, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Coccolithus pelagicus braarudii, Heliscosphaera carteri and Braarudosphaera bigelowii). These scores showed the existence of two episodes (8.8k to 7.4k and 5.8k to 5.2k cal yr BP) of marine colonization inside the paleoecological succession of the Holocene paleo-ria (8.8k and 4.8k cal yr BP). In order to establish the relationship between the solar activity and calcareous nannofossils sedimentation, cyclicity on the studied time series was investigated by performing spectral analysis on Factor 1 (F1) and Factor 2 (F2) scores. F1 score periodogram discloses three significant periodicities (460, 350 and 236-yrs) whereas F2 score

  8. The influence of grazing intensity on soil properties and degradation processes in Mediterranean rangelands (Extremadura, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Fernández, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado-Contador, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    Rangelands cover vast extensions of land in Spain (>90,000 km2), where a total amount of 13 millions of domestic animals graze extensively their pastures. By clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and by cultivation, these rangelands were created from former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed by holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Q. suber) as tree species, Nowadays this land system is exploited economically in large farms (>100 ha), most of them held on private ownership (80% of total) and dedicated to extensive ranching. Overgrazing is common and the excessive stocking rates may deteriorate soil quality, causing economic losses and environmental damage. Many studies have been developed on the effects of livestock grazing over soil properties and degradation processes, most of them by only comparing extreme cases (e.g. ungrazed vs. grazed or overgrazed areas). The main goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding on how animal grazing affects soil properties and degradation processes. The study is particularly focused on soil compaction and sheet erosion as related to the reduction of vegetation cover by defoliation. Soil properties were analysed from 119 environmental units selected from 56 farms distributed throughout the region of Extremadura (SW Spain). The units are representative of different rangeland types, i.e. scrublands of Retama sphaerocarpa, dehesas (wooded rangelands) and treeless grasslands. Soil surface cover was determined along transects in September 2010 (antecedent rainfall: 413-923 mm) considering the following classes: bare ground, grasses, mosses, litter, stones (<2 mm) and rock outcrops. Farmer interviews were also conducted in order to quantify stocking rates and to assess land management in 12 out of 56 farms. In the farms where transects and farmer interviews could not be carried out, bare soil surface and livestock densities were estimated. Bare soil surface was determined by classifying

  9. Quantifying gully erosion contribution from morphodynamic analysis of historical aerial photographs in a large catchment SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayas, Antonio; Giráldez, Juan V.; Laguna, Ana; Peña, Peña; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Gully erosion is widely recognized as an important erosion process and source of sediment, especially in Mediterranean basins. Recent advances in monitoring techniques, such as ground-based LiDAR, drone-bounded cameras or photoreconstruction, allow quantifying gully erosion rates with unprecedented accuracy. However, many studies only focus on gully growth during a short period. In agricultural areas, farmers frequently erase gullies artificially. Over longer time scales, this results in an important dynamic of gully growth and infilling. Also, given the significant temporal variability of precipitation, land use and the proper gully erosion processes, gully growth is non-linear over time. This study therefore aims at analyzing gully morphodynamics over a long time scale (1957-2011) in a large catchment in order to quantify gully erosion processes and its contribution to overall sediment dynamics. The 20 km2 study area is located in SW Spain. The extension of the gully network was digitized by photographic interpretation based on aerial photographs from 1957, 1981, 1985, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011. Gully width was measured at representative control points for each of these years. During this period, the dominant land use changed considerably from herbaceous crops to olive orchards. A field campaign was conducted in 2014 to measure current gully width and depth. Total gully volume and uncertainty was determined by Monte Carlo-based simulations of gully cross-sectional area for unmeasured sections. The extension of the gully network both increased and decreased in the study period. Gully density varied between 1.93 km km-2 in 1957, with a minimum of 1.37 km km-2 in 1981 and a maximum of 5.40 km km-2 in 2011. Gully width estimated in selected points from the orthophotos range between 0.9 m and 59.2 m, and showed a good lognormal fit. Field campaigns results in a collection of cross-section measures with gullies widths between 1.87 and 28.5 m and depths from

  10. The giant Upper Yangtze Pb-Zn province in SW China: Reviews, new advances and a new genetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Xi; Xiang, Zhen-Zhong; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Feng, Yue-Xing; Luo, Kai; Huang, Zhi-Long; Wu, Tao

    2018-04-01

    In the western margin of the Yangtze Block, SW China, the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is spatially associated with >400 carbonate-hosted epigenetic Pb-Zn deposits. These deposits form the giant Upper Yangtze Pb-Zn metallogenic province with >20 Mt base metals. In the southeastern part of this province, the important Pb-Zn deposits include those of the Yinchangpo, Yunluhe, Maozhachang, Tianqiao, Banbanqiao, Mangdong, Shaojiwan, Liangyan, Qingshan, Shanshulin, Nayongzhi and Guanziyao deposits. Sulfide ore bodies in these deposits are (i) hosted in late Ediacaran to middle Permian limestone, dolomitic limestone and dolostone; (ii) structurally controlled by reverse fault-anticline tectonic systems; and (iii) spatially associated with the ELIP flood basalts and mafic dikes, and early Permian, early Carboniferous and early Cambrian organic matter-rich black shales. C-O isotopic compositions suggest that dolostone and limestone, mantle-derived rocks of the ELIP, and sedimentary organic matters supplied C-O to the hydrothermal systems through water/rock (W/R) interaction. New and existing S isotopic compositions of sulfides imply multiple sources of S and the reduction of sulfate through both abiotic thermochemical (TSR) and bacterially mediated (BSR) processes. Zn isotopes indicate that the sources of Zn were most likely related to the ELIP with various contributions from sediments and basements locally. Pb isotope signatures are suggestive of derivation of Pb from basements and sedimentary rocks with variable influences from the ELIP. Sr isotopes support that mantle-derived rocks, sediments and basements were involved in Pb-Zn mineralization, and they have various contributions in different deposits. We consider that the Pb-Zn deposits in the Upper Yangtze province are the mixed products of multiple S species-bearing solutions and metal-rich fluids, both of which were derived from, flowed through or interacted with multiple lithostratigraphic units in the

  11. Evolution of stress and strain during 3D folding: application to orthogonal fracture systems in folded turbidites, SW Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, J. E.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Lechmann, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    We present field data and numerical modeling results which show the evolution of stress and strain patterns during 3D folding resulting in an orthogonal fracture system. The field area is located near Almograve, SW Portugal. The area is part of the Mira Formation which itself is part of the South Portuguese Zone (SPZ). The structural development of the SPZ is characterized by southwest vergent folding and thrust displacement. The metamorphism in the SPZ increases from diagenetic conditions in the southwest to greenschist-facies conditions to the northeast. The Mira Formation is composed of turbiditic layers of Carboniferous age with low sandstone to shale ratio. The data was gathered at three outcrops which show structures similar to chocolate tablet structures in the folded sandstone layers. Chocolate tablet structures are generated under simultaneous extension in two directions and show two fracture systems of the same age which are perpendicular to each other. However, the Mira Formation is located in a convergent area. Also, the outcrops near Almograve show two fracture systems of different age. The fractures orthogonal to the fold axis and the bedding are crosscut by fractures parallel to the fold axis and orthogonal to the bedding. Our hypothesis for the evolution of the observed fracture systems is as follows; the older fractures which are now orthogonal to the fold axis and to the bedding plane were generated during compression while the layers were still approximately horizontal. They are parallel to σ1(i.e. mode 1 fractures). The second and younger fracture family was generated in a phase where there is local extension in the fold limbs. These fractures are orthogonal to the far-field σ1, parallel to the fold axis and perpendicular to the bedding. The shortening direction is constant during the entire folding process. We test our hypothesis with numerical modeling. We use 2D and 3D finite element codes with a mixed formulation for incompressible flow

  12. Historical soil erosion rates in rangelands of SW Spain determined using botanical evidences and high resolution 3D data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Susanne; Rubio-Delgado, Judit; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2014-05-01

    The estimation of medium-term sheet erosion rates represents still a challenge in areas with long land use history. In the present paper, a new methodology for estimating medium-term sheet erosion rates is presented and applied in a wooded rangeland (dehesa). This human-induced semi-natural ecosystem is widespread in SW Iberian Peninsula and is characterized by centuries of agrosilvopastoral land use, being livestock breeding the most important economic activity at present. Vast areas are covered by shallow and poor soils, pointing to a long history of soil erosion. Research carried out in a representative area with open plots revealed low soil loss rates and degradation studies showed high spatial variation related with land use intensity. Knowledge on past soil erosion rates and its relation with land use is necessary in order to understand present soil properties and also for giving adequate advice on land management. The present paper presents results of a pilot study on historical soil erosion in Mediterranean wooded rangelands. The methodology is based on the analysis of the morphology of tree stems, exposed roots and surface micro-topography using data obtained with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner. Specifically, botanical evidences were used to estimate the antecedent level of the soil surface. Afterwards, previous and current surfaces were confronted in order to obtain a volume of soil loss in the area influenced by the tree canopy, as well as for the open spaces. On the other hand, the age of the trees in the study area was estimated by means of an existing tree growth model. Finally, soil erosion rates were calculated using the volume of soil loss and the estimated age of every tree. The sampling was carried out in a farm in the Spanish province of Cáceres, with a two-layered vegetation, of grasses and scattered trees (Quercus ilex). Climate is Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 160C and an annual rainfall of 620 mm. Soils are very shallow

  13. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  14. Group purchasing: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetrich, J G

    1987-07-01

    The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.

  15. Reply to the comments on: ;From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis; [journal of South American earth sciences 70 (2016) 368-382] by Vesely & Schemiko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandretti, Luciano; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Assine, Mario Luis; Machado, Rômulo; Lana, Cristiano

    2017-07-01

    The publication of the comments by Vesely & Schemiko (Comment on "From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis" by L. Alessandretti, R. Machado, L.V. Warren, M.L. Assine and C. Lana [Journal of South American Earth Sciences 70 (2016) 368-382], Journal of South American Earth Sciences, this issue) on our paper entitled "From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis" (L. Alessandretti, R. Machado, L.V. Warren, M.L. Assine and C. Lana (Journal of South American Earth Sciences 70 (2016) 368-382) provides a worthy opportunity to further clarify our observations and interpretations regarding the provenance of the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation and its implications on SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion.

  16. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  17. Citizens' action group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andritzky, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the first empirical study of citizens' action groups 331 such groups were consulted. Important information was collected on the following aspects of these groups: their self-image, areas and forms of activities, objectives and their extent, how long the group has existed, successes and failures and their forms of organisation. (orig.) [de

  18. When Groups Go Wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopler, Janice H.; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    1981-01-01

    Studied social workers' perceptions of group dimensions that had negative effects on members. Found that group leaders viewed group composition as a major source of harmful interaction while members and observers saw group norms as a more frequent cause of negative effects. (Author/JAC)

  19. Group Psychotherapy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rainer; Strauss, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of group psychotherapies in Germany originating from a psychodynamic tradition. The German health system provides access to inpatient and outpatient psychotherapy for all of its citizens. Whereas groups are common in inpatient settings, the provision of outpatient group treatment still could be improved, as it is the case for the general training of group psychotherapists. Group research in Germany largely reflects clinical practice, with more studies coming from the inpatient field. It is stated that the general image of group treatment seems to be largely positive, which could provide a basis for political initiatives to improve the dissemination of group therapy in this country.

  20. Handbook of group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Athanase; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Groups and group actions are probably the most central objects in mathematics. Comprising volumes 31 and 32 of the ALM series (with further volumes forthcoming), the Handbook of Group Actions presents survey articles on the topic of group actions and how they appear in several mathematical contexts. The general subject matter is organized under the following sections: geometry, mapping class groups, knot groups, topology, representation theory, deformation theory, and discrete groups. The various articles deal with both classical material and modern developments. They are written by specialists in their respective subject areas, and addressed to graduate students who want to learn the theory, as well as to specialists as a reference.

  1. Innovation in business groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Belenzon; Tomer Berkovitz

    2007-01-01

    Using novel data on European firms, this paper investigates the relationship between business groups and innovation. Controlling for various firm characteristics, we find that group affiliates are more innovative than standalones. We examine several hypotheses to explain this finding, focusing on group internal capital markets and knowledge spillovers. We find that group affiliation is particularly important for innovation in industries that rely more on external funding and in groups with mo...

  2. Growth-inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive agent indole-3-carbinol are increased in combination with the polyamine putrescine in the SW480 colon tumour cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E Ann; Howells, Lynne M; Gallacher-Horley, Barbara; Fox, Louise H; Gescher, Andreas; Manson, Margaret M

    2003-01-01

    Background Many tumours undergo disregulation of polyamine homeostasis and upregulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, which can promote carcinogenesis. In animal models of colon carcinogenesis, inhibition of ODC activity by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has been shown to reduce the number and size of colon adenomas and carcinomas. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has shown promising chemopreventive activity against a range of human tumour cell types, but little is known about the effect of this agent on colon cell lines. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of ODC by I3C could contribute to a chemopreventive effect in colon cell lines. Methods Cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was determined by liberation of CO2 from 14C-labelled substrate, and polyamine levels were measured by HPLC. Results I3C inhibited proliferation of the human colon tumour cell lines HT29 and SW480, and of the normal tissue-derived HCEC line, and at higher concentrations induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. The agent also caused a decrease in ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. While administration of exogenous putrescine reversed the growth-inhibitory effect of DFMO, it did not reverse the growth-inhibition following an I3C treatment, and in the case of the SW480 cell line, the effect was actually enhanced. In this cell line, combination treatment caused a slight increase in the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and increased the proportion of cells undergoing necrosis, but did not predispose cells to apoptosis. Indole-3-carbinol also caused an increase in intracellular spermine levels, which was not modulated by putrescine co-administration. Conclusion While indole-3-carbinol decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity in the colon cell lines, it appears unlikely that this constitutes a major mechanism by which the agent exerts its antiproliferative effect, although accumulation

  3. Growth-inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive agent indole-3-carbinol are increased in combination with the polyamine putrescine in the SW480 colon tumour cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gescher Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many tumours undergo disregulation of polyamine homeostasis and upregulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, which can promote carcinogenesis. In animal models of colon carcinogenesis, inhibition of ODC activity by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO has been shown to reduce the number and size of colon adenomas and carcinomas. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C has shown promising chemopreventive activity against a range of human tumour cell types, but little is known about the effect of this agent on colon cell lines. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of ODC by I3C could contribute to a chemopreventive effect in colon cell lines. Methods Cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was determined by liberation of CO2 from 14C-labelled substrate, and polyamine levels were measured by HPLC. Results I3C inhibited proliferation of the human colon tumour cell lines HT29 and SW480, and of the normal tissue-derived HCEC line, and at higher concentrations induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. The agent also caused a decrease in ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. While administration of exogenous putrescine reversed the growth-inhibitory effect of DFMO, it did not reverse the growth-inhibition following an I3C treatment, and in the case of the SW480 cell line, the effect was actually enhanced. In this cell line, combination treatment caused a slight increase in the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and increased the proportion of cells undergoing necrosis, but did not predispose cells to apoptosis. Indole-3-carbinol also caused an increase in intracellular spermine levels, which was not modulated by putrescine co-administration. Conclusion While indole-3-carbinol decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity in the colon cell lines, it appears unlikely that this constitutes a major mechanism by which the agent exerts its antiproliferative

  4. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  5. Independent student study groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Graham D; Hyde, Sarah J; Davy, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Teachers and students regulate learning to varying degrees in educational programmes in higher education. We present evidence that students in a student-centred medical programme self- and co-regulate their learning in independently formed study groups. We describe the perceived benefits of study groups and the effect of study group membership on student achievement. Years 1-2 of a 4-year, graduate-entry problem-based medical programme. We surveyed 233 year 2 students about features of their study groups and their study group membership in years 1-2. We compared study group membership with students' scores on a written summative assessment held at the end of their second year. For students who joined 1 study group, the length of time their group stayed together was positively related to achievement in the written summative assessment. There were no differences in summative assessment results between students who had been in a study group and students who had not been in a study group. Effective study groups are supportive, socially cohesive groups who generate mutual trust and loyalty, and self- and co-regulate their learning by giving and receiving explanations and summaries and motivating individual study. Teachers can support the formation of study groups by using small-group teaching/learning activities, providing clear learning outcomes and assessment criteria, minimising competition for grades and allocating room space.

  6. Nilpotent -local finite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.

  7. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  8. UPIN Group File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Group Unique Physician Identifier Number (UPIN) File is the business entity file that contains the group practice UPIN and descriptive information. It does NOT...

  9. Introduction to topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    Husain, Taqdir

    2018-01-01

    Concise treatment covers semitopological groups, locally compact groups, Harr measure, and duality theory and some of its applications. The volume concludes with a chapter that introduces Banach algebras. 1966 edition.

  10. Free paratopological groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sayed Elfard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Let FP(X be the free paratopological group on a topological space X in the sense of Markov. In this paper, we study the group FP(X on a $P_\\alpha$-space $X$ where $\\alpha$ is an infinite cardinal and then we prove that the group FP(X is an Alexandroff space if X is an Alexandroff space. Moreover, we introduce a~neighborhood base at the identity of the group FP(X when the space X is Alexandroff and then we give some properties of this neighborhood base. As applications of these, we prove that the group FP(X is T_0 if X is T_0, we characterize the spaces X for which the group FP(X is a topological group and then we give a class of spaces $X$ for which the group FP(X has the inductive limit property.

  11. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  12. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  13. Informal group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans Nienstaedt; Dean W. Einspahr; J. Douglas Brodie

    1973-01-01

    Editor's note: The morning's presentations were discussed during the afternoon by three groups, each group discussing one of the morning's three topics. Summaries of the discussions, prepared by the discussion leaders, follow.

  14. A recurrent human papillomavirus integration site at chromosome region 12q14-q15 in SW756 and SK-v cell lines derived from genital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Garau, X.; Couturier, J.; Favre, M.; Orth, G.

    1995-01-01

    The SW756 cell line, derived from an invasive cancer of the uterine cervix, harbours integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 DNA sequences which have been located in chromosome band 12q13. By in situ hybridization experiments with tritiated and digoxigenin-labelled HPV18 probes on R-banded chromosomes, we now localize the integrated viral sequences in 12q14-q15. Interestingly, we have previously localized integrated HPV16 sequences in the same chromosomal region in SK-v cells, derived from a pre-invasive vulvar neoplasia. The chromosomal region 12q14-q15 could thus correspond to a preferential site for the integration of HPV DNA in genital tumors. (authors). 29 refs., 2 figs

  15. A multi-molecular marker assessment of organic pollution in shore sediments from the Río de la Plata Estuary, SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Natalia; Bícego, Márcia C; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio T; García-Rodríguez, Felipe; Brugnoli, Ernesto; Muniz, Pablo

    2015-02-28

    Organic pollution was evaluated in surface sediments along the middle portion of the Río de la Plata Estuary, SW Atlantic. A multi-molecular marker approach was performed to identify major sources of organic compounds using diagnostic indices. The relative contribution of different sources of hydrocarbons was quantified by source apportionment employing Principal Component Analysis/Multiple Linear Regression (PCA/MLR) as chemometric technique. All molecular markers indicated high chronic organic pollution in the stations of Montevideo Bay. Main sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were petroleum inputs and combustion, due to oil transport and refinement, harbour activities and vehicular emissions. Major sources of linear alkylbenzenes and steroids were industrial and domestic sewage. Although, significant anthropogenic inputs, a natural footprint of terrestrial higher plants contribution was recognized. Multi-molecular marker and comprehensive assessments can improve the establishment of more precise regulation actions to reduce pollution levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diferentes níveis de cálcio e o desenvolvimento de plantas de estilosantes (Stylosanthes guyanensis (Aubl.) Sw. cv "Cook")

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,J.D.; Rodrigues,S.D.; Pedras,J.F.; Delachiave,M.E.A.; Boaro,C.S.F.; Ono,E.O.

    1993-01-01

    O presente experimento teve como finalidade estudar os efeitos de níveis de cálcio no desenvolvimento de plantas de Stylosanthes guyanensis (Aubl.) Sw. cv "Cook", em sua fase vegetativa, através dos parâmetros que compõem a análise fisiológica de crescimento e de que forma estes parâmetros se alteram, em função dos tratamentos utilizados. Delinearam-se quatro tratamentos, a saber: T1 (200 mg de cálcio/litro); T2 (133,33 mg de cálcio/litro); T3 (66,66 mg de cálcio/litro); T4 (omisso em cálcio)...

  17. Multicultural group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  18. AREVA group overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  19. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... NONcommutative spaces. 2. Banica and Bichon defined quantum symmetry groups for finite metric spaces, finite graphs, etc. 3. Lots of examples computed leading to discovery of completely new kinds of quantum groups. Jyotishman Bhowmick (Indian Statistical Institute). Quantum isometry groups. 07.11.

  20. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, J. I. Burgos; Feliu, Elisenda

    2012-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov co...

  1. Asymmetry within social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2016-01-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...

  2. Tectaria group: Arthropteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.; Leonardía, A.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Holttum, R.E., Tectaria group. Flora Malesiana, Ser. II, 2 (1991) 1–132 defined this group without the genus Arthropteris. Later molecular studies indicated that this genus belongs to Tectariaceae, the Tectaria group of Holttum. The genus contains two species in Malesia. Illustration is by one

  3. Change through Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, Les; Friedman, Amy; Spears, Evans

    Perhaps the most well known treatment modalities in the field of prevention and treatment of addiction are groups. Group settings serve to bring individuals with addictions together at one time in one place to work on relevant issues together. Groups may serve as a safe environment for learning new social and relationship skills, gaining…

  4. Bioensayo General de Letalidad en Artemia Salina, a Las Fracciones del Extracto Etanólico De Psidium Guajava. L y Psidium Guineense. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Sánchez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se centró en la evaluación y verificación de la letalidad de las fracciones acetato de etilo, obtenida de los extractos etanólicos de los frutos en estado de madurez, verde y pintón, utilizando la cáscara y pulpa de las especies guayaba (Psidium guajava L y Choba (Psidium guineense Sw. La valoración se llevó a cabo mediante el bioensayo en Artemia salina, a través del cual, se evidencia el siguiente proceso: determinar la concentración letal 50 (CL50 utilizando el medio artificial a Ph 7-8, burbujear con el fin de saturar de oxígeno la solución, controlar la eclosión de los huevos a 25 °C despuésde 48 horas, preparar la solución madre y las de trabajo a concentraciones de 1500, 1000, 500,100, 10 g/ml, control positivo estricnina a 80, 70, 60, 50 g/ml, blanco solvente etanol a 80 g/ml. El ensayo biológico se realizó siguiendo las metodologías propuestas por Gualdrón, R (1994; Cyted (1995;Martínez, C (1999 y McLaughlin, J (1997. Comprobada la letalidad de las fracciones acetato del extracto etanólico de Psidium guajava. L y Psidium guineense. Sw mostró CL50 de 181.4 y 221.30g/ml respectivamente, los resultados se evaluaron según Gautret (2000.

  5. Group Psychotherapy in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lars Bo; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren

    2015-10-01

    This is a short article on the history and training standards in the Institute of Group Analysis in Copenhagen (IGA-CPH). We describe theoretical orientations and influences in the long-term training program and new initiatives, like courses in mentalization-based group treatment and a dynamic short-term group therapy course, as well as research in group psychotherapy in Denmark. Some group analytic initiatives in relation to social issues and social welfare are presented, as well as initiatives concerning the school system and unemployment.

  6. Group theory I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  7. Correlation between cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations assessed by FISH for low and high doses of radiation and sensitization by iodo-deoxyuridine in human SW-1573 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; Ruurs, P.; Ludwików, G.; van Bree, C.; Kipp, J. B.; Darroudi, F.; Barendsen, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between cell reproductive death and exchange frequency in SW-1573 human lung tumour cells with and without incorporated iodo-deoxyuridine (IdUrd) following irradiation of plateau-phase cultures with y-rays. METHOD: Linear-quadratic (LQ) analysis was performed for

  8. The Effect of the Leader in Me, a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention System (SW-PBIS), Based on Student Achievement and Office Discipline Referrals for Fifth Grade Students in a Rural Elementary School in North Central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose this study was to examine the implementation of The Leader in Me, a school-wide positive behavior intervention system (SW-PBIS), and analyze its impact on 5th grade students based on student achievement and office discipline referrals in a rural elementary school in North Central Washington state. The school was in the first year of…

  9. Lectures on Chevalley groups

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Robert Steinberg's Lectures on Chevalley Groups were delivered and written during the author's sabbatical visit to Yale University in the 1967-1968 academic year. The work presents the status of the theory of Chevalley groups as it was in the mid-1960s. Much of this material was instrumental in many areas of mathematics, in particular in the theory of algebraic groups and in the subsequent classification of finite groups. This posthumous edition incorporates additions and corrections prepared by the author during his retirement, including a new introductory chapter. A bibliography and editorial notes have also been added. This is a great unsurpassed introduction to the subject of Chevalley groups that influenced generations of mathematicians. I would recommend it to anybody whose interests include group theory. -Efim Zelmanov, University of California, San Diego Robert Steinberg's lectures on Chevalley groups were given at Yale University in 1967. The notes for the lectures contain a wonderful exposition of ...

  10. E-groups training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    There will be an e-groups training course on 16 March 2012 which will cover the main e-groups functionalities i.e.: creating and managing e-groups, difference between static and dynamic e-groups, configuring posting restrictions and archives, examples of where e-groups can be used in daily work. Even if you have already worked with e-groups, this may be a good opportunity to learn about the best practices and security related recommendations when using e-groups. You can find more details as well as enrolment form for the training (it’s free) here. The number of places is limited, so enrolling early is recommended.   Technical Training Tel. 72844

  11. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  12. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-01-01

    New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case), method of conversations with themembers of the...

  14. Presentations of groups

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide an introduction to combinatorial group theory. Any reader who has completed first courses in linear algebra, group theory and ring theory will find this book accessible. The emphasis is on computational techniques but rigorous proofs of all theorems are supplied. This new edition has been revised throughout, including new exercises and an additional chapter on proving that certain groups are infinite.

  15. What's your group worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M R

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of acquisitions and mergers of healthcare organizations, it has become necessary for medical group practices to know what they are worth. The traditional balance sheet valuation ignores what is perhaps the most important consideration of all: a group's earning potential. Discussed in this article are the many facets of the complex valuation process, including both tangible and intangible assets, and the author provides a method for adequately determining a range of values for a medical group.

  16. The maximal acceleration group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the maximal proper acceleration relative to the vacuum, a line element and differential geometry of eight-dimensional phase space are constructed. The maximal acceleration group is defined as the mathematical transformation group under which the eight dimensional line element is invariant. In the classical limit of vanishing Planck's constant, the maximal acceleration group and geometry reduce to those of general relativity

  17. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions.......Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  18. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  19. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  20. Lie groups for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry J

    2002-01-01

    According to the author of this concise, high-level study, physicists often shy away from group theory, perhaps because they are unsure which parts of the subject belong to the physicist and which belong to the mathematician. However, it is possible for physicists to understand and use many techniques which have a group theoretical basis without necessarily understanding all of group theory. This book is designed to familiarize physicists with those techniques. Specifically, the author aims to show how the well-known methods of angular momentum algebra can be extended to treat other Lie group

  1. Environmental groups in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

  2. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffagni, Andrea; Tenchini, Roberta; Cazzola, Marcello; Erba, Stefania; Balestrini, Raffaella; Belfiore, Carlo; Pagnotta, Romano

    2016-09-15

    We hypothesized that reach-scale, bank and channel modification would impact benthic communities in temporary rivers of Sardinia, when pollution and water abstraction are not relevant. A range of variables were considered, which include both artificial structures/alterations and natural features observed in a stream reach. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were used to assess the effects of the explanatory variables on invertebrate assemblages and five groups, characterized by different habitat modification and/or features, were recognized. Four node variables determined the splits in the MRT analysis: channel reinforcement, tree-related bank and channel habitats, channel modification and bank modification. Continuity of trees in the river corridor diverged among MRT groups and significant differences among groups include presence of alders, extent of channel shading and substrate diversity. Also, the percentage of in-stream organic substrates, in particular CPOM/Xylal, showed highly significant differences among groups. For practical applications, thresholds for the extent of channel reinforcement (40%) and modification (10%) and for bank alteration (≈30%) were provided, that can be used to guide the implementation of restoration measures. In moderately altered river reaches, a significant extent of tree-related habitats (≈5%) can noticeably mitigate the effects of morphological alteration on aquatic invertebrates. The outcomes highlight the importance of riparian zone management as an opportune, achievable prospect in the restoration of Mediterranean temporary streams. The impact of bank and channel modification on ecological status (sensu WFD) was investigated and the tested benthic metrics, especially those based on abundance data, showed legible differences among MRT groups. Finally, bank and channel modification appears to be a potential threat for the conservation of a few Sardo-Corsican endemic species. The introduction of management criteria that

  3. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  4. Origin, evolution and geothermometry of the thermal waters in the Gölemezli Geothermal Field, Denizli Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Meccheri, Marco; Yavuzer, İbrahim; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat

    2018-01-01

    The Gölemezli Geothermal Field (GGF) is one of the best known geothermal fields in western Anatolia (Turkey). The exploited fluids are of meteoric origin, mixed with deep magmatic fluids, which interacted with the metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif. The geothermal fluids are channeled along Quaternary faults belonging to the main normal faults system delimiting the northern side of the Denizli Basin and their associated transfer zones. In this study, hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of the thermal and cold waters allow us to determine water-rock interactions, fluid paths and mixing processes. Two groups of thermal waters have been distinguished: (i) Group 1A, comprising Na-SO4 type and Ca-SO4 type and (ii) Group 1B, only consisting Ca-HCO3 type waters. Differently, two groups were recognized in the cold waters: (i) Group 2A, corresponding to Ca-HCO3 type and (ii) Group 2B, including Mg-HCO3 type. Their geochemical characteristics indicate interactions with the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif and with the Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks. Dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions modify thermal water composition in the reservoir of the GGF. High correlation in some ionic ratios and high concentrations of some minor elements suggest an enhanced water-rock interaction. None of the thermal waters has been reached a complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result of mixing with cold water during their pathways. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated in the range of 130-210°C for the Gölemezli field. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios are respectively between -8.37 and -8.13‰ and -61.09 and -59.34‰ for the SO4-rich thermal waters, and ca. - 8.40 and -8.32‰ and - 57.80 and -57.41‰ for the HCO3-rich thermal waters. Low tritium (rock volumes. Volatile ascent from deep magmatic sources through crustal structures can explain the occurrence of mantle volatiles at shallow depth in the Denizli Basin

  5. Combinatorial Group Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Combinatorial Group Theory Group Theory via Generators and Relations. B Sury. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 42-50. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Beam dynamics group summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, S.

    This paper summarizes the activities of the beam dynamics working group of the LHC Collective Effects Workshop that was held in Montreux in 1994. It reviews the presentations that were made to the group, the discussions that ensued, and the consensuses that evolved.

  7. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... Lots of examples computed leading to discovery of completely new kinds of quantum groups. Jyotishman Bhowmick (Indian Statistical Institute). Quantum ... on a noncommutative Riemannian manifold ( given by a spectral data ). Jyotishman Bhowmick (Indian Statistical Institute). Quantum isometry groups.

  8. Democratic Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  9. Group Work. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  10. Supervision and group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Jensen, Lars Peter

    2004-01-01

     An important aspect of the problem based and project organized study at Aalborg University is the supervision of the project groups. At the basic education (first year) it is stated in the curriculum that part of the supervisors' job is to deal with group dynamics. This is due to the experience...

  11. Cohesion in group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, Gary M; McClendon, Debra Theobald; Alonso, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Cohesion is the most popular of several relationship constructs in the clinical and empirical group therapy literature. This article reviews the most frequently cited definitions and studied measures of group cohesion. We briefly introduce a new measure, the Group Questionnaire, which elucidates group relationships by suggesting two latent factors of cohesion-relationship quality (positive bond, positive work, and negative relationship) and structure factors (member-leader and member-member). To further understand the literature, we conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between cohesion and treatment outcome in 40 studies. Results indicate cohesion that the weighted aggregate correlation was statistically significant with outcome r = .25, k (40), N (3,323), z = 6.54 (p cohesion outcome correlation (age, theoretical orientation, length, and size of group, as well as interventions intended to enhance cohesion). Consideration of measures and practices to improve treatment outcome are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  13. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  14. Group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Sara E; Carter, Ebony B

    2017-06-01

    Patients participating in group prenatal care gather together with women of similar gestational ages and 2 providers who cofacilitate an educational session after a brief medical assessment. The model was first described in the 1990s by a midwife for low-risk patients and is now practiced by midwives and physicians for both low-risk patients and some high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes. The majority of literature on group prenatal care uses CenteringPregnancy, the most popular model. The first randomized controlled trial of CenteringPregnancy showed that it reduced the risk of preterm birth in low-risk women. However, recent meta-analyses have shown similar rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between women participating in group prenatal care and individual prenatal care. There may be subgroups, such as African Americans, who benefit from this type of prenatal care with significantly lower rates of preterm birth. Group prenatal care seems to result in increased patient satisfaction and knowledge and use of postpartum family planning as well as improved weight gain parameters. The literature is inconclusive regarding breast-feeding, stress, depression, and positive health behaviors, although it is theorized that group prenatal care positively affects these outcomes. It is unclear whether group prenatal care results in cost savings, although it may in large-volume practices if each group consists of approximately 8-10 women. Group prenatal care requires a significant paradigm shift. It can be difficult to implement and sustain. More randomized trials are needed to ascertain the true benefits of the model, best practices for implementation, and subgroups who may benefit most from this innovative way to provide prenatal care. In short, group prenatal care is an innovative and promising model with comparable pregnancy outcomes to individual prenatal care in the general population and improved outcomes in some

  15. Re-examining the doming uplift model of Emeishan Large Igneous Province (SW China): evidence from high-resolution conodont biostratigraphy and sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong, S.; Wignall, P. B.; Ali, J. R.; Widdowson, M.; Bond, D. P.; Lai, X.

    2010-12-01

    The Middle Permian Emeishan large igneous province of SW China is regard by many as providing the quintessential example of kilometre-scale pre-eruption domal uplift associated with mantle plume impingement on the base of the lithosphere. The key line of evidence for this has been the purported deep erosion profile of the Maokou Formation platform carbonates that lie directly beneath the central and inner parts of the volcanic pile. We have tested this interpretation by carrying out conodont age dating and facies analysis on the uppermost beds of the Maokou Formation across these central regions, together with the limestones that are intercalated within the basal lava flows. The investigated sections (from Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou and Guangxi provinces) span locations from directly below the centre of the igneous province, to several hundred kilometres beyond its margins. The results show that eruptions began in the Jinogondolella altudaensis Zone (~263 Ma) of the Middle Capitanian Stage, and subsequently greatly increased in extent and volume in the J. xuanhanensis Zone (~262 Ma) (Sun et al., 2010). Most importantly, at most locations within the terrain, and many locations beyond its margins, there appears to have been platform subsidence (not uplift) with deep-water facies (radiolarian cherts, submarine fans) developing immediately prior to the initial volcanism (J. altudaensis Zone). Accordingly, pre-eruption uplift must have been muted because over large areas of the terrain the basal flows rest conformably on a variety of Maokou sedimentary facies. By contrast, the clearest evidence for an emergence surface occurs around the flanks of the province in the J. xuanhanensis Zone. This is after the initial onset of eruptions, and coincides with the regional eustatic fall (Sun et al., 2010). Furthermore, pillow lavas, hydromagmatic deposits and interflow limestone/reef packages are commonly seen around the terrain indicating a strong marine influence at the early

  16. Groups and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  17. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge......, not as something that pre-exists or goes beyond the situated interaction. This article, however, challenges not only the first, but also the second position and suggests that it is, after all, possible to do committedly ethnomethodological studies of focus group data that demonstrate how members of a focus group...

  18. Products of Finite Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ballester-Bolinches, Adolfo; Asaad, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The study of finite groups factorised as a product of two or more subgroups has become a subject of great interest during the last years with applications not only in group theory, but also in other areas like cryptography and coding theory. It has experienced a big impulse with the introduction of some permutability conditions. The aim of this book is to gather, order, and examine part of this material, including the latest advances made, give some new approach to some topics, and present some new subjects of research in the theory of finite factorised groups.

  19. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  20. [A kibbutz group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, A

    1976-01-01

    Kibbouts-group: three therapeutic or growth factors together: manual work, community life and group technics (group dynamic, Gestalt, psychodrama, bio-energetic) during two weeks. The work of growing and therapy is becoming more concrete and facilitated by the absence of difference between members and leader who share the work and the community life. Important and rapid changes are frequent: a particular attention is given to the "unmedicalisation" of symptoms (fatigue) and to the "unpsychiatrisation" of conflicts. A sample and authentical life style, together with a high degree of communication, favor the desinhibition of attitudes, the clarification of conflicts and the reenforcement of the personality.