Berezhiani, Z.; Sigl, G.; Biondi, R.; Volkov, M.; Noller, J.; Starobinsky, A.; Toporensky, A.; Renaux, S.; Pilo, L.; Comelli, D.; Slagter, R.; Novello, M.; Padilla, A.; Antunes, V.; Kamenshchik, A.; Vernieri, D.; Kaloper, N.; Denkiewics, T.; Gohar, H.; Zahariade, G.; Frusciante, N.; Von Strauss, M.
This 9. Spontaneous Workshop (SW9) brought together specialists on recent insights in Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The aim was to stimulate debate on common topics in views of providing us with innovating ideas. SW9 topics includes: 1) Cosmological parameters - Anomalies in CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background); 2) Dark matter and neutrinos; 3) Gravity - Dark energy; 4) Singular universes; and 5) Cosmological Large Scale Structures - Magnetic Fields; This document is made up of the slides of the presentations
Starobinsky, A.A.; Gorbunov, D.; Reverberi, L.; Arbuzova, E.; Arbuzov, A.; Maeda, K.; Borowiec, A.; Moschella, U.; Karshenboim, S.; Tinyakov, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Deffrayet, C.; Pilo, L.; Rham, C. de; Fasiello, M.; Tolley, A.; Chernodub, M.; Kunze, K.; Berezhiani, Z.; Kamyshkov, Y.
This spontaneous workshop (SW) brings together specialists on recent insights in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. The aim is to stimulate debates on common topics in views of providing the scientific community with innovating ideas. The main topics are gravity, dark matter and cosmological models. This document is made of the slides of the presentations.
Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana; Lopes, Daniela A.; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez
Long overlooked, sponge grounds are now recognised as important habitats which support high biodiversity. Some of these deep-sea sponge aggregations are formed by hexactinellids, in varying densities, which can occur on both soft and hard substrates. Despite their ecological importance as habitat framework building taxa, hexactinellids have been little studied and only 33 species in this Class were reported from the entire South Atlantic until now. Most of this knowledge was gained from studies conducted on the eastern South America continental slope. Here we report a new hexactinellid sponge garden found by the Shinkai 6500 manned submersible on the Rio Grande Rise, a prominent topographic feature of the deep SW Atlantic. This is the first sponge garden worldwide found to be dominated by the stiff, often dichotomously branching, Sarostegia oculata which may occur in densities of over 5 individuals per square meter. This sponge, of uncertain familial allocation, seems to always carry epibiotic zoanthids, thus mimicking the 3D skeletal framework of actual coral gardens
August John Hoffman
Full Text Available Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community service work and decrease their scores in ethnocentrism. Results of the paired samples t-test strongly support the hypothesis that community service gardening work significantly reduces reports of ethnocentrism: t(10 = -2.52, (p < .03 for community college students. The ramifications of the study and ramifications for future research are offered.
Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.
Loram, Alison; Warren, Philip; Thompson, Ken; Gaston, Kevin
Private domestic gardens contribute substantially to the biodiversity of urban areas and benefit human health and well-being. We previously reported a study of 267 gardens across five cities in the United Kingdom in which variation in geographical and climatic factors had little bearing on the richness, diversity and composition of plant species. We therefore hypothesise that garden management is an important factor in determining garden characteristics. Here, from the same sample of gardens, we investigate potential associations between the uses to which people put their gardens, the types of management activities they undertake, and the characteristics of those gardens. Householders (n = 265) completed a questionnaire detailing various aspects of garden use and management activities. The majority of respondents used their gardens chiefly for relaxation, recreation, and eating. Fewer than one fifth included "gardening" amongst their garden uses even though all performed some garden management, suggesting that not all management activity resulted from an interest in gardening. Garden-watering and lawn-mowing were the most prevalent activities and were predictors of other types of management including weeding, vegetation-cutting, leaf-collection, and dead-heading flowers. A number of these activities were associated with one another, the richness and composition of plant species, and the number of land uses in gardens. However, relationships between management activities and the amount of tall vegetation were less consistent, and garden management appeared to be independent of garden area. More species of amphibians, birds, and mammals were observed in gardens with ponds and in which efforts were made to attract wildlife, particularly by providing drinking water. This study supports the hypothesis that garden use and management is associated with garden characteristics.
School gardens--and efforts to connect gardening to K-12 learning--are burgeoning. Children's gardens--green spaces that keep in mind the way children play and explore an outdoor space--have been one of the biggest recent trends in gardening. Progressive educators have long promoted gardening as an opportunity to connect knowledge about plants,…
Strohl, Carrie A.
Recent attention to socio-scientific issues such as sustainable agriculture, environmental responsibility and nutritional health has spurred a resurgence of public interest in gardening and cooking. Seen as contexts for fostering scientific literacy---the knowledge domains, methodological approaches, habits of mind and discourse practices that reflect one's understanding of the role of science in society, gardening and cooking are under-examined fields in science education, in part, because they are under-utilized pedagogies in school settings. Although learning gardens were used historically to foster many aspects of scientific literacy (e.g., cognitive knowledge, norms and methods of science, attitudes toward science and discourse of science), analysis of contemporary studies suggests that science learning in gardens focuses mainly on science knowledge alone. Using multiple conceptions of scientific literacy, I analyzed qualitative data to demonstrate how exploration, talk and text fostered scientific literacy in a school garden. Exploration prompted students to engage in scientific practices such as making observations and constructing explanations from evidence. Talk and text provided background knowledge and accurate information about agricultural, environmental and nutritional topics under study. Using a similar qualitative approach, I present a case study of a third grade teacher who explicitly taught food literacy through culinary arts instruction. Drawing on numerous contextual resources, this teacher created a classroom community of food practice through hands-on cooking lessons, guest chef demonstrations, and school-wide tasting events. As a result, she promoted six different types of knowledge (conceptual, procedural, dispositional, sensory, social, and communal) through leveraging contextual resources. This case study highlights how food literacy is largely contingent on often-overlooked mediators of food literacy: the relationships between
Clare Cooper Marcus
Full Text Available Having defined the topic and its related management effects in the healthcare environment, this paper reports considerations of specific design processes, including evidence-based design, Integrated Healthcare Strategies, participatory practices and post occupancy evaluation. Landscape of Italian examples follows before a case study of three Californian healing gardens dedicated to cancer patients, linked to a survey of this category of users’ needs in such spaces. Conclusions report the reflection of practical implications deriving from studying North American examples, underlining the opportunity for audit and certification of therapeutic gardens, as well as the chance to export them outside health infrastructures for social needs.
Salahaddin Y. Baper
Full Text Available Recently, the concept of modernity and its influences on global warming comes to be a common topic in architectural debates. The disappearance of gardens in the contemporary house layouts generated a need for new approaches to create a sustainable network of green areas within residential neighborhoods. The objectives of this paper intend to emphasize on the holistic phenomenon of house garden transformations. The rationale behind selecting cases inside Erbil city, Iraq return to its historical background which passed through rapid transformations due to the political, economic, and cultural changes. This paper aims to identify reason behind disappearance of house gardens in new developments. Moreover, it describes the physical elements of local traditions in different periods. The analytical methodology used in this paper relies on four different periods of the city evolution. It discusses the building garden visual elements in terms of architectural physical factors. The study emphases on two types of analyses, the morphology analyses for each period individually, and comparative analyses between different periods. The findings of this paper will indicate the crucial factors that affecting the disappearance of house garden as well as the general positive effects of vegetation in urban contexts.
Hunken, Jorie; And Others
Forty-five activity-oriented gardening and environmental education activities suitable for grades 4-6 are presented. They include such topics as demonstrating how to plan, plant, care for and harvest herb, flower, and vegetable gardens. This book teaches a basic understanding of plant growth and development through the use of illustrations and…
S. V. Vazhov
Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.
Shackleton, Kyle; Ratnieks, Francis L W
One way the public can engage in insect conservation is through wildlife gardening, including the growing of insect-friendly flowers as sources of nectar. However, plant varieties differ in the types of insects they attract. To determine which garden plants attracted which butterflies, we counted butterflies nectaring on 11 varieties of summer-flowering garden plants in a rural garden in East Sussex, UK. These plants were all from a list of 100 varieties considered attractive to British butte...
... Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Gardening from a wheelchair Gardening from a wheelchair ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips from community ... round handles) on gate latches, doors, and faucets. Gardening as therapy For Gene Rothert gardening is a ...
Although educators widely use school gardens for experiential education, researchers have not systematically examined the evaluative literature on school-gardening outcomes. The author reviewed the U.S. literature on children's gardening, taking into account potential effects, school-gardening outcomes, teacher evaluations of gardens as learning…
Dyg, Pernille Malberg
). School gardens are sprouting in rural and urban areas across Denmark. This case study research sheds new light on various school garden models under the Gardens for Bellies program in Denmark, including school-, community-based and central school gardens. This study aims to document the organization...
Ornelas, India J; Deschenie, Desiree; Jim, Jesse; Bishop, Sonia; Lombard, Kevin; Beresford, Shirley A
Yéego Gardening! is a community garden intervention to increase gardening behavior, increase access to low-cost fruit and vegetables, and ultimately increase consumption in Navajo communities. To design a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention with three components: a community garden, monthly workshops on gardening and healthy eating, and community outreach. Gardens were constructed and maintained in collaboration with community-based organizations in two Navajo communities. Monthly workshops were held throughout the growing season and incorporated aspects of Navajo culture and opportunities to build confidence and skills in gardening and healthy eating behaviors. In addition, program staff attended community events to promote gardening and healthy eating. Community input was essential throughout the planning and implementation of the intervention. If effective, community gardens may be a way to increase fruit and vegetable availability and intake, and ultimately reduce risk of obesity and diabetes.
Hawkins, Jemma L; Smith, Alexander; Backx, Karianne; Clayton, Deborah A
Previous research has suggested that gardening activity could be an effective form of regular exercise for improving physical and psychological health in later life. However, there is a lack of data regarding the exercise intensities of various gardening tasks across different types of gardening and different populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise intensity of gardening activity for older adult allotment gardeners in Wales, United Kingdom following a similar procedure used in previous studies conducted in the United States and South Korea by Park and colleagues (2008a; 2011). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure for six gardening tasks were measured via indirect calorimetery using the portable Oxycon mobile device. From these measures, estimated metabolic equivalent units (METs) were calculated. Consistent with Park et al. (2008a; 2011) the six gardening tasks were classified as low to moderate-high intensity physical activities based on their metabolic values (1.9-5.7 METs).
Ornelas, India J; Osterbauer, Katie; Woo, Lisa; Bishop, Sonia K; Deschenie, Desiree; Beresford, Shirley A A; Lombard, Kevin
American Indians, including Navajo, are disproportionately affected by obesity and diabetes, in part due to diet-related health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns of gardening and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among residents in two communities on the Navajo Nation in order to inform a community gardening intervention. We analyzed survey data collected from participants in the Yéego Gardening study conducted in two communities in the Navajo Nation (N = 169). We found that 51% of the sample gardened, and on average participants gardened 8.9 times per month. Lack of time (53%) and financial barriers, such as gas for transportation or irrigation (51 and 49%, respectively), were reported as barriers to gardening. Most participants reported low levels of self-efficacy (80%) and behavioral capability (82%) related to gardening. Those with higher levels of gardening self-efficacy and behavioral capability reported more frequent gardening. Average daily FV consumption was 2.5 servings. Most participants reported high levels of self-efficacy to eat FV daily (64%) and high behavioral capability to prepare FV (66%). There was a positive association between FV consumption and gardening, with those gardening more than 4 times per month eating about 1 more serving of FV per day than those gardening 4 or fewer times per month. Further research is needed to better understand how gardening can increase fruit and vegetable availability and consumption among residents of the Navajo Nation.
Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris
School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…
Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi
Full Text Available Throughout history, gardens and garden designing has been in the attention of Persian architects who had special expertise in the construction of gardens. The appearance of Islam and allegories of paradise taken from that in Koran and Saints’ sayings gave spirituality to garden construction. Climate conditions have also had an important role in this respect but little research has been done about it and most of the investigations have referred to spiritual aspects and forms of garden. The cold and dry climate that has enveloped parts of West and North West of Iran has many gardens with different forms and functions, which have not been paid much attention to by studies done so far. The aim of this paper is to identify the features and specifications of cold and dry climate gardens with an emphasis on Tabriz’s Gardens. Due to its natural and strategic situation, Tabriz has always been in the attention of governments throughout history; travellers and tourists have mentioned Tabriz as a city that has beautiful gardens. But, the earthquakes and wars have left no remains of those beautiful gardens. This investigation, by a comparative study of the climates in Iran and the effect of those climates on the formation of gardens and garden design, tries to identify the features and characteristics of gardens in cold and dry climate. The method of study is interpretive-historical on the basis of written documents and historic features and field study of existing gardens in this climate. The results show that, with respect to natural substrate, vegetation, the form of water supply, and the general form of the garden; gardens in dry and cold climate are different from gardens in other climates.
Wistoft, Karen; Dyg, Pernille Malberg
The article explores the role of the outdoor environment in the Haver til Maver (Gardens for Bellies) Danish school garden program in relation to student wellbeing. It is based on exploratory multiple case study research, using an inductive research approach. The study indicates that the school...... garden program promotes students’ wellbeing through their positive emotions about being outside in the outdoor environment. Garden activities and their relations with peers, garden educators, and teachers seemed to positively affect the students’ self-esteem. Over and above the positive social....... Not all students thrive in the open, free, and sometimes chaotic space of the garden. However, the majority of students in the program seem to experience a sense of wellbeing....
Landry, Alicia S.; Chittendon, Nikki; Coker, Christine E. H.; Weiss, Caitlin
This article describes the perceived physical and psychological health impacts of community gardening on participants in the Mississippi Delta. Themes identified include the use of gardening as an educational tool and as a means to increase self-efficacy and responsibility for personal and community health. Additional benefits of gardening as…
As a gardener, you have the potential to contribute to nutrient pollution, but you also have the power to help prevent it. There are several easy things you can do to reduce nutrient pollution from your yards and gardens.
Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R
Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.
Full Text Available Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature versus urban, less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from formal or geometric to informal or naturalistic, which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.
Stoecklin, Vicki L.
There has been increased interest in recent years on gardening with children and a variety of programs have been started to support different types of programmatic goals. Goals of gardening programs include environmental stewardship, personal growth/social skills, an integrated learning environment, nutrition/health, science education, practical…
A new park in Beijing is a unique project implemented at a former city waste area. The project was started in 2010. In 2013, the park was opened for its first visitors. Today, it has 69 gardens representing different Chinese provinces and major cities, as well as other countries whose designers wanted to demonstrate their class. The created gardens of 1-2 to 10-12 hectares represent both traditional styles of Chinese gardens and the latest trends in the field of garden art. The Museum of Chinese Gardens and Landscape Architecture (MCGALA is a part of the park’s vast territory of 513 hectares. The park also has the necessary infrastructure for its visitors with disabilities. Today, it has become a home for many educational institutions training specialists in the field of landscape design, as well as for the employees of the country’s parks, agronomists and gardeners.
Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames
Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…
Marsh, Pauline; Brennan, Sebrina; Vandenberg, Miriam
Using a participatory research framework, researchers at the Centre for Rural Health, University of Tasmania, explored the potential of Community Gardens to function as comprehensive primary healthcare (CPHC) environments. Community gardeners, coordinators, volunteers and Neighbourhood House coordinators discussed their understandings of the health benefits of community gardens, how they contribute to broad CPHC aims and the barriers and enablers to greater CPHC contributions in the future. This research identifies therapeutic features of Community Gardens and explores the correlations between these and CPHC. It is concluded that there are strong synergies between the aims and activities of Community Gardens and CPHC. To augment the therapeutic capacity of these sites requires adequate resourcing and skill development, suitable design, funding and policy support, along with innovative partnerships with health professionals.
Full Text Available Within this study, the art of gardening in Ottoman Turks has been examined in four periods: 1. The period starting with the establishment of the Ottoman Empire till the conquest of the Byzantine capital of Constantinople by the Turks (1300-1453 2. The period starting with the conquest of Istanbul till the Tulip Era (1706 3. The Tulip Era (1703-1730 4. The period starting with the Tulip Era (1730 till the establishment of the Republic (1923 In the first period, Ottoman Turks remained under the influence of Seljuk art and were partly in contact with the Byzantine works. When miniatures showing the palace life are examined, often the importance given to the atrium garden could be seen. A significant development in the art of gardening was experienced during the period starting with the conquest of Istanbul till the Tulip Era. The Tulip Era has been a very productive period in terms of fine art in Ottoman history. Major improvements and innovations in poetry, literature, music, civil architecture and especially in the art of gardening has emerged. Till the Tulip Era, the unique natural landscape of Istanbul was equipped with the top works of art of Ottoman Turks. The art of gardening in Ottoman Turks has entered a new period with the end of the Tulip Era in 1730. This period, has been the period in which foreign influence started to affect Ottoman gardens. The most important works of the second period; the Topkapı Palace Garden and the Yıldız Palace garden, which was mostly established in a natural layout and has been the latest example of Ottoman palace gardening, were examined within this study. The structuring of the Ottoman gardens has changed and developed during the historical process depending on various effects such as life styles of the period and the artistic-cultural structure of the period.
Wang, X.; Wakkary, R.; Rau, P.-L.P.
Community gardens connect to many organizations in order to receive and offer resources and services. The complex sociotechnical systems in which community gardens inhabit bring both opportunities and challenges for designers who endeavor to support them. In this study, we investigated three
van den Berg, Agnes E; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke; de Vries, Sjerp; van Dillen, Sonja M E
The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP), four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends) and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening and being active, and less towards passive relaxation
Wistoft, Karen; Dyg, Pernille Malberg
environment, students’ relations with the natural environment seem also to affect their wellbeing as they develop empathy for animals, insects, and plants. Whether this influences their wellbeing, interpersonal relations, and planetary care in the long run after the program is not, however, documented......The article explores the role of the outdoor environment in the Haver til Maver (Gardens for Bellies) Danish school garden program in relation to student wellbeing. It is based on exploratory multiple case study research, using an inductive research approach. The study indicates that the school...... garden program promotes students’ wellbeing through their positive emotions about being outside in the outdoor environment. Garden activities and their relations with peers, garden educators, and teachers seemed to positively affect the students’ self-esteem. Over and above the positive social...
Ruhugül Özge Ocak; Banu Öztürk Kurtaslan
Botanical gardens are very significant organizations which protect the environment against the increasing environmental problems, provide environmental education for people, offer recreation possibilities, etc. This article describes botanical gardens and their functions. The most important function of botanical garden is to provide environmental education for people and improve environmental awareness. Considering this function, some botanical gardens were examined and o...
Roman, Harry T.
A small commercial building in a nearby industrial park has decided to install a rooftop garden for its employees to enjoy. The garden will be about 100 feet long and 75 feet wide. This article presents a design challenge for technology and engineering students wherein they will assist in the initial conceptual design of the rooftop garden. The…
While Americans are as eager as ever to beautify their homes and yards with attractive landscaping, more and more gardeners are looking to the practical aspects of gardening--raising plants for food and choosing easy-care ornamental plants that are friendly to the environment. For some gardeners, raising their own food is a lifestyle choice. With…
Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Nancy Falxa-Raymond; Jessica Northridge; Edie. Stone
For almost a decade, the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation GreenThumb program has collected data about hundreds of New York City community gardens citywide to understand how these gardens function. Building on a data set that includes surveys and interviews conducted periodically with garden representatives since 2003, GreenThumb and USDA Forest Service...
Grugel, Annie H.
This dissertation illustrates how a children's community garden, designed specifically to promote intergenerational, multi-sociocultural relationships, is an "ideological environment" linking individuals and their community and connecting people with nature, in order to promote feelings of belonging, social connection, and encourage a sense of stewardship and identification with the environment (Bakhtin, 1978). By spending time in a community garden, responding to the natural ecosystems which exist on this land, and reflecting, through image and story about our childhood experience, the participants and I engaged in the dialogic process of what Thomashow (1996) refers to as "doing ecological identity work." Throughout this study I question how our past experiences with nature in ideological environments shape our ecological epistemologies, and how the dialogic process of becoming a gardener within the context of a community garden shapes a person's ecological identity. To frame this exploration of ecological identity work as a dialogic process and its role in the development of an ecological identity, I draw from sociocultural theory (Holland, et al., 1998), Bakhtin's theory of dialogism, and ecological identity studies (Clayton and Opotow, 2003; Cobb, 1993; Orr, 1994, 2006; Sobel, 1996, 2008; Thomashow, 1996). A large body of scholarly writing done by environmental researchers is devoted to examining and describing how adults, who self-identify as environmentalists, developed an ecological worldview. However, only a fraction of research is devoted to theorizing how children develop an environmental epistemology. In this study, I focus on how community gardens are dialogic spaces that provide a place for elementary-aged children to "experience" the discourse of gardening. Here, I describe the discourses that shape the garden and describe how gardeners, as a result of their collaborative experiences between human and non-human actors, take up social and dialogical
van Winsum-Westra Marijke
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP, four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. Results After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening
Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley
Numeracy is the practical application of mathematics in context. In schools, contexts such as kitchen gardens can provide a real world and exciting environment for engaging students in mathematical thinking and discussion associated with situations of proportion. This article presents examples from...... a primary school kitchen garden project in which Year 5 students engaged in tasks requiring proportional reasoning, which is a key aspect of numeracy....
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prior knowledge and visual evaluation on supports for rain garden installations. To achieve this objective, a survey was conducted to obtain prior knowledge of rain gardens, rain garden implementation support ratings, and visual evaluation of rain gardens in 100 visitors of three rain garden sites. Results of the analysis revealed that users’ visual evaluation of rain gardens played a role as a moderator in the relationship between prior knowledge and support for rain garden installations. In other words, education and publicity of rain gardens alone cannot increase support for rain gardens. However, if rain gardens are visually evaluated positively, the effects of education and publicity of rain gardens can be expected. Therefore, to successfully apply a rain garden policy in the future, basic consideration should be given to aesthetics in order to meet visitors’ visual expectations prior to education and publicity of rain gardens.
Mack, Elizabeth A; Tong, Daoqin; Credit, Kevin
Food access is a global issue, and for this reason, a wealth of studies are dedicated to understanding the location of food deserts and the benefits of urban gardens. However, few studies have linked these two strands of research together to analyze whether urban gardening activity may be a step forward in addressing issues of access for food desert residents. The Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is used as a case to demonstrate the utility of spatial optimization models for siting urban gardens near food deserts and on vacant land. The locations of urban gardens are derived from a list obtained from the Maricopa County Cooperative Extension office at the University of Arizona which were geo located and aggregated to Census tracts. Census tracts were then assigned to one of three categories: tracts that contain a garden, tracts that are immediately adjacent to a tract with a garden, and all other non-garden/non-adjacent census tracts. Analysis of variance is first used to ascertain whether there are statistical differences in the demographic, socio-economic, and land use profiles of these three categories of tracts. A maximal covering spatial optimization model is then used to identify potential locations for future gardening activities. A constraint of these models is that gardens be located on vacant land, which is a growing problem in rapidly urbanizing environments worldwide. The spatial analysis of garden locations reveals that they are centrally located in tracts with good food access. Thus, the current distribution of gardens does not provide an alternative food source to occupants of food deserts. The maximal covering spatial optimization model reveals that gardens could be sited in alternative locations to better serve food desert residents. In fact, 53 gardens may be located to cover 96.4% of all food deserts. This is an improvement over the current distribution of gardens where 68 active garden sites provide coverage to a scant 8.4% of food desert
Tiemensma, Britt Due
This paper outlines the changing discourse on school gardens as a learning object as well as a learning environment in urban and rural schools in Denmark and Norway, two small states in Northern Europe. School and community gardens are to be found all over the world, and in Scandinavian...... they are not only regarded as a source of health and fresh food for the students and their families, but also as an alternative arena for learning to cope with issues like sustainability, innovation and democracy. The success of school gardening was always based on dedicated teachers who saw the added value...... of children learning to plant and care for plants in a school garden....
Alexandre Pelletier and Anaïs Schaeffer
On the patio of the Main Building, a new garden has been unveiled. Inspired by physicists themselves, the garden uses a clever combination of flower arrangements and slate slabs to create the shape of the CMS particle tracker. Scribbling, crossing out, and writing over it again. In an age of digital "tablets", scientists have remained faithful to the traditional blackboard... the inspiration for the Slate Garden. Completed just a few days ago on the Main Building patio (Building 500), the garden was designed by landscape architect Laurent Essig – who also created the InGRID installation outside Building 33 – and is the perfect combination of organic and mineral materials. Composed of 100 pieces of slate laid across three concentric circles, the work recalls the elegant lines of the CMS particle tracker. The project was completed thanks to the collaboration of a number of CERN technical services, in particular the Green Spaces Service, the Transport Serv...
Veen, E.J.; Bock, B.B.; Berg, Van den W.; Visser, A.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.
Community gardens vary in several ways: they are cultivated by different kinds of communities in various locations, entail individual or communal plots and the extent of active participation (e.g. gardening) differs. In this paper, we study seven community gardens with varying organisational
Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.
Kevin C. Matteson
Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can
Spring, Josephine Anne
A total of 14 Scandinavian therapy gardens were visited and data collected on plantings, therapeutic activities and assessment of effectiveness in Spring 2014. Data were gathered by a questionnaire and by interviewing staff in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The data collection structured proforma used the post-occupation assessment method. Gardening promoted physical movement, presented cognitive challenges and provided opportunities for social participation. Half the gardens were enclosed with sensory plants and 85% were adapted for wheelchairs. A total of 57% of gardens visited had simple designs with flowers, shrubs, lawns and trees. A social center was important especially for dementia clients. Planted pots were used in 79% of gardens. The effectiveness of therapy gardens was assessed at 71% of sites.
Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Maria
Gardens are complex and require a variety of skills. Gross- and fine-motor activities, science concepts, language and literacy development, math, and community involvement are all part of the preschool gardening project the authors describe. They list gardening books for children and suggest container gardens for urban school settings. The authors…
Edinburgh has had eight physic gardens on different sites since its first one was created by the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons in 1656. As the gardens grew in size, they evolved from herb gardens to botanic gardens with small herbaria for the supply of medical herbs. They were intended for the instruction of medical, surgical and apothecary students and, in the case of the physicians, to demonstrate the need for a physicians' college and a pharmacopoeia. Some of the doctors in charge of them were equally famous and influential in botany as in medicine, and while Edinburgh Town Council enjoyed the fame the gardens brought to the city it was parsimonious and slow to support its botanical pioneers. The gardens are celebrated today in the Sibbald Garden within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the question under which conditions small-scale urban agriculture (UA initiatives can accelerate a sustainability transition of the global food system. It develops the notion of a glocal garden, a large number of likeminded local initiatives with a global impact and forms of worldwide collaboration. Taking a transition perspective, the glocal garden, producing vegetables and fruits, is a niche that has to overcome barriers to compete with the dominant food regime. Since a sustainability transition restructures (policy sectors, institutional domains including knowledge systems, the paper explores which innovations are needed for the glocal garden to succeed. It discusses the glocal garden as an environmental, a social, an economic and a global project. As an environmental project, the glocal garden will link sustainable production of food with renewable energy production. As a social project, it will be organized into a consumers’ cooperative. As an economic project, it will strive for profit, increasing the yield in a sustainable manner. As a global project, it will enhance collaboration between local cooperatives in the North and the South, as well as with rural agriculture. Under these conditions, the glocal garden can develop into a power, able to resist a possible future food regime that splits societies, in terms of quality standards and food products, into haves and have-nots.
of the ideals of environmental conservation after their visit to the garden. Secondly, the study determined the spatial preferences of visitors to the garden which was thirdly correlated to the time that they spent at each area. A number of recommendations were made and a comparative study followed twelve years after the initial study in which the implementation of the resultant ﬁndings was determined through observation and a comparison of information pamphlets and garden layout maps. It was found that large-scale changes took place in line with the recommendations made after the initial study. These included the demolition of unsuccessful theme gardens and their replacement by topical theme gardens such as water-wise gardens and a garden that attracts butterﬂies and birds. The educational function of the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden was greatly improved by adding more information plaques throughout the garden, a new interpretative centre and many additional information pamphlets that had been absent during the initial study. Major structural changes were made, such as the building of an amphitheatre which reduced the negative impact of noise and disturbance surrounding the nests of the Verreaux’s eagles that breed successfully in the garden. The changes undertaken at the garden show innovative improvements in line with the con servation principles outlined by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI. The evidence of the implementation of research recommendations from the initial study could play a direct role in improving the visitor experience, which would facilitate the economic viability of the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden in its endeavours to reach its conservation goals. Further research is suggested to continuously determine the areas of preference of visitors in the evolving landscape of the garden to ensure renewed interest of visitors to the garden. If botanical gardens want to succeed in their goal to increase
Clarke, L. W.; Jenerette, D.; Bain, D. J.
The availability of soil nutrients and heavy metals in urban community gardens can influence health of crops and participants. Interactions between garden history, management, and soils are understudied in cities. In July 2011, we collected soil samples from 45 plots at 6 Los Angeles community gardens. For comparison, 3 samples were collected from uncultivated garden soils and 3 more from outside soils. Samples were then tested for major nutrients- Nitrogen(N), Potassium (K), and Phosphorous (P)- and organic matter (SOM). We also measured concentrations of 29 metals in 3 gardens using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Potassium and phosphorus exceeded optimum levels in all plots, with some over twice the maximum recommended levels. Over-fertilized soils may contribute to local watershed pollution and crop micronutrient deficiencies. Low soil SOM was observed in gardens in impoverished neighborhoods, possibly due to low quality amendments. Our metals analysis showed dangerous levels of lead (Pb)-- up to 1700 ppm in outside soils and 150 ppm in garden soils-- near older gardens, indicating lead deposition legacies. California lead safety standards indicate that children should not play near soils with Pb above 200 ppm, indicating need for long term monitoring of lead contaminated gardens. Arsenic (As) levels exceeded federal risk levels (0.3 ppm) and average CA background levels (2 ppm) in all areas, with some gardens exceeding 10 ppm. Heavy metal legacies in gardens may pose risks to participants with prolonged exposure and remediation of soils may be necessary.
Mustayev Bahrom Bahodirovich
Full Text Available In principle any garden reminds us of beauty and unity of nature. But there exist gardens arranged in accordance with the traditional principles of the Islamic Chorbog or architecturally -organized a Four-sides garden which possesses as it seems to me considerably more potential than the gardens planned without such principles. At the present paper an attempt has been made to prove it and it is noted that the Koran is sacred for Moslem people and its references to nature as well as the description of paradise gardens deserves the careful study when considering the meaning of the Islamic gardens. Types and peculiarities of the Islamic countries gardens are also considered in the given paper.
This book tells the story of one of the most important gardens in Europe, created by the architectural critic and designer Charles Jencks and his late wife, the landscape architect and author Maggie Keswick. The Garden of Cosmic Speculation is a landscape that celebrates the new sciences of complexity and chaos theory and consists of a series of metaphors exploring the origins, the destiny and the substance of the Universe. The book is illustrated with year-round photography, bringing the garden's many dimensions vividly to life.
Burt, Kate Gardner; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel
Researchers have established the benefits of school gardens on students' academic achievement, dietary outcomes, physical activity, and psychosocial skills, yet limited research has been conducted about how school gardens become institutionalized and sustained. Our aim was to develop a tool that captures how gardens are effectively established, integrated, and sustained in schools. We conducted a sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods study. Participants were identified with the help of Grow To Learn, the organization coordinating the New York City school garden initiative, and recruited via e-mail. A stratified, purposeful sample of 21 New York City elementary and middle schools participated in this study throughout the 2013/2014 school year. The sample was stratified in their garden budgets and purposeful in that each of the schools' gardens were determined to be well integrated and sustained. The processes and strategies used by school gardeners to establish well-integrated school gardens were assessed via data collected from surveys, interviews, observations, and concept mapping. Descriptive statistics as well as multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to examine the survey and concept mapping data. Qualitative data analysis consisted of thematic coding, pattern matching, explanation building and cross-case synthesis. Nineteen components within four domains of school garden integration were found through the mixed-methods concept mapping analysis. When the analyses of other data were combined, relationships between domains and components emerged. These data resulted in the development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool. When schools with integrated and sustained gardens were studied, patterns emerged about how gardeners achieve institutionalization through different combinations of critical components. These patterns are best described by the GREEN Tool, the first framework to identify how to
Wright, Scott D.; Wadsworth, Amy Maida
Over fourteen years ago, the concept of “gray and green” was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000) to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities) examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion. PMID:24734179
Scott D. Wright
Full Text Available Over fourteen years ago, the concept of “gray and green” was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000 to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion.
Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Fair, Cori N; Jennings, Rose; Warren, Judith L
To examine if gardening experience and enjoyment are associated with vegetable exposure, preferences, and consumption of vegetables among low-income third-grade children. Cross-sectional study design, using baseline data from the Texas! Grow! Eat! Go! Twenty-eight Title I elementary schools located in different counties in Texas. Third-grade students (n = 1,326, 42% Hispanic) MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gardening experience, gardening enjoyment, vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Random-effects regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index percentile of child, estimated means and standard errors of vegetable consumption, exposure, and preference by levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Wald χ 2 tests evaluated the significance of differences in means of outcomes across levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Children with more gardening experience had greater vegetable exposure and higher vegetable preference and consumed more vegetables compared with children who reported less gardening experience. Those who reported that they enjoyed gardening had the highest levels of vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Garden-based interventions can have an important and positive effect on children's vegetable consumption by increasing exposure to fun gardening experiences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burt, Kate Gardner; Burgermaster, Marissa; Jacquez, Raquel
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of integration of school gardens and identify factors that predict integration. 211 New York City schools completed a survey that collected demographic information and utilized the School Garden Integration Scale. A mean garden integration score was calculated, and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of integration and assess relationships between individual integration characteristics and budget. The average integration score was 34.1 (of 57 points) and ranged from 8 to 53. Operating budget had significant influence on integration score, controlling for all other factors ( p integrated, as budget is a modifiable factor. When adequate funding is secured, a well-integrated garden may be established with proper planning and sound implementation.
Edwards, T D
The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.
Black, Bruce J.; Haynes, Cynthia; Schrock, Denny; Duerfeldt, Kevin; Litchfield, Ruth
Gardening and nutrition lessons for children can affect knowledge, actions, and behaviors that support more healthful lifestyles. The objective of the study described in this article was to determine the effectiveness of a master gardener--led education program for youth at a week-long summer camp in Iowa. Garden knowledge was assessed via a…
Turner, Lindsey; Leider, Julien; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Chriqui, Jamie F
To examine whether state laws are associated with the presence of school gardens and the use of garden-grown produce in school nutrition services programs. Nationally representative data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study 2014 were combined with objectively coded state law data regarding school gardens. Outcomes were: (1) the presence of a school garden at each school (n = 419 schools), and (2) the use of garden-grown items in the school nutrition services program. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine each outcome. Contextual covariates included school level, size, locale, US Census region, student race/ethnic composition, and percentage of students eligible for free and reduced-priced meals. State law was not significantly associated with whether schools had a garden, but it was associated with whether schools used garden-grown items in nutrition services programs (odds ratio, 4.21; P garden-grown items in nutrition services programs was 15.4% among schools in states with a supportive law, vs 4.4% among schools in states with no law. State laws that support school gardens may facilitate the use of garden-grown items in school nutrition service programs. Additional research is needed regarding the types of messaging that might be most effective for motivating school administrators to appreciate the value of school gardens. In addition, another area for further research pertains to scaling garden programs for broader reach. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Schwartz, C.; Chenot, E. D.; Cortet, J.; Douay, F.; Dumat, C.; Pernin, C.; Pourrut, B.
In France and all over the world, there is no systematic data available on the quality (fertility and contamination) of garden soils. Nevertheless, there is a growing need for a typology and for a method dedicated to national and international garden soil survey. This inventory is much needed in the context of environmental risk assessment, to predict the potential impact on human health of the direct contact with garden soils and of the consumption of vegetables from gardens. The state of the art on the international knowledge on garden soils, gardening practices and food production, shows that gardens remain poorly known and very complex ecological, economical and social systems. Their global quality is the result of a wide number of factors including environment, history, specific characteristics of the gardens, gardeners and their practices, plant and/or animal productions and socio-economic context. The aim is then to better know the determinism of the agronomic, environmental and sanitary properties of gardens as a function of gardening practices and their impact on the quality of soils and plants. We propose a definition of "garden" and more generally of all the field "garden". The system "garden" is represented by attributes (soil and plant characteristics) and factors with various impacts (e.g. environment > soil parent material > former land uses > age and sex of gardener > gardening practices > socio-professional group > type and proportion of productions > climate > age of the garden > size of the garden > education, information > cultural origin > functions of the garden > regulations). A typology of gardens including 7 selected factors and associated categories and a method for describing, sampling and characterizing a population of gardens representative (for a country) are proposed. Based on the statistical analysis on regional databases, we have determined and proposed an optimum size for the collected population of garden soils. The discussion of
Van Den Berg, Agnes E; Custers, Mariëtte H G
Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and self-reported mood were repeatedly measured. Gardening and reading each led to decreases in cortisol during the recovery period, but decreases were significantly stronger in the gardening group. Positive mood was fully restored after gardening, but further deteriorated during reading. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that gardening can promote relief from acute stress.
This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…
Rain gardens are a unique and practical landscape feature that can enhance the beauty of home gardens. When properly installed, they are one method of limiting the negative effects of rainfall runoff in urban areas. Indeed, rain gardens turn a "negative" into a "positive" by capt...
Full Text Available This essay on travelling gardens of (postcolonial time opens with two iconic images of floating gardens in contemporary postcolonial literature: Will Phantom’s bio-garbage rafter, which saves him in the midst of a cyclone in Carpentaria (2008, by the Aboriginal author Alexis Wright, and Pi’s carnivore island-organism in Life of Pi (2001, which cannot save him from his shipwreck, by Canadian writer Yan Martel. These floating, hybrid gardens of the Anthropocene precede the real travelling gardens of both Michael Ondaatje’s The Cat’s Table (2011 and Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis Trilogy (2008-2015, two authors who both indirectly and directly tell the story of botanical gardens in Asia, and of plant and seed smuggling and transplantation (“displacement” also hinting at their historical and economic colonial implications. For, after all, botanical gardens imply a very specific version of care, Cura (Robert Pogue Harrison 2009, while embodying a precise, imperial scientific and economic project (Brockway 2002; Johnson 2011.
Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun
Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination.
Full Text Available Landscape architecture is different from other design discourses, notably architecture, because of its utilisation of' dynamic' construction media such as plant materials, soils and water, compared with the 'static' materials of architecture, colloquially described as bricks and mortar. This dynamism refers to the fact that landscape materials not only change, but get better over time. While this is a material difference, its implications extend to practice, which has been modelled, from architecture, to favour a static mode of representation: the drawing. While the drawing is important for the propositional nature of landscape architecture, it may be valuable to look at other disciplines, allied to landscape architecture, which might be seen as better able to engage with change. In this essay, the garden provides just such an example. In the writings of Stanislaus Fung on the Chinese garden text the Yuan vi, an argument is made about writing being a fundamental act in the endeavour of gardening that may offer a bridge across the 'ontological disparity' that exists between representation and the subject, the landscape. To speak of writing in this context suggests that writing about gardens is actually a type of gardening in itself. This argument is extended in the current essay quickly to see if it is also appropriate to consider drawings in this way. This essay also attempts to legitimate theoretically the real possibility of modifying landscape architectural practices to engage with change, by suggesting what might be learned from gardening. In further research by this author, this argument will be used as the theoretical basis for critiquing gardens in such a way that lessons learnt from garden designers can be valuably incorporated back into the discourse of landscape architecture.
Söderback, Ingrid; Söderström, Marianne; Schälander, Elisabeth
Objectives were to review the literature on horticultural therapy and describe the Danderyd Hospital Horticultural Therapy Garden and its associated horticultural therapy programme. The literature review is based on the search words 'gardening', 'healing garden' and 'horticultural therapy'. The description is based on the second author's personal knowledge and popular-scientific articles initiated by her. The material has been integrated with acknowledged occupational therapy literature. The setting was the Danderyd Hospital Rehabilitation Clinic, Sweden, Horticultural Therapy Garden. Forty-six patients with brain damage participated in group horticultural therapy. Horticulture therapy included the following forms: imagining nature, viewing nature, visiting a hospital healing garden and, most important, actual gardening. It was expected to influence healing, alleviate stress, increase well-being and promote participation in social life and re-employment for people with mental or physical illness. The Horticultural Therapy Garden was described regarding the design of the outdoor environment, adaptations of garden tools, cultivation methods and plant material. This therapy programme for mediating mental healing, recreation, social interaction, sensory stimulation, cognitive re-organization and training of sensory motor function is outlined and pre-vocational skills and the teaching of ergonomical body positions are assessed. This study gives a broad historic survey and a systematic description of horticultural therapy with emphasis on its use in rehabilitation following brain damage. Horticulture therapy mediates emotional, cognitive and/or sensory motor functional improvement, increased social participation, health, well-being and life satisfaction. However, the effectiveness, especially of the interacting and acting forms, needs investigation.
Yolanda M. van Heezik
Full Text Available Private gardens collectively comprise the largest green space in most cities and the greatest potential for increasing the extent of wildlife-friendly and native-dominated habitat, improving the quality of ecosystem services, and providing opportunities for urban dwellers to reconnect with nature. Because attitudes and values driving landscape preferences in gardens are complex and often not conducive to biodiversity, and a gap exists between the possession of knowledge or values and the expression of pro-environmental behavior, facilitating change in gardening behavior is challenging. We attempted to improve knowledge and influence values, attitudes, and gardening behavior of 55 householders in favor of native biodiversity and environmentally friendly practices, through a two-way communication process, or interactive dialog, during a process of biodiversity documentation of their gardens. Informative feedback on their garden with a normative component was also provided. Despite being well educated and knowledgeable about common species at the start of the study, an increase in knowledge and shift in attitude was detected in 64% of householders: 40% reported a greater understanding of wildlife, and 26% made changes in their gardens, 13% to support native biodiversity. The normative component of our feedback information was of particular interest to 20% of householders. Because neighborhood norms influence gardening practices, changes adopted by a proportion of householders should be perpetuated across neighborhoods. The process of biodiversity assessment, dialog, and feedback was effective in improving knowledge of wildlife and native species, and stimulated a shift in attitude that resulted in native-friendly gardening practices. These changes were detected primarily through open self-report questions, rather than quantitative measures.
Clemmensen, Thomas Juel
The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape as infrastructure...... in relation to the environmental problems being addressed, and that we need gardens of reflection, interrogation and doubt, in order to engage with the deeper complexities of territorial transformations....
Clemmensen, Thomas Juel
The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape ‘as’ infrastructure...... in relation to the environmental problems being addressed, and that we need gardens of reflection, interrogation and doubt, in order to engage with the deeper complexities of territorial transformations....
Machida, Daisuke; Yoshida, Tohru
Objectives The aims of the study were as follows: 1) to investigate the relationship between community fruit and vegetable (FV) gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors by utilizing community gardens and 2) to determine the relationship of community FV gardening and other types of gardening on health-related factors among men aged 50-74 years living in a suburban area of Japan.Methods In this cross-sectional study, we targeted men aged 50-74 years living in a city in Gunma Prefecture. A survey solicited demographic characteristics, FV gardening information, and health-related factors [BMI, self-rated health status, FV intake, physical activity (PA), and perceived neighborhood social cohesion (PNSC)]. The participants were divided into three groups: community gardeners, other types of gardeners, and non-gardeners. Items related to community gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors were presented only to community gardeners. The relationship between community gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors were analyzed by computing correlation coefficients. The relationships between FV gardening and specific health-related factors were analyzed by logistic regression modeling.Results Significant positive correlations were observed between community FV gardening (the frequency of community gardening, the product of community gardening time and frequency of community gardening) and perceived changes in health-related factors (frequency of FV intake, amount of FV intake, and PA). The logistic regression models showed that 1) the number of participants with ≥23 METs h/week of PA was significantly greater among community gardeners than among non-gardeners; 2) the number of participants whose frequency of total vegetable intake, total vegetable intake (excluding juice), and total FV intake (excluding juice) was ≥5 times/day was significantly greater among other types of gardeners than non-gardeners; 3) participants
Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily
NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.
Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Kirkevold, Marit
Gardens and outdoor environments offer multiple therapeutic possibilities for the residents in nursing homes. Web-based questionnaires were sent to 488 nursing home leaders and 121 leaders responded. The clinical impressions of the leaders and staff regarding the benefits of sensory gardens (SGs) to the residents were consistent with previous research. SGs facilitated taking residents outdoors, offered convenient topics for communication and facilitated social privacy for relatives. For improved clinical use of SGs and outdoor environments, systematic assessment of residents' interests, performance and experiences when outdoors, implementation of seasonal clinical programmes and educational programmes for leaders and staff are recommended.
Penstemons are flowering perennials much loved by the gardening public. Gardeners appreciate their diversity of flower colors that are at peak bloom in June and July, their many shapes and sizes, and their attractiveness to hummingbirds and other native pollinators. You may even have planted some in your own garden. Most people don't realize there are about 280...
Yemen and the gardens have suffered much dryness and garbage pollution. Most gardeners ... The WaDImena project was keen in partnering with both the government and other organizations in this process. ... reduce poverty. Water demand.
This article describes a garden that grows more than vegetables. The grounds of McKinley Elementary School in San Diego, California, was a neglected area for years, until recently when an organic garden was planted to revive and brighten the dreary area behind the school's bungalow classrooms. Each grade now has its own wood-bordered plot where a…
Maide Orçan Kaçan
Full Text Available In the study, it is aimed to reveal current features and practices of the gardens of the preschool education institutions, the obstacles to being qualified gardens in the schools and professional trainings related to the gardens which the teachers want to participate in. The population of the study consists of the teachers working in preschool education institutions in 2014-2015 academic years. The sample of the study consists of 56 preschool teachers who have been willing to participate in the study in the preschool education institutions under the Ministry of National Education which have been selected randomly from the population. The study is a survey study, and a questionnaire form has been prepared by the researchers by investigating related domestic and foreign literature to analyze the views of the teachers related to gardens. The questionnaire form consisted of sections like general information, garden features and applications of the schools, obstacles to gardens in the schools, professional trainings related to garden that the teachers want to participate in. In the analysis of the data obtained in the direction of the goals of the study, frequency and percentage distribution from descriptive statistical techniques have been used. As a result of the research, it was determined that half of the schools had the garden and the other half did not have the garden. Teachers have stated that the majority of school gardens use grasses, wild habitats and ornamental plants, use more than half of the school gardens for activities, and that these activities are mostly play, movement, science and field trips. The majority of teachers reported budget deficiencies and inadequate space as obstacles to the quality gardening of schools. In addition, they reported that the majority of them want to participate in professional training fields related to garden-based teaching such as outdoor classroom management, language and math, nutrition, science and
The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...
Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan
Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.
Childhood obesity is a topic of concern nationwide, and the nutrition lessons learned early in childhood can have lifelong impacts. Gardening and other hands-on activities have been shown to be excellent methods to promote changes in children’s diets, especially as a means of improving vegetable con...
The therapy garden Nacadia® is designed to provide a setting and framework for a nature-based therapy (NBT) program for people suffering from stress-related illnesses. It was established through an evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL) process, an interdisciplinary...... collaborative process that used state-of-the-art evidence and expert knowledge on therapy gardens and NBT. This PhD project is an exploratory study that examines the relationship between the design of a therapy garden, a nature-based therapy program and citizens with severe stress. The overall aim is to gain...... analyses, observations, participants’ logbooks, interviews and questionnaires. The first part of the study determined how the different types of activity were distributed around the garden and that the most preferred rooms were described as: “Enclosed”, or “slightly closed” but with a “view out”, to “see...
Full Text Available School gardens have beneficial effects on children’s dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10–13 years old in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium. We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden, but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves. In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children’s health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.
Litt, J S; Schmiege, S J; Hale, J W; Buchenau, M; Sancar, F
The social, emotional, and mental health benefits associated with gardening have been well documented. However, the processes underlying the relationship between garden participation and improvements in health status have not been sufficiently studied. Using population-based survey data (n = 469 urban residents), objective street environment data, and area-level measures, this research used a path analytic framework to examine several theoretically based constructs as mediators between gardening history and self-reported health. The results showed that garden participation influenced health status indirectly through social involvement with one's community, perceived aesthetic appeal of the neighborhood, and perceived collective efficacy. Gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported higher ratings of neighborhood aesthetics and more involvement in social activities, whereas aesthetics and involvement were associated with higher ratings of collective efficacy and neighborhood attachment. Collective efficacy, but not neighborhood attachment, predicted self-rated health. Gardening also directly influenced improved fruit and vegetable intake. The physical and social qualities of garden participation may therefore stimulate a range of interpersonal and social responses that are supportive of positive ratings of health. This research suggests that community planners and health professionals should aim to strengthen the social and aesthetic relationships while designing environments and policies as a way to ignite intermediate processes that may lead to improved health status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, JoLynn; Arnold, Shannon
Many County Extension offices offer an adult Master Gardener Program, which includes advanced gardening training, short courses, newsletters, and conferences. However, with the comprehensive training provided comes a large time commitment. The Produce Your Own program was created to introduce adults to gardening in a similar manner, but with…
Prakash, Madhu Suri
Embracing the best ideals of Victory Gardens, this essay celebrates Friendship Gardens. The latter go further: collapsing the dualisms separating victors from losers. Friendships that transcend differences and honor diversity are among the many fruits and organic gifts harvested and shared in the commons created by Friendship Gardens. This essay…
Weeks, K.N. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)
This paper reviewed the processes used in recently designed affordable housing roof garden projects in California, Montana and Georgia. Gardens create a sense of community through shared space and social interactions. As such, roof gardens can give residents of affordable housing the opportunity to experience the community-fostering benefits of gardening, with the added advantages of potentially lower energy bills and wastewater fees. The factors that should be considered in planning, design, construction and maintenance of roof gardens for affordable housing were also outlined. As places of refuge, gardens help people relax and promote healing, which is particularly important for physical, emotional, social and economic well-being. For the many residents of affordable housing who earn less than 50 per cent of the area median income, gardens offer a venue for establishing relationships with neighbours, many of whom they might otherwise never meet. They also offer a means to improved nutrition and food security, education and positive recreation for youth, and better aesthetic surroundings. While motivations for choosing green roofs varied widely across the projects, affordability was linked to 3 main areas, namely saving costs in design, construction and operations; getting the roof to generate funding; and, improving the quality of life in affordable housing. 17 refs., 12 figs.
Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi
There is increasing evidence that gardening provides substantial human health benefits. However, no formal statistical assessment has been conducted to test this assertion. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of research examining the effects of gardening, including horticultural therapy, on health. We performed a literature search to collect studies that compared health outcomes in control (before participating in gardening or non-gardeners) and treatment groups (after participating in gardening or gardeners) in January 2016. The mean difference in health outcomes between the two groups was calculated for each study, and then the weighted effect size determined both across all and sets of subgroup studies. Twenty-two case studies (published after 2001) were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised 76 comparisons between control and treatment groups. Most studies came from the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Studies reported a wide range of health outcomes, such as reductions in depression, anxiety, and body mass index, as well as increases in life satisfaction, quality of life, and sense of community. Meta-analytic estimates showed a significant positive effect of gardening on the health outcomes both for all and sets of subgroup studies, whilst effect sizes differed among eight subgroups. Although Egger's test indicated the presence of publication bias, significant positive effects of gardening remained after adjusting for this using trim and fill analysis. This study has provided robust evidence for the positive effects of gardening on health. A regular dose of gardening can improve public health.
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that gardening provides substantial human health benefits. However, no formal statistical assessment has been conducted to test this assertion. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of research examining the effects of gardening, including horticultural therapy, on health. We performed a literature search to collect studies that compared health outcomes in control (before participating in gardening or non-gardeners and treatment groups (after participating in gardening or gardeners in January 2016. The mean difference in health outcomes between the two groups was calculated for each study, and then the weighted effect size determined both across all and sets of subgroup studies. Twenty-two case studies (published after 2001 were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised 76 comparisons between control and treatment groups. Most studies came from the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Studies reported a wide range of health outcomes, such as reductions in depression, anxiety, and body mass index, as well as increases in life satisfaction, quality of life, and sense of community. Meta-analytic estimates showed a significant positive effect of gardening on the health outcomes both for all and sets of subgroup studies, whilst effect sizes differed among eight subgroups. Although Egger's test indicated the presence of publication bias, significant positive effects of gardening remained after adjusting for this using trim and fill analysis. This study has provided robust evidence for the positive effects of gardening on health. A regular dose of gardening can improve public health.
Wistoft, Karen; Dyg, Pernille Malberg
environment, students’ relations with the natural environment seem also to affect their wellbeing as they develop empathy for animals, insects, and plants. Whether this influences their wellbeing, interpersonal relations, and planetary care in the long run after the program is not, however, documented......The article explores the role of the outdoor environment in the Haver til Maver (Gardens for Bellies) Danish school garden program in relation to student wellbeing. It is based on exploratory multiple case study research, using an inductive research approach. The study indicates that the school...... garden program promotes students’ wellbeing through their positive emotions about being outside in the outdoor environment. Garden activities and their relations with peers, garden educators, and teachers seemed to positively affect the students’ self-esteem. Over and above the positive social...
Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen
This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...... an unequivocally positive academic learning effect. The review extracts and discusses some of the factors that are consistently emphasized in the research literature as central to ensuring successful subject integration in school gardens. Taking these as a point of departure, it is concluded that developing...
Organized cultural encounters manage difference, conduct, time and space. Yet, alternative social spaces emerge besides these scripts. This article explores migrant space-making in integration gardens, an urban gardening association in Copenhagen aiming to ‘dismantle social and cultural boundaries......’. The space of the gardens is multilayered. Firstly, it operates as an integration grid – a homogenizing-organized cultural encounter evolving around a foreigner–Dane binary. However, the gardens also emerge as a web of gardening, centered around plants and gardening practices, breaching multiple (hi......)stories, locations, relationships, and materialities. The article juxtaposes the spatiotemporal logics of the integration grid and the web of gardening, analyzing the possibilities for action and relating they afford. The analysis contributes to theorizations of organized cultural encounters by highlighting...
Leila Mahmoudi Farahani
Full Text Available Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it. In this sense, the architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. This paper aims to investigate the patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. This paper seeks to explore Persian gardens in terms of their geometric structure, irrigation system, network construction and pavilions alongside design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony. In the second stage, the paper investigates the fundamental symbols and their philosophy in the creation of Persian gardens and in relation to the architecture and design.
Glen, Charlotte D.; Moore, Gary E.; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Bradley, Lucy K.
Extension agents' use of demonstration gardens was studied to determine how gardens are employed in horticultural programming, perceived benefits and challenges of using gardens for Extension programming, and desired competencies. Gardens are primarily used to enhance educational efforts by providing hands-on learning experiences. Greatest…
Berg, van den A.E.; Winsum-Westra, van M.; Vries, de S.; Dillen, van S.M.E.
Background - The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and
Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper - the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter's Earl's Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner's house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces.
According to Willison (1994), botanic gardens have an obvious and vital role to play in conserving plants, but conservation cannot succeed without education. Kaunas botanical garden (KBG) of Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania has experience in a diverse range of education activities: from traditional guided excursions which present botanical collections, to informal education for preschoolers and schoolchildren. KBG is a partner in the Lithuanian Academy of Science’s project for the ‘Devel...
Garden gnomes: magical or tacky? Well, art is in the eye of the beholder, and for the author's advanced seventh-grade art class, garden gnomes are magical. Gnomes have a very long history, dating back to medieval times. A fairytale describes them as brownie-like creatures that are nocturnal helpers. In this article, the author describes how her…
Van Den Berg, Agnes E.; Custers, Mariette H. G.
Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and
Berg, van den A.E.; Custers, M.H.G.
Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and
Full Text Available This paper seeks to assess the contribution of community gardens on food security in rural livelihoods development in Mberengwa ward 27. Despite the introduction of community gardens in ward 27, poverty persisted amongst the vulnerable groups in the district. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in collection of data through questionnaires, interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and content analysis. This study revealed that the vulnerable people of Mberengwa derived income, basic horticultural skills, enriching their garden soils and food commodities from the Imbahuru community garden. Factors like all year-round production of crops, intensiveness of the activity, monitoring and evaluation by extension workers, field days in all seasons and demand of the crop varieties grown influence food security in the district. However challenges persisted due to their seclusion of these gardeners from credit facilicities, lack of irrigation equipment, unstable power relations among leaders and the project was associated with the weak in society. The research concludes that the gardening project should be done not in isolation with the Zimbabwe's agrarian reform programme which would provide all forms of capital which capacitated the vulnerable rural dwellers.
Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray
Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged.
Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E
Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.
Brent F Kim
Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.
Renowned landscape architect and designer Charles Jencks recently visited CERN along with the architect of the Globe, Hervé Dessimoz, to investigate the possibility of creating a cosmic-inspired garden at the entrance to the Laboratory. Left to right: Charles Jencks, Peter Higgs, Rolf Heuer in the garden of cosmic speculation. Photo credit: University of Edinburgh/Maverick photo agency Charles Jencks is a master at designing whimsical, intriguing outdoor spaces that hold a much deeper meaning than just an interesting view. His Garden of Cosmic Speculation at his home in Scotland uses designs recalling cosmic forces, DNA, organic cells, spirals of time, black holes and the Universe, made with landform, plants, sculpture and water to re-shape the natural landscape. One of the possible symbols for CERN that came to his mind was the cosmic uroborus, an ancient Egyptian symbol of a snake eating its own tail dating back to 1600 BC. “Many scientists have discussed this as a poss...
Beck, Leslie; Patton, Aaron J.
A weed garden was constructed to quantify and improve identification skills among clientele. The garden was planted with over 100 weed species based on surveys on problematic weeds. The weed garden proved useful for introducing additional hands-on learning activities into traditional lecture-based seminars. Through seminar and field day attendee…
Davis, Brad E
The goal of this study was to understand successes and weaknesses of a rooftop hospital garden used primarily for physical therapy. Literature on the healing benefits of nature and designed outdoor spaces in healthcare contexts continues to become more focused on specific patient populations. This study contributes to the knowledge of rooftop hospital gardens and gardens for physical rehabilitation. A post-occupancy evaluation was conducted using interviews with a lead therapist and landscape architect, behavior mapping, a staff survey, and a patient questionnaire. The designer and administrative staff perceived high accessibility while patients and staff reported low accessibility. Patients reported high satisfaction with the garden while staff reported little time for garden use. Poor maintenance decisions resulted in decreased functional and aesthetic value. Garden elements take on added layers of meaning and value to users seeking to escape the indoor environment, placing increased importance on evidence-based site design. Multiple perspectives must be considered in facility and garden master planning. Finally, designers and horticultural therapists must be retained in garden management to preserve and enhance garden functionality.
Urban Gardening is more than a trend. Public Libraries should not ignore this in their search for a new understanding and their role in the digital age. The Public Library of Bad Oldesloe created a series of events around that topic and combined it with a makerspace with new forms of learning in communities. By that, the Public Library presented itself as an innovative learning space and helped to engage some initiatives in the city itself.
Dennis de Kool
Full Text Available Dutch garden sculpture from the 18 th century is worthy of more systematic study. Such research may offer valuable insights into the position of garden sculpture within sculpture proper and its meaning in 18 th-century garden art. Jan Baptist Xavery is regarded as one of the most important sculptors working in the Netherlands during the 18 th century. His artistic career, his versatile body of work and his influence on other artists should therefore be studied in more depth. In view of the bloom in garden art in those days Xavery's significance as a 'garden artist' should not be overlooked in such a study. Garden sculptures should not be regarded as independent objects or pure decorative elements, but must be considered within the wider context of garden history. Tragically, many garden ornaments have been removed from their natural green environment. In their new settings they sometimes acquire a new meaning, but more often than not they are not done justice as the original harmonious 'composition' has been lost. As a result, this cultural-historical heritage is often treated indifferently. The few garden sculptures that have survived all calamities and can still be admired in public places are often placed at unsuitable locations and suffer from the weather or vandalism. Many garden sculptures, often damaged, have ended up anonymously in museum depots. Although they are safe there, the dreary catacombs of museums are a far cry from the green surroundings for which they were originally intended. Garden ornaments were, after all, not made for depots but to be looked at, studied and admired by enthusiasts, preferably in green surroundings. Otherwise, they will literally disappear from collective memory. Surely, the talented Jan Baptist Xavery and his contemporaries deserve a better fate than that.
Warhurst, Jennifer R; Parks, Katherine E; McCulloch, Lindsay; Hudson, Malcolm D
This study addresses the consequences of widespread conversion of permeable front gardens to hard standing car parking surfaces, and the potential consequences in high-risk urban flooding hotspots, in the city of Southampton. The last two decades has seen a trend for domestic front gardens in urban areas to be converted for parking, driven by the lack of space and increased car ownership. Despite media and political attention, the effects of this change are unknown, but increased and more intense rainfall, potentially linked to climate change, could generate negative consequences as runoff from impermeable surfaces increases. Information is limited on garden permeability change, despite the consequences for ecosystem services, especially flood regulation. We focused on eight flooding hotspots identified by the local council as part of a wider urban flooding policy response. Aerial photographs from 1991, 2004 and 2011 were used to estimate changes in surface cover and to analyse permeability change within a digital surface model in a GIS environment. The 1, 30 and 100 year required attenuation storage volumes were estimated, which are the temporary storage required to reduce the peak flow rate given surface permeability. Within our study areas, impermeable cover in domestic front gardens increased by 22.47% over the 20-year study period (1991-2011) and required attenuation storage volumes increased by 26.23% on average. These increases suggest that a consequence of the conversion of gardens to parking areas will be a potential increase in flooding frequency and severity - a situation which is likely to occur in urban locations worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Lier, Laila E; Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs; Dyson, Ben; Clark, Terryann
The current article explores the associations between home gardening and dietary behaviors, physical activity, mental health, and social relationships among secondary school students in New Zealand. Data were drawn from a national youth health and well-being survey, conducted in 2012. In total, 8,500 randomly selected students from 91 randomly selected secondary schools completed the survey. Two thirds of students had a vegetable garden at home and one quarter of all students participated in home gardening. Students participating in gardening were most likely to be male, of a Pacific Island ethnicity, of younger age, and living in a rural area. Gardening was positively associated with healthy dietary habits among students, such as greater fruit and vegetable consumption. Gardening was also positively associated with physical activity and improved mental health and well-being. Students who participate in gardening report slightly lower levels of depressive symptoms and enhanced emotional well-being and experience higher family connection than students who do not participate in gardening. Gardening may make a difference for health and nutrition behaviors and may contribute to adolescents' health and well-being in a positive manner. Health promoters should be encouraged to include gardening in future interventions for young people. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Bildsøe, Helle Schulz; Rahbek, Ulla
and conflate into one overarching web that is the metropolis: there is a systemic network of control materialized in Montparnasse graveyard and an organic network out of control manifested in a community garden where people congregate to tell stories. Indeed, Dasgupta revisits Benjaminian storytelling...... as a global networking practice which, while locally contextualized in an impromptu garden in Paris, hints at an awareness of worldwide connectivity....
Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Marla; Midden, Karen
Children are drawn to nature and the outdoors. This guide details the inclusion of gardening in the preschool curriculum at a university child development program in Illinois. Chapter 1 of the book, "Why Garden?" details the benefits of gardening for young children, describes the project approach used, discusses the role of the teacher,…
Since ancient times the relationship between mankind and plants occupies medicine and philosophy. From the first tablets of herbal medicine to Asclepius gardens, those of cloisters and bimaristans to cosmological gardens in Asia, from the largest public park to asylum institutions of the nineteenth century, the garden is proposed as a place of care, a promoter of restoration of the human being. If the advent of technology and drugs have for a time relegated it to the level of empirical care, results in neuroscience ultimately provide it on a scientific basis. The early evolutionary theories, the Savanah theory from Orians, the biophilia hypothesis from Wilson, are relayed by the famous Ulrich' study showing the positive influence of a view of nature through the window on the recovery of in patients. Mechanisms leading stress regulation, level of attention and organisation, focus and fascination, are recognized at the origin of restoration processes. Human capacities to respond to the recuperating function of a natural environment connect to grounded behaviour for adaptation to natural selection process and survival. The mechanisms of our immune system are essential to maintain our vitality. Phyto-resonance, felt or unconsciously perceived in appearance, according to Shepard is an emotion that structures well beyond the archaic behaviour. Recovery, in terms of phenomenological experience of the presence, is a philosophical demonstration of the environmental i.e. multisensory, spatial and temporal approach. Its emotional and affective experience connects to the vitality and creativity. The phyto-resonance hypothesis according to the Konrad Neuberger's point of view induces strategies catering to all levels of the organisation of the human being. It confirms the multidisciplinary nature of hortitherapy and places the mechanism of relationships between man and plant at the centre of discipline. It is also a source of inspiration and inexhaustible work for caregivers
Full Text Available The placement of a theme park in the form of a Zen garden, as a business opportunity in the Slovenian rural area, is discussed. The design of the garden, with all the major points of a standard business plan, is accurately presented, with a description of the business, branch, and services, market analysis, marketing strategy, financial projections, and a plan of the work and activities. The financial aspect is presented as the amount of investment, net present value, and internal rate of return. The amount of investment is estimated at € 14.891, which should be reimbursed within 4 years of operations. The estimated internal rate of return is estimated at 16.86%. Part of the study is the market analysis - conduction of a survey into knowledge of, and interest in, Zen and Zen gardens. The principles of landscape ecology are respected, as the Zen garden would be set in the woods and will blend seamlessly into the landscape.
Šćitaroci Mladen Obad
Full Text Available Spa garden in Daruvar ‘Julius’s Park’ is the oldest spa garden in continental Croatia. The counts Jankovich and their successors created the garden during the 18th and 20th century. The garden resumed its nowadays form and surface in the time of count Julius Jankovich in the mid-19th century and it was named after him. The garden is protected as a cultural heritage. The garden’s renovation is seen as an urban, architectural and landscape unity and it attempts to affirm the missing and neglected parts of the garden, to provide technological and municipal space modernization and to make a pleasant urban garden ambiance with new facilities and high space arrangement qualities, contributing to the economic development of the local community.
Gallavan, Nancy P.; Bowles, Freddie A.
Elementary teacher Ms. Huff realized that her third grade students were limited in their knowledge and experiences related to gardening. Most of today's young learners in the United States do not live on farms, and few families maintain gardens. Only a few of Ms. Huff's students could say they had a family garden. In schools, students learn about…
Hardin-Fanning, Frances; Adegboyega, Adebola O; Rayens, Mary Kay
The purpose of this study was to elicit participants' ( N = 16) perceptions of a gardening activity at a juvenile justice center and to determine whether past exposure to gardening and farmers markets was associated with their perceptions of the gardening experience. This cross-sectional, exploratory program evaluation was conducted in partnership with the Kentucky Department of Juvenile Justice. Adolescents completing the Cadet Leadership and Education Program participated in gardening in order to provide produce to a local farmers' market. After the growing season, participants were asked to complete a nine-item questionnaire about the gardening activity during one of their usual classes at the facility. The questionnaire assessed perception of the experience and past exposure to gardening and farmers' markets. Participants reported favorably about their participation in the activity, knowledge gained from the activity, and their intent to garden in the future. Those who had previously gardened had more favorable perception of gardening than those who had never gardened. Gardening is an inexpensive means of teaching teamwork and delayed gratification and providing a sense of empowerment and may benefit at-risk adolescents during incarceration.
David A. GALBRAITH; Natalie E. IWANYCKI; Brechann V. McGOEY; Jamie McGREGOR; James S. PRINGLE; Carl J. ROTHFELS; Tyler W. SMITH
As leaders calling for the conservation of the world's plants, botanical gardens protect plants within living collections. Many also study, manage and restore plants in natural habitats. Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario,Canada) has integrated both horticultural and natural heritage in its mission for decades. Envisioned by municipal leaders in the 1920s as a combination of nature sanctuaries and civic gardens, RBG now includes forests, wetlands and other habitats, gardens and built spaces. Today RBG is Canada's largest botanical garden on the basis of area.In the 1950s RBG began to inventory plant diversity. The checklist of spontaneous vascular plants now exceeds 1 170 species, of which 752 are native. This is 37% of Ontario's native vascular plants and 19% of the native vascular flora of Canada. The RBG nature sanctuaries are among the richest locations in Canada for species-level diversity.We examine the history of fioristic exploration within RBG and compare plant species-area relationships among protected natural areas in Ontario. This comparison supports the contention that the nature sanctuaries, and in particular Cootes Paradise, could be considered an important area for plants in Canada, and relative to the nation's flora, a biodiversity hotspot. The fact that a candidate vascular plant hotspot for Canada lies within a major botanical garden presents opportunities for raising public awareness of the importance of plant diversity, as well as focusing attention on the scientific and conservation biology needs of communities and individual species in this area.
Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.
Al-Delaimy, W K; Webb, M
The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle. Community gardens are not limited to developed countries. They also exist in developing low-income countries but usually serve a different purpose of food security. Despite their benefits, community gardens can become a source of environmental toxicants from the soil of mostly empty lands that might have been contaminated by toxicants in the past. Therefore, caution should be taken about gardening practices and the types of foods to be grown on such soil if there was evidence of contamination. We present community gardens as additional solutions to the epidemic of chronic diseases in low-income urban communities and how it can have a positive physical, mental and social impact among participants. On balance, the benefits of engaging in community gardens are likely to outweigh the potential risk that can be remedied. Quantitative population studies are needed to provide evidence of the benefits and health impacts versus potential harms from community gardens.
The challenge here is to discuss the historical development of metaphor theory, to exemplify ... garden estate, found throughout biblical texts – and trust learning can ... language about God and Israel as sharing a divine garden or heritage space .... humans in general and their royal leader in particular are shown radically.
Lee, Paul; Norris, Phyllis; Martin, Orin; Tamura, Dennis; Hagege, Maya; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library
The Early History of UCSC's Farm and Garden documents the emergence of the organic gardening and farming movement in Santa Cruz. It includes interviews with Paul Lee, Phyllis Norris, Orin Martin, and Dennis Tamura, who were involved in the early years of the Garden. Maya Hagege, a former Farm and Garden apprentice and UCSC alumna, conducted the interviews, which were edited by Jarrell. Established in 1967 by master gardener Alan Chadwick, the original site was a neglected 4-acre plot...
Irwan, S. N. R.; Sarwadi, A.
Home garden is one type of agroecosystem that supports ecosystem services even in the urban settlement. The studies involved literature references and field survey along with a framework of the productive urban landscape that support ecosystem services in home garden. Productive urban landscape provided environmentally, socially and economically benefits that contained in ecosystem services. Problems on limited space in the urban settlement have to be managed by modified home garden system in order to work for ecosystem service in developing productive landscape. This study aimed to assess home garden (Pekarangan) system in a cluster of high density settlement in Yogyakarta City. Structured interview and vegetation identification of home garden have been conducted on 80 samples in Rejowinangun Kotagede District, Yogyakarta City. People showed enthusiasm in ecosystem services provided by home garden “Pekarangan Produktif” through developing productive urban landscape. Some benefits on ecosystem services of home garden were revealed on this study consisted of food production for sale (4.7%), home industry (7.69%), aesthetics (22.65%), food (14.10%), biodiversity (10.68%), ecosystem (12.82%), education (2.56), social interaction (11.54%), recreation (4.70%), and others (8.55%). Nevertheless, vegetation and other elements of home gardens have been managed irregularly and in particularly, the planned home gardens were only 17.07%. Actually, home gardens provided a large set of ecosystem services including being cultural services those are the category most valued. The urban people almost hided the understanding of the cultural benefit of ecosystem services of home garden, even though Yogyakarta has known the cultural city. Thus, urban home garden, as way as “Pekarangan Produktif” in the limited space that managed and planned sustainably, provide many benefits of ecosystem services in a productive urban landscape.
Leon Sorin MUNTEAN
The development of the first school-botanical garden from Blaj is strongly connected with the development of botanical research at the University and Agronomy Insitute from Cluj-Napoca. The first curators of the garden A. Uilacan, A. Cheteanu, Al. Borza and I. Popu-Cimpeanu studied in Cluj. Prof. Al. Borza developed the medicinal and crop plant collections in collaboration with B. Pater, former head of our agrobotanical garden. Later the botanical garden of the University, became famous under...
Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.
Jordan, Anne Devereaux
Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…
Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine
School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school gardening in order to better understand and increase its potential for health promotion. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we provided 45 primary schoolchildren (9-10 years) from Amsterdam, who participated in a comprehensive year-round school gardening programme, the opportunity to share their experiences and ideas on school gardening. Children particularly expressed enjoyment of the outdoor gardening portion of the programme as it enabled them to be physically active and independently nurture their gardens. Harvesting was the children's favourite activity, followed by planting and sowing. In contrast, insufficient gardening time and long explanations or instructions were especially disliked. Experiencing fun and enjoyment appeared to play a vital role in children's motivation to actively participate. Children's suggestions for programme improvements included more autonomy and opportunities for experimentation, and competition elements to increase fun and variety. Our results indicate that gaining insight into children's perspectives allows matching school gardening programmes more to children's wishes and expectations, thereby potentially enhancing their intrinsic motivation for gardening and vegetable consumption.
Volkova O M; Notov A A
The Botanic Garden of Tver State University is situated at the meeting place of the Volga and Tvertza rivers. It is one of the main green spaces of Tver. The history of the Garden goes back to 1879. It was planted by the merchant Ilya Bobrov at the former territory of Otroch monastery. After the October Revolution the Garden be- came national property and was used as a leisure center. The main planting occurred between 1938 and 1941 but a great number of plants disappeared during ...
Teig, Ellen; Amulya, Joy; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A; Litt, Jill S
Community gardens are viewed as a potentially useful environmental change strategy to promote active and healthy lifestyles but the scientific evidence base for gardens is limited. As a step towards understanding whether gardens are a viable health promotion strategy for local communities, we set out to examine the social processes that might explain the connection between gardens, garden participation and health. We analyzed data from semi-structured interviews with community gardeners in Denver. The analysis examined social processes described by community gardeners and how those social processes were cultivated by or supportive of activities in community gardens. After presenting results describing these social processes and the activities supporting them, we discuss the potential for the place-based social processes found in community gardens to support collective efficacy, a powerful mechanism for enhancing the role of gardens in promoting health.
In addition to being an actual source of foodstuffs in inhospitable climates and a potential source of a large portion of the world's food supply, hydroponic gardening is a useful technique in the classroom for illustrating the role of plant life in the world's food chain. (MB)
Charles H. Cannon
Full Text Available The strength and expertise that botanic gardens bring to conservation are based on their detailed knowledge and understanding of the care, management, and biology of a diversity of plant species. This emphasis on the organism has led to many ex-situ and in-situ conservation programs aimed at protecting endangered species, restoring threatened populations, and establishing living plant and seed collections of endangered species. In China, the scale and pace of change in land and resource use, often leading to environmental degradation, has created a strong emphasis on improving environmental conditions. If done properly, being “green” can be a surprisingly complex issue, because it should encompass and exploit the whole of plant diversity and function. Unfortunately, ‘green’ often includes a small portion of this whole. Earth's rich plant diversity presents considerable opportunity but requires expertise and knowledge for stable and beneficial management. With the dawning of the Anthropocene, we should strive to live on a “Garden Earth”, where we design and manage our environments, both built and natural, to create a healthy, beneficial living landscape for people and other organisms. The staff of botanic gardens worldwide and the living collections they maintain embody the best examples of sustainable, beautiful, and beneficial environments that thrive on plant diversity. This expertise should be a fundamental resource for agencies in all sectors responsible for managing and designing “green” infrastructure. Botanic gardens should actively engage and contribute to these opportunities, from large public infrastructure projects to small private conservation efforts. Here, we discuss several ongoing conservation efforts, primarily in China, and attempt to identify areas where botanic gardens could make a significant and meaningful difference.
Full Text Available The Maysles brothers’ 1975 documentary, Grey Gardens, portrays the lives of Edith Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith, known as Little Edie, the aunt and first cousin, respectively, of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. The mother and daughter live together in their East Hampton house that is literally falling apart. As their identical names imply, the Beales share a symbiotic relationship which is reflected in every aspect of their life. I argue that Grey Gardens calls for Julia Kristeva’s insistence on abjection as a crucial struggle with “spatial ambivalence (inside/outside uncertainty” and an attempt to mark out a space in the undifferentiated field of the mother-child symbiosis. In Powers of Horror, Kristeva (1982 states, “abjection preserves what existed in the archaism of pre-objectal relationship” (p. 10. Grey Gardens portrays the topology of the mother-child dyad, which pertains to a particular spatio-temporality: where this primordial relationship is concerned, object and subject crumble, and the distinction between past and present is irrelevant.
Bilingual text (English and Danish) for exhibition catalogue. ARoS Triennal: The Garden - End of Times, Beginning of Times.......Bilingual text (English and Danish) for exhibition catalogue. ARoS Triennal: The Garden - End of Times, Beginning of Times....
Full Text Available In his Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant defined the garden as a visual art and considered that smell plays no role in its aesthetic appreciation. If the Kantian thesis were right, then a person who has no sense of smell (who suffers from anosmia would not be impaired in his or her aesthetic appreciation of gardens. At the same time, a visually impaired person could not appreciate the beauty of gardens, although he or she could perceive them through hearing, smell, taste, and touch. In this paper I discuss the role of smell and anosmia in the aesthetic appreciation of gardens. I accept the Kantian idea that the appreciation of a garden is the appreciation of its form, but I also defend that, at least in some cases, smell can belong to the form of gardens and, consequently, the ability or inability to smell influences their aesthetic appreciation.
Chen, Tuo-Yu; Janke, Megan C
This study examines whether participation in gardening predicts reduced fall risk and performance on balance and gait-speed measures in older adults. Data on adults age 65 and older (N = 3,237) from the Health and Retirement Study and Consumption and Activities Mail Survey were analyzed. Participants who spent 1 hr or more gardening in the past week were defined as gardeners, resulting in a total of 1,585 gardeners and 1,652 nongardeners. Independent t tests, chi square, and regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between gardening and health outcomes. Findings indicate that gardeners reported significantly better balance and gait speed and had fewer chronic conditions and functional limitations than nongardeners. Significantly fewer gardeners than nongardeners reported a fall in the past 2 yr. The findings suggest that gardening may be a potential activity to incorporate into future fall-prevention programs.
Yates, Kimberly Ann
Many children today spend little time outdoors exploring the natural world and a great deal of time inside viewing the television or playing video games. This new condition of childhood has many negative ramifications, such as poor social development, childhood obesity, and a lack of feeling connected to the environment. One instructional tool being used by some schools to address these rising concerns is a school garden. School gardens can provide an opportunity for students to experience learning in a real-world application, outside of the classroom walls. This qualitative multi-case study explores three school gardens in Southwest Montana and tells each of their unique stories. Through the process of participant observation, interviews, and the collection of multiple data sources, a thorough description is given of the history behind the gardens, how they have impacted the teachers and students, what challenges they have faced, and the common characteristics found in a successful school garden program. During the data analysis process, themes for each case study site were revealed. The results of this study found that each school garden was unique in character and purpose and that a number of dedicated garden supporters are essential to the success of a garden program. In conclusion, suggestions and resources were provided for practitioners interested in pursuing a garden program.
Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Gamble, Elizabeth; Jones, Robert; Chenault, Margaret C; Tooze, Janet A
In addition to expediting patient recovery, community gardens that are associated with medical facilities can provide fresh produce to patients and their families, serve as a platform for clinic-based nutrition education, and help patients develop new skills and insights that can lead to positive health behavior change. While community gardening is undergoing resurgence, there is a strong need for evaluation studies that employ valid and reliable measures. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of a community garden program at an urban medical clinic to estimate the prevalence of patient awareness and participation, food security, barriers to participation, and personal characteristics; garden volunteer satisfaction; and clinic staff perspectives in using the garden for patient education/treatment. Clinic patients (n = 411) completed a community garden participation screener and a random sample completed a longer evaluation survey (n = 152); garden volunteers and medical staff completed additional surveys. Among patients, 39% had heard of and 18% had received vegetables from the garden; the greatest barrier for participation was lack of awareness. Volunteers reported learning about gardening, feeling more involved in the neighborhood, and environmental concern; and medical staff endorsed the garden for patient education/treatment. Comprehensive process evaluations can be utilized to quantify benefits of community gardens in medical centers as well as to point out areas for further development, such as increasing patient awareness. As garden programming at medical centers is formalized, future research should include systematic evaluations to determine whether this unique component of the healthcare environment helps improve patient outcomes.
Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia
Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…
Mellisse, Beyene Teklu; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Giller, Ken E.; Descheemaeker, Katrien
Home gardens in southern Ethiopia are regarded as efficient farming systems, allowing interactions and synergies between crop, tree and livestock components. However, these age-old traditional home gardens are evolving rapidly in response to changes in both the socio-economic and biophysical
To mitigate the negative effects of modern cities on health, scientists are focusing on the diverse benefits of natural environments; a conceptual approach to use gardens for promoting human health is being attempted. In this study, the effects of the visual landscape of a traditional garden on psychological and physiological activities were investigated. Eighteen male and female adults participated in this indoor experiment (mean age, 26.7 years). Twelve different landscape images for city and garden were presented continuously for 90 s. In the time series changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (O₂Hb), different patterns of changes were observed between the city and garden. The mean O₂Hb values increased for the city landscapes, whereas they decreased for the garden landscapes both in the left and right prefrontal cortices. Significant differences in the negative psychological states of tension, fatigue, confusion, and anxiety were observed between the city and garden landscapes. Important differences in the physiological and psychological responses to the two different landscapes were also detected between male and female participants, providing valuable clues to individual differences in the health benefits of natural landscapes. To validate the use of gardens as a resource for promoting health in urban dwellers, further scientific evidence, active communication, and collaboration among experts in the relevant field are necessary.
This article reports on two projects: one that investigated the impact of school gardens on primary children's learning and one that is currently exploring the pedagogies involved in teaching children in the garden. The evidence presented suggests that school gardens can be an interesting and effective way of engaging children with learning, but…
De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G
an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...... are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major...
Full Text Available Since about the mid-nineteenth century, together with the changing socio-economic situation, different types of allotments appeared in Wrocław. Initially, they were rented gardens, gardens for the poor or for factory workers. At the beginning of the twentieth century, school gardens and the so called Schreber gardens with a large common square were set up as part of Dr. Schreber’s educational health program. In 1914-1918, “war” vegetable gardens were commonly cultivated. In the 1920s allotment gardens began to be systematically introduced to the city plan as permanent, purposefully designed elements of urban greenery. They were often designed together with urban parks, or so called “Folk Parks” of a recreational and sport character. In the 1930s, during the economic crisis, allotments with garden houses were adapted for the unemployed and the homeless to live in. Wrocław allotment gardens have undeniable historical, social, recreational, economic and compositional value. These gardens are a cultural heritage that should be protected. In Western Europe we are witnessing a renaissance of the idea of allotments, while in Poland - a tendency to eliminate them from urban landscapes.
Kononowicz, Wanda; Gryniewicz-Balińska, Katarzyna
Since about the mid-nineteenth century, together with the changing socio-economic situation, different types of allotments appeared in Wrocław. Initially, they were rented gardens, gardens for the poor or for factory workers. At the beginning of the twentieth century, school gardens and the so called Schreber gardens with a large common square were set up as part of Dr. Schreber's educational health program. In 1914-1918, "war" vegetable gardens were commonly cultivated. In the 1920s allotment gardens began to be systematically introduced to the city plan as permanent, purposefully designed elements of urban greenery. They were often designed together with urban parks, or so called "Folk Parks" of a recreational and sport character. In the 1930s, during the economic crisis, allotments with garden houses were adapted for the unemployed and the homeless to live in. Wrocław allotment gardens have undeniable historical, social, recreational, economic and compositional value. These gardens are a cultural heritage that should be protected. In Western Europe we are witnessing a renaissance of the idea of allotments, while in Poland - a tendency to eliminate them from urban landscapes.
Van Tonder, Gert J; Lyons, Michael J; Ejima, Yoshimichi
The dry landscape garden at Ryoanji Temple in Kyoto, Japan, a UNESCO world heritage site, intrigues hundreds of thousands of visitors every year with its abstract, sparse and seemingly random composition of rocks and moss on an otherwise empty rectangle of raked gravel. Here we apply a model of shape analysis in early visual processing to show that the 'empty' space of the garden is implicitly structured and critically aligned with the temple's architecture. We propose that this invisible design creates the visual appeal of the garden and was probably intended as an inherent feature of the composition.
Aldo Giorgio Pezzi
Full Text Available The forthcoming centenary of the Great War (1914-1918 can be considered an important occasion to focus attention on the subject of memorials for the fallen in the War. Immediately after the War, this topic was considered so relevant that in each municipality of Italy, Gardens and Avenues of Remembrance were realized and soon became places of memory, characterized by strong values of identity, history and landscape. In these places, usually correspondent to the number of fallen in that neighbourhood and located in urban or peripheral areas, nature and anthropic elements coexisted. For their importance, from 1926 these places have been included among the National Monuments. After the Second World War, avenues and gardens, as well as toponyms, were gradually forgotten and, in many cases, radically transformed. Due to a form of damnatio memoriae, which locations considered symbols of past governments have had to pay, these places have been changed, radically transforming also their authentic significance. A century on, it is important to start a programme for protection and enhancement of this historic heritage (classification at a regional and national scale, measurements, archival research, definition of guide lines for conservation. The essay also describes the early results of the classification of Gardens and Avenues of Remembrance in Abruzzo.
An attempt is here made to review the origin, role and status of botanic gardens ... The published literature on gardens is enormous and begins with what are known ... Key words/phrases: Botanic Garden, Ethiopia, Gullele, History, Importance, ...
Harris, Neil; Rowe Minniss, Fiona; Somerset, Shawn
Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing. PMID:25198684
Harris, Neil; Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Somerset, Shawn
Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing.
The most effective strategy for controlling pests in your lawn and garden may be to combine methods in an approach known as Integrated Pest Management. See videos and find tips for implementing IPM at your residence.
Remmert, Volker; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim
This volume focuses on the outstanding contributions made by botany and the mathematical sciences to the genesis and development of early modern garden art and garden culture. The many facets of the mathematical sciences and botany point to the increasingly “scientific” approach that was being adopted in and applied to garden art and garden culture in the early modern period. This development was deeply embedded in the philosophical, religious, political, cultural and social contexts, running parallel to the beginning of processes of scientization so characteristic for modern European history. This volume strikingly shows how these various developments are intertwined in gardens for various purposes.
Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scale agriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmental protection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production and large number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have been investigated in detail. We combined data from ﬁ eld work with numerous measurements of phytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.
Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C.; Dedding, Christine
School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children’s vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children’s perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school gardening in order to better understand and increase its potential for health promotion. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we provided 45 primary schoolchildren (9–10 years) from Amsterdam, who participated in a comprehensive year-round school gardening programme, the opportunity to share their experiences and ideas on school gardening. Children particularly expressed enjoyment of the outdoor gardening portion of the programme as it enabled them to be physically active and independently nurture their gardens. Harvesting was the children’s favourite activity, followed by planting and sowing. In contrast, insufficient gardening time and long explanations or instructions were especially disliked. Experiencing fun and enjoyment appeared to play a vital role in children’s motivation to actively participate. Children’s suggestions for programme improvements included more autonomy and opportunities for experimentation, and competition elements to increase fun and variety. Our results indicate that gaining insight into children’s perspectives allows matching school gardening programmes more to children’s wishes and expectations, thereby potentially enhancing their intrinsic motivation for gardening and vegetable consumption. PMID:28672836
Heiger-Bernays, W; Fraser, A; Burns, V; Diskin, K; Pierotti, D; Merchant-Borna, K; McClean, M; Brabander, D; Hynes, H P
Urban community gardens worldwide provide significant health benefits to those gardening and consuming fresh produce from them. Urban gardens are most often placed in locations and on land in which soil contaminants reflect past practices and often contain elevated levels of metals and organic contaminants. Garden plot dividers made from either railroad ties or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure treated lumber contribute to the soil contamination and provide a continuous source of contaminants. Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from railroad ties and arsenic from CCA pressure treated lumber are present in the gardens studied. Using a representative garden, we 1) determined the nature and extent of urban community garden soil contaminated with PAHs and arsenic by garden timbers; 2) designed a remediation plan, based on our sampling results, with our community partner guided by public health criteria, local regulation, affordability, and replicability; 3) determined the safety and advisability of adding city compost to Boston community gardens as a soil amendment; and 4) made recommendations for community gardeners regarding healthful gardening practices. This is the first study of its kind that looks at contaminants other than lead in urban garden soil and that evaluates the effect on select soil contaminants of adding city compost to community garden soil.
Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter
In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness, are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e., herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i.e., landscape diversity and surrounding land use types) characteristics on predation services provided by naturally occurring predators in 19 urban gardens in the California central coast. We introduced sentinel pests (moth eggs and larvae and pea aphids) onto greenhouse-raised plants taken to gardens and assigned to open or bagged (predator exclosure) treatments. We found high predation rates with between 40% and 90% of prey items removed in open treatments. Predation services varied with local and landscape factors, but significant predictors differed by prey species. Predation of eggs and aphids increased with vegetation complexity in gardens, but larvae predation declined with vegetation complexity. Smaller gardens experienced higher predation services, likely due to increases in predator abundance in smaller gardens. Several ground cover features influenced predation services. In contrast to patterns in rural agricultural landscapes, predation on aphids declined with increases in landscape diversity. In sum, we report the relationships between several local management factors, as well as landscape surroundings, and implications for garden management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Zick, Cathleen D; Smith, Ken R; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Uno, Claire; Merrill, Brittany J
We examined the association of participation in community gardening with healthy body weight. We examined body mass index (BMI) data from 198 community gardening participants in Salt Lake City, Utah, in relationship to BMI data for 3 comparison groups: neighbors, siblings, and spouses. In comparisons, we adjusted for gender, age, and the year of the BMI measurement. Both women and men community gardeners had significantly lower BMIs than did their neighbors who were not in the community gardening program. The estimated BMI reductions in the multivariate analyses were -1.84 for women and -2.36 for men. We also observed significantly lower BMIs for women community gardeners compared with their sisters (-1.88) and men community gardeners compared with their brothers (-1.33). Community gardeners also had lower odds of being overweight or obese than did their otherwise similar neighbors. The health benefits of community gardening may go beyond enhancing the gardeners' intake of fruits and vegetables. Community gardens may be a valuable element of land use diversity that merits consideration by public health officials who want to identify neighborhood features that promote health.
Evidence exists regarding the effect of horticultural therapy on improving human well-being, including promotion of overall health and quality of life, physical strength, and cardiac function. This article shares how a nurse created a healing garden at Lourdes Hospital, where she works. Resource information about therapeutic gardens is included.
Lee, Sandra; Chang, Fu-Ming
With rapid urban and economic development, living standard improves in urban areas but urban ecological environments deteriorate rapidly. Urban waterlogging and flooding have become a serious problem for urban water security. As urbanization continues, sustainability is the key to balance between urban development and healthy environment. Rain garden is recommended to be one of the best ways to reduce urban pollutants. It not only diminishes runoff flooding but also purify water in the urban area. The studies on rain gardens are mainly about how to incorporate rain garden to purify water quality, but lack of researches on runoff control. This project focuses on rain garden under Low Impact Development using indoor laboratory to test and quantify the water holding capacities of two different Taiwan indigenous rain garden plants, Taiwan Cyclosorus and Sour Grass. The results show that the water holding capacity of Sour Grass (10%-37%) is better than that of Taiwan Cyclosorus (6.8%-17.3%). The results could be a helpful reference for Low Impact Development in urban flood prevention and urban planning. Keywords: Low Impact Development; rain garden; indoor laboratory experiments; water holding capacity; porosity
Algert, Susan J; Baameur, Aziz; Renvall, Marian J
Urban dwellers across the United States increasingly access a variety of fresh vegetables through participation in neighborhood-level community gardens. Here we document vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in the city of San Jose, CA, to better understand the capacity of community gardens to affect food affordability in an urban setting. A convenience sample of 83 community gardeners in San Jose completed a background survey during spring and summer 2012. On average, gardeners were aged 57 years and had a monthly income of $4,900; 25% had completed college. A representative subset of 10 gardeners was recruited to weigh vegetable output of their plots using portable electronic scales at three separate garden sites. Accuracy of each portable scale was verified by comparing the weight of a sample vegetable to weights obtained using a lab scale precise to 0.2 oz. Garden yields and cost savings were tabulated overall for each plot. Results indicate that community garden practices are more similar to biointensive high-production farming, producing 0.75 lb vegetables/sq ft, rather than conventional agricultural practices, producing 0.60 lb/sq ft. Gardens produced on average 2.55 lb/plant and saved $435 per plot for the season. Results indicate that cost savings are greatest if vertical high value crops such as tomatoes and peppers are grown in community gardens, although yields depend on growing conditions, gardener's skill, availability of water, and other factors. Future research is needed to document cost savings and yields for specific crops grown in community gardens. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spring, Josephine A; Viera, Marc; Bowen, Ceri; Marsh, Nicola
This study evaluated adapted gardening as an activity for people with advanced Huntington's disease (HD) and explored its therapeutic aspects. Visitors and staff completed a questionnaire and participated in structured interviews to capture further information, whereas a pictorial questionnaire was designed for residents with communication difficulties. Staff reported that gardening was a constructive, outdoor activity that promoted social interaction, physical activity including functional movement and posed cognitive challenges. Half the staff thought the activity was problem free and a third used the garden for therapy. Visitors used the garden to meet with residents socially. Despite their disabilities, HD clients enjoyed growing flourishing flowers and vegetables, labelling plants, being outside in the sun and the quiet of the garden. The garden is valued by all three groups. The study demonstrates the adapted method of gardening is a stimulating and enjoyable activity for people with advanced HD. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Teuber, Sandra; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas
Gardening is a form for citizens to use the ecosystem functions of soils, while simultaneously contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 11, 12 and 15 of the UN. In 2016, 8.4 million people in Germany gardened several times a week and 14.2 million people worked in their garden several times a month*. Furthermore, the "Bundesverband Deutscher Gartenfreunde e.V.", an allotment gardening association, has 947.137 members that use an area of 460 km2 for gardening**. This shows that gardening is a frequent pastime for many people and thus can help achieve the SDG's. Interdisciplinary research in six gardening associations was conducted to investigate soil knowledge and soil use in Southern Germany. Questionnaires and interviews with people that chose gardening as a pastime took place in 2015 and 2016. The respondents were interviewed in the respective garden plot to also observe on-site garden management practices. The combination of sociological and ethnological approaches for investigating the soil scientific research question of soil management practices in leisure gardens is useful to start a public discourse on the importance of soil for society. The evaluation showed that soil use in gardens could contribute to the SDG's 11, 12 and 15. Goal 11 is to make cities resilient and sustainable. Soil use in form of gardening is a bottom-up approach that conserves knowledge on small-scale food production. This is important for the resilience of cities in times of crises, as has been the case during the Great Depression or the World Wars. It is closely connected to Goal 12, the sustainable consumption and production patterns. If gardening activities are sustainable in the use of fertilizers, small-scale sustainability and a resilient soil use that also protects the soil and ground water can be achieved. However, this necessitates cooperation between scientists, gardening societies and the individual gardeners on equal terms. Gardening also affects the
Gbedomon, Rodrigue Castro; Salako, Valère Kolawolé; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Idohou, Alix Frank Rodrigue; Glèlè Kakaї, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem
Understanding the functional diversity of home gardens and their socio-ecological determinants is essential for mainstreaming these agroforestry practices into agrobiodiversity conservation strategies. This paper analyzed functional diversity of home gardens, identified the socio-ecological drivers of functions assigned to them, and assessed the agrobiodiversity benefits of home gardens functions. Using data on occurring species in home garden (HG) and functions assigned to each species by the gardeners, the study combined clustering and discriminant canonical analyses to explore the functional diversity of 360 home gardens in Benin, West Africa. Next, multinomial logistic models and chi-square tests were used to analyze the effect of socio-demographic characteristics of gardeners (age, gender, and education level), agro-ecological zones (humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid), and management regime (single and multiple managers) on the possession of a functional type of home gardens. Generalized linear models were used to assess the effect of the functions of home gardens and the determinant factor on their potential in conserving agrobiodiversity. Seven functional groups of home gardens, four with specific functions (food, medicinal, or both food and medicinal) and three with multiple functions (more than two main functions), were found. Women owned most of home gardens with primarily food plant production purpose while men owned most of home gardens with primarily medicinal plant production purposes. Finding also showed that multifunctional home gardens had higher plant species diversity. Specifically, crops and crop wild relatives occurred mainly in home gardens with food function while wild plant species were mostly found in home gardens with mainly medicinal function. Home gardening is driven by functions beyond food production. These functions are mostly related to direct and extractive values of home gardens. Functions of home gardens were gendered, with women
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto
Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679
Full Text Available Residential garden design using Kansei engineering is a challenging problem. Landscaping components, such as rocks, trees, and ponds, are widely diversified and have a large number of possible arrangements. This large number of design alternatives makes conventional analyses, such as linear regression and its variations like Quantification Theory Type I (QT1, inapplicable for analyzing the relationships between design elements and the Kansei evaluation. We applied a partial least squares (PLS model that effectively deals with a large number of predictor variables. The multiple correlation coefficient of the PLS analysis was much higher than that of the QT1 analysis. The results of the analyses were used to create a low-cost virtual reality Kansei engineering system that permits visualization of garden designs corresponding to selected Kansei words. To render complex garden scenes, we developed an original 3D computation and rendering library built on Java. The garden is shown in public-view style with stereo 3D graphic projection. The rendering is scalable from low to high resolution and enables drop object shadowing, which is indispensable for considering the effect of daytime changes in insolation. Visualizing the garden design based on Kansei analysis could facilitate collaboration between the designer and customer in the design process.
German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.
During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring
Torres, Elisa R; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Ronis, David L; Neighbors, Harold W; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A
The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of gardening/yard work in relation to depressive symptoms in African-Americans while controlling for biological and social factors. A secondary analysis was performed on the National Survey of American Life (n=2,903) using logistic regression for complex samples. Gardening/Yard work was measured by self-reported frequency. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Biological and social factors, not gardening/yard work, were associated with depressive symptoms. Biological and social factors may need to be addressed before the association between gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms can be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...
J.H. Miller; A. Miller
Did you know that heavenly bamboo, thorny olive, English ivy, Boston fern, privets and many garden favorites are invading forests to their and thus our detriment? Garden clubs should band together to protect our natural vegetation against invasive plants that take over the habitat of the native flora. Often called non-native, exotic, or noxious weeds, they...
Hazzard, Eric L; Moreno, Elizabeth; Beall, Deborah L; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
California Assembly Bill 1535 awarded $US 15 million to California public schools to promote, develop and sustain instructional school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Program (CISGP). The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the CISGP at assisting schools in implementing, maintaining and sustaining an academic school garden programme, determine how schools utilized the funding they received and assess the impact of the California state budget crisis on the CISGP. A mid-term evaluation was used to assess the degree to which schools achieved their instructional garden-related goals. California. Only schools that applied for the CIGSP grant as part of a school district and also provided a contact email and had a unique contact person were included in the study (n 3103, 80·6 %). In general, many schools reported not achieving their predicted goals with regard to the CISGP grant. Only 39·4 % of schools reported accomplishing all of their garden-related goals. Over one-third (37·8 %) of schools reported that their school gardens were negatively affected by the California budget deficit. The difference between predicted and actual utilization of the CISGP grants may be due to a combination of the effects of budget shortfall and insufficiency of the grant award amount.
Hirschi, Jane S.
"Ripe for Change: Garden-Based Learning in Schools" takes a big-picture view of the school garden movement and the state of garden-based learning in public K--8 education. The book frames the garden movement for educators and shows how school gardens have the potential to be a significant resource for teaching and learning. In this…
Lai Man Lui
Full Text Available This paper examines how a residential podium garden design can enhance the use of a garden and the satisfaction of its users. Two public and private housing estates are selected to analyze and compare spatial use and the perception of space in podium gardens for public use. First, this paper explores the relationship between residential satisfaction and the physical conditions of podium gardens in public and private housing estates in Hong Kong. A total of 135 questionnaires are collected from two cohorts for each of these groups. People’s perceptions are compared with the physical conditions of the podium gardens. Second, this paper investigates how visibility and accessibility influence the quality and usability of podium gardens. The sense of community, safety and hygiene, and accessibility are examined and compared between public and private housing estate cohorts. In conclusion, opening a podium garden to public use can promote the degree of tolerance and enhance community cohesion. Regardless of whether a podium garden is open to the public or not, according to the responses, more people using the podium garden can increase its usability. Since public monitoring can enhance safety and hygiene, podium gardens should be highly visible from the surrounding buildings. A well-planned podium design thus can improve the social and physical qualities of living environments.
Full Text Available Gardening programs have been increasing in popularity since 1995 when California enacted legislation with the goal of putting a garden in every school. Research has shown positive benefits of gardening programs include increasing a child’s academic skills, environmental awareness, and social skills, but little is known about their impact on healthy attitudes and behaviors. Considering childhood obesity rates are rapidly increasing, understanding how educational programs, such as gardening, can impact health has become important. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact Extension gardening programs had on participants’ healthy attitudes and behaviors. Using a pretest/posttest research design with a control group, the researchers found that only slight changes were occurring in participants’ attitudes and behaviors. However, when staff member open-ended responses were reviewed qualitatively, it was found that more is occurring within the program than was uncovered by the quantitative instrument. Recommendations for enhancing the school-based garden program as a result of the findings included teaching participants how to prepare and eat the vegetables they have produced in the garden, increasing instruction on how gardening is a physical activity, and including journaling about the nutritional values of fruits and vegetables to develop positive attitudes about health.
Bouzir, Tallal Abdel Karim; Zemmouri, Noureddine; Berkouk, Djihed
A quantitative evaluation of noise pollution in the public gardens of Biskra, Algeria, was carried out in this research. The equivalent sound level (leq1min) was measured in 27 points distributed over the seven main gardens of the city. The results of the measurements show that the measured level of sound intensity varies from 56.38 dB in the Landon garden to 62.55 dB in the Larbi Ben Mhidi garden. By comparing, the measured values with the noise limit values recommended by the national legislation, the standards of the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency; it is clear that the sound environment in these public gardens do not comply with the recognized standards of acoustic comfort. The gardens' spaces are heavily over-exposed to traffic noise resulting in high levels acoustic pollution.
Knudsen, Karin Esmann
According to the Italian humanists gardens can be regarded as a third nature (John Dixon Hunt: Greater Perfections 2000, Claudia Lazzaro: The Italian Renaissance Garden 1990). Different from the first nature, wilderness, and the second nature, the cultural landscape (Cicero) gardens are a special...... combination of nature and culture, more sophisticated, more deliberate, more complex in the mixture of culture and nature. In the Italian renaissance garden this third nature reached an artificial and aesthetic level as a pleasure garden which made use of all the senses, and in doing so it played an important...... role in constructing new conceptions of the connection between man and nature. This presentation will examine how the gardens around Italian Renaissance villas in Tuscany and in the surroundings of Rome, with their use of geometrical lay-out, water, sounds, views, plants and buildings not only...
Eka Saputra, Weldy
Bahrain is located in the climate of the arid zone which rainfall is low and irregular. This paper discusses the approaches which response to the local context that has been implemented by the government of Bahrain to sustain the quality of the public garden in the arid climate, turning to green. Generally, the approach is an improvement in the central treatment of waste water system plant that used to irrigate the landscaping, agriculture as well as for industry use. These approaches are not the only technologically, but also involves the participation of community to achieve sustainable garden in this country.
Not long after Ebenezer Howard’s Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, the English ‘garden city’ became an aspirational urban model for places in colonial Malaya like Kuala Lumpur, Kuching and Singapore. What originally responded to nineteenth century industrial expansion was in this context a reaction to early twentieth century laissez-faire urbanism, aiming to beautify cities, improve health, and boost commerce. From the 1950s, private developers announced their ‘garden cities’, which c...
Wong, Roger; Gable, Leah; Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar
Community gardens are credited for promoting health within neighborhoods, by increasing healthy food intake and exercise frequency. These benefits, however, are potentially undermined as urban soils are often contaminated from industrial legacies. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits of participation and risks of soil contamination within urban community gardens, and factors associated with soil contamination concerns. Ninety-three gardeners were interviewed across 20 community gardens in St. Louis, Missouri between June and August 2015. Surveys included questions on demographics, gardening practices, and perceptions of community gardening. Multilevel logistic models assessed how gardener demographics, gardening practices, and garden characteristics were associated with soil contamination concerns. Common perceived benefits of community gardening were community building (68.8%), healthy and fresh food (35.5%), and gardening education (18.3%). Most gardeners (62.4%) were not concerned about soil contamination, but nearly half (48.4%) stated concerns about heavy metals. Black race was significantly associated with soil contamination concerns (OR 5.47, 95% CI 1.00-30.15, p = .04). Community gardens offer numerous social and health benefits. Although most gardeners were not concerned about soil contamination, black gardeners were more likely to have concerns. Garden leaders should provide resources to gardeners to learn about soil contamination and methods to manage their risk, particularly in minority neighborhoods.
Amy Damin; James F. Palmer
Allotment gardens with small cottages make a rural lifestyle partially available in urban areas. Temporary living quarters, combined with the tending of annual and perennial plants, let urbanites coexist with nature for a few months out of the year. This paper investigates the history and social life these gardens play in Denmark. A particular garden, Sano near...
Home gardening is a commonly encountered agricultural practice in Benin, consisting of cultivating or maintaining desired plant around homesteads. While the multiple ecosystem services they provided to population is widely acknowledged, motivation for home gardening is still poorly understood in Benin. This study aims ...
George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Hanson, Ryan; Sciamanna, Christopher N
Community gardens can reduce public health disparities through promoting physical activity and healthy eating, growing food for underserved populations, and accelerating healing from injury or disease. Despite their potential to contribute to comprehensive patient care, no prior studies have investigated the prevalence of community gardens affiliated with US healthcare institutions, and the demographic characteristics of communities served by these gardens. In 2013, national community garden databases, scientific abstracts, and public search engines (e.g., Google Scholar) were used to identify gardens. Outcomes included the prevalence of hospital-based community gardens by US regions, and demographic characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and obesity rates) of communities served by gardens. There were 110 healthcare-based gardens, with 39 in the Midwest, 25 in the South, 24 in the Northeast, and 22 in the West. Compared to US population averages, communities served by healthcare-based gardens had similar demographic characteristics, but significantly lower rates of obesity (27% versus 34%, p gardens are located in regions that are demographically representative of the US population, and are associated with lower rates of obesity in communities they serve.
Grabbe, Linda; Ball, Janell; Goldstein, Allison
To explore the perceptions of homeless women regarding their experience in a shelter-based garden project to promote mental wellness. Participants planted and tended the vegetable garden and prepared and ate the fruits of their labor. A qualitative descriptive design with a conventional content analysis of narrative data. Data were gathered in semistructured interviews. Participants were homeless daytime shelter guests who had participated in at least eight gardening sessions over 4 weeks. The project was started in the fall of 2010 and the interviews were conducted over 2 months in the summer of 2011. Two polarized themes were identified in the narratives, clustering around negative and positive thoughts. The "dark" theme centered on marginalization and the oppressiveness of shelter life. The "light" theme centered on stress relief, feeling socially included, and personal change. The gardening experience interrupted the participants' negative ruminations, offering stress relief and elements of social inclusion and self-actualization. Gardening is an inexpensive and positive intervention for a population with a high incidence of mental illness and distress.
Fontaine, Benoît; Bergerot, Benjamin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain
We investigated the interacting impacts of urban landscape and gardening practices on the species richness and total abundance of communities of common butterfly communities across France, using data from a nationwide monitoring scheme. We show that urbanization has a strong negative impact on butterfly richness and abundance but that at a local scale, such impact could be mitigated by gardening practices favoring nectar offer. We found few interactions among these landscape and local scale effects, indicating that butterfly-friendly gardening practices are efficient whatever the level of surrounding urbanization. We further highlight that species being the most negatively affected by urbanization are the most sensitive to gardening practices: Garden management can thus partly counterbalance the deleterious effect of urbanization for butterfly communities. This holds a strong message for park managers and private gardeners, as gardens may act as potential refuge for butterflies when the overall landscape is largely unsuitable.
Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKMB) — 25,569 accessions are computerized on Dbase 3/Foxpro; about 12,000 more are expected to be added in 1995. An International Meeting sponsored by the Wye College, University of London, the Linnean Society of London, and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,
...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--People's Garden Initiative Evaluation of Healthy Gardens Healthy... on proposed information collections. This is a new information for the ``Healthy Gardens, Healthy Youth Study,'' part of the USDA's People's Garden program. This study will use the network of...
Ulrich G Mueller
Full Text Available Leafcutter ants depend on the cultivation of symbiotic Attamyces fungi for food, which are thought to be grown by the ants in single-strain, clonal monoculture throughout the hundreds to thousands of gardens within a leafcutter nest. Monoculture eliminates cultivar-cultivar competition that would select for competitive fungal traits that are detrimental to the ants, whereas polyculture of several fungi could increase nutritional diversity and disease resistance of genetically variable gardens.Using three experimental approaches, we assessed cultivar diversity within nests of Atta leafcutter ants, which are most likely among all fungus-growing ants to cultivate distinct cultivar genotypes per nest because of the nests' enormous sizes (up to 5000 gardens and extended lifespans (10-20 years. In Atta texana and in A. cephalotes, we resampled nests over a 5-year period to test for persistence of resident cultivar genotypes within each nest, and we tested for genetic differences between fungi from different nest sectors accessed through excavation. In A. texana, we also determined the number of Attamyces cells carried as a starter inoculum by a dispersing queens (minimally several thousand Attamyces cells, and we tested for genetic differences between Attamyces carried by sister queens dispersing from the same nest. Except for mutational variation arising during clonal Attamyces propagation, DNA fingerprinting revealed no evidence for fungal polyculture and no genotype turnover during the 5-year surveys.Atta leafcutter ants can achieve stable, fungal monoculture over many years. Mutational variation emerging within an Attamyces monoculture could provide genetic diversity for symbiont choice (gardening biases of the ants favoring specific mutational variants, an analog of artificial selection.
Benito Rodríguez Haros
Full Text Available About five years ago, and worried about the erosion of knowledge related to the process of food production, access and safety, anagroenvironmental vegetable garden was established and named “Un pasito en grande” (A large baby step, where the use of agrochemicals (fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, etc. are forbidden. Everything takes place with the participation of boys, girls, fathers and mothers of the Colegio Ateneo nursery school of Tezoyuca, State of Mexico. Childrens' participation has helpedspread the word about the experience and little by little, the strategy has spread to other educational spaces. The school garden has become a space to raise ecological and environmental awareness that is strengthened with daily activities and specific activities that are implemented. The school garden is based on a series of philosophical principles that help reflect upon our learning-doing; in methodological terms, its implementation is based on ethics and on the principles of permaculture.
Unruh, Anita; Hutchinson, Susan
There is a limited body of research examining the relationship between spirituality and leisure, or the impact of leisure in the context of daily life, and life with stressful events. To examine the meaning of gardens and gardening across different life experiences using hermeneutic phenomenology to focus on the lived experience of leisure gardening. Most participants were interviewed once in each season over a 1 year period usually in their home. There were 42 participants (27 women and 15 men) in this study. Fifteen individuals had been diagnosed with cancer and were in varying stages of diagnosis and treatment. Three people had a chronic and progressive disease. Four women were grieving the death of their spouse. Participants ranged in age from 32 to 80 years. In this paper, we focus on the spirituality-related themes in this study: spirituality as connectedness; spirituality as an expression of inner being; the garden as a spiritual place and gardening as spiritual activity; gardening as a spiritual journey; and, stewardship. Participants with religious views saw their garden as an extension of their spirituality and a confirmation of their beliefs. Participants with secular or sacred views of spirituality that was not related to any religious beliefs were more likely to embed their spirituality in their relationship with nature as manifested in their garden. This study extends current theory regarding leisure and its contribution to meaning focused coping, and spirituality as a significant component of leisure in living with stressful health and life events. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.
This article examines the history, use, and significance of the Turkish Tea Garden or Cay Bahcesi, positing that these gardens offer unique democratic spaces for public discourse set within the polis. The article unpacks the historical, cultural, and symbolic features of these gardens, and the role
Mounce, Ross; Smith, Paul; Brockington, Samuel
Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve over 41% of known threatened species. However, we also reveal that botanic gardens are disproportionately temperate, with 93% of species held in the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, an estimated 76% of species absent from living collections are tropical in origin. Furthermore, phylogenetic bias ensures that over 50% of vascular genera, but barely 5% of non-vascular genera, are conserved ex situ. While botanic gardens are discernibly responding to the threat of species extinction, just 10% of network capacity is devoted to threatened species. We conclude that botanic gardens play a fundamental role in plant conservation, but identify actions to enhance future conservation of biodiversity.
Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.
An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg -1 ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg -1 ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.
Full Text Available As we know we live in a process of industrialization and massive building of residential buildings, both individually and as a collective housing. Given all that happens even with the procedural other things to come up with all this, the country remains less green space that is required for a single environment, so the roof gardens are the best choice for all of this to get a beautiful country. For roof gardens should be given the explanation that, roof gardens, call it beautiful, flat roofs, and with gentle slope, with rich composition intensively maintained and often impose a constructive adaptation of the building and benefits by the architectural beauty, insulation, absorption. Commonly found in urban areas and almost always are placed foliage with not very high growth.
Full Text Available Acute nontraumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis may arise when the energy supply to muscle is insufficient to meet demands, particularly in physically untrained individuals. We report on a psychiatric patient who developed large bruises and hemorrhagic blisters on both hands and arms, rhabdomyolysis of both forearm muscles with a moderate compartment syndrome, and consecutive acute renal failure following excessive work in the garden. Although specifically asked, the patient denied any hard physical work or gardening, and heteroanamnestic data were not available. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was easy to establish, but until reliable anamnestic data were obtained, the etiology remained uncertain. Four days after arrival, the patient recalled working hard in the garden. The etiology of rhabdomyolysis was finally reached, and the importance of anamnestic data was once more confirmed.
[Book description from publisher's website]\\ud The gardens made on the fringes of Central Asia in the past 5000 years form a great arc. From the Fertile Crescent, it runs west to Europe and east to China and Japan. Asia's fringe was a zone of interchange: a vast landscape in which herders encountered farmers and the design of symbolic gardens began. It appears that as they became settlers, nomads retained a love of mobility, hunting and the wild places in which their ancestors had roamed. Cen...
Frederickson, Megan E; Greene, Michael J; Gordon, Deborah M
'Devil's gardens' are large stands of trees in the Amazonian rainforest that consist almost entirely of a single species, Duroia hirsuta, and, according to local legend, are cultivated by an evil forest spirit. Here we show that the ant Myrmelachista schumanni, which nests in D. hirsuta stems, creates devil's gardens by poisoning all plants except its host plants with formic acid. By killing these other plants, M. schumanni provides its colonies with abundant nest sites--a long-lasting benefit as colonies can live for 800 years.
The present study deals - in its three parts - with three fragments of the garden history of Japan. It reveals how the meaning a garden had to the people of its time was significantly different in all of these periods.
Part one, titled "Themes", deals with the later Heian period, from the tenth until the late twelfth century. The foundations of a native, Japanese tradition of garden art were laid. The first chapters introduce the palace gardens of the courtly aristocracy in t...
Okvat, Heather A; Zautra, Alex J
The goal of this paper is to introduce community gardening as a promising method of furthering well-being and resilience on multiple levels: individual, social group, and natural environment. We examine empirical evidence for the benefits of gardening, and we advocate the development and testing of social ecological models of community resilience through examination of the impact of community gardens, especially in urban areas. The definition of community is extended beyond human social ties to include connections with other species and the earth itself, what Berry (1988) has called an Earth community. We discuss the potential contribution of an extensive network of community gardens to easing the global climate change crisis and address the role of community psychologists in community gardening research and policy-oriented action.
This article describes why one low-secure unit chose to initiate a horticultural therapy project and organise it as a 'workers' cooperative'. The therapeutic benefits of gardening are explored, particularly focusing on the social benefits. The article also discusses the issue of hope, which is an intrinsic requirement in gardening.
Dec 16, 2010 ... CASE STUDY: Governador Valdares, Brazil — Gardening takes root in Governador ... out of Quito, by the Urban Management Program of UN-HABITAT. .... vegetable gardens as a way to pull through an economic crisis.
Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne
Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…
Pakanen, Minna; Polli, Anna Maria; Lee, Stella
their waiting time. ‘Virtual Garden’ creates the experience of ‘being connected’ by providing users with the possibility to ‘grow’ a collaborative garden using a smartphone and natural gestures as the control interaction. Lo-fi prototypes were used to gather user feedback which informed the design...... of the 'Virtual Garden'....
Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…
Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte
According to the common strategies regarding waste management and energy supply in EU countries, more efficient utilization of organic waste resources (including garden waste) with both nutrient and energy recovery is desired. Each of the most common treatments applied today – composting, direct...... use on land and incineration – only provides one of the two services. A technology ensuring both nutrient and energy utilization is anaerobic digestion (AD) that has become applicable for treatment of garden waste recently. In this study, life cycle assessment aimed to compare four garden waste...
Chaufan, Claudia; Yeh, Jarmin; Sigal, Byron
Nutritional practices develop over the life course. Developing healthy habits at an early age can contribute to combating increasing child obesity rates. Through a range of activities that rely on the presence of an on-site food garden, North Bay Children's Center (NBCC), an early childhood education program, has enacted a "culture of health" into all aspects of the curriculum to promote healthy eating practices among children, families, teachers and staff. NBCC's garden program serves as a model in early childhood education and as a community-based intervention to improve family health and prevent child obesity.
Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Elyza Muha, Norshafa; Noor, Nur Asmaliza Md; Basri, Hidayah
Malaysia has taken an integrated approach to manage storm water that is increasingly becoming a problem in big cities. Rain gardens are recommended as green technology for a new storm water management in Malaysia. The approach is applied in urban planning and design that integrates the total water cycle management into the development process areas. Rain gardens have been effective in reducing peak discharge and consistently reduce the number of storm water pollutants. This paper will examine some of guidelines, laboratory studies and field monitoring that shows great potential and benefit of rain garden. The preliminary results for rain garden performance were reported in this paper. The findings from this research will open avenues for researchers to advance the knowledge in rain garden systems to achieve the sustainable development in Malaysia.
Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Noor, Nur Asmaliza Md; Basri, Hidayah; Muha, Norshafa Elyza
Malaysia has taken an integrated approach to manage storm water that is increasingly becoming a problem in big cities. Rain gardens are recommended as green technology for a new storm water management in Malaysia. The approach is applied in urban planning and design that integrates the total water cycle management into the development process areas. Rain gardens have been effective in reducing peak discharge and consistently reduce the number of storm water pollutants. This paper will examine some of guidelines, laboratory studies and field monitoring that shows great potential and benefit of rain garden. The preliminary results for rain garden performance were reported in this paper. The findings from this research will open avenues for researchers to advance the knowledge in rain garden systems to achieve the sustainable development in Malaysia.
Dyg, Pernille Malberg
School gardens spreading across Europe can make an important contribution to the transformation of primary education. The dissemination of school gardens in Denmark is a result of trends in urban farming and a farm-to-table and gastronomy focus in the country combined with a recent school reform....... The research is based on qualitative, explorative studies of four different school gardens. The study investigates children’s self-perceived learning and teachers’ and garden educators’ perception of pedagogy and learning opportunities, including the integration in the curriculum. It is based on garden...... observations, interviews with teachers and garden educators and focus group discussions with children two months after the programs were completed .Preliminary findings show that children benefit from learning in a school garden. Not only do they feel more motivated about being taught outside, they are also...
Full Text Available Zimbabwe has experienced an unprecedented decline of nearly all human development indicators for the past ten years. Despite the introduction of community gardens in drought-prone areas of Zimbabwe, poverty persists amongst the vulnerable groups. The potential to improve household, community and national food and nutrition security through garden activities is high if issues of water availability cost and availability of inputs, marketing and farmer empowerment can be addressed. This paper seeks to assess the community garden's cost structure to sales volume and profitability and the land use efficiency. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A two stage sampling techniques was used to select respondents. The study was conducted in Zaka district. Three major crops namely tomatoes, covo and onion were chosen for the study basing on size of land under that particular crop. Cost-Volume-Profit analysis employed for analysis of cost structure to sales volume and profitability. Land use efficiency was also employed to measure the ratio yield per acre of farm to average yield of locality. The results showed that although the farmers are able to break even the margin of safety is small especially for cove and onion. The study recommends farmers to increase the size of acreage under onion production whilst reduce acreage under production of covo. Farmers should adopt technology that would improve land use efficiency of onion. There is a need for the intervention by the Government and other stakeholders to improve the profitability and efficiency of the community gardeners. Stakeholders' collaboration especially, in terms of farmer training which can improve garden activities as participants lack knowhow.
Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund
An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting...... was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of −6 to 8mPEMg−1ww...... from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly....
Jagger, Susan; Sperling, Erin; Inwood, Hilary
This study explores experiences of a learning garden project at an urban faculty of education. The project opens a space for the theoretical and practical consideration of garden-based pedagogies and their influence on university students, educators, and the community as a whole. The learning garden was created by a small group of initial teacher…
Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea
The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil
Five middle school teachers are among the few people wandering around the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, squinting at labels describing the plants that will bloom soon. The author and her colleagues are on a reconnaissance mission, trying to plan an interdisciplinary field trip for the seventh grade. They represent different departments--science, math,…
Zou, Shuzhen; Zhu, Yirong; Wei, Chaojun; Tao, Biaohong
With rapid urbanization, the environmental problems are becoming increasingly prominent and diversified ecological landscape designs consequently appear with the rain garden landscape design as a typical. Based on the introduction to rain garden ecological functions and in combination with domestic and international rain garden landscape design cases, this paper discussed the rain garden pool landscape design.
Rain gardens are vegetated depressions designed to accept stormwater runoff. Manuals and guidance documents recommend sizing rain garden cells from 3% to 43% of the associated drainage area, based on factors including soil type, slope, amount of impervious cover in the drainage ...
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, in view of the decision in Vodacom (Pty Ltd v Motsa 2016 3 SA 116 (LC. The Labour Court grappled with the question of whether the enforcement of the garden leave provision impacts on the enforcement of a post-termination restraint of trade clause. Enforcement of both these types of clauses may be problematic. It can result in unfairness if an employee ends up being commercially inactive for a long period. The author argues that garden leave has a direct effect on the enforcement of a post- termination restraint of trade clause. Accordingly, a restraint of trade will be enforced only if the employer's proprietary interest requires additional protection beyond what is achieved under the garden leave clause.
Chen, Huajun; Yuan, Lina
Through the application of wireless sensor network (WSN) in tea garden, it can realize the change of traditional tea garden to the modern ones, and effectively improves the comprehensive productive capacity of tea garden. According to the requirement of real-time remote in agricultural information collection and monitoring and the power supply affected by environmental limitations, based on WSN, this paper designs a set of tea garden environmental monitoring system, which achieves the monitoring nodes with ad-hoc network as well as automatic acquisition and transmission to the tea plantations of air temperature, light intensity, soil temperature and humidity.
Ahmad, F.; Waheed, A.; Zaman, Q.U.
The study was conducted at National Tea Research Institute (NTRI), Shinkiari, District Mansehra, during year 2006-07 with the objective to find out nutrient status of NTRI tea garden soils to formulate and optimize use of fertilizer doses. Soil Samples were collected from mature tea garden, young tea garden and fallow land up to the depth of 45 cm with an interval of 15 cm, i.e., 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm. The laboratory analysis of soil samples showed that the pH value of soil under mature tea garden was more acidic (5.1,5.2 and 5.4) as compared to the soil under young tea garden ( 6.2, 6.4 and 6.2 ) and fallow land (6.3, 6.3 and 6.2) at the given three depths, respectively. The soil of mature tea garden showed maximum amount of organic matter ( 1.52, 1.21 and 1.18 % ) while it was lowest in fallow land (0.5, 0.53 and 0.66%, respectively). Total soluble salts ranged from 0.02 to 0.04% in all sites under the present investigation. Mature tea garden soils at depth of 0-15 cm showed highest N %age (0.1) while the lowest (0.025%) was recorded in fallow land at the depth of 30-45 cm. Phosphorus was found in adequate amount in all the sites. It ranged from 13.60 mg kg/sup- 1/ (fallow land) to 61.25 mg kg/sup -1/ (mature tea garden). Mature tea garden soils also recorded the highest amount of potassium concentration (300.52 mg kg/sup -1) compared to the soils of young tea garden and fallow land. (author)
Organizing Committee: Dr. B.J. Conn, Mr. L.A. Craven, Mr. J.R. Croft, Dr. A. Hay (cochair), Dr. R.P.J. de Kok, Dr. D.J. Mabberley, Dr. J.G. West (co-chair), Dr. P.G. Wilson. The Symposium & Mid-Conferences Tours will be held at and near the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney between 9-14 September 2001.
Twiss, Joan; Dickinson, Joy; Duma, Shirley; Kleinman, Tanya; Paulsen, Heather; Rilveria, Liz
Community gardens enhance nutrition and physical activity and promote the role of public health in improving quality of life. Opportunities to organize around other issues and build social capital also emerge through community gardens. California Healthy Cities and Communities (CHCC) promotes an inclusionary and systems approach to improving community health. CHCC has funded community-based nutrition and physical activity programs in several cities. Successful community gardens were developed by many cities incorporating local leadership and resources, volunteers and community partners, and skills-building opportunities for participants. Through community garden initiatives, cities have enacted policies for interim land and complimentary water use, improved access to produce, elevated public consciousness about public health, created culturally appropriate educational and training materials, and strengthened community building skills.
Wood, Carly J; Pretty, Jules; Griffin, Murray
Allotments in the UK are popular and waiting lists long. There is, however, little evidence on the health benefits of allotment gardening. The aims of this study were to determine the impacts of a session of allotment gardening on self-esteem and mood and to compare the mental well-being of allotment gardeners with non-gardeners. Self-esteem, mood and general health were measured in 136 allotment gardeners pre- and post- an allotment session, and 133 non-gardener controls. Allotment gardeners also detailed the time spent on their allotment in the current session and previous 7 days, and their length of tenure. Paired t-tests revealed a significant improvement in self-esteem (P 0.05). One-way ANCOVA revealed that allotment gardeners had a significantly better self-esteem, total mood disturbance and general health (P gardening can play a key role in promoting mental well-being and could be used as a preventive health measure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bowker, Rob; Tearle, Penni
This article considers the impact of the early stages of an international project, Gardens for Life (GfL), on children's perceptions of school gardening and on their learning. The project involved 67 schools in England, Kenya and India and focused on the growing of crops, recognising the importance of both the process and product of this activity…
The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...
Wang, X.; Wakkary, R.; Neustædter, C.; Desjardins, A.
Community gardens are places where people, as a collaborative group, grow food for themselves and for others. There is a lack of studies in HCI regarding collaboration in community gardens and considering technologies to support such collaborations. This paper reports on a detailed study of
Paulsen, Evy; Søgaard, Jes; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. A cross-sectional study, based on a postal questionnaire and subsequent examination and patch testing of those who had occupational eczema from their present work or occupational problems with Compositae, was carried out in 1958 gardeners and greenhouse workers...
Presents a method for teaching about cultural landscapes in introductory geography classes by comparing Italian Renaissance gardens with Japanese Zen gardens. Discusses the background and attributes of both garden types. Maintains that, by contrasting the two traditions, it is possible to illustrate cultural landscapes. (CFR)
Timothy J. Entwisle
Full Text Available Botanic gardens around the world maintain collections of living plants for science, conservation, education, beauty and more. These collections change over time – in scope and content – but the predicted impacts of climate change will require a more strategic approach to the succession of plant species and their landscapes. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has recently published a ‘Landscape Succession Strategy’ for its Melbourne Gardens, a spectacular botanical landscape established in 1846. The strategy recognizes that with 1.6 million visitors each year, responsibility for a heritage-listed landscape and the need to care for a collection of 8500 plant species of conservation and scientific importance, planting and planning must take into account anticipated changes to rainfall and temperature. The trees we plant today must be suitable for the climate of the twenty-second century. Specifically, the Strategy sets out the steps needed over the next twenty years to transition the botanic garden to one resilient to the climate modelled for 2090. The document includes a range of practical measures and achievable (and at times somewhat aspirational targets. Climate analogues will be used to identify places in Australia and elsewhere with conditions today similar to those predicted for Melbourne in 2090, to help select new species for the collection. Modelling of the natural and cultivated distribution of species will be used to help select suitable growth forms to replace existing species of high value or interest. Improved understanding of temperature gradients within the botanic garden, water holding capacity of soils and plant water use behaviour is already resulting in better targeted planting and irrigation. The goal is to retain a similar diversity of species but transition the collection so that by 2036 at least 75% of the species are suitable for the climate in 2090. Over the next few years we hope to provide 100% of irrigation water
De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J
Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.
Rees-Punia, Erika; Holloway, Alicia; Knauft, David; Schmidt, Michael D
Recess and physical education time continue to diminish, creating a need for additional physical activity opportunities within the school environment. The use of school gardens as a teaching tool in elementary science and math classes has the potential to increase the proportion of time spent active throughout the school day. Teachers from 4 elementary schools agreed to teach 1 math or science lesson per week in the school garden. Student physical activity time was measured with ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers on 3 garden days and 3 no-garden days at each school. Direct observation was used to quantify the specific garden-related tasks during class. The proportion of time spent active and sedentary was compared on garden and no-garden days. Seventy-four children wore accelerometers, and 75 were observed (86% participation). Children spent a significantly larger proportion of time active on garden days than no-garden days at 3 of the 4 schools. The proportion of time spent sedentary and active differed significantly across the 4 schools. Teaching lessons in the school garden may increase children's physical activity and decrease sedentary time throughout the school day and may be a strategy to promote both health and learning.
Full Text Available Domestic gardens may play a vital role in supporting urban insect biodiversity, despite their small size. This paper assesses the abundance, diversity and distribution of insects in urban domestic gardens in the tropics, through a study in the rapidly expanding Indian city of Bangalore. Fifty domestic gardens were studied using a combination of light traps and pitfall traps. We recorded a large number of insects, 2,185 insects from 10 orders, of which ants, bugs, beetles and flies were the most common. We found 25 species of trees (from 160 individuals and 117 species of herbs and shrubs in the 50 sampled domestic gardens. The number of insect orders encountered was significantly related to the number of tree and herb/shrub species. Garden management practices also influenced the abundance and richness of insect orders. Thus, greater numbers of insects were observed in gardens with a greater proportion of bare soil relative to grass area and with less intensive weeding practices. More insect orders were encountered in gardens with a composting pit. Insect numbers were significantly reduced in gardens subjected to pesticide application. Most residents avoided application of pesticides and herbicides, citing health concerns.
Parsons, Linda T.
Documents the author's interpretation of Frances Hodgson Burnett's "The Secret Garden." Explores a series of questions dealing with issues such as sight, speech, power, gender construction, and symbolism. Reveals the positive and potent ways women subvert the hegemony of patriarchal society and the celebration of the divine feminine…
Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke; Otte, Piet; Dirven, Liesbet; Breure, Anton M
Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to
Nuberg, Ian K.; Evans, David G.; Senanayake, Ranil
Forest gardens are traditional agroecosystems in the humid tropics that have evolved a forestlike structure and as such are commonly thought to be a good example of sustainable agriculture. While this may be true in the sense of soil protection and maintenance of biodiversity, they are not necessarily maintainable in the context of competing land use in the landscape. Such appears to be the case of forest gardens in the uplands of Uva Province of Sri Lanka. This paper reports an agroecological analysis of forest gardens and other forms of land use in Uva, and discusses how this understanding can be used to make use of the good properties of forest gardens. It shows that although they have very real environmental and social benefits, they are unable to satisfy the material needs of a rural population undergoing demographic and cultural changes. However, the alternative land-use systems, both private smallholder and state owned, have serious deficiencies with respect to long-term sustainability, and it is essential to develop appropriate alternatives. It should be possible to design a smallholder farming system that incorporates the high productivity of market gardens (i.e., the cultivation of seasonal crops such as vegetables) with, at least, the high stability and biophysical sustainability of the forest garden. Considerable work still needs to be done on the design of such a system as well as the agency for its development and promotion. The paper treats the forest gardens of Uva as a case study from which some general conclusions can be drawn with respect to the conscious development of forest garden systems elsewhere in the tropics.
Wells, Nancy M; Myers, Beth M; Henderson, Charles R
This study examines effects of a school garden intervention on elementary school children's physical activity (PA). Twelve schools in New York were randomly assigned to receive the school garden intervention (n=6) or to the waitlist control group that later received gardens (n=6). PA was measured by self-report survey (Girls Health Enrichment Multi-site Study Activity Questionnaire) (N=227) and accelerometry (N=124, 8 schools) at baseline (Fall 2011) and follow-up (Spring 2012, Fall 2012, Spring 2013). Direct observation (N=117, 4 schools) was employed to compare indoor (classroom) and outdoor (garden) PA. Analysis was by general linear mixed models. Survey data indicate garden intervention children's reports of usual sedentary activity decreased from pre-garden baseline to post-garden more than the control group children's (Δ=-.19, p=.001). Accelerometry data reveal that during the school day, children in the garden intervention showed a greater increase in percent of time spent in moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA from baseline to follow-up than the control group children (Δ=+.58, p=.010; Δ=+1.0, p=.044). Direct observation within-group comparison of children at schools with gardens revealed that children move more and sit less during an outdoor garden-based lesson than during an indoor, classroom-based lesson. School gardens show some promise to promote children's PA. clinicaltrials.gov # NCT02148315. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barnidge, Ellen K; Hipp, Pamela R; Estlund, Amy; Duggan, Kathleen; Barnhart, Kathryn J; Brownson, Ross C
Fruit and vegetable consumption reduces chronic disease risk, yet the majority of Americans consume fewer than recommended. Inadequate access to fruits and vegetables is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to low consumption of healthy foods. Emerging evidence shows the effectiveness of community gardens in increasing access to, and consumption of, fruits and vegetables. Two complementary studies explored the association of community garden participation and fruit and vegetable consumption in rural communities in Missouri. The first was with a convenience sample of participants in a rural community garden intervention who completed self-administered surveys. The second was a population-based survey conducted with a random sample of 1,000 residents in the intervention catchment area. Participation in a community garden was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. The first study found that individuals who worked in a community garden at least once a week were more likely to report eating fruits and vegetables because of their community garden work (X² (125) = 7.78, p = .0088). Population-based survey results show that 5% of rural residents reported participating in a community garden. Those who reported community garden participation were more likely to report eating fruits 2 or more times per day and vegetables 3 or more times per day than those who did not report community garden participation, even after adjusting for covariates (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.76, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.35 to 5.65). These complementary studies provide evidence that community gardens are a promising strategy for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in rural communities.
Guitart, Daniela A; Pickering, Catherine M; Byrne, Jason A
Community garden research has focused on social aspects of gardens, neglecting systematic analysis of what food is grown. Yet agrodiversity within community gardens may provide health benefits. Diverse fruit and vegetables provide nutritional benefits, including vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. This paper reports research that investigated the agro-biodiversity of school-based community gardens in Brisbane and Gold Coast cities, Australia. Common motivations for establishing these gardens were education, health and environmental sustainability. The 23 gardens assessed contained 234 food plants, ranging from 7 to 132 plant types per garden. This included 142 fruits and vegetables. The nutritional diversity of fruits and vegetable plants was examined through a color classification system. All gardens grew fruits and vegetables from at least four food color groups, and 75% of the gardens grew plants from all seven color groups. As places with high agrodiversity, and related nutritional diversity, some school community gardens can provide children with exposure to a healthy range of fruit and vegetables, with potential flow-on health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gail A. Langellotto
Full Text Available A variety of crops are grown in New York City community gardens. Although the production of many crops benefits from pollination by bees, little is known about bee abundance in urban community gardens or which crops are specifically dependent on bee pollination. In 2005, we compiled a list of crop plants grown within 19 community gardens in New York City and classified these plants according to their dependence on bee pollination. In addition, using mark-recapture methods, we estimated the abundance of a potentially important pollinator within New York City urban gardens, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens. This species is currently recognized as a valuable commercial pollinator of greenhouse crops. However, wild populations of B. impatiens are abundant throughout its range, including in New York City community gardens, where it is the most abundant native bee species present and where it has been observed visiting a variety of crop flowers. We conservatively counted 25 species of crop plants in 19 surveyed gardens. The literature suggests that 92% of these crops are dependent, to some degree, on bee pollination in order to set fruit or seed. Bombus impatiens workers were observed visiting flowers of 78% of these pollination-dependent crops. Estimates of the number of B. impatiens workers visiting individual gardens during the study period ranged from 3 to 15 bees per 100 m2 of total garden area and 6 to 29 bees per 100 m2 of garden floral area. Of 229 B. impatiens workers marked, all recaptured individuals (45% were found in gardens where they were initially marked. These results indicate an abundance of B. impatiens workers within New York City community gardens and suggest that, at least for certain time periods, many individual workers forage within single gardens. Both findings suggest that B. impatiens may be an especially important pollinator of several common crops grown within community gardens and other urban green spaces
Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M
The human-health risk posed by gardening near a legacy mine and smelter in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their home gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water>garden soils>homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener's daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10(-8) to 10(-4), 10(-6) to 10(-4), and 10(-5) to 10(-2), respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae≫Fabaceae>Amaranthaceae>Liliaceae>Brassicaceae>Solanaceae≫Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10(-6). The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg(-1), 5.39 mg kg(-1), 11.6 mg kg(-1) and 12.4 mg kg(-1) for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries signified the appearance of a new trend in art called Art Nouveau in England, Stile floreale in Italy, and in Poland – secesja. It was an attempt to escape from the style that copied historical forms and set a new direction of development. The main inspiration for the creators of this period became nature, its asymmetry, variety of textures, subtle colors or smooth, and wavy lines. Artistic motifs were drawn from the richness of native flora and fauna. Flowering shrubs, perennials and creepers were especially inseparable decorative and compositional elements of a garden. Secession had a significant impact on painting, sculpture, architecture, and garden design. The space surrounding people was treated comprehensively by blurring the boundaries between different arts. A multitude of shrubs – especially roses and lots of perennials such as Lilium, Iris, and Phlox, gave the impression of architecture immersing in the surrounding garden. The aim of the paper was to briefly analyze the Art Nouveau style and present the diversity of species used in the gardens of that period.
Community gardens fulfil many roles, including the reclamation of public space, community building, and the facilitation of social and cultural expression. This paper discusses a nexus between research and education for sustainability that evolved out of an examination of the role of community gardens in fostering community development and…
Desplaces, David E.; Wergeles, Fred; McGuigan, Patrick
This article outlines the implementation of a service-learning approach in an entrepreneurship programme using an "economic gardening" strategy. Economic Gardening through Service-Learning (EGS-L) is an approach to economic development that helps local businesses and students grow through a facilitated learning process. Learning is made possible…
Full Text Available Background: The agreement of new instruments or clinical tests with other instruments or tests defines the possibility of these being used interchangeably. Aim: To investigate the validity and reliability of the SW-100 autokeratometer using a Bausch & Lomb (B&L keratometer as the ‘gold standard’. Methods: Eighty subjects (80 right eyes aged between 21 and 38 years were recruited. For intra-test repeatability, two measurements of the corneal radius of curvature were taken with the SW-100 and B&L keratometers. Forty of the 80 subjects participated in the inter-test repeatability measurement. Results: Corneal radius of curvature was found to be statistically different between the two instruments (p < 0.001, with the SW-100 providing slightly flatter values of 0.11 mm and 0.05 mm for the horizontal and vertical meridians, respectively, than the B&L keratometer. The average corneal curvature was 0.07 mm flatter with the SW-100 autokeratometer than with the B&L device. Agreement between the SW-100 and B&L keratometers’ axes was 45% within ± 5°, 60.3% within ± 10°, 78.8% within ± 15°, 80.3% within ± 20°, and 88.7% within ± 40°. Intertest repeatability was better for the B&L device than the SW-100 and showed no significant difference between the two sessions. Both instruments demonstrated comparable intrasession repeatability. As such, both instruments were comparatively reliable (per coefficients of repeatability. The range of limits of agreement of ± 0.14 mm (horizontal meridian and ± 0.17 mm (vertical meridian between the SW-100 and B&L devices showed good agreement. Conclusion: The results suggest that the SW-100 autokeratometer is a reliable and objective instrument that, however, provides flatter radii of curvature measurements than the B&L keratometer. A compensating factor incorporated into the instrument could reduce the difference between the two instruments and make them more interchangeable.
Vasilev, H.; Angelov, A.; Ganchev, G.
The implementation of the project by investment entirely of Denima 2001 Ltd. for garden illumination of the part of the public garden 'Studentski' is consider. The illumination installation is implemented by PV batteries and by luminaries made up by fluorescent laps and LED. The goals of this pilot project are to make a comparative analyses and observation for the operation of the light system for future development
Weidner, I S; Møller, H; Jensen, Tina Kold
Cryptorchidism and hypospadias have been related to prenatal estrogen exposure in animal models. Some chemicals used in farming and gardening have been shown to possess estrogenic and other hormone-disrupting effects. Earlier studies have indicated increased risks of urogenital malformations...... in the sons of pesticide appliers. In the present study, parental occupation in the farming and gardening industry among 6,177 cases of cryptorchidism, 1,345 cases of hypospadias, and 23,273 controls, born live from 1983 to 1992 in Denmark, was investigated in a register-based case-control study...... of female gardeners could suggest an association with prenatal exposure to occupationally related chemicals....
Alaimo, Katherine; Beavers, Alyssa W; Crawford, Caroline; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; Litt, Jill S
The article presents a framework for understanding the relationship between community garden participation, and the myriad ways gardens and participation lead to emotional, social, and health impacts. Existing empirical research relating community gardens to health behaviors, such as physical activity and diet, and longer-term chronic disease-related outcomes is summarized. The research areas discussed include the effects of community garden participation on individual, social, emotional, and environmental processes; health behaviors including diet and physical activity; and health outcomes such as self-rated health, obesity, and mental health. Other mechanisms through which community gardens may affect population health are described. Applying a multitheoretical lens to explore associations between community garden participation and health enables us to delineate key aspects of gardening that elicit positive health behaviors and multifactorial health assets that could be applied to designing other types of health interventions.
Designs to develop the grounds of the Globe of Science and Innovation have recently been unveiled. The plan is to extend the visitor activities on offer, transforming the area into a public arena for scientific exploration. Design for the new Globe Gardens. © Jencks Squared and Groupe H. After months of conceptual development, plans to develop the site around the Globe are taking shape. The innovative designs were drawn up for CERN by a unique collaboration consisting of landscape architects Charles and Lily Jencks, and "Groupe H", a group of architects headed by Globe designer Hervé Dessimoz. They comprise new venues, covered walkways, a café and gift shop, a separate VIP entrance and a physics-inspired garden for visitors. The landscape itself becomes a feature – dramatically altered to create a cosmic garden formed by shaped mounds, ponds, and a natural amphitheatre for public events. “The new exhibition in the G...
Boris, Stefan Darlan
of an interlacing of understanding and space.” (Sieverts, 2007) Learning from a series of modern Danish landscape architectural projects by Brandt, Sørensen and Andersson I will define a specific form for gardening – and more importantly a specific form for gathering – which I call „Gardens of Situations...
Lin, Brenda B; Egerer, Monika H; Liere, Heidi; Jha, Shalene; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M
Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations. We test this theory in 15 urban gardens across California's Central Coast. Local- and landscape-scale measures of ground, vegetation, and land cover were collected in and around each garden, while climate loggers recorded temperatures in each garden in 30min increments. Multivariate analyses, using county as a random factor, show that both local- and landscape-scale factors were important. All factors were significant predictors of mean temperature. Tallest vegetation, tree/shrub species richness, grass cover, mulch cover, and landscape level agricultural cover were cooling factors; in contrast, garden size, garden age, rock cover, herbaceous species richness, and landscape level urban cover were warming factors. Results were similar for the maximum temperature analysis except that agriculture land cover and herbaceous species richness were not significant predictors of maximum temperature. Analysis of gardener watering behavior to observed temperatures shows that garden microclimate was significantly related to the number of minutes watered as well as the number of liters of water used per watering event. Thus gardeners seem to respond to garden microclimate in their watering behavior even though this behavior is most probably motivated by a range of other factors such as water regulations and time availability. This research shows that local management of ground cover and vegetation can reduce mean and maximum temperatures in gardens, and the
Martin, Pauline; Consalès, Jean-Noël; Scheromm, Pascale; Marchand, Paul; Ghestem, Florence; Darmon, Nicole
Social inequalities in diet are attributed to sociocultural determinants, economic constraints, and unequal access to healthy food. Fruits and vegetables are lacking in the diets of disadvantaged populations. The objective was to test the hypothesis that, in poor neighborhoods, community gardeners will have larger supply of healthy food, especially fruit and vegetables, than non-gardeners. We examined community gardens from the perspective of production, economics and nutrition, and social and symbolic dimensions, through multidisciplinary investigations involving women with access to a community garden plot in a poor neighborhood of Marseille, France. Gardeners' monthly household food supplies (purchases and garden production) were analyzed and compared with those of women with a similar socio-economic profile living in the same neighborhoods, without access to a garden. Twenty-one gardeners participated. Only eleven of them harvested during the month of the study, and the amount they collected averaged 53 g of produce per household member per day. Whether they harvested or not, most gardeners gave preference to diversity, taste and healthiness of produce over quantity produced. Interviews revealed a value assigned to social, cultural and symbolic dimensions: pride in producing and cooking their own produce, related self-esteem, and sharing their produce at the meal table. The only significant difference between the food supplies of gardener and non-gardener households was seen for fruit and vegetables (369 vs. 211 g/d per person). This difference was due to larger purchases of fruit and vegetables, and not to higher quantities produced. In spite of the cross-sectional nature of our study and the small quantities harvested, our results suggest that having access to a community garden could encourage socio-economically disadvantaged women to adopt dietary practices that more closely meet dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blair, Cindy K; Madan-Swain, Avi; Locher, Julie L; Desmond, Renee A; de Los Santos, Jennifer; Affuso, Olivia; Glover, Tony; Smith, Kerry; Carley, Joseph; Lipsitz, Mindy; Sharma, Ayushe; Krontiras, Helen; Cantor, Alan; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy
Cancer survivors are at increased risk for second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and functional decline. Evidence suggests that a healthful diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of chronic disease and improve health in this population. We conducted a feasibility study to evaluate a vegetable gardening intervention that paired 12 adult and child cancer survivors with Master Gardeners to explore effects on fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, quality-of-life, and physical function. Throughout the year-long study period, the survivor-Master Gardener dyads worked together to plan/plant three gardens, harvest/rotate plantings, and troubleshoot/correct problems. Data on diet, physical activity, and quality-of-life were collected via surveys; anthropometrics and physical function were objectively measured. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed with a structured debriefing survey. The gardening intervention was feasible (robust enrollment; minimal attrition) and well-received by cancer survivors and Master Gardeners. Improvement in three of four objective measures of strength, agility, and endurance was observed in 90% of survivors, with the following change scores [median (interquartile range)] noted between baseline and one-year follow-up: hand grip test [+ 4.8 (3.0, 6.7) kg], 2.44 meter Get-Up-and-Go [+ 1.0 (+ 1.8, + 0.2) seconds], 30-second chair stand [+ 3.0 (+ 1.0, 5.0) stands], and six-minute walk [+ 11.6 (6.1, 48.8) meters]. Increases of ≥ 1 fruit and vegetable serving/day and ≥ 30 minutes/week of physical activity were observed in 40% and 60%, respectively. These preliminary results support the feasibility and acceptability of a mentored gardening intervention and suggest that it may offer a novel and promising strategy to improve fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and physical function in cancer survivors. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm our results.
The ways in which gardening has been interpreted by schools in western societies have changed over the past 150 years. The intended purpose of school gardening with children (aged 5-14) and the pedagogies which teachers have adopted has varied depending on social, cultural and political expectations. This paper argues that a reconceptualised…
Ruiten, Jacques van; Collins/ John J.,; Harlow/Daniel C.,
Jacques van Ruiten, “Garden of Eden – Paradise,” in The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism (ed. John J. Collins and Daniel C. Harlow; Grand Rapids, Mich., and Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2010), 658-661.
One of the keys to the continued transformation of abandoned mine lands into a world-class botanic garden near Pittsburgh is an innovative rainwater system financed by EPA’s Clean Water State Revolving Fund.
Duncan, Dennis W.; Collins, Ashley; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Knauft, David Alan; Berle, David C.
School gardens have been an active part of United States schools since 1890, when the first school garden was established in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Since the turn of the 20th century school gardens have greatly expanded to include inner city schools in some of the largest metropolitan areas of the country. Since the early 1990s, school gardens…
Clark, Heather F; Hausladen, Debra M; Brabander, Daniel J
Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 microg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150+/-40 microg/g to an average of 336 microg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.
The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) diets in which garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion levels were used ...
Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.
Motunrayo Ibrahim, Fausat
Gardening is a worthwhile adventure which engenders health op-timization. Yet, a dearth of evidences that highlights motivations to engage in gardening exists. This study examined willingness to engage in gardening and its correlates, including some socio-psychological, health related and socio-demographic variables. In this cross-sectional survey, 508 copies of a structured questionnaire were randomly self administered among a group of civil servants of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-item measures were used to assess variables. Step wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of willingness to engage in gar-dening Results: Simple percentile analysis shows that 71.1% of respondents do not own a garden. Results of step wise multiple regression analysis indicate that descriptive norm of gardening is a good predictor, social support for gardening is better while gardening self efficacy is the best predictor of willingness to engage in gardening (Pgardening response efficacy, education and age are not predictors of this willingness (P> 0.05). Results of t-test and ANOVA respectively shows that gender is not associated with this willingness (P> 0.05), but marital status is (Pgardening. The nexus between gardening and health optimization appears to be highly obscured in this population.
Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke
With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.
Hartwig, Kari A; Mason, Meghan
Refugees and new immigrants arriving in the United States (U.S.) often encounter a multitude of stressors adjusting to a new country and potentially coping with past traumas. Community gardens have been celebrated for their role in improving physical and emotional health, and in the Twin Cities of Minnesota, have been offered as a resource to immigrants and refugees. The purpose of this study is to present a mixed method evaluation of a refugee gardening project hosted by area churches serving primarily Karen and Bhutanese populations. Quantitative data were obtained from early and late season surveys (44 and 45 % response rates, respectively), and seven focus groups conducted at the end of the season provided qualitative data. Although few gardeners (4 %) identified food insecurity as a problem, 86 % indicated that they received some food subsidy, and 78 % reported vegetable intake increased between the early and late season surveys. Twelve percent of gardeners indicated possible depression using the PHQ-2 scale; in focus groups numerous respondents identified the gardens as a healing space for their depression or anxiety. Refugee gardeners expressed receiving physical and emotional benefits from gardening, including a sense of identity with their former selves. Gardens may serve as a meaningful health promotion intervention for refugees and immigrants adjusting to the complexity of their new lives in the U.S. and coping with past traumas.
Litt, Jill S; Lambert, Jeffrey Richard; Glueck, Deborah H
This study examined whether gardening modifies the association between age and body mass index (BMI). We used data from the Neighborhood Environments and Health Survey, which was conducted in Denver (N = 469) between 2006 and 2007. We fit two general linear mixed models. The base model had BMI in kg/m 2 as the outcome, and age, an indicator variable for non-gardening status and the age-by-non-gardening status interaction as predictors. The adjusted model included as covariates the potential confounders of education, ethnicity and self-reported health. We assessed self-selection bias and confounding. BMI was 27.18 kg/m 2 for non-gardeners, 25.62 kg/m 2 for home gardeners, and 24.17 kg/m 2 for community gardeners. In the base model, a statistically significant association was observed between age and BMI for non-gardeners but not for the combined community and home gardening group (F = 9.27, ndf = 1, ddf = 441, p = 0.0025). In the adjusted model, the association between age and BMI in non-gardeners was not statistically significant (F = 1.72, ndf = 1, ddf = 431, p = 0.1908). Gardeners differed on social and demographic factors when compared to non-gardeners. The results from the base model are consistent with the hypothesis that gardening might offset age-related weight gain. However, the cross-sectional design does not permit differentiation of true causal effects from the possible effects of bias and confounding. As a follow-up study, to remove bias and confounding, we are conducting a randomized clinical trial of community gardening in Denver.
Gregg, Jay; Bille, Dorthe
The Climate Museum and Garden is conceived as a cross-disciplinary experience, where the arts and sciences link together to increase understanding of the Earth's climate and its relevance to our fate as a species. This would be a place of inspiration. The Climate Museum and Garden would merge concepts of modern art museums and modern science museums, with exhibitions, live music and theater performances, visitor interaction, unique discoveries and reflection. It would be a place where visitors are immersed in experiences, lingering indoors and out in quiet consideration and gratitude for our planet's atmosphere. The story of climate change is compelling in its own right; theories of the greenhouse effect go back over century and climate policy has stretched back a few decades. Whereas scientific researchers have been contributing to understanding the mechanisms and impacts of climate change for many decades; whereas researchers have participated in climate summits and informed policy makers; whereas researchers have taught classes of gifted students; in all of this, the public has mostly missed out. This public relations gap has been unfortunately filled by those that would seek to politicize and mislead the public, leading to an engagement gap among the general public. Now we stand on a precipice. Therefore we see a ripe opportunity to reach out and inspire the population. We build off of current pedagogic research that shows that experienced-based learning is more impactful when it engages the senses and elicits an emotional response. People understand what they experience, what they feel, and this serves as the basis for personal reflection. In this sense the visitor experience is generative, in that it promotes further personal investigation and interaction. The Climate Museum and Garden would be a start. In the future, we envisage a future network of climate museums in all major cities. It would be a flagship attraction for any city, along with their art
Lekareva, Nina; Zaslavskaya, Anna
Article is devoted to issue of integration of vertical gardening into structure of high-rise building in the conditions of the constrained town-planning situation. On the basis of the analysis of the existing experience of design and building of "biopositive" high-rise building ecological, town-planning, social and constructive advantages of the organization of gardens on roofs and vertical gardens are considered . As the main mechanism of increase in investment appeal of high-rise building the principle of a humanization due to gardening of high-rise building taking into account requirements of ecology, energy efficiency of buildings and improvement of quality of construction with minimization of expenses and maximizing comfort moves forward. The National Standards of Green construction designed to adapt the international requirements of architecture and construction of the energy efficient, eco-friendly and comfortable building or a complex to local conditions are considered [2,3].
Oct 16, 2006 ... The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in ... garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion ..... Randall DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish Physiology, Academic Press, NY 8: 279-352,.
Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H
Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014.
Laidlaw, Mark A S; Alankarage, Dileepa H; Reichman, Suzie M; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Ball, Andrew S
Gardening and urban food production is an increasingly popular activity, which can improve physical and mental health and provide low cost nutritious food. However, the legacy of contamination from industrial and diffuse sources may have rendered surface soils in some urban gardens to have metals value in excess of recommended guidelines for agricultural production. The objective of this study was to establish the presence and spatial extent of soil metal contamination in Melbourne's residential and inner city community gardens. A secondary objective was to assess whether soil lead (Pb) concentrations in residential vegetable gardens were associated with the age of the home or the presence or absence of paint. The results indicate that most samples in residential and community gardens were generally below the Australian residential guidelines for all tested metals except Pb. Mean soil Pb concentrations exceeded the Australian HIL-A residential guideline of 300 mg/kg in 8% of 13 community garden beds and 21% of the 136 residential vegetable gardens assessed. Mean and median soil Pb concentrations for residential vegetable gardens was 204 mg/kg and 104 mg/kg (range soil Pb concentration for community vegetable garden beds was 102 mg/kg and 38 mg/kg (range = 17-578 mg/kg), respectively. Soil Pb concentrations were higher in homes with painted exteriors (p = 0.004); generally increased with age of the home (p = 0.000); and were higher beneath the household dripline than in vegetable garden beds (p = 0.040). In certain circumstances, the data indicates that elevated soil Pb concentrations could present a potential health hazard in a portion of inner-city residential vegetable gardens in Melbourne. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adams, Joanne; Pascal, Jan; Dickson-Swift, Virginia
There is limited research exploring how domestic water restrictions imposed as a result of drought conditions impact upon the lives of independently living older people. Within this age group (60 years plus), the domestic garden frequently forms an intrinsic component of ongoing health and well-being. Gardening practice offers components of both mental and physical activity and, for many older people, leads to emotional and spiritual connection on a number of levels. The capacity of older people to maintain a garden during a period of water restrictions is greatly reduced, and the resulting impact on health and well-being is considerable. A recent study, conducted in south-eastern Australia, aimed to determine the benefits to health and well-being of maintaining a domestic garden for older people and the impact of water restrictions on garden practice. This occurred at a time following a prolonged period of drought and, in central Victoria, a complete ban on outside watering. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 gardeners aged between 60 and 83 who had tended their garden over an extended period. The lived experience of gardening was explored through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Clear benefits to health and well-being were established, and yet, the essence of this experience lay in the capacity of gardeners to remain connected to their garden despite change. The crisis imposed by ongoing drought and restricted use of water generated a strong impetus for adaptation, resilience and acceptance of change. The spiritual nature of gardening practice clearly emerged and appeared to intensify the experience of gardening and consolidate adaption to change on a number of levels. © The Author(s) 2015.
Davis, Jaimie N; Spaniol, Mackenzie R; Somerset, Shawn
School garden programmes have become popular action-oriented learning environments in many countries, often driven by converging priorities of environmental sustainability and healthful diets. Many of these programmes have assessed the impact on dietary intake, specifically fruit and vegetable intake, and related dietary behaviours, such as knowledge, preference, motivation, intention and self-efficacy to eat and prepare fruit and vegetables. The objective of the present study was twofold: (i) to review published garden-based programmes conducted in schools targeting dietary intake and/or determinants of dietary behaviour in children; and (ii) to identify similar strategies and components employed by these garden-based programmes. The review included thirteen studies that have examined the impact of garden-based programmes conducted in school, either during school hours or in after-school settings, on dietary behaviours in children (kindergarten through 8th grade students). Three of the reviewed studies did not have a comparison or control group and simply evaluated within-group changes after a garden intervention. None of the reviewed studies were randomized, but were assigned based on school's interest and timing of new school gardens being built. Out of the eleven programmes that examined dietary intake, six found that the programme resulted in increased vegetable intake, whereas four showed no effect. Seven of the eight studies that measured preference found that the programmes resulted in increased preference for vegetables. Gardening programmes also resulted in improved attitudes towards, willingness to taste, identification of and self-efficacy to prepare/cook fruit and vegetables. Similar strategies/components employed by the majority of the programmes included: 'hands on' curriculum, incorporation of a cooking component, providing the instructors, parental and stakeholder support, food provision and using the garden as the focal point for media promotion
Full Text Available As of 2013, 42 million American households were involved in growing their own food either at home or in a community garden plot. The purpose of this pilot study was to document the extent to which gardeners, particularly less affluent ones, increase their vegetable intake when eating from either home or community garden spaces. Eighty-five community gardeners and 50 home gardeners from San Jose, California, completed a survey providing information on demographic background, self-rated health, vegetable intake and the benefits of gardening. The gardeners surveyed were generally low income and came from a variety of ethnic and educational backgrounds. Participants in this study reported doubling their vegetable intake to a level that met the number of daily servings recommended by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Growing food in community and home gardens can contribute to food security by helping provide access to fresh vegetables and increasing consumption of vegetables by gardeners and their families.
Christian, Meaghan S; El Evans, Charlotte; Conner, Mark; Ransley, Joan K; Cade, Janet E
The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children's fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children's fruit and vegetable intake. Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as "Partner Schools" and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as "Associate Schools". Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention "Associate Schools" or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children's knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school's gardening activities. The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children's diets and school based interventions. ISRCTN11396528.
Quistberg, Robyn D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M
Urban gardens may preserve biodiversity as urban population densities increase, but this strongly depends on the characteristics of the gardens and the landscapes in which they are embedded. We investigated whether local and landscape characteristics are important correlates of bee (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) abundance and species richness in urban community gardens. We worked in 19 gardens in the California central coast and sampled bees with aerial nets and pan traps. We measured local characteristics (i.e., vegetation and ground cover) and used the USGS National Land Cover Database to classify the landscape surrounding our garden study sites at 2 km scales. We classified bees according to nesting type (i.e., cavity, ground) and body size and determined which local and landscape characteristics correlate with bee community characteristics. We found 55 bee species. One landscape and several local factors correlated with differences in bee abundance and richness for all bees, cavity-nesting bees, ground-nesting bees, and different sized bees. Generally, bees were more abundant and species rich in bigger gardens, in gardens with higher floral abundance, less mulch cover, more bare ground, and with more grass. Medium bees were less abundant in sites surrounded by more medium intensity developed land within 2 km. The fact that local factors were generally more important drivers of bee abundance and richness indicates a potential for gardeners to promote bee conservation by altering local management practices. In particular, increasing floral abundance, decreasing use of mulch, and providing bare ground may promote bees in urban gardens. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available June 28, 2013 Botanic Garden of the University of Tartu has celebrated its 210th anniversary. To mark the occasion four significant events were presented: the first electric car trip, opening of the sculpture in honor of the gardeners of Estonia, the opening of "Moss garden" and a concert at the summer stage in the rock, which was held on June 29.
To investigate the farm level efficiency of home vegetable gardens in Uyo, a stochastic production function which incorporates a model for the technical inefficiency effects was used. Using farm-level data from 80 home gardeners obtained through structured questionnaire, the parameters were estimated simultaneously with ...
Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Stoltenberg, C D G; Hougaard, K S
To investigate whether sons of gardeners and building painters have increased risk of infertility in comparison with sons of bricklayers, carpenters and electricians.......To investigate whether sons of gardeners and building painters have increased risk of infertility in comparison with sons of bricklayers, carpenters and electricians....
Zoellner, Jamie; Zanko, Ashley; Price, Bryan; Bonner, Jennifer; Hill, Jennie L
Despite recommendations, there have been few efforts to apply the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in the development, implementation, and evaluation of community gardens. As guided by the CBPR approach and grounded in a social-ecological model and behavioral theory, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand opinions and interests in developing and implementing a community garden and to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable, and gardening behaviors. Community and academic members collaborated to develop and execute this study. The qualitative phase- targeting regional key informants-was designed to elicit perceived benefits and challenges of community gardens at the environmental, community, and individual levels. The quantitative phase targeted low resourced youth and parents and included a variety of validated theory-based questionnaires to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable, and gardening behaviors. Major benefits of community gardens that emerged from the 10 qualitative interviews included increasing community cohesion and improving nutrition and physical activity factors. The quantitative phase included 87 youth and 67 parents. Across 16 items for fruits and vegetables, the average willingness to try was 1.32 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.40) on a 2-point scale. The majority of youth indicated they would work in a garden (n = 59; 68%) and eat food grown in their garden (n = 71; 82%). Among parents, gardening attitude, belief, and self-efficacy scores were all above average; however, gardening intentions were neutral. This research illustrates the successful partnering a community-academic team and has provided the partnership with a clearer lens to conceptualize and launch future regional community garden efforts.
In this article, the author talks about a rain garden project at Hampton Elementary School in Bay City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to slow and filter silt-laden runoff (from parking lots, sidewalks, and playground) on its path to Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. In addition, doing so, the rain gardens would demonstrate to the township, city,…
Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.
This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentra......This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured...
Myers, Beth M; Wells, Nancy M
Gardens are a promising intervention to promote physical activity (PA) and foster health. However, because of the unique characteristics of gardening, no extant tool can capture PA, postures, and motions that take place in a garden. The Physical Activity Research and Assessment tool for Garden Observation (PARAGON) was developed to assess children's PA levels, tasks, postures, and motions, associations, and interactions while gardening. PARAGON uses momentary time sampling in which a trained observer watches a focal child for 15 seconds and then records behavior for 15 seconds. Sixty-five children (38 girls, 27 boys) at 4 elementary schools in New York State were observed over 8 days. During the observation, children simultaneously wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers. The overall interrater reliability was 88% agreement, and Ebel was .97. Percent agreement values for activity level (93%), garden tasks (93%), motions (80%), associations (95%), and interactions (91%) also met acceptable criteria. Validity was established by previously validated PA codes and by expected convergent validity with accelerometry. PARAGON is a valid and reliable observation tool for assessing children's PA in the context of gardening.
Drake, Luke; Lawson, Laura
As community gardens expand across the U.S., Extension professionals can support them not only in horticultural education but also in planning and organization. Knowledge of community garden management is helpful in this regard. Existing research focuses on outcomes and criteria for successful gardens, but is less clear about how community gardens…
Wagaman, John C.
This article describes four semesters of introductory statistics courses that incorporate service learning and gardening into the curriculum with applications of the binomial distribution, least squares regression and hypothesis testing. The activities span multiple semesters and are iterative in nature.
Full Text Available The ideology of “Nature and Man in One” from Taoism, one of the local schools that has the deepest influence on China, demonstrates an admiration and appraise for the nature and shows the thought that man and nature exist in harmony. The ideology “Nature and Man in One” is a basic principle for ancient people to deal with the relation between man and nature, and also provides a corresponding basis and reflects the wisdom of ancestors. The modern society has also provided a reference for harmonious and sustained development of man and nature. Chinese classic garden is an artistic works from the ancient craftsmen. As a representative of Chinese classic garden, Suzhou Garden complies with the philosophical concept “Nature and Man in One” to arrange the mountains and rivers. This article makes a deep analysis on the influence of Taoism cultural deposits on the arrangement of Chinese classic garden based on the connotation of “Nature and Man in One” ideology.
Conclusions: School food gardens as a vehicle for improving nutrition should be strengthened through training of ... environment for these 90 schools and a detailed description of .... Difficulty in motivating learners to work in the garden. 33.
Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna
Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.
Tse, J.S.; Loubriel, G.
The ground and 1s core hole state molecular wave functions of CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF obtained from Xa--SW calculations using the touching spheres (TS) and overlapping spheres (OS) approximations are used to calculate the intensity of shakeup satellites observed in their ls core level photoelectron spectra. The sudden approximation was assumed in the calculation. In case of TS Xa--SW wave functions, the one electron overlap integral inside the intersphere was calculated via Green's theorem. For OS Xa--SW wave functions, the integration over the awkwardly shaped intersphere region was circumvented by distributing the intersphere charge into the atomic spheres according to the charge partition scheme suggested by Case and Karplus. Our results show that there are no significant differences between the shakeup energies calculated from the TS and OS approximations. However, shakeup intensities calculated from TS Xa--SW wave functions are more reliable and in better numerical agreement with experiment
Tipaldi, Massimo; Gotz, Christoph; Ferraguto, Massimo; Troiano, Luigi; Bruenjes, Bernhard
The selection of the most suitable software life cycle process is of paramount importance in any space SW project. Despite being the preferred choice, the waterfall model is often exposed to some criticism. As matter of fact, its main assumption of moving to a phase only when the preceding one is completed and perfected (and under the demanding SW schedule constraints) is not easily attainable. In this paper, a tailoring of the software waterfall model (named “Robust Software Feedback Model”) is presented. The proposed methodology sorts out these issues by combining a SW waterfall model with a SW prototyping approach. The former is aligned with the SW main production line and is based on the full ECSS-E-ST-40C life-cycle reviews, whereas the latter is carried out in advance versus the main SW streamline (so as to inject its lessons learnt into the main streamline) and is based on a lightweight approach.
Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R
Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps) rather than colony source (lab/field). At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities. These results thus suggest that resident communities are shaped by the plant degradation
Full Text Available The Madison Square Garden Sports and Amusements Center comprises the following. 1. A circular building, 129.54 m in diameter and 45.72 m high, which houses the New Madison Square Garden and many other facilities. The arena sits 20.250 spectators, who can watch hockey, basketball, cycling, boxing, circus shows, ice skating, special displays, variety shows, meetings and other kinds of performance. 2. An office block on Seventh Avenue, with a useful floor area for office use amounting to 111,500 m2 and a further 4,800 m2 of floor area on the first two floors for commercial and banking activities.Forman parte del Centro Deportivo y de Atracciones Madison Square Garden: 1 Un edificio circular, de 129,54 m de diámetro y 45,72 m de altura, que aloja el Nuevo Madison Square Garden y otras muchas instalaciones. Tiene capacidad para 20.250 asientos, y en él se pueden celebrar espectáculos de: hockey, baloncesto, ciclismo, boxeo, circo, patinaje sobre hielo, acontecimientos especiales, variedades, asambleas y otros deportes de masas, etc. 2 Un edificio de oficinas que se alza contiguo a la Séptima Avenida, con una superficie útil de 111.500 m2 destinada a oficinas, y otra de 4.800 m2, en las plantas primera y segunda, dedicada a actividades comerciales y bancarias.
Lehmann, Lauren P; Detweiler, Jonna G; Detweiler, Mark B
To assess the experiences of a veteran initiated horticultural therapy garden during their 28-day inpatient Substance Abuse Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Program (SARRTP). Retrospective study. Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Salem, Virginia, USA INTERVENTIONS: Group interviews with veterans from the last SARRTP classes and individual interviews with VAMC greenhouse staff in summer of 2016. Time spent in garden, frequency of garden visits, types of passive and active garden activities, words describing the veterans' emotional reactions to utilizing the garden. In 3 summer months of 2016, 50 percent of the 56 veterans interviewed visited and interacted with the gardens during their free time. Frequency of visits generally varied from 3 times weekly to 1-2 times a day. Amount of time in the garden varied from 10min to 2h. The veterans engaged in active and/or passive gardening activities during their garden visits. The veterans reported feeling "calm", "serene", and "refreshed" during garden visitation and after leaving the garden. Although data was secured only at the end of the 2016 growing season, interviews of the inpatient veterans revealed that they used their own initiative and resources to continue the horticulture therapy program for 2 successive growing years after the original pilot project ended in 2014. These non-interventionist, therapeutic garden projects suggest the role of autonomy and patient initiative in recovery programs for veterans attending VAMC treatment programs and they also suggest the value of horticulture therapy as a meaningful evidence- based therapeutic modality for veterans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kincy, Natalie; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Navarro, Maria; Knauft, David
A quantitative survey, built around the theory of planned behavior, was used to investigate elementary teachers' attitudes, school norms, perceived behavioral control, and intent in both current and ideal teaching situations toward using gardens in their curriculum. With positive school norms and teachers who garden in their personal time, 77% of…
Clark, Heather F.; Hausladen, Debra M.; Brabander, Daniel J.
Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 μg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150±40 μg/g to an average of 336 μg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 μm) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 μm) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale
Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.
Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.
Ahmed, M; Begum, Anwara; Chowdhury, M A I
Sylhet, the northeastern divisional city of Bangladesh, is the major tea-producing region of the country where a large number of low-income workers completely depending on extremely labor-intensive economic activity for their bread and butter, live in and around the tea gardens. The living conditions of these communities are remarkably meager due to the lack of proper utility facilities, especially in water supply and sanitation sectors. A study was conducted at Lakkatura and Ali Bahar Tea Estates to assess the deteriorated sanitation condition of the tea garden workers community and to determine the constraints before the improvement of the condition. It was found that the existing sanitary condition of both of the tea garden slums is very poor because of the same topographical condition and socioeconomic and cultural status of the dwellers. About 50% to 60% tea garden workers still are used to open defecation causing various excreta related diseases and not practiced with washing hand after defecation. Lack of knowledge and awareness about health and hygiene, unwillingness, poverty, superstitions, etc. are responsible for the deteriorated condition of the sanitation system. Based on the analysis, providing latrines free of costs, undertaking extensive motivational and awareness programs and publicity, regular consultation of tea garden workers with the health specialists, and vector control staff of concerned utilities as well as an integrated water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion programs should be considered as the priority in order to improve the deteriorated sanitary conditions in two tea gardens.
Plascencia, M; Philpott, S M
In urban landscapes, gardens provide refuges for bee diversity, but conservation potential may depend on local and landscape features. Foraging and population persistence of bee species, as well as overall pollinator community structure, may be supported by the abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources. Floral resources strongly differ in urban gardens. Using hand netting and pan traps to survey bees, we examined whether abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources, as well as ground cover and garden landscape surroundings influence bee abundance, species richness, and diversity on the central coast of California. Differences in floral abundance and spatial distribution, as well as urban cover in the landscape, predicted different bee community variables. Abundance of all bees and of honeybees (Apis mellifera) was lower in sites with more urban land cover surrounding the gardens. Honeybee abundance was higher in sites with patchy floral resources, whereas bee species richness and bee diversity was higher in sites with more clustered floral resources. Surprisingly, bee species richness and bee diversity was lower in sites with very high floral abundance, possibly due to interactions with honeybees. Other studies have documented the importance of floral abundance and landscape surroundings for bees in urban gardens, but this study is the first to document that the spatial arrangement of flowers strongly predicts bee abundance and richness. Based on these findings, it is likely that garden managers may promote bee conservation by managing for floral connectivity and abundance within these ubiquitous urban habitats.
Pamela J. Bennett; Ellen M. Bauske; Alison Stoven O' Connor; Jean Reeder; Carol Busch; Heidi A. Kratsch; Elizabeth Leger; Angela O' Callaghan; Peter J. Nitzche; Jim Downer
Extension Master Gardener (EMG) volunteers are central to expanding the outreach and engagement of extension staff. A workshop format was used at the Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science on 31 July 2012 in Miami, FL to identify successful management techniques and projects that expand EMG volunteer outreach, leading to increased extension...
Gardening has been reported as being beneficial for mental well-being for vulnerable populations since 2000. However, little is known concerning its role in the general population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of gardening and mental health in adults in a countrywide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from and analysed in the Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, gardening engagement, and adult mental health by General Health Questionnaire was obtained by household interview. Statistical analyses including chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression modelling were performed. Of 9709 Scottish adults aged 16-99, 5 531 (57.0%) people did not do any gardening or building work in the last four weeks. A total of 888 (9.2%) people reported poor self-rated health. Gardening was associated with adult mental health in people both with or without heart conditions including ability to concentrate, feeling playing a useful part in things, feeling capable of making decisions, thinking of self as worthless, feeling reasonably happy, etc. General adults with or without heart conditions could benefit from engaging with gardening or building work. Future public health programmes promoting such activity should be encouraged in order to optimise adult mental health.
Maningtyas, R. T.; Gunawan, A.
This research aims to study the arrangement of landscape elements in Madura home garden and the underlying philosophy of the existence of these elements to formulate a concept of Madura home garden in accordance with the culture. Data about traditional culture, the character of the community, and the arrangement of the landscape around the home garden obtained through library research, field observation, and interviews of certain resource persons through purposive sampling techniques. The results showed that the Madura developed a pattern of home garden arrangement called taneyan lanjhang. Each taneyan lanjhang at least consist of several elements, namely langghar, roma, dapor, kandhang, taneyan, and organic fences. The elements are placed in a certain position in the direction of east-west and north-south by the Madura concept of life bappa-babbhu-guru-rato (father-mother-teacher-queen). The concept proposed residential garden is a garden house that is functional and aesthetic. This concept taneyan lanjhang split into five space, which is a public space, private space, semi-public spaces, room service, and a buffer space. The concept of circulation in taneyan lanjhang made according to the axis pattern that directs entrance to the langghar (prayer room) as a focal point.
Robbin W. Thorp
Full Text Available Gardens have become increasingly important places for growing nutritional food, for conserving biodiversity, for biological and ecological research and education, and for community gathering. Gardens can also be designed with the goal of attracting specific wildlife, like birds and butterflies, but pollinators, like bees, can also be drawn to specially planned and modified gardens. A community garden in San Luis Obispo, California provided the setting for modification with the goal of attracting native bee pollinators by planting known bee-attractive plants. The local gardeners participated in a survey questionnaire and focused interviews to provide their input and interest in such a project. Presentations on our work with native bees in urban environments and gardening to attract bees were also given to interested gardeners. Work of this type also benefited from a lead gardener who managed donated bee plants and kept up momentum of the project. Modification of the garden and monitoring of native bees started in 2007 and continued through the growing season of 2009. Diversity of collected and observed native bees has increased each year since 2007. To date, 40 species in 17 genera of mostly native bees has been recorded from the garden, and this number is expected to increase through time.
There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital......, it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...
Ostuzzi, Francesca; Conradie, Peter; De Couvreur, Lieven; Detand, Jan; Saldien, Jelle
This case study explores the opportunities for students of Industrial Design Engineering to engage with direct and indirect stakeholders by making their design process and results into open-ended designed solutions. The reported case study involved 47 students during a two-weeks intensive course on the topic of urban gardening. Observations were…
Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen
This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules...
Community gardening provides many benefits for students like outdoor physical activity, an understanding of plant life cycles, food production and healthy eating (Blair, 2009; Whiren, 1995). Gardening also provides hands-on learning opportunities to draw parallels between what is needed for plants to grow and what students need to be healthy. When…
Full Text Available Urban gardens have been observed to multiply in response to crises. However, the meaning and motivations behind the emergence of gardening movements varies greatly over space and time. In this paper we argue that bottom up urban gardening initiatives taking place in Southern European countries in form of land occupation and communalization represent forms of resistance that enhance social cohesion and collective action in times of need. Specifically, this research examines the role of urban gardens in (i building community resilience and (ii articulating forms of resistance and contestation to development pressure and commodified urban lifestyles. Our research is based on data collected among 27 urban gardening initiatives in Barcelona, Spain, including 13 self-governed community gardens and 14 public gardens. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with gardeners and with staff from the Barcelona City Council. Our results show mechanisms through which urban gardens can contribute to build resilience by nurturing social and ecological diversity, generating and transmitting local ecological knowledge, and by creating opportunities for collective action and self-organization. We further examine collectively managed gardens as urban commons that emerge as a form of resistance to the privatization of public urban space, and that offer opportunities to experiment with new models of urban lifestyles. We show how gardening initiatives can be seen to represent an emerging form of urban green commons that provides a suitable ground to ‘sow’ resilience and contestation in times of crises and socio-ecological deterioration.
Yang, Hanbae; McCoy, Edward L; Grewal, Parwinder S; Dick, Warren A
Rain gardens are bioretention systems that have the potential to reduce peak runoff flow and improve water quality in a natural and aesthetically pleasing manner. We compared hydraulic performance and removal efficiencies of nutrients and atrazine in a monophasic rain garden design versus a biphasic design at a column-scale using simulated runoff. The biphasic rain garden was designed to increase retention time and removal efficiency of runoff pollutants by creating a sequence of water saturated to unsaturated conditions. We also evaluated the effect of C substrate availability on pollutant removal efficiency in the biphasic rain garden. Five simulated runoff events with various concentrations of runoff pollutants (i.e. nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine) were applied to the monophasic and biphasic rain gardens once every 5d. Hydraulic performance was consistent over the five simulated runoff events. Peak flow was reduced by approximately 56% for the monophasic design and 80% for the biphasic design. Both rain garden systems showed excellent removal efficiency of phosphate (89-100%) and atrazine (84-100%). However, significantly (prain garden (29-39%). Addition of C substrate in the form of glucose increased removal efficiency of nitrate significantly (prain gardens. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Porter, Christine M; McCrackin, Peggy G; Naschold, Felix
To evaluate the impact of minigrants on home food gardening and review 28 health-related minigrant programs reported in the literature for lessons relevant for using minigrant programs to promote community health. Randomized controlled trial of the impact of minigrants on square footage of food garden area and on garden initiation in 2010 versus 2011. Interviews with participants were also conducted and coded and the literature was reviewed for findings from other community health minigrant programs. Laramie, Wyoming. Sixty adults living in 53 households who attended a gardening training workshop in April 2011. A $40 minigrant in the form of a voucher, valid at a local gardening store. Minigrant recipients were more likely to increase their gardening space than the control group. The average increase for the intervention group was 39.2 ft (3.62 m) while the control group average garden plot size decreased slightly, on average, by 1.4 ft (-0.13 m). However, the data were not normally distributed and, therefore, nonparametric statistical tests were used. For the subset of 20 households that did not garden at all in 2010, minigrants also provided motivation to start gardening (8 of 10 minigrant households started a garden vs 2 of 10 control households). Results reported from other health minigrant programs are also positive, though few had quantitative outcomes or control groups for comparison. Even with very small amounts of money, minigrants show promise as an ethical, inexpensive, empowering, and effective health promotion strategy to enable families and communities to improve their health.
Reis, Kimberley; Ferreira, Jo-Anne
Can community and school gardens help people learn to build social resilience to potential food shortages? We seek to address this question through an examination of the ways in which gardens can teach individual and community resiliency in times of emergency, pockets of food insecurity, and the challenges presented by climate change. We focus on…
Maine Harvest for Hunger (MHH) involves Master Gardeners in food security through participation in gleaning and gardening projects that benefit food pantries. A statewide survey (Murphy, 2011a) indicates many food pantries face increased demand but are unable to distribute all of the donated produce. The MHH program in Oxford County is designed to…
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew i Londons sydvestlige del er en af verdens mest berømte botaniske haver. Af alle verdens plantearter findes mere end en ud af otte i Kew, der er den største samling af levende planter i verden.......Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew i Londons sydvestlige del er en af verdens mest berømte botaniske haver. Af alle verdens plantearter findes mere end en ud af otte i Kew, der er den største samling af levende planter i verden....
Full Text Available The dramatic mask of the false gardener, one of the many types of noble disguised as a peasant, is specially frequent in Lope de Vega’s urban comedy; if in the main plot the love gardener courts his lover taking profit of the disguise, in the comic plot the dramatic type is parodied thanks to his links with real peasants; about 1615, Lope, already masked as Belardo in the Romancero, makes use of this dramatic type as a spokesman of his personal courtly ambitions.
Full Text Available Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds.
Dumouchelle, Denise H.; Darner, Robert A.
Stormwater runoff in urban areas is increasingly being managed by means of a variety of treaments that reduce or delay runoff and promote more natural infiltration. One such treatment is a rain garden, which is built to detain runoff and allow for water infiltration and uptake by plants.Water flow into or out of a rain garden can be readily monitored with a variety of tools; however, observing the movement of water within the rain garden is less straightforward. Soil-moisture probes in combination with an automated interpolation procedure were used to document the infiltration of water into two rain gardens in Ohio. Animations show changes in soil moisture in the rain gardens during two precipitation events. At both sites, the animations demonstrate underutilization of the rain gardens.
Zimpita, Tisungeni; Biggs, Chara; Faber, Mieke
Few studies have documented whether the behavior changes produced by home garden projects have been maintained after completion of the projects. To determine the benefits and challenges affecting production and consumption of β-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits in a rural South African village 10 years after completion of a home garden project. This cross-sectional survey assessed gardening practices and household consumption of β-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits using a questionnaire (n = 186). Benefits and challenges affecting production and consumption of β-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits were assessed through focus group discussions. Thirty-nine percent of the households currently planted β-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits. Major challenges included lack of fencing, animals eating crops, and lack or shortage of water. Planting materials for β-carotene-rich vegetables were sourced from the community nursery, while papaya was grown from its own seed. Shops were the most likely alternative sources of β-carotene-rich vegetables. The frequency of consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato, butternut, spinach, and papaya when in season differed significantly, with households planting β-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits having more frequent consumption than households not planting these vegetables and fruits. Households planting β-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits were perceived as "well-to-do" and "healthy" households and as "givers". This study showed that 10 years after the endline evaluation of a home garden project, approximately one-third of the households in the village planted β-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits, which is very similar to the proportion at project completion and a postintervention study that was done 6 years later, despite various challenges, indicating that the practice of planting these vegetables and fruits was continued over the years.
Full Text Available Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children’s science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and cultural integration. Throughout the last five years of my community garden activities, I have learned that community garden-based practices adhere to particular forms of agency: embracing diversity, sharing power, and trust building as a part of everyday learning. My auto-ethnographic study provides valuable insights for environmental educators whose goals include, incorporating ethnic diversity as well as engaging children in research, ultimately leading to community action.
Garbuzov, Mihail; Alton, Karin; Ratnieks, Francis L W
Gardeners and park managers seeking to support biodiversity in urban areas often plant ornamentals attractive to flower-visiting insects. There is a huge diversity of garden plant varieties, and some recommendations are available as to which are attractive to insects. However, these are largely not based on rigorous empirical data. An important factor in consumer choice is the range of varieties available for purchase. In the UK, garden centres are a key link in the supply chain between growers and private gardens. This study is the first to determine the proportions of flowering ornamentals being sold that are attractive to flower-visiting insects. We surveyed six garden centres in Sussex, UK, each over two days in 2015, by making 12 counts of insects visiting patches of each ornamental plant on display for sale that was in bloom. To provide a consistent baseline among different locations, we brought with us and surveyed marjoram ( Origanum vulgare ) plants in pots, which are known to be attractive to a wide range of flower-visiting insects. The attractiveness of plant varieties to insects was then expressed in two ways: the absolute number and relative to that on marjoram ('marjoram score'), both per unit area of plant cover. In addition, we noted whether each variety was recommended as pollinator-friendly either via a symbol on the label, or by being included in the Royal Horticultural Society's 'Perfect for Pollinators' list. Furthermore, we compared the attractiveness of plants that are typically grown for more than one year versus only one year. We surveyed 59-74 plant varieties in bloom across the six garden centres. In each garden centre, the distributions of variety attractiveness were highly skewed to the right, with most varieties being relatively unattractive, and few varieties highly attractive to flower-visiting insects. The median attractiveness of varieties with a recommendation was 4.2× higher than that of varieties without. But, due to the large
Burks, Julia M; Philpott, Stacy M
Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function. We examined the local habitat and landscape drivers of parasitoid abundance, superfamily and family richness, and parasitoid composition in urban gardens in the California central coast. Local factors included garden size, ground cover type, herbaceous plant species, and number of trees and shrubs. Landscape characteristics included land cover and landscape diversity around gardens. We found that garden size, mulch cover, and urban cover within 500 m of gardens predicted increases in parasitoid abundance within gardens. The height of herbaceous vegetation and tree and shrub richness predicted increases in superfamily and family richness whereas increases in urban cover resulted in declines in parasitoid richness. Abundance of individual superfamilies and families responded to a wide array of local and landscape factors, sometimes in opposite ways. Composition of parasitoid communities responded to changes in garden size, herbaceous plant cover, and number of flowers. Thus, both local scale management and landscape planning may impact the abundance, diversity, and community composition of parasitoids in urban gardens, and may result in differences in the effectiveness of parasitoids in biological control. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van Heijnsbergen, E.; van Deursen, A.; Bouwknegt, M.; Bruin, J. P.; Schalk, J. A. C.
ABSTRACT Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila. Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. IMPORTANCE Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. PMID:27316958
van Heijnsbergen, E; van Deursen, A; Bouwknegt, M; Bruin, J P; de Roda Husman, A M; Schalk, J A C
Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. Copyright © 2016 van Heijnsbergen et al.
Mangadu, Thenral; Kelly, Michael; Orezzoli, Max C E; Gallegos, Rebecca; Matharasi, Pracheta
Minority communities such as those on the US-Mexico border are placed at disproportionate high risk for child and adult obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A built environment characterized by an arid desert climate, lack of access to healthy foods, barriers to increasing physical activity, cultural and community norms which deter healthy eating and sustainable food production, shape obesity-related health disparities in these communities. Three pilot community gardens (implemented by two local governmental organizations and one community-based organization) were funded through the local Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL) initiative in El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces and Anthony, New Mexico (US-MX border communities with high obesity rates) in order to encourage healthy lifestyles among families in the region. A mixed-methods evaluation (n = 223) examined the implementation process, immediate outcomes and best practices of implementing and sustaining community gardens in these minority binational communities. In addition to nutrition-related outcomes, the potential for psychosocial outcomes from participating in community and school garden projects were observed. The best practices in relation to (i) assessing community norms related to growing food, (ii) increasing access to land and water for community/school gardening and (iii) enhancing social support for gardening are discussed. The implications of these best practices for obesity prevention and implementing community gardens in a minority US-MX border community characterized by cultural, geographical and socioeconomic barriers are examined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Djenane Abd-el-Tif is an example of an Algerian summer residence dating from the Ottoman era. This type of building is not very well-known and remains marginalized in research that is more interested in the townhouses of the medina of Algiers. Yet, the gardens, the ingenious irrigation systems, fountains, and other patterns of Islamic gardens make of these djenane a unique typology worth exploring and preserving. Indeed, Islamic garden design is an art in itself and any restoration or conservation work should preserve the authenticity of its characteristics. The djenane Abd-el-Tif was fully restored following the damage caused by the Boumerdès earthquake in 2003. This led to the discovery of various elements that are particularly informative about its architecture and composition. It also highlighted the existence of valuable Islamic garden patterns, together with the djenane’s exceptional flora, which could provide added-value to the tourism potential of such residences. However, if restoration work has saved the djenane Abd-el-Tif, its garden with its Islamic design characteristics is not yet fully investigated nor listed as a cultural heritage. This article presents the djenane as a cultural heritage and argues that right restoration and reuse could contribute to enhancing knowledge about Islamic garden design in North Africa.
May, Gary L.; Short, Darren
Uses the metaphor of gardening in cyberspace as a guide to the creation of an environment that fosters learning and growth in online courses. Draws analogies between good gardening practices and online teaching practices, instructional design, and course management techniques. Contains 63 references. (SK)
... Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. All of Bird Key Harbor, southwest of Garden Key, bounded by the surrounding reefs and shoals and, on the northeast, by a line...
Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W
The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of semiotic and cognitive potential of a garden as a compositional form (“Ogrody” by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. Silva rerum, florilegia, hortus act as its genre presupposition in European artistic tradition. We define the semiotic potential of a “garden” through the system of symbolic meanings: garden as a collection, locus amoenus, sphere of potentiality or ordering, garden as a memory space, intellectual space, etc. The garden via a compositional form of this text and the space of thought functions as an iconic sign of memory. Each object of the past, being replaced by a sign, receives localization in our memory and becomes a “text”. This allows us “to read” the past in the absence of an immediate reception. Garden acquires the properties of textuality and a semiotic object. Hence Iwaszkiewicz considers six gardens in “Ogrody” as a model of his life. Memory is a nonlinear space. Therefore, transitions between gardens are only arbitrary, associative. At the same time garden as a compositional form becomes the cognitive tool of identity. Topology of this memory space (configuration of people, books, music, which become signs is the cognitive map of the “self (selfhood, selfness. The self-referent structures create the illusion: I (the one who writes is combined with that person from the past (also I, which he recalls. Nonetheless, all narratives about selfhood are only “the map, but not a territory” (A. Korzybski.
.... Is this really the case? Operation Market-Garden, the plan envisioned by Field Marshal Montgomery, would open the gate into Germany and simultaneously force General Eisenhower to abandon his broad-front strategy in favor...
Egli, Victoria; Oliver, Melody; Tautolo, El-Shadan
Community gardens contribute to community wellbeing by influencing the nutritional and social environment. The aim of this research was to develop a model that communicates the many benefits of community garden participation as described in the academic literature, to a diverse audience of laypersons. This model is an example of effective knowledge translation because the information is able to be more than simply understood but also practically applied. From April to August 2015, a model depicting the many benefits of community garden participation was prepared based on a global, critical literature review. The wellbeing benefits from community garden participation have been grouped into factors influencing the nutritional health environment and factors influencing the social environment. The graphic chosen to form the basis of the model is a fractal tree of life. In October 2015, to test the models comprehension and to obtain stakeholder feedback this model was presented to a diverse group of community members, leaders and workers from the Tāmaki region of Auckland, New Zealand. The model we present here effectively and clearly translates knowledge obtained from the academic literature on the benefits to wellbeing from community garden participation into a tool that can be used, adapted and developed by community groups, government agencies and health promoters.
By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer What started out as a way for Howard Young, Ph.D., to thin out his garden last fall turned into the NCI at Frederick Green Team’s Plant Swap. The group held its Fall Plant Swap on October 24, encouraging all members of the Fort Detrick community to pick up a free plant or swap a plant of theirs for another. “Those who love to garden
Chaney, R.L.; Beyer, W.N.; Gifford, C.H.; Sileo, L.
In 1979, before the primary Zn smelter at Palmerton was closed due to excessive Zn and Cd emissions and change in the price of Zn, we were contacted by a local veterinarian regarding death of foals (young horses) on farms near the smelter. To examine whether Zn or Cd contamination of forage or soils could be providing potentially toxic levels of Zn or other elements in the diets of foals, we measured metals in forages, soils, and feces of grazing livestock on two farms near Palmerton. The farms were about 2.5 and about 10 km northeast of the East stack. Soils, forages, and feces were greatly increased in Zn and Cd. Soil, forage, and fecal Zn were near 1000 mg/kg and Cd, 10-20 mg/kg at farm A (2.5 km) compared to normal background levels of 43 mg Zn and 0.2 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Liver and kidney of cattle raised on Farm A were increased in Zn and Cd, indicating that at least part of the Zn and Cd in smelter contaminated forages was bioavailable. During the farm sampling, we obtained soil from one garden in Palmerton within 200 m of the primary (West) smelter. The Borough surrounds the smelter facility in a valley. Because soil Cd was near 100 mg/kg, we sampled garden soils and vegetables from over 40 gardens in 6 randomly selected blocks and in rural areas at different distances from the smelter during September, 1980. All homes were contacted on each sampled block. Nearly all homes had some garden, while at least 2 appeared to grow over 50% of their annual vegetable and potato consumption. Palmerton garden soils averaged 76 mg Cd/kg and 5830 mg Zn/kg. Gardeners had been taught to add limestone and organic fertilizers to counteract yield reduction and chlorosis due to the excessive soil Zn. Gardens with over 5000 mg Zn/kg were nearly allover pH 7, and many were calcareous. Because the smelter had not yet ceased operations in 1980, crops could have been polluted by aerosol Zn and Cd emitted by the smelter. Crop Zn and Cd were extremely high, about 100 times normal
Goto, Seiko; Gianfagia, Thomas J; Munafo, John P; Fujii, Eijiro; Shen, Xuting; Sun, Minkai; Shi, Bertram Emil; Liu, Congcong; Hamano, Hiroshi; Herrup, Karl
This study is to examine how viewing a Japanese garden affects Japanese patients with dementia. In a previous study, authors explored the effect on individuals with Alzheimer's disease of viewing an indoor Japanese garden at a nursing home in the United States and reported that viewing the garden significantly reduced the heart rate, evoked short-term and long-term memories, and improved behavioral symptoms. However, it was unclear whether these effects were caused by the design of Japanese garden or unfamiliarity of the design to Caucasians. We constructed a Japanese garden on the rooftop of a hospital in Japan and assessed with a total of 25 subjects on the following categories: (1) eye movement, (2) heart rate, and (3) behavior under four different conditions: (a) open view of the site before construction of the Japanese garden (the control space), (b) open view of the Japanese garden, (c) view of the Japanese garden through closed door, and (d) view of Japanese garden through closed door with the chrysanthemum scent. Findings/Results: Viewers' eyes scanned larger area while viewing the Japanese garden, and viewing the Japanese garden significantly reduced heart rate and improved behavioral symptoms than the control space. We also found that the effect of viewing the same Japanese garden differed across three conditions: the view through an open door, a closed door, and a closed door with added scent.
Leslie Marmon Silko began her most recent work, "Gardens in the Dunes" (1999), intending to write a novel that would not be political. Following the publication of "Almanac of the Dead" (1992), which was simultaneously hailed as one of the most important books of the twentieth century and condemned for its angry self-righteousness, Silko…
This study examines ideas that were drawn together by Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) in his formulation of the Garden City concept originally published in 1898 in his influential book Tomorrow; A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, and subsequently developed at the first Garden City at Letchworth in 1903.
Full Text Available The historical garden complex of Mofakham was built in the late nineteenth century as a formal pavilion garden in the city of Bojnourd in north-east Iran for the Persian monarch's local governor (hakem of the time. At least five main buildings and other secondary buildings of the garden complex have disappeared over the years. Although the surrounding context has changed totally, the axial route of the garden and two buildings of the complex remain. The documentation includes: 1. A precise two dimensional map of the complex (Figures 1–3, 2. A number of three dimensional images based on total 3D making (Images 4–5, 3. A 1/150 model
Full Text Available Community gardening has become a growing movement in cities all over the world, where these diverse collectively managed spaces provide various economic, ecological, and social benefits for urban residents. Particularly in developed countries such as Germany, social benefits are the motivation to participate in community gardens more so than the harvests. Although research on community gardens has grown, including the question of their benefits to a sustainable development, there is little literature studying the social importance and social sustainability of community gardens. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine social interaction, participation, and perceived success as a concept to assess social sustainability. The paper further aims to examine the conditions influencing social sustainability within community gardens. With the help of an online survey, we collect data from 123 community gardens throughout Germany, with which we assess diverse degrees of social sustainability. Causalities of gardens’ social sustainability are analyzed with a multiple linear regression model. Results indicate that there is no significant relationship between size of community and social sustainability, rather aspects of trust and management have a strong effect on social sustainability. Findings like these lead to a better understanding of social interaction in urban communities that contribute to more social sustainability.
Litt, Jill S; Soobader, Mah-J; Turbin, Mark S; Hale, James W; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A
We considered the relationship between an urban adult population's fruit and vegetable consumption and several selected social and psychological processes, beneficial aesthetic experiences, and garden participation. We conducted a population-based survey representing 436 residents across 58 block groups in Denver, Colorado, from 2006 to 2007. We used multilevel statistical models to evaluate the survey data. Neighborhood aesthetics, social involvement, and community garden participation were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Community gardeners consumed fruits and vegetables 5.7 times per day, compared with home gardeners (4.6 times per day) and nongardeners (3.9 times per day). Moreover, 56% of community gardeners met national recommendations to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times per day, compared with 37% of home gardeners and 25% of nongardeners. Our study results shed light on neighborhood processes that affect food-related behaviors and provides insights about the potential of community gardens to affect these behaviors. The qualities intrinsic to community gardens make them a unique intervention that can narrow the divide between people and the places where food is grown and increase local opportunities to eat better.
Soobader, Mah-J.; Turbin, Mark S.; Hale, James W.; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A.
Objectives. We considered the relationship between an urban adult population's fruit and vegetable consumption and several selected social and psychological processes, beneficial aesthetic experiences, and garden participation. Methods. We conducted a population-based survey representing 436 residents across 58 block groups in Denver, Colorado, from 2006 to 2007. We used multilevel statistical models to evaluate the survey data. Results. Neighborhood aesthetics, social involvement, and community garden participation were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Community gardeners consumed fruits and vegetables 5.7 times per day, compared with home gardeners (4.6 times per day) and nongardeners (3.9 times per day). Moreover, 56% of community gardeners met national recommendations to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times per day, compared with 37% of home gardeners and 25% of nongardeners. Conclusions. Our study results shed light on neighborhood processes that affect food-related behaviors and provides insights about the potential of community gardens to affect these behaviors. The qualities intrinsic to community gardens make them a unique intervention that can narrow the divide between people and the places where food is grown and increase local opportunities to eat better. PMID:21680931
Full Text Available School gardens are, increasingly, an integral part of projects aiming to promote nutritional education and environmental sustainability in many countries throughout the world. In the late 1950s, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization and UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund had already developed projects to improve the dietary intake and behavior through school and community gardens. However, notwithstanding decades of experience, real proof of how these programs contribute to improving sustainability has not been well-documented, and reported findings have mostly been anecdotal. Therefore, it is important to begin a process of collecting and monitoring data to quantify the results and possibly improve their efficiency. This study’s primary goal is to propose an interpretive structure—the “Sustainable Agri-Food Evaluation Methodology-Garden” (SAEMETH-G, that is able to quantifiably guide the sustainability evaluation of various school garden organizational forms. As a case study, the methodology was applied to 15 school gardens located in three regions of Kenya, Africa. This application of SAEMETH-G as an assessment tool based on user-friendly indicators demonstrates that it is possible to carry out sustainability evaluations of school gardens through a participatory and interdisciplinary approach. Thus, the hypothesis that the original SAEMETH operative framework could be tested in gardens has also been confirmed. SAEMETH-G is a promising tool that has the potential to help us understand school gardens’ sustainability better and to use that knowledge in their further development all over the world.
Ahmed, Ameena T; Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel
Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai'i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai'i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health.
Hassan, Ahmad; Qibing, Chen; Tao, Jiang
Gardening has long been one of most enjoyable pastimes among older adults. Whether gardening activities contribute to the well-being of older adults is a major question. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychophysiological relaxing effects of gardening activities on older adults living in modern institutional care. The study participants were 40 older women aged 79.5 ± 8.09 years (mean ± SD). A cross-over study design was used to investigate the physiological and psychological responses to environments with and without plants. Physiological evaluation was carried out using blood pressure and electroencephalography, and psychological evaluation was carried out using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Semantic Differential method. Blood pressure was significantly lower, and changes in brainwaves were observed. Psychological responses showed that participants were more "comfortable and relaxed" after the plant task than after the control task. In addition, total anxiety levels were significantly lower after carrying out the plant task than after the control task. Our research suggests that gardening activities might enhance physiological and psychological relaxation in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Hyun Sil Shin
Full Text Available The present study was intend to track down the transitional process in which the hierarchical dominance in the urban structure of Namwon City shifted from the Namwoneupseong Walled Town to the area of Gwanghalluwon Garden by using cadastral data and various historical sources. It was aimed to find the factors regarding the transition and a sustainable development plan to the historical landscape. The results were as follows: First, the urban structure of former Namwon City has succeeded to a typical grid street structure of walled town. However, land use and urban landscape to an existing grid street structure and a modified grid street structure was formed by development of transportation in the city. In addition, as the fortress was demolished, land development expanded east and west along the railroad and Yochun River. Accordingly, the central areas of Namwon City also expanded and shifted from Namwoneupseong Walled Town to the new towns in the adjacent area. Secondly, lots transformation process of Gwanghalluwon Garden started the changing by transitioning from the pavilion of a past government office to tourist attraction in the novel Chunhyang-jeon, written during the Joseon Dynasty. It was transformed into the current area of Gwanghalluwon Garden through the regional expansion project in the 1960s, and the relocation of neighboring market in the 1970s by the conflagration. And Namwon County purchased these lands. Later, Gwanghalluwon Garden was designated a cultural asset and the current shape of Gwanghalluwon Garden has been preserved since then. Third, The secret of how Gwanghalluwon Garden has been able to survive as a “dominated landscape” is likely to be found in the relationship between the development of the city (external factor, historical landscapes (internal factor, and complex interactions of history, geography, culture, etc. Furthermore, each factor has served as a unique element in developing Gwanghalluwon Garden into a
Full Text Available Recently, many laser scanners are applied for various measurement fields. This paper investigates that it was useful to use the terrestrial laser scanner in the field of landscape architecture and examined a usage in Japanese garden. As for the use of 3D point cloud data in the Japanese garden, it is the visual use such as the animations. Therefore, some applications of the 3D point cloud data was investigated that are as follows. Firstly, ortho image of the Japanese garden could be outputted for the 3D point cloud data. Secondly, contour lines of the Japanese garden also could be extracted, and drawing was became possible. Consequently, drawing of Japanese garden was realized more efficiency due to achievement of laborsaving. Moreover, operation of the measurement and drawing could be performed without technical skills, and any observers can be operated. Furthermore, 3D point cloud data could be edited, and some landscape simulations that extraction and placement of tree or some objects were became possible. As a result, it can be said that the terrestrial laser scanner will be applied in landscape architecture field more widely.
Kumazaki, R.; Kunii, Y.
Recently, many laser scanners are applied for various measurement fields. This paper investigates that it was useful to use the terrestrial laser scanner in the field of landscape architecture and examined a usage in Japanese garden. As for the use of 3D point cloud data in the Japanese garden, it is the visual use such as the animations. Therefore, some applications of the 3D point cloud data was investigated that are as follows. Firstly, ortho image of the Japanese garden could be outputted for the 3D point cloud data. Secondly, contour lines of the Japanese garden also could be extracted, and drawing was became possible. Consequently, drawing of Japanese garden was realized more efficiency due to achievement of laborsaving. Moreover, operation of the measurement and drawing could be performed without technical skills, and any observers can be operated. Furthermore, 3D point cloud data could be edited, and some landscape simulations that extraction and placement of tree or some objects were became possible. As a result, it can be said that the terrestrial laser scanner will be applied in landscape architecture field more widely.
The present study deals - in its three parts - with three fragments of the garden history of Japan. It reveals how the meaning a garden had to the people of its time was significantly different in all of these periods.
Part one, titled "Themes", deals with the later Heian period,
Hanscom, Janice T.; Leipzig, Felicia
This article outlines the development of an urban elementary school gardening project where children learn science and responsibility for the environment. Charts provide a gardening timeline, planting plan for each grade level, instructions for building a grow cart, and indoor experiments that test environmental factors for each grade level. (LZ)
Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent; Kucuk, Turgay; Zafer Seker, Dursun
The advancements in the photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies has made it possible to extract useful tangible information from data which plays a pivotal role in various application such as management and monitoring of forests and agricultural lands etc. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spectral signatures for extraction of tea gardens from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps obtained from Rize city in Turkey. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was derived from the input images to suppress the non-vegetation areas. NDVI values less than zero were discarded and the output images was normalized in the range 0-255. Individual pixels were then mapped into meaningful objects using global region growing technique. The resulting image was filtered and smoothed to reduce the impact of noise. Furthermore, geometrical constraints were applied to remove small objects (less than 500 pixels) followed by morphological opening operator to enhance the results. These objects served as building blocks for further image analysis. Finally, for the classification stage, a range of spectral values were empirically calculated for each band and applied on candidate objects to extract tea gardens. For accuracy assessment, we employed an area based similarity metric by overlapping obtained tea garden boundaries with the manually digitized tea garden boundaries created by experts of photogrammetry. The overall accuracy of the proposed method scored 89 % for tea gardens from 10 sample orthophoto maps. We concluded that exploiting the spectral signatures using object based analysis is an effective technique for extraction of dominant tree species from digital orthophoto maps.
Sidenius, Ulrik; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Linn Lygum, Victoria; K. Stigsdotter, Ulrika
The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL). One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE), which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients’ health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health) indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases. PMID:28783060
Sidenius, Ulrik; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Linn Lygum, Victoria; K Stigsdotter, Ulrika
The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL). One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE), which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients' health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health) indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases.
Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as “Partner Schools” and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as “Associate Schools”. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention “Associate Schools” or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children’s knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school’s gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children’s diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528 PMID:22537179
Full Text Available Urban gardening finds itself at a juncture – not only are crises caused and exacerbated by the industrial food system urgently demonstrating the need for more localised, sustainable, and democratically-determined food systems, but alternative food movements are increasingly negotiating crises of their own. Critical Foodscapes was a one-day conference part-funded by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study (IAS and the Food GRP. The conference was put together with the intention of bringing a ‘critical studies’ approach to the emerging research area of urban community food growing; namely, to put critical – but constructive – pressure on some of the assumptions which underlie current theory and practice of the various forms of urban food growing. This article offers some reflections on the conference itself as well as on the prospects for urban gardening more generally.
Loso, Jennifer; Staub, Daniel; Colby, Sarah E; Olfert, Melissa D; Kattelmann, Kendra; Vilaro, Melissa; Colee, James; Zhou, Wenjun; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Mathews, Anne E
Gardening interventions have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake among school-aged children. It is unknown whether these effects persist into later adolescence or adulthood, and little is known about whether gardening in later adolescence is related to F/V intake. To identify the relationship between both childhood and recent (within the past 12 months) gardening experiences and current F/V intake among college students. A cross-sectional evaluation of 1,121 college freshmen with suboptimal F/V consumption from eight US universities. Participants completed the National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Screener and questions about gardening experiences. Respondents were grouped as having gardened or not gardened during childhood and recently. A linear mixed model was used to evaluate the relationship between childhood and recent gardening and current F/V intake. Of the student participants, 11% reported gardening only during childhood, 19% reported gardening only recently, 20% reported gardening both as a child and recently, and 49% of students reported never having gardened. Students who gardened both during childhood and recently had a significantly higher mean current intake of F/V compared with students who never gardened (2.5±0.6 vs 1.9±0.5 cup equivalents [CE], respectively; Pgardening engagement when comparing students who did not garden with those who gardened monthly or weekly (2.1±0.5 CE, 2.4±0.6 CE, and 2.8±0.7 CE, respectively; Pgardening experience is associated with greater current F/V intake among first-year college students not currently meeting national F/V recommendations. In addition, a greater frequency of gardening experience may further enhance this effect. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.
Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…
Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.
Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)
During a seminar on energy production from garden and wood wastes, held in Amstelveen, Netherlands, 17 June 1998, and organized by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem), the options for municipalities to use biomass as a fuel were discussed. Also attention was paid to the interests of composting companies
Drought is the most important climate shock affecting rural farmers this century. In a bid to reduce the effects of climate shocks, coping strategies are being investigated. Community gardens is one such strategy. The purpose of the study was to objectively look at the dynamics involved in community gardens, that is, the ...
Ayodele Olushola Ilesanmi
Conclusions: The nature and the gardening activities are not a risk factor that significantly affect eosinophil level but duration of exposure to allergens. However, all safety precautionary kits and wears should be enforced and embraced by the concerned occupational gardeners so as to avert and subvert its pre-disposing deleterious effect on them.
Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G
We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and
Electric Moving Shadow Garden is a multi-directional exploration of the links between artists and cinema, with multiple reference and contextual points. it accompanied the exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by Bracey and Dave Griffiths at Corernhouse, Manchester, who also edited the publication. Published to accompany the Cornerhouse exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by artists Andrew Bracey and Dave Griffiths. This illustrated catalogue explores how internat...
Full Text Available The private stocking of ornamental crayfish in garden ponds was discussed in previous studies, but there is a lack of detailed analysis for better understanding of this introduction pathway. The Czech Republic is one of leading EU countries in trade with ornamental crayfish and private garden ponds are popular among people. The crayfish keepers in the country were interviewed by self-administered questionnaire to gather data about principal characteristics of the keepers and detailed information about crayfish breeding that are of interest for conservation managers. Besides of releasing crayfish into garden ponds, alarming illegal behavior such as releasing of juvenile crayfish into the wild, and capturing of indigenous crayfish from wild populations, were registered. Therefore focusing on public education to increase awareness of possible unwanted consequences of crayfish release and introduction of an obligation to inform customers about hazardousness of non-indigenous crayfish species for retailers and wholesalers is recommended.
James F. Fowler; N. L. Stanton; Ronald L. Hartman
Hanging gardens are island-like habitats dominated by mesophytic-hydrophytic plant communities, growing on seeps on the xeric canyon walls of the Colorado Plateau in the American West. We measured the abundance of species and physical microhabitat characteristics of 73 individual hanging gardens during the growing seasons of 1991-1993. Cluster analysis of a simplified...
The dosimetric properties of the recently developed SW557 phantom have been investigated by comparison with those of the existing SW457 phantom in megavoltage photon beams. The electron fluence ratio φ pl w , and chamber ionization ratio k pl , of water to SW457 and water to SW557 for 4-15MV photons were calculated as a function of depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and compared with measured values. Values of φ pl w for SW457 were in the range of 1.004-1.014 for 4MV, and 1.014-1.018 for 15MV photons. The φ pl w for SW557 ranged from 1.005 to 1.008 for 4MV and from 1.010 to 1.015 for 15MV photons and the variation of φ pl w with depth for each beam energy was within ±0.5%. Values of k pl were obtained with a PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionization chamber. The k pl for SW457 ranged from 0.997 to 1.011 for 4-15MV photons. Values of k pl for SW557 were almost unity for 4 and 6MV photons, while in the case of 10 and 15MV photons they were less than 1.006, excepting the build-up region. The measured and calculated k pl values of water to SW557 were in the range of 0.997-1.002 and 1.000-1.006, respectively, for 4-15MV photons, at a depth of 10cm with a source-to-axis distance of 100cm. The measured and calculated k pl values were in agreement within their uncertainty ranges. As a water-equivalent phantom, SW557 can be used with a dosimetric difference within±0.6%, for 4-15MV photons, and is more water-equivalent than SW457 in megavoltage photon beams. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davis, Jaimie N; Martinez, Lauren C; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Gatto, Nicole M
To evaluate the effect of an exploratory 12-week nutrition, cooking, and gardening trial (LA Sprouts) on preference for fruit and vegetables (FV); willingness to try FV; identification of FV; self-efficacy to garden, eat, and cook FV; motivation to garden, eat, and cook FV; attitudes toward FV; nutrition and gardening knowledge; and home gardening habits. Randomized controlled trial. Four elementary schools. Three hundred four predominately Hispanic/Latino third- through fifth-grade students were randomized to either the LA Sprouts group (n = 167 students) or control group (n = 137 students). Twelve-week after-school nutrition, cooking, and gardening intervention. Determinants of dietary behavior as measured by questionnaire at baseline and postintervention. Analyses of covariance. After the 12-week program, compared with controls, LA Sprouts participants improved scores for identification of vegetables (+11% vs +5%; P = .001) and nutrition and gardening knowledge (+14.5% vs -5.0%; P = .003), and were more likely to garden at home (+7.5% vs -4.4%; P = .003). The LA Sprouts program positively affected a number of determinants of dietary behaviors that suggest possible mechanisms by which gardening and nutrition education act to improve dietary intake and health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siewell, Nicholas; Aguirre, Stephanie; Thomas, Madhavappallil
Building communities through creative community garden projects is increasingly common and seems to create beneficial effects for participants. This study recognizes the need to understand the impact of gardens on low socioeconomic neighborhoods. By conducting a needs assessment study and establishing a community garden, we were able to study its…
Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel
Background Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Methods Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai‘i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. Conclusions In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai‘i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health. PMID:21886287
Sugiura, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Keisuke; Kayama, Yukihiko
Measurement and decontamination of surface of trees and surrounding wooden structures contaminated by radioactive substance were studied in the gardens and public parks of Northern Fukushima Prefecture which experienced radioactive contamination due to the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The counts per minute (CPM) above the centre surface of wooden garden tables in open air were 1.5 times higher than those of garden benches and 9 times higher than that of a garden bench in the square gazebo. Decontamination of wooden garden benches by high-pressure washing was more effective than planing. The counts per minute (CPM) above the soil around garden trees increased by 1.2 times after high-pressure washing. Radioactivity counting rate did not decrease when the leaves fallen from zelocova trees were removed; however, they decreased by about half when soil cover was installed at the base of the trees. Clearly, the upper surfaces of garden trees and wooden surrounding structures were strongly contaminated by radioactive substances, and they should be decontaminated by high-pressure washing before removing the surface soil. (author)
Full Text Available This article studies urban gardening as a form of social resilience. It analyses its role and impact on society in a context of social and financial crisis through the lens of the debate about the commons on the basis of three case studies conducted in Brussels in 2013. The study connects the specificities of the current social and economic context with the new wave of urban gardening from a people-centred perspective. Both the motivations and the outcomes of this form of activism are analysed and led to the conclusion that being involved in urban gardening represents not only a way to cope with economic and social threats but also a tool to rebuild and reshape social bonds. The paper aims to contribute to the current debate about the commons, intended as a form of resilience and a tool of social change rather than a simple alternative economic model. It aims to do so through the analysis of urban gardening practices, which are more commonly studied from the perspective of urban agriculture, food production, access to land and urbanism.
Detweiler, Mark B; Warf, Carlena
An increasing amount of literature suggests the positive effects of nature in healthcare. The extended life expectancy in the US and the consequent need for long-term care indicates a future need for restorative therapy innovations to reduce the expense associated with long-term care. Moving carefully selected stroke patients' sessions to the peaceful setting of a dementia wander garden, with its designed paths and natural stimuli, may be beneficial. Natural settings have been shown to improve attention and reduce stress--both important therapy objectives in many post-stroke rehabilitation programs. In this case study, using the dementia wander garden for restorative therapy of a non-dementia patient was a novel idea for the restorative therapy group, which does not have a horticultural therapy program. The dementia wander garden stage of the post-stroke rehabilitation helped the patient through a period of treatment resistance. The garden provided both an introduction to the patient's goal of outdoor rehabilitation and a less threatening environment than the long-term care facility hallways. In part because the patient was less self-conscious about manifesting his post-stroke neurological deficits, falling, and being viewed as handicapped when in the dementia wander garden setting, he was able to resume his treatment plan and finish his restorative therapy. In many physical and mental rehabilitation plans, finding a treatment modality that will motivate an individual to participate is a principal goal. Use of a dementia wander garden may help some patients achieve this goal in post-stroke restorative therapy.
Full Text Available A community garden (CG can generally be defined as a piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people that grow their produce on shared lots that have been divided into smaller plots. Some gardens are grown collectively, are divided into different plots for individual and family use; CGs are usually located in urban or peri-urban areas. As a growing portion of the urban open space network, CGs are contributing to land preservation, access to open space, and sustainable re-use of vacant land. They promote healthy communities and provide food security for many. In this context, the object of the study are the municipal community gardens (MCGs, a specific typology of CGs provided for land-use planning legislation and practice as an urban service with social function, made available to the community by the municipalities and assigned to be cultivated to citizens (usually seniors/retired people. In particular, the study aimed: i to evaluate the presence of MCGs in the città metropolitana di Milano (the former province of Milano; and ii to define criteria for new MCGs settlement, using existing geo-database and geographical information system to make it replicable in other settings. For the first topic the 133 municipalities of the former province of Milano (excluded the city of Milano were analysed. Only 59 municipalities had presence of MCGs. The average area per capita of MCGs is 0.68 sq.m/inhab. (if we exclude Rodano, an outlier with 35 sq.m/inhab.. An overlay with land use map has permitted to define the relationships between the MCGs and their surrounding territory. The major part of MCGs are included in urban or suburban areas. For the second goal, the land area to be allocated for new MCGs was assessed for each municipality, comparing area of existing MCGs and a minimum required area (calculated on the basis of the inhabitants number. Finally a method was proposed to locate the new MCGs areas. Criteria used to identify suitable areas
Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…
Poot-Pool, W.S.; Wal, van der J.C.; Flores-Guido, S.; Pat-Fernández, J.M.; Esparza-Olguín, L.
Economic Stratification Differentiates Home Gardens in the Maya Village of Pomuch, Mexico. In this paper, we analyze if economic stratification of peasant families in a Maya village in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico influences species composition and structure of home gardens. Our general
Fresh fruits of garden egg were sorted into green, yellow bottom and yellow all over stages of fruit ripeness. Each set of fruits was stored at 40Cand 270C for up to 16 days, respectively. The effects of stage of fruit ripeness, storage temperature and duration of storage on some chemical components of garden egg were ...
Full Text Available The article observes peculiarities of Japanese gardens located in Great Britain and the USA. Their symbolics, traditions and techniques used for their creation are described. The article features several elements of the gardens and how they depend on the national mentality of the country of their location. According to the article, at present time, there is no deep understanding of the specifics of Japanese garden culture in Great Britain and the USA, and the images of China and Japan contaminate.
In this paper we examine the connection between unambiguity of cellular systems and the existence of Garden of Eden configurations in cellular automata. The examination includes both finite and infinite configurations. The connections are found by examining various properties of the global...
Rain gardens are vegetated surface depressions, often located at low points in landscapes, designed to receive stormwater runoff from roads, roofs, and parking lots. The gardens’ sandy soils allow stormwater to drain quickly to the native soils below and eventually to groundwate...
Ross, Nanci J
Ecology and ethnobotany were integrated to assess the impact of ancient Maya tree-dominated home gardens (i.e., "forest gardens"), which contained a diversity of tree species used for daily household needs, on the modern tree species composition of a Mesoamerican forest. Researchers have argued that the ubiquity of these ancient gardens throughout Mesoamerica led to the dominance of species useful to Maya in the contemporary forest, but this pattern may be localized depending on ancient land use. The tested hypothesis was that species composition would be significantly different between areas of dense ancient residential structures (high density) and areas of little or no ancient settlement (low density). Sixty-three 400-m2 plots (31 high density and 32 low density) were censused around the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve in northwestern Belize. Species composition was significantly different, with higher abundances of commonly utilized "forest garden" species still persisting in high-density forest areas despite centuries of abandonment. Subsequent edaphic analyses only explained 5% of the species composition differences. This research provides data on the long-term impacts of Maya forests gardens for use in development of future conservation models. For Mesoamerican conservation programs to work, we must understand the complex ecological and social interactions within an ecosystem that developed in intimate association with humans.
Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. Nigeria. ... Abstract. The water quality of small streams in Auchi area of Edo State, S.W. Nigeria was investigated with a view to ... and ecosystems. The study was carried out
Christian Meaghan S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as “Partner Schools” and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as “Associate Schools”. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention “Associate Schools” or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children’s knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school’s gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children’s diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528
Ian Wright; David Slawson
This project aims to protect The National Trust (NT) from the increasing number of harmful plant pests and diseases that slip though official controls and threaten our gardens, plant collections and landscapes. During 2008, the National Trust (NT) with the seconded help of Dr. David Slawson, Head of Pest and Disease Identification Programme, Food and Environment...
Shwartz, Assaf; Cheval, Helene; Simon, Laurent; Julliard, Romain
Urban ecology is emerging as an integrative science that explores the interactions of people and biodiversity in cities. Interdisciplinary research requires the creation of new tools that allow the investigation of relations between people and biodiversity. It has been established that access to green spaces or nature benefits city dwellers, but the role of species diversity in providing psychological benefits remains poorly studied. We developed a user-friendly 3-dimensional computer program (Virtual Garden [www.tinyurl.com/3DVirtualGarden]) that allows people to design their own public or private green spaces with 95 biotic and abiotic features. Virtual Garden allows researchers to explore what elements of biodiversity people would like to have in their nearby green spaces while accounting for other functions that people value in urban green spaces. In 2011, 732 participants used our Virtual Garden program to design their ideal small public garden. On average gardens contained 5 different animals, 8 flowers, and 5 woody plant species. Although the mathematical distribution of flower and woody plant richness (i.e., number of species per garden) appeared to be similar to what would be expected by random selection of features, 30% of participants did not place any animal species in their gardens. Among those who placed animals in their gardens, 94% selected colorful species (e.g., ladybug [Coccinella septempunctata], Great Tit [Parus major], and goldfish), 53% selected herptiles or large mammals, and 67% selected non-native species. Older participants with a higher level of education and participants with a greater concern for nature designed gardens with relatively higher species richness and more native species. If cities are to be planned for the mutual benefit of people and biodiversity and to provide people meaningful experiences with urban nature, it is important to investigate people's relations with biodiversity further. Virtual Garden offers a standardized
Gonzalez, Marianne T; Kirkevold, Marit
To provide a review on the benefits associated with the use of sensory gardens and horticultural activities in dementia care. Maintaining quality of life is important in dementia care. Sensory gardens and horticultural activities are increasingly used in dementia care, yet their benefits are uncertain. A modified scoping review with descriptive analysis of selected empirical studies. Systematic searches in Amed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Embase and Scopus were used. Search terms were the free-text concepts 'healing garden', 'horticultural therapy', 'restorative garden' and 'wander garden' which were combined with dementia and Alzheimer. Sixteen studies were included with included participants ranging from eight to 129 participants. Research designs were case studies (n = 2), survey (n = 1), intervention studies with pretest/post-test design (n = 11) and randomised controlled studies (n = 2). Of these 16 studies, eight examined the benefits of sensory gardens, seven examined horticultural therapy or therapeutic horticulture and one examined the use of plants indoors. This study offers a review of the research addressing benefits of sensory gardens, therapeutic horticulture, horticultural therapy and other purposeful use of plants in dementia care. The reported findings are mainly on issues related to behaviour, affect and well-being. The findings are in general mutually supportive, however, with some contradictory findings. In addition, sleep pattern, well-being and functional level seem to improve. These types of nonpharmacological interventions may improve well-being and affect and reduce the occurrence of disruptive behaviour. Additionally, the use of psychotropic drugs, incidents of serious falls, sleep and sleep pattern also seem to improve. To further improve the use of the existing or planned gardens, an educational programme for staff that also includes skill training is recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Lopp, Donna M.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Lambert, Veronique T.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Stone, Edie B.; McBride, Murray B.
Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures. - Highlights: • We measured metals concentrations in soil from 54 New York City community gardens. • Pb and Ba exceeded health-based guidance values in 9%–12% of garden beds. • Pb concentrations were similar to those in other studies of urban garden soils. • Pb and Ba were associated with Zn, with visible debris, and with non-raised beds. • Observable details can help gardeners focus testing and exposure reduction efforts. - Pb and Ba, which exceeded health-based guidance values in 10–14% of NYC community garden soil samples, are associated with non-raised beds, visible debris, higher pH and Zn
He He; Jin Chen
Botanical gardens (BGs) have attracted millions of visitors worldwide; therefore, BGs have become important sites for displaying and education for biodiversity. Understanding garden visitors’ motivations and their traveling satisfactory degree is crucial for BG management and its role in public education. In this study, we conducted survey in five Chinese BGs, i.e., Xiamen BG, Wuhan BG of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing BG, Kunming BG of CAS and Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Gar...
Contreras-Lopez, F.; Victoria-Cos, I. M.; Cos, J.; Sotomayor, J. A.
A garden has been implanted at IMIDA facilities in La Alberca (Murcia) which recreates different habitats of Murcia Region, with two main objective: 1) to be used as a tool for environmental education, encouraging social awareness in habitats and flora species protection, and 2) to obtain relevant information for the use of regional wild flora in gardening, both for the ornamental interest of not extensively spread species, and its low eater irrigation needs. (Author)
Taylor, Mykel; Young, Doug; Miles, Carol
The focus of this study is direct marketing of produce from an urban market garden. Rather than discussing broad issues of direct marketing, we use a case study to frame the decisions a market gardener is likely to face in developing both production and marketing plans. The garden featured in this study is located in Seattle, Washington, a city…
Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…
Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…
Obika, Julaina; Adol, Ben Otto; Babiiha, Sulayman Mpisi
This chapter explores how, in a patrilineal and patriarchal society recovering from two decades of war, women and men frame arguments about entitlement. Here claims to gardens (plots of land for cultivation) become a contested conversation about women’s rights of belonging to family and community...
Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yang; Wan, Hongxing; Chai, Fang
Objective To investigate the role of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) gene in the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of rectal cancer cells. Methods Human rectal cancer SW480 cells were cultured and transfected with pCDNA3.1-NDRG2 and empty vector (SW480-Ve). SW480 cells were set as a control group. Cell proliferation was detected in SW480 cells, SW480-Ve cells and SW480-NDRG2 cells by MTT assay; cell migration distance in the three groups at 24, 48, 72 hours was tested by wound healing assay; apoptosis rate was determined in the three groups at 48 hours by flow cytometry; the expressions of Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2 proteins in the three groups were examined by Western blotting. Results After the cells were cultured for 7 days, cell survival rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; the cell survival rate decreased gradually with the prolongation of the culture time; and it had no significant difference between SW480-Ve group and SW480 group. Cell migration distance in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells, and it had also no significant difference between SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells. The apoptosis rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly higher than that in SW480 group and SW480-Ve group, and SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells had no significant difference in the rate. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480-NDRG2 group were significantly higher than those in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly lower in SW480-NDRG2 group than in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; and the expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2 proteins were not significantly different between SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells. Conclusion Overexpression of NDRG2 can inhibit the proliferation, reduce cell migration, and promote cell apoptosis by regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480 cells.
Li, Hua; Shi, Wei-yu; Shao, Hong-bo; Shao, Ming-an
The current study investigated the remediation effect of lead-polluted garden soil by natural zeolite in terms of soil properties, Pb fraction of sequential extraction in soil and distribution of Pb in different parts of rape. Natural zeolite was added to artificially polluted garden soil to immobilize and limit the uptake of lead by rape through changing soil physical and chemical properties in the pot experiment under greenhouse conditions. Results indicated that the addition of natural zeolite could increase soil pH, CEC, content of soil organic matter and promote formation of soil aggregate. The application of zeolite decreased the available fraction of Pb in the garden soil by adjusting soil pH rather than CEC, and restrained the Pb uptake by rape. Data obtained suggested that the application of a dose of zeolite was adequate (>or=10 g kg(-1)) to reduce soluble lead significantly, even if lead pollution is severe in garden soil (>or=1000 mg kg(-1)). An appropriate dose of zeolite (20 g kg(-1)) could reduce the Pb concentration in the edible part (shoots) of rape up to 30% of Pb in the seriously polluted soil (2000 mg kg(-1)).
Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H
Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.
At the beginning of the XXth century, professor Brunotte, of the school of pharmacy of Nancy, and the section vosgienne de Nancy du Club alpin français, undertook the creation of an alpine garden, in the Vosges, near the col de la Schlucht and le Hohneck, near also with the frontier with Germany. After the death of professor Brunotte, in 1910, the garden was given to the University of Nancy and completed until 1914, but the 1st World War destroyed it completely and it was impossible to recreate it. 1966 was the year of the creation of a new garden, not far from Monthabey, along the route des Crêtes, with a monument devoted to Monthabey garden and its promoter. The paper describes the creation of the first garden, the personality and career of professor Brunotte, its garden after his death and after the war, the precursors in botany of the Vosges Kirschleger and Bleicher, the new garden at Haut-Chietlet, finally the memories of professor Brunotte.
Full Text Available This article, through words and pictures, tells the story of how and why a small piece of Japanese cultural heritage – a genuine Japanese garden – was established in the heart of Asia in Irkutsk through a partnership between two sister-universities and a long lasting friendship between Russo-Japanese communities in both countries. The first Japanese garden was created in the greenhouse of the Botanic Garden of Irkutsk State University in 2012 to provide a new cross-disciplinary ethnobotanical and cultural facility for students and the local public. The 35-sq.m garden (7m x 5 m was developed to provide an opportunity for visitors to experience one of the great horticultural art forms of the world without leaving Irkutsk.
Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Lobo, Debora Jã A; Guimarães, Eliane T; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais
Urban gardening is a growing global phenomenon with a positive impact on society. Despite several associated benefits, growing vegetables in urban gardens that are localized in highly polluted areas poses questions about the safety of the produced food. Therefore, the identification of risk factors that result in possible deleterious effects to human health is important for realizing all of the benefits to society. We evaluated the use of two biomonitoring methods in ten urban gardens of Sao Paulo city and one control site: the micronuclei frequencies for early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. "Purpurea" Boom (hereafter, Trad-MCN) as a short-term indicator of genotoxic response and tree barks to quantify the accumulation of traffic-related chemical elements as a long-term biomarker of air pollution in urban gardens. Mature plants of Tradescantia pallida were exposed in each garden, and their inflorescences were sampled over three months. A random set of 300 early tetrads in 13 to 21 slides per garden were evaluated for micronuclei frequencies. Elemental concentrations in 428 tree barks samples from 107 different trees in the areas surrounding urban gardens were quantified using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The frequency of Trad-MCN has a significant correlation with traffic variables and chemical elements related to road dust and tailpipe emissions deposited in tree barks. Negative associations between Trad-MCN and both the distance through traffic and the presence of vertical obstacles were observed in the community gardens. The Mn/Zn concentrations in tree barks were associated with increased Trad-MCN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cartwright, Julyan H E; Escribano, Bruno; González, Diego L; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Tuval, Idan
Brinicles are hollow tubes of ice from centimeters to meters in length that form under floating sea ice in the polar oceans when dense, cold brine drains downward from sea ice to seawater close to its freezing point. When this extremely cold brine leaves the ice, it freezes the water it comes into contact with: a hollow tube of ice-a brinicle-growing downward around the plume of descending brine. We show that brinicles can be understood as a form of the self-assembled tubular precipitation structures termed chemical gardens, which are plantlike structures formed on placing together a soluble metal salt, often in the form of a seed crystal, and an aqueous solution of one of many anions, often silicate. On one hand, in the case of classical chemical gardens, an osmotic pressure difference across a semipermeable precipitation membrane that filters solutions by rejecting the solute leads to an inflow of water and to its rupture. The internal solution, generally being lighter than the external solution, flows up through the break, and as it does so, a tube grows upward by precipitation around the jet of internal solution. Such chemical-garden tubes can grow to many centimeters in length. In the case of brinicles, on the other hand, in floating sea ice we have porous ice in a mushy layer that filters out water, by freezing it, and allows concentrated brine through. Again there is an osmotic pressure difference leading to a continuing ingress of seawater in a siphon pump mechanism that is sustained as long as the ice continues to freeze. Because the brine that is pumped out is denser than the seawater and descends rather than rises, a brinicle is a downward-growing tube of ice, an inverse chemical garden.
Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard
This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs (). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.
Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G; Holm, Peter E; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H; Trapp, Stefan
This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The garden presents itself as an area consciously created by the human being. Its representation is usually actualized in opposition both to what is natural and to what is artificial (e.g. to a city. Over many years now, the garden has been been considered to be a “cultural fossil”, and as such, an object of importance for literary critics, film critics, art historians, musicologists etc., and an anthropological phenomenon, which is demonstrated by contemporary juxtapositions of aesthetics with environmental science, pace Gernot Böhme, or the transcultural aesthetics promoted by Wolfgang Welsch. At this stage, we are very close to full understanding of the phenomenon of garden-topos, as well as the numerous garden metaphors. In Zbigniew Rybczyński’s film Orkiestra there are several areas of author’s interest in the garden created and filmed on a theatrical stage. The garden as a space of life-renewal, symbol of birth and metaphysical rebirth, a renewed experience of fulness. The garden as a space of ordered life, positive energy, areas of joy liberation, a synonym of goodness and ideals. Finally, as the symbol of return to creation, beauty, to the first beginning, to civilized and tame nature.
Full Text Available In the expanding urban agriculture phenomenon in Europe, home gardens are a traditional form that have kept agriculture within cities, even becoming crucial in certain historical periods (e.g., war periods. However, horticultural practices in home gardens can also have negative consequences. The goal of this paper is to assess the eco-efficiency of home gardens as a type of urban agriculture. To do so, a case study in Padua (Italy was evaluated following life cycle assessment and life cycle costing methods. A home garden of 30.6 m2 and 21 crop cycles were evaluated. The functional unit of the assessment was 1 kg of harvested fresh vegetable at the consumption point, and the ReCiPe method was employed for impact assessment. Environmental assessment indicated that organic fertilization, use of tap water, mineral fertilization and pesticides were the most contributing elements of the entire life cycle. Furthermore, the relevance of garden design and crop selection was a determinant in the eco-efficiency results. The assessed home garden could satisfy the food requirements of between 1 and 2 members of the household. Crop management and design recommendations are provided to improve eco-efficiency and food security potential of home gardens.
Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M.; Proffitt, Dennis R.
Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, garde...
Isabel E Moller
Full Text Available The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.
... Conservation Seat and Diving Operations Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Conservation and Diving Operations... Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700 Avenue U, Bldg. 216, Galveston...
Tournier, Isabelle; Postal, Virginie
This review of the literature tackles the question of the psychological benefits linked to gardening in older adults. First, the current data on these benefits are reviewed, and the findings reveal that gardening is linked to feelings of accomplishment, well-being and peace, a decrease of depressive symptoms, a protective effect on cognitive functions as well as to the development of social links for community living older adults. In institutionalized older adults, gardening promotes internal locus of control and well-being, and is related to a decrease of sadness and anxiety. Second, several explanatory theories are discussed. All of them postulate an action on the cognitive and/or emotional spheres, which were included into a integrated model that must be tested in future research. In conclusion, gardening appears to be a beneficial activity for promoting older adults' functioning but the current knowledge still has to be extended to understand the specific mechanisms of action. This deeper understanding is necessary in order to improve the future actions depending on this activity.
Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich
Full Text Available A retrospective report of the Director of the Subtropical Botanical Garden of Kuban, Karpun YN, at the opening of the First National Dendrological Conference, dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Garden, held on March 14-16, 2017 in Sochi
Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J
Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated.
When referring to the tangible cultural heritage, people tend to concern more about the conservation and research of the entity of the tangible heritage than the cross-cultural communication of the cultural heritage which is also one of the most important components of the preservation of the cultural heritage. As an exotic new born of the cultural heritage, the entity born from the cross-cultural communication inherits the properties of the cultural heritage on the one hand, and on the other hand generates diversities as a result of the differences based on social, cultural and environment. And the business model is one of the most important reasons for the production of diversities. There's no doubt that a good form of business model makes great significance to the cross-cultural communication. Therefore, the study of the business model of cultural heritage in the process of cross-cultural communication will not only contributes to the deeper understanding towards the phenomenon of the cultural heritage's cross-cultural communication, but also leads to the introspection to the tangible cultural heritage itself. In this way, a new kind of conservative notion could take form, and the goal of protecting cultural heritage could be achieved. Thus the Chinese Garden is a typical representation of the cultural heritage which makes great sense in the cross-cultural communication. As a kind of tangible cultural heritage, the Chinese gardens are well preserved in different regions in China. While the spirits of the Chinese garden carry forward through the construction of the Chinese gardens abroad during the cross-cultural communication. As a new kind of form of the cross-cultural communication of the cultural heritage, on the one hand, the Chinese gardens overseas built ever since China's Reform and Opening express creatively of the materialist and the spirituality of the traditional Chinese Garden, and on the other hand, those Chinese gardens overseas face all kinds of
Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper
communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated......The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...
Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E
Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.
Spectrochemical analysis of representative samples of topsoil from urban gardens and from individual fields in rural areas indicates that the level of total copper, EDTA-extractable copper, water-soluble boron, and acetic-acid extractable lead are markedly enhanced in urban areas. No significant differences were discovered between levels of these elements in soils from built-up areas in small towns and large conurbations. These results suggest the possibility of general enhancement of the trace element content of plants grown in private gardens in built-up areas.
Deepti; Datta, S.K.
Differential sensitivity with respect to sprouting, survival, plant height and morphological abnormalities were recorded in a gamma ray induced breeding programme with four cultivars of garden roses. Somatic mutations in flower colour/ shape were detected as chimera in three cultivars. Attempts are being made to isolate the mutant tissues in pure form. (author)
Full Text Available Indigenous communities have actively managed their environments for millennia using a diversity of resource use and conservation strategies. Clam gardens, ancient rock-walled intertidal beach terraces, represent one example of an early mariculture technology that may have been used to improve food security and confer resilience to coupled human-ocean systems. We surveyed a coastal landscape for evidence of past resource use and management to gain insight into ancient resource stewardship practices on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We found that clam gardens are embedded within a diverse portfolio of resource use and management strategies and were likely one component of a larger, complex resource management system. We compared clam diversity, density, recruitment, and biomass in three clam gardens and three unmodified nonwalled beaches. Evidence suggests that butter clams (Saxidomus gigantea had 1.96 times the biomass and 2.44 times the density in clam gardens relative to unmodified beaches. This was due to a reduction in beach slope and thus an increase in the optimal tidal range where clams grow and survive best. The most pronounced differences in butter clam density between nonwalled beaches and clam gardens were found at high tidal elevations at the top of the beach. Finally, clam recruits (0.5-2 mm in length tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to nonwalled beaches and may be attributed to the addition of shell hash by ancient people, which remains on the landscape today. As part of a broader social-ecological system, clam garden sites were among several modifications made by humans that collectively may have conferred resilience to past communities by providing reliable and diverse access to food resources.
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee
To explore the activities of daily living and psychological well-being of older people living in nursing homes and also to examine the effectiveness of a gardening programme in enhancing socilaisation and life satisfaction, reducing loneliness and promoting activities of daily living for older people living in nursing homes. Life in nursing homes can mean very limited physical and social activity, leading to further decline in function for many older people. This was a quasi-experimental pre and posttest control group design. Older people from nursing homes were invited to join the eight week indoor gardening programme (experimental group), while older people in other nursing homes were treated as the control group; they received regular care without the eight week indoor gardening programme. There were 26 older people (25 female and one male; mean age 85 years) in the experimental group and 27 (20 female and seven male; mean age 82 years) in the control group. Demographic data including age, gender, educational level and financial situation were collected, in addition to information regarding life satisfaction, loneliness, physical activity and social network situation, before and after the eight week indoor gardening programme for both the experimental and control groups. Also, details of experimental group subjects' experience of the indoor gardening programme were elicited using open-ended questions. There were significant improvements in life satisfaction and social network and a significant decrease in perception of loneliness for older people in the experimental group after the eight week indoor gardening programme, while the activities of daily living were unchanged for both groups after the programme. Given the positive effects of gardening activities, it is suggested that they be promoted more widely among nursing home residents.
Carney, Patricia A; Hamada, Janet L; Rdesinski, Rebecca; Sprager, Lorena; Nichols, Katelyn R; Liu, Betty Y; Pelayo, Joel; Sanchez, Maria Antonia; Shannon, Jacklien
This community-based participatory research project used popular education techniques to support and educate Hispanic farmworker families in planting and maintaining organic gardens. Measures included a pre- post gardening survey, key informant interviews and observations made at community-based gardening meetings to assess food security, safety and family relationships. Thirty-eight families enrolled in the study during the pre-garden time period, and four more families enrolled in the study during the post-garden period, for a total of 42 families enrolled in the 2009 gardening season. Of the families enrolled during the pre-gardening time period there were 163 household members. The mean age of the interviewee was 44.0, ranging from 21 to 78 years of age. The median number of occupants in a household was 4.0 (range: 2-8), Frequency of adult vegetable intake of "Several time a day" increased from 18.2 to 84.8%, (P gardening season, the sum of the frequencies of "Sometimes" and "Frequently" worrying in the past month that food would run out before money was available to buy more was 31.2% and the sum of these frequencies dropped to 3.1% during the post garden period, (P = 0.006). The frequency of skipping meals due to lack of money was not statistically significantly different before and after the gardening season for either adults or children. Analysis of text responses and key informant interviews revealed that physical and mental health benefits were reported as well as economic and family health benefits from the gardening study, primarily because the families often worked in their gardens together. A community gardening program can reduce food insecurity, improve dietary intake and strengthen family relationships.
Full Text Available Abstract: This article examines the literary garden depicted by Pu Songling (1640-1715 in his' Liaozhai zhiyi '聊齋誌異 (Liaozhai's records of the strange; 1766. These enchanted, deserted, and haunted gardens function as metaphors for the contested ground on which some key Ming-Qing intellectual issues are debated. The article examines Pu’s depiction of 'qing'情,an important concept reflecting the philosophical and literary trends of the time, and shows that in the process of constructing literary gardens, Pu challenges the intellectual issues of his time and dissolves the boundaries between normal and abnormal, reality and ideal, death and life, and order and disorder.
McCaffrey, Ruth; Hanson, Claire; McCaffrey, William
This study was designed to determine the effect of garden walking and reflective journaling on adults who are 65 years old and older with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depression. Four themes emerged from the interview data collected from each participant.
Same, Anne; Lee, Elinda Ai Lim; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna
Little is known about the significance of gardening services for frail elderly people. This study explored the value of a gardening service for frail older people and people with a disability living in the community. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected from pre-gardening ( n = 38) and post-gardening service delivery interviews ( n = 35) and the Housing Enabler, the value of a gardening service was examined. Findings suggest that the service had a positive impact on the independence and emotional well-being of frail aged people and younger people with a functional disability, with little impact on physical health. Results indicate that gardening services should be fundamental to planning for these populations to remain or return to living in the community.
POTENSI PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI ROOF GARDEN DI KAWASAN MAMPANG PRAPATAN DAN SEKITARNYA, JAKARTA SELATAN (Development Potential of Roof Garden Technology in Mampang Prapatan Area and Surroundings, South Jakarta
Sitti Sarifa Kartika Kinasih
Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh kondisi kotaJakartayang memiliki beragam masalah lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan fakta rinci manfaat ekologis, ekonomis, estetika, dan sosial yang dapat diraih oleh kawasan Jalan Mampang Prapatan dengan penerapan roof garden secara meluas; mengkaji persepsi stakeholder mengenai roof garden di kawasan Mampang Prapatan dan sekitarnya; serta memperoleh fakta peluang dan tantangan dalam penerapannya di Mampang Prapatan dan sekitarnya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan yakni analisis proyeksi manfaat dari citra Quick Bird kawasan Mampang Prapatan tahun 2010, analisis deskriptif induktif kondisi saat ini dan persepsi stakeholder terhadap penerapan roof garden, dan studi pustaka. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa analisis proyeksi manfaat dari blok terdelineasi daerah penelitian dengan luasan lahan 416.380 m2 dapat diperoleh manfaat secara ekologis (menghemat 25% energi yang biasa terpakai, dapat mereduksi 8.956 kg hingga 89.563 kg kotoran udara, dapat menjadi habitat untuk 597.088 tumbuhan, dan dapat meresapkan air hujan sebanyak 5.105.102 liter per tahun; secara ekonomis akan dapat menghasilkan 1.378 kg nasi mochi; secara estetis mengurangi kebisingan sekitar 10 dB hingga 40 dB serta dapat menyediakan 203 area estetis kota; secara sosial dapat memberikan tambahan 203 area komunitas pada blok kawasan terdelineasi Jalan Mampang Prapatan. Zona paling berpotensi memberikan manfaat adalah zona B yaitu zona perdagangan dan jasa (mengubah RTH existing 10,84% menjadi 28,15% dan terdapat 8 struktur di zona B yang telah menggunakan teknologi roof garden. Persepsi stakeholder dianalisis dari 5 konsep telah terbukti sangat positif dan mendukung. Peluang penerapan roof garden di Mampang Prapatan dan sekitarnya jauh lebih besar daripada tantangan yang ada, bahkan solusi untuk tantangan tersebut diberikan oleh informan. ABSTRACT This research is stimulated by the condition of Jakarta city
Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.D.; Hudnut, K.W.; Briggs, R.W.; Koehler, R.D.; Jean, P.
The Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone is recognized as one of the primary plate-bounding fault systems in Haiti. The strike-slip fault runs adjacent to the city of Port-au-Prince and was initially thought to be the source of the 12 January 2010, M w 7.0 earthquake. Haiti experienced significant earthquakes in 1751 and 1770 (refsA, 3, 4, 5), but the role of the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone in these earthquakes is poorly known. We use satellite imagery, aerial photography, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and field investigations to document Quaternary activity on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault. We report late Quaternary, left-lateral offsets of up to 160m, and a set of small offsets ranging from 1.3 to 3.3m that we associate with one of the eighteenth century earthquakes. The size of the small offsets implies that the historical earthquake was larger than M w 7.0, but probably smaller than M w 7.6. We found no significant surface rupture associated with the 2010 earthquake. The lack of surface rupture, coupled with other seismologic, geologic and geodetic observations, suggests that little, if any, accumulated strain was released on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault in the 2010 earthquake. These results confirm that the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault remains a significant seismic hazard. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Izquierdo, M; De Miguel, E; Ortega, M F; Mingot, J
Pseudo-total (i.e. aqua regia extractable) and gastric-bioaccessible (i.e. glycine+HCl extractable) concentrations of Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in a total of 48 samples collected from six community urban gardens of different characteristics in the city of Madrid (Spain). Calcium carbonate appears to be the soil property that determines the bioaccessibility of a majority of those elements, and the lack of influence of organic matter, pH and texture can be explained by their low levels in the samples (organic matter) or their narrow range of variation (pH and texture). A conservative risk assessment with bioaccessible concentrations in two scenarios, i.e. adult urban farmers and children playing in urban gardens, revealed acceptable levels of risk, but with large differences between urban gardens depending on their history of land use and their proximity to busy areas in the city center. Only in a worst-case scenario in which children who use urban gardens as recreational areas also eat the produce grown in them would the risk exceed the limits of acceptability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traditional or local knowledge is a major issue to be focused on, particularly since the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and the Aichi Targets “Living in Harmony with Nature”. According to the strategic goals, by 2020, conservation of biodiversity and its sustainable use incorporate what local and indigenous communities have within their traditional knowledge, innovation and practice and their customary use of biological resources are respected at all relevant levels. The older generation among the local people usually use medicinal herbs for various ailments, health care and other cultural purposes. However, encroaching industrialization and the changes in today’s life styles are responsible for the decreasing practice in the local use of herbs especially for healing purposes. It is, therefore, felt worthwhile to encourage young generations such as school children to gain knowledge about these local herbs and record the native uses of these herbs before the information is lost. One biodiversity education program was conducted to facilitate secondary school students to set up a themed garden and find out the local knowledge of the plants they grew in their garden from their family members or communities. The findings revealed that students’ local knowledge on healing improved after they joined the program. Therefore, it is proposed that the themed garden project can enhance students’ local knowledge.
Hulme, Philip E
A global conservation goal is to understand the pathways through which invasive species are introduced into new regions. Botanic gardens are a pathway for the introduction of invasive non-native plants, but a quantitative assessment of the risks they pose has not been performed. I analyzed data on the living collections of over 3000 botanic gardens worldwide to quantify the temporal trend in the representation of non-native species; the relative composition of threatened, ornamental, or invasive non-native plant species; and the frequency with which botanic gardens implement procedures to address invasive species. While almost all of the world's worst invasive non-native plants occurred in one or more living collections (99%), less than one-quarter of red-listed threatened species were cultivated (23%). Even when cultivated, individual threatened species occurred in few living collections (7.3), while non-native species were on average grown in 6 times as many botanic gardens (44.3). As a result, a botanic garden could, on average, cultivate four times as many invasive non-native species (20) as red-listed threatened species (5). Although the risk posed by a single living collection is small, the probability of invasion increases with the number of botanic gardens within a region. Thus, while both the size of living collections and the proportion of non-native species cultivated have declined during the 20th century, this reduction in risk is offset by the 10-fold increase in the number of botanic gardens established worldwide. Unfortunately, botanic gardens rarely implement regional codes of conduct to prevent plant invasions, few have an invasive species policy, and there is limited monitoring of garden escapes. This lack of preparedness is of particular concern given the rapid increase in living collections worldwide since 1950, particularly in South America and Asia, and highlights past patterns of introduction will be a poor guide to determining future
Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of computational linguistics in the machine learning (ML system for the processing of garden path sentences. ML is closely related to artificial intelligence and linguistic cognition. The rapid and efficient processing of the complex structures is an effective method to test the system. By means of parsing the garden path sentence, we draw a conclusion that the integration of theoretical and statistical methods is helpful for the development of ML system.
Department of Forest Production and Products, University of Agriculture ... food in home gardens, stability of food supply over time, and ecological role of home ... RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL VOLUME 5, No.
Wright, William; Friese, Bettina; Carrel, Aaron; Meinen, Amy
Purpose/Objectives: The goal of the program was to establish youth gardens across Wisconsin by conducting workshops for school staff and childcare providers on how to start and sustain a youth garden with limited resources. Methods: Evaluation utilized an end-of-workshop questionnaire and follow-up survey. The end-of-workshop questionnaire focused…
Like many schools, Hornsea Community Primary School, which is situated in a rural coastal town in East Yorkshire, has a long wish list of both curriculum and pastoral ideals. A gardening club was started at the school with the intention of transforming two small areas of the school grounds that were very visible to the school community and to…
Van Bael Sunshine A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest.
Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.
Wild food plants (WFPs) are major components of tropical home gardens, constituting an important resource for poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal diversity of WFPs was analyzed across multi-species spatial configurations occurring within home gardens in a rice farming village in northeast
Alaimo, Katherine; Reischl, Thomas M.; Allen, Julie Ober
This study examined associations between participation in community gardening/beautification projects and neighborhood meetings with perceptions of social capital at both the individual and neighborhood levels. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional stratified random telephone survey conducted in Flint, Michigan (N=1916). Hierarchical linear…
Hale, James; Knapp, Corrine; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie; Sancar, Fahriye; Litt, Jill S
Current environmental and health challenges require us to identify ways to better align aesthetics, ecology, and health. At the local level, community gardens are increasingly praised for their therapeutic qualities. They also provide a lens through which we can explore relational processes that connect people, ecology and health. Using key-informant interview data, this research explores gardeners' tactile, emotional, and value-driven responses to the gardening experience and how these responses influence health at various ecological levels (n = 67 participants, 28 urban gardens). Our findings demonstrate that gardeners' aesthetic experiences generate meaning that encourages further engagement with activities that may lead to positive health outcomes. Gardeners directly experience nearby nature by 'getting their hands dirty' and growing food. They enjoy the way vegetables taste and form emotional connections with the garden. The physical and social qualities of garden participation awaken the senses and stimulate a range of responses that influence interpersonal processes (learning, affirming, expressive experiences) and social relationships that are supportive of positive health-related behaviors and overall health. This research suggests that the relational nature of aesthetics, defined as the most fundamental connection between people and place, can help guide community designers and health planners when designing environment and policy approaches to improve health behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integrable N=1 supersymmetric Toda-field theories are determined by a contragredient simple Super-Lie-Algebra (SSLS) with purely fermionic lowering and raising operators. For the SSLA's Osp(3/2) and D(2/1;α) we construct explicitly the higher spin conserved currents and obtain free field representations of the super W-algebras SW(3/2,2) and SW(3/2,3/2,2). In constructing the corresponding series of minimal models using covariant vertex operators, we find a necessary restriction on the Cartan matrix of the SSLA, also for the general case. Within this framework, this restriction claims that there be a minimum of one non-vanishing element on the diagonal of the Cartan matrix. This condition is without parallel in bosonic conformal field theory. As a consequence only two series of SSLA's yield minimal models, namely Osp(2n/2n-1) and Osp(2n/2n+1). Subsequently some general aspects of degenerate representations of SW-algebras, notably the fusion rules, are investigated. As an application we discuss minimal models of SW(3/2, 2), which were constructed with independent methods, in this framework. Covariant formulation is used throughout this paper. (orig.)
Manning, D. A. C.
The Sn-W deposits of SW England and SE Asia are associated with crustally derived granitic rocks with late volatile-enriched (F, Li, B, P) differentiates. In peninsular Thailand, primary ores are principally pegmatitic, and hydrothermal vein systems are only locally important. In SW England, wolframite and cassiterite mainly occur in hydrothermal vein systems, and are associated with greisening and tourmalinisation; mineralised pegmatites are rare. These two styles of mineralisation are thought to arise because of differences in the character of late magmatic processes. In peninsular Thailand, late-stage tourmaline-bearing granitic rocks are enriched in B, but not Li and F, compared to earlier biotite granites. Similar late-stage granitic rocks occur also in SW England, but a later topaz granite, enriched in F, Li and P, also occurs. The Thai pegmatitic Sn-W deposits are thought to have formed by late magmatic crystallisation from an aqueous phase enriched in metals and derived by exsolution from a B and metal-rich magma, whereas the SW England mineralisation involved essentially post-magmatic hydrothermal processes. Complexing agents (especially F) and metals may have been derived from granitic or country rocks during hydrothermal circulation at the current level of emplacement.
Full Text Available The idea of the “garden city” was developed theoretically to offer solutions to serious city development problems such as traffic congestion, population, and environmental pollution, among which the transportation is considered the most important. The question is how to develop balanced transportation in a garden city. Transportation is a complex system, particularly in a garden city. Therefore, we establish a new approach named the transportation multiobjective optimization system dynamics (SD-MOP model, which firstly calculates the optimal proportion of different transport means with an MOP approach and then applies them to the dynamic transportation system to analyze the results and analyze the influence on the whole system using different transportation means variation. In this paper, we take Chengdu as an example, one of the few cities in the world declared as building a garden city, and then develop some recommendations about world modern garden city transportation system development.
Johnson, Sheri; Cardona, Dalila; Davis, Jeremy; Gramling, Benjamin; Hamilton, Chelsea; Hoffmann, Ray; Ruis, Sabrina; Soldat, Doug; Ventura, Steve; Yan, Ke
Lead exposure is a serious health threat for children. Soil is an important exposure pathway, primarily through ingestion and inhalation. Urban agriculture is increasing. Potential environmental health risks associated with residential gardening may not be well known to community residents. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was implemented to explore the relationship between urban residential vegetable gardening and lead exposure in children. The primary objectives were to characterize local backyard vegetable gardening practices, measure residential and commercial soil lead concentrations and spatial distributions, and identify priorities for individual and collective action. Participants were recruited in two stages. In phase 1, adult gardeners participated in structured interviews. In phase 2, a multistage representative sampling approach was implemented to recruit adult gardeners for interviews and soil testing. Twenty adults participated in gardening practice interviews. Adults perceive many benefits from backyard gardening and initially expressed few concerns about lead exposure risk. Results indicate that children are actively involved in backyard gardening. Total soil lead concentrations from 17 residential properties ranged from 7 to 3,234 mg kg-1(median, 187; mean, 432). Commercial soils had lead concentrations that ranged from 6 to 13 mg kg(-1) (median, 6.5; mean, 7.6). Nonparametric Mann-Whitney comparisons indicated a significant difference in lead concentration between commercial soil and residential soil (p<0.0001). Advocacy for resources needed to eliminate dangerous levels of lead from the environment, especially in communities where divestment has occurred, is enhanced through CBPR. Increasing access to soil testing is an important action step.
Fisher-Maltese, Carley B.
Recently, schools nationwide have expressed a renewed interest in school gardens (California School Garden Network, 2010), viewing them as innovative educational tools. Most of the scant studies on these settings investigate the health/nutritional impacts, environmental attitudes, or emotional dispositions of students. However, few studies examine the science learning potential of a school garden from an informal learning perspective. Those studies that do examine learning emphasize individual learning of traditional school content (math, science, etc.) (Blaire, 2009; Dirks & Orvis, 2005; Klemmer, Waliczek & Zajicek, 2005a & b; Smith & Mostenbocker, 2005). My study sought to demonstrate the value of school garden learning through a focus on measures of learning typically associated with traditional learning environments, as well as informal learning environments. Grounded in situated, experiential, and contextual model of learning theories, the purpose of this case study was to examine the impacts of a school garden program at a K-3 elementary school. Results from pre/post tests, pre/post surveys, interviews, recorded student conversations, and student work reveal a number of affordances, including science learning, cross-curricular lessons in an authentic setting, a sense of school community, and positive shifts in attitude toward nature and working collaboratively with other students. I also analyzed this garden-based unit as a type curriculum reform in one school in an effort to explore issues of implementing effective practices in schools. Facilitators and barriers to implementing a garden-based science curriculum at a K-3 elementary school are discussed. Participants reported a number of implementation processes necessary for success: leadership, vision, and material, human, and social resources. However, in spite of facilitators, teachers reported barriers to implementing the garden-based curriculum, specifically lack of time and content knowledge.
Infiltrative rain gardens add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet, their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff is dynamic and often unverified by monitoring. Over a 4-year period, we tracked whole system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network, a...
Leonhardt, Natália Zalc; Melo, Lucas da Ponte; Nordon, David Gonçalves; Silva, Fernando Brandão de Andrade E; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Santos
To evaluate the rate of deviation in the lateral radiographic incidence in patients with femoral neck fracture classified as non-diverted in the anteroposterior view (Garden I and II). Nineteen selected patients with femoral neck fractures classified as Garden I and II were retrospectively evaluated, estimating the degree of deviation in the lateral view. Fifteen cases (79%) presented deviations in lateral view, with a mean of 18.6 degrees (±15.5). Most fractures of the femoral neck classified as Garden I and II present some degree of posterior deviation in the X-ray lateral view. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.
ecological zone of Nigeria, to determine the compatibility and economic viability of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and garden egg (Solanum gelio) intercrop during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. Two sweetpotato varieties; NR05/022 and ...
Dec 10, 2010 ... ... Yemen and the gardens have suffered much dryness and garbage pollution. ... The government would provide the funding while INWRDAM would ... of renewable and non-renewable resources as a way to reduce poverty.
1 - Description of program or function: GARDEC estimates the reduction of dose rates by garden decontamination. It provides the effect of different decontamination Methods, the depth of soil to be considered, dose-rate before and after decontamination and the reduction factor. 2 - Methods: This code takes into account three Methods of decontamination : (i)digging a garden in a special way, (ii) a removal of the upper layer of soil, and (iii) covering with a shielding layer of soil. The dose-rate conversion factor is defined as the external dose-rate, in the air, at a given height above the ground from a unit concentration of a specific radionuclide in each soil layer
Mentaal, Merilen, 1972-
Marcus Barnetti ja Philip Nixoni kujundatud Savills Garden pälvis 2007.a. Chelsea Flower Show'l tähelepanu. Range ja lihtsa joonega veepinnad ning müüripingid loovad aiale selge struktuuri. Intervjuu aiakujundajatega
Zhu, Jin Liang; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Andersen, AM
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a follow-up study to examine whether exposure to pesticides during pregnancy had an adverse effect on pregnancy outcomes among Danish gardeners and farmers. METHODS: Using data from the National Birth Cohort in Denmark, we identified 226 pregnancies of gardeners and 214...... regression was applied to analyze late fetal loss and congenital malformations, and logistic regression was used to analyze preterm birth and small for gestational age. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the studied pregnancy outcomes between gardeners or farmers and all other workers, except...... for an increased risk of very preterm birth for gardeners and a favorable birth weight for farmers. With the exception of biologic approach used in gardening, neither work activities nor exposure to pesticides showed a significant increased risk of adverse birth outcomes among gardeners or farmers. CONCLUSIONS...
Spring, Josephine Anne; Baker, Mark; Dauya, Loreane; Ewemade, Ivie; Marsh, Nicola; Patel, Prina; Scott, Adrienne; Stoy, Nicholas; Turner, Hannah; Viera, Marc; Will, Diana
A programme of garden-related indoor activities was developed to sustain a gardening group for people with mid to late stage Huntington's disease during the winter. The activities were devised by the horticulturist, working empirically, involving the services occupational therapist, physiotherapist, occupational therapy art technician, computer room, recreation and leisure staff. The programme was strongly supported by the nursing and care staff. Feedback on the effectiveness of the activities was sought from the clients, team members and unit staff. The clients' interest in gardening was sustained by a multidisciplinary programme of indoor growing and using plant products in creative activities, computing and group projects. The clients enjoyed all activities except one that they said lacked contact with plants. The inexpensive programme of activities enabled creativity and self-expression, stimulated social contact and helped with therapeutic goals of the clients. In addition, it engaged the multi-disciplinary team and the unit staff, was practical and enhanced the environment.
Selbig, William R.; Balster, Nicholas
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with a consortium of 19 cities, towns, and villages in Dane County, Wis., undertook a study to compare the capability of rain gardens with different vegetative species and soil types to infiltrate stormwater runoff from the roof of an adjacent structure. Two rain gardens, one planted with turf grass and the other with native prairie species, were constructed side-by-side in 2003 at two locations with different dominant soil types, either sand or clay. Each rain garden was sized to a ratio of approximately 5:1 contributing area to receiving area and to a depth of 0.5 foot. Each rain garden, regardless of vegetation or soil type, was capable of storing and infiltrating most of the runoff over the 5-year study period. Both rain gardens in sand, as well as the prairie rain garden in clay, retained and infiltrated 100 percent of all precipitation and snowmelt events during water years 2004-07. The turf rain garden in clay occasionally had runoff exceed its confining boundaries, but was still able to retain 96 percent of all precipitation and snowmelt events during the same time period. Precipitation intensity and number of antecedent dry days were important variables that influenced when the storage capacity of underlying soils would become saturated, which resulted in pooled water in the rain gardens. Because the rooftop area that drained runoff to each rain garden was approximately five times larger than the area of the rain garden itself, evapotranspiration was a small percentage of the annual water budget. For example, during water year 2005, the maximum evapotranspiration of total influent volume ranged from 21 percent for the turf rain garden in clay to 25 percent for the turf rain garden in sand, and the minimum ranged from 12 percent for the prairie rain garden in clay to 19 percent for the prairie rain garden in sand. Little to no runoff left each rain garden as effluent and a small percentage of runoff returned to the
Silva, P., E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.
Moore, Philip H.
As part of an updated series of activity oriented educational materials dealing with aspects of the Guam environment, this publication focuses on backyard gardening and nursery methods. Included in this "How to Do It" learning resource are such agricultural techniques as hydroponics, grafting and budding, and fertilizing. This…
Paugh, Patricia; Moran, Mary
For four years, Pat Paugh, a university teacher educator, and Mary Moran, a teacher researcher, collaborated on action research by systematically studying literacy development connected to the latter's third-grade community gardening and urban farming curriculum. Their goal was to support an existing classroom culture that valued…
Kagami, Hiroo; Iwata, Masatoshi; Iizumi, Shigeru; Nureki, Terukazu.
Based on new and previously published Sr and Nd isotope data, we examined the petrogenetic relationship between deep crust- and upper mantle-derived xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks and Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan. The deep crust- and upper mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan have comparable initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in their respective districts. This may suggest that these xenoliths were genetically related to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan, and that regional variations in Sr and Nd isotope ratios observed in the granitoid rocks are attributed to differences in the geochemistry of the magma sources. (author)
Full Text Available As cities shrink, they often leave a patchwork of vacancy on the landscape. The maintenance of vacant lands and eventual transformation to sustainable land uses is a challenge all cities face, but one that is particularly pronounced in shrinking cities. Vacant lands can support sustainability initiatives, specifically the expansion of urban gardens and local food production. However, many shrinking cities are the same aging cities that have experienced the highest soil lead burdens from their industrial past as well as the historic use of lead-based paint and leaded gasoline. Elevated soil lead is often viewed as a barrier to urban agriculture and managing for multiple ecosystem services, including food production and reduced soil lead exposure, remains a challenge. In this paper, we argue that a shift in framing the soil lead and gardening issue from potential conflict to potential solution can advance both urban sustainability goals and support healthy gardening efforts. Urban gardening as a potential solution to the soil lead problem stems from investment in place and is realized through multiple activities, in particular (1 soil management, including soil testing and the addition of amendments, and (2 social network and community building that leverages resources and knowledge.
van der Jagt, Alexander P.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41276086X; Szaraz, Luca R.; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen
In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a
Eric D Cambronne
Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.
van den Berg, Agnes E.; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke
The present research examined individual differences in preferences for three basic garden styles: manicured, romantic, and wild. Building on theoretical insights from landscape preference research, it was hypothesized that preferences for garden styles are guided by psychological needs. This
Camps-Calvet, Marta; Langemeyer, Johannes; Calvet-Mir, Laura; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; March, Hug
Urban gardens have been observed to multiply in response to crises. However, the meaning and motivations behind the emergence of gardening movements varies greatly over space and time. In this paper we argue that bottom up urban gardening initiatives taking place in Southern European countries in form of land occupation and communalization represent forms of resistance that enhance social cohesion and collective action in times of need. Specifically, this research examines the role of urban g...
Full Text Available Multifunctional allotment gardens are an important part of the green infrastructure of cities. In spite of this, they are given little attention in the plans and policies of cities. One of the major threats to the existence of allotment gardens within the spatial structure of cities is the pressure of investment, which results from an underestimation of the role of gardens. The task of preserving allotment gardens in the ecosystems of cities rests with the local spatial planning. Urban spatial policy towards allotment gardening is exemplified by the case study of Poznan. The bases for the analysis include the study of the conditions and directions of spatial planning, as the spatial policy document that sets forth the city and local spatial development plans, which are Acts of local laws.
Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Briggs, Dean; Shayler, Hannah; McBride, Murray; Lopp, Donna; Stone, Edie; Ferenz, Gretchen; Bogdan, Kenneth G; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M
A total of 69 soil samples from 20 community gardens in New York City (New York, USA) were collected and analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon. For each garden, samples were collected from nongrowing areas (non-bed) and from vegetable-growing beds, including beds with and without visible sources of PAHs. The sum of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority PAHs ranged up to 150 mg/kg, and the median (5.4 mg/kg) and mean (14.2 mg/kg) were similar to those previously reported for urban areas in the northeast United States. Isomer ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs were petroleum, coal, and wood combustion. The PAH concentrations were significantly and positively associated with black carbon and with modeled air PAH concentrations, suggesting a consistent relationship between historical deposition of atmospheric carbon-adsorbed PAHs and current PAH soil concentrations. Median PAH soil concentration from non-bed areas was higher (7.4 mg/kg) than median concentration from beds in the same garden (4.0 mg/kg), and significantly higher than the median from beds without visible sources of PAHs (3.5 mg/kg). Median PAH concentration in beds from gardens with records of soil amendments was 58% lower compared with beds from gardens without those records. These results suggest that gardening practices in garden beds without visible sources of PAHs contribute to reduce PAH soil concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.
Detweiler, Mark B; Sharma, Taral; Detweiler, Jonna G; Murphy, Pamela F; Lane, Sandra; Carman, Jack; Chudhary, Amara S; Halling, Mary H; Kim, Kye Y
Horticulture therapy employs plants and gardening activities in therapeutic and rehabilitation activities and could be utilized to improve the quality of life of the worldwide aging population, possibly reducing costs for long-term, assisted living and dementia unit residents. Preliminary studies have reported the benefits of horticultural therapy and garden settings in reduction of pain, improvement in attention, lessening of stress, modulation of agitation, lowering of as needed medications, antipsychotics and reduction of falls. This is especially relevant for both the United States and the Republic of Korea since aging is occurring at an unprecedented rate, with Korea experiencing some of the world's greatest increases in elderly populations. In support of the role of nature as a therapeutic modality in geriatrics, most of the existing studies of garden settings have utilized views of nature or indoor plants with sparse studies employing therapeutic gardens and rehabilitation greenhouses. With few controlled clinical trials demonstrating the positive or negative effects of the use of garden settings for the rehabilitation of the aging populations, a more vigorous quantitative analysis of the benefits is long overdue. This literature review presents the data supporting future studies of the effects of natural settings for the long term care and rehabilitation of the elderly having the medical and mental health problems frequently occurring with aging.
William D. Shuster
Full Text Available Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.
Klemmer, Cynthia Davis
Science literacy refers to a basic knowledge and understanding of science concepts and processes needed to consider issues and make choices on a daily basis in an increasingly technology-driven society. A critical precursor to producing science literate adults is actively involving children in science while they are young. National and state (TX) science standards advocate the use of constructivist methods including hands-on, experiential activities that foster the development of science process skills through real-world investigations. School gardens show promise as a tool for implementing these guidelines by providing living laboratories for active science. Gardens offer opportunities for a variety of hands-on investigations, enabling students to apply and practice science skills. School gardens are increasing in popularity; however, little research data exists attesting to their actual effectiveness in enhancing students' science achievement. The study used a quasi-experimental posttest-only research design to assess the effects of a school gardening program on the science achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade elementary students. The sample consisted of 647 students from seven elementary schools in Temple, Texas. The experimental group participated in school gardening activities as part of their science curriculum. The control group did not garden and were taught using traditional classroom-based methods. Results showed higher scores for students in the experimental group which were statistically significant. Post-hoc tests using Scheffe's method revealed that these differences were attributed to the 5th grade. No statistical significance was found between girls and boys in the experimental group, indicating that gardening was equally effective for both genders. Within each gender, statistical significance was found between males in the experimental and control groups at all three grade levels, and for females in the 5 th grade. This research indicated that
Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D
Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.
Full Text Available Background. This study examines how and why occupational therapy practitioners across practice areas use gardening as an intervention. Respondents’ interpretation of the best and least desirable aspects of their facility’s garden and whether they contributed to its design was also examined. Method. A description and link to a 15-question online survey about gardening as an occupational therapy intervention was emailed to Western Michigan University Occupational Therapy alumni and posted on four OT Connections groups and the AOTA LinkedIn site. Results. Gardening as an occupational therapy intervention is meaningful and purposeful (93.66%, n = 56, motivating (80%, n = 48, fun 61.67% (n = 37, and client-centered (31.67%, n =19. Frequency of gardening as a therapeutic intervention and practitioner involvement in designing the garden was significant (p = .007, suggesting that for respondents, environmental context supports engagement and heightens the meaningfulness and purposefulness of gardening. Conclusion. Based on results of this study, a suggested next step is evidence-based translational and intervention research to validate the efficacy of gardening as an occupational therapy intervention and occupational therapy practitioners’ professional value as implementers of such intervention. Assessing the effectiveness of the role of occupational therapy practitioners in facility garden design is also important to consider.
Groesbeck, Amy S.; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K.
Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748
Phelps, Joshua; Hermann, Janice R.; Parker, Stephany P.; Denney, Barbara
Children who normally abstain from physical activity may view gardening as a viable non-competitive alternative. The study reported here evaluated the effect of an Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service after-school gardening program on self-reported physical activity level of children in 3rd through 5th grade using the ACTIVITY self-report…
Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scaleagriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmentalprotection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production andlarge number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have beeninvestigated in detail. We combined data from field work with numerous measurements ofphytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.
This paper develops the concept of therapeutic place experiences by considering the role of activity. Research of community gardening finds that particular tasks are therapeutic and exhibit the characteristics of flow, but those who lack influence over their community gardening are less likely to benefit from flow as their sense of control is reduced. The notion of emplaced flow is proposed to locate individual experiences amongst socio-spatial factors which limit self-determinacy and therefore affect wellbeing. Emplacing flow prompts critical reflection on who is excluded from therapeutic place experiences, and whether sites offering momentary escape have an enduring impact on wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cai, Meifang; McBride, Murray B.; Li, Kaiming
Exposure of young children to toxic metals in urban environments is largely due to soil and dust ingestion. Soil particle size distribution and concentrations of toxic metals in different particle sizes are important risk factors in addition to bioaccessibility of these metals in the particles. Analysis of particle size distribution and metals concentrations for 13 soils, 12 sampled from urban gardens and 1 from orchard found that fine particles (<105 μm) comprised from 22 to 66% by weight of the tested soils, with Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn generally at higher concentrations in the finer particles. However, metal bioaccessibility was generally lower in finer particles, a trend most pronounced for Ba and Pb. Gastric was higher than gastrointestinal bioaccessibility for all metals except Cu. The lower bioaccessibility of Pb in urban garden soils compared to orchard soil is attributable to the higher organic matter content of the garden soils. - Highlights: • The bioaccessibility of metals in urban garden and orchard soils was measured. • Ba, Cu, Pb, Zn were concentrated in fine particles of the soils. • Bioaccessibilities of Ba and Pb were generally lower in fine particles of soils. • Pb bioaccessibility was generally lower in soils with higher organic matter content. • Pb bioaccessibility was lower in urban garden soils than in an orchard soil. - Pb and other trace metals (Ba, Cu, Zn) were concentrated in fine particles of urban and orchard soils, but the bioaccessibility of Ba and Pb was generally lower in finer particles.
Federal University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria, Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management. 3. University ... Opinions of Abuja residents and potential recreational parks and gardens users were sought using structured ..... Island Press.
Gibbs, L; Staiger, P K; Townsend, M; Macfarlane, S; Gold, L; Block, K; Johnson, B; Kulas, J; Waters, E
Community and school cooking and gardening programs have recently increased internationally. However, despite promising indications, there is limited evidence of their effectiveness. This paper presents the evaluation framework and methods negotiated and developed to meet the information needs of all stakeholders for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden (SAKG) program, a combined cooking and gardening program implemented in selectively funded primary schools across Australia. The evaluation used multiple aligned theoretical frameworks and models, including a public health ecological approach, principles of effective health promotion and models of experiential learning. The evaluation is a non-randomised comparison of six schools receiving the program (intervention) and six comparison schools (all government-funded primary schools) in urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. A mixed-methods approach was used, relying on qualitative measures to understand changes in school cultures and the experiential impacts on children, families, teachers, parents and volunteers, and quantitative measures at baseline and 1 year follow up to provide supporting information regarding patterns of change. The evaluation study design addressed the limitations of many existing evaluation studies of cooking or garden programs. The multistrand approach to the mixed methodology maintained the rigour of the respective methods and provided an opportunity to explore complexity in the findings. Limited sensitivity of some of the quantitative measures was identified, as well as the potential for bias in the coding of the open-ended questions. The SAKG evaluation methodology will address the need for appropriate evaluation approaches for school-based kitchen garden programs. It demonstrates the feasibility of a meaningful, comprehensive evaluation of school-based programs and also demonstrates the central role qualitative methods can have in a mixed-method evaluation. So what? This paper
A team around the New York based Architects Diller, Scofidio & Renfro DS+R won a competition for the Aberdeen City Garden in January 2012 together with OLIN and Keppie Design. The proposal supported by a private deed to the city passed a public referendum in the Scottish costal town in March 2012
Describes how "The Garden of Forking Paths" presents teaching challenges that ultimately yield benefits worth the effort for students and instructors. Discusses a three-tiered approach: spy story, family history and character, and ideas of time and timelessness. Concludes that the three layers provide a structure to get the discussion started and…
This thesis research was carried out at Original Sokos Hotel Olympia Garden in summer 2016. The case company is one of three Sokos Hotels located in St. Petersburg, Russia. The hotel aims to deliver a “Cosy living, smart working” environment to all the guests. The thesis project examines customer satisfaction with different service aspects provided at Original Sokos Hotel Olympia Garden and the customers’ willingness to recommend the hotel to others. The thesis also analyzes the factors h...
Full Text Available Robert Brazeau and Derek Gladwin’s Eco-Joyce (2014 largely overlooks a historical basis for ecocritical thought. The absence of a historicist view requires consideration not only of the natural world but folk botany, such as the Mary Garden that is a phantom presence in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man as well as in “Nausicaa” and “Penelope” in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. The undergrowth of the garden reconfigures human action and subtly predicts it with its compendium of theological and devotional meanings for the burgeoning sexuality expressed by Gerty MacDowell and Issy Earwicker as well as the mature longing of Molly Bloom. This essay will establish a fresh Deleuzian paradigm of Becoming-Flower to demonstrate how the Mary Garden blooms to present new perspectives on Catholicism, eros, and gender identity in Joyce’s major works.
Goto, Seiko; Park, Bum-Jin; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Herrup, Karl; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi
The objective of this study is to trace short-term changes in mood and heart function in elderly individuals in response to exposure to different landscaped spaces. Nineteen elderly but cognitively intact residents of an assisted living facility participated in the study. They were exposed to three landscaped spaces: a Japanese style garden, an herb garden, and a simple landscaped area planted with a single tree. To assess the effect of different landscaped spaces on older adults, individuals were monitored for mood and cardiac function in response to short exposures to spaces. Mood state was assessed using Profile of Mood States (POMS) before and after viewing the spaces. Cardiac output was assessed using a portable electrocardiograph monitor before and during the viewing. We found that the structured gardens evoked greater responses in all outcome measures. Scores on the POMS improved after observation of the two organized gardens compared to responses to the simple landscaped space with a single tree. During the observation period, heart rate was significantly lower in the Japanese garden than in the other environments, and sympathetic function was significantly lower as well. We conclude that exposure to organized gardens can affect both the mood and cardiac physiology of elderly individuals. Our data further suggest that these effects can differ depending on the types of landscape to which an individual is exposed. Elderly, Japanese garden, herb garden, heart rate, mood, healing environmentPreferred Citation: Goto, S., Park, B-J., Tsunetsugu, Y., Herrup, K., & Miyazaki, Y. (2013). The effect of garden designs on mood and heart output in older adults residing in an assisted living facility. Health Environments Research & Design Journal 6(2), pp 27-42.
K. V. Shtymak
Full Text Available The article describes the ecology and distribution of the species Eu. finlandicus Oudemans, 1915 (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in the garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. In Ukraine, such studies were conducted for the Forest-Steppe zone. The mites were collected during the period of 2012–2014. In total, nine settlements of Transcarpathian region were studied. On the researched territory Eu. finlandicus inhabits at least 26 species of plants. For the first time, the status of the species Eu. finlandicus is determined in acaro-complexes of the family Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The indices of occurrence and dominance for this species are calculated. Species of plants on which Eu. finlandicus is present in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region are described. Results of the study suggest that Eu. finlandicus is a common species in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The results can become the theoretical basis for development of schemes aimed at enhancing the protective function of useful mites in phytocenoses of the Uzhgorod district.
Araujo-Betancor, Sofia; Gansicke, Boris; Long, Knox; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo
SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables whose properties contradict all predictions made by the current CV evolution theories. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assessment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. There is one particular behavior of the SW Sex stars that can allow us to overcome this problem: SW Sex stars exhibit low states during which accretion onto the white dwarf decreases or shuts off completely. Only during this rare occasions we can directly observe the white dwarf and the donor star in these systems, and measurements of the white dwarf temperature, spectral type of the donor, mass and distance to the system can be carried out. With this aim in mind, we have set up a long-term monitoring of a group of five SW Sex stars using the 1.3 m telescope at CTIO. Here we propose to activate follow-up TOOs to obtain optical spectra of the low states to accurately determine the fundamental properties of these systems.
Feb 8, 2011 ... In Montreal, as in other Canadian cities, many citizens would like to rent a small plot of land or join ... Some advocates say the method improves the taste of garden crops too. ... Startup costs and maintenance are also lower.
The impact of Makurdi Zoological garden on conservation education was elucidated from data collected by questionnaires, interviews, observations and review of stored records. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages and tables) were used to analyse the data obtained. Out of 100 questionnaires administered, 90% ...
Marsh, Pauline; Spinaze, Anna
In a pilot project, members of a community garden explored how they might provide better end-of-life support for their regional community. As part of the project, a literature review was undertaken to investigate the nexus between community gardens and end-of-life experiences (including grief and bereavement) in academic research. This article documents the findings of that review. The authors discovered there is little academic material that focuses specifically on community gardens and end-of-life experiences, but nonetheless the two subjects were seen to intersect. The authors found three points of commonality: both share a need and capacity for a) social/informal support, b) therapeutic space, and c) opportunities for solace.
Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Wang, Jung-Der
To test the hypothesis that gardening is beneficial for survival after taking time-dependent comorbidities, mobility, and depression into account in a longitudinal middle-aged (50-64 years) and older (≥65 years) cohort in Taiwan. The cohort contained 5,058 nationally sampled adults ≥50 years old from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (1996-2007). Gardening was defined as growing flowers, gardening, or cultivating potted plants for pleasure with five different frequencies. We calculated hazard ratios for the mortality risks of gardening and adjusted the analysis for socioeconomic status, health behaviors and conditions, depression, mobility limitations, and comorbidities. Survival models also examined time-dependent effects and risks in each stratum contingent upon baseline mobility and depression. Sensitivity analyses used imputation methods for missing values. Daily home gardening was associated with a high survival rate (hazard ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.94). The benefits were robust for those with mobility limitations, but without depression at baseline (hazard ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.87) when adjusted for time-dependent comorbidities, mobility limitations, and depression. Chronic or relapsed depression weakened the protection of gardening. For those without mobility limitations and not depressed at baseline, gardening had no effect. Sensitivity analyses using different imputation methods yielded similar results and corroborated the hypothesis. Daily gardening for pleasure was associated with reduced mortality for Taiwanese >50 years old with mobility limitations but without depression.
Malkki, S.; Moilanen, J.
Soil heating using electricity, hot water and air has been studied within Nordic countries as a way to extend the growing season in spring. The methods have not found general acceptance in practical outdoor garden production in Nordic countries, except in Iceland. The main reason for this may be the fairly high investment costs, lack of know-how, and the above-normal risks both at the cultivation stage and in marketing of the harvest. Two thirds of the respondents (177 persons) were prepared to accept the soil heating on outdoor garden production by electrical cables if it is profitable. Only one fifth of the respondents thought that it would be wasting of natural resources, and that plant protection by chemicals should be cut down in the future or to keep their use at the present level. The respondents believed that more efforts should be made in marketing of the garden products by improving the product quality, purity and aroma, because these are the most important sales promotion factors. Two thirds thought that the Finnish garden production sector would retain it's present status or improve it in the future. Organic farming and greening were believed to possess the best prerequisites for surviving the increasingly tough competition of the non-restricted European markets. Under-glass cultivation and fruit orchards in Finland were believed to run into difficulties.
Tsai, M. C.
High strain accumulation across the fold-and-thrust belt in Southwestern Taiwan are revealed by the Continuous GPS (cGPS) and SAR interferometry. This high strain is generally accommodated by the major active structures in fold-and-thrust belt of western Foothills in SW Taiwan connected to the accretionary wedge in the incipient are-continent collision zone. The active structures across the high strain accumulation include the deformation front around the Tainan Tableland, the Hochiali, Hsiaokangshan, Fangshan and Chishan faults. Among these active structures, the deformation pattern revealed from cGPS and SAR interferometry suggest that the Fangshan transfer fault may be a left-lateral fault zone with thrust component accommodating the westward differential motion of thrust sheets on both side of the fault. In addition, the Chishan fault connected to the splay fault bordering the lower-slope and upper-slope of the accretionary wedge which could be the major seismogenic fault and an out-of-sequence thrust fault in SW Taiwan. The big earthquakes resulted from the reactivation of out-of-sequence thrusts have been observed along the Nankai accretionary wedge, thus the assessment of the major seismogenic structures by strain accumulation between the frontal décollement and out-of-sequence thrusts is a crucial topic. According to the background seismicity, the low seismicity and mid-crust to mantle events are observed inland and the lower- and upper- slope domain offshore SW Taiwan, which rheologically implies the upper crust of the accretionary wedge is more or less aseimic. This result may suggest that the excess fluid pressure from the accretionary wedge not only has significantly weakened the prism materials as well as major fault zone, but also makes the accretionary wedge landward extension, which is why the low seismicity is observed in SW Taiwan area. Key words: Continuous GPS, SAR interferometry, strain rate, out-of-sequence thrust.
Jin, Song-Hyo; An, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Seong-Beom
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M.leprae-infected Schwann cells in the nerve biopsies of lepromatous leprosy patients. M.leprae-induced LD formation favors intracellular M.leprae survival in primary Schwann cells and in a myelinating Schwann cell line referred to as ST88-14. In the current study, we initially characterized SW-10 cells and investigated the effects of LDs on M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells, which are non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells express S100, a marker for cells from the neural crest, and NGFR p75, a marker for immature or non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells, however, do not express myelin basic protein (MBP), a marker for myelinating Schwann cells, and myelin protein zero (MPZ), a marker for precursor, immature, or myelinating Schwann cells, all of which suggests that SW-10 cells are non-myelinating Schwann cells. In addition, SW-10 cells have phagocytic activity and can be infected with M. leprae. Infection with M. leprae induces the formation of LDs. Furthermore, inhibiting the formation of M. leprae-induced LD enhances the maturation of phagosomes containing live M.leprae and decreases the ATP content in the M. leprae found in SW-10 cells. These facts suggest that LD formation by M. leprae favors intracellular M. leprae survival in SW-10 cells, which leads to the logical conclusion that M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells can be a new model for investigating the interaction of M.leprae with non-myelinating Schwann cells.
Marsh, Pauline; Gartrell, Gabrielle; Egg, Gwen; Nolan, Andrew; Cross, Merylin
This article presents findings from research that explored how a community garden might function as a place of end-of-life and bereavement support. Adopting Participatory Action Research (PAR) methods, and informed by Third Place theory and notions of therapeutic landscape, creative consultations were held in the Garden and people's homes. The findings provide insights into the nature of informal care as it is played out in the liminal garden space, between home and institution. The results illuminate the therapeutic landscape of community gardens, and contribute new understandings to the fields of PAR, health geography and end-of-life care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hanson, James R
The major natural products that are present in the garden herb, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) including the mono di- and triterpenoid, flavonoid and phenolic constituents together with their biological activity as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, memory-enhancing and tumour-inhibitory agents, are reviewed.
This study assessed perception of farmers about profitability of vegetable gardening enterprise in Ahiazu Mbaise local government area of Imo state, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 randomly selected farmers in the study area. Data collected were analysed using frequencies, percentages and ...
This dissertation describes the research concerning the construction of a new educational and scientific instrument. This instrument, Math Garden, is a web application in which children can practice arithmetic by playing math games in which items are tailored to their ability level. At the same
Powell, K E; Heath, G W; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Branche, C M
The objective of this survey was to estimate the frequency of injuries associated with five commonly performed moderately intense activities: walking for exercise, gardening and yard work, weightlifting, aerobic dance, and outdoor bicycling. National estimates were derived from weighted responses of over 5,000 individuals contacted between April 28 and September 18, 1994, via random-digit dialing of U.S. residential telephone numbers. Self-reported participation in these five activities in the late spring and summer of 1994 was common, ranging from an estimated 14.5 +/- 1.2% of the population for aerobics (nearly 30 million people) to 73.0 +/- 1.5% for walking (about 138 million people). Among participants, the activity-specific 30-d prevalence of injury ranged from 0.9 +- 0.5% for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.4 +- 1.3% for weightlifting. The estimated number in the 30 d of people injured in the 30 d before their interview ranged from 330,000 for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.1 million for gardening or yard work. Incidence rates for injury causing reduced participation in activity were 1.1 +/- 0.5x100 participantsx30 d for walking, 1.1 +/- 0.4 for gardening, and 3.3 +/- 1.9 for weightlifting. During walking and gardening, men and women were equally likely to be injured, but younger people (18-44 yr) were more likely to be injured than older people (45 + yr). Injury rates were low, yet large numbers of people were injured because participation rates were high. Most injuries were minor, but injuries may reduce participation in these otherwise beneficial activities. Additional studies to confirm the magnitude of the problem, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to recommend methods to reduce the frequency of such injuries are needed.
Fritz Hammerling Navas Navarro
Full Text Available Modules for Vertical Urban Gardens (MHUG are a hybrid of vertical gardens and urban agriculture. Vertical gardens have been recognized for the past 2500 years, mainly in the form of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while urban agriculture is being practiced today by more than 700 million people worldwide. The benefits that MHUV offers are multiple, but perhaps the most significant is the consumption of foods free of chemicals, free of GMO’s, irrigated with potable water, and that are 100% organic. It is presented a “culinary and medicinal module” that can be implemented in the kitchen area, on roofs, terraces, balconies or patios, where species such as thyme, mint, peppermint, parsley, lemon balm and rosemary can be at hand when preparing dishes. The module consists of three plastic baskets that are recyclable and resistant to decay. Each basket has four rows with space for fourteen seedlings. The baskets are first lined on the interior with a black geotextile, and then are covered with a mesh (polisombra which helps support the substrate and seedlings. Each basket rests on a structure made of recycled wood (from pallets or crates that both holds the basket vertically and serves as a rain cover. The cages measure 0.33m by 0.55m by 0.14m. Each module comes with hosing and connectors for a drip irrigation system, and an instructional manual. The modules demonstrate the benefits of urban agriculture combined with the beauty and modality of vertical gardens, leading to useful applications for food production and decoration in the spaces where vertical urban gardens are possible.
Petek JAWDET ABDULLA
Full Text Available As one of the unique beauties of Bosporus, Bosporus watersides have been composed and formed through long ages along the Bosporus. Not only an architectural form and a residential type, the Bosporus watersides also were being a part of the culture in which they were built. They project the life traditions of the ages in which they were built. Their users were using those buildings as summer resorts, comprised of a hall, wide rooms, kitchen and other components. The gardens of the watersides also have had their own characteristics, and they were setting out unique beauties. The gardens of the watersides in Bosporus were beyond comparison by their organizational schemes and landscape designs. The watersides were designed with a garden within the bounds of spatial possibilities. The gardens were decorated with colorful flowery plants. Many watersides, which were built in Bosporus, have reached until today. As a type of residences, these buildings are among the most important buildings of Bosporus. The Bosporus watersides have unique architectural samples and features and they need to be well preserved. However, it has been identified that some of those structures have disappeared in time. There are many causes for such a removal. By analyzing these causes, we need to preserve these buildings better nowadays. Bosporus watersides and their gardens today need a better protection by effective policies to be produced. Having unique architectural features and styles, those buildings also are a part of our culture. We must better protect our historical and cultural patterns. This is a must to respect our history and culture too.
... the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...
Ryan, Terence J; Matts, Paul J; Snyder, Brad; Orr, Vanya
This is a report on a seminar held on January 12, 2013, at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Tanzania, sponsored by the International Society of Dermatology as part of its Taskforce Program for Skin Care for All: Community Dermatology. There were four themes: (i) Gardens attached to health centers increase their attractiveness and result in increased attendance and, thus, increase the utilization of effective skin care interventions. Literature on the positive effect of greenery surrounding health centers on health and the environment is reviewed. (ii) Adding an expert on agriculture to the staff of health centers in Rwanda has provided nutrition and safe medicines. (iii) In southern India, these interventions are channeled through the empowerment of tribal women in an area noted for anxiety due to unemployment in the tea and forestry industry. The gardens are used for teaching about nutrition and herbal medicines, and the women are further attracted by childcare facilities. (iv) Measuring barrier function defects gives early warning of malnutrition of the skin after damage by trauma or by ultraviolet radiation. Higher cost research techniques may help to provide the science required to produce its evidence base. In conclusion, Gardens for health should be adopted as policy by skin care providers. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.
Full Text Available Garden pea (Pisum sativum L is an important winter legume used as fresh vegetables and other drier food products. Despite of its importance as cash crop in many parts of Nepal, much study on various aspects for enhancing production and productivity has yet to be done. Therefore, to evaluate the production performance different genotypes of garden pea in eastern hills agro-ecological conditions present experiments were carried out consecutively for two years (2015 and 2016 at Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas. The experiment comprised of 11 different genotypes of garden pea including a check variety Arkel. The production performance was evaluated in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The seeds were sown at 50 × 10 cm spacing during first week of October for two years. The result showed that DGP-05 genotype had earliest 104 days after sowing. The DGP-08 genotype showed 13 which were the maximum numbers of pods per plant (13, while DGP-01 showed 8 numbers of seeds as the maximum per pod. The DGP-03 genotype had the longest pod of 9.78 cm among others. The highest fresh pod yield of 18.14 t/ha was achieved from genotype DGP-09 followed by Arkel with (16.32 t/ha.
Nobuhiko Ito; Iwao Kunugijama; Yoshinori Furukawa.
Beryllium-7 is a natural radionuclide produced by cosmic rays. Be-7 is found vividly in the atmosphere, so the concentrations in airborne particles were analyzed by many investigators. It is known that airborne particles with Be-7 in the atmosphere fall slowly to the ground and adhere to plant surface. However, Be-7 concentrations of foods were not measured too much. So we measured Be-7 concentrations of garden vegetables, wild vegetables, grasses, beef and milk, and calculated internal exposure dose from Be-7. Beryllium-7 concentrations of plant samples are shown. Beryllium-7 concentrations of garden vegetables were from 0.2 to 25.3 Bq/kg, and concentrations of wild vegetables were from 0.8 to 23.5 Bq/kg. There is no difference in Be-7 concentrations between garden vegetables and wild vegetables. Leaf vegetables have almost higher concentration of Be-7. Though Matteuccia Struthiopteris and Pteridium aquilinum are ferns, their eatable stages are sprouts. The relationship between surface area and Be-7 concentration in some vegetable leaves gathered simultaneously at the same farm is shown. Beryllium-7 concentrations of leaves correlate significantly with the surface area/weight ratios. What high concentration vegetables have proportionately broad leaves suggests that atmospheric Be-7 particles adhere to surface of leaves. (author)
This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...
Common garden hoses may generate aerosols of inhalable size (Legionella bacteria, Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever may result. Noting clinical cases have been linked to garden hose use. The hose environment is ideal ...
Community gardening, community farming and other local community-based gardening interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in high-income and middle-income countries: protocol for a systematic review.
Heise, Thomas L; Romppel, Matthias; Molnar, Sandra; Buchberger, Barbara; Berg, Agnes van den; Gartlehner, Gerald; Lhachimi, Stefan K
The worldwide prevalence of overweight/obesity has continued to rise over the last decades. To reverse this trend, public health authorities are exploring cost-effective interventions, especially in high-income and middle-income countries. Community gardening offers a unique opportunity for individuals to enhance physical activity levels and improve their diet. However, synthesised evidence on the short-term or long-term effectiveness and on the costs of community gardening interventions to prevent overweight/obesity remains limited. Therefore, this review will investigate: (1) the effectiveness of voluntary participation in community gardening compared with no or a control intervention on overweight/obesity and associated health outcomes, (2) effects on different subgroups of populations and (3) the costs of community gardening interventions. We will conduct a systematic review, limited to evaluations of community gardening interventions with controlled quantitative and interrupted time series designs. To identify relevant articles, we will systematically search 12 academic and 5 grey literature databases, as well as 2 trial registers and 6 websites. Articles will then be assessed for eligibility based on a predefined set of criteria. At least two independent reviewers will assess each article for relevance, before evaluating the methodological quality and potential bias of the studies. Data relevant to the objectives of this review will be extracted and cross-validated. Any disagreements will be mediated by a third reviewer. If feasible, meta-analyses of primary outcomes (overweight/obesity, physical activity, food intake, energy intake) will be conducted. We will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation method to assess the overall quality of evidence. For this review, no ethical approval is required as we will only extract and analyse secondary data. We aim to submit the final review manuscript to an open access journal for
Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.
Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.
McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary
The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influence on dietary intake. This review examines the current scientific literature on the implications of farmers' market programs and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between January 1980 and January 2009 were identified via PubMed and Agricola database searches and by examining reference lists from relevant studies. Studies were included in this review if they took place in the United States and qualitatively or quantitatively examined nutrition-related outcomes, including dietary intake; attitudes and beliefs regarding buying, preparing, or eating fruits and vegetables; and behaviors and perceptions related to obtaining produce from a farmers' market or community garden. Studies focusing on garden-based youth programs were excluded. In total, 16 studies were identified for inclusion in this review. Seven studies focused on the impact of farmers' market nutrition programs for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants, five focused on the influence of farmers' market programs for seniors, and four focused on community gardens. Findings from this review reveal that few well-designed research studies (eg, those incorporating control groups) utilizing valid and reliable dietary assessment methods to evaluate the influence of farmers' markets and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes have been completed. Recommendations for future research on the dietary influences of farmers' markets and community gardens are provided. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Through the lens of Evangelist Reverend Robert H. Schuller’s Garden Grove drive-in walk-in church, this paper aims to exemplify how his architecture has transcended existing geographies that have long been anchored by the epistemology of what can be referred to as traditional “religious” architecture. This paper examines how Schuller instrumentalized broader imbrications of political contexts to change or manipulate the traditional religious subject. It also presents how Robert Schuller’s Garden Grove experiment reconceptualized “territory” as an evolving ideological dimension; not as a trajectory, or as transitory space, but as inhabitable third nature. My analysis challenges established readings of religious architecture as being interiorized manifestations. To do so, it poses the following questions: how does this meta-geographical dimension shed new light on questions of (traditional architectural aesthetics in Protestant architecture? What spaces and politics does it produce? Does the third nature have a history of its own?
Pópity-Tóth, É.; Schuszter, G.; Horváth, D.; Tóth, Á.
Complex structures in nature are often formed by self-assembly. In order to mimic the formation, to enhance the production, or to modify the structures, easy-to-use methods are sought to couple engineering and self-assembly. Chemical-garden-like precipitation reactions are frequently used to study such couplings because of the intrinsic chemical and hydrodynamic interplays. In this work, we present a simple method of applying periodic pressure fluctuations given by a peristaltic pump which can be used to achieve regularly banded precipitate membranes in the copper-phosphate system.
Full Text Available In this study, we observed the flowering phenology, breeding system, pollination and seed germination of four species of Calligonum (C. calliphysa, C. rubicundum, C. densum and C. ebinuricum in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, China. Our results showed that the species had overlapping flowering phenologies and were pollinated by similar pollination agents. Their breeding systems were self-compatible, and with signs of outbreeding, but not of hybridization with each other; the main isolation mechanism was post-zygotic isolation and they also had high seed germination rates. Therefore, they are suited to ex situ conservation in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, and can supply sufficient seeds for renewal populations and the conservation of germplasm resources. Furthermore, these results provide theoretical support for the construction of a national germplasm resource garden of Calligonum, and for the introduction to the garden of other eremophyteplants and their conservation.
Yu, Qi; Yin, Jie
In this paper, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China has been selected as the study area. The overall status and the development conditions of resources and environment have been analyzed for the park. The eco-tourism resources and environment of Chenshan Botanical Garden were further evaluated synthetically by using expert analysis and questionnaire. A comprehensive evaluation system including 16 indices has been initially established from three aspects of tourism resource element value, resource development condition and eco-environment condition. The characteristics of eco-tourism resources and the score of each indicator for Chenshan Botanical Garden have subsequently been generated. The results show that the comprehensive evaluation score of eco-tourism resources and environment for Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden is 72.06, which belongs to third level of excellent tourism resources and environment. Finally, five suggestions are proposed for future development of its eco-tourism resources and environment.
Sommerfeld, Kelsie; Bruce, Jackie; Jayaratne, Jay; Chapman, Ben; Gunter, Chris
As part of a larger study designed to explore the gardening practices and educational needs of North Carolina chefs who cultivate restaurant gardens, the chefs' desired areas of knowledge and preferences for delivery of educational material were identified. As a result, a plan for North Carolina Cooperative Extension to use in developing…
Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J
Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix......, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking...... from the rice diet, relative to the leaf diet controls. Enzyme activity in the older, bottom sections of fungus gardens decreased, indicating a faster processing of the rice substrate compared to the leaf diet. These results suggest that leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens can rapidly adjust enzyme...