Sample records for sw cpr mno

  1. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and ...

  2. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  3. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  4. CPR Drilling. (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark


    Problems encountered by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instructors are discussed and some possible solutions to these problems are suggested. Management techniques for effective use of class size, time, and instructional materials are described. (JN)

  5. CPR - adult (United States)

    ... heartbeat has stopped. This may happen after an electric shock , drowning, or heart attack. CPR involves: Rescue ... to swim. Teach your child to watch for cars and ride bikes safely. Teach your child firearm ...

  6. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course ...

  7. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course ...

  8. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  9. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  10. CPR - adult - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // CPR - adult - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics CPR A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  11. CPR - infant - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // CPR - infant - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  12. Hands-Only CPR (United States)

    ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ...

  13. CPR Facts and Stats (United States)

    ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ... Implementation OSHA and AHA Alliance Be The Beat Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness ...

  14. CPR Education before Internship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ashoorion


    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The importance of training basic and advanced life support for undergraduates and graduated physicians are now widely recognized. Graduates of medical schools in Iran immediately get license to practice medicine without any supervision. Therefore,Clarification of the best phases for training CPR and the optimum mastery level in each phase is very important. This study is an attempt to find out the ideas of stakeholders about training CPR beforeinternship, the experience needed at the beginning of internship, the best phase for training it and the assessment method.Methods: It is a survey study designed in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences to investigate the opinions of head-nurses, interns, residents and educational directors (in ten clinical departments/wards about training CPR before internship. Respondents completed self administered anonymous questionnaires. The questionnaires’ items covered opinions of respondents about CPR as interns’ duty, level of experience; best course for training and the assessment method. Meanwhile, views of participants were compared against educational directors’ idea by Fisher exact test.Results:32 head-nurse, 285 interns, 13 resident and15 educational directors participated in the study and all agreed with CPR as interns’ duty in all clinical wards. Although, directors had different idea about level of experience for CPR to be achieved by interns, residents suggested level 3 of experience. According to the results externship is the best phase for CPR training and combination of observation and OSCE suggested as the best assessment method.Conclusion: To prepare the graduates achieving full competency in CPR performance, it is needed to implement training programs before internship. Internship is the best phase for getting expertise in CPR. Based on the results CPR considered as interns’ responsibility and medical schools should feel confidence about the competency ofinterns

  15. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): First Aid (United States)

    First aid Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near ...

  16. CPR: Key to Cardiac Consciousness? (United States)

    Hyner, Gerald C.; Box, Colin E.


    Recommendations are made for improving certification standards for programs providing training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Training techniques, cost effectiveness, and teachers for CPR programs are discussed. (JD)

  17. CPR (For Parents) (United States)

    ... injuries, and suspected sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) . Reading about CPR and learning when it's needed will give you a basic understanding of the concept and procedure, but it's strongly recommended that you ...

  18. Standard versus Abdominal Lifting and Compression CPR


    Zhang, Sisen; Liu, Qing; Han, Shupeng; Zhang, Ziran; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yahua; Li, Jing; Wang, Lixiang


    Background. This study compared outcomes of abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALP-CPR) with standard CPR (STD-CPR). Materials and Methods. Patients with cardiac arrest seen from April to December 2014 were randomized to receive standard CPR or ALP-CPR performed with a novel abdominal lifting/compression device. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results. Patients were randomized to receive ALP-CPR (n = 40) and STD-CPR (n = 43), and...

  19. CPR: A Real Lifesaver (For Kids) (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath CPR: A Real Lifesaver KidsHealth > For Kids > CPR: A ... Let's find out how it works. What Is CPR? Cardio means "of the heart " and pulmonary means " ...

  20. Teaching CPR to Florida's Students. (United States)

    Varnes, Jill W.; Crone, Ernest G.


    A program in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction for Florida's school children is described. Program guidelines and support services are detailed for other schools wishing to implement such a program. (JN)

  1. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR (United States)

    ... THEIR FAMILIES PREDICTION OF RECOVERY FROM COMA AFTER CPR This summary will provide you with information about ... help doctors predict poor recovery from coma after CPR. In this case, poor recovery means death, continued ...

  2. Perception of CPR quality: Influence of CPR feedback, Just-in-Time CPR training and provider role. (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L


    Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pPerception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of CPR quality and rescuer fatigue between standard 30:2 CPR and chest compression-only CPR: a randomized crossover manikin trial


    Shin, Jonghwan; Hwang, Seong Youn; Lee, Hui Jai; Park, Chang Je; Kim, Yong Joon; Son, Yeong Ju; Seo, Ji Seon; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, In Mo; Koh, Bong Yeun; Hong, Sung Gi


    Objective We aimed to compare rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality between standard 30:2 CPR (ST-CPR) and chest compression only CPR (CO-CPR) performed for 8 minutes on a realistic manikin by following the 2010 CPR guidelines. Methods All 36 volunteers (laypersons; 18 men and 18 women) were randomized to ST-CPR or CO-CPR at first, and then each CPR technique was performed for 8 minutes with a 3-hour rest interval. We measured the mean blood pressure (MBP) of the vol...

  4. Interposed Abdominal Compression CPR for an Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Victim Failing Traditional CPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. McClung


    Full Text Available Interposed abdominal compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (IAC-CPR is an alternative technique to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR that can improve perfusion and lead to restoration of circulation in patients with chest wall deformity either acquired through vigorous CPR or co-morbidity such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We report a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest where IAC-CPR allowed for restoration of spontaneous circulation and eventual full neurologic recovery when traditional CPR was failing to generate adequate pulses with chest compression alone.

  5. Compression-only CPR training in elementary schools and student attitude toward CPR. (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Murakami, Yukiko; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Nakai, Shohei; Hamanishi, Masayoshi; Marukawa, Seishiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Iwami, Taku


    Little is known about the effectiveness of systematic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training for elementary school children. We introduced systematic training of chest compression-only CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) use to elementary school students aged 10-12 years at 17 schools. The questionnaire compared student attitudes towards CPR and their knowledge about it before and after CPR training. We also evaluated parent and teacher views about CPR training in school education. The primary outcome was positive attitude, defined as "yes" and "maybe yes" on a 5 point Likert-type scale of student attitudes towards CPR.1 RESULTS: A total of 2047 elementary school students received CPR training. Of them, 1899 (92.8%) responded to the questionnaire regarding their attitude towards CPR before and after the training. Before training, 50.2% answered "yes" and 30.3% answered "maybe yes", to the question: "If someone suddenly collapses in front of you, can you do something such as check response or call emergency?" After training, their answers changed to 75.6% and 18.3% for "yes" and "maybe yes", respectively. Many of the students (72.3%, 271/370) who did not have a positive attitude before CPR training had a positive attitude after the training (P students understood how to perform CPR (97.7%) and use an AED (98.5%). Parents (96.2%, 1173/1220) and teachers (98.3%, 56/57) answered that it was "good" and "maybe good" for children to receive the training at elementary schools. Systematic chest compression-only CPR training helped elementary school students to improve their attitude towards CPR. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class. (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.


    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  7. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old) (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they have not already. See www. ...

  8. Learn CPR You Can Do It! (United States)

    ... Sciences Discovery Fund © 1998 - 2010 Learn CPR . All Rights Reserved. Replication of any of the content included in this website without the expressed consent of the author is strictly prohibited.

  9. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith


    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystander CPR region using data on adult, bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac etiology (n=7175) from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. We then surveyed adult Victorians (n=404) and compared CPR training data of the respondents from low and high bystander CPR regions. Of the 404 adults surveyed, 223 (55%) resided in regions with low bystander CPR. Compared with respondents from high bystander CPR regions, respondents residing in regions with low bystander CPR had lower rates of CPR training (62% versus 75%, P=0.009) and lower self-ratings for their overall knowledge of CPR (76% versus 84%, P=0.04). There were no differences between the regions in their reasons for not having undergone CPR training or in their willingness to perform CPR. Rates of survival for bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly lower in low bystander CPR regions (15.7% versus 17.0%, PCPR training and lower survival in regions with lower rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. Targeting these regions with CPR training programs may improve bystander CPR rates and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // CPR - child 1 to 8 years old - series—Check ... and retrieve an AED until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  11. Chest compression-only CPR Is it the better choice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R. W.


    The literature related to the rationale of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) including chest compressions combined with ventilations or compression-only CPR without ventilations is reviewed. The conclusion is that the evidence in favor of compression-only CPR is of limited level of evidence and

  12. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia


    Bray, Janet E.; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith


    Background Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. Methods and Results We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystand...

  13. Interruptions in Chest Compressions by Surf Lifeguards: A Comparison of Face-mask Ventilation in Over-the-head CPR vs Standard CPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørkjær, Louise; Bomholt, Katrine Bjørnshave; Krogh, Kristian

    Introduction: Ventilation is a priority in drowning resuscitation. Over-the-head CPR (OH-CPR), i.e. with the rescuer located at the top of the victim’s head instead of alongside the victim’s torso, has been demonstrated to be superior when doing bag-valve-mask ventilation compared to standard CPR....... The International Life Saving Federation recommends CPR using face-mask ventilation. It is currently unknown if OH-CPR using face-mask ventilation improves CPR quality. We hypothesized that OH-CPR is superior to standard CPR with face-mask ventilation among surf lifeguards. Methods: Surf lifeguards were trained...... in OH-CPR and standard CPR with face-mask ventilation and randomized to a crossover comparison on a manikin. CPR quality data were obtained from the manikin and video recordings. Interruptions in chest compressions were used as a primary measure of CPR quality. A sample size of 14 participants...

  14. The SW Sex enigma


    Dhillon, V. S.; Smith, D. A.; Marsh, T. R.


    The SW Sex stars are a class of cataclysmic variables, originally identified because they shared a number of enigmatic properties – most notably, single-peaked emission lines instead of the double-peaked lines one would expect from their high-inclination accretion discs. We present high-time-resolution spectrophotometry of the eclipsing nova-like variables SW Sex and DW UMa, two of the founding members of the SW Sex class. Both systems show single-peaked Balmer and He II λ4686 Å emission line...

  15. CPR in the nursing home: fool's errand or looming dilemma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, D


    The indications for CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) have expanded greatly since the technique was introduced and theoretically it can be attempted on all prior to death. Policy initiatives (such as the British Medical Association\\/Royal College of Nursing guidelines) have attempted to provide a clinical rationale for the withholding of inappropriate CPR. Traditionally a care home was felt to be an inappropriate environment to attempt CPR but increased use of advance directives may bring the issue to the fore in this setting.

  16. A Study in Teaching CPR to a Disabled Student (United States)

    Brady, Bill; Sanders, Cindy


    This article describes a CPR training course modified for a student with cerebral palsy. Brian is a 10th grade student with cerebral palsy affecting his right side. Brian had a difficult time in the class and was not able to meet the standards required to pass his CPR training. Here, the author discusses how two adaptations were utilized, that…

  17. Instituting the Updated CPR Protocol: The Team Physician's Role. (United States)

    Araujo, David


    Summarizes recommendations from the 1992 National Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiac Care. Because team physicians may have to provide basic life support for athletes or spectators, knowing current (CPR) protocol is essential in developing emergency response plans and training personnel. Practice removing…

  18. Interviews with Students Enrolled in Academic CPR Workshops, Summer 2002. (United States)

    Maple, Chelley

    This study focuses on students enrolled in academic CPR workshops in the summer of 2002. The goal of the study is to examine changes in the population of students with academic problems. The CPR workshops are a requirement for students that are subject to dismissal. The study was conducted in the summer of 2003 on the telephone with a random…

  19. Guidelines for CPR Training in Louisiana Schools. Bulletin No. 1638. (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Completion of a course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is required for graduation from high school in Louisiana. This bulletin presents the guidelines for a course in CPR and was prepared with the cooperation of the American Red Cross (ARC) and the American Heart Association (AHA). At the conclusion of the course, students will be prepared…

  20. CPR[TM]: Adopting an Out-of-Discipline Innovation (United States)

    Strong, Kay E.


    Calibrated Peer Review[TM] (CPR) is a web-based instructional tool that encourages "writing gain for students" without adding "grading pain for the instructor!" The use of CPR provides students frequent opportunities to hone both writing as well as peer review skills in a guided environment. And once an assignment is authored, instructors have…

  1. High School CPR/AED Training in Washington State. (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Palazzo, Steven J; Emery, Allison


    Describe the rates of CPR/AED training in high schools in the state of Washington after passage of legislation mandating CPR/AED training. A web-based survey was sent to administrators at 660 public and private high schools in the state of Washington. The survey was completed by 148 schools (22%); 64% reported providing CPR training and 54% provided AED training. Reported barriers to implementation included instructor availability, cost, and a lack of equipment. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample characteristics and implementation rates. Mandates without resources and support do not ensure implementation of CPR/AED training in high schools. Full public health benefits of a CPR mandate will not be realized until barriers to implementation are identified and eliminated through use of available, accessible public health resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques. (United States)

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M


    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The SW Sex enigma (United States)

    Dhillon, V. S.; Smith, D. A.; Marsh, T. R.


    The SW Sex stars are a class of cataclysmic variables, originally identified because they shared a number of enigmatic properties - most notably, single-peaked emission lines instead of the double-peaked lines one would expect from their high-inclination accretion discs. We present high-time-resolution spectrophotometry of the eclipsing nova-like variables SW Sex and DW UMa, two of the founding members of the SW Sex class. Both systems show single-peaked Balmer and He ii λ4686 Å emission lines that appear to originate from a region in the disc that lies close to, but downstream of, the bright spot. The emission-line light curves are consistent with the finding from X-ray and ultraviolet observations that we predominantly see the flared disc rim and the unobscured back portion of the disc in these systems. In DW UMa, the He ii λ4686 Å emission line originates from close to the white dwarf and exhibits flaring. Such flares have been used to argue for magnetically channelled accretion, as in the intermediate polars, but the lack of a clear periodicity in the flares argues for a simpler model in which we are viewing the central regions of the disc through the non-uniform upper edge of a flared disc rim. We also observe narrow, blueshifted, transient absorption features in the Balmer lines of DW UMa, which we attribute to blobs of material ejected from the system, possibly by a magnetic propeller, that happen to be passing between us and the binary. Our results suggest that the solution to the SW Sex enigma is a combination of dominant bright-spot emission and a self-occulting disc. We also propose a simplified classification scheme for nova-like variables.

  4. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  5. EarthCARE/CPR design results and PFM development status (United States)

    Maruyama, Kenta; Tomita, Eiichi; Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Aida, Yoshihisa; Seki, Yoshihiro; Okada, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Tomiyama, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Ohno, Yuichi; Horie, Hiroaki; Sato, Kenji


    Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) is a Japanese-European collaborative earth observation satellite mission aimed to deepen understanding of the interaction process between clouds and aerosols and their effects on the Earth's radiation. The outcome of this mission is expected to improve the accuracy of global climate change prediction. As one of instruments for EarthCARE, the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) is the world's first space-borne Doppler cloud radar jointly developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). In Japan, the critical design review of the CPR has been completed in 2013, and CPR proto-flight model was manufactured and integrated until summer in 2015. Finally, the proto-flight test have been just started. This paper describes the design results and current status of CPR proto-flight test.

  6. Model based optimization of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure. (United States)

    Jalali, Ali; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay; Nataraj, C


    This paper is concerned with the optimization of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure, which plays a critical rule in saving the life of patients suffering from cardiac arrest. In this paper, we define the performance index for optimization using the oxygen delivery. A model developed earlier is used to calculate the oxygen delivery through CPR. The free parameters of this model which depend on the rescuer performance are ventilation time, compression speed, tidal volume, and fraction of oxygen in the inspired air. Two different optimization problems are carried out. First, a global optimization is implemented to discover the best values of the free parameters which maximize the oxygen delivery. In addition to this, a sequential optimization scheme is explored which uses a two step optimization in each CPR sequence to maximize the oxygen delivery. Results show that the sequential optimization procedure will enhance the performance of the CPR significantly.

  7. CPR: Purposeful Action. Putting New Life into 4-H. (United States)

    Jones, Deborah A.; Smith, William C.


    In Ohio, 4-H professionals found that it is necessary to conduct market research to have an effective program. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has been successful in strengthening the 4-H position in the marketplace. (JOW)

  8. Bystander CPR Helps Save Brain Function After Near-Drowning (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_165984.html Bystander CPR Helps Save Brain Function After Near-Drowning Heart compressions were even more ... victims are more likely to recover with good brain function if bystanders immediately begin chest compressions rather than ...

  9. The use of CPR data in fisheries research [review article (United States)

    Corten, A.; Lindley, J. A.


    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by technological developments in fish detection, but the former has been the subject of continuing, and in recent years expanding use of the CPR data. Examples are presented of application of the data to studies on North Sea herring, cod, mackerel, blue whiting and redfish as well as more general plankton studies relevant to fisheries research. Variations in the migration patterns of herring as well as recruitment have been related to abundances and species composition of the plankton in the CPR survey. Extensive use has been made of the CPR data in relation to cod, particularly in the development and testing of the ‘match-mismatch’ hypothesis. Advection of sufficient numbers of Calanus from the core oceanic areas of its distribution into the areas where the cod stocks occur may partly determine the success of those stocks. The analysis of the distribution and abundances of mackerel larvae in the CPR survey have shown contrasting variations between the North Sea and Celtic Sea. The expansion of the horse mackerel fishery in the north-eastern North Sea since 1987 has been related to physical events and a ‘regime shift’ in the plankton, described from CPR data. The oceanic spawning areas of the blue whiting and redfish were highlighted by the expansion of the CPR survey into the north-eastern and north-western Atlantic respectively. These results helped to focus the attention of fisheries scientists on stocks that have subsequently become the targets for commercial exploitation. The results of the CPR survey, particularly those on Calanusfinmarchicus, the phytoplankton standing stock as measured by the CPR colour index, the overall patterns of trends in plankton abundance and

  10. A mixed-methods study exploring student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR


    Batty, Emma


    Abstract Background: Futile CPR has the potential to inflict significant, avoidable harms on dying patients. Futile CPR is widely debated in the literature, but there is little research into futile CPR in the context of nursing. There are no published studies exploring student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR. Aim: To explore student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR Methods: A mixed methods study, using questionnaires to establish background data and identify prominent issues. ...

  11. Mechanical CPR devices compared to manual CPR during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and ambulance transport: a systematic review (United States)


    Aims The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to address the question: “In pre-hospital adult cardiac arrest (asystole, pulseless electrical activity, pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation), does the use of mechanical Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) devices compared to manual CPR during Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and ambulance transport, improve outcomes (e.g. Quality of CPR, Return Of Spontaneous Circulation, Survival)”. Methods Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library (including Cochrane database for systematic reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), Embase, and AHA EndNote Master Library were systematically searched. Further references were gathered from cross-references from articles and reviews as well as forward search using SCOPUS and Google scholar. The inclusion criteria for this review included manikin and human studies of adult cardiac arrest and anti-arrhythmic agents, peer-review. Excluded were review articles, case series and case reports. Results Out of 88 articles identified, only 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for further review. Of these 10 articles, 1 was Level of Evidence (LOE) 1, 4 LOE 2, 3 LOE 3, 0 LOE 4, 2 LOE 5. 4 studies evaluated the quality of CPR in terms of compression adequacy while the remaining six studies evaluated on clinical outcomes in terms of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission, survival to discharge and Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC). 7 studies were supporting the clinical question, 1 neutral and 2 opposing. Conclusion In this review, we found insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of mechanical CPR devices in settings of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and during ambulance transport. While there is some low quality evidence suggesting that mechanical CPR can improve consistency and reduce interruptions in chest compressions, there is no evidence that

  12. An “Intention-Focused” paradigm for improving bystander CPR performance□ (United States)

    Panchal, Ashish R.; Fishman, Jessica; Camp-Rogers, Teresa; Starodub, Roksolana; Merchant, Raina M.


    Despite public education campaigns and a chest compression-only initiative, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is provided in approximately 30–40% of out of hospital cardiac arrests in the United States. Bystander CPR rates may not improve without addressing factors influencing bystanders’ probability of performing CPR. We propose an “intention-focused” model for the bystander CPR performance utilizing validated behavioral theory. This model describes a framework that may predict CPR performance, with intention as the key determinant of this behavior. This model may provide specific targets for strengthening the intention to perform CPR, which could lead to increased bystander rates. PMID:25534077

  13. Communication and protocol compliance and their relation to the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): A mixed-methods study of simulated telephone-assisted CPR. (United States)

    Nord-Ljungquist, Helena; Brännström, Margareta; Bohm, Katarina


    In the event of a cardiac arrest, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) play a critical role by providing telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (T-CPR) to laypersons. The aim of our investigation was to describe compliance with the T-CPR protocol, the performance of the laypersons in a simulated T-CPR situation, and the communication between laypersons and EMDs during these actions. We conducted a retrospective observational study by analysing 20 recorded video and audio files. In a simulation, EMDs provided laypersons with instructions following T-CPR protocols. These were then analysed using a mixed method with convergent parallel design. If the EMDs complied with the T-CPR protocol, the laypersons performed the correct procedures in 71% of the actions. The single most challenging instruction of the T-CPR protocol, for both EMDs and laypersons, was airway control. Mean values for compression depth and frequency did not reach established guideline goals for CPR. Proper application of T-CPR protocols by EMDs resulted in better performance by laypersons in CPR. The most problematic task for EMDs as well for laypersons was airway management. The study results did not establish that the quality of communication between EMDs and laypersons performing CPR in a cardiac arrest situation led to statistically different outcomes, as measured by the quality and effectiveness of the CPR delivered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a CPR feedback device and refresher simulations (CPR CARES Study): a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Brown, Linda L; Duff, Jonathan P; Davidson, Jennifer; Overly, Frank; Tofil, Nancy M; Peterson, Dawn T; White, Marjorie L; Bhanji, Farhan; Bank, Ilana; Gottesman, Ronald; Adler, Mark; Zhong, John; Grant, Vincent; Grant, David J; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Marohn, Kimberly; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Kessler, David O; Wong, Hubert; Robertson, Nicola; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duval-Arnould, Jordan M; Nadkarni, Vinay M


    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) affects hemodynamics, survival, and neurological outcomes following pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Most health care professionals fail to perform CPR within established American Heart Association guidelines. To determine whether "just-in-time" (JIT) CPR training with visual feedback (VisF) before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA improves the quality of chest compressions (CCs) during simulated CPA. Prospective, randomized, 2 × 2 factorial-design trial with explicit methods (July 1, 2012, to April 15, 2014) at 10 International Network for Simulation-Based Pediatric Innovation, Research, & Education (INSPIRE) institutions running a standardized simulated CPA scenario, including 324 CPR-certified health care professionals assigned to 3-person resuscitation teams (108 teams). Each team was randomized to 1 of 4 permutations, including JIT training vs no JIT training before CPA and real-time VisF vs no real-time VisF during simulated CPA. The proportion of CCs with depth exceeding 50 mm, the proportion of CPR time with a CC rate of 100 to 120 per minute, and CC fraction (percentage CPR time) during simulated CPA. The quality of CPR was poor in the control group, with 12.7% (95% CI, 5.2%-20.1%) mean depth compliance and 27.1% (95% CI, 14.2%-40.1%) mean rate compliance. JIT training compared with no JIT training improved depth compliance by 19.9% (95% CI, 11.1%-28.7%; P 89.0%) in all groups. Combining both interventions showed the highest compliance with American Heart Association guidelines but was not significantly better than either intervention in isolation. The quality of CPR provided by health care professionals is poor. Using novel and practical technology, JIT training before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA, alone or in combination, improves compliance with American Heart Association guidelines for CPR that are associated with better outcomes. Identifier: NCT02075450.

  15. Undergraduate nursing students' acquisition and retention of CPR knowledge and skills. (United States)

    Madden, Catherine


    The ability to respond quickly and effectively to a cardiac arrest situation rests on nurses being competent in the emergency life-saving procedure of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Irish nursing students acquire and retain CPR cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills following CPR training. A quasi-experimental time series design was used. A pre-test, CPR training programme, post-test, and re-test were conducted. CPR knowledge was assessed by a multiple-choice assessment and psychomotor skills were assessed by observing CPR performance on a Resusci-Anne skill-meter manikin. The findings showed an acquisition in nurses' CPR knowledge and psychomotor performance following a 4h CPR training programme. Despite this, at no point in this study, did any nurse pass the CPR skills assessment. A deterioration in both CPR knowledge and skills was found 10 weeks following CPR training. However, students' knowledge and skills were improved over their pre-training scores, which clearly indicated a positive retention in CPR cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. The study findings present strong evidence to support the critical role of CPR training in ensuring that nursing students progress to competent and confident responders in the event of a cardiac related emergency.

  16. 77 FR 74278 - Proposed Information Collection (Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application); Comment Request (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application); Comment... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application...

  17. Abdominal counter pressure in CPR: What about the lungs? An in silico study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanru; Karemaker, John M.


    The external pumping action in CPR should generate sufficient flow and pressure, but the pump must also be 'primed' by ongoing venous return. Different additions to standard CPR are in use just for this purpose. Active decompression of the thorax (ACD-CPR) to 'suck in' venous blood has proven

  18. Alyce Annie: A New CPR Home Practice Manikin. (United States)

    Schultz, Alyce; And Others


    Alyce Annie, a lightweight, portable manikin, was designed to economize classroom time and to provide a method for learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) independently. A study with high school students determined that the students trained in this method could attain the necessary psychomotor skills and knowledge level required for CPR…

  19. Effectiveness of Interactive Video to Teach CPR Theory and Skills. (United States)

    Lyness, Ann L.

    This study investigated whether an interactive video system of instruction taught cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as effectively as traditional instruction. Using standards of the American Heart Association, the study was designed with two randomized groups to be taught either by live instruction or by interactive video. Subjects were 100…

  20. The Effectiveness of Using Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of CPR in submitting general Chemistry (123L) laboratory report. This is expected to improve writing skills and alleviate grading burdens particularly when dealing with a large class due to lack sufficient instructors and high grading burden. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test ...

  1. The use of CPR data in fisheries research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Lindley, J.A.


    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by

  2. [Lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--controversies in emergency medicine: lay-rescuer CPR with or without mouth-to-mouth ventilation]. (United States)

    Wolcke, Benno


    An analysis of literature results reveals differences concerning the need for rescue breathing in lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary-resuscitation (CPR). Observational studies on large registries have shown improved survival rates with standard CPR (chest compressions and rescue breathing) compared to continuous chest compressions (CCC). This applies especially for cardiac arrests of non-cardiac origin or prolonged EMS-arrival times. In contrast a public program for lay-rescuers focusing on CCC lead to improved success rates of bystander-CPR, followed by improved survival rates. The 2010 ERC guidelines have resolved this controversy by integrating both aspects. CCC is recommended for everyone. Trained bystanders should use standard-CPR as method of choice. For dispatcher-assisted CPR the results are clear. Giving instructions for mouth-to-mouth ventilation is too complicated and time consuming, thus impairing survival rates. Therefore CCC is recommended for dispatcher-assisted CPR. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Dissemination of CPR video self-instruction materials to secondary trainees: results from a hospital-based CPR education trial (United States)

    Ikeda, Daniel J.; Buckler, David G.; Li, Jiaqi; Agarwal, Amit K.; Di Taranti, Laura J.; Kurtz, James; dos Reis, Ryan; Leary, Marion; Abella, Benjamin S.; Blewer, Audrey L.


    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) video self-instruction (VSI) materials have been promoted as a scalable approach to increase the prevalence of CPR skills among the lay public, in part due to the opportunity for secondary training (i.e., sharing of training materials). However, the motivations for, and barriers to, disseminating VSI materials to secondary trainees is poorly understood. Methods This work represents an ancillary investigation of a prospective hospital-based CPR education trial in which family members of cardiac patients were trained using VSI. Mixed-methods surveys were administered to primary trainees six months after initial enrollment. Surveys were designed to capture motivations for, and barriers to, sharing VSI materials, the number of secondary trainees with whom materials were shared, and the settings, timing, and recipients of trainings. Results Between 07/2012–05/2015, 653 study participants completed a six-month follow-up interview. Of those, 345 reported sharing VSI materials with 1455 secondary trainees. Materials were shared most commonly with family members. In a logistic regression analysis, participants in the oldest quartile (age > 63 years) were less likely to share materials compared to those in the youngest quartile (age ≤ 44 years, OR 0.58, CI 0.37–0.90, p=0.02). Among the 308 participants who did not share their materials, time constraints was the most commonly cited barrier for not sharing. Conclusions VSI materials represent a strategy for secondary dissemination of CPR training, yet older individuals have a lower likelihood of sharing relative to younger individuals. Further work is warranted to remedy perceived barriers to CPR dissemination among the lay public using VSI approaches. PMID:26776900

  4. Improving workplace safety training using a self-directed CPR-AED learning program. (United States)

    Mancini, Mary E; Cazzell, Mary; Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Cason, Carolyn L


    Adequate training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) is an important component of a workplace safety training program. Barriers to traditional in-classroom CPR-AED training programs include time away from work to complete training, logistics, learner discomfort over being in a classroom setting, and instructors who include information irrelevant to CPR. This study evaluated differences in CPR skills performance between employees who learned CPR using a self-directed learning (SDL) kit and employees who attended a traditional instructor-led course. The results suggest that the SDL kit yields learning outcomes comparable to those obtained with traditional instructor-led courses and is a more time-efficient tool for CPR-AED training. Furthermore, the SDL kit overcomes many of the barriers that keep individuals from learning CPR and appears to contribute to bystanders' confidently attempting resuscitation.

  5. Optimal control of CPR procedure using hemodynamic circulation model (United States)

    Lenhart, Suzanne M.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Jung, Eunok


    A method for determining a chest pressure profile for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes the steps of representing a hemodynamic circulation model based on a plurality of difference equations for a patient, applying an optimal control (OC) algorithm to the circulation model, and determining a chest pressure profile. The chest pressure profile defines a timing pattern of externally applied pressure to a chest of the patient to maximize blood flow through the patient. A CPR device includes a chest compressor, a controller communicably connected to the chest compressor, and a computer communicably connected to the controller. The computer determines the chest pressure profile by applying an OC algorithm to a hemodynamic circulation model based on the plurality of difference equations.

  6. Performing CPR on a commercial diver inside the diving bell. (United States)

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Verma, Rohit; Ghosh, Dipak Kumar


    CPR in a diving bell is difficult. It is taught by diving companies and training institutes but has not been subjected to the tenets of evidence based medicine. The diving bell lacks space as well as a flat hard surface to lay the patient on and therefore conventional methods of administering CPR are not possible. The diver is hung from a pulley tied to the diver's harness, and the bell flooded with water to reduce pooling of blood. Airway is established using a cervical collar to hyperextend the neck and inserting an appropriate oropharyngeal airway. Cardiac compressions are administered by the bellman using his head or the knee while holding the patient with his arms from behind. The bell can be recovered to surface only when spontaneous breathing and circulation have started. Diving bell offers a unique environment for management of unconscious casualties. Even though the method is at variance with the conventional method of administering CPR, it is the only method possible inside the bell. It is important that the method be scrutinized and refined so as to be more effective and efficacious inside the bell.

  7. A hemodynamic-directed approach to pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (HD-CPR) improves survival. (United States)

    Morgan, Ryan W; Kilbaugh, Todd J; Shoap, Wesley; Bratinov, George; Lin, Yuxi; Hsieh, Ting-Chang; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A; Sutton, Robert M


    Most pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) occur in ICUs where invasive hemodynamic monitoring is frequently available. Titrating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to the hemodynamic response of the individual improves survival in preclinical models of adult cardiac arrest. The objective of this study was to determine if titrating CPR to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CoPP) in a pediatric porcine model of asphyxia-associated ventricular fibrillation (VF) IHCA would improve survival as compared to traditional CPR. After 7min of asphyxia followed by VF, 4-week-old piglets received either hemodynamic-directed CPR (HD-CPR; compression depth titrated to SBP of 90mmHg and vasopressor administration to maintain CoPP ≥20mmHg); or Standard Care (compression depth 1/3 of the anterior-posterior chest diameter and epinephrine every 4min). All animals received CPR for 10min prior to the first defibrillation attempt. CPR was continued for a maximum of 20min. Protocolized intensive care was provided to all surviving animals for 4h. The primary outcome was 4-h survival. Survival rate was greater with HD-CPR (12/12) than Standard Care (6/10; p=0.03). CoPP during HD-CPR was higher compared to Standard Care (point estimate +8.1mmHg, CI95: 0.5-15.8mmHg; p=0.04). Chest compression depth was lower with HD-CPR than Standard Care (point estimate -14.0mm, CI95: -9.6 to -18.4mm; pCPR vs. Standard Care (median 5 vs. 2; pCPR improves short-term survival compared to standard depth-targeted CPR in a porcine model of pediatric asphyxia-associated VF IHCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Homogeneous Solution for SW Lacertae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjoo Kim


    Full Text Available We have analyzed collected photoelectric light curves for light variations of SW Lac. The method of Fourier analysis was adopted to quantify the light variation from season to season. We found the linear relation between the Fourier coefficient, B1 and the magnitude difference between two maxima. The total light of the system has been decreased as much as 0m.04 during approximately 20 years time interval. Photoelectric parameters including spot parameters for all light curves were obtained by the method of the Wilson and Devinney differential correction in order to secure the variations of parameters from season to season. SW Lac, not like RS CVn type stars, required to adjust all parameters as well as spot parameters for a reasonable fit to the observations of each epoch. A surface temperature of cooler star is one of the most sensitive parameters to affect a shape of light curve of SW Lac. We conclude that the shape of light curve of SW Lac varies even during one season as well as season to season. The light curve is mainly caused by inhomogeneous surface temperature due to strong chromospheric activity of the system.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators to Learning and Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Neighborhoods with Low Bystander CPR Prevalence and High Rates of Cardiac Arrest in Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Bond, Cindy; Rabe, Marilyn; Colbert, Susan H.; King, Renee; Sayre, Michael; Heisler, Michele


    Background Residents who live in neighborhoods that are primarily African-American, Latino, or poor are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and less likely to survive. No prior studies have been conducted to understand the contributing factors that may decrease the likelihood of residents learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR in three low-income, “high-risk” predominantly African American, neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio. Methods and Results Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches were used to develop and conduct six focus groups in conjunction with community partners in three target high-risk neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio in January-February 2011. Snowball and purposeful sampling, done by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Three reviewers analyzed the data in an iterative process to identify recurrent and unifying themes. Three major barriers to learning CPR were identified and included financial, informational, and motivational factors. Four major barriers were identified for performing CPR and included fear of legal consequences, emotional issues, knowledge, and situational concerns. Participants suggested that family/self-preservation, emotional, and economic factors may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Conclusion The financial cost of CPR training, lack of information, and the fear of risking one's own life must be addressed when designing a community-based CPR educational program. Using data from the community can facilitate improved design and implementation of CPR programs. PMID:24021699

  10. [CPR--guidelines 2000. New international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation]. (United States)

    Gervais, H W


    The "Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. An International Consensus an Science" are the first true international CPR guidelines in the history of resuscitation medicine. Experts from major international resuscitation organizations (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, ILCOR) achieved a consensus of recommendations which had to pass a rigorous review procedure applying the tools of evidence-based medicine: all proposed guidelines or guideline changes had to be based on critically appraised pieces of evidence which had to be integrated into a final class of recommendations. The most important changes compared to previous recommendations from either the European Resuscitation Council or the American Heart Association are presented and commented upon.

  11. How best to teach CPR to schoolchildren: a systematic review. (United States)

    Plant, Nina; Taylor, Katherine


    Training schoolchildren to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one possible method of increasing bystander CPR rates. We reviewed available literature to identify what methods of training children have been successful. This review sought to evaluate evidence addressing the following PICO question: (P) In schoolchildren, (I) what types of CPR, AED and first aid training (C) when compared to no training and to each other (O) lead to ability to perform life saving measures? Searches were conducted in Ovid MEDLINE (1946 - August 2012), Ovid EMBASE (1974 - August 2012) and Ebscohost Cinahl (1981 - August 2012). Database specific subject headings in all three databases (MeSH in MEDLINE, Emtree in EMBASE, Cinahl Headings) were selected for the concepts of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and education. The combined results were then limited by age to include all school aged children. The search yielded 2620 articles. From titles, abstract and key words, 208 articles described CPR, AED and/or first aid training in schoolchildren and were eligible for review. These were obtained in full, were unavailable or not published in English. We reviewed articles for publication type and relevance. 48 studies were identified. One additional study was included as an extension of a study retrieved within the search. The studies found by the search were heterogeneous for study and training methodology. Findings regarding schoolchild age and physical factors, the role of practical training, use of self-instruction kits, use of computer based learning, reduced training time, trainer type, AED training are presented. Evidence shows that cardiopulmonary training, delivered in various ways, is successful in a wide age range of children. While older children perform more successfully on testing, younger children are able to perform basic tasks well, including use of AEDs. Chest compression depth correlates with physical factors such as increasing weight, BMI and height. Instruction

  12. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... by factors like grazing and human disturbance; II. which climatic factors control shrub growth in SW Greenland and whether these have improved sufficiently over the past century to allow shrub expansion; III. whether growth of A. viridis is promoted by experimental warming; IV. and whether plant genotypes...

  13. An analytical framework for common-pool resource–large technical system (CPR-LTS constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Blomkvist


    Full Text Available This paper introduces an analytical framework for a special phenomenon: when a common-pool resource (CPR institution and a large technical system (LTS are connected and mutually interdependent. The CPR in this case is a node managed by its appropriators within a centrally planned and managed system; here named CPR-LTS constellations. Our framework is empirically derived from two historical investigations of CPR institutions within two LTSs, the agricultural-technical system and the road transport system of Sweden. By comparing similarities and differences it is possible to identify paths to successes and failures. To understand why one survived and the other disappeared we connect Elinor Ostrom’s theories about management of CPRs with Thomas P. Hughes’s theories about LTSs. We are proposing a framework that can bridge the gap between theories about management of CPRs and LTSs. By combining the two theories it should be possible to better understand how small-scale producers using bottom-up CPRs can be linked to top-down LTSs.We will argue that to fit within an LTS, a CPR needs alignment between different parts or components within the constellation/system and alignment with other systems and institutions in society. We propose three analytical levels to deal with the phenomenon of aligning a CPR project to an existing, large sociotechnical system:Local alignment (CPR: How are CPRs organized and managed at local sites?Sociotechnical alignment (CPR-LTS: How are CPRs connected to the sociotechnical system?Contextual alignment: How are CPR-LTS constellations aligned with neighboring institutions and systems in society?Our work indicates that for successful management of a CPR-LTS constellation it is important that the CPR be included in legislation and that government agencies support the CPR in alignment with the LTS. Legislators must recognize the CPR-part in the CPR-LTS constellation so that its institutional body is firmly established in

  14. Understanding and improving low bystander CPR rates: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Christian; Stiell, Ian G; Wells, George A


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial yet weak link in the chain of survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We sought to understand the determinants of bystander CPR and the factors associated with successful training. For this systematic review, we searched 11 electronic databases, 1 trial registry and 9 scientific websites. We performed hand searches and contacted 6 content experts. We reviewed without restriction all communications pertaining to who should learn CPR, what should be taught, when to repeat training, where to give CPR instructions and why people lack the motivation to learn and perform CPR. We used standardized forms to review papers for inclusion, quality and data extraction. We grouped publications by category and classified recommendations using a standardized classification system that was based on level of evidence. We reviewed 2409 articles and selected 411 for complete evaluation. We included 252 of the 411 papers in this systematic review. Differences in their study design precluded a meta-analysis. We classified 22 recommendations; those with the highest scores were 1) 9-1-1 dispatch- assisted CPR instructions, 2) teaching CPR to family members of cardiac patients, 3) Braslow's self-training video, 4) maximizing time spent using manikins and 5) teaching the concepts of ambiguity and diffusion of responsibility. Recommendations not supported by evidence include mass training events, pulse taking prior to CPR by laymen and CPR using chest compressions alone. We evaluated and classified the potential impact of interventions that have been proposed to improve bystander CPR rates. Our results may help communities design interventions to improve their bystander CPR rates.

  15. Application of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Writing Assignments to Enhance Experiments with an Environmental Chemistry Focus (United States)

    Margerum, Lawrence D.; Gulsrud, Maren; Manlapez, Ronald; Rebong, Rachelle; Love, Austin


    The browser-based software program, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) developed by the Molecular Science Project enables instructors to create structured writing assignments in which students learn by writing and reading for content. Though the CPR project covers only one experiment in general chemistry, it might provide lab instructors with a method…

  16. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications ...

  17. Manual and automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): a comparison of associated injury patterns. (United States)

    Pinto, Deborrah C; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Love, Jennifer C


    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare patterns of trauma associated with AutoPulse(®) CPR and manual CPR. Finalized autopsy records from 175 decedents brought to the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences were reviewed, 87 received manual-only CPR, and 88 received AutoPulse(®) CPR (in combination with manual CPR as per standard protocol). The characteristic pattern observed in manual-only CPR use included a high frequency of anterior rib fractures, sternal fractures, and midline chest abrasions along the sternum. The characteristic pattern observed in AutoPulse(®) CPR use included a high frequency of posterior rib fractures, skin abrasions located along the anterolateral chest and shoulder, vertebral fractures, and a few cases of visceral injuries including liver lacerations, splenic lacerations, and hemoperitoneum. Knowledge of the AutoPulse(®) CPR injury pattern can help forensic pathologists differentiate therapeutic from inflicted injuries and therefore avoid an erroneous assessment of cause and manner of death. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Comparison of two training programmes on paramedic-delivered CPR performance. (United States)

    Govender, Kevin; Sliwa, Karen; Wallis, Lee; Pillay, Yugan


    To compare CPR performance in two groups of paramedics who received CPR training from two different CPR training programmes. Conducted in June 2014 at the Hamad Medical Corporation Ambulance Service, the national ambulance service of the State of Qatar, the CPR performances of 149 new paramedic recruits were evaluated after they had received training from either a traditional CPR programme or a tailored CPR programme. Both programmes taught the same content but differed in the way in which this content was delivered to learners. Exclusive to the tailored programme was mandatory precourse work, continuous assessments, a locally developed CPR instructional video and pedagogical activities tailored to the background education and learner style preferences of paramedics. At the end of each respective training programme, a single examiner who was blinded to the type of training paramedics had received, rated them as competent or non-competent on basic life support skills, condition specific skills, specific overall skills and non-technical skills during a simulated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) assessment. Paramedics who received CPR training with the tailored programme were rated competent 70.9% of the time, compared with paramedics who attended the traditional programme and who achieved this rating 7.9% of the time (pservices/rights-and-licensing/

  19. An Analysis of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) in a Science Lecture Classroom (United States)

    Walvoord, Mark E.; Hoefnagels, Marielle H.; Gaffin, Douglas D.; Chumchal, Matthew M.; Long, David A.


    Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is an online tool being used to integrate a writing component in classrooms. In an introductory zoology lecture class, the authors found that CPR-assigned scores were significantly higher than instructor-assigned scores on two of three essay assignments. They also found that neither students' technical-writing skills…

  20. Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Adelborg, Kasper; Dalgas, Christian

    Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study.......Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study....

  1. Report on the Southern Ocean Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR Standards Workshop 2016: SCAR SO-CPR Database Expert Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio T. Takahashi


    Full Text Available The“Southern Ocean Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR Survey Standards Workshop”was held at the Australian Antarctic Division on 12−16December 2016. The purposes of the workshop were to confirm that consistent and high standards of species identification, methodology, and data quality were being maintained amongst the main analysts in the SO-CPR Survey, and to discuss future training methods, including a SO-CPR manual that will include a counting rule book, and a future road map for the SO-CPR program. During the workshop we discussed a range of topics including: taxonomic resolution issues (particularly for Foraminifera and euphausiid larval identification and staging; laboratory methods (preservation and storage, with emphasis on maintaining correct pH; shipboard techniques; training methods; data handling (metadata, database, data sharing; gap analysis (spatial, temporal, data, quantitative; and future workshops/conferences, including comprehensive training workshops for emerging SO-CPR survey partners (India. We agreed that there should be a larger workshop every two years to ensure that the high standards of the SO-CPR program are maintained.

  2. CPR evolution of kilometer-scale craters on the lunar mare (United States)

    King, Isabel; Fassett, Caleb; Thomson, Bradley J.; Minton, David A.; Watters, Wesley A.


    This study analyzes the 12.6-cm radar signature of kilometer-scale craters using data from the Mini-RF instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. We examine the circular polarization ratio (CPR), which is sensitive to rockiness and surface roughness at the decimeter scale, to determine if there is a relationship between CPR signature and age for craters on the lunar mare. The craters come from an existing dataset of >13,000 craters ranging 800 m to 5 km in diameter that have previously determined degradation states based on their topography. The locations of craters in the original data set were manually co-registered to Mini-RF level 2 observations from the PDS, and for each crater, radial CPR profiles were extracted. In total, there were 5,142 unique craters with Mini-RF observations; 914 craters had repeat measurements that were used to assess uncertainties in CPR profiles. To characterize the time evolution of CPR, the craters were analyzed by finding the median profiles for groups of craters sorted by age and diameter. The highest CPR values are found in the interiors of the craters, and for craters ≤2 km, the freshest craters have the highest CPR values. In the ejecta, fresh craters exhibit the highest CPR, and this decreases with time until an equilibrium is reached. As expected from theory, larger craters' profiles evolve less quickly, with only minor changes in CPR inside their rim and a slower decrease of CPR in their ejecta. In conjunction with other datasets like topography, optical maturity, and rockiness, these data are important for constraining models of regolith evolution and crater degradation on the Moon.

  3. Reducing dissolution of MnO2 nanofibers by doping with ferric ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Chen et al


    Full Text Available MnO2 nanofiber was found to possess high adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions such as, arsenic and lead, in water due to its high specific surface area (SSA and high surface activity. However, a significant amount of manganese was found to leach from MnO2 nanofibers. Reducing MnO2 dissolution is very important for improving its applications in drinking water treatment. In this study, MnO2 nanofiber was doped with Fe3+ to reduce its dissolution in water. Dissolution tests were conducted on un-doped and Fe-doped MnO2 nanofibers. The results revealed that doping with Fe3+ significantly reduced MnO2 dissolution. SSA and defects of MnO2 materials were analyzed by BET and XRD methods. The effects of Fe3+ on MnO2 dissolution were discussed and the optimal dopant amount was identified.

  4. Motivation and adult learning: a survey among hospital personnel attending a CPR course. (United States)

    Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter


    A massive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training programme is continued in most hospitals to make hospital personnel ready to take action in cases of cardiac arrest. Motivated course participants learn more and perform better than unmotivated course participants. This study investigates whether hospital personnel are motivated to participate in CPR courses and whether motivation correlates with important assumptions in adult learning. A survey measuring learning motivation via the MSLQ instrument was performed among 361 hospital personnel before attending a CPR course. Assumptions of adult learning were identified and data were analysed in relation to these assumptions. Hospital personnel are generally motivated for learning CPR. Respondents who had been prepared for the course, who had participated in the decision about attending the course, who were working in high-risk area for cardiac arrest or were nursing personnel working in long-time close contact with patients were more motivated to CPR training than other hospital personnel. It seems like motivation correlates with adult learning assumptions such as the learners need to know, the learners self-concept, readiness to learn and orientation to learning. This study supports the assumption that CPR training should be based on an adult learning model. As preparedness, participation, readiness and relevance seem to be key factors, we may want to include these factors when training hospital personnel in CPR skills.

  5. Bystander-initiated CPR in an Asian metropolitan: Does the socioeconomic status matter?☆ (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chu; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Chang, Anna Marie; Chen, Wei-Ting; Liu, Sot Shih-Hung; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Shey-Ying; Lin, Chien-Hao; Cheng, Ming-Tai; Chong, Kah-Meng; Wang, Hui-Chih; Yang, Chih-Wei; Liao, Mao-Wei; Wang, Chen-Hsiung; Chien, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chi-Hung; Liu, Yueh-Ping; Lee, Bin-Chou; Chien, Kuo-Long; Lai, Mei-Shu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming


    Objectives To determine the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and patient outcomes of out of hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in an Asian metropolitan area. Methods We performed a retrospective study in a prospectively collected cohort from the Utstein registry of adult non-traumatic OHCAs in Taipei, Taiwan. Average real estate value was assessed as the first proxy of SES. Twelve administrative districts in Taipei City were categorized into low versus high SES areas to test the association. The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR, and the secondary outcome was patient survival status. Factors associated with bystander-initiated CPR were adjusted for in multivariate analysis. The mean household income was assessed as the second proxy of SES to validate the association. Results From January 1, 2008 to December 30, 2009, 3573 OHCAs received prehospital resuscitation in the community. Among these, 617 (17.3%) cases received bystander CPR. The proportion of bystander CPR in low-SES vs. high-SES areas was 14.5% vs. 19.6% (p CPR in low-SES areas was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: [0.60–0.88]) after adjusting for age, gender, witnessed status, public collapse, and OHCA unrecognized by the online dispatcher. Survival to discharge rate was significantly lower in low-SES areas vs. high-SES areas (4.3% vs. 6.8%; p CPR, and demonstrated worse survival outcomes. PMID:24056397

  6. Implementing Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) in a Large-lecture Science Course (United States)

    Ward, A. S.; Bettis, E. A., III; Russell, J. E.; Van Horne, S.; Sipola, M.; Rocheford, M. K.; Colombo, M. R.


    Assessing writing assignments and providing students the opportunity to meaningfully revise the assignments are challenging for instructors of large enrollment science classes. We included two individual writing assignments and peer assessments as part of course assessment for a large Introduction to Environmental Science course. In order to facilitate the assessment, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR), a web-based application developed by UCLA that enables frequent writing assignments in any discipline and with any class size, was adopted. The CPR assignment process involved four steps: submitting a writing assignment, calibrating each student's review skills, reviewing peers' writing, and assessing one's own writing assignment (self-assessment). A rubric was provided to guide students through each writing assignment and the same rubric was used in calibration, review, and self-assessment scoring. Once the instructors uploaded the writing prompts, rubrics, sample writings and answer keys into the CPR system, the CPR software fully directed all student activity (writing assignment submission, calibrations, reviews, and self-assessment). Students were able to view their results within the CPR program, including their self-calibration scores, reviewing scores, peers' ratings and feedback, total earned scores, and self-assessment scores. Surveys independently administered at the conclusion of the CPR assignments indicated that sixty to seventy-five percent of the students perceived that CPR was helpful in their learning, improved their writing and evaluation skills, and that the process of reviewing other students' essays and their own essays was more helpful than the comments received from peers. These survey results are in agreement with the well-established educational research literature that shows the benefits of peer review and peer assessment to student learning. Our experience with CPR in a large enrollment science course indicates that thoughtful planning of the

  7. Brief compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation training video and simulation with homemade mannequin improves CPR skills. (United States)

    Wanner, Gregory K; Osborne, Arayel; Greene, Charlotte H


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has traditionally involved classroom-based courses or, more recently, home-based video self-instruction. These methods typically require preparation and purchase fee; which can dissuade many potential bystanders from receiving training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching compression-only CPR to previously untrained individuals using our 6-min online CPR training video and skills practice on a homemade mannequin, reproduced by viewers with commonly available items (towel, toilet paper roll, t-shirt). Participants viewed the training video and practiced with the homemade mannequin. This was a parallel-design study with pre and post training evaluations of CPR skills (compression rate, depth, hand position, release), and hands-off time (time without compressions). CPR skills were evaluated using a sensor-equipped mannequin and two blinded CPR experts observed testing of participants. Twenty-four participants were included: 12 never-trained and 12 currently certified in CPR. Comparing pre and post training, the never-trained group had improvements in average compression rate per minute (64.3 to 103.9, p = 0.006), compressions with correct hand position in 1 min (8.3 to 54.3, p = 0.002), and correct compression release in 1 min (21.2 to 76.3, p CPR-certified group had adequate pre and post-test compression rates (>100/min), but an improved number of compressions with correct release (53.5 to 94.7, p 50 mm) remained problematic in both groups. Comparisons made between groups indicated significant improvements in compression depth, hand position, and hands-off time in never-trained compared to CPR-certified participants. Inter-rater agreement values were also calculated between the CPR experts and sensor-equipped mannequin. A brief internet-based video coupled with skill practice on a homemade mannequin improved compression-only CPR skills, especially in the previously untrained

  8. Are Canadians more willing to provide chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)?-a nation-wide public survey. (United States)

    Cheskes, Lindsay; Morrison, Laurie J; Beaton, Dorcas; Parsons, Janet; Dainty, Katie N


    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the likelihood of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet it is performed in only 30% of cases. The 2010 guidelines promote chest-compression-only bystander CPR-a change intended to increase willingness to provide CPR. 1) To determine whether the Canadian general public is more willing to perform chest-compression-only CPR compared to traditional CPR; 2) to characterize public knowledge of OHCA; and 3) to identify barriers and facilitators to bystander CPR. A 32-item survey assessing resuscitation knowledge, and willingness to provide CPR were disseminated in five Canadian regions. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize response distribution. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess shifts in intention to provide CPR. A total of 428 completed surveys were analysed. When presented with a scenario of being a bystander in an OHCA, a greater proportion of respondents were willing to provide chest-compression-only CPR compared to traditional CPR for all victims (61.5% v. 39.7%, pCPR, but this was mediated by victim characteristics, skill confidence, and recognition of a cardiac arrest.

  9. Arabidopsis CPR5 independently regulates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development through LOX pathway and ABA signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Gao

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA and the lipoxygenases (LOXs pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downstream of the ABI1 in the ABA signaling pathway. However, the cpr5 mutant showed an ABA independent drought-resistant phenotype. It was also found that the cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to NDGA and NDGA treatment aggravated the ABA-induced delay in the seed germination and cotyledon greening. Taken together, these results suggest that the CPR5 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth through ABA and LOX pathways independently.

  10. Manual vs. integrated automatic load-distributing band CPR with equal survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. The randomized CIRC trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wik, L.; Olsen, J.A.; Persse, D.; Sterz, F.; Lozano Jr, M.; Brouwer, M.A.; Westfall, M.; Souders, C.M.; Malzer, R.; Grunsven, P.M. van; Travis, D.T.; Whitehead, A.; Herken, U.R.; Lerner, E.B.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare integrated automated load distributing band CPR (iA-CPR) with high-quality manual CPR (M-CPR) to determine equivalence, superiority, or inferiority in survival to hospital discharge. METHODS: Between March 5, 2009 and January 11, 2011 a randomized, unblinded, controlled group

  11. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    , and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... including only undisturbed sites. Shrub cover increased most on E and SE facing slopes, in sites with stable substrate, in areas characterised by human disturbance and in areas without muskoxen grazing. Aspect and human disturbances had the strongest effect on shrub expansion, followed by muskoxen...... locations. A. viridis represents an interesting case to study these effects. SW Greenland is a subarctic to low-arctic region with only limited increases in temperatures during the past decades, and observed climate trends being largely dependent on the observation period. In this region there is limited...

  12. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette


    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC...... and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPRprior. RESULTS: The study...... included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPRprior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPRduring group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPRprior...

  13. Reliability of spatial and temporal patterns of C. finmarchicus inferred from the CPR survey (United States)

    Hélaouët, Pierre; Beaugrand, Grégory; Reygondeau, Gabriel


    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey has collected plankton since 1958 in the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent seas. Among all species recorded by the CPR, Calanus finmarchicus has probably been the most investigated species because of its ecological importance for the temperate and subpolar regions of the North Atlantic Ocean. However, abundances of C. finmarchicus assessed from the CPR survey have been rarely compared to more traditional sampling methodologies. In this study, we examine and compare spatial (surface and vertical) and temporal (diel and seasonal) patterns in the abundance of C. finmarchicus with another sampling technique in the gulf of Maine. Our results provide evidence that the CPR survey not only gives internally consistent time series of C. finmarchicus, but also an accurate representation of both spatial (surface and vertical) and temporal (diel and seasonal) patterns.

  14. An analytical framework for common-pool resource–large technical system (CPR-LTS) constellations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomkvist, Pär; Larsson, Jesper


    ...) institution and a large technical system (LTS) are connected and mutually interdependent. The CPR in this case is a node managed by its appropriators within a centrally planned and managed system...

  15. An analytical framework for common-pool resource-large technical system (CPR-LTS) constellations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomkvist, Pär; Larsson, Jesper


    ...) institution and a large technical system (LTS) are connected and mutually interdependent. The CPR in this case is a node managed by its appropriators within a centrally planned and managed system...

  16. Interactions in Ternary Mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and the Impact on MnO2 Oxidative Reactivity. (United States)

    Taujale, Saru; Baratta, Laura R; Huang, Jianzhi; Zhang, Huichun


    Our previous work reported that Al2O3 inhibited the oxidative reactivity of MnO2 through heteroaggregation between oxide particles and surface complexation of the dissolved Al ions with MnO2 (S. Taujale and H. Zhang, "Impact of interactions between metal oxides to oxidative reactivity of manganese dioxide" Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 2764-2771). The aim of the current work was to investigate interactions in ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and NOM and how the interactions affect MnO2 oxidative reactivity. For the effect of Al ions, we examined ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al ions, and NOM. Our results indicated that an increase in the amount of humic acids (HAs) increasingly inhibited Al adsorption by forming soluble Al-HA complexes. As a consequence, there was less inhibition on MnO2 reactivity than by the sum of two binary mixtures (MnO2+Al ions and MnO2+HA). Alginate or pyromellitic acid (PA)-two model NOM compounds-did not affect Al adsorption, but Al ions increased alginate/PA adsorption by MnO2. The latter effect led to more inhibition on MnO2 reactivity than the sum of the two binary mixtures. In ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and NOM, NOM inhibited dissolution of Al2O3. Zeta potential measurements, sedimentation experiments, TEM images, and modified DLVO calculations all indicated that HAs of up to 4 mg-C/L increased heteroaggregation between Al2O3 and MnO2, whereas higher amounts of HAs completely inhibited heteroaggregation. The effect of alginate is similar to that of HAs, although not as significant, while PA had negligible effects on heteroaggregation. Different from the effects of Al ions and NOMs on MnO2 reactivity, the MnO2 reactivity in ternary mixtures of Al2O3, MnO2, and NOM was mostly enhanced. This suggests MnO2 reactivity was mainly affected through heteroaggregation in the ternary mixtures because of the limited availability of Al ions.

  17. The Price of a Helping Hand: Modeling the Outcomes and Costs of Bystander CPR. (United States)

    Bouland, Andrew J; Risko, Nicholas; Lawner, Benjamin J; Seaman, Kevin G; Godar, Cassandra M; Levy, Matthew J


    Early, high-quality, minimally interrupted bystander cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) is essential for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. However, rates of bystander intervention remain low in many geographic areas. Community CPR programs have been initiated to combat these low numbers by teaching compression-only CPR to laypersons. This study examined bystander CPR and the cost-effectiveness of a countywide CPR program to improve out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. A 2-year retrospective review of emergency medical services (EMS) run reports for adult nontraumatic cardiac arrests was performed using existing prehospital EMS quality assurance data. The incidence and success of bystander CPR to produce prehospital return of spontaneous circulation and favorable neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge were analyzed. The outcomes were paired with cost data for the jurisdiction's community CPR program to develop a cost-effectiveness model. During the 23-month study period, a total of 371 nontraumatic adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurred, with a 33.4% incidence of bystander CPR. Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis for the community CPR program demonstrated a total cost of $22,539 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). A significantly increased proportion of those who received BCPR also had an automated external defibrillator (AED) applied. There was no correlation between witnessed arrest and performance of BCPR. A significantly increased proportion of those who received BCPR were found to be in a shockable rhythm when the initial ECG was performed. In the home setting, the chances of receiving BCPR were significantly smaller, whereas in the public setting a nearly equal number of people received and did not receive BCPR. Witnessed arrest, AED application, public location, and shockable rhythm on initial ECG were all significantly associated with positive ROSC and neurologic outcomes. A home arrest was significantly associated with worse

  18. Rescuer fatigue under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and its effect on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine H; Heggie, James; Jones, Christopher M; Thorne, Christopher J; Hulme, Jonathan


    Updated life-support guidelines were published by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in 2010, increasing the required depth and rate of chest compression delivery. This study sought to determine the impact of these guidelines on rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. 62 Health science students performed 5 min of conventional CPR in accordance with the 2010 ERC guidelines. A SkillReporter manikin was used to objectively assess temporal change in determinants of CPR quality. Participants subjectively reported their end-fatigue levels, using a visual analogue scale, and the point at which they believed fatigue was affecting CPR delivery. 49 (79%) participants reported that fatigue affected their CPR performance, at an average of 167 s. End fatigue averaged 49.5/100 (range 0-95). The proportion of chest compressions delivered correctly decreased from 52% in min 1 to 39% in min 5, approaching significance (p=0.071). A significant decline in chest compressions reaching the recommended depth occurred between the first (53%) and fifth (38%) min (p=0.012). Almost half this decline (6%) was between the first and second minutes of CPR. Neither chest compression rate, nor rescue breath volume, were affected by rescuer fatigue. Fatigue affects chest compression delivery within the second minute of CPR under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and is poorly judged by rescuers. Rescuers should, therefore, be encouraged to interchange after 2 min of CPR delivery. Team leaders should be advised to not rely on rescuers to self-report fatigue, and should, instead, monitor for its effects.

  19. Knowledge Representation and Communication: Imparting Current State Information Flow to CPR Stakeholders


    de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Spiece, Leslie J.


    Understanding and communicating the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the clinics and services for which the computerized patient record (CPR) will be built is an integral part of the implementation process. Formal methodologies have been developed to diagram information flow -- flow charts, state-transition diagram (STDs), data flow diagrams (DFDs). For documentation of the processes at our ambulatory CPR pilot site, flowcharting was selected as the preferred method based upon its vers...

  20. Knowledge Representation and Communication: Imparting Current State Information Flow to CPR Stakeholders (United States)

    de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Spiece, Leslie J.


    Understanding and communicating the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the clinics and services for which the computerized patient record (CPR) will be built is an integral part of the implementation process. Formal methodologies have been developed to diagram information flow -- flow charts, state-transition diagram (STDs), data flow diagrams (DFDs). For documentation of the processes at our ambulatory CPR pilot site, flowcharting was selected as the preferred method based upon its versatility and understandability.

  1. Effect of mobile application-based versus DVD-based CPR training on students’ practical CPR skills and willingness to act: a cluster randomised study (United States)

    Nord, Anette; Svensson, Leif; Hult, Håkan; Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Lennart


    Objectives The aim was to compare students’ practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and willingness to perform bystander CPR, after a 30 min mobile application (app)-based versus a 50 min DVD-based training. Settings Seventh grade students in two Swedish municipalities. Design A cluster randomised trial. The classes were randomised to receive app-based or DVD-based training. Willingness to act and practical CPR skills were assessed, directly after training and at 6 months, by using a questionnaire and a PC Skill Reporting System. Data on CPR skills were registered in a modified version of the Cardiff test, where scores were given in 12 different categories, adding up to a total score of 12–48 points. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014. Participants 63 classes or 1232 seventh grade students (13-year-old) were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary end point was the total score of the modified Cardiff test. The individual variables of the test and self-reported willingness to make a life-saving intervention were secondary end points. Results The DVD-based group was superior to the app-based group in CPR skills; a total score of 36 (33–38) vs 33 (30–36) directly after training (p<0.001) and 33 (30–36) and 31 (28–34) at 6 months (p<0.001), respectively. At 6 months, the DVD group performed significantly better in 8 out of 12 CPR skill components. Both groups improved compression depth from baseline to follow-up. If a friend suffered cardiac arrest, 78% (DVD) versus 75% (app) would do compressions and ventilations, whereas only 31% (DVD) versus 32% (app) would perform standard CPR if the victim was a stranger. Conclusions At 6 months follow-up, the 50 min DVD-based group showed superior CPR skills compared with the 30 min app-based group. The groups did not differ in regard to willingness to make a life-saving effort. PMID:27130166

  2. Effect of mobile application-based versus DVD-based CPR training on students' practical CPR skills and willingness to act: a cluster randomised study. (United States)

    Nord, Anette; Svensson, Leif; Hult, Håkan; Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Lennart


    The aim was to compare students' practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and willingness to perform bystander CPR, after a 30 min mobile application (app)-based versus a 50 min DVD-based training. Seventh grade students in two Swedish municipalities. A cluster randomised trial. The classes were randomised to receive app-based or DVD-based training. Willingness to act and practical CPR skills were assessed, directly after training and at 6 months, by using a questionnaire and a PC Skill Reporting System. Data on CPR skills were registered in a modified version of the Cardiff test, where scores were given in 12 different categories, adding up to a total score of 12-48 points. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014. 63 classes or 1232 seventh grade students (13-year-old) were included in the study. Primary end point was the total score of the modified Cardiff test. The individual variables of the test and self-reported willingness to make a life-saving intervention were secondary end points. The DVD-based group was superior to the app-based group in CPR skills; a total score of 36 (33-38) vs 33 (30-36) directly after training (p<0.001) and 33 (30-36) and 31 (28-34) at 6 months (p<0.001), respectively. At 6 months, the DVD group performed significantly better in 8 out of 12 CPR skill components. Both groups improved compression depth from baseline to follow-up. If a friend suffered cardiac arrest, 78% (DVD) versus 75% (app) would do compressions and ventilations, whereas only 31% (DVD) versus 32% (app) would perform standard CPR if the victim was a stranger. At 6 months follow-up, the 50 min DVD-based group showed superior CPR skills compared with the 30 min app-based group. The groups did not differ in regard to willingness to make a life-saving effort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  3. Interaction of CPR5 with cell cycle regulators UVI4 and OSD1 in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Bao

    Full Text Available The impact of cell cycle on plant immunity was indicated by the enhancement of disease resistance with overexpressing OSD1 and UVI4 genes that are negative regulators of cell cycle controller APC (anaphase promoting complex. CPR5 is another gene that is implicated in cell cycle regulation and plant immunity, but its mode of action is not known. Here we report the analysis of genetic requirement for the function of UVI4 and OSD1 in cell cycle progression control and in particular the involvement of CPR5 in this regulation. We show that the APC activator CCS52A1 partially mediates the function of OSD1 and UVI4 in female gametophyte development. We found that the cpr5 mutation suppresses the endoreduplication defect in the uvi4 single mutant and partially rescued the gametophyte development defect in the osd1 uvi4 double mutant while the uvi4 mutation enhances the cpr5 defects in trichome branching and plant disease resistance. In addition, cyclin B1 genes CYCB1;1, CYCB1;2, and CYCB1;4 are upregulated in cpr5. Therefore, CPR5 has a large role in cell cycle regulation and this role has a complex interaction with that of UVI4 and OSD1. This study further indicates an intrinsic link between plant defense responses and cell cycle progression.

  4. Disparities in Survival with Bystander CPR following Cardiopulmonary Arrest Based on Neighborhood Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Thakkar Rivera


    Full Text Available The American Heart Association reports the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests (OHCA is greater than 300,000 with a survival rate of 9.5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR saves one life for every 30, with a 10% decrease in survival associated with every minute of delay in CPR initiation. Bystander CPR and training vary widely by region. We conducted a retrospective study of 320 persons who suffered OHCA in South Florida over 25 months. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with increasing income (p=0.05, with a stronger disparity between low- and high-income neighborhoods (p=0.01 and p=0.03, resp.. Survival with bystander CPR was statistically greater in white- versus black-predominant neighborhoods (p=0.04. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with high- versus low-education neighborhoods (p=0.03. Neighborhoods with more high school age persons displayed the lowest survival. We discovered a significant disparity in OHCA survival within neighborhoods of low-income, black-predominance, and low-education. Reduced survival was seen in neighborhoods with larger populations of high school students. This group is a potential target for training, and instruction can conceivably change survival outcomes in these neighborhoods, closing the gap, thus improving survival for all.

  5. Successful Prolonged Mechanical CPR in a Severely Poisoned Hypothermic Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Piacentini


    Full Text Available Mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (m-CPR devices are an alternative to manual CPR, but their efficacy has been subject to debate. We present a case of a patient with full-neurologic recovery after prolonged m-CPR. The patient presented with severe hypothermia (internal temperature 24°C and poisoning (sedatives/hypnotics. Hepatic perfusion and metabolism are considered keys to restore spontaneous circulation. During this period no problems related to the device or patient positioning were encountered. Delivery of high-quality CPR and prolonged resuscitation were achieved. We confirm that ventilations asynchronous with chest compressions can be a problem. Reduction in chest measurements can hamper lung ventilation. A synchronous mode of manual ventilation (30 : 2 seems to be the best solution. The patient had an initial period of manual CPR. No damage to any organ or structure was noted. This case is of further interest because our EMS helicopters can fly 24 hours a day and m-CPR devices could play an important role as a “bridge” in patients when active rewarming by cardiopulmonary bypass is indicated (CPB.

  6. Even Four Minutes of Poor Quality of CPR Compromises Outcome in a Porcine Model of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest (United States)

    Li, Heng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhengfei; Huang, Zitong; Chen, Bihua; Li, Yongqin; Yu, Tao


    Objective. Untrained bystanders usually delivered suboptimal chest compression to victims who suffered from cardiac arrest in out-of-hospital settings. We therefore investigated the hemodynamics and resuscitation outcome of initial suboptimal quality of chest compressions compared to the optimal ones in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Methods. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs weighted 30 ± 2 kg were randomized into good and poor cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) groups. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and untreated for 6 mins. In good CPR group, animals received high quality manual chest compressions according to the Guidelines (25% of animal's anterior-posterior thoracic diameter) during first two minutes of CPR compared with poor (70% of the optimal depth) compressions. After that, a 120-J biphasic shock was delivered. If the animal did not acquire return of spontaneous circulation, another 2 mins of CPR and shock followed. Four minutes later, both groups received optimal CPR until total 10 mins of CPR has been finished. Results. All seven animals in good CPR group were resuscitated compared with only two in poor CPR group (P CPR group. Conclusions. In a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest, even four minutes of initial poor quality of CPR compromises the hemodynamics and survival outcome. PMID:24364028

  7. CPR sampling: the technical background, materials and methods, consistency and comparability [review article (United States)

    Batten, S. D.; Clark, R.; Flinkman, J.; Hays, G.; John, E.; John, A. W. G.; Jonas, T.; Lindley, J. A.; Stevens, D. P.; Walne, A.


    The Continuous Plankton Recorder has been deployed for 70 years. Although modifications to the machine have been relatively minor, there has been a steady increase in the speed at which it is towed, creating a need to quantify what effects this may have had on its sampling characteristics. Additionally, because the CPR database is one of the longest and most geographically extensive biological time series in the world, and scientists are currently focusing on gaining understanding about climate-induced ecological changes, there is increasing pressure to quantify the sampling performance and relate the CPR data to data collected by other plankton samplers. Many of these issues of consistency and comparability have been investigated throughout the decades of the CPR survey. The primary aim of this study is to draw together the results of those investigations, updating or integrating them where applicable. A secondary aim is to use the CPR database to address other previously unexamined issues. We show that the increase in speed of tow has had no effect on the depth of sampling and the mechanical efficiency of the internal mechanism, but that at the highest tow speeds there is some evidence that flow may be reduced. Depth of tow may also be dependent on the ship operating a particular route. We describe the processing procedures used to ensure consistency of analysis and detail the changes in taxonomic resolution that have occurred through the course of the survey. Some consistency issues remain unresolved, such as the effects of adding heavy instrumentation to the attitude of the CPR in the water and possible effects on sampling performance. The reduction of flow caused by clogging of the filtering mesh has now been quantified through the addition of flowmeters and each CPR sample can now be calibrated for measured, or derived, filtered volume. Although estimates of abundances for large areas have been shown to be unaffected by recalibration, absolute quantification

  8. Hazardous Waste Test Methods / SW-846 (United States)

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) provide guidance to analytical scientists, enforcement officers and method developers across a variety of sectors.

  9. Laboratory Characterization of Solid Grade SW Brick

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Erin M; Akers, Stephen A; Reed, Paul A


    Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of solid Grade SW brick...

  10. Production of a highly active, soluble form of the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR A) from Candida tropicalis (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark


    The present invention provides soluble cytochrome p450 reductase (CPR) proteins from Candida sp. having an altered N-terminal region which results in reduced hydrophobicity of the N-terminal region. Also provided are host cells comprising the subject soluble CPR proteins. In addition, the present invention provides nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences for soluble CPR proteins and vectors comprising the nucleotide sequences. Methods for producing a soluble CPR, for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid, and for detecting a cytochrome P450 are also provided.

  11. Modified structural characteristics and enhanced electrochemical properties of oxygen-deficient Li2MnO3-δ obtained from pristine Li2MnO3 (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Liu, Rui; Xie, Congxin; Shen, Qiang


    Lithium-rich manganese(IV) oxide Li2MnO3 has hardly any activity as the cathode active substance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) but its reversible capacity can be greatly improved by introducing oxygen deficiencies. After the solid-state heat treatment of nanocrystalline Li2MnO3 by sodium borohydride (NaBH4), the resulting Li2MnO3-δ crystallites comparatively acquire distinguishable appearances in color and shape and slight differences in surface composition and lattice structure. As a LIB cathode within the potential range of 2.5-4.7 V, at 20 mA g-1 pristine Li2MnO3 gives the specific discharge capacities of 3.3, 5.0 and 7.4 mAh·g-1 in the 1st, 10th and 100th cycles, while the derivative Li2MnO3-δ delivers the relatively high values of 64.8, 103.8 and 140.2 mAh·g-1 in the 1st, 10th and 120th cycles, respectively. Aside from the similar phenomenon of gradual electrochemical activation, substituting Li2MnO3-δ for Li2MnO3 means the great enhancements of charge-transfer ability and electrochemical performances. Especially, the cationic-anionic redox mechanisms of Li2MnO3 and Li2MnO3-δ are similar to each other, suggesting a possible solution to prepare high-performance xLi2MnO3-δ·(1-x)LiMO2 solid solutions for application purposes.

  12. Design of the RINSE trial: the rapid infusion of cold normal saline by paramedics during CPR. (United States)

    Deasy, Conor; Bernard, Stephen; Cameron, Peter; Jacobs, Ian; Smith, Karen; Hein, Cindy; Grantham, Hugh; Finn, Judith


    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH) (33 °C for 12-24 hours) as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres) ice-cold (4 °C) normal saline.The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors. This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. NCT01172678.

  13. ROSC rates and live discharge rates after cardiopulmonary resuscitation by different CPR teams - a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Park, Young Mi; Do, Sang-Hwan; Hwang, Jung-Won; Song, In-Ae


    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is closely associated with patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare patient CPR outcomes across resident, emergency medicine, and rapid response teams. The records of patients who underwent CPR at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Return of spontaneous circulation, 10- and 30-day survival, and live discharge after return of spontaneous circulation were compared across patients treated by the three CPR teams. Of the 1145 CPR cases, 444 (39%) were conducted by the resident team, 431 (38%) by the rapid response team, and 270 (23%) by the emergency medicine team. The adjusted odds ratios for the return of spontaneous circulation and subsequent 10-day survival among patients who received CPR from the resident team compared to the rapid response team were 0.59 (P = 0.001) and 0.71 (P = 0.037), respectively. There were no significant differences in the 30-day survival and rate of live discharge between patients who received CPR from the rapid response and resident teams; likewise, no significant differences were observed between patients who received CPR from the emergency medicine and rapid response teams. Patients receiving CPR from the rapid response team may have higher 10-day survival and return of spontaneous circulation rates than those who receive CPR from the resident team. However, our results are limited by the differences in approach, time of CPR, and room settings between teams.

  14. A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of CPR-Associated Cardiovascular and Thoracic Injuries (United States)

    Miller, Andrew C.; Rosati, Shannon F.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Schrump, David S.


    OBJECTIVE The incidence of thoracic injuries resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not well characterized. We describe a case in which a CPR-associated atrial rupture was identified with ultrasound and successfully managed in the intensive care unit with a bedside thoracotomy and atrial repair. We then describe a systematic review with pooled data analysis of CPR-associated cardiovascular, pulmonary, pleural, and thoracic wall injuries. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant published studies. Unpublished studies were identified by searching the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane Library,, Current Controlled Trials, and Google. STUDY SELECTION Inclusion criteria for the pooled analysis were any clinical or autopsy study in which a) patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, b) chest compressions were administered either manually or with the assistance of active compression-decompression devices, and c) autopsy or dedicated imaging assessments were conducted to identify complications. Exclusion criteria for the pooled analysis were pre-clinical studies, case reports and abstracts. DATA EXTRACTION Nine-hundred twenty-eight potentially relevant references were identified. Twenty-seven references met inclusion criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS A systematic review of the literature is provided with pooled data analysis. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of reported CPR-associated cardiovascular and thoracic wall injuries varies widely. CPR with active compression-decompression devices has a higher reported incidence of cardiopulmonary injuries. Bedside ultrasound may be a useful adjunct to assess and risk-stratify patients to identify serious or life-threatening CPR-associated injuries. PMID:24525116

  15. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows. (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan


    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Use of a Criterion Performance Checklist to Improve Efficiency and Effectiveness in a CPR Self-Teaching Program. (United States)

    McSwain, Charlene; And Others


    Physicians need to be proficient in the administration of basic cardiac life support (BCLS) and emergency cardiac care (ECC). The introduction of a self-teaching CPR-ECC course for freshmen medical students at the University of Mississippi has greatly reduced the amount of faculty time needed to teach CPR. (Author/MLW)

  17. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation using a load-distributing band external cardiac support device for in-hospital cardiac arrest: a single centre experience of AutoPulse-CPR. (United States)

    Spiro, J R; White, S; Quinn, N; Gubran, C J; Ludman, P F; Townend, J N; Doshi, S N


    Poor quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) predicts adverse outcome. During invasive cardiac procedures automated-CPR (A-CPR) may help maintain effective resuscitation. The use of A-CPR following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) remains poorly described. Firstly, we aimed to assess the efficiency of healthcare staff using A-CPR in a cardiac arrest scenario at baseline, following re-training and over time (Scenario-based training). Secondly, we studied our clinical experience of A-CPR at our institution over a 2-year period, with particular emphasis on the details of invasive cardiac procedures performed, problems encountered, resuscitation rates and in-hospital outcome (AutoPulse-CPR Registry). Scenario-based training: Forty healthcare professionals were assessed. At baseline, time-to-position device was slow (mean 59 (±24) s (range 15-96s)), with the majority (57%) unable to mode-switch. Following re-training time-to-position reduced (28 (±9) s, p<0.01 vs baseline) with 95% able to mode-switch. This improvement was maintained over time. AutoPulse-CPR Registry: 285 patients suffered IHCA, 25 received A-CPR. Survival to hospital discharge following conventional CPR was 28/260 (11%) and 7/25 (28%) following A-CPR. A-CPR supported invasive procedures in 9 patients, 2 of whom had A-CPR dependant circulation during transfer to the catheter lab. A-CPR may provide excellent haemodynamic support and facilitate simultaneous invasive cardiac procedures. A significant learning curve exists when integrating A-CPR into clinical practice. Further studies are required to better define the role and effectiveness of A-CPR following IHCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lao.9MnO3 has been synthesized from lanthanum acetylacetonate, manganese acetylacetonate and urea by combustion method at 800oC. The analysis of the synthesized Lao.9MnO3 show it to be a semi-conducting nanopolycrystalline material having orthorhombic geometry with unit-cell parameters: a = 5.50335Ao; ...

  19. Electronic Structure of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Leuken, H. van; Groot, R.A. de; Rojo, T.; Barberis, G.E.


    Electronic structure calculations on La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 are reported. Calculations were performed with the Full Potential LAPW method within the Local Density Approximation (LDA) as well as the Generalised Gradient Approximation (GGA). The ferromagnetic phase of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 is half-metallic, which is

  20. Direct Synthesis of MnO2 Nanorods on Carbon Cloth as Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xi


    Full Text Available MnO2 nanorod/carbon cloth (MnO2/CC composites were prepared through in situ redox deposition as freestanding electrodes for flexible supercapacitors. The CC substrates possessing porous and interconnecting structures enable the uniform decoration of MnO2 nanorods on each fiber, thus forming conformal coaxial micro/nanocomposites. Three-dimensional CC can provide considerable specific surface area for high mass loading of MnO2, and the direct deposition process without using polymeric binders enables reliable electrical connection of MnO2 with CC. The effect of MnO2 decoration on the electrochemical performances was further investigated, indicating that the electrode prepared with 40 min deposition time shows high specific capacitance (220 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s and good cycling property (90% of the initial specific capacitance was maintained after 2500 cycles in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. This enhanced electrochemical performance is ascribed to the synergistic effect of good conductivity of carbon substrates as well as outstanding pseudocapacitance of MnO2 nanorods. The obtained MnO2/CC compositing electrode with the advantages of low cost and easy fabrication is promising in applications of flexible supercapacitors.

  1. Bacterial dissimilatory MnO2 reduction at extremely haloalkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Muyzer, G.


    A possibility of dissimilatory MnO2 reduction at extremely high salt and pH was studied in sediments from hypersaline alkaline lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia). Experiments with anaerobic sediment slurries demonstrated a relatively rapid reduction of colloidal MnO2 in the presence of acetate

  2. Role of MnO in manganese–borate binary glass systems: a study on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It slightly decreased with MnO content. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results provided the evidence for Mn 2 + and Mn 3 + presence. Multiplet splitting, close to that of MnO, has been observed. It has been concluded that most of the manganese ions existed in the divalent state. Photoluminescence study revealed that ...

  3. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G


    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  4. CPR in the Schools: Training Students to Save Heart Attack Victims. (United States)

    Britton, Royce J.


    A community cardiac emergency medical plan should include training of family and co-workers of high risk patients, including teenage students. The American Heart Association lists ways to introduce cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) into school curricula and describes the plan implemented in Pennsylvania. (MF)

  5. Classroom versus Computer-Based CPR Training: A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Instructional Methods (United States)

    Rehberg, Robb S.; Gazzillo Diaz, Linda; Middlemas, David A.


    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computer-based CPR training is comparable to traditional classroom training. Design and Setting: This study was quantitative in design. Data was gathered from a standardized examination and skill performance evaluation which yielded numerical scores. Subjects: The subjects were 64…

  6. Evaluation of a Brief Intervention Designed to Increase CPR Training among Pregnant Pool Owners (United States)

    Girasek, Deborah C.


    This study evaluated whether a brief videotape could motivate pregnant pool owners to be trained in infant/child cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Women were recruited from prenatal classes in South Florida. Eligible volunteers were randomized to view a video or receive standard treatment, after completing a questionnaire. The video explained…

  7. Does use of the CPREzy involve more work than CPR without feedback?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkom, P.F. van; Noordergraaf, G.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Noordergraaf, A.


    AIM: Feedback during CPR may facilitate quality in chest compressions, but has also been associated with caregiver complaints such as stiff wrists, the need for more force and increased fatigue. This concern about extra work is, when using the CPREzy with its own spring-loaded surface, particularly

  8. Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco


    Kalz, M. (2013, 23 September). Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support. Presentation given during the 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps and Internet/Web 2.0 in Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research, London, UK.

  9. Zooplankton Atlas of the Southern Ocean: The SCAR SO-CPR Survey (1991-2008) (United States)

    McLeod, David J.; Hosie, Graham W.; Kitchener, John A.; Takahashi, Kunio T.; Hunt, Brian P. V.


    The SCAR Southern Ocean Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR) Survey produces one of the largest and most accessed zooplankton data sets in the world. These data serve as a reference for other Southern Ocean monitoring programmes such as those run by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and the developing Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). It has been instrumental in providing baseline data on zooplankton composition, communities, and distribution patterns on the ocean basin scale. The SO-CPR Survey is publishing the first detailed geographical atlas of the near-surface Southern Ocean zooplankton. This atlas is based on 22,553 CPR samples collected from 1991 to 2008 from voyages operated by Australia, Japan, Germany, New Zealand, USA and Russia. The Atlas documents the distribution and abundance of the 50 most abundant zooplankton taxa amongst the 200+ taxa sampled. The maps are printed in alphabetical order of the genera within each taxon and nomenclature is based on the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) developed by the SCAR Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN). The SO-CPR Atlas will operate as a ready reference to researchers interested in the distribution of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean, for example knowing the distribution of grazers in relation to phytoplankton production or the availability of prey for higher predators.

  10. Training and Confidence Level of Junior Anaesthetists in CPR- Experience in A Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalu Ibironke


    There is low confidence among junior anaesthetists in Nigeria in performance of CPR, poor knowledge of ECG interpretation of cardiac arrest rhythm and little practice in defibrillation. The establishment of a Resuscitation council would ensure adequate and frequent training which would improve knowledge, boost confidence and result in better patient care.

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis and Reduction of MnO2 by Methane-Hydrogen Gas Mixture (United States)

    Liu, Bingbing; Zhang, Yuanbo; Su, Zijian; Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao


    Methane and hydrogen reduction has emerged as promising technology for clean and efficient metallurgy. To understand the reduction process of MnO2 by CH4-H2 gas mixture, the effects of various CH4/(CH4 + H2) molar ratios (0-1) and temperatures (1100°C-1250°C) on the reduction of pure MnO2 were researched. Characterization of the solid carbon derived from the decomposition of CH4 gas was also determined. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the MnO2 was first reduced to MnO by CH4-H2 gas mixture, and then MnO was reduced to Mn7C3 according to this reaction, 7MnO(s) + 10CH4(g) = Mn7C3(s) + 7CO(g) + 20H2(g). Experimental results showed that under the CH4/(CH4 + H2) molar ratio of 0.2, the reduction extent of MnO2 increased with the rising of temperatures. Nevertheless, the deep reduction of MnO to Mn7C3 was retarded even by increasing the temperature and prolonging the time, which was a result of the formation of deposited solid carbon. The free carbon contents in the reduced samples increased with the increasing of the CH4/(CH4 + H2) molar ratio and reduction time. The reduction of MnO2 and formation of carbon can be regulated by adjusting the CH4/(CH4 + H2) molar ratio in a gas mixture. For example, when MnO2 was reduced by 50 vol.%CH4-50%N2, large amounts of MnO and Mn7C3 particles were wrapped by the platelike and rodlike carbon with nanoscale. Yet, the wrapping phenomenon cannot be observed under 10 vol.%CH4-40 vol.%H2-50 vol.%N2.

  12. Sonochemical assisted synthesis MnO2/RGO nanohybrid as effective electrode material for supercapacitor. (United States)

    Ghasemi, Shahram; Hosseini, Sayed Reza; Boore-Talari, Omid


    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) needle-like nanostructures are successfully synthesized by a sonochemical method from an aqueous solution of potassium bromate and manganese sulfate. Also, hybride of MnO2 nanoparticles wrapped with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets are fabricated through an electrostatic coprecipitation procedure. With adjusting pH at 3.5, positive and negative charges are created on MnO2 and on GO, respectively which can electrostatically attract to each other and coprecipitate. Then, MnO2/GO pasted on stainless steel mesh is electrochemically reduced by applying -1.1V to obtain MnO2/RGO nanohybrid. The structure and morphology of the MnO2 and MnO2/RGO nanohybrid are examined by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The capacitive behaviors of MnO2 and MnO2/RGO active materials on stainless steel meshes are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by a three-electrode experimental setup in an aqueous solution of 0.5M sodium sulfate in the potential window of 0.0-1.0V. The electrochemical investigations reveal that MnO2/RGO exhibits high specific capacitance (Cs) of 375Fg(-1) at current density of 1Ag(-1) and good cycle stability (93% capacitance retention after 500 cycles at a scan rate of 200mVs(-1)). The obtained results give good prospect about the application of electrostatic coprecipitation method to prepare graphene/metal oxides nanohybrids as effective electrode materials for supercapacitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Progress Towards a Global Understanding of Plankton Dynamics: The Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS) (United States)

    Batten, S.; Richardson, A.; Melrose, C.; Muxagata, E.; Hosie, G.; Verheye, H.; Hall, J.; Edwards, M.; Koubbi, P.; Abu-Alhaija, R.; Chiba, S.; Wilson, W.; Nagappa, R.; Takahashi, K.


    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) was first used in 1931 to routinely sample plankton and its continued deployment now sustains the longest-running, and spatially most extensive marine biological sampling programme in the world. Towed behind, for the most part commercial, ships it collects plankton samples from the surface waters that are subsequently analysed to provide taxonomically-resolved abundance data on a broad range of planktonic organisms from the size of coccolithophores to euphausiids. Plankton appear to integrate changes in the physical environment and by underpinning most marine food-webs, pass on this variability to higher trophic levels which have societal value. CPRs are deployed increasingly around the globe in discrete regional surveys that until recently interacted in an informal way. In 2011 the Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS) was launched to bring these surveys together to collaborate more productively and address issues such as: methodological standardization, data integration, capacity building, and data analysis. Early products include a combined global database and regularly-released global marine ecological status reports. There are, of course, limitations to the exploitation of CPR data as well as the current geographic coverage. A current focus of GACS is integration of the data with models to meaningfully extrapolate across time and space. In this way the output could be used to provide more robust synoptic representations of key plankton variables. Recent years have also seen the CPR used as a platform in itself with the inclusion of additional sensors and water samplers that can sample the microplankton. The archive of samples has already been used for some molecular investigations and curation of samples is maintained for future studies. Thus the CPR is a key element of any regional to global ocean observing system of biodiversity.

  14. Evaluation of the GPM-DPR snowfall detection capability: Comparison with CloudSat-CPR (United States)

    Casella, Daniele; Panegrossi, Giulia; Sanò, Paolo; Marra, Anna Cinzia; Dietrich, Stefano; Johnson, Benjamin T.; Kulie, Mark S.


    An important objective of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is the detection of falling snow, since it accounts for a significant fraction of precipitation in the mid-high latitudes. The GPM Core Observatory carries the first spaceborne Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), designed with enhanced sensitivity to detect lighter liquid and solid precipitation. The primary goal of this study is to assess the DPR's ability to identify snowfall using near-coincident CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) observations and products as an independent reference dataset. CloudSat near global coverage and high sensitivity of the W-band CPR make it very suitable for snowfall-related research. While DPR/CPR radar sensitivity disparities contribute substantially to snowfall detection differences, this study also analyzes other factors such as precipitation phase discriminators that produce snowfall identification discrepancies. Results show that even if the occurrence of snowfall events correctly detected by DPR products is quite small compared to CPR (around 5-7%), the fraction of snowfall mass is not negligible (29-34%). A direct comparison of CPR and DPR reflectivities illustrates that DPR misdetection is worsened by a noise-reducing DPR algorithm component that corrects the measured reflectivity. This procedure eliminates the receiver noise and side lobe clutter effects, but also removes radar signals related to snowfall events that are associated with relatively low reflectivity values. In an effort to increase DPR signal fidelity associated with snowfall, this paper proposes a simple algorithm using matched DPR Ku/Ka radar reflectivities producing an increase of the fraction of snowfall mass detected by DPR up to 59%.

  15. Using a serious game to complement CPR instruction in a nurse faculty. (United States)

    Boada, Imma; Rodriguez-Benitez, Antonio; Garcia-Gonzalez, Juan Manuel; Olivet, Josep; Carreras, Vicenç; Sbert, Mateu


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid key survival technique used to stimulate breathing and keep blood flowing to the heart. Its effective administration can significantly increase the chances of survival for victims of cardiac arrest. LISSA is a serious game designed to complement CPR teaching and also to refresh CPR skills in an enjoyable way. The game presents an emergency situation in a 3D virtual environment and the player has to save the victim applying the CPR actions. In this paper, we describe LISSA and its evaluation in a population composed of 109 nursing undergraduate students enrolled in the Nursing degree of our university. To evaluate LISSA we performed a randomized controlled trial that compares the classical teaching methodology, composed of self-directed learning for theory plus laboratory sessions with a mannequin for practice, with the one that uses LISSA after self-directed learning for theory and before laboratory sessions with a mannequin. From our evaluation we observed that students using LISSA (Group 2 and 3) gave significantly better learning acquisition scores than those following traditional classes (Group 1). To evaluate the differences between students of these groups we performed a paired samples t-test between Group 1 and 2 (μ1=35, 67, μ2=47, 50 and p<0.05) and between students of Group 1 and 3 (μ1=35, 67, μ3=50, 58 and p<0.05). From these tests we observed that there are significant differences in both cases. We also evaluated student performance of main steps of CPR protocol. Students that use LISSA performed better than the ones that did not use it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of the RINSE Trial: The Rapid Infusion of cold Normal Saline by paramedics during CPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Ian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH (33°C for 12-24 hours as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods/Design This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres ice-cold (4°C normal saline. The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors. Discussion This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. Trial Registration NCT01172678

  17. Richtlijnen voor het werken met gemengde teams in de SW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.; Giesen, F.; Luijters, K.


    Onderzoek naar de pilot 'Regulier en SW'. De pilot 'Regulier en SW' is uitgevoerd door de Inclusief Groep in nauwe samenwerking met TNO. Doel van deze pilot was na te gaan of en zo ja hoe, het inzetten van reguliere krachten in (delen van) de Sociale Werkplaats (SW) de ontwikkeling en eventuele

  18. Core-Shell MnO2-SiO2 Nanorods for Catalyzing the Removal of Dyes from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong


    Full Text Available This work presented a novel core-shell MnO2@m-SiO2 for catalyzing the removal of dyes from wastewater. MnO2 nanorods were sequentially coated with polydopamine (PDA and polyethyleneimine (PEI forming MnO2@PDA-PEI. By taking advantage of the positively charged amine groups, MnO2@PDA-PEI was further silicificated, forming MnO2@PDA-PEI-SiO2. After calcination, the composite MnO2@m-SiO2 was finally obtained. MnO2 nanorod is the core and mesoporous SiO2 (m-SiO2 is the shell. MnO2@m-SiO2 has been used to degrade a model dye Rhodamine B (RhB. The shell m-SiO2 functioned to adsorb/enrich and transfer RhB, and the core MnO2 nanorods oxidized RhB. Thus, MnO2@m-SiO2 combines multiple functions together. Experimental results demonstrated that MnO2@m-SiO2 exhibited a much higher efficiency for degradation of RhB than MnO2. The RhB decoloration and degradation efficiencies were 98.7% and 84.9%, respectively. Consecutive use of MnO2@m-SiO2 has demonstrated that MnO2@m-SiO2 can be used to catalyze multiple cycles of RhB degradation. After six cycles of reuse of MnO2@m-SiO2, the RhB decoloration and degradation efficiencies were 98.2% and 71.1%, respectively.

  19. CPR PRO® device reduces rescuer fatigue during continuous chest compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized crossover trial using a manikin model. (United States)

    Kovic, Ivor; Lulic, Dinka; Lulic, Ileana


    The performance of high-quality chest compressions with minimal interruptions is one of the most important elements of the "Chain of Survival." To evaluate the impact of a novel CPR PRO(®) (CPRO) device for manual chest compression on rescuer fatigue, pain, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality. Randomized crossover trial of 24 health care professionals performing continuous chest compression CPR for 10 min with a CPRO device and conventional manual CPR (MCPR). Data about chest compressions were recorded using a manikin. Rescuers' physiologic signs were recorded before and after each session, and heart rate (HR) data were tracked continuously. Fatigue was assessed with ratings of perceived exertion, and pain questionnaire. All subjects completed 10 min of CPR with both methods. Significantly more rest breaks were taken during MCPR sessions (1.7 ± 2 vs. 0.21 ± 0.72). Subjects' perceived exertion was higher after MCPR, as well as the average (120.7 ± 16.8 vs. 110.8 ± 17.6) and maximal HR (134.3 ± 18.5 vs. 123.42 ± 16.5) during testing. Subjects reported more pain in the hands, especially the wrist, after performing MCPR. Average depth of compressions was higher with the CPRO device (4.6 ± 7.0 vs. 4.3 ± 7.9) and declined more slowly over time. Other CPR quality parameters, such as the correct position and complete release of pressure, were also better for CPRO CPR. CPRO device reduces rescuer fatigue and pain during continuous chest compression CPR, which results in a higher quality of CPR in a simulation setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gold nanoparticles decorated MnO2 nanowires for high performance supercapacitor (United States)

    Khandare, Lina; Terdale, Santosh


    We have synthesized highly crystalline MnO2 nanowires by wet chemical biphasic method. Further, the gold nanoparticles were decorated on MnO2 nanowires. The MnO2 nanowire and gold nanoparticle decorated MnO2 nanowire samples were well characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy etc. The supercapacitor performance for both the samples was tested under the identical conditions. The gold nanoparticles decorated on MnO2 nanowire exhibits cyclic stability cycles with only 3% capacity loss and maximum energy density of 37.08 Wh/kg. It has been observed that the gold decorated MnO2 nanowire shows superior performance towards supercapacitor application due to the increased defects, surface area and increase in the capacity towards charge storage. Our results can open up new avenue towards utilization of MnO2 nanowires and other metal oxide nanomaterials with controlled functionalization/decoration of metal nanoparticles for superior charge storage devices.

  1. Low Temperature Synthesis of MnO2/Graphene Nanocomposites for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang


    Full Text Available MnO2/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple route in a water-reflux condenser system. The as-prepared composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman microscope, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. Capacitive properties of the synthesized composite electrodes were investigated via cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectrometry in a 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. Results show that this method can control the morphology and structure of MnO2 loaded onto the graphene sheets. Because excessive MnO2 enwrapping graphene would affect the overall conductivity, the composite prepared by lower temperature has better characteristics of supercapacitor. 60-MnO2/graphene composite (48 wt% MnO2 displays the specific capacitance as high as 350 F/g at 1000 mA/g, which is higher than that of 100-MnO2/graphene (302 F/g, and it is almost two times higher than that of MnO2 (163 F/g. Furthermore, the composite exhibits excellent long cycle life along with ~93% specific capacitance retained after 5000 cycle tests.

  2. Preparation and adsorption performance of MnO2/PAC composite towards aqueous glyphosate. (United States)

    Cui, Hao; Li, Qin; Qian, Yan; Zhang, Qiu; Zhai, Jianping


    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine (PMG)) is the organophosphate herbicide most widely used in the world, and industrial production of PMG generates large quantities of wastewater. A manganese dioxide-coated powdered activated carbon (MnO2/PAC) composite was synthesized and investigated for the adsorption of PMG from wastewater. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDAX) revealed that MnO2 was formed on the surface of the carbon during the modification process. Batch adsorption results showed that the optimal pH for glyphosate adsorption on MnO2/PAC was 3.0. In the range 0.01(-1) molL(-1), glyphosate removal by MnO2/PAC decreased with an increase in ionic strength. Among the coexistent anions, only phosphate showed significant inhibition of PMG removal due to competitive complexation. Batch studies revealed that MnO2/PAC could reach a maximum PMG adsorption capacity of 283 mg g(-1). The Langmuir equilibrium model was found to be suitable for describing PMG sorption, and kinetic studies revealed that adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. It was also proved that the adsorbed PMG could be effectively desorbed from MnO2/PAC in 1.0 molL(-1) NaOH. All of these results implied that the MnO2/PAC composite may be used as an effective adsorbent for recycling PMG from wastewater.

  3. Refractory cardiac arrest treated with mechanical CPR, hypothermia, ECMO and early reperfusion (the CHEER trial). (United States)

    Stub, Dion; Bernard, Stephen; Pellegrino, Vincent; Smith, Karen; Walker, Tony; Sheldrake, Jayne; Hockings, Lisen; Shaw, James; Duffy, Stephen J; Burrell, Aidan; Cameron, Peter; Smit, De Villiers; Kaye, David M


    Many patients who suffer cardiac arrest do not respond to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There is growing interest in utilizing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) in the management of refractory cardiac arrest. We describe our preliminary experiences in establishing an E-CPR program for refractory cardiac arrest in Melbourne, Australia. The CHEER trial (mechanical CPR, Hypothermia, ECMO and Early Reperfusion) is a single center, prospective, observational study conducted at The Alfred Hospital. The CHEER protocol was developed for selected patients with refractory in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and involves mechanical CPR, rapid intravenous administration of 30 mL/kg of ice-cold saline to induce intra-arrest therapeutic hypothermia, percutaneous cannulation of the femoral artery and vein by two critical care physicians and commencement of veno-arterial ECMO. Subsequently, patients with suspected coronary artery occlusion are transferred to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for coronary angiography. Therapeutic hypothermia (33 °C) is maintained for 24h in the intensive care unit. There were 26 patients eligible for the CHEER protocol (11 with OHCA, 15 with IHCA). The median age was 52 (IQR 38-60) years. ECMO was established in 24 (92%), with a median time from collapse until initiation of ECMO of 56 (IQR 40-85) min. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed on 11 (42%) and pulmonary embolectomy on 1 patient. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 25 (96%) patients. Median duration of ECMO support was 2 (IQR 1-5) days, with 13/24 (54%) of patients successfully weaned from ECMO support. Survival to hospital discharge with full neurological recovery (CPC score 1) occurred in 14/26 (54%) patients. A protocol including E-CPR instituted by critical care physicians for refractory cardiac arrest which includes mechanical CPR, peri-arrest therapeutic hypothermia and

  4. A Testing Framework for Critical Space SW (United States)

    Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard


    This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs ([1]). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.

  5. Effects of pre-training using serious game technology on CPR performance--an exploratory quasi-experimental transfer study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creutzfeldt, Johan; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li


    .... This study aims to explore medical students' retention of knowledge and skills as well as their proficiency gain after pre-training using a MVW with avatars for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) team training...

  6. Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a novel 2PC-CPR parallel mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Lin


    Full Text Available A novel parallel mechanism of two translations and one rotation freedom degrees two-prismatic joint-cylindrical joint-one-cylindrical joint-prismatic joint-revolute joint (2PC-CPR is proposed. The mechanism can be applied to write Chinese characters and to classify productions with the appropriated control. In this article, the kinematics and dynamics analysis are systematically conducted with the following procedure. First of all, the 2PC-CPR parallel mechanism is designed by GF set and the freedom degree of the mechanism is calculated using screw theory. Then the formula for solving the inverse/forward displacement, velocity, and acceleration is derived based on the geometrical constraints. The dynamics model is established by using virtual work principle. Finally, kinematics SimMechanics model is created by the co-simulation of SolidWorks and MATLAB software, and its workspace is analyzed.

  7. Extracorporeal CPR and intra-aortic balloon pumping in tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy complicating cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Lee, Jun Wan; Ahn, Hong Joon; Yoo, Youn Ho; Lee, Jin Woong; Kim, Seung Whan; Choi, Si Wan


    Although tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) due to atrial fibrillation occurs frequently, it is under-recognized in clinical settings. TIC has a wide range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic tachycardia to cardiomyopathy leading to end stage heart failure. We present a case of a 48year-old-woman who presented as cardiogenic shock, and rapidly progressed to cardiac arrest from recently diagnosed but undertreated atrial fibrillation, resulting TIC in the emergency department (ED). She was rescued by extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) for refractory cardiac arrest in the ED, and received concomitant intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) support for severe left ventricular failure. Cardiogenic shock can present as an initial manifestation of TIC, and E-CPR and subsequent IABP support can be a valuable rescue therapy for severe TIC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing bystander CPR: potential of a one question telecommunicator identification algorithm. (United States)

    Orpet, Ross; Riesenberg, Randi; Shin, Jenny; Subido, Cleo; Markul, Eddie; Rea, Thomas


    Telecommunicators use a two-question algorithm to identify cardiac arrest: Is the individual conscious? Is the individual breathing normally? Although this approach increases arrest identification and consequently bystander CPR, the strategy does not identify all arrests and requires time to complete. We evaluated the implications of a one-question strategy that inquired only about consciousness. We undertook a 3-month observational study of consecutive cases identified as unconscious by the telecommunicator prior to EMS arrival who were not receiving bystander CPR. We evaluated the extent that a one-question strategy could increase arrest identification and reduce the identification interval; and the trade-off whereby additional persons without arrest could potentially receive CPR. Among 679 eligible cases, 20% (n = 135) were in arrest and 80% (n = 544) were not in arrest. The two-question algorithm identified 90% (121/135) as true arrest. Of the 135 in arrest, 70% (n = 95) received compressions. The median interval from call to arrest identification was 72 seconds, with a median of 14 seconds for the breathing normally question. Using the two-question algorithm, telecommunicators incorrectly classified 30% (n = 164/544) of non-arrests as arrest. Bystanders proceeded to compressions in 16% (n = 85/544) of persons not in arrest. A one-question approach that inquired only about consciousness could potentially increase the arrest identification by 10% (14/135) and reduce the interval to compressions by a median of 14 seconds; however the strategy would potentially triple the number of non-arrest cases (544 versus 164) eligible for CPR instructions. A single-question arrest identification algorithm may not achieve a favorable balance of risk and benefit.

  9. Automated external defibrillator availability and CPR training among state police agencies in the United States. (United States)

    Hirsch, Lior M; Wallace, Sarah K; Leary, Marion; Tucker, Kathryn D; Becker, Lance B; Abella, Benjamin S


    Access to automated external defibrillators and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training are key determinants of cardiac arrest survival. State police officers represent an important class of cardiac arrest first responders responsible for the large network of highways in the United States. We seek to determine accessibility of automated external defibrillators and CPR training among state police agencies. Contact was attempted with all 50 state police agencies by telephone and electronic mail. Officers at each agency were guided to complete a 15-question Internet-based survey. Descriptive statistics of the responses were performed. Attempts were made to contact all 50 states, and 46 surveys were completed (92% response rate). Most surveys were filled out by police leadership or individuals responsible for medical programs. The median agency size was 725 (interquartile range 482 to 1,485) state police officers, with 695 (interquartile range 450 to 1,100) patrol vehicles ("squad cars"). Thirty-three percent of responding agencies (15/46) reported equipping police vehicles with automated external defibrillators. Of these, 53% (8/15) equipped less than half of their fleet with the devices. Regarding emergency medical training, 78% (35/45) of state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage, and 98% (44/45) reported training them in CPR. One third of state police agencies surveyed equipped their vehicles with automated external defibrillators, and among those that did, most equipped only a minority of their fleet. Most state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage and CPR. Increasing automated external defibrillator deployment among state police represents an important opportunity to improve first responder preparedness for cardiac arrest care. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. The Effects of Visual Feedback on CPR Skill Retention in Graduate Student Athletic Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Miller


    Full Text Available Context: Studies examining the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR chest compressions have found compression depth and rate to be less than optimal and recoil to full release to be incomplete. Objective: To determine if visual feedback affects the rate and depth of chest compressions and chest recoil values during CPR training of athletic trainers and to determine retention of proficiency over time. Design: Pre-test, post-test. Setting: Medical simulation laboratory. Participants: Eleven females and one male (23.08+.51 years old, from an Athletic Training Graduate Program. All participants were Certified Athletic Trainers (1.12+.46 years of experience and certified in CPR for the Professional Rescuer. Interventions: Participants completed a pre-test, practice sessions, and a post-test on a SimMan® (Laerdal Medical manikin with visual feedback of skills in real time. After the pre-test, participants received feedback by the investigators. Participants completed practice sessions as needed (range=1-4 sessions, until they reached 100% skill proficiency. After achieving proficiency, participants returned 8 weeks later to perform the CPR skills. Main Outcome Measures: The average of all compression outcome measures (rate, depth, recoil was captured every 10 seconds (6x per min. All participants performed 5 cycles of 30 compressions. A two-tailed paired samples t-test (pre to post was used to compare rate of chest compressions, depth of chest compressions, and recoil of the chest. Significance was set a priori at pResults: There was a significant difference between pre and post-test compression depth average, p=.002. The pre-depth average was 41mm + 9.83mm compared to the post-depth average of 52.26mm + 5mm. There were no significant differences between pre and post-test chest compression rates and recoil. Conclusions: The use of a simulated manikin with visual feedback facilitated participants to reach the recommended compression

  11. In situ study of hydrothermal MnO2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Shen, Yanbin; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Our group has designed and successfully implemented an experimental setup capable of in situ measurements of solvothermal reactions. The setup uses synchrotron radiation and a time resolution in the range 1-10 seconds can be acquired [1]. The experiments can be optimized either to measure powder X...... in supercapacitors and positive electrode material in lithium batteries (both primary and secondary) [4, 5]. In this study we investigate the hydrothermal formation of different phases of MnO2 in situ using the experimental setup described above. Alpha-, beta- and delta-MnO2 are synthesized from different aqueous...... precursor solutions at different temperatures ranging from subcritical to supercritical conditions. Measurements are done to obtain both PXRD and TS data. Therefore information about reaction mechanism from precursor solution (containing dissolved species) to final crystalline product can be extracted along...

  12. Analysis of small break loss of coolant accident for Chinese CPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cilier, Anthonie [North-West University, Mahikeng (South Africa); Poc, Li-chi Cliff [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville (United States)


    This research analyses the small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) on a Chinese CPR1000 type reactor. LOCA accident is used as benchmark for the PCTRAN/CPR1000 code by comparing the effects and results to the Manshaan FSAR accident analysis. LOCA is a design basis accident in which a guillotine break is postulated to occur in one of the cold legs of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Consequently, the primary system pressure would drop and almost all the reactor coolant would be discharged into the reactor containment. The drop in pressure would activate the reactor protection system and the reactor would trip. The simulation of a 3-inch small break loss of coolant accident using the PCTRAN/CPR1000 has revealed this code's effectiveness as well as weaknesses in specific simulation applications. The code has the ability to run at 16 times real time and produce very accurate results. The results are consistently producing the same trends as licensed codes used in Safety Assessment Reports. It is however able to produce these results in a fraction of the time and also provides a whole plant simulation coupling the various thermal, hydraulic, chemical and neutronic systems together with a plant specific control system.

  13. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013 (United States)

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh


    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  14. Effect of a reminder video using a mobile phone on the retention of CPR and AED skills in lay responders. (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Shon, You Dong; Park, Seung Min; Kang, Ku Hyun


    Skills related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) use by lay responders decay rapidly after training, and efforts are required to maintain competence among trainees. We examined whether repeated viewing of a reminder video on a mobile phone would be an effective means of maintaining CPR and AED skills in lay responders. In a single-blind case-control study, 75 male students received training in CPR and AED use. They were allocated either to the control or to the video-reminded group, who received a memory card containing a video clip about CPR and AED use for their mobile phone, which they were repeatedly encouraged to watch by SMS text message. CPR and AED skills were assessed in scenario format by examiners immediately and 3 months after initial training. Three months after initial training, the video-reminded group showed more accurate airway opening (PAED electrode positioning (Pa reminder video clip on a mobile phone increases retention of CPR and AED skills in lay responders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Education and age affect skill acquisition and retention in lay rescuers after a European Resuscitation Council CPR/AED course. (United States)

    Papalexopoulou, Konstantina; Chalkias, Athanasios; Dontas, Ioannis; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Giannakakos, Charalampos; Papapanagiotou, Panagiotis; Aggelina, Afroditi; Moumouris, Theodoros; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Xanthos, Theodoros


    To examine whether education and age affect skill acquisition and retention in lay rescuers after a European Resuscitation Council (ERC) CPR/AED course. Because of the importance of bystander CPR/AED skills in the setting of cardiac arrest, acquisition and retention of resuscitation skills has gained a great amount of interest. The ERC CPR/AED course format for written and practical evaluation was used. Eighty lay people were trained and evaluated at the end of the course, as well as at one, three, and six months. Retention of CPR/AED skills improved over time, recording the lowest practical scores at one month after initial training and the lowest written scores at initial training. In practical evaluation scores, when examined longitudinally, age presented a significant adverse effect and higher background education presented a non-significant positive effect. Moreover, regarding written evaluation scores, when examined longitudinally, education presented a significant positive effect while age did not significantly correlate with written scores. Education and age affected retention of CPR/AED skills in lay rescuers. Also, our results suggest that the ERC CPR/AED course format may be poorly designed to discriminate between participants with different levels of practical and written resuscitation skills and merit a thorough investigation in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Plant Immunity Regulating F-Box Protein CPR1 Supports Plastid Function in Absence of Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hedtmann


    Full Text Available The redox imbalanced 6 mutant (rimb6 of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated in a genetic screening approach for mutants with defects in chloroplast-to-nucleus redox signaling. It has an atypically low activation status of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin-A promoter in the seedling stage. rimb6 shows wildtype-like germination, seedling development and greening, but slower growth and reduced biomass in the rosette stage. Mapping of the casual mutation revealed that rimb6 carries a single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED (PR GENES 1, CPR1 (At4g12560, leading to a premature stop codon. CPR1 is known as a repressor of pathogen signaling and regulator of microtubule organization. Allelism of rimb6 and cpr1 revealed a function of CPR1 in chloroplast stress protection. Expression studies in pathogen signaling mutants demonstrated that CPR1-mediated activation of genes for photosynthesis and chloroplast antioxidant protection is, in contrast to activation of pathogen responses, regulated independently from PAD4-controlled salicylic acid (SA accumulation. We conclude that the support of plastid function is a basic, SA-independent function of CPR1.

  17. Rescuer-limited cardiopulmonary resuscitation as an alternative to 2-min switched CPR in the setting of inhospital cardiac arrest: a randomised cross-over study. (United States)

    Jo, Choong Hyun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Ahn, Jung Hwan; Park, Yoo Seok; Lee, Chang Hee


    The 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) recommend that chest compression be rotated every 2 min to prevent rescuer fatigue. However, the quality of chest compression using 2-min switched CPR tends to decrease rapidly due to rescuer fatigue. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of use of 2-min switched CPR and rescuer-limited CPR (the person performing compressions is allowed to switch with another rescuer prior to 2 min if feeling fatigued) in the setting of inhospital cardiac arrest. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, 90 medical students were grouped into pairs to perform four cycles of 2-min switched CPR and rescuer-limited CPR (495 s per technique). During each trial, the total number of compressions performed, mean depth of compression and proportion of effective compressions performed (compression depth >5 mm) were recorded for identification of significant differences and changes in pulse rate and RR were measured to determine the extent of exhaustion. Compared with 2-min switched CPR, the mean compression was deeper (51 vs 47 mm, pCPR. Subgroup analysis by 30-s unit showed more consistent compression quality during rescuer-limited CPR. No significant differences in change in pulse rate and RR were found between the two techniques. Rescuer-limited CPR yields a greater number of effective compressions and more consistent quality of CPR than 2-min switched CPR. Rescuer-limited CPR might be a suitable alternative for treating inhospital cardiac arrest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Automated external defibrillators: to what extent does the algorithm delay CPR? (United States)

    Rea, Thomas D; Shah, Sachita; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Copass, Michael K; Cobb, Leonard A


    Maximizing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during resuscitation may improve survival. Resuscitation protocols stack up to 3 shocks to achieve defibrillation, followed by an immediate postdefibrillation pulse check. The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes of rhythm reanalyses immediately after shock, stacked shocks, and initial postshock pulse checks in relation to achieving a pulse and initiating CPR. We conducted an observational study of patients with ventricular fibrillation treated by first-tier emergency medical services (EMS). We collected data from EMS, dispatch, and hospital records. Additionally, we analyzed automatic external defibrillator recordings to determine the proportion of cardiac arrest victims who were defibrillated and achieved a pulse according to shock number (single versus stacked shock), proportion of victims with a pulse during the initial postdefibrillation pulse check, and interval from initial shock to CPR. The study included 481 cardiac arrest subjects. Automatic external defibrillators terminated ventricular fibrillation with the initial shock in 83.6% (n=402) of cases. A second shock terminated ventricular fibrillation in an additional 7.5% (n=36) of cases, and a third shock terminated ventricular fibrillation in 4.8% (n=23) of cases. The initial sequence of 3 shocks failed to terminate ventricular fibrillation in 4.1% (n=20) of cases. In total, automatic external defibrillators performed 560 rhythm reanalyses during the initial shock sequence and delivered 122 "stacked" shocks. Termination of ventricular fibrillation was not synonymous with return of a pulse. The initial shock produced a pulse that was eventually detected in 21.8% (105/481) of cases. Stacked shocks produced a pulse in 10.7% (13/122) of cases. For the 24.5 % (n=118) of cases in which a pulse returned, the pulse was detected during the initial postshock pulse check only 12 times, or 2.5% of all cases. The median interval from initial shock until CPR was

  19. MnO2 Based Nanostructures for Supercapacitor Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei


    Nanostructured materials provide new and exciting approaches to the development of supercapacitor electrodes for high-performance electrochemical energy storage applications. One of the biggest challenges in materials science and engineering, however, is to prepare the nanomaterials with desirable characteristics and to engineer the structures in proper ways. This dissertation presents the successful preparation and application of very promising materials in the area of supercapacitor energy storage, including manganese dioxide and its composites, polyaniline and activated carbons. Attention has been paid to understanding their growth process and performance in supercapacitor devices. The morphological and electrochemical cycling effects, which contribute to the understanding of the energy storage mechanism of MnO2 based supercapacitors is thoroughly investigated. In addition, MnO2 based binary (MnO2-carbon nanocoils, MnO2-graphene) and ternary (MnO2-carbon nanotube-graphene) nanocomposites, as well as two novel electrodes (MnO2-carbon nanotube-textile and MnO2-carbon nanotube-sponge) have been studied as supercapacitor electrode materials, showing much improved electrochemical storage performance with good energy and power densities. Furthermore, a general chemical route was introduced to synthesize different conducting polymers and activated carbons by taking the MnO2 nanostructures as reactive templates. The electrochemical behaviors of the polyaniline and activated nanocarbon supercapacitors demonstrate the morphology-dependent enhancement of capacitance. Excellent energy and power densities were obtained from the template-derived polyaniline and activated carbon based supercapacitors, indicating the success of our proposed chemical route toward the preparation of high performance supercapacitor materials. The work discussed in this dissertation conclusively showed the significance of the preparation of desirable nanomaterials and the design of effective

  20. Understanding the Enigmatic SW Sex Stars (United States)

    Szkody, Paula

    The SW Sex stars are a subgroup of cataclysmic variables that are known for several peculiar features, including high excitation single-peaked lines in their spectra, absorption features in the low excitation lines, phase offsets between the radial velocity curves and photometric eclipse times, unusual high velocity components, and orbital periods between 3-4 hrs. The cause of these peculiarities is controversial, with possibilities ranging from mass transfer stream impact and overflow at high mass transfer rates to magnetic propellers, winds and jets. As many of these suggestions depend on the inclination of the system, we propose to confront such theories by contrasting FUSE observations of the low inclination SW Sex star LS Peg and a more typical high inclination system DW UMa. The high quality, high resolution FUSE spectra we will obtain will allow us to construct detailed models of the inner accretion disk and velocity flows of both systems. This will resolve which of the properties are geometry dependent, and thereby lead to a basic advance in our understanding of this class of objects and ultimately, of the general effects of high mass transfer in close binaries.

  1. Aortic intimal separation resulting from manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation-completing the spectrum of blunt thoracic aortic injury complicating CPR. (United States)

    Williams, Andrew S; Castonguay, Mathieu; Murray, Shawn K


    Blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is rarely reported and most reports are of aortic rupture. Clinical reports have also documented aortic dissection and intramural hematomas with sequential imaging showing the development of these aortic injuries after the administration of CPR, suggesting that non-transmural aortic injury may also result from CPR. We report partial separation of an aortic intimal atheromatous plaque as a component injury in a case with multiple complications of manual CPR. A 74-year-old male presented to the emergency room (ER) with a 2-day history of chest pain. While in the ER, he suffered witnessed cardiac arrest and resuscitative attempts were pursued for 60 min prior to declaring death. At autopsy, there were numerous injuries attributable to CPR, including bilateral rib fractures, sternal fracture, retrosternal and mediastinal hemorrhage, epicardial ecchymoses, and ruptured pericardium. There was a perforated inferior wall myocardial infarct with a large left hemothorax. There was partial separation/laceration of an intimal atheromatous plaque on the anterior wall of the ascending aorta proximal to the origin of the brachiocephalic artery, forming a triangular flap, without associated intramedial dissection or hematoma. There was no thrombus formation, effectively excluding existence of the laceration prior to circulatory arrest. This aortic injury provides pathologic confirmation of non-transmural BTAI definitively sustained during manual CPR. Pathologists and clinicians alike should be cognizant of the possibility of BTAI resulting from CPR, which may manifest the full range of severity from intimal tear through aortic rupture.

  2. The impact of CPR and AED training on healthcare professionals' self-perceived attitudes to performing resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källestedt Marie-Louise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professionals have shown concern about performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation due to the risks to themselves with the procedure. However, little is known about healthcare professionals' fears and attitudes to start CPR and the impact of training. Objective To examine whether there were any changes in the attitudes among healthcare professionals to performing CPR from before to after training. Methods Healthcare professionals from two Swedish hospitals were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after training. The questions were relating to physical and mental discomfort and attitudes to CPR. Statistical analysis used was generalized McNemar's test. Results Overall, there was significant improvement in 10 of 11 items, reflecting various aspects of attitudes to CPR. All groups of health care professionals (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses, and "others" = physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social welfare officers, psychologists, biomedical analysts felt more secure in CPR knowledge after education. In other aspects, such as anxiety prior to a possible cardiac arrest, only nurses and assistant nurses improved. The concern about being infected, when performing mouth to mouth ventilation, was reduced with the most marked reduction in physicians (75%; P Conclusion In this hospital-based setting, we found a positive outcome of education and training in CPR concerning healthcare professionals' attitudes to perform CPR. They felt more secure in their knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In some aspects of attitudes to resuscitation nurses and assistant nurses appeared to be the groups that were most markedly influenced. The concern of being infected by a disease was low.

  3. Long-Term Retrospective Analysis of Mackerel Spawning in the North Sea: A New Time Series and Modeling Approach to CPR Data


    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark; Edwards, Martin; Schrum, Corinna; Pitois, Sophie


    We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval ...

  4. Electrochemical study of a novel high performance supercapacitor based on MnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite (United States)

    Naderi, Hamid Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza


    A new nanocomposite was synthesized via deposition of MnO2 on Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene (MnO2/NRGO) by sonochemical method, in which, the particles of manganese oxide were uniformly distributed on NRGO sheets. The structure and morphology of MnO2/NRGO nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical supercapacitive performance of the nanocomposite was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), continuous cyclic voltammetry (CCV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The MnO2/NRGO nanocomposite shows enhanced specific capacitance of 522 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 and its high synergistic effect was compared with MnO2/RGO. The high specific capacitance and exceptionally high cyclic stability of MnO2/NRGO attributes to the doping of nitrogen and uniform dispersion of MnO2 particles on NRGO. The CCV showed that the capacity retention for MnO2/NRGO and MnO2/RGO still maintained at 96.3% and 93% after 4000 CVs. The improved supercapacitive performance enables this nanocomposite as efficient electrode material for supercapacitor electrodes.

  5. The Two-Dimensional MnO2/Graphene Interface: Half-metallicity and Quantum Anomalous Hall State

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Liyong


    We explore the electronic properties of the MnO2/graphene interface by first-principles calculations, showing that MnO2 becomes half-metallic. MnO2 in the MnO2/graphene/MnO2 system provides time-reversal and inversion symmetry breaking. Spin splitting by proximity occurs at the Dirac points and a topologically nontrivial band gap is opened, enabling a quantum anomalous Hall state. The half-metallicity, spin splitting, and size of the band gap depend on the interfacial interaction, which can be tuned by strain engineering.

  6. Functions of standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival. (United States)

    Fanshan, Meng; Lin, Zhao; Wenqing, Liu; Chunlei, Lu; Yongqiang, Liu; Naiyi, Li


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a sudden emergency procedure that requires a rapid and efficient response, and personnel training in lifesaving procedures. Regular practice and training are necessary to improve resuscitation skills and reduce anxiety among the staff. As one of the most important skills mastered by medical volunteers serving for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, we randomly selected some of them to evaluate the quality of CPR operation and compared the result with that of the untrained doctors and nurses. In order to evaluate the functions of repeating standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, their performance qualities of CPR were compared with those of the untrained medical workers working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian. The CPR performance qualities of 52 medical volunteers (Standard Training Group), who had continually taken part in standard CPR technical training for six months, were tested at random and were compared with those of 68 medical workers (Compared Group) working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian who hadn't attended CPR training within a year. The QCPR 3535 monitor (provided by Philips Company) was used to measure the standard degree of single simulated CPR performance, including the chest compression depth, frequency, released pressure between compressions and performance time of compression and ventilation, the results of which were recorded in the table and the number of practical compression per minute was calculated. The data were analyzed by x2 Test and t Test. The factors which would influence CPR performance, including gender, age, placement, hand skill, posture of compression and frequency of training, were classified and given parameters, and were put to Logistic repression analysis. The CPR performance qualities of volunteers were much higher than those of the compared group. The overall pass rates

  7. CPR in medical schools: learning by teaching BLS to sudden cardiac death survivors – a promising strategy for medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herkner Harald


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training is gaining more importance for medical students. There were many attempts to improve the basic life support (BLS skills in medical students, some being rather successful, some less. We developed a new problem based learning curriculum, where students had to teach CPR to cardiac arrest survivors in order to improve the knowledge about life support skills of trainers and trainees. Methods Medical students who enrolled in our curriculum had to pass a 2 semester problem based learning session about the principles of cardiac arrest, CPR, BLS and defibrillation (CPR-D. Then the students taught cardiac arrest survivors who were randomly chosen out of a cardiac arrest database of our emergency department. Both, the student and the Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD survivor were asked about their skills and knowledge via questionnaires immediately after the course. The questionnaires were then used to evaluate if this new teaching strategy is useful for learning CPR via a problem-based-learning course. The survey was grouped into three categories, namely "Use of AED", "CPR-D" and "Training". In addition, there was space for free answers where the participants could state their opinion in their own words, which provided some useful hints for upcoming programs. Results This new learning-by-teaching strategy was highly accepted by all participants, the students and the SCD survivors. Most SCD survivors would use their skills in case one of their relatives goes into cardiac arrest (96%. Furthermore, 86% of the trainees were able to deal with failures and/or disturbances by themselves. On the trainer's side, 96% of the students felt to be well prepared for the course and were considered to be competent by 96% of their trainees. Conclusion We could prove that learning by teaching CPR is possible and is highly accepted by the students. By offering a compelling appreciation of what CPR can achieve in using

  8. Hierarchical MnO2 nanosheets synthesized via electrodeposition-hydrothermal method for supercapacitor electrodes (United States)

    Zheng, Dongdong; Qiang, Yujie; Xu, Shenying; Li, Wenpo; Yu, Shanshan; Zhang, Shengtao


    Metal oxides have emerged as one kind of important supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we report hierarchical MnO2 nanosheets prepared of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates via a hybrid two-step protocol, including a cathodic electrodeposition technique and a hydrothermal process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM and TEM images show that the as-synthesized MnO2 nanosheets are hierarchical and porous, which could increase the active surface and short paths for fast ion diffusion. The results of nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis indicate that the BET surface area of the MnO2 nanosheets is 53.031 m2 g-1. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of the MnO2 are elucidated by cyclic voltammograms (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the as-grown MnO2 nanosheet exhibits an excellent specific capacitance of 335 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 when it is applied as a potential electrode material for an electrochemical supercapacitor. Additionally, the MnO2 nanosheet electrode also presents high rate capability and good cycling stability with 91.8% retention after 1000 cycles. These excellent properties indicate that the hierarchical MnO2 nanosheets are a potential electrode material for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  9. Assessment of CPR-D skills of nursing students in two institutions: reality versus recommendations in the guidelines. (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja; Axelsson, Asa; Castrén, Maaret; Nurmi, Jouni; Lankinen, Iira; Niemi-Murola, Leila


    Significant differences in basic life support skills including cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D) were detected when nurses working in one Finnish and one Swedish hospital were tested using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The purpose of this study was to use OSCE test in assessing guideline based CPR-D skills of newly qualified nurses. The CPR-D skills of newly qualified registered nurses studying in Halmstad University (n = 30), Sweden, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (n = 30), and Finland were assessed using an OSCE which was built up with a case of cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation as the initial rhythm. The Angoff average, 32.47, was calculated as cutoff point to pass the test. Forty-seven percent of the students in the Swedish group (mean score 32.47/49, range 26-39, SD 3.76) and 13% of the students in the Finnish group (mean score 23.80/49, range 13-35, SD 4.32) passed the OSCE (Pskills correlated with high grading of the clinical skills. In conclusion, CPR-D skills of the newly qualified nurses in both the institutes were clearly under par and were not adequate according to the resuscitation guidelines. Current style of teaching is unlikely to result in students being able to perform adequate CPR-D. Standardized testing would help in controlling the quality of learning.

  10. Outcome of Prolonged Ventricular Fibrillation and CPR in a Rat Model of Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshao Fang


    Full Text Available Patients with chronic left ventricular (LV dysfunction are assumed to have a lower chance of successful CPR and lower likelihood of ultimate survival. However, these assumptions have rarely been documented. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF and CPR in a rat model of chronic LV dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to (1 chronic LV dysfunction: animals underwent left coronary artery ligation; and (2 sham control. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac performance before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Four weeks after surgical intervention, 8 min of VF was induced and defibrillation was delivered after 8 min of CPR. LV dilation and low ejection fraction were observed 4 weeks after coronary ligation. With optimal chest compressions, coronary perfusion pressure values during CPR were well maintained and indistinguishable between groups. There were no differences in resuscitability and numbers of shock required for successful resuscitation between groups. Despite the significantly decreased cardiac index in LV dysfunction animals before induction of VF, no differences in cardiac index were observed between groups following resuscitation, which was associated with the insignificant difference in postresuscitation survival. In conclusion, the outcomes of CPR were not compromised by the preexisting chronic LV dysfunction.

  11. Evolution of Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) Profiles of Kilometer-scale Craters on the Lunar Maria (United States)

    King, I. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Thomson, B. J.; Minton, D. A.; Watters, W. A.


    When sufficiently large impact craters form on the Moon, rocks and unweathered materials are excavated from beneath the regolith and deposited into their blocky ejecta. This enhances the rockiness and roughness of the proximal ejecta surrounding fresh impact craters. The interior of fresh craters are typically also rough, due to blocks, breccia, and impact melt. Thus, both the interior and proximal ejecta of fresh craters are usually radar bright and have high circular polarization ratios (CPR). Beyond the proximal ejecta, radar-dark halos are observed around some fresh craters, suggesting that distal ejecta is finer-grained than background regolith. The radar signatures of craters fade with time as the regolith grows.

  12. Preliminary assessment of a combined passive safety system for typical 3-loop PWR CPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zijiang; Shan, Jianqiang, E-mail:; Gou, Junli


    Highlights: • A combined passive safety system was placed on a typical 3-loop PWR CPR1000. • Three accident analyses show the three different accident mitigation methods of the passive safety system. • The three mitigation methods were proved to be useful. - Abstract: As the development of the nuclear industry, passive technology turns out to be a remarkable characteristic of advanced nuclear power plants. Since the 20th century, much effort has been given to the passive technology, and a number of evolutionary passive systems have developed. Thoughts have been given to upgrade the existing reactors with passive systems to meet stricter safety demands. In this paper, the CPR1000 plant, which is one kind of mature pressurized water reactor plants in China, is improved with some passive systems to enhance safety. The passive systems selected are as follows: (1) the reactor makeup tank (RMT); (2) the advanced accumulator (A-ACC); (3) the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST); (4) the passive emergency feed water system (PEFS), which is installed on the secondary side of SGs; (5) the passive depressurization system (PDS). Although these passive components is based on the passive technology of some advanced reactors, their structural and trip designs are adjusted specifically so that it could be able to mitigate accidents of the CPR1000. Utilizing the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code, accident analyses (small break loss of coolant accident, large break loss of coolant accident, main feed water line break accident) of this improved CPR1000 plant were presented to demonstrate three different accident mitigation methods of the safety system and to test whether the passive safety system preformed its function well. In the SBLOCA, all components of the passive safety system were put into work sequentially, which prevented the core uncover. The LBLOCA analysis illustrates the contribution of the A-ACCs whose small-flow-rate injection can control the maximum cladding

  13. Mixed alkali effect in glasses containing MnO2 (United States)

    Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Rajiv, Asha; Veeranna Gowda, V. C.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Reddy, C. Narayana


    Glass systems of the composition xLi2O-(25-x)K2O-70(0.4ZnO+0.6P2O5)+5MnO2 (x = 4,8,12,16 and 20 mol %) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The thermal and mechanical properties of the glasses have been evaluated as a function of mixed alkali content. Glass transition temperature and Vickers's hardness of the glasses show a pronounced deviation from linearity at 12 mol% Li2O. Theoretically estimated elastic moduli of the glasses show small positive deviations from linearity. MAE in these properties has been attributed to the localized changes in the glass network. The absorption spectra of Mn2+ ions in these glasses showed strong broad absorption band at 514 nm corresponding to the transition 6A1g(S)→4T1g(G), characteristic of manganese ions in octahedral symmetry. The fundamental absorption edge in UV region is used to study the optical transitions and electronic band structure. From UV absorption edge, optical band gap energies have been evaluated. Band gap energies of the glasses have exhibited MAE and shows minimum value for 12 mol% Li2O glass.

  14. CPR - infant (United States)

    ... and strollers. Never leave an infant in a mesh playpen with one side down. Follow the guidelines ... S875. PMID: 20956229 . Easter JS, Scott HF. Pediatric resuscitation. In: ...

  15. The effect of formal training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR skills on medical students perceived self-sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghaghi A


    Full Text Available Background: Experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in real clinical setting is not easily possible for all medical students. Purpose: To assess medical student perceived self-sufficiency on three procedural skill on internship courses after they had taken a training course in clerkship period. Methods: Forty three medical students who had attended a workshop on CPR, tracheal intubations and venopuncture answered the questionnaires on their perceived self-sufficiency in performing these procedures after serving a few months as interns. Results: The mean score for perceived self-sufficiency (PSS was 75.84 (±18.63.Thre were a high correlation between the score given for the applicability of training in real life situation and the stress reduction scores on first time performing the procedure. Conclusion: The high degree of correlation between PSS scores and applicability scores, may warrant the consideration of new methods in procedural skills. Keywords: SKILL TRAINING, CPR TRAINING, PERCEIVED SELF-SUFFICIENCY

  16. Insights on the fundamental capacitive behavior: a case study of MnO2. (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Wang, Xu; Fu, Chaopeng; Kumar, Vipin; Lee, Pooi See


    In this work, an insightful study on the fundamental capacitive behavior of MnO2 based electrodes is carried out using MnO2 hierarchical spheres (MHSs) and MnO2 nanoneedles (MNs) as examples. An overall understanding of the relationship between the capacitive performance and the electrode configuration as well as the morphology of active material, loading density, porosity of electrode, and electrolyte concentration is investigated comprehensively. Our analyses show that MnO2 with thin structure is of advantage to increase the utility of active material and to deliver higher specific capacitance, as the faradic reaction happens at/near the surface. Creation of an efficient path for the transport of electrons and ions is crucial to achieve high rate capabilities. Cycling stability could be improved by suppressing the side reaction. It is also important to shed light on the charge contribution from a graphite paper (GP) substrate since it may cause a misinterpretation of the capacitive behavior. This study provides a comprehensive understanding on the fundamental capacitive behavior of MnO2 based electrodes and gives useful clues for designing high performance supercapacitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of different MnO2 morphologies for lithium-air batteries (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-A.; Jang, Hyuk; Hwang, Hyein; Choi, Mincheol; Lim, Dongwook; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon


    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) was synthesized in the forms of nanorods, nanoparticles, and mesoporous structures and the characteristics of these materials were investigated. Crystallinities were studied by x-ray diffraction and morphologies by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Average pore sizes and specific surface areas were analyzed using the Barret-Joyner-Halenda and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods, respectively. Samples were also studied by cyclic voltammetry using 1M aqueous KOH solution saturated with either O2 or N2 as electrolytes to investigate their ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) and OER (oxygen evolution reaction) activities. Of the samples produced, mesoporous MnO2 exhibited the highest ORR and OER catalytic activities. Mesoporous MnO2 supported on a gas diffusion layer was also used as a catalyst on the air electrode (cathode) of a lithium-air battery in organic electrolyte. The charge-discharge behavior of mesoporous MnO2 was investigated at a current density 0.2 mAcm-2 in a pure oxygen environment. Mesoporous MnO2 electrodes showed stable cycleability up to 65 cycles at a cell capacity of 700 mAhg-1.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Nanosized Fe3O4/MnO2 Composite Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shu


    Full Text Available Using the prepared Fe3O4 particles of 10 nm–25 nm as magnetic core, we synthesized Fe3O4/MnO2 composite particles with MnO2 as the shell by homogeneous precipitation. Their structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, and vibration-sample magnetometer (VSM. We show that with urea as precipitant transparent and uniform MnO2 coating of ca.3 nm thick on Fe3O4, particles can be obtained. The composite particles have better dispersivity than the starting materials, and exhibit super-paramagnetic properties and better chemical adsorption ability with saturated magnetization of 33.5 emu/g. Decoloration experiment of methyl orange solution with Fe3O4/MnO2 composite suggested that the highest decoloration rate was 94.33% when the pH of methyl orange solution was 1.3 and the contact time was 50 minutes. So this kind of Fe3O4/MnO2 composite particle not only has super-paramagnetic property, but also good ability of chemical adsorption.

  19. Emergency nurses' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Eilis


    PURPOSE: To examine emergency nurses\\' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR in the emergency department, Cork University Hospital, Republic of Ireland. METHOD: A quantitative descriptive design was used in the study. A questionnaire developed by ENA was distributed to emergency nurses working in a level I trauma emergency department at Cork University Hospital. The total sample number was 90, including all emergency nurses with at least 6 months\\' emergency nursing experience. RESULTS: Emergency nurses often took families to the bedside during resuscitation efforts (58.9%) or would do so if the opportunity arose (17.8%). A high percentage (74.4%) of respondents would prefer a written policy allowing the option of family presence during CPR. The most significant barrier to family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) was conflicts occurring within the emergency team. The most significant facilitator to FWR was a greater understanding of health care professionals on the benefits of FWR to patients and families, indicating the need for educational development. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study and previously published studies indicate the need for development of written polices and guidelines on the practice to meet the needs of patients, families, and staff by providing consistent, safe, and caring practices for all involved in the resuscitation process. Recommendations of the study include the development of a written policy and an educational programme on the safe implementation and practices of FWR.

  20. Importance of basic CPR techniques. A study in the Region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arturo Abraldes Valeiras


    Full Text Available Annually in Spain many people die from diseases related to heart. Heart attack is the main cause of such deaths. Know and control the basic techniques of basic Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR are essential to help a person away from these features. This study examined 1 the importance of knowing these techniques in the general population, and 2 the perception of the difficulty of understanding and application of techniques. We used a questionnaire designed "ad hoc" as a tool for collecting information. The instrument was subjected to validation and reliability for the study. The questionnaire was completed by 235 volunteers aged between 10 and 65. We performed a descriptive analysis, based on gender and the variables importance of knowledge and learning / apply techniques. Among the most relevant results, we emphasize an interest of society to improve training in this type of knowledge. Training would be ideal in most age groups of people (teens to seniors. Likewise, CPR techniques are easy to understand and execute a lesser extent, relevant perception among people who acknowledge and application these techniques

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) plus delayed defibrillation versus immediate defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Huang, Yu; He, Qing; Yang, Li J; Liu, Guan J; Jones, Alexander


    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a common health problem associated with high levels of mortality. Cardiac arrest is caused by three groups of dysrhythmias: ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT), pulseless electric activity (PEA) and asystole. The most common dysrhythmia found in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is VF. During VF or VT, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provides perfusion and oxygenation to the tissues, whilst defibrillation restores a viable cardiac rhythm. Early successful defibrillation is known to improve outcomes in VF/VT. However, it has been hypothesized that a period of CPR before defibrillation creates a more conducive physiological environment, increasing the likelihood of successful defibrillation. The order of priority of CPR versus defibrillation therefore remains in contention. As previous studies have remained inconclusive, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence in an attempt to draw conclusions on whether CPR plus delayed defibrillation or immediate defibrillation resulted in better outcomes in OHCA. To examine whether an initial one and one-half to three minutes of CPR administered by paramedics before defibrillation versus immediate defibrillation on arrival influenced survival rates, neurological outcomes or rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in OHCA. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 6); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1948 to May 2013); EMBASE (1980 to May 2013); the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1980 to May 2013) and the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), 1980 to May 2013). We included studies published in all languages. We also searched the Current Controlled Trials and Clinical Trials databases for ongoing trials. We screened the references lists of studies included in our review against the reference

  2. Polarized Raman scattering in single crystals of Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3MnO3. The temper- ature dependence of the MnO6 octahedral bending and stretching modes observed in the XX spectra points to the existence of local lattice distortions, possibly polarons. The XY spectra have been ana- lyzed using a ...

  3. Spontaneous Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Nanostructured MnO2 on Nitrogen-Incorporated Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chu Chen


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the layered manganese dioxide with hydrate (MnO2⋅xH2O deposits onto nitrogen-containing carbon nanotube (CNxNTs as a hierarchical electrode for an energy-storage device. The dense and entangled CNxNTs were directly grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD on a carbon cloth (CC, and subsequently used as a current collector. By controlling the pH value of KMnO4 precursor solution, and incorporating nitrogen into CNTs as a reducing agent, the MnO2 thin layer was uniformly fabricated on the CNxNTs at room temperature by using a spontaneous reduction method. The role of incorporation nitrogen is not only capable of creating active sites on the CNT surface, but can also donate electrons to reduce MnO4- to MnO2 spontaneously. From the measurements of cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic charge/discharge, MnO2/CNxNTs/CC composite electrodes illustrated excellent specific capacitance of 589.1 Fg-1. The key factor for high performance could be attributed to the thin-layered MnO2 nanostructure, which resulted in the full utilization of MnO2 deposits. Hence, the hierarchically porous MnO2/CNxNTs/CC electrodes exhibited excellent capacitive behavior for electrochemical capacitor application.

  4. Comparative study on nanostructured MnO2/carbon composites synthesized by spontaneous reduction for supercapacitor application

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yen-Po


    MnO2 has been deposited onto two types of carbon (C) substrates, including a non-porous multi-wall carbon nano-tube (CNT) and a porous carbon black (CB) powder, by a solution reduction process where MnO4 - was reduced at 80 °C by the C substrate so as to give nano-crystalline MnO2 directly at the C surface. The nature of the C substrate has profound effects on polymorphicity, microstructure and electrochemical properties, in terms of supercapacitor application, of the resulting oxide. Deposition on CNT produces meso/macro-porous layer containing predominantly spinel MnO2 strongly bonded to the CNTs and having a larger surface area, while that on CB results in birnessite granules with a lower surface area. In addition to having a higher specific capacitance (309 F g-1), the MnO2/CNT electrode exhibits superior power performance (221 F g-1 at 500 mV s-1 or ca. 20 Wh kg -1at 88 kW kg-1) to MnO2/CB due to reduced electronic and ion-diffusion resistances. Furthermore, the MnO2/CNT electrode also exhibits slower self-discharging rate and greater cycling stability. The results indicate that the MnO2 spinel/CNT holds promise for supercapacitor applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SW radiative effect of aerosol in GRAPES_GFS (United States)

    Chen, Qiying


    The aerosol particles can scatter and absorb solar radiation, and so change the shortwave radiation absorbed by the atmosphere, reached the surface and that reflected back to outer space at TOA. Since this process doesn't interact with other processes, it is called direct radiation effect. The clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in GRAPES_GFS of China Meteorological Administration are overestimated in Northern multitudes and Tropics. The main source of these errors is the absence of aerosol SW effect in GRAPES_GFS. The climatic aerosol mass concentration data, which include 13 kinds of aerosol and their 14 SW bands optical properties are considered in GRAPES_GFS. The calculated total optical depth, single scatter albedo and asymmetry factor are used as the input to radiation scheme. Compared with the satellite observation from MISER, the calculated total optical depth is in good consistent. The seasonal experiments show that, the summer averaged clear sky radiation fluxes at the surface are improved after including the SW effect of aerosol. The biases in the clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in Northern multitudes and Tropic reduced obviously. Furthermore, the weather forecast experiments also show that the skill scores in Northern hemisphere and East Asia also become better.

  6. MnO2/multiwall carbon nanotube/Ni-foam hybrid electrode for electrochemical capacitor (United States)

    Chen, L. H.; Li, L.; Qian, W. J.; Dong, C. K.


    The ternary composites of manganese dioxide/multiwall carbon nanotube/Ni-foam (MnO2/MWNT/Ni-foam) for supercapacitors were fabricated via a hydrothermal method after direct growth of MWNTs on the Ni-foam. The structural properties of the electrodes were characterized by SEM and TEM. The electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical properties from the investigation based on the three-electrode setup. Low contact resistance Rs of about 0.291 Ω between MnO2/MWNT and Ni-foam was reached benefited from the direct growth structure. High capacitance of 355.1 F/g at the current density of 2 A/g was achieved, with good capacitive response at high current density. The MnO2/MWNT/Ni-foam electrode exhibits good stability performance after 2000 cycles at a current of 40 mA.

  7. Orthogonal 4,10 and 6,12 substitution of dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene polycyclic aromatic small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Koldemir, Unsal


    A series of new polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds based on (4,10-disubstituted-dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione) and 4,10 di-substituted 6,12-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene are reported with tunable electronic properties through varied molecular architecture. Starting with an inexpensive commercially available textile dye known as Vat Orange #3, (4,10-dibromo-dibenzo[def,mno] chrysene-6,12-dione) we extended the conjugation at the 4- and 10-positions by the attachment of both electron rich and deficient hexylvinylphthalimide, thiophene, hexylthiophene, triphenylamine, and hexylbithiophene aromatic groups, and studied the resultant optoelectronic properties. By applying various synthetic metal-catalyzed reactions, soluble dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene and dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione derivatives were achieved with optical edge band gaps between 2.30 eV and 1.65 eV.

  8. Abstract 20854: A Tale of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Emergency Medical Technicians Deliberately Perform Substandard CPR When Anticipating Poor Prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtker, Henrik; Klausen, Troels M; Lauridsen, Kasper G


    Background: Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) play a crucial role in resuscitating patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Perception of prognosis may affect level and quality of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate if EMTs delay start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR......) if they believe resuscitation to be futile. Furthermore, to investigate if different patient and resuscitation attempt characteristics result in EMTs deliberately performing substandard CPR.Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey study conducted in 2016 through 2017 including EMTs from a Danish...... and compressions). Overall, 22% and 51% would perform substandard CPR if the patient were 80 or 90 years old respectively, 46% if the patient was living in a nursing home and up to 31% due to comorbidity such as cancer. EMTs (51%) would deliberately perform substandard CPR in case of on-going bystander CPR >20...

  9. Redox exchange induced MnO2 nanoparticle enrichment in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanowires for electrochemical energy storage. (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Duay, Jonathon; Lee, Sang Bok


    MnO2 nanoparticle enriched poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires are fabricated by simply soaking the PEDOT nanowires in potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution. The structures of these MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires are characterized by SEM and TEM, which show that the MnO2 nanoparticles have uniform sizes and are finely dispersed in the PEDOT matrix. The chemical constituents and bonding of these composite nanowires are characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy, which indicate that the formation and dispersion of these MnO2 nanoparticles into the nanoscale pores of the PEDOT nanowires are most likely triggered by the reduction of KMnO4 via the redox exchange of permanganate ions with the functional group on PEDOT. Varying the concentrations of KMnO4 and the reaction time controls the loading amount and size of the MnO2 nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of these MnO2 nanoparticle loaded PEDOT nanowires. Due to their extremely high exposed surface area with nanosizes, the pristine MnO2 nanoparticles in these MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires show very high specific capacitance (410 F/g) as the supercapacitor electrode materials as well as high Li+ storage capacity (300 mAh/g) as cathode materials of Li ion battery, which boost the energy storage capacity of PEDOT nanowires to 4 times without causing excessive volume expansion in the polymer. The highly conductive and porous PEDOT matrix facilitates fast charge/discharge of the MnO2 nanoparticles and prevents them from agglomerating. These synergic properties enable the MnO2 nanoparticle enriched PEDOT nanowires to be promising electrode materials for supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

  10. Nucleation/Growth Mechanisms and Morphological Evolution of Porous MnO2 Coating Deposited on Graphite for Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Huang


    Full Text Available The nucleation and growth mechanisms of porous MnO2 coating deposited on graphite in MnSO4 solution were investigated in detail by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of honeycomb-like MnO2 were evaluated by cycle voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. Results indicated that MnO2 was synthesized by the following steps: Mn2+→ Mn3++ e-, Mn3++2H2O → MnOOH + 3H+, and MnOOH → MnO2 + H++ e-. The deposition of MnO2 was divided into four stages. A short incubation period (approximately 1.5 s was observed, prior to nucleation. The decreasing trend of the current slowed as time increased due to nucleation and MnO2 growth in the second stage. A huge number of nuclei were formed by instantaneous nucleation, and these nuclei grew and connected with one another at an exceedingly short time (0.5 s. In the third stage, the gaps in-between initial graphite flakes were filled with MnO2 until the morphology of the flakes gradually became similar to that of the MnO2-deposited layer. In the fourth stage, the graphite electrode was covered completely with a thick and dense layer of MnO2 deposits. All MnO2 electrodes at different deposition times obtained nearly the same specific capacitance of approximately 186 F/g, thus indicating that the specific capacitance of the electrodes is not related with deposition time.

  11. Facile Synthesis of Novel Nanostructured MnO2Thin Films and Their Application in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia H


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanostructured α-MnO2thin films with different morphologies are grown on the platinum substrates by a facile solution method without any assistance of template or surfactant. Microstructural characterization reveals that morphology evolution from dandelion-like spheres to nanoflakes of the as-grown MnO2is controlled by synthesis temperature. The capacitive behavior of the MnO2thin films with different morphologies are studied by cyclic voltammetry. The α-MnO2thin films composed of dandelion-like spheres exhibit high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and excellent long-term cycling stability.

  12. The effect of fluxing agent MnO2 on alumina silicate porcelain insulator properties (United States)

    Dudi, Dharmender; Shekhawat, M. S.; Singh, G. P.


    Higher strength electrical porcelain is a requirement for industry. This will be achieved by a specific composition of raw materials, which is consisted of clays and feldspars. High mechanical resistance, low porosity and water absorption are among their important properties. By decreasing the silica and increasing the alumina provides a higher mechanical strength in porcelain but on the other hand increases the body's baking temperature. Therefore adding MnO2 in different percentage is a suitable and practical solution to improve strength without increasing sinter temperature. Results have shown that addition of 1% MnO2 in body enhances mechanical strength of the body.

  13. Advantage of CPR-first over call-first actions for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in nonelderly patients and of noncardiac aetiology. (United States)

    Kamikura, Takahisa; Iwasaki, Hose; Myojo, Yasuhiro; Sakagami, Satoru; Takei, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo


    To assess the benefit of immediate call or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Of 952,288 OHCAs in 2005-2012, 41,734 were bystander-witnessed cases without prehospital involvement of physicians but with bystander CPR (BCPR) on bystander's own initiative. From those OHCAs, we finally extracted the following three call/BCPR groups: immediate Call+CPR (N=10,195, emergency call/BCPR initiated at 0 or 1 min after witness, absolute call-BCPR time interval=0 or 1 min), immediate Call-First (N=1820, emergency call placed at 0 or 1 min after witness, call-to-BCPR interval=2-4 min), immediate CPR-First (N=5446, BCPR initiated at 0 or 1 min after witness, BCPR-to-call interval=2-4 min). One-month neurologically favourable survivals were compared among the groups. Critical comparisons between Call-First and CPR-First groups were made considering arrest aetiology, age, and bystander-patient relationship after confirming the interactions among variables. The overall survival rates in immediate Call+CPR, Call-First, and CPR-First groups were 11.5, 12.4, and 11.5%, respectively without significant differences (p=0.543). Subgroup analyses by multivariate logistic regression following univariate analysis disclosed that CPR-first group is more likely to survive in subgroups of noncardiac aetiology (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 2.01; 1.39-2.98) and of nonelderly OHCAs (1.38; 1.09-1.76). Immediate CPR-first action followed by an emergency call without a large delay may be recommended when a bystander with sufficient skills to perform CPR witnesses OHCAs in nonelderly people and of noncardiac aetiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival-An evaluation of 548 emergency calls. (United States)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy


    This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 30-day survival. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of CPRprior. This observational study evaluated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring in the Capital Region of Denmark from 01.01.2013 to 31.12.2013. OHCAs were linked to emergency medical dispatch centre records and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPRprior. The study included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPRprior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPRduring group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPRprior and CPRduring. Predictors positively associated with CPRprior included witnessed OHCA and healthcare professional bystanders. Predictors negatively associated with CPRprior included residential location, solitary bystanders, and bystanders related to the patient. The majority of bystander CPR (65%) was initiated during the emergency call, following dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions. Whether bystander CPR was initiated prior to emergency call versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR was not associated with ROSC or 30-day survival. Dispatcher-assisted CPR was especially beneficial for the initiation of bystander CPR in residential areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Planktonic foraminiferal biogeography in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean: Contribution from CPR data (United States)

    Meilland, Julie; Fabri-Ruiz, Salomé; Koubbi, Philippe; Monaco, Claire Lo; Cotte, Cédric; Hosie, Graham W.; Sanchez, Sophie; Howa, Hélène


    Within the framework of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Southern Ocean-Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR) Survey, the oceanic regions around Crozet and Kerguelen Islands were investigated in February-March 2013. Living planktonic Foraminifera (LPF) were collected in the upper mixed layer with a CPR along a 2160 nautical mile sea transect that crossed main hydrological fronts in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. In the SO-CPR database, mean total abundances of Foraminifera occurring during late austral summer are highly variable at an inter-annual scale, from 10 to 250 ind.m-3, representing 10-40% of the total zooplankton abundance, respectively. In the Southern Ocean, major inter-annual changes in zooplankton community structure were already reported. In this study, we describe the large scale distributional pattern of individual planktonic foraminiferal species living in near-surface waters of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, and we attempt to explain why major spatial variability in relative species abundances occurs during a late austral summer. In February-March 2013, LPF total abundances recorded between 42.86°S and 56.42°S ranged from 0 to a maximum of 258 ind.m-3. In the Open Ocean Zone, the LPF community was composed of four major species (Globigerinita uvula, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, Neogloboquadrina incompta, Globigerina bulloides). Generally, LPF total abundances are supposed to mirror primary production induced by hydrological fronts or induced by topography near Crozet and Kerguelen Islands. However, during late austral summer 2013, high foraminiferal abundances in the upper mixed layer did not always match the pattern of near-surface primary production (high Chl-a concentration areas delineated from satellite imagery). Low LPF standing stocks in late austral summer in the Southern Ocean contrasted with the presence of high densities of heavily silicified diatoms. This suggests that the late bloom

  16. Mating system parameters in Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 6, 2010 ... Sw. based on RAPD markers. Lucimara ... AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism. such as ... guianensis under experimental conditions based on ... Cattle were grown in the field in two randomized block design.

  17. Conditions and procedures for in-hospital extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of adult patients. (United States)

    Swol, Justyna; Belohlávek, Jan; Haft, Jonathan W; Ichiba, Shingo; Lorusso, Roberto; Peek, Giles J


    The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; ECPR) has been repeatedly published as non-randomized studies, mainly case series and case reports. The aim of this article is to support physicians, perfusionists, nurses and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) specialists who regularly perform ECPR or are willing to start an ECPR program by establishing standards for safe and efficient ECPR procedures. This article represents the experience and recommendations of physicians who provide ECPR routinely. Based on its survival and outcome rates, ECPR can be considered when determining the optimal treatment of patients who require CPR. The successful performance of ECLS cannulation during CPR is a life-saving measure and has been associated with improved outcome (including neurological outcome) after CPR. We summarize the general structure of an ECLS team and describe the cannulation procedure and the approaches for post-resuscitation care. The differences in hospital organizations and their regulations may result in variations of this model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Arabidopsis CPR5 is a senescence-regulatory gene with pleiotropic functions as predicted by the evolutionary theory of senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Anderson, Lisa; Sturre, Marcel J. G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.


    Arabidopsis CPR5 is a senescence-regulatory gene with pleiotropic functions as predicted by the evolutionary theory of senescence Hai-Chun Jing1,2, Lisa Anderson3, Marcel J.G. Sturre1, Jacques Hille1 and Paul P. Dijkwel1,* 1Molecular Biology of Plants, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and

  19. A Comparison of Internet-Based Learning and Traditional Classroom Lecture to Learn CPR for Continuing Medical Education (United States)

    Hemmati, Nima; Omrani, Soghra; Hemmati, Naser


    The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL) and traditional classroom lecture (TCL) for continuing medical education (CME) programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum guidelines training…

  20. Milestone Report - M31SW030904 - Sigma Team Coordination Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This documents the completion of the FCR&D Level 3 milestone for the Off-Gas Sigma Team - ORNL work package (FTOR11SW0309), “Sigma Team Coordination Meeting” (M31SW030904), due 30 November 10. The subject meeting was held at Idaho National Laboratory on October 12 and 13, 2010. The agenda and meeting minutes are attached to this memo.

  1. Introducing systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR) in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS): implementation process and costs. (United States)

    Dami, Fabrice; Fuchs, Vincent; Praz, Laurent; Vader, John-Paul


    In order to improve the quality of our Emergency Medical Services (EMS), to raise bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates and thereby meet what is becoming a universal standard in terms of quality of emergency services, we decided to implement systematic dispatcher-assisted or telephone-CPR (T-CPR) in our medical dispatch center, a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System. The aim of this article is to describe the implementation process, costs and results following the introduction of this new "quality" procedure. This was a prospective study. Over an 8-week period, our EMS dispatchers were given new procedures to provide T-CPR. We then collected data on all non-traumatic cardiac arrests within our state (Vaud, Switzerland) for the following 12 months. For each event, the dispatchers had to record in writing the reason they either ruled out cardiac arrest (CA) or did not propose T-CPR in the event they did suspect CA. All emergency call recordings were reviewed by the medical director of the EMS. The analysis of the recordings and the dispatchers' written explanations were then compared. During the 12-month study period, a total of 497 patients (both adults and children) were identified as having a non-traumatic cardiac arrest. Out of this total, 203 cases were excluded and 294 cases were eligible for T-CPR. Out of these eligible cases, dispatchers proposed T-CPR on 202 occasions (or 69% of eligible cases). They also erroneously proposed T-CPR on 17 occasions when a CA was wrongly identified (false positive). This represents 7.8% of all T-CPR. No costs were incurred to implement our study protocol and procedures. This study demonstrates it is possible, using a brief campaign of sensitization but without any specific training, to implement systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System such as our EMS that had no prior experience with systematic T-CPR. The results in terms of T-CPR delivery

  2. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%. Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85% and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to

  3. Does the choice of definition for defibrillation and CPR success impact the predictability of ventricular fibrillation waveform analysis? (United States)

    Jin, Danian; Dai, Chenxi; Gong, Yushun; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Quan, Weilun; Li, Yongqin


    Quantitative analysis of ventricular fibrillation (VF), such as amplitude spectral area (AMSA), predicts shock outcomes. However, there is no uniform definition of shock/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) success in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The objective of this study is to investigate post-shock rhythm variations and the impact of shock/CPR success definition on the predictability of AMSA. A total of 554 shocks from 257 OHCA patients with VF as initial rhythm were analyzed. Post-shock rhythms were analyzed every 5s up to 120s and annotated as VF, asystole (AS) and organized rhythm (OR) at serial time intervals. Three shock/CPR success definitions were used to evaluate the predictability of AMSA: (1) termination of VF (ToVF); (2) return of organized electrical activity (ROEA); (3) return of potentially perfusing rhythm (RPPR). Rhythm changes occurred after 54.5% (N=302) of shocks and 85.8% (N=259) of them occurred within 60s after shock delivery. The observed post-shock rhythm changes were (1) from AS to VF (24.9%), (2) from OR to VF (16.1%), and (3) from AS to OR (12.1%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for AMSA as a predictor of shock/CPR success reached its maximum 60s post-shock. The AUC was 0.646 for ToVF, 0.782 for ROEA, and 0.835 for RPPR (pdefinition of shock/CPR success and performs best with the return of potentially perfusing rhythm endpoint for OHCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (E-CPR) During Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrest Is Associated With Improved Survival to Discharge: A Report from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation (GWTG-R) Registry. (United States)

    Lasa, Javier J; Rogers, Rachel S; Localio, Russell; Shults, Justine; Raymond, Tia; Gaies, Michael; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Laussen, Peter C; Kilbaugh, Todd; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay; Topjian, Alexis


    Although extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) can result in survival after failed conventional CPR (C-CPR), no large, systematic comparison of pediatric E-CPR and continued C-CPR has been reported. Consecutive patients CPR events ≥10 minutes in duration reported to the Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation registry between January 2000 and December 2011 were identified. Hospitals were grouped by teaching status and location. Primary outcome was survival to discharge. Regression modeling was performed, conditioning on hospital groups. A secondary analysis was performed with the use of propensity score matching. Of 3756 evaluable patients, 591 (16%) received E-CPR and 3165 (84%) received C-CPR only. Survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome (Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score of 1-3 or unchanged from admission) were greater for E-CPR (40% [237 of 591] and 27% [133 of 496]) versus C-CPR patients (27% [862 of 3165] and 18% [512 of 2840]). Odds ratios (ORs) for survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome were greater for E-CPR versus C-CPR. After adjustment for covariates, patients receiving E-CPR had higher odds of survival to discharge (OR, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-3.69; PCPR. This association persisted when analyzed by propensity score-matched cohorts (OR, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.18; PCPR of ≥10 minutes duration, E-CPR was associated with improved survival to hospital discharge and survival with favorable neurological outcome compared with C-CPR. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Design of 3D MnO2/Carbon sphere composite for the catalytic oxidation and adsorption of elemental mercury. (United States)

    Xu, Haomiao; Jia, Jinping; Guo, Yongfu; Qu, Zan; Liao, Yong; Xie, Jiangkun; Shangguan, Wenfeng; Yan, Naiqiang


    Three-dimensional (3D) MnO2/Carbon Sphere (MnO2/CS) composite was synthesized from zero-dimensional carbon spheres and one-dimensional α-MnO2 using hydrothermal method. The hierarchical MnO2/CS composite was applied for the catalytic oxidation and adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from coal-fired flue gas. The characterization results indicated that this composite exhibits a 3D urchin morphology. Carbon spheres act as the core and α-MnO2 nano-rods grew on the surface of carbon spheres. This 3D hierarchical structure benefits the enlargement of surface areas and pore volumes. Hg(0) removal experimental results indicated that the MnO2/CS composite has an outstanding Hg(0) removal performance due to the higher catalytic oxidation and adsorption performance. MnO2/CS composite had higher than 99% Hg(0) removal efficiency even after 600min reaction. In addition, the nano-sized MnO2/CS composite exhibited better SO2 resistance than pure α-MnO2. Moreover, the Hg-TPD results indicated that the adsorbed mercury can release from the surface of MnO2/CS using a thermal decomposition method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interface-dependent resistance switching in Nd0⋅7 MnO3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    EPIR) in Nd0⋅7Sr0⋅3MnO3 ceramics was studied. The results reveal that the EPIR effect originates from the interface between the electrodes and the bulk, and the EPIR ratio as well as the high and low resistance states can be strongly influ-.

  7. A Stable Glutamate Biosensor Based on MnO2 Bulk-modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An amperometric glutamate biosensor was developed using screen-printed carbon electrodes bulk-modified with MnO2 (5%, m:m) onto which glutamate oxidase was immobilized via Nafion(R) film entrapment. The analytical performance of the biosensor was assessed in a flow injection mode and peak heights of the ...

  8. Sodium and Manganese Stoichiometry of P2-Type Na2/3 MnO2. (United States)

    Kumakura, Shinichi; Tahara, Yoshiyuki; Kubota, Kei; Chihara, Kuniko; Komaba, Shinichi


    To realize a reversible solid-state Mn(III/IV) redox couple in layered oxides, co-operative Jahn-Teller distortion (CJTD) of six-coordinate Mn(III) (t2g (3) -eg (1) ) is a key factor in terms of structural and physical properties. We develop a single-phase synthesis route for two polymorphs, namely distorted and undistorted P2-type Na2/3 MnO2 having different Mn stoichiometry, and investigate how the structural and stoichiometric difference influences electrochemical reaction. The distorted Na2/3 MnO2 delivers 216 mAh g(-1) as a 3 V class positive electrode, reaching 590 Wh (kg oxide)(-1) with excellent cycle stability in a non-aqueous Na cell and demonstrates better electrochemical behavior compared to undistorted Na2/3 MnO2 . Furthermore, reversible phase transitions correlated with CJTD are found upon (de)sodiation for distorted Na2/3 MnO2 , providing a new insight into utilization of the Mn(III/IV) redox couple for positive electrodes of Na-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electrical Characteristics of MnO2 Doped Bismuth Borate Glass Systems (United States)

    Nissar, Umair; Ahmad, Javed; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Bukhari, S. H.; Jamil, M. T.; Khan, J. Alam; Shakeel, R.; Nadeem, M. Y.


    Transparent glasses have a large number of applications in the industry of electronics as well as optical devices. xMnO2-(25-x) Bi2O3-75H3BO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5 mol.%) transparent glasses have been prepared via melt-quench technique and characterized using dc electrical measurements, and by analyzing x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. These characteristics were examined to understand the role of modifier oxides, i.e., Bi2O3 and MnO2 in the B2O3 glass network. Adding MnO2 into a glass network causes structural changes, which are responsible for any variations in electrical characteristics of bismuth borate glasses. Manganese bismuth borate glasses (MBBG) show Ohmic conduction at low fields; however, glasses with higher manganese content seem to conduct through bulk limited Poole-Frenkel mechanism. FTIR spectroscopy analyses depict the presence of BO3 and BO4 groups along with B-O-B and Bi-O-Bi bonding vibrations. Glasses with higher MnO2 content also show Mn-O bond vibrations. The reduction of BO4 groups and increase of BO3 units lead to the formation of non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) which are responsible for the variations in the electrical properties of these glasses.

  10. Electrical Characteristics of MnO2 Doped Bismuth Borate Glass Systems (United States)

    Nissar, Umair; Ahmad, Javed; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Bukhari, S. H.; Jamil, M. T.; Khan, J. Alam; Shakeel, R.; Nadeem, M. Y.


    Transparent glasses have a large number of applications in the industry of electronics as well as optical devices. xMnO2-(25- x) Bi2O3-75H3BO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5 mol.%) transparent glasses have been prepared via melt-quench technique and characterized using dc electrical measurements, and by analyzing x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. These characteristics were examined to understand the role of modifier oxides, i.e., Bi2O3 and MnO2 in the B2O3 glass network. Adding MnO2 into a glass network causes structural changes, which are responsible for any variations in electrical characteristics of bismuth borate glasses. Manganese bismuth borate glasses (MBBG) show Ohmic conduction at low fields; however, glasses with higher manganese content seem to conduct through bulk limited Poole-Frenkel mechanism. FTIR spectroscopy analyses depict the presence of BO3 and BO4 groups along with B-O-B and Bi-O-Bi bonding vibrations. Glasses with higher MnO2 content also show Mn-O bond vibrations. The reduction of BO4 groups and increase of BO3 units lead to the formation of non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) which are responsible for the variations in the electrical properties of these glasses.

  11. High-performance asymmetric supercapacitor based on graphene hydrogel and nanostructured MnO2. (United States)

    Gao, Hongcai; Xiao, Fei; Ching, Chi Bun; Duan, Hongwei


    We have successfully fabricated an asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy and power densities using graphene hydrogel (GH) with 3D interconnected pores as the negative electrode and vertically aligned MnO(2) nanoplates on nickel foam (MnO(2)-NF) as the positive electrode in a neutral aqueous Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte. Because of the desirable porous structure, high specific capacitance and rate capability of GH and MnO(2)-NF, complementary potential window of the two electrodes, and the elimination of polymer binders and conducting additives, the asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in a wide potential window of 0-2.0 V and exhibits an energy density of 23.2 Wh kg(-1) with a power density of 1.0 kW kg(-1). Energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor is significantly improved in comparison with those of symmetric supercapacitors based on GH (5.5 Wh kg(-1)) and MnO(2)-NF (6.7 Wh kg(-1)). Even at a high power density of 10.0 kW kg(-1), the asymmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy density of 14.9 Wh kg(-1). The asymmetric supercapacitor also presents stable cycling performance with 83.4% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  12. Role of MnO in manganese–borate binary glass systems: a study on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 30, 2017 ... Abstract. Structural and thermal properties of xMnO−(100−x)B2O3 (where x = 40, 50 and 60 mol%) glass samples have been investigated with the employment of various techniques. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed the influence of MnO on glass matrix. Decrease of B–O ...

  13. Preparation and the Electrochemical Performance of MnO2/PANI@CNT Composite for Supercapacitors. (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Peng, Cheng; Peng, Feng; Yu, Hao


    Polyaniline (PANI) was settled on the surface of CNTs in advance and then used as self-sacrifice reducing agent that would react with KMnO4 to prepare MnO2/PANI@CNT supercapacitor material. With PANI substituting for CNTs to participant the redox reaction, CNTs was protected from being destroyed and could maintain its original morphology and conductivity. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) show that the optimal capacitive performance can be reached at the MnO2 loading of 64.4 wt% and the pH of 1 during the deposition of MnO2. With the protective PANI, MnO2/PANI@CNT composite exhibits the superior specific capacitance of 215.8 F/g at a current density of 200 mA/g and remains 86.5% of its maximal specific capacitance at a current density of 1000 mA/g.

  14. Photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic amines using MnO2@g-C3N4 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An efficient and direct oxidation of aromatic amines to aromatic azo-compounds has been achieved using a MnO2@g-C3N4 catalyst under visible light as a source of...

  15. Freestanding MnO2@carbon papers air electrodes for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Feifei; Huang, Gang; Wang, Jianwei; Du, Xinchuan; Qin, Yuling; Wang, Limin


    We have designed the air electrode for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries by adapting conventional current collectors-carbon papers (CPs), as freestanding substrates. The MnO2@CP electrodes are prepared by simply floating CPs on KMnO4 solution at room temperature. CPs act as the reducing agents as well as the freestanding substrates. Birnessite-type MnO2 nanosheets are observed to in situ grow vertically from the surface of CPs, thus building 3D porous architecture. The nanosheets are uniformly distributed and interconnected each other, which contributes to an improved electrical connection among the MnO2 catalyst and CPs. The cycling tests using the electrode as the cathode in rechargeable Li-O2 batteries exhibit high reversibility and superior cycling stability, over 90 cycles with a capacity of more than 1000 mA h (g MnO2)-1 and a high coulombic efficiency of around 100% in the voltage rang of 2.2-4.4 V.

  16. Photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic amines using MnO2@g ... (United States)

    An efficient and direct oxidation of aromatic amines to aromatic azo-compounds has been achieved using a MnO2@g-C3N4 catalyst under visible light as a source of energy at room temperature Prepared for submission to the journal, Advanced Materials Letters.

  17. Morphology and phase identification of micron to nanosized manganese oxide (MnO) with variations in sintering time (United States)

    Sasongko, Muhammad Ilman Nur; Puspitasari, Poppy; Yazirin, Cepi; Tsamroh, Dewi Izzatus; Risdanareni, Puput


    Manganese oxide (MnO) occurs in many rock types and may take the form of minerals. MnO has its drawbacks, namely highly reactive oxidizing species classified as dangerous and explosive at temperatures above 55 °C. Despite this,MnO has excellent magnetic, electrochemical, and conductivity properties, which should be reduced to nano-size to maximize their use and improve the properties of MnO. Phase and morphology characterization of powder this research aims to reduce the grain size of the MnO from micro to nano using the sol-gel method with various sintering times. Sol-gel is a simple synthesis method that has been proven capable of synthesizing a wide variety of micro-sized oxide materials into nano. Sintering time is a technique performed in the synthesis process to dry the material to a temperature above the normal temperature. The temperature used for sintering starting from 600 °C to 1000 °C. Characterizations were done using XRD, SEM, EDX, and FTIR machines. The sintering processes in this study used a temperature of 600 °C with different sintering periods of 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The XRD characterization with a 30-minute sintering time resulted in the smallest MnO in the form crystalline powder of 47.3 nm. The highest intensity (degree of crystallinity) found in MnO sintered for 90 minutes. The results of the morphological characterization of SEM showed a morphological change in MnO from micro-sized triangular to nano-sized spherical shape. The EDX characterization results indicated that the 30-minute sintering caused the lowest change in Mn and the highest change in O. The results of FTIR characterization showed a shift in C-H and Mn-O followed by an increase in the group of N-H, C=O and Mn-O.

  18. Increasing CPR duration prior to first defibrillation does not improve return of spontaneous circulation or survival in a swine model of prolonged ventricular fibrillation (United States)

    Rittenberger, Jon C.; Suffoletto, Brian; Salcido, David; Logue, Eric; Menegazzi, James J.


    Introduction The optimum duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) prior to first rescue shock is unknown. Clinical trials have used 90s and 180s. Neither of these durations may be optimal. We sought to determine the optimum duration of CPR prior to first defibrillation attempt and whether this varied depending on the duration of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In this porcine model of basic life support, our outcomes were rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival, and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP). Methods We anesthetized and instrumented 45 swine and then induced VF. After 5 or 8 minutes of untreated VF, we randomized the swine to mechanical CPR for 90, 180, or 300s. A single rescue shock (150J biphasic) was then administered. If this shock failed, 2 minutes of mechanical CPR were completed prior to the next rescue shock. CPP was calculated for each 30 second epoch. ROSC was defined as a blood pressure >80mmHg sustained for 60s. Survival was defined as sustained ROSC for 20 minutes. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Fisher’s exact test, and ANOVA. Results In the 5 minute VF cohort, the rate of ROSC did not differ between the three groups (90s: 25%; 180s: 38%; 300s: 38%, p>.05). Survival rates did not differ (90s: 25%; 180s: 25%; 300s: 25%, p>0.05). In the 8 minute VF cohort, no animals experienced ROSC or survival. CPP were calculated by 30 second epoch and did not differ between the three groups (p>0.05). CPPs decline after 180s of CPR. Conclusions ROSC and survival were equivalent regardless of VF duration and CPR duration. When CPR begins late, CPPs are low, stressing the importance of early CPR. We do not recommend 300s of CPR unless a defibrillator is unavailable. PMID:18620793

  19. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of an electronic health record integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR randomized trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnivesky Juan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical prediction rules (CPRs represent well-validated but underutilized evidence-based medicine tools at the point-of-care. To date, an inability to integrate these rules into an electronic health record (EHR has been a major limitation and we are not aware of a study demonstrating the use of CPR's in an ambulatory EHR setting. The integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR trial integrates two CPR's in an EHR and assesses both the usability and the effect on evidence-based practice in the primary care setting. Methods A multi-disciplinary design team was assembled to develop a prototype iCPR for validated streptococcal pharyngitis and bacterial pneumonia CPRs. The iCPR tool was built as an active Clinical Decision Support (CDS tool that can be triggered by user action during typical workflow. Using the EHR CDS toolkit, the iCPR risk score calculator was linked to tailored ordered sets, documentation, and patient instructions. The team subsequently conducted two levels of 'real world' usability testing with eight providers per group. Usability data were used to refine and create a production tool. Participating primary care providers (n = 149 were randomized and intervention providers were trained in the use of the new iCPR tool. Rates of iCPR tool triggering in the intervention and control (simulated groups are monitored and subsequent use of the various components of the iCPR tool among intervention encounters is also tracked. The primary outcome is the difference in antibiotic prescribing rates (strep and pneumonia iCPR's encounters and chest x-rays (pneumonia iCPR only between intervention and control providers. Discussion Using iterative usability testing and development paired with provider training, the iCPR CDS tool leverages user-centered design principles to overcome pervasive underutilization of EBM and support evidence-based practice at the point-of-care. The ongoing trial will determine if this collaborative

  20. A Framework for Usable and Effective Clinical Decision Support: Experience from the iCPR Randomized Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Kannry, Joseph; McCullagh, Lauren; Kushniruk, Andre; Mann, Devin; Edonyabo, Daniel; McGinn, Thomas


    The promise of Clinical Decision Support (CDS) has always been to transform patient care and improve patient outcomes through the delivery of timely and appropriate recommendations that are patient specific and, more often than not, are appropriately actionable. However, the users of CDS-providers-are frequently bombarded with inappropriate and inapplicable CDS that often are not informational, not integrated into the workflow, not patient specific, and that may present out of date and irrelevant recommendations. The integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR) project was a randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted to determine if a novel form of CDS, i.e., clinical prediction rules (CPRs), could be efficiently integrated into workflow and result in changes in outcomes (e.g., antibiotic ordering) when embedded within a commercial electronic health record (EHR). We use the lessons learned from the iCPR project to illustrate a framework for constructing usable, useful, and effective actionable CDS while employing off-the-shelf functionality in a production system. Innovations that make up the framework combine the following: (1) active and actionable decision support, (2) multiple rounds of usability testing with iterative development for user acceptance, (3) numerous context sensitive triggers, (4) dedicated training and support for users of the CDS tool for user adoption, and (5) support from clinical and administrative leadership. We define "context sensitive triggers" as being workflow events (i.e., context) that result in a CDS intervention. Success of the framework can be measured by CDS adoption (i.e., intervention is being used), acceptance (compliance with recommendations), and clinical outcomes (where appropriate). This framework may have broader implications for the deployment of Health Information Technology (HIT). iCPR was well adopted(57.4% of users) and accepted (42.7% of users). Usability testing identified and fixed many issues before the iCPR RCT

  1. Study of coexisting phases in Bi doped La0.67Sr0.33MnO3

    KAUST Repository

    Kambhala, Nagaiah


    We report the remarkable phase separation behaviour in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 doped with Bi3+ ion at La site. The temperature dependent resistivity and magnetization of La0.67−xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x>0) show the presence of phase separation of ferromagnetic metallic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic insulating phases. Markedly, the field dependant magnetization studies of La0.67−xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x=0.3) show the metamagnetic nature of ferromagnetic metallic state implying the competition of coexisting ferromagnetic metallic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic phases. The electron spin resonance and exchange bias studies of La0.67−xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x=0.4 and 0.5) substantiate the coexistence of ferromagnetic clusters in antiferromagnetic matrix.

  2. Manual Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Versus CPR Including a Mechanical Chest Compression Device in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis From Randomized and Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnes, J.L.; Brouwer, M.A.; Navarese, E.P.; Verhaert, D.V.; Verheugt, F.W.; Smeets, J.L.; Boer, M.J. de


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mechanical chest compression devices have been developed to facilitate continuous delivery of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Despite promising hemodynamic data, evidence on clinical outcomes remains inconclusive. With the completion of 3 randomized controlled

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of nanosized Li2MnO3 cathode material for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Li, Shiyou; Lei, Dan


    A simple one-step solid state reaction way of preparing Nano sized Li2MnO3 powders is investigated. Synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, we have observed that the inferior electrochemical performance of Li2MnO3 upon cycling was attributed to the structural degradation caused by migration of the transition metal (Mn) into the Li layer and repetitive shearing of oxygen layers.

  4. The effect of a national web course "Help-Brain-Heart" as a supplemental learning tool before CPR training: a cluster randomised trial. (United States)

    Nord, Anette; Svensson, Leif; Claesson, Andreas; Herlitz, Johan; Hult, Håkan; Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Lennart


    The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) learning methods is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate whether a web course before CPR training, teaching the importance of recognition of symptoms of stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and a healthy lifestyle, could influence not only theoretical knowledge but also practical CPR skills or willingness to act in a cardiac arrest situation. Classes with 13-year-old students were randomised to CPR training only (control) or a web course plus CPR training (intervention). Data were collected (practical test and a questionnaire) directly after training and at 6 months. CPR skills were evaluated using a modified Cardiff test (12-48 points). Knowledge on stroke symptoms (0-7 points), AMI symptoms (0-9 points) and lifestyle factors (0-6 points), and willingness to act were assessed by the questionnaire. The primary endpoint was CPR skills at 6 months. CPR skills directly after training, willingness to act and theoretical knowledge were secondary endpoints. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014. Four hundred and thirty-two students were included in the analysis of practical skills and self-reported confidence. The mean score for CPR skills was 34 points after training (control, standard deviation [SD] 4.4; intervention, SD 4.0; not significant [NS]); and 32 points at 6 months for controls (SD 3.9) and 33 points for intervention (SD 4.2; NS). At 6 months, 73% (control) versus 80% (intervention; P = 0.05) stated they would do compressions and ventilation if a friend had a cardiac arrest, whereas 31% versus 34% (NS) would perform both if the victim was a stranger. One thousand, two hundred and thirty-two students were included in the analysis of theoretical knowledge; the mean scores at 6 months for the control and intervention groups were 2.8 (SD 1.6) and 3.2 (SD 1.4) points (P 1.0) points (P web course before CPR training did not influence practical CPR skills or

  5. Grade of a doctor does not influence acquisition of knowledge and skill during CPR training in a developing country


    Bankole, Olufemi B.; Ibironke Desalu; Olatosi, John O.; Babawale T Bello; Olanrewaju N Akanmu


    Background: Our teaching hospitals have different grades of doctors with varied exposure to cardiac arrest settings and their resuscitation skills are often inadequate. Objectives: We investigated whether the grade of a doctor influenced acquisition of knowledge and skill during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Doctors who attended a two-day resuscitation training program between December 2007 and April 2009 were scored on their knowledge of Basi...

  6. Strain test and stress intensity assessment of a CPR1000 Nuclear Power Plant pressurizer during pre-delivery hydrostatic test


    Lin, Lei; Xu, Decheng; Yu, Min; Xue, Fei; Jiang, Jiawang; Zhang,Guodong; Zhao, Wensheng


    Strain gages are applied to get the strain and stress of a CPR1000 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) pressurizer during the pre-delivery hydrostatic test. The measured strain curves are discussed to find the deformation features of the cylinder. The stresses of cylindrical base metal, longitudinal welds and girth welds are calculated and compared with the theoretical values. The stresses in girth welds and upper head nozzle welds show non-uniformity at these areas. The possible reasons are discussed ...

  7. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus i-gel® airway ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Vincent-Lambert


    Conclusion: The use of the i-gel® airway resulted in a considerable decrease in the amount of time spent on ventilations and in more compressions being performed. The overall reduction in HOT was, however, offset by the time it took to secure the device. Further investigation into the use and securing of the i-gel® airway in single rescuer CPR is recommended.

  8. Minnesota Heart Safe Communities: Are community-based initiatives increasing pre-ambulance CPR and AED use? (United States)

    Boland, Lori L; Formanek, Michelle B; Harkins, Kim K; Frazee, Carol L; Kamrud, Jonathan W; Stevens, Andrew C; Lick, Charles J; Yannopoulos, Demetris


    Implementation research that describes how successfully resuscitation guidelines are translated into practice are lacking. We examined whether recent community-based initiatives being conducted as part of the Minnesota Heart Safe (HS) Communities program increase the delivery of CPR and use of automated external defibrillators (AED) by bystanders and first responders prior to ambulance arrival. Non-EMS witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) with presumed cardiac etiology treated by a single ambulance service in 2013-2015 were studied. Data were obtained from the Minnesota HS program and the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) Surveillance Registry. Pre-ambulance CPR and AED use within HS communities before and after completion of the program were compared. As of July 2016, 17 Minnesota communities within the ambulance service area had achieved HS designation and 294 OHCAs that occurred in these communities met inclusion criteria for analysis (120 before HS designation, 174 after). CPR was initiated by bystanders or first responders prior to ambulance arrival in 83% of OHCA events that occurred before HS designation and in 95% of events that occurred after designation (OR=4.23 [1.80-9.98]). Pre-ambulance AED use increased from 63% to 77% after the community intervention (OR=1.94 [1.16-3.24]). Overall unadjusted survival to hospital discharge increased slightly after HS designation, but this difference was not statistically significant (17% vs 20%, p=0.32). Implementation of the Heart Safe program in communities within our ambulance service area in Minnesota has increased use of CPR and AEDs by bystanders and first responders prior to ambulance arrival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of Ca0.8Dy0.2MnO3 synthesized by solution combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kyeongsoon


    Full Text Available Abstract High-quality Ca0.8Dy0.2MnO3 nano-powders were synthesized by the solution combustion process. The size of the synthesized Ca0.8Dy0.2MnO3 powders was approximately 23 nm. The green pellets were sintered at 1150-1300°C at a step size of 50°C. Sintered Ca0.8Dy0.2MnO3 bodies crystallized in the perovskite structure with an orthorhombic symmetry. The sintering temperature did not affect the Seebeck coefficient, but significantly affected the electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity of Ca0.8Dy0.2MnO3 increased with increasing temperature, indicating a semiconducting behavior. The absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient gradually increased with an increase in temperature. The highest power factor (3.7 × 10-5 Wm-1 K-2 at 800°C was obtained for Ca0.8Dy0.2MnO3 sintered at 1,250°C. In this study, we investigated the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of Ca0.8Dy0.2MnO3, depending on sintering temperature.

  10. Symmetrical MnO2-carbon nanotube-textile nanostructures for wearable pseudocapacitors with high mass loading

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing


    While MnO2 is a promising material for pseudocapacitor applications due to its high specific capacity and low cost, MnO2 electrodes suffer from their low electrical and ionic conductivities. In this article, we report a structure where MnO2 nanoflowers were conformally electrodeposited onto carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled conductive textile fibers. Such nanostructures effectively decrease the ion diffusion and charge transport resistance in the electrode. For a given areal mass loading, the thickness of MnO2 on conductive textile fibers is much smaller than that on a flat metal substrate. Such a porous structure also allows a large mass loading, up to 8.3 mg/cm2, which leads to a high areal capacitance of 2.8 F/cm2 at a scan rate of 0.05 mV/s. Full cells were demonstrated, where the MnO2-CNT-textile was used as a positive electrode, reduced MnO2-CNT-textile as a negative electrode, and 0.5 M Na2SO4 in water as the electrolyte. The resulting pseudocapacitor shows promising results as a low-cost energy storage solution and an attractive wearable power. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Particle Swarm Optimization for HW/SW Partitioning


    Abdelhalim, M. B.; Habib, S. E. &#;D.


    In this chapter, the recent introduction of the Particle Swarm Optimization technique to solve the HW/SW partitioning problem is reviewed, along with its “re-exited PSO” modification. The re-exited PSO algorithm is a recently-introduced restarting technique for PSO. The Re-exited PSO proved to be highly effective for solving the HW/SW partitioning problem. Efficient cost function formulation is of a paramount importance for an efficient optimization algorithm. Each component in the design...

  12. Review of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD-CPR). Analysis of iatrogenic complications and their biomechanical explanation. (United States)

    Rabl, W; Baubin, M; Haid, C; Pfeiffer, K P; Scheithauer, R


    Our review takes a critical look at the active compression-decompression technique (ACD) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). ACD-CPR was developed following a report of successful resuscitation performed by a medical amateur using a household plunger. The efficacy of the principle of active decompression has been demonstrated by animal and human studies. Potential iatrogenic complications from the CardioPump were evaluated only when large clinical trials were already underway. Our prospective analysis of autopsy patients and systematic randomised studies in corpses prove that ACD-CPR using the CardioPump considerably increases the rate of iatrogenic complications and especially of sternum fractures. The experimental use of the CardioPump in corpses and the analysis of a variety of different parameters, especially of the rubber cushion pads mounted in the silicone cup to prevent skin abrasions, revealed a statistically significant correlation between sternum fractures and female sex (P Sex differences in the shape of the sternum and especially the thickness may account for the significant correlation between sternum fractures and female sex.

  13. Corpuls CPR Generates Higher Mean Arterial Pressure Than LUCAS II in a Pig Model of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichhorn


    Full Text Available According to the European Resuscitation Council guidelines, the use of mechanical chest compression devices is a reasonable alternative in situations where manual chest compression is impractical or compromises provider safety. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a recently developed chest compression device (Corpuls CPR with an established system (LUCAS II in a pig model. Methods. Pigs (n = 5/group in provoked ventricular fibrillation were left untreated for 5 minutes, after which 15 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with chest compressions. After 15 min, defibrillation was performed every 2 min if necessary, and up to 3 doses of adrenaline were given. If there was no return of spontaneous circulation after 25 min, the experiment was terminated. Coronary perfusion pressure, carotid blood flow, end-expiratory CO2, regional oxygen saturation by near infrared spectroscopy, blood gas, and local organ perfusion with fluorescent labelled microspheres were measured at baseline and during resuscitation. Results. Animals treated with Corpuls CPR had significantly higher mean arterial pressures during resuscitation, along with a detectable trend of greater carotid blood flow and organ perfusion. Conclusion. Chest compressions with the Corpuls CPR device generated significantly higher mean arterial pressures than compressions performed with the LUCAS II device.

  14. CPR courses and semi-automatic defibrillators--life saving in cardiac arrest? (United States)

    Schneider, Liane; Sterz, Fritz; Haugk, Moritz; Eisenburger, Philip; Scheinecker, Wolfdieter; Kliegel, Andreas; Laggner, Anton N


    The aim was to assess the knowledge of life-supporting first-aid in both cardiac arrest survivors and relatives, and their willingness to have a semi-automatic external defibrillator in their homes and use it in an emergency. Cardiac arrest survivors, their families, friends, neighbours and co-workers were interviewed by medical students using prepared questionnaires. Their knowledge and self-assessment of life-supporting first-aid, their willingness to have a semi-automatic defibrillator in their homes and their willingness to use it in an emergency before and after a course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with a semi-automatic external defibrillator was evaluated. Courses were taught by medical students who had received special training in basic and advanced life support. Both patients and relatives, after a course of 2-3 h, were no longer afraid of making mistakes by providing life-supporting first-aid. The automated external defibrillator (AED) was generally accepted and considered easy to handle. We consider equipping high-risk patients and their families with AEDs as a viable method of increasing their survival in case of a recurring cardiac arrest. This, of course, should be corroborated by further studies.

  15. Aseismic safety analysis of a prestressed concrete containment vessel for CPR1000 nuclear power plant (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Wang, Qingkang; Kong, Xianjing


    The containment vessel of a nuclear power plant is the last barrier to prevent nuclear reactor radiation. Aseismic safety analysis is the key to appropriate containment vessel design. A prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model with a semi-infinite elastic foundation and practical arrangement of tendons has been established to analyze the aseismic ability of the CPR1000 PCCV structure under seismic loads and internal pressure. A method to model the prestressing tendon and its interaction with concrete was proposed and the axial force of the prestressing tendons showed that the simulation was reasonable and accurate. The numerical results show that for the concrete structure, the location of the cylinder wall bottom around the equipment hatch and near the ring beam are critical locations with large principal stress. The concrete cracks occurred at the bottom of the PCCV cylinder wall under the peak earthquake motion of 0.50 g, however the PCCV was still basically in an elastic state. Furthermore, the concrete cracks occurred around the equipment hatch under the design internal pressure of 0.4MPa, but the steel liner was still in the elastic stage and its leak-proof function soundness was verified. The results provide the basis for analysis and design of containment vessels.

  16. Comparison of Knowledge of Medical and Paramedical Intern about of CPR, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastoor Bekhradian


    Full Text Available Every day a number of people from the heart stops beating for most of them that this early cessation of heartbeat. With operations of CPR in 4 to 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest and before the onset of brain death can be established circulation and survival for patients with the death of 2 to 4 folds. The aim of this study was to Comparison of knowledge of medical and paramedical intern about of CPCR, 2015. This descriptive analytical and sampling method was census. Restore their data using a standard questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82 .Spss20 data using statistical software analysis and descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used. The mean score of 3/6 students that showed poor knowledge of students participating in the study. The lowest score of zero and the highest score was 12. Was found between gender and level of knowledge (p=0/05. Between education and the knowledge of the relationship was not statistically significant (p=0/764. The knowledge of medical and paramedical students groups scheduled for next semester as part of the treatment system personnel are working poor and require special attention in order to provide guidelines for planning authorities to increase the awareness of students.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod P. Kadu


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to show effects of yoga on cold pressor response (sympathetic function in middle-aged men. Objective of study is to assess cold pressor response in study and control groups. We selected 90 healthy volunteers between age group 35 – 50 years and divided into 2 groups. (1 Study group – 45. (2 Control group – 45. Control group does not perform any yoga or exercise during one year period, whereas yoga group (study group performs yoga for one year under supervision of yoga expert in yoga centre. In both the groups, cold pressor response was recorded at 0, 6 and 12 months. In control group, cold pressor response shows no significant change whereas study group showed significant reduction in rise from 18.13±2.97 to 13.55 ± 2.00 at 6 months and 13.11 ± 1.76 at 12 months showing F value – 65.33 (P value<0.001 which is highly significant. Rise in DBP also decreased from 15.11± 2.97 to 11.15 ± 1.83 at 6 months and 11.11 ± 1.82 at 12 months showing F – value 45.75 (P<0.001 which is also highly significant in study group. In conclusion, yoga done regularly for longterm improves sympathetic functions (CPR.

  18. Synthesis of highly effective MnO2 coated carbon nanofibers composites as low cost counter electrode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Li, Ling; Lu, Qi; Xiao, Junying; Li, Jianwei; Mi, Hang; Duan, Ruyue; Li, Jingbo; Zhang, Wenming; Li, Xiaowe; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Kun; Wu, Mingxing; Zhang, Yucang


    In this work, MnO2 coated carbon nanofiber (MnO2/CNF) composites have been synthesized using a combination of electrospinning and hydrothermal techniques. First, CNFs are synthesized by electrospinning, then coated them with MnO2 based on the self-limiting reaction between CNFs and KMnO4. The prepared composites of MnO2/CNFs are used as a low-cost counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that the composite MnO2/CNFs-3, corresponding to a 100 nm thick MnO2 coating resulted in the highest catalytic activity, moreover the corresponding DSSC shows a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.86%, higher than that of the Pt CE based DSSC (8.27%).

  19. Generating MnO2 nanoparticles using simulated amorphization and recrystallization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sayle, TXT


    Full Text Available . D. Chem. Commun. 2004, 22. [ Table 1. Potential Parameters Describing the Short-Range Potential Terms between the Component Ion Species of MnO2a interaction A (?) F (?) C (eV?-6) species q(e) Mn2.2+-Mn2.2+ 23530.50 0.156 16.00 Mn2.2+ 2.20 Mn2.2+-O1... In this section, we describe briefly, the potential models used to describe the interactions between the Mn and O ions comprising MnO2, the simulation code used to perform the dynamical simulation, and finally, the construction of the nanoparticle and its...

  20. Carbon-based air electrodes carrying MnO 2 in zinc-air batteries (United States)

    Wei, Zidong; Huang, Wenzhang; Zhang, Shengtao; Tan, Jun

    Catalysts prepared from the carbon black impregnated with manganous nitrate solution and then heated at temperature from 270°C to 450°C were investigated. It was found that the impregnated catalysts heated at temperature of 340°C exhibited the best catalytic activity for oxygen reduction in alkaline electrolyte. It was also found that the XRD spectra of pyrolytic MnO 2 from manganous nitrate over 340°C were different from those below 340°C. The enhanced catalysis of air electrodes was ascribed to the formation of MnO 2 crystal with d-value of 2.72 Å as the impregnated-catalysts was heated at temperature of 340°C. The other factors in preparation of air electrodes were also discussed.

  1. MnO2-coated Ni nanorods: Enhanced high rate behavior in pseudo-capacitive supercapacitor


    Lei, Yannick; Daffos, Barbara; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Favier, Frédéric


    International audience; Ni nanorods prepared by electrochemical growth through an anodized aluminium oxide membrane were used as substrate for the electrodeposition of MnO2 either in potentiostatic mode or by a pulsed method. Electrochemical deposition parameters were chosen for an homogeneous deposit onto Ni nanorods. Resulting Ni supportedMnO2 electrodes were tested for electrochemical performances as nanostructured negative electrodes for supercapacitors. They exhibited initial capacitance...

  2. Fabrication of Na0.7MnO2/C composite cathode material by simple heat treatment for high-power na-ion batteries (United States)

    Sohn, DongRak; Lim, Sung-Jin; Nam, Do-Hwan; Hong, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Tae-Hee; Oh, SeKwon; Eom, Ji-Yong; Cho, EunAe; Kwon, HyukSang


    A Na0.7MnO2/C composite cathode material is synthesized by simple and costeffective two-step heat treatment for an improvement in the rate capability of Na0.7MnO2. The first heat treatment is to synthesize Na0.7MnO2, and the second one is a low temperature annealing at 350 °C for 1 h in air, which is necessary to suppress an interfacial reaction between the Na0.7MnO2 and C in the synthesis process of Na0.7MnO2/C composite. Structural analyses by XRD and XPS reveal that the Na0.7MnO2/C shows the same structural properties as that of the pristine Na0.7MnO2, and hence they exhibit the same initial discharge capacity of 175 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1. At a current density of 400 mA g-1, the discharge capacity of Na0.7MnO2 reduces to 50 mAh g-1 (28% of the initial discharge capacity), whereas that of Na0.7MnO2/C reduces to 108 mAh g-1 (61% of the initial discharge capacity). The enhanced rate capability of the Na0.7MnO2/C is attributed to the conductive carbon layer formed on the surface of Na0.7MnO2 particles, enabling the facile transport of electrons from the current collector to the surface of the Na0.7MnO2 particles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Surface Reactivity of Li2MnO3: First-Principles and Experimental Study. (United States)

    Quesne-Turin, Ambroise; Flahaut, Delphine; Croguennec, Laurence; Vallverdu, Germain; Allouche, Joachim; Charles-Blin, Youn; Chotard, Jean-Noël; Ménétrier, Michel; Baraille, Isabelle


    This article deals with the surface reactivity of (001)-oriented Li 2 MnO 3 crystals investigated from a multitechnique approach combining material synthesis, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations. Li 2 MnO 3 is considered as a model compound suitable to go further in the understanding of the role of tetravalent manganese atoms in the surface reactivity of layered lithium oxides. The knowledge of the surface properties of such materials is essential to understand the mechanisms involved in parasitic phenomena responsible for early aging or poor storage performances of lithium-ion batteries. The surface reactivity was probed through the adsorption of SO 2 gas molecules on large Li 2 MnO 3 crystals to be able to focus the XPS beam on the top of the (001) surface. A chemical mapping and XPS characterization of the material before and after SO 2 adsorption show in particular that the adsorption is homogeneous at the micro- and nanoscale and involves Mn reduction, whereas first-principles calculations on a slab model of the surface allow us to conclude that the most energetically favorable species formed is a sulfate with charge transfer implying reduction of Mn.

  4. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange. (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Quanling


    Catalytic ultrasonic degradation of aqueous methyl orange was studied in this paper. Heterogeneous catalyst MnO2/CeO2 was prepared by impregnation of manganese oxide on cerium oxide. Morphology and specific surface area of MnO2/CeO2 catalyst were characterized and its composition was determined. Results showed big differences between fresh and used catalyst. The removal efficiency of methyl orange by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process was investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic process could remove 3.5% of methyl orange while catalytic ultrasonic process could remove 85% of methyl orange in 10 min. The effects of free radical scavengers were studied to determine the role of hydroxyl free radical in catalytic ultrasonic process. Results showed that methyl orange degradation efficiency declined after adding free radical scavengers, illustrating that hydroxyl free radical played an important role in degrading methyl orange. Theoretic analysis showed that the resonance size of cavitation bubbles was comparable with the size of catalyst particles. Thus, catalyst particles might act as cavitation nucleus and enhance ultrasonic cavitation effects. Measurement of H2O2 concentration in catalytic ultrasonic process confirmed this hypothesis. Effects of pre-adsorption on catalytic ultrasonic process were examined. Pre-adsorption significantly improved methyl orange removal. The potential explanation was that methyl orange molecules adsorbed on catalysts could enter cavitation bubbles and undergo stronger cavitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. From Mn3O4/MnO core-shell nanoparticles to hollow MnO: evolution of magnetic properties. (United States)

    Omelianchik, A; Singh, G; McDonagh, Brigitte H; Rodionova, V; Fiorani, D; Peddis, D; Laureti, S


    Manganese oxide nanoparticles (MNOPs), when dispersed in a water solution, show a magnetic behavior that drastically changes after an aging process. In this paper, the variation in the magnetic properties has been correlated with the structural evolution of the nanoparticles: in particular, the as prepared Mn3O4/MnO core/shell system manifests a low temperature magnetization reversal that is strongly affected by the presence of the MnO shell and, in particular, by the existence of a frustrated interfacial region playing a key role in determining the low temperature irreversibility, the finite coercivity slightly above the Curie temperature of the Mn3O4 phase and the horizontal displacement of the FC-hysteresis loop. On the other hand, the magnetic behavior of the aged system results dominated by the presence of Mn3O4 whose highly anisotropic character (i.e. high coercivity and high magnetization remanence) is attributed to the presence of a large fraction of surface spins. Such a result is consistent with the structural evolution, from core/shell to hollow nanoparticles, as shown by TEM observation.

  6. From Mn3O4/MnO core–shell nanoparticles to hollow MnO: evolution of magnetic properties (United States)

    Omelianchik, A.; Singh, G.; McDonagh, Brigitte H.; Rodionova, V.; Fiorani, D.; Peddis, D.; Laureti, S.


    Manganese oxide nanoparticles (MNOPs), when dispersed in a water solution, show a magnetic behavior that drastically changes after an aging process. In this paper, the variation in the magnetic properties has been correlated with the structural evolution of the nanoparticles: in particular, the as prepared Mn3O4/MnO core/shell system manifests a low temperature magnetization reversal that is strongly affected by the presence of the MnO shell and, in particular, by the existence of a frustrated interfacial region playing a key role in determining the low temperature irreversibility, the finite coercivity slightly above the Curie temperature of the Mn3O4 phase and the horizontal displacement of the FC-hysteresis loop. On the other hand, the magnetic behavior of the aged system results dominated by the presence of Mn3O4 whose highly anisotropic character (i.e. high coercivity and high magnetization remanence) is attributed to the presence of a large fraction of surface spins. Such a result is consistent with the structural evolution, from core/shell to hollow nanoparticles, as shown by TEM observation.

  7. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit


    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  8. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  9. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf


    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  10. Basic Information about How to Use SW-846 (United States)

    This page discusses the Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods compendium, or SW-846, which is the EPA’s official collection of methods for use in complying with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations.

  11. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.


    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990).

  12. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  13. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes


    Shrub expansion has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic. This phenomenon has been partially attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century. However, relationships among shrub expansion, grazing, and human disturbance have been studied little. SW Greenland is a suba...

  14. Geochemistry of crystalline basement rocks SW Ugep, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical data on low-grade metasedimentary phyllites and schists of SW Ugep show that they were derived from predominantly pelitic parent rocks. They form a supracrustal cover on an orthogneiss of granitic composition. The metasediments are enriched in Si02, Al203 and Zr but improverished in Ni. Intrusion of ...

  15. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Leaves of Mitracarpus vilosus (SW)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacognostic investigation on fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of leaf of Mitracarpus vilosus (S.W) D.C was carried out to determine its macromorphological, micromorphological and chemomicromorphological profiles. Qualitative and quantitative studies indicated presence of amphicribal vascular bundle ...

  16. The effect of real-time CPR feedback and post event debriefing on patient and processes focused outcomes: A cohort study: trial protocol (United States)


    Background Cardiac arrest affects 30-35, 000 hospitalised patients in the UK every year. For these patients to be given the best chance of survival, high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) must be delivered, however the quality of CPR in real-life is often suboptimal. CPR feedback devices have been shown to improve CPR quality in the pre-hospital setting and post-event debriefing can improve adherence to guidelines and CPR quality. However, the evidence for use of these improvement methods in hospital remains unclear. The CPR quality improvement initiative is a prospective cohort study of the Q-CPR real-time feedback device combined with post-event debriefing in hospitalised adult patients who sustain a cardiac arrest. Methods/design The primary objective of this trial is to assess whether a CPR quality improvement initiative will improve rate of return of sustained spontaneous circulation in in-hospital-cardiac-arrest patients. The study is set in one NHS trust operating three hospital sites. Secondary objectives will evaluate: any return of spontaneous circulation; survival to hospital discharge and patient cerebral performance category at discharge; quality of CPR variables and cardiac arrest team factors. Methods: All three sites will have an initial control phase before any improvements are implemented; site 1 will implement audiovisual feedback combined with post event debriefing, site 2 will implement audiovisual feedback only and site 3 will remain as a control site to measure any changes in outcome due to any other trust-wide changes in resuscitation practice. All adult patients sustaining a cardiac arrest and receiving resuscitation from the hospital cardiac arrest team will be included. Patients will be excluded if; they have a Do-not-attempt resuscitation order written and documented in their medical records, the cardiac arrest is not attended by a resuscitation team, the arrest occurs out-of-hospital or the patient has previously participated

  17. Magnetic properties of MnO nanocrystals dispersed in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yang, H.D. [Department of Physics and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Pal, A.K. [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Majumdar, S. [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI 20014 Turku (Finland)


    Magnetic nanocrystalline MnO particles have been synthesized in a silica glass matrix by the sol-gel method at calcination temperatures up to 1000 Degree-Sign C. EPR spectra of 0.1 mol% MnO doped silica gel and glasses studied in the temperature range 10-290 K show with the exception of those samples calcined at 900 and 1000 Degree-Sign C 6-line characteristic Mn(II) hyperfine (HF) lines. Additionally five spin-forbidden doublets have been observed at 100 K and below. Small spreads in spin Hamiltonian parameters (D and E) imply that the ligand field environments of Mn(II) ions embedded in the silica glass are nearly uniform. Monotonous decrease in HF linewidth in going from 120 Degree-Sign C gel to 800 Degree-Sign C calcined glass has been interpreted as the continuous decrease in population of isolated Mn{sup 2+} ions in silica glass matrix resulting in the decrease of magnetic dipolar interactions leading to the observed decrease in HF linewidth. XRD and TEM of sample calcined at 1000 Degree-Sign C shows the presence of nanocrystals of MnO having orthorhombic crystalline phase and sizes about 10 nm. The thermal behavior of magnetization (zero-field-cooled and field-cooled) and magnetic hysteresis of MnO nanocrystals in the 5-300 K temperature interval have demonstrated that the MnO nanocrystals display superparamagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at low temperatures. X-band EPR linewidth data plotted versus inverse of temperature (1/T) for samples calcined at 900 and 1000 Degree-Sign C (EPR recorded in the vicinity of 0.35 T applied field) depict similar transitions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnO:SiO{sub 2} nano-glass composites synthesized via sol-gel process calcined up to 1000 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPR spectra of samples (<800 Degree-Sign C) show 6-line characteristic Mn(II) hyperfine (HF) lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monotonous decreases of HF linewidth at higher calcined samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZFC

  18. Three different CPR management models for riverine nitrogen polluters in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arheimer, B.


    Sweden has failed in the environmental goal of reducing the nitrogen transport to the Baltic Sea by 50 per cent in ten years, mainly because of the large amounts of nitrogen still leaching from arable land. The riverine nitrogen problem can be formulated in terms of a CPR problem, as the property rights of the river water are undefined and it is possible to free-ride in the maintenance of the resource by polluting it for personal aim. Swedish water management at present is dominated by a command-and-control policy. However, to master the situation, various propositions of changed institutional arrangements for better management of water resources have been presented recently. This chapter describes and discusses three models that have been proposed for water management in the Swedish environmental policy debate: the community model, the negotiation model and the market model. To be economically efficient and ecologically sustainable, all of these models must be in accordance with local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions. According to the analysis, the proposed management models have about the same institutional requirements, although the sensitivity to various requirements may differ among the models. In the chapter it is argued that new policy implementation in Sweden should include regional water administration boards, where monitoring and problem analysis are kept within single catchments. Problem solution should be decentralized so that sub basins are managed according to the model most in accordance with local conditions. As long as the various requests for model success are met, different management models may be used in different parts of the same watershed. This may be possible since the overwhelming need of institutional arrangements is about the same for the three proposed management models and, consequently, they do not exclude each other 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Chest compression depth after change in CPR guidelines--improved but not sufficient. (United States)

    Kampmeier, Tim-Gerald; Lukas, Roman-Patrik; Steffler, Caroline; Sauerland, Cristina; Weber, Thomas P; Van Aken, Hugo; Bohn, Andreas


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most vital therapeutic options for patients with cardiac arrest. Sufficient chest compression depth turned out to be of utmost importance to increase the likelihood of a return of spontaneous circulation. Furthermore, the use of real-time feedback-systems for resuscitation is associated with improvement of compression quality. The European Resuscitation Council changed their recommendation about minimal compression depth from 2005 (40 mm) to 2010 (50 mm). The aim of the present study was to determine whether this recommendation of the new guidelines was implemented successfully in an emergency medical service using a real-time feedback-system and to what extend a guideline-based CPR training leads to a "change in behaviour" of rescuers, respectively. The electronic resuscitation data of 294 patients were analyzed retrospectively within two observational periods regarding fulfilment of the corresponding chest compression guideline requirements: ERC 2005 (40 mm) 01.07.2009-30.06.2010 (n=145) and ERC 2010 (50mm) 01.07.2011-30.06.2012 (n=149). The mean compression depth during the first period was 47.1mm (SD 11.1) versus 49.6 mm (SD 12.0) within the second period (pdepth decreased (73.9% vs. 49.1%) (pdepth and patient age, sex or duration of resuscitation. The present study was able to show a significant increase in chest compression depth after implementation of the new ERC guidelines. Even by using a real-time feedback system we failed to sustain chest compression quality at the new level as set by ERC Guidelines 2010. In consequence, the usefulness of a fixed chest compression depth should be content of further investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The characteristics of postcountershock pulseless electrical activity may indicate the outcome of CPR. (United States)

    Fang, Xiangshao; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Wang, Jinglan; Huang, Lei; Weil, Max Harry


    When ventricular fibrillation is cardioverted to pulseless electrical activity (PEA), PEA has been regarded as a non-resuscitatable rhythm. Yet, recent reports and our earlier observations suggested otherwise. We therefore investigated outcomes after postcountershock PEA, and aimed to develop a scoring system for outcome classification at the onset of initial postcountershock PEA. Data from 215 domestic pigs were retrospectively reviewed. VF was induced and untreated for 7 min. Defibrillation was attempted with up to three 150 J biphasic shocks. Failing to restore spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1 min of CPR preceded subsequent sequences of shocks until animals were resuscitated or for a total of 15 min. Fifty-nine instances of PEA followed defibrillation, including 29 animals that attained ROSC. ROSC animals required a shorter interval between the first shock and the initial postcountershock PEA, fewer shocks prior to onset of initial postcountershock PEA, demonstrated a greater VF wavelet amplitude prior to onset of initial PEA, smaller QRS intervals, and higher heart rates. Using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis, 79.3% of the ROSC and 63.3% of non-ROSC cases were predicted correctly. A total of 71.2% of all cases were classified correctly. Animals in which postcountershock PEA was converted to ROSC required shorter intervals from first shock to initial postcountershock PEA, fewer shocks prior to onset of initial postcountershock PEA, had greater VF wavelet amplitude prior to initial postcountershock PEA, small QRS intervals, and higher heart rates. Fisher's discriminant analysis is helpful in predicting the likelihood of ROSC for an individual animal presenting with postcountershock PEA.

  1. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.


    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  2. File list: Oth.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. Are sociodemographic characteristics associated with spatial variation in the incidence of OHCA and bystander CPR rates? A population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Straney, Lahn D; Bray, Janet E; Beck, Ben; Bernard, Stephen; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen


    Rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been shown to vary considerably in Victoria. We examined the extent to which this variation could be explained by the sociodemographic and population health characteristics of the region. Using the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry, we extracted OHCA cases occurring between 2011 and 2013. We restricted the calculation of bystander CPR rates to those arrests that were witnessed by a bystander. To estimate the level of variation between Victorian local government areas (LGAs), we used a two-stage modelling approach using random-effects modelling. Between 2011 and 2013, there were 15 830 adult OHCA in Victoria. Incidence rates varied across the state between 41.9 to 104.0 cases/100 000 population. The proportion of the population over 65, socioeconomic status, smoking prevalence and education level were significant predictors of incidence in the multivariable model, explaining 93.9% of the variation in incidence among LGAs. Estimates of bystander CPR rates for bystander witnessed arrests varied from 62.7% to 73.2%. Only population density was a significant predictor of rates in a multivariable model, explaining 73% of the variation in the odds of receiving bystander CPR among LGAs. Our results show that the regional characteristics which underlie the variation seen in rates of bystander CPR may be region specific and may require study in smaller areas. However, characteristics associated with high incidence and low bystander CPR rates can be identified and will help to target regions and inform local interventions to increase bystander CPR rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  12. Metals in Racomitrium lanuginosum from Arctic (SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago) and alpine (Karkonosze, SW Poland) tundra. (United States)

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J


    Arctic-alpine tundra habitats are very vulnerable to the input of relatively small amounts of xenobiotics, and thus their level in such areas must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we collected the terrestrial widespread moss Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. in Spitsbergen in the Arctic moss lichen tundra and, for comparison, in the Arctic-alpine tundra in the Karkonosze (SW Poland). Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in this species and in the parent rock material were measured. We tested the following hypothesis: R. lanuginosum from Spitsbergen contains lower metal levels than the species from the Karkonosze collected at altitudes influenced by long-range transport from former Black Triangle industry. Principal component and classification analysis (PCCA) ordination revealed that mosses of Spitsbergen were distinguished by a significantly higher Na concentration of marine spray origin and mosses of Karkonosze were distinguished by significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn probably from long-range atmospheric transport. The influence of the polar station with a waste incinerator resulted in significantly higher Co, Li, and Ni concentrations in neighbouring mosses in comparison with this species from other sites. This investigation contributes to the use of R. lanuginosum as a bioindicator for metal contamination in Arctic and alpine tundra regions characterised by severe climate habitats with a restricted number of species. This moss enables the control of pollution usually brought solely by long-range atmospheric transport in high mountains as well as in Arctic areas.

  13. Comparative study of MnO2 nanoparticle synthesis by marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Sawant, Shailesh S; Lee, Sang-Ill; Kim, Beom Soo


    Microorganisms are one of the most attractive and simple sources for the synthesis of different types of metal nanoparticles. The synthesis of manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO2 NPs) by microorganisms from reducing potassium permanganate was investigated for the first time in the present study. The microbial supernatants of the bacterium Saccharophagus degradans ATCC 43961 (Sde 2-40) and of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed positive reactions to the synthesis of MnO2 NPs by displaying a change of color in the permanganate solution from purple to yellow. KMnO4-specific peaks also disappeared and MnO2-specific peaks emerged at an absorption maximum of 365 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometry. The washed Sde 2-40 cells did not show any ability to synthesize MnO2 NPs. The medium and medium constituents of Sde 2-40 showed similar positive reactions as supernatants, which indicate the role of the Sde 2-40 medium constituents in the synthesis of MnO2 NPs. This suggests that microorganisms without nanoparticle synthesis ability can be misreported for their abilities to synthesize nanoparticles. S. cerevisiae washed cells showed an ability to synthesize MnO2 NPs. The strategies of keeping yeast cells in tea bags and dialysis membranes showed positive tests for the synthesis of MnO2 NPs. A Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy study suggested roles for the proteins, alcoholic compounds, and cell walls of S. cerevisiae cells in the synthesis of MnO2 NPs. Electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of Mn and O in the sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed characteristic binding energies for MnO2 NPs. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed the presence of uniformly dispersed hexagonal- and spherical-shaped particles with an average size of 34.4 nm. The synthesis approach using yeast is possible by a simple reaction at low temperature without any need for catalysts, templates, or expensive and precise equipment

  14. Improved supercapacitor performance of MnO2-electrospun carbon nanofibers electrodes by mT magnetic field (United States)

    Zeng, Zheng; Liu, Yiyang; Zhang, Wendi; Chevva, Harish; Wei, Jianjun


    This work reports on a finding of mT magnetic field induced energy storage enhancement of MnO2-based supercapacitance electrodes (magneto-supercapacitor). Electrodes with MnO2 electrochemically deposited at electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) film are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and life cycle stability tests in the presence/absence of milli-Tesla (mT) magnetic fields derived by Helmholtz coils. In the presence of a 1.34 mT magnetic field, MnO2/ECNFs shows a magneto-enhanced capacitance of 141.7 F g-1 vs. 119.2 F g-1 (∼19% increase) with absence of magnetic field at a voltage sweeping rate of 5 mV s-1. The mechanism of the magneto-supercapacitance is discussed and found that the magnetic susceptibility of the MnO2 significantly improves the electron transfer of a pseudo-redox reaction of Mn(IV)/Mn(III) at the electrode, along with the magnetic field induced impedance effect, which may greatly enhance the interface charge density, facilitate electrolyte transportation, and improve the efficiency of cation intercalation/de-intercalation of the pseudocapacitor under mT-magnetic field exposure, resulting in enhancement of energy storage capacitance and longer charge/discharge time of the MnO2/ECNFs electrode without sacrificing its life cycle stability.

  15. Distinct and diverse anaerobic respiration of methanogenic community in response to MnO2 nanoparticles in anaerobic digester sludge. (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Qiao, Sen; Yu, Cong; Tian, Yihui; Yang, Yue; Zhou, Jiti


    Recently, the influence of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion has drawn much attention, however, the changes in NPs and functioning consortia within the methanogenic community are usually not investigated. Therefore, the methanogenesis performance, NPs transformation and methanogenic community development in anaerobic digester sludge under MnO2 NP supplementation were demonstrated in this study. MnO2 NPs (400 mg/gVSS) stimulated the methane (CH4) yield by 42% for a final CH4 proportion of 81.8% of the total gas production. Meanwhile, the coenzyme F420 and INT-electron transport system activities showed positive correlation with MnO2 concentration. Microbial Mn reduction and oxidation occurred in conjunction with methanogenesis, resulting in transformation of the shape of the MnO2 NPs from wire-like to globular particles. Microbial community analysis indicated that the relative abundances of genera Methanobacterium, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina were higher in the presence of MnO2 NPs. Moreover, a new and different crucial synergy within the methanogenic community was formed with low-abundance consortia driving Mn respiration coupled to methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion. To our knowledge, this is the first report on transformation of metal oxides NPs combined with syntrophic community development in studies focusing on methanogenesis in response to NPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic decolorization of methyl orange: Process parameters and mechanisms. (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yucai


    MnO2/CeO2 catalyst was prepared and characterized by means of Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The characterization showed that MnO2/CeO2 had big specific surface area and MnO2 was dispersed homogeneously on the surface of CeO2. Excellent degradation efficiency of methyl orange was achieved by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process. Operating parameters were studied and optimized. The optimal conditions were 10 min of ultrasonic irradiation, 1.0 g/L of catalyst dose, 2.6 of pH value and 1.3 W/ml of ultrasonic density. Under the optimal conditions, nearly 90% of methyl orange was removed. The mechanism of methyl orange degradation was further studied. The decolorization mechanism in the ultrasound-MnO2/CeO2 system was quite different with that in the ultrasound-MnO2 system. Effects of manganese and cerium in catalytic ultrasonic process were clarified. Manganese ions in solution contributed to generating hydroxyl free radical. MnO2/CeO2 catalyst strengthened the oxidation ability of ultrasound and realized complete decolorization of methyl orange. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Does real-time objective feedback and competition improve performance and quality in manikin CPR training--a prospective observational study from several European EMS. (United States)

    Smart, J R; Kranz, K; Carmona, F; Lindner, T W; Newton, A


    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important for patient survival. Real time objective feedback during manikin training has been shown to improve CPR performance. Objective measurement could facilitate competition and help motivate participants to improve their CPR performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether real time objective feedback on manikins helps improve CPR performance and whether competition between separate European Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and between participants at each EMS helps motivation to train. Ten European EMS took part in the study and was carried out in two stages. At Stage 1, each EMS provided 20 pre-hospital professionals. A questionnaire was completed and standardised assessment scenarios were performed for adult and infant out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). CPR performance was objectively measured and recorded but no feedback given. Between Stage 1 and 2, each EMS was given access to manikins for 6 months and instructed on how to use with objective real-time CPR feedback available. Stage 2 was undertaken and was a repeat of Stage 1 with a questionnaire with additional questions relating to usefulness of feedback and the competition nature of the study (using a 10 point Likert score). The EMS that improved the most from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was declared the winner. An independent samples Student t-test was used to analyse the objective CPR metrics with the significance level taken as p performance from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was significant. The improvement was greater for the infant assessment. The participants thought the real-time feedback very useful (mean score of 8.5) and very easy to use (mean score of 8.2). Competition between EMS organisations recorded a mean score of 5.8 and competition between participants recorded a mean score of 6.0. The results suggest that the use of real time objective feedback can significantly help improve CPR performance

  18. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with pulmonary embolism in surgical patients - a case series. (United States)

    Swol, J; Buchwald, D; Strauch, J; Schildhauer, T A


    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) devices maintain the circulation and oxygenation of organs during acute right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock, bypassing the lungs. A pulmonary embolism can cause this life-threatening condition. ECLS is a considerably less invasive treatment than surgical embolectomy. Whether to bridge embolectomy or for a therapeutic purpose, ECLS is used almost exclusively following failure of all other therapeutic options. From January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014, five patients in cardiac arrest and with diagnosed pulmonary embolism (PE) were cannulated with the ECLS system. PE was diagnosed using computer tomography scanning or echocardiography. Cardiac arrest was witnessed in the hospital in all cases and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) was initiated immediately. Cannulation of the femoral vein and femoral artery was always performed under CPR conditions. Right heart failure regressed during the ECLS therapy, usually under a blood flow of 4-5 L/min after 48 hours. Three patients were weaned from ECLS and one patient became an organ donor. Finally, two of the five PE patients treated with ECLS were discharged from inpatient treatment without neurological dysfunction. The duration of ECLS therapy depends on the patient's condition. Irreversible damage to the organs after hypoxemia limits ECLS treatment and leads to futile multiorgan failure. Hemorrhages after thrombolysis and cerebral dysfunction were further complications. Veno-arterial cannulation for ECLS can be feasibly achieved and should be established during active CPR for cardiac arrest. In the case of PE, the immediate diagnosis and rapid implantation of the system are decisive for therapeutic success. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Are they trained? Prevalence, motivations and barriers to CPR training among cohabitants of patients with a coronary disease. (United States)

    Cariou, Guillaume; Pelaccia, Thierry


    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occurs most often at home and often in the presence of family members of the patient who witness the event. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training of the next of kin of at-risk patients is thus potentially beneficial. The aim of our study was to document the prevalence of appropriate training among cardiac patients' cohabitants, as well as the motivations or obstacles to seeking training. 153 cohabitants of 127 patients who were hospitalized 1 year prior for confirmed coronary disease in a cardiology department (Paris, France) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between October 2013 and March 2014. 38 % of interrogated cohabitants had received CPR training, and in two-thirds of the cases, their training was undertaken prior to the onset of the patient's heart disease. The training received was often a single instruction session. Half took place more than 5 years prior to the interview. For two-thirds of interrogated families, the reasons they sought training were related to professional or military duties. Training undertaken solely due to cohabitation with a patient affected by coronary disease represented only 3.5 % of the trained respondents. A lack of information regarding existing training programs and a lack of concrete propositions were given as the main barriers to seeking training. The families of patients who are at-risk for cardiac arrests that were interrogated in our study are inadequately trained in CPR. The creation of dedicated training programs at cardiac rehabilitation services for patients' next of kin or the use of alternative methods such as self-instruction kits could potentially remedy this situation.

  20. Detection of spontaneous pulse using the acceleration signals acquired from CPR feedback sensor in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhengfei; Yu, Tao; Quan, Weilun; Li, Yongqin


    Reliable detection of return of spontaneous circulation with minimal interruptions of chest compressions is part of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and routinely done by checking pulsation of carotid arteries. However, manual palpation was time-consuming and unreliable even if performed by expert clinicians. Therefore, automated accurate pulse detection with minimal interruptions of chest compression is highly desirable during cardiac arrest especially in out-of-hospital settings. To investigate whether the acceleration (ACC) signals acquired from accelerometer-based CPR feedback sensor can be used to distinguish perfusing rhythm (PR) from pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced in 49 male adult pigs. ECG, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and ACC waveforms were simultaneously recorded during CPR. 3-second segments containing compression-free signals during chest compression pauses were extracted and only those segments with organized rhythm were used for analysis. PR was defined as systolic arterial pressure >60 mmHg and pulse pressure >10 mmHg, while PEA was defined as an organized rhythm that does not meet the above criteria for PR. Peak correlation coefficient (CCp) of the cross-correlation function between pre-processed ECG and ACC, was used to discriminate PR and PEA. 63 PR and 153 PEA were identified from the total of 1025 extracted segments. CCp was significantly higher for PR as compared to PEA (0.440±0.176 vs. 0.067±0.042, pfeedback sensor can be used to detect the presence of spontaneous pulse with high accuracy.

  1. Detection of spontaneous pulse using the acceleration signals acquired from CPR feedback sensor in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wei

    Full Text Available Reliable detection of return of spontaneous circulation with minimal interruptions of chest compressions is part of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and routinely done by checking pulsation of carotid arteries. However, manual palpation was time-consuming and unreliable even if performed by expert clinicians. Therefore, automated accurate pulse detection with minimal interruptions of chest compression is highly desirable during cardiac arrest especially in out-of-hospital settings.To investigate whether the acceleration (ACC signals acquired from accelerometer-based CPR feedback sensor can be used to distinguish perfusing rhythm (PR from pulseless electrical activity (PEA in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.Cardiac arrest was induced in 49 male adult pigs. ECG, arterial blood pressure (ABP and ACC waveforms were simultaneously recorded during CPR. 3-second segments containing compression-free signals during chest compression pauses were extracted and only those segments with organized rhythm were used for analysis. PR was defined as systolic arterial pressure >60 mmHg and pulse pressure >10 mmHg, while PEA was defined as an organized rhythm that does not meet the above criteria for PR. Peak correlation coefficient (CCp of the cross-correlation function between pre-processed ECG and ACC, was used to discriminate PR and PEA.63 PR and 153 PEA were identified from the total of 1025 extracted segments. CCp was significantly higher for PR as compared to PEA (0.440±0.176 vs. 0.067±0.042, p<0.01 and highly correlated with ABP (r = 0.848, p<0.001. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.965, 93.6%, 97.5% and 96.7% for the ACC-based automatic spontaneous pulse detection.In this animal model, the ACC signals acquired from an accelerometer-based CPR feedback sensor can be used to detect the presence of spontaneous pulse with high accuracy.

  2. {Omega}/{Xi} production ratio in S-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abatzis, S. [Nuclear Physics Department, Athens University, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Carney, J.N.; de la Cruz, B.; Di Bari, D.; Dufey, J.P.; Davies, J.P.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Lassalle, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Manzari, V.; Narjoux, J.L.; Navach, F.; Quercigh, E.; Rossi, L.; Safarik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Storas, T.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; Federico Antinori/CERN & Genova for WA85 Collaboration


    We have measured the ({Omega}{sup {minus}}+{bar {Omega}}{sup +})/({Xi}{sup {minus}}+{bar {Xi}}{sup +}) production ratio in central S-W collisions to be 0.8{plus_minus}0.4 at central rapidity and p{sub T}{gt}1.6 GeV/{ital c}. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. Convective overshooting top detection with MSG SEVIRI, Himawari-8 AHI, and CloudSat CPR data (United States)

    Im, J.; Kim, M.; Park, S.


    Overshooting Tops (OTs) are the clouds that penetrate into the tropopause and grow to the bottom of stratosphere at the top layer of cumulonimbus with very strong updraft. Severe weather conditions such as ground lightning, large hail, strong winds, and heavy rainfall can cause in the cumulonimbus clouds with OTs, with turbulence and lightning occurring very frequently in the area near OTs. In terms of aviation operations, OTs are a very important risk factor. According to Federal Aviation Administration, 509 cases of 4,326 weather-related events from 1992 to 2001were caused by turbulences. The detection of OTs is important to predict the degree and location of severe weather conditions such as turbulence, lightning, and thunderstorms. There are two methods widely used to detect OTs with multispectral images. One is the Water Vapor-InfraRed window channel Brightness Temperature Difference (WV-IRW BTD), which uses the differences in brightness temperatures at an infrared channel (about 11 ㎛). The other approach is the InfraRed Window texture (IRW-texture) method, which is based on the characteristics of OTs that appear a pixel group with low temperatures. The typical IRW-texture algorithm uses simple thresholds to detect OTs, whereas this research proposes an advanced approach based on machine learning techniques such as decision trees, random forest (RF), and support vector machines (SVM) with various variables from geostationary satellite data such as MSG SEVIRI (over Africa) and Himawari AHI (over East Asia) so as to improve the detection of OTs. OT and non-OT samples (e.g. other types of clouds such as stratus and cirrus) were extracted using the CloudSat cloud profiling radar (CPR) and SEVIRI (and Himawari) imagery. Results show that RF produced the best performance in detection of OTs yielding an overall accuracy of 98.33% and a false alarm rate of 9.01%. The user's accuracies of OT and non-OT were similar, whereas the producer's accuracy of non-OT was

  4. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. (United States)

    Ong, Hui Ming; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Makhtar, Nor 'Adilah; Khalid, Mohamed Hanief; Khalid, Syamimi; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Mastuki, Siti Nurulhuda; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Lajis, Nordin; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan


    Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. is a medicinal herbaceous plant that is commonly used by the Malay community in Malaysia to relieve pain often associated with mouth ulcers, toothache, sore throat, and stomach ache. The study was carried out to investigate the antinociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of A. uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. flowers (MEAU) using murine models of chemicals and thermal nociception. Chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-induced paw licking test) and thermal models (hot plate test) of nociception in mice were employed to evaluate the MEAU analgesic effect. The extract was given via oral administration at doses of 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg. It was demonstrated that MEAU produced significant antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which indicates the presence of both centrally and peripherally mediated activities. Furthermore, the reversal of antinociception of MEAU by naloxone suggests the involvement of opioid system in its centrally mediated analgesic activity. Moreover, MEAU-treated mice did not show any significant motor performance alterations. No mortality and signs of toxicity were recorded following treatment of the MEAU. The results from the present study appear to support the folkloric belief in the medicinal properties of A. uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. which against pain at both central and peripheral levels, in which the central antinociception is probably due to the participation of the opioid receptors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Silica-Aerogel Composites Opacified with La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 (United States)

    Rhine, Wendell; Polli, Andrew; Deshpande, Kiranmayi


    As part of an effort to develop improved lightweight thermal-insulation tiles to withstand temperatures up to 1,000 C, silica aerogel/fused-quartz-fiber composite materials containing La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 particles as opacifiers have been investigated as potentially offering thermal conductivities lower than those of the otherwise equivalent silica-aerogel composite materials not containing La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 particles. The basic idea of incorporating opacifying particles into silica-aerogels composite to reduce infrared radiative contributions to thermal conductivities at high temperatures is not new: it has been reported in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. What is new here is the selection of La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 particles as candidate opacifiers that, in comparison with some prior opacifiers (carbon black and metal nanoparticles), are more thermally stable. The preparation of a composite material of the present type includes synthesis of the silica-aerogel component in a sol-gel process. The La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 particles, made previously in a separate process, are mixed into the sol, which is then cast onto fused-quartz-fiber batting. Then the aerogel-casting solution is poured into the mold, where it permeates the silica fiber felt. After the sol has gelled, the casting is aged and then subjected to supercritical drying to convert the gel to the final aerogel form. The separate process for making the La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 particles begins with the slow addition of corresponding proportions of La(CH3COOH)3, Mn(CH3COOH)3, and Sr(NO3)2 to a solution of H2O2 in H2O. The solution is then peptized by drop-wise addition of NH4OH to obtain a sol. Next, the sol is dried in an oven at a temperature of 120 C to obtain a glassy solid. The solid is calcined at 700 C to convert it to La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3. Then La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 particles are made by ball-milling the calcined solid. The effectiveness of La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3 particles as opacifiers and thermal

  6. The continuous quality improvement project for telephone-assisted instruction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Junro; Wato, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo


    In 2007, the Ishikawa Medical Control Council initiated the continuous quality improvement (CQI) project for telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR), which included instruction on chest-compression-only CPR, education on how to recognise out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) with agonal breathing, emesis and convulsion, recommendations for on-line or redialling instructions and feedback from emergency physicians. This study aimed to investigate the effect of this project on the incidence of bystander CPR and the outcomes of OHCAs. The baseline data were prospectively collected on 4995 resuscitation-attempted OHCAs, which were recognised or witnessed by citizens rather than emergency medical technicians during the period of February 2004 to March 2010. The incidence of telephone-CPR and bystander CPR, as well as the outcomes of the OHCAs, was compared before and after the project. The incidence of telephone-CPR and bystander CPR significantly increased after the project (from 42% to 62% and from 41% to 56%, respectively). The incidence of failed telephone-CPR due to human factors significantly decreased from 30% to 16%. The outcomes of OHCAs significantly improved after the projects. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the CQI project is one of the independent factors associated with one-year (1-Y) survival with favourable neurological outcomes (odds ratio=1.81, 95% confidence interval=1.20-2.76). The CQI project for telephone-CPR increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcome of OHCAs. A CQI project appeared to be essential to augment the effects of telephone-CPR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new concept for high-cycle-life LEO: Rechargeable MnO2-hydrogen (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.; Dhar, H. P.; Kim, Y. J.; Murphy, O. J.


    The nickel-hydrogen secondary battery system, developed in the early 1970s, has become the system of choice for geostationary earth orbit (GEO) applications. However, for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites with long expected lifetimes the nickel positive limits performance. This requires derating of the cell to achieve very long cycle life. A new system, rechargeable MnO2-Hydrogen, which does not require derating, is described here. For LEO applications, it promises to have longer cycle life, high rate capability, a higher effective energy density, and much lower self-discharge behavior than those of the nickel-hydrogen system.

  8. Development of MnO2 cathode inks for flexographically printed rechargeable zinc-based battery (United States)

    Wang, Zuoqian; Winslow, Rich; Madan, Deepa; Wright, Paul K.; Evans, James W.; Keif, Malcolm; Rong, Xiaoying


    A novel roll-to-roll flexographic printing process for rechargeable zinc-based battery manufacturing was presented in this paper. Based on the fundamental operating mechanism of flexography, key criteria for developing functional flexographic printing inks were established, including composite ink rheology (steady-state viscosity and yield stress), ink wettability as well as ink dispersing qualities. A variety of MnO2 cathode inks were developed and analyzed comprehensively based on these criteria. A novel type of aqueous cathode ink based on PSBR polymeric binder showed excellent flexographic printability as well as promising electrochemical performance.

  9. Voltage controlled Bi-mode resistive switching effects in MnO2 based devices (United States)

    Hu, P.; Wu, S. X.; Wang, G. L.; Li, H. W.; Li, D.; Li, S. W.


    In this paper, the voltage induced bi-mode resistive switching behavior of an MnO2 thin film based device was studied. The device showed prominent bipolar resistive switching behavior with good reproducibility and high endurance. In addition, complementary resistive switching characteristics can be observed by extending the voltage bias during voltage sweep operations. The electrical measurement data and fitting results indicate that the oxygen vacancies act as defects to form a conductive path, which is connective or disrupted to realize a low resistive state or a high resistive state. Changing the sweep voltage can tune the oxygen vacancies distribution, which will achieve complementary resistive switching.

  10. Serijski in množični morilci - primerjava med spoloma


    Dragojević, Sara


    V diplomski nalogi so opisani serijski in množicni morilci ter primerjava med moškim in ženskim spolom le-teh. Predstavljeni sta obe definiciji, njune znacilnosti in tipologija. Opisane so tudi faze serijskih umorov ter delitev storilcev na organizirane in neorganizirane morilce. Slednja velja za serijske morilce in pomaga policistom ter kriminalistom pri preiskovanju kraja zlocina. Zavedati se moramo, da ceprav je vec moških morilcev, ne smemo pozabiti tudi na ženske morilk...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser HEMMATI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL and traditional classroom lecture (TCL for continuing medical education (CME programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR curriculum guidelines training either by traditional or by an Internet-based CME. A randomized two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Postgraduate general physician trainees of Iran medical schools were participated. Two methods were compared for teaching the newest curriculum guidelines of the American Heart Association: lecture method in which the teacher follows a Power point presentation with linear layout, and with interactive self-assessment and Scenario-based learning, feedback, multimedia with linear and nonlinear layout with the same power point presentation as lecture in terms of text and photography. The data on final CPR exam grades, collected both groups trained physicians, were obtained for a total of 80 physicians in 2011. An independent sample t-test analysis indicated that participants in the IBL format reported significantly higher mean ratings for this format (62.5 ±2.32 than TCL format (54.6±2.18 (p=.001. There were no significant differences between the two groups in cognitive gains (p<0.05. well-designed IBL content can be effective or a supplement component to CME.

  12. Preconcentration of radium isotopes from natural waters using MnO2 Resin. (United States)

    Moon, D S; Burnett, W C; Nour, S; Horwitz, P; Bond, A


    We have characterized "MnO2 Resin," a new resin developed by the PG Research Foundation, for radium adsorption over wide ranges of pH, reaction times and salt concentrations. We show that the sorption of 133Ba (used as a proxy for Ra) is highly dependent on pH with the most useful range from pH 4 to 8. The surface layers of the Mn oxides apparently become more positively charged under acidic conditions (below pH 4), which prevents diffusion of positively charged alkaline earth species (e.g. Ba2+, Ra2+) into the sorption sites. Adsorption at higher pH is thought to be inhibited because of carbonate complexation. We found that the sorption characteristics for radium onto MnO2 Resin are especially favorable for low-salinity waters but the sorption is still very satisfactory for highly salted solutions (KD=2.8x10(4) in both cases) but with slower kinetics. For analytical purposes, both column and pump experiments showed high recoveries with no measurable discrimination between Ra and Ba regardless of flow rates in fresh water. Seawater tests showed that recoveries of Ra and Ba are lower than fresh water at elevated flow rates with Ra adsorption higher than Ba at flow rates above 10 ml/min.

  13. Nanostructured MnO2 catalyst in E. crassipes (water hyacinth for indigo carmine degradation

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    Tatiana Cuervo Blanco


    Full Text Available The use of water hyacinth’s dried matter (Eichhornia crasippes as a support matrix for nano-MnO2 and its application for the removal of indigo carmine (IC was studied. Different pretreatment processes were tested and results indicated that an acid-alkali pretreatment is an efficient method to binding nanoparticles (NPs to cellulosic matrix. In adittion, the MnO2 NPs were synthesized by sonochemical reduction of MnO4- using different methods (ultrasonic horn system, ultrasonic bath and reaction with ethanol, where the influence of the precursor concentration was observed. The synthesized material was further characterized by ATR-IR, AAS, XRD, SEM, nitrogen isotherms adsorption, EDS, and pHpzc. The IC removal capacity of the nanostructured material, the chemical nature of the degradation products and the effect of various parameters (temperature, pH, initial IC concentration, among others were explored in water samples. After this process, the material, obtained by the ultrasonic bath method, was able to remove 97.6% of IC color in five min, without losing dye degradability efficiency for several consecutive cycles. Through this approach, environmental dangerous effluents from many commercial activities such as textile industry can be efficiently removed with low cost, using synthesize process biodegradable nanocomposite materials.

  14. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

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    Siriphuwanun V


    Full Text Available Visith Siriphuwanun,1 Yodying Punjasawadwong,1 Worawut Lapisatepun,1 Somrat Charuluxananan,2 Ketchada Uerpairojkit2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%, survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%, and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%. The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19; ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13; precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90; the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38; surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82; shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15

  15. A successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to fabricate a layer-by-layer (LbL) MnO2-reduced graphene oxide assembly for supercapacitor application (United States)

    Jana, Milan; Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuila, Tapas; Lee, Joong Hee


    A facile, cost effective and additive-free successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique is demonstrated to develop layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and MnO2 (MnO2-RGOSILAR) on a stainless steel current collector, for designing light-weight and small size supercapacitor electrode. The transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy images shows uniform distribution of RGO and MnO2 in the MnO2-RGOSILAR. The LbL (MnO2-RGOSILAR) demonstrates improved physical and electrochemical properties over the hydrothermally prepared MnO2-RGO (MnO2-RGOHydro). The electrochemical environment of MnO2-RGOSILAR is explained by constant phase element in the high frequency region, and a Warburg element in the low frequency region in the Z-View fitted Nyquist plot. The equivalent circuit of the MnO2-RGOHydro, displays the co-existence of EDL and constant phase element, indicating inhomogeneous distribution of MnO2 and RGO by the hydrothermal technique. An asymmetric supercapacitor device is designed with MnO2-RGOSILAR as positive electrode, and thermally reduced GO (TRGO) as negative electrode. The designed cell exhibits high energy density of ∼88 Wh kg-1, elevated power density of ∼23,200 W kg-1, and ∼79% retention in capacitance after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles.

  16. Manual Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Versus CPR Including a Mechanical Chest Compression Device in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis From Randomized and Observational Studies. (United States)

    Bonnes, Judith L; Brouwer, Marc A; Navarese, Eliano P; Verhaert, Dominique V M; Verheugt, Freek W A; Smeets, Joep L R M; de Boer, Menko-Jan


    Mechanical chest compression devices have been developed to facilitate continuous delivery of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Despite promising hemodynamic data, evidence on clinical outcomes remains inconclusive. With the completion of 3 randomized controlled trials, we conduct a meta-analysis on the effect of in-field mechanical versus manual CPR on clinical outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. With a systematic search (PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Libraries), we identified all eligible studies (randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies) that compared a CPR strategy including an automated mechanical chest compression device with a strategy of manual CPR only. Outcome variables were survival to hospital admission, survival to discharge, and favorable neurologic outcome. Twenty studies (n=21,363) were analyzed: 5 randomized controlled trials and 15 nonrandomized studies, pooled separately. For survival to admission, the pooled estimate of the randomized controlled trials did not indicate a difference (odds ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.05; P=.24) between mechanical and manual CPR. In contrast, meta-analysis of nonrandomized studies demonstrated a benefit in favor of mechanical CPR (odds ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.67; PCPR guidelines (2000 versus 2005) and the CPR strategy (P=.27). Survival to discharge and neurologic outcome did not differ between strategies. Although there are lower-quality, observational data that suggest that mechanical CPR used at the rescuer's discretion could improve survival to hospital admission, the cumulative high-quality randomized evidence does not support a routine strategy of mechanical CPR to improve survival or neurologic outcome. These findings are irrespective of the endorsed CPR guidelines during the study periods. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the SW Iberian margin (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Arnaiz, Álvaro


    The SW Iberian margin lies at the eastern termination of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ), the diffuse transform plate boundary between Africa and Iberia (Sartori et al., 1994). It comprises the Gulf of Cadiz and the Algarve Basin, which were developed under two main different regional stages of deformation. During the Mesozoic, the SW Iberian margin evolution since the Late Triassic was dominated by the Pangea break-up and the Central Atlantic opening up to Early Jurssic, followed by the westernmost Tethyan opening up to Mid/Late Jurassic, and the North Atlantic rifting from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (e.g., Schettino and Turco, 2010). This phase of extension led to the formation of E-W to NE-SW trending, basement-involved extensional faults, the triggering of salt tectonics and the uplifting of basement highs (e.g., Guadalquivir Bank). This extensional phase was responsible not only for the sedimentary depocenter distribution, but also for the crustal configuration of this passive margin, extending from continental crust in the proximal part, to oceanic crust in the distal and deepest portion of the margin. Since the Late Cretaceous, the margin was inverted due to the N-S convergence between Africa and Iberia, being still undergoing collision given the dominance of reverse fault earthquake mechanisms (e.g., Zitellini et al., 2009). The shortening in the margin is mainly accommodated by the north-dipping foliation of the basin, expressed by south-directed blind thrusts affecting the present-day bathymetry, re-activating the basement highs and the salt tectonics, and controlling the Cenozoic depocenters. The emplacement of the Betics to the east led to the westward emplacement of the gravitational unit partially overlying the sedimentary basins, corresponding to the Allochthonous Unit of the Gulf of Cadiz (AUGC). Our observations of the margin configuration have been based on the interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys throughout the

  18. Annealing effect on transport properties of Nd0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annealing effect on transport properties of. Nd0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films. M PATTABIRAMAN a. , P MURUGARAJ a. , G RANGARAJAN a. , V PRASAD b. ,. S V SUBRAMANYAM b. , V S SASTRY c. , SANG-MO KOO d and K V RAO d. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600 036, India. Department ...

  19. Toward an Active and Stable Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution in Acidic Media: Ti-Stabilized MnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus; Paoli, Elisa Antares; Chorkendorff, Ib


    Catalysts are required for the oxygen evolution reaction, which are abundant, active, and stable in acid. MnO2 is a promising candidate material for this purpose. However, it dissolves at high overpotentials. Using first-principles calculations, a strategy to mitigate this problem by decorating...

  20. Mn site substitution of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 with closed shell ions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1019–1026. Mn site substitution of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 with closed shell ions: Effect on magnetic transition temperature. L SEETHA LAKSHMI, V SRIDHARAN, D V NATARAJAN,. V SANKARA SASTRY and T S RADHAKRISHNAN. Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research,. Kalpakkam 603 102 ...

  1. Interface-dependent resistance switching in Nd0⋅ 7 Sr0⋅ 3 MnO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interface-dependent electric-pulse-induced resistance switching effect (EPIR) in Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ceramics was studied. ... Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, P.R. China; State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao ...

  2. MnO2 prepared by hydrothermal method and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery. (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Zhao, Hongbo; Bai, Yang; Guo, Junming; Su, Chang-Wei; Chen, Xiaokai


    Two α-MnO2 crystals with caddice-clew-like and urchin-like morphologies are prepared by the hydrothermal method, and their structure and electrochemical performance are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic cell cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphology of the MnO2 prepared under acidic condition is urchin-like, while the one prepared under neutral condition is caddice-clew-like. The identical crystalline phase of MnO2 crystals is essential to evaluate the relationship between electrochemical performances and morphologies for lithium-ion battery application. In this study, urchin-like α-MnO2 crystals with compact structure have better electrochemical performance due to the higher specific capacity and lower impedance. We find that the relationship between electrochemical performance and morphology is different when MnO2 material used as electrochemical supercapacitor or as anode of lithium-ion battery. For lithium-ion battery application, urchin-like MnO2 material has better electrochemical performance.

  3. Visual colorimetric sensor array for discrimination of antioxidants in serum using MnO2 nanosheets triggered multicolor chromogenic system. (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Deng, Yuequan; He, Yi


    Here we report a unique visual colorimetric sensor array for discrimination of antioxidants in serum based on MnO2 nanosheets-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) multicolor chromogenic system. The absorbance values of the system at 370, 450, and 650nm provide three cross-reactive sensing elements. The presence of antioxidant will inhibit the reaction between TMB and MnO2 nanosheets due to the presence of the competitive reaction of MnO2 nanosheets and antioxidants. Different antioxidants containing uric acid, glutathione, ascorbic acid, cysteine, and melatonin have distinct reducing ability, producing a differential inhibition of MnO2 nanosheets-TMB system, and therefore generating distinct colorimetric response patterns at 370, 450, and 650nm. The obtained patterns for each antioxidant at a concentration of 20μM were successfully discriminated using principal component analysis both in buffer and when spiked into fetal bovine serum (FBS). The identification accuracy of 45 unknown samples was found to be 100%. Remarkably, this sensor assay can visually discriminate antioxidants in diluted FBS with the naked eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption of ribose nucleotides on manganese oxides with varied mn/o ratio: implications for chemical evolution. (United States)

    Bhushan, Brij; Shanker, Uma; Kamaluddin


    Manganese exists in different oxidation states under different environmental conditions with respect to redox potential. Various forms of manganese oxides, namely, Manganosite (MnO), Bixbyite (Mn(2)O(3)), Hausmannite (Mn(3)O(4)) and Pyrolusite (MnO(2)) were synthesized and their possible role in chemical evolution studied. Adsorption studies of ribose nucleotides (5'-AMP, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP) on these manganese oxides at neutral pH, revealed a higher binding affinity to manganosite (MnO) compared to the other manganese oxides. That manganese oxides having a lower Mn-O ratio show higher binding affinity for the ribonucleotides indirectly implies that such oxides may have provided a surface onto which biomonomers could have been concentrated through selective adsorption. Purine nucleotides were adsorbed to a greater extent compared to the pyrimidine nucleotides. Adsorption data followed Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and X( m ) and K( L ) values were calculated. The nature of the interaction and mechanism was elucidated by infrared spectral studies conducted on the metal-oxide and ribonucleotide-metal-oxide adducts.

  5. MnO2 Nanowire/Biomass-Derived Carbon from Hemp Stem for High-Performance Supercapacitors. (United States)

    Yang, MinHo; Kim, Dong Seok; Hong, Seok Bok; Sim, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Bong Gill


    Hierarchical 3D nanostructures based on waste biomass are being offered as promising materials for energy storage due to their processabilities, multifunctionalities, environmental benignities, and low cost. Here we report a facile, inexpensive, and scalable strategy for the fabrication of hierarchical porous 3D structure as electrode materials for supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanowires and hemp-derived activated carbon (HC). Vertical MnO2 wires are uniformly deposited onto the surface of HC using a one-step hydrothermal method to produce hierarchical porous structures with conductive interconnected 3D networks. HC acts as a near-ideal 3D current collector and anchors electroactive materials, and this confers a specific capacitance of 340 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 with a high rate capability (88% retention) of the 3D MnO2/HC composite because of its open-pore system, which facilitates ion and electron transports and synergistic contribution of two energy-storage materials. Moreover, asymmetric supercapacitors fabricated using 3D HC as the anode and 3D MnO2/HC as the cathode are able to store 33.3 Wh kg-1 of energy and have a power delivery of 14.8 kW kg-1.

  6. Effect of MnO on High-Alumina Slag Viscosity and Corrosion Behavior of Refractory in Slags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Renze; Zhang, Jianliang; Fan, Xiaoyue; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Yongan


    The influence of MnO on viscosities of CaO–SiO2–MgO–Al2O3–Cr2O3-based slags and the corrosion mechanism of carbon composite brick used in blast furnace hearth by slags was investigated in this work...

  7. Mn site substitution of La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 with closed shell ions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 5-6. Mn site substitution of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 with closed shell ions: Effect on magnetic transition temperature. L Seetha Lakshmi V Sridharan D V Natarajan V Sankara Sastry T S Radhakrishnan. Colossal Magnetoresistance & Other Materials Volume 58 ...

  8. Single-layer MnO2 nanosheets for sensitive and selective detection of glutathione by a colorimetric method (United States)

    Di, Weihua; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Weiping


    The rapid, sensitive and selective detection of glutathione (GSH) is of great importance in the biological systems. In this work, a template-free and one-step method was used to synthesize the single-layer MnO2 nanosheets via a redox reaction. The resulting product was characterized by XRD, TEM, FTIR, XPS and UV-vis absorption. The addition of GSH results in the change of solution color depth owing to the occurrence of a redox reaction between MnO2 and GSH, enabling colorimetric detection of GSH. At a pH of 3.6, the proposed sensor gives a linear calibration over a GSH concentration range of 10-100 μM, with a rapid response of less than 2 min and a low detection limit of 0.5 μM. The relative standard deviation for seven repeated determinations of GSH is lower than 5.6%. Furthermore, the chemical response of the synthesized MnO2 nanosheets toward GSH is selective. Owing to the advantages with good water solubility, rapid response, high sensitivity, good biocompatibility and operation simplicity, this two-dimensional MnO2-based sensing material might be potential for detecting GSH in biological applications.

  9. Scalable Synthesis of Triple-Core-Shell Nanostructures of TiO2 @MnO2 @C for High Performance Supercapacitors Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves. (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoon; Shin, Jungho; Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Park, Seonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon


    Core-shell nanostructures of metal oxides and carbon-based materials have emerged as outstanding electrode materials for supercapacitors and batteries. However, their synthesis requires complex procedures that incur high costs and long processing times. Herein, a new route is proposed for synthesizing triple-core-shell nanoparticles of TiO2 @MnO2 @C using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs), which originate from incomplete combustion inside chemical-fuel-wrapped nanostructures, and their application in supercapacitor electrodes. SGCWs transform TiO2 to TiO2 @C and TiO2 @MnO2 to TiO2 @MnO2 @C via the incompletely combusted carbonaceous fuels under an open-air atmosphere, in seconds. The synthesized carbon layers act as templates for MnO2 shells in TiO2 @C and organic shells of TiO2 @MnO2 @C. The TiO2 @MnO2 @C-based electrodes exhibit a greater specific capacitance (488 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 ) and capacitance retention (97.4% after 10 000 cycles at 1.0 V s-1 ), while the absence of MnO2 and carbon shells reveals a severe degradation in the specific capacitance and capacitance retention. Because the core-TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon shell prevent the deformation of the inner and outer sides of the MnO2 shell, the nanostructures of the TiO2 @MnO2 @C are preserved despite the long-term cycling, giving the superior performance. This SGCW-driven fabrication enables the scalable synthesis of multiple-core-shell structures applicable to diverse electrochemical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Carbon Quantum Dot-Induced MnO2 Nanowire Formation and Construction of a Binder-Free Flexible Membrane with Excellent Superhydrophilicity and Enhanced Supercapacitor Performance. (United States)

    Lv, Haipeng; Gao, Xiujiao; Xu, Qunjie; Liu, Haimei; Wang, Yong-Gang; Xia, Yongyao


    Manganese oxides (MnO2) are regarded as typical and promising electrode materials for supercapacitors. However, the practical electrochemical performance of MnO2 is far from its theoretical value. Nowadays, numerous efforts are being devoted to the design and preparation of nanostructured MnO2 with the aim of improving its electrochemical properties. In this work, ultralong MnO2 nanowires were fabricated in a process induced by carbon quantum dots (CQDs); subsequently, a binder-free flexible electrode membrane was easily obtained by vacuum filtration of the MnO2 nanowires. The effects of the CQDs not only induced the formation of one-dimensional nanostructured MnO2, but also significantly improved the wettability between electrode and electrolyte. In other words, the MnO2 membrane demonstrated a superhydrophilic character in aqueous solution, indicating the sufficient and abundant contact probability between electrode and electrolyte. The binder-free flexible MnO2 electrode exhibited a preeminent specific capacitance of 340 F g-1 at 1 A g-1; even when the current density reached 20 A g-1, it still maintained 260 F g-1 (76% retention rate compared to that at 1 A g-1). Moreover, it also showed good cycling stability with 80.1% capacity retention over 10 000 cycles at 1 A g-1. Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor was constructed using the MnO2 membrane and active carbon as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively, which exhibited a high energy density of 33.6 Wh kg-1 at 1.0 kW kg-1, and a high power density of 10 kW kg-1 at 12.5 Wh kg-1.

  11. Preparation of PPy-Coated MnO2 Hybrid Micromaterials and Their Improved Cyclic Performance as Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Zhang, Yinyin; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Ji, Siping; Xuan, Zhewen; Yang, Jianhua; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin


    MnO2@PPy core-shell micromaterials are prepared by chemical polymerization of pyrrole on the MnO2 surface. The polypyrrole (PPy) is formed as a homogeneous organic shell on the MnO2 surface. The thickness of PPy shell can be adjusted by the usage of pyrrole. The analysis of SEM, FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and XRD are used to confirm the formation of PPy shell. Galvanostatic cell cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to evaluate the electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries. The results show that after formation of MnO2@PPy core-shell micromaterials, the cyclic performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries is improved. Fifty microliters of PPy-coated caddice-clew-like MnO2 has the best cyclic performances as has 620 mAh g-1 discharge specific capacities after 300 cycles. As a comparison, the discharge specific capacity of bare MnO2 materials falls to below 200 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles. The improved lithium-storage cyclic stability of the MnO2@PPy samples attributes to the core-shell hybrid structure which can buffer the structural expansion and contraction of MnO2 caused by the repeated embedding and disengagement of Li ions and can prevent the pulverization of MnO2. This experiment provides an effective way to mitigate the problem of capacity fading of the transition metal oxide materials as anode materials for (lithium-ion batteries) LIBs.

  12. Chest Compression Fraction between Mechanical Compressions on a Reducible Stretcher and Manual Compressions on a Standard Stretcher during Transport in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests: The Ambulance Stretcher Innovation of Asian Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (ASIA-CPR) Pilot Trial. (United States)

    Kim, Tae Han; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun; Song, Sung Wook; Kim, Chu Hyun


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with the use of mechanical devices is recommended during ambulance transport. However, the CPR quality en route and while in transfer to the emergency department (ED) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) remains uncertain. We developed a mechanical CPR device outfitted on a reducible stretcher (M-CPR) and compared with standard manual CPR on a standard stretcher (S-CPR) to evaluate CPR quality. Adult OHCAs transported by five ambulances in a metropolitan area with a population of 3.5 million (many of whom lived in high-rise buildings) from September to October (before-phase) and November to December (after-phase) in 2015 were collected. The reducible stretcher was developed for use in a small elevator during the transfer from scene to ambulance, and the AutoPulse® (ZOLL Medical, Chelmsford, MA, USA) was used for M-CPR. Chest compression fraction (CCF) was measured by transthoracic impedance data using an X-series® cardiac monitor (ZOLL Medical) during time from attachment to patient to arrival to the ED. A comparison of CCF using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test evaluated the difference between the before- and after-phases. Of the eligible 49 OHCAs, 31 (21 in the before-phase and 10 in the after-phase) were analyzed, excluding patients for whom CCF was not measured, for whom M-CPR was not used, who had a return of spontaneous circulation in the field before transport, or who collapsed during transport. There were no differences in demographic data. Median total CCF (median, q1-q3) was significantly higher in the after-phase M-CPR group (85.2, 83.4-86.3) than in the before-phase S-CPR group (80.1, 68.0-85.2) (p = 0.03). Mechanical CPR on the reducible stretcher during the transport of OHCAs to the ED showed a much higher chest compression fraction than standard manual CPR.

  13. Multicopper Oxidase Involvement in Both Mn(II) and Mn(III) Oxidation during Bacterial Formation of MnO2


    Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Butterfield, Cristina; Oyerinde, Oyeyemi F.; Tebo, Bradley M.; Spiro, Thomas G.


    Global cycling of environmental manganese requires catalysis by bacteria and fungi for MnO2 formation, since abiotic Mn(II) oxidation is slow under ambient conditions. Genetic evidence from several bacteria implicates multicopper oxidases (MCOs) as being required for MnO2 formation. However, MCOs catalyze one-electron oxidations, whereas conversion of Mn(II) to MnO2 is a two-electron process. Trapping experiments with pyrophosphate (PP), a Mn(III) chelator, have demonstrated that Mn(III) is a...

  14. Does location matter? A proposed methodology to evaluate neighbourhood effects on cardiac arrest survival and bystander CPR. (United States)

    Buick, Jason E; Allan, Katherine S; Ray, Joel G; Kiss, Alexander; Dorian, Paul; Gozdyra, Peter; Morrison, Laurie J


    Traditional variables used to explain survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) account for only 72% of survival, suggesting that other unknown factors may influence outcomes. Research on other diseases suggests that neighbourhood factors may partly determine health outcomes. Yet, this approach has rarely been used for OHCA. This work outlines a methodology to investigate multiple neighbourhood factors as determinants of OHCA outcomes. A retrospective, observational cohort study design will be used. All adult non-emergency medical service witnessed OHCAs of cardiac etiology within the city of Toronto between 2006 and 2010 will be included. Event details will be extracted from the Toronto site of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest, an existing population-based dataset of consecutive OHCA patients. Geographic information systems technology will be used to assign patients to census tracts. Neighbourhood variables to be explored include the Ontario Marginalization Index (deprivation, dependency, ethnicity, and instability), crime rate, and density of family physicians. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis will be used to explore the association between neighbourhood characteristics and 1) survival-to-hospital discharge, 2) return-of-spontaneous circulation at hospital arrival, and 3) provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Receiver operating characteristics curves will evaluate each model's ability to discriminate between those with and without each outcome. Discussion This study will determine the role of neighbourhood characteristics in OHCA and their association with clinical outcomes. The results can be used as the basis to focus on specific neighbourhoods for facilitating educational interventions, CPR awareness programs, and higher utilization of automatic defibrillation devices.

  15. First physical volcanological description of a Miocene, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall complex in the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR) (United States)

    Biró, Tamás; Hencz, Mátyás; Karátson, Dávid; Márton, Emő; Bradák-Hayashi, Balázs; Szalai, Zoltán


    The study reports the basic physical volcanological and stratigraphical features of a hitherto unrecognized silicic phreatomagmatic fall succession from the Bükk Foreland Volcanic Area (Hungary), known as part of the extensive Miocene ignimbrite volcanism of the northern CPR. The complex have been identified at two sites, in the vicinity of Bogács and Tibolddaróc villages. Tens of mm to several dm thick layers make up the 20 m thick entire succession. The complex could be subdivided into three eruption cycles by two, intercalated well-developed paleosoil horizons, which indicate longer repose periods. The eruption cycles consist of several individual eruptive events. The volcano-sedimentological field approach was completed by granulometrical and low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies. Combined dry sieving and laser diffraction particle size analysis were performed to get information on median grain size (MdΦ) and sorting (σΦ) of friable layers. AMS was used to infer the emplacement processes. Based on the following features the succession is proposed to record a large-scale, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall activity: i) Presence of very fine ash and abundant ash aggregates, ii) General poor sorting, and often bimodal grain-size distributions; ii) Extremely weak magnetic fabric compared to dilute, thin pyroclastic density current deposits. On the basis of comparison of the recorded grain size characteristics with data from other silicic phretomagmatic fall deposits worldwide, several units in the succession can be considered as phreatoplinian fall deposit (sensu lato), described for the first time in the CPR.

  16. Nonohmic behavior of SnO2.MnO2-based ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Orlandi


    Full Text Available The present paper describes the nonohmic behavior of the SnO2.MnO-based system and analyzes the influence of the sintering time and the Nb2O5 concentration on this system's electrical properties. A nonlinear coefficient of ~7 was obtained for a 0.2 mol%-doped Nb2O5 composition, which is comparable to other values reported in the literature for the ternary SnO2-based systems. A recent barrier formation model proposed in the literature to explain the nonlinear electrical behavior of SnO2-based systems is used to clarify the role of the MnO constituent in the formation of the barrier, taking into account the influence of segregated atoms, precipitated phase and oxygen species in the grain boundary region.

  17. Polydopamine and MnO2 core-shell composites for high-performance supercapacitors (United States)

    Hou, Ding; Tao, Haisheng; Zhu, Xuezhen; Li, Maoguo


    Polydopamine and MnO2 core-shell composites (PDA@MnO2) for high-performance supercapacitors had been successfully synthesized by a facile and fast method. The morphology, crystalline phase and chemical composition of PDA@MnO2 composites are characterized using SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS and XPS. The performance of PDA@MnO2 composites are further investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The PDA@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure composites exhibit a high capacitance of 193 F g-1 at the current density of 1A g-1 and retained over 81.2% of its initial capacitance after 2500 cycles of charge-discharge at 2 A g-1. The results manifest that the PDA@MnO2 composites can be potentially applied in supercapacitors.

  18. Magnetic coupling constants for MnO as calculated using hybrid density functional theory (United States)

    Logsdail, Andrew J.; Downing, Christopher A.; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Sokol, Alexey A.


    The properties of MnO have been calculated using generalised gradient approximation (GGA-) and hybrid (h-) density functional theory (DFT), specifically variants of the popular PBE and PBESol exchange-correlation functionals. The GGA approaches are shown to be poor at reproducing experimental magnetic coupling constants and rhombohedral structural distortions, with the PBESol functional performing worse than PBE. In contrast, h-DFT results are in reasonable agreement with experiment. Calculation of the Néel temperatures using the mean-field approximation gives overestimates relative to experiment, but the discrepancies are as low as 15 K for the PBE0 approach and, generally, the h-DFT results are significant improvements over previous theoretical studies. For the Curie-Weiss temperature, larger disparities are observed between the theoretical results and previous experimental results.

  19. Recovery of Mn as MnO2 from spent batteries leaching solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manciulea A. L.


    Full Text Available The recycling of spent batteries and recovery of metals from them is of great scientific and economic interest, on account of recycling requirement of these wastes and recovery of valuable materials (De Michellis et al., 2007. Usage of recycled materials is diminishing the energy consumption and pollution. It is important that the recycling process to be environmentally friendly, practical and cost-effective. Tests for the process of manganese removal from spent battery leaching solutions, with ammonium peroxodisulfate, prior to recovery of zinc by electrolysis are presented. The experiments were carried out according to a 23 full factorial design as a function of ammonium peroxodisulfate concentration, temperature and pH. Because the excessive manganese in the spent batteries leach solutions can cause problems in the process of Zn recovery by electrolysis the main focus of this study is the manganese removal without altering the concentration of zinc in solutions. Data from XRF and AAS during the reaction at different time are presented. Manganese is obtained with high extraction degree as MnO2, which is economic and commercial important with applications in battery industry, water treatment plants, steel industry and chemicals (Pagnanelli et al., 2007. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was carried out on the extraction yields of Zn after 30min, 1h, 2h and 3h of reaction. The preliminary results denoted that by chemical oxidation with ammonium peroxodisulfate is a suitable method for manganese removal as MnO2 prior zinc recovery by electrolysis, from spent batteries solutions and it could be used in a plant for recycling batteries.

  20. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth? (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan


    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  1. Encapsulation of superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles in MnO 2 microflowers with high surface areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu-Gang; Truong, Tu T.; Liu, Yu-Zi; Hu, Yong-Xing


    Microflowers made of interconnected MnO2 nanosheets have been successfully synthesized in a microwave reactor through a hydrothermal reduction of KMnO4 with aqueous HCl at elevated temperatures in the presence of superparamagnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. Due to the chemical compatibility between SiO2 and MnO2, the heterogeneous reaction leads to the spontaneous encapsulation of the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles in the MnO2 microflowers. The resulting hybrid particles exhibit multiple properties including high surface area associated with the MnO2 nanosheets and superparamagnetism originated from the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles, which are beneficial for applications requiring both high surface area and magnetic separation. (C) 2014 Yu-Gang Sun.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siqueira, Rogério Navarro C de; Oliveira, Pâmela Fernandes de


    Nanostructured oxides with interesting magnetic properties, such as the spinel Al2MnO4, can be synthesized through thermal decomposition of nitrate solution followed by thermal treatment under a reducing atmosphere...

  3. Morphology-controlled synthesis and novel microwave electromagnetic properties of hollow urchin-like chain Fe-doped MnO 2 under 10 T high magnetic field (United States)

    Yuping, Duan; Jia, Zhang; Hui, Jing; Shunhua, Liu


    Fe-doped MnO 2 with a hollow sea urchin-like ball chain shape was first synthesized under a high magnetic field of 10 T. The formation mechanism was investigated and discussed in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EMPA, and vector network analysis. By doping MnO 2 with Fe, the relative complex permittivity of MnO 2 and its corresponding loss tangent clearly decreases, but its relative complex permeability and its corresponding loss tangent markedly increases. Moreover, the theoretically calculated values of reflection loss show that with increasing the Fe content, the as-prepared Fe-doped MnO 2 exhibits good microwave absorption capability.

  4. Van SW-bedrijf naar Centrum voor Werk: interview met Gert Jan Engbers, SOWECO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, R.


    De wet Sociale werkvoorziening wordt uitgevoerd door ongeveer negentig "monopolisten", de huidige SW-bedrijven. Deze krijgen daartoe opdracht van de ongeveer 440 Nederlandse gemeenten, die de uitvoering neerleggen bij één partij: het regionale SW-bedrijf. Dit komt mede omdat de wet de gemeenten tot

  5. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen


    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules in...

  6. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of the Cork Harbour area, SW Ireland (United States)

    Allen, A. R.; Milenic, D.


    In the Cork Harbour area of SW Ireland, high yield karst and intergranular gravel aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution from a variety of sources, mainly due to the limited protection afforded by the thin cover of low permeability glacial and alluvial overburden. The main potential sources of pollution are due to rapid urbanisation of the Cork city area and its attendant infrastructure, and increased industrialisation in the area, with numerous new industries, particularly pharmaceutical and chemical industries, located around Cork Harbour. Other potential sources of pollution are a number of landfills in the area and an oil refinery near the mouth of Cork Harbour. Traditional agricultural sources of pollution also exist, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers. Finally, the susceptibility to saline intrusion of the karst and gravel aquifers around Cork Harbour is high due to the long coastline of the harbour and the low-lying nature of the karst synclines with their superimposed buried valleys.

  7. Magneto-transport properties of La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3/SrTiO 3/La 0.7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    La0.7Ce0.3MnO3/SrTiO3/La0.7Ce0.3MnO3 tunnel junction; magneto-transport properties; magnetoresistance. ... University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK; Institut fur Festkorper und Wekstofforschung, Dresden, D-01069 Dresden, Germany; Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide decorated with CeO2-doped MnO2 nanorods for supercapacitor applications. (United States)

    Ojha, Gunendra Prasad; Pant, Bishweshwar; Park, Soo-Jin; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak-Yong


    A novel and efficient CeO2-doped MnO2 nanorods decorated reduced graphene oxide (CeO2-MnO2/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method. The growth of the CeO2 doped MnO2 nanorods over GO sheets and reduction of GO were simultaneously carried out under hydrothermal treatment. The morphology and structure of as-synthesized nanocomposite were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy, which revealed the formation of CeO2-MnO2 decorated RGO nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of as-prepared CeO2-MnO2/RGO nanocomposites as an active electrode material for supercapacitor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods in 2M alkaline medium. The obtained results revealed that as-synthesized CeO2-MnO2/RGO nanocomposite exhibited higher specific capacitance (648F/g) as compared to other formulations (MnO2/RGO nanocomposites: 315.13 F/g and MnO2 nanorods: 228.5 F/g) at the scan rate of 5mV/s. After 1000 cycles, it retained ∼90.4%, exhibiting a good stability. The high surface area, enhanced electrical conductivity, and good stability possess by the nanocomposite make this material a promising candidate to be applied as a supercapacitor electrode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hierarchical structures composed of MnCo2O4@MnO2 core-shell nanowire arrays with enhanced supercapacitor properties. (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Ye, Yunlong; Yang, Qian; Geng, Baoyou; Zhang, Xiaojun


    In this paper, hierarchical MnCo2O4@MnO2 core-shell nanowire arrays (MnCo2O4@MnO2 NWAs) with mesoporous and large surface area are synthesized on 3D nickel foam via a facile, two-step hydrothermal approach without any adscititious surfactant and binder. The electrode architecture takes advantage of the synergistic effects contributed from both the porous MnCo2O4 nanowire core and the MnO2 shell layer. The fabricated MnCo2O4@MnO2 NWA electrode for supercapacitors in aqueous electrolyte exhibits a significantly enhanced specific capacitance (858 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)), high energy density (36.0 Wh kg(-1) at 252 W kg(-1)) and long-life cycling stability (retaining 88% of the initial capacitance after 5000 cycles). Then, a symmetrical supercapacitor is fabricated by assembling two MnCo2O4@MnO2 NWA-based electrodes, which shows a high specific capacitance of 678 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and a high energy density of 135.6 Wh kg(-1) at 513 W kg(-1). Thereby, the hierarchical core-shell MnCo2O4@MnO2 NWAs are very promising as next generation high-performance long-life cycling supercapacitors.

  10. Co3O4 nanoparticle-modified MnO2 nanotube bifunctional oxygen cathode catalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries (United States)

    Du, Guojun; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun; Hor, T. S. Andy; Yu, Aishui; Liu, Zhaolin


    We report the preparation of MnO2 nanotubes functionalized with Co3O4 nanoparticles and their use as bifunctional air cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in rechargeable zinc-air batteries. These hybrid MnO2/Co3O4 nanomaterials exhibit enhanced catalytic reactivity toward oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline conditions compared with that in the presence of MnO2 nanotubes or Co3O4 nanoparticles alone.We report the preparation of MnO2 nanotubes functionalized with Co3O4 nanoparticles and their use as bifunctional air cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in rechargeable zinc-air batteries. These hybrid MnO2/Co3O4 nanomaterials exhibit enhanced catalytic reactivity toward oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline conditions compared with that in the presence of MnO2 nanotubes or Co3O4 nanoparticles alone. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Zinc-air cell device, XPS survey scan and power density of the cell. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00300k

  11. Electrochemical and structural effects of in situ Li2O extraction from Li2MnO3 for Li-Ion batteries. (United States)

    Jacob, Clement; Jian, Jie; Su, Qing; Verkhoturov, Stanislav; Guillemette, Renald; Wang, Haiyan


    Li2MnO3 is an attractive cathode material due to its low cost, nontoxicity and potentially high capacity. However, its electrochemical inactivity, its poor electronic conductivity, and uncertainty about its underlying mechanism have limited its development. In this work, an in situ technique for extraction of Li and O during deposition of the thin film cathode is developed to investigate structural and electrochemical effects in a controlled fashion. MnO2 has been observed in samples with severe O and Li deficiency (capacity of 115 mAh g(-1)), while Li2MnO3 cathodes with slight excess of O and Li (capacity of 225 mAh g(-1)) can be synthesized by tuning growth conditions appropriately. Formation of a MnO2 phase, especially in Li and O deficient structures, could be a possible reason for irreversible capacity loss in Li2MnO3 related materials. Further investigation into stoichiometric and microstructure variations enabled by this technique allows rapid investigation of Li2MnO3 as well as other Li-rich composites.

  12. MnO2@KCu7S4 NWs hybrid compositions for high-power all-solid-state supercapacitor (United States)

    Dai, Shuge; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Yue, Xule; Cheng, Lu; Wang, Guo


    Here we present a high-power all-solid-state supercapacitor based on a novel structure of MnO2@KCu7S4 NWs. The electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with large specific capacitance of 533 F g-1 and the maximum power density 2.02 kW kg-1, still hold 85% of the capacitance over 6000 cycles. Besides, we also explored the effect of temperature on the capacitance. When compared with capacitance at different temperatures, the specific capacity at 80 °C demonstrates significantly higher. Moreover, two supercapacitors in series can power 41 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) about 4 min. These results suggest that such MnO2@KCu7S4 hybrid composite is promising for next generation high-performance supercapacitors.

  13. The Low Temperature Specific Heat of Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Han


    Full Text Available The low temperature specific heat of polycrystalline perovskite-type Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 manganese oxide has been investigated experimentally. It is found that the low temperature electron specific heat in zero magnetic field is obviously larger than that of ordinary rare-earth manganites oxide. To get the contribution of phonon to the specific heat precisely, the lattice specific heat is calculated by Debye model fitting. Results confirm that the low temperature specific heat of Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 is related to the itinerant electrons in ferromagnetic clusters and the disorder in the sample.

  14. Morphology control of MnO2 nanoparticles: Effect of P123 polymer in ethanol-water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li


    Full Text Available A series of MnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by two-step reaction in the ethanol-water system with urea as reducing agent. During the novel routine, P123 polymer plays a crucial role in controlling the morphology. Then, characterization and systematic investigations of the samples by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the morphology of MnO2 nanoparticles changed as the raw materials ratio changed. Finally, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to confirm the crystal structure and the exact components. These results indicated the particles showed a rod-like shape without P123 and changed into sheet-like shape after the addition of P123. Therefore, this idea could be developed for the controllable synthesis of other metal oxide-based nanomaterials.

  15. Strain dependent magnetocaloric effect in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin-films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Suresh Kumar


    Full Text Available The strain dependent magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films deposited on three different substrates (001 LaAlO3 (LAO, (001 SrTiO3 (STO, and (001 La0.3Sr0.7Al0.65Ta0.35O9 (LSAT have been investigated under low magnetic fields and around magnetic phase transition temperatures. Compared to bulk samples, we observe a remarkable decrease in the ferromagnetic transition temperature that is close to room temperature, closely matched isothermal magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power values in tensile strained La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films. The epitaxial strain plays a significant role in tuning the peak position of isothermal magnetic entropy change towards room temperature with improved cooling capacity.

  16. The morphology and electromagnetic properties of MnO 2 obtained in 8 T high magnetic field (United States)

    Jia, Zhang; Yuping, Duan; Hui, Jing; Xiaogang, Li; Shunhua, Liu


    MnO 2 powder was synthesized in a high magnetic field (8 T) via a simple route, and the formation mechanism for the grain shape was discussed. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and vector network analysis. The morphology of synthesized MnO 2 was sea urchin-like ball chain with a low density center, just like "hollow-like". Throughout the whole frequency range, the dielectric constant and the loss tangent clearly decreased in 8 T high magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic permeability and the loss tangent increased slightly in the frequency range 2-13 GHz. Furthermore, the theoretically calculated values of reflection loss showed that when the magnetic field strength 8 T was adopted, the absorption peak became smoother and shifted to a higher frequency.

  17. Leakage current transport mechanisms of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leakage current transport mechanisms of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/BaTiO3 bilayer films grown on Nb:SrTiO3. PAN RUIKUN1,2,∗, LIU PANKE1, LI MINGKAI1, TAO HAIZHENG2, LI PAI1 and HE YUNBIN1. 1Key Laboratory of Green Preparation & Application for Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Faculty of. Materials ...

  18. Polarized Raman scattering in single crystals of Nd 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 5-6. Polarized Raman scattering in single crystals of Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3. M Pattabiraman G Rangarajan Kwang-Yong Choi P Lemmens G Guentherodt G Balakrishnan D McK Paul M R Less. Colossal Magnetoresistance & Other Materials Volume 58 Issue 5-6 ...

  19. Electrochemical behavior of nanostructured MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite in aqueous electrolyte LiNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujković Milica


    Full Text Available The electrolytic solutions of contemporary Li-ion batteries are made exclusively with the organic solvents since anodic materials of these batteries have potentials with greater negativity than the potential of the water reduction, thus the organic electrolytes can withstand the voltages of 3-5 V that are characteristic for these batteries. Ever since it was discovered that some materials can electrochemically intercalate and deintercalate Li+ ions in aqueous solutions, numerous studies have been conducted with the aim of extending operational time of the aqueous Li-ion batteries. Manganese oxide has been studied as the electrode material in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with organic electrolytes. In this paper its electrochemical behavior as an anode material in aqueous electrolyte solutions was examined. MnO2 as a component of nanodispersed MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite was successfully synthesized hydrothermally. Electrochemical properties of this material were investigated in aqueous saturated LiNO3 solution by both cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charging/discharging (LiMn2O4 as cathode material techniques. The obtained composite shows a relatively good initial discharge capacity of 96.5 mAh/g which, after 50th charging/discharging cycles, drops to the value of 57mAh/g. MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite, in combination with LiMn2O4 as a cathode material, shows better discharge capacity compared to other anodic materials used in aqueous Li-ion batteries according to certain studies that have been conducted. Its good reversibility and cyclability, and the fact that hydrothermal method is simple and effective, makes MnO2/C(Vulcan® composite a promising anodic material for aqueous Li-ion batteries.

  20. Strain driven anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic La$_{0.4}$Sr$_{0.6}$MnO$_{3}$


    Wong, AT; Beekman, C.; Guo, H.; W. Siemons; Gai, Z.; Arenholz, E.; Takamura, Y.; Ward, TZ


    We investigate the effects of strain on antiferromagnetic (AFM) single crystal thin films of La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 (x = 0.6). Nominally unstrained samples have strong magnetoresistance with anisotropic magnetoresistances (AMR) of up to 8%. Compressive strain suppresses magnetoresistance but generates AMR values of up to 63%. Tensile strain presents the only case of a metal-insulator transition and demonstrates a previously unreported AMR behavior. In all three cases, we find evidence of magnetic...

  1. The Two-Component System CprRS Senses Cationic Peptides and Triggers Adaptive Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Independently of ParRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Luca; Jenssen, Håvard; Bains, Manjeet


    the action of the arnBCADTEF operon. We recently described a series of two-component regulators that lead to the activation of the arn operon after recognizing environmental signals, including low-Mg2+ (PhoPQ, PmrAB) or cationic (ParRS) peptides. However, some peptides did not activate the arn operon through......Cationic antimicrobial peptides pass across the outer membrane by interacting with negatively charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to outer membrane permeabilization in a process termed self-promoted uptake. Resistance can be mediated by the addition of positively charged arabinosamine through...... ParRS. Here, we report the identification of a new two-component system, CprRS, which, upon exposure to a wide range of antimicrobial peptides, triggered the expression of the LPS modification operon. Thus, mutations in the cprRS operon blocked the induction of the arn operon in response to several...

  2. Synthesis, structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of CuFe2O4/MnO2 nanocomposites (United States)

    Ali, Kashif; Bahadur, Ali; Jabbar, Abdul; Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Ijaz; Bashir, Muhammad Imran


    Novel nanocomposite of (1-x)CuFe2O4/xMnO2 [x=10% to 50 wt%] has been synthesized by two step wet chemical route without impurity. The x-ray diffraction analysis shows the formation of both phases with crystallite size 40-100 nm which is consist ant with estimated size of SEM.The FTIR spectra confirms the characteristics vibration of ferrites atoms at tetrahedral and octahedral sites along with Mn-O vibration mode, which also confirms the coexistence of both phases. The dielectric properties studied by LCR meter in frequency range of 1 K Hz to 2 MHz.The dielectric constant and tangent loss shows same dispersion of ferrites while a.c. conductivity decreases with increase in MnO2 contents. The real and imaginary part of impedance also calculated which shows decreasing trend at higher frequency. The magnetic characterization performed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature, which shows normal ferromagnetic behavior of ferrites but saturation magnetization and coercivity decreases with incorporation of MnO2 contents.

  3. MnO2/CNT supported Pt and PtRu nanocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells. (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; Wang, Hongjuan; Peng, Feng; Liang, Jiahua; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jian


    Pt/MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT) and PtRu/MnO2/CNT nanocomposites were synthesized by successively loading hydrous MnO2 and Pt (or PtRu alloy) nanoparticles on CNTs and were used as anodic catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The existence of MnO2 on the surface of CNTs effectively increases the proton conductivity of the catalyst, which then could remarkably improve the performance of the catalyst in methanol electro-oxidation. As a result, Pt/MnO2/CNTs show higher electrochemical active surface area and better methanol electro-oxidation activity, compared with Pt/CNTs. As PtRu alloy nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of MnO2/CNTs instead of Pt, the PtRu/MnO2/CNT catalyst shows not only excellent electro-oxidation activity to methanol with forward anodic peak current density of 901 A/gPt but also good CO oxidation ability with lower preadsorbed CO oxidation onset potential (0.33 V vs Ag/AgCl) and peak potential (0.49 V vs Ag/AgCl) at room temperature.

  4. Synthesis of MnO nano-particle@Flourine doped carbon and its application in hybrid supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Deyu; Feng, Xiaoke [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Wei, Xi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Guo, Liping [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Cai, Haopeng, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Tang, Haolin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Xie, Zhizhong, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China)


    Highlights: • A Fluorine doped carbon encapsulated MnO nanoparticle material was fabricated through a self-assembly method. • Nafion ionomers was used as the fluorine and carbon precursor. • A lithium ion supercapacitor was assemblied by using MnO@FC and porous carbon. • A stable energy density as well as superior cycling stability were demonstrated in this hybrid system. - Abstract: A flourine doped carbon materials encapsulated MnO nano-particle was synthesized through a self-assembly method. The MnO nano-crystal covered with a thin layer of graphite were achieved. This hybrid MnO/carbon materials were employed as negative electrode in a new lithium ion hybrid supercapacitor, while the electrochemical double-layer porous carbon served as positive electrode. The electrochemical performances of this hybrid device were investigated and exhibited relative high capacity upto 40 mAh g{sup −1} in an applied current of 200 mAh g{sup −1}, good rate performance as well as superior cycling stability.

  5. The Influence of Carbonaceous Matrices and Electrocatalytic MnO2 Nanopowders on Lithium-Air Battery Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Minguzzi


    Full Text Available Here, we report new gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs prepared by mixing two different pore size carbonaceous matrices and pure and silver-doped manganese dioxide nanopowders, used as electrode supports and electrocatalytic materials, respectively. MnO2 nanoparticles are finely characterized in terms of structural (X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, morphological (SEM, high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM, surface (Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET-Barrett Joyner Halenda (BJH method and electrochemical properties. Two mesoporous carbons, showing diverse surface areas and pore volume distributions, have been employed. The GDE performances are evaluated by chronopotentiometric measurements to highlight the effects induced by the adopted materials. The best combination, hollow core mesoporous shell carbon (HCMSC with 1.0% Ag-doped hydrothermal MnO2 (M_hydro_1.0%Ag allows reaching very high specific capacity close to  1400 mAh·g−1. Considerably high charge retention through cycles is also observed, due to the presence of silver as a dopant for the electrocatalytic MnO2 nanoparticles.

  6. Nanotubular MnO2/graphene oxide composites for the application of open air-breathing cathode microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Gnana Kumar, G; Awan, Zahoor; Suk Nahm, Kee; Xavier, J Stanley


    Nanotubular shaped α-MnO2/graphene oxide nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple, cost and time efficient hydrothermal method. The growth of hollow structured MnO2 nanotubes preferentially occurred along the [001] direction as evidenced from the morphological and structural characterizations. The tunnels of α-MnO2 nanotubes easily accommodated the molecular oxygen and exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction over the rod structure and was further enhanced with the effective carbon support graphene oxide. The MnO2 nanotubes/graphene oxide nanocomposite modified electrode exhibited a maximum power density of 3359 mW m(-2) which is 7.8 fold higher than that of unmodified electrode and comparable with the Pt/C modified electrode. The microbial fuel cell equipped with MnO2 nanotubes/graphene oxide nanocomposite modified cathode exhibited quick start up and excellent durability over the studied electrodes and is attributed to the high surface area and number of active sites. These findings not only provide the fundamental studies on carbon supported low-dimensional transition-metal oxides but also open up the new possibilities of their applications in green energy devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MnO2nanosheet mediated "DD-A" FRET binary probes for sensitive detection of intracellular mRNA. (United States)

    Ou, Min; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; Quan, Ke; Yang, Yanjing; Xie, Nuli; Wang, Kemin


    The donor donor-acceptor (DD-A) FRET model has proven to have a higher FRET efficiency than donor-acceptor acceptor (D-AA), donor-acceptor (D-A), and donor donor-acceptor acceptor (DD-AA) FRET models. The in-tube and in-cell experiments clearly demonstrate that the "DD-A" FRET binary probes can indeed increase the FRET efficiency and provide higher imaging contrast, which is about one order of magnitude higher than the ordinary "D-A" model. Furthermore, MnO 2 nanosheets were employed to deliver these probes into living cells for intracellular TK1 mRNA detection because they can adsorb ssDNA probes, penetrate across the cell membrane and be reduced to Mn 2+ ions by intracellular GSH. The results indicated that the MnO 2 nanosheet mediated "DD-A" FRET binary probes are capable of sensitive and selective sensing gene expression and chemical-stimuli changes in gene expression levels in cancer cells. We believe that the MnO 2 nanosheet mediated "DD-A" FRET binary probes have the potential as a simple but powerful tool for basic research and clinical diagnosis.

  8. Porous graphitic carbon microtubes derived from willow catkins as a substrate of MnO2 for supercapacitors (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Kang; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e.; Li, Ping


    Biomass is receiving considerable attention because of its significant advantages as a sustainable and renewable material. Willow catkins, which have a single-walled microtubular structure are used as both a template and a precursor for synthesizing porous graphitic carbon microtubes (PGCMT) induced by the simultaneous activation-graphitization of K4Fe(CN)6. In addition to providing low-resistant pathways and short ion diffusion channels, as-obtained PGCMT with tubular structure also serves as an ideal platform for anchoring MnO2. The PGCMT/MnO2 composite electrode obtained by MnO2 electrodeposition expressed excellent electrochemical performance, including a significantly enhanced specific capacitance (550.8 F g-1 for the mass of MnO2 at a current density of 2 A g-1), a high capacitance retention of 61.8% even at a high current density of 50 A g-1, and an excellent cycling stability of 89.6% capability retention after 5000 cycles. These findings offer a simple and environmentally friendly strategy for preparing advanced energy materials by utilizing the unique structure of biomass waste from nature.

  9. Early detection of brain death using the Bispectral Index (BIS) in patients treated by extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) for refractory cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Jouffroy, Romain; Lamhaut, Lionel; Guyard, Alexandra; Philippe, Pascal; An, Kim; Spaulding, Christian; Baud, Frédéric; Carli, Pierre; Vivien, Benoît


    Despite increasing use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) for treatment of refractory cardiac arrest patients, prognosis remains dismal, often resulting in brain-death. However, clinical assessment of brain-death occurence is difficult in post-cardiac arrest patients, sedated, paralyzed, under mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH). Our objective was to assess the usefulness of Bispectral-Index (BIS) monitoring at bedside for an early detection of brain-death occurrence in refractory cardiac arrest patients treated by E-CPR. This prospective study was performed in an intensive care unit of an university hospital. Forty-six patients suffering from refractory cardiac arrest treated by E-CPR were included. BIS was continuously recorded during ICU hospitalization. Clinical brain-death was confirmed when appropriate by EEG and/or cerebral CT angiography. Twenty-nine patients evolved into brain-death and had average BIS values under MTH and after rewarming (temperature ≥35°C) of 4 (0-47) and 0 (0-82), respectively. Among these, 11 (38%) entered into a procedure of organs donation. Among the 17 non-brain-dead patients, the average BIS values at admission and after rewarming were 39 (0-65) and 59 (22-82), respectively. Two patients had on admission a BIS value equal to zero and evolved to a poor prognostic (CPC 4) and died after care limitations. BIS values were significantly different between patients who developed brain death and those who did not. In both groups, no differences were observed between the AUCs of ROC curves for BIS values under MTH and after rewarming (respectively 0.86 vs 0.83, NS). Initial values of BIS could be used as an assessment tool for early detection of brain-death in refractory cardiac arrest patients treated by mild therapeutic hypothermia and E-CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of film thickness and magnetism on the electronic structure of MnO films (United States)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Barman, Sukanta; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.


    We investigate the influence of film thickness and magnetism on the electronic structure of a strongly correlated prototypical system, MnO(001) films epitaxially grown on Ag(001), using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. XPS measurements have confirmed the MnO stoichiometry as well as the layer-by-layer growth mode of the films, while the ARPES measurements have confirmed the high structural quality of the films by the observation of clear band dispersions devoid of any sample charging effects. For lower coverage films, finite-size effects/reduced correlation effects are observed, while from 3 ML coverages, bulklike band structures are formed. Detailed band mapping along Γ ¯-X ¯ and Γ ¯-M ¯ directions reveal a relative dispersion between Mn-derived eg and t2 g states up to 1.2 eV, in contrast to previous ARPES results where maximum relative dispersions of ±0.1 eV were reported, while our results excellently match with the theoretically predicted dispersions. By comparing with theoretical results we show the hybridization between O 2 p with the Mn eg states giving rise to the observed dispersions resulting from the highly dispersive nature of the O 2 p bands. Furthermore, we show that during the paramagnetic (PM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition, the valence band gets narrower with an enhancement of the e5g peak intensity, along with the widening of the energy gap by 200 meV. Theoretically, Terakura et al. had predicted the possibility of a similar outcome due to the decrease of the effective d d hopping between the oppositely magnetized cations during the PM to AFM-II transition because of the d d σ type interaction, yet the experimental verification was absent in the literature. We believe that the exact same mechanism as predicted by Terakura et al. is responsible for the changes seen in the electronic structure during magnetic phase transition and argue that a similar trend can be

  11. A nanoporous metal recuperated MnO2 anode for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Guo, Xianwei; Han, Jiuhui; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Pan; Hirata, Akihiko; Chen, Luyang; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei


    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been intensively studied to meet the increased demands for the high energy density of portable electronics and electric vehicles. The low specific capacity of the conventional graphite based anodes is one of the key factors that limit the capacity of LIBs. Transition metal oxides, such as NiO, MnO2 and Fe3O4, are known to be promising anode materials that are expected to improve the specific capacities of LIBs for several times. However, the poor electrical conductivity of these oxides significantly restricts the lithium ion storage and charge/discharge rate. Here we report that dealloyed nanoporous metals can realize the intrinsic lithium storage performance of the oxides by forming oxide/metal composites. Without any organic binder, conductive additive and additional current collector, the hybrid electrodes can be directly used as anodes and show highly reversible specific capacity with high-rate capability and long cyclic stability.Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been intensively studied to meet the increased demands for the high energy density of portable electronics and electric vehicles. The low specific capacity of the conventional graphite based anodes is one of the key factors that limit the capacity of LIBs. Transition metal oxides, such as NiO, MnO2 and Fe3O4, are known to be promising anode materials that are expected to improve the specific capacities of LIBs for several times. However, the poor electrical conductivity of these oxides significantly restricts the lithium ion storage and charge/discharge rate. Here we report that dealloyed nanoporous metals can realize the intrinsic lithium storage performance of the oxides by forming oxide/metal composites. Without any organic binder, conductive additive and additional current collector, the hybrid electrodes can be directly used as anodes and show highly reversible specific capacity with high-rate capability and long cyclic stability. Electronic supplementary

  12. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea: a new time series and modeling approach to CPR data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis Jansen

    Full Text Available We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.

  13. "Must do CPR??": strategies to cope with the new College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario policy on end-of-life care. (United States)

    Hawryluck, Laura; Oczkowski, Simon J W; Handelman, Mark


    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario recently released a new policy, Planning for and Providing Quality End-of-Life Care. The revised policy is more accurate in its consideration of the legal framework in which physicians practice and more reflective of ethical issues that arise in end-of-life (EOL) care. It also recognizes valid instances for not offering cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Nevertheless, the policy poses a significant ethical and legal dilemma-i.e., if disputes over EOL care arise, then physicians must provide CPR even when resuscitation would fall outside this medical standard of care. While the policy applies in Ontario, it is likely to influence other physician colleges across Canada as they review their standards of practice. This paper explores the rationale for the mandated CPR, clarifies the policy's impact on the medical standard of care, and discusses strategies to improve EOL care within the policy. These strategies include understanding the help-hurt line, changing the language used when discussing cardiac arrest, clarifying care plans during the perioperative period, engaging the intensive care unit team early in goals-of-care discussions, mentoring hospital staff to improve skills in goals-of-care discussions, avoiding use of the "slow code", and continuing to advocate for quality EOL care and a more responsive legal adjudication process.

  14. Targeted simulation and education to improve cardiac arrest recognition and telephone assisted CPR in an emergency medical communication centre. (United States)

    Hardeland, Camilla; Skåre, Christiane; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Birkenes, Tonje S; Myklebust, Helge; Hansen, Andreas E; Sunde, Kjetil; Olasveengen, Theresa M


    Recognition of cardiac arrest and prompt activation time by emergency medical dispatch are key process measures that have been associated with improved survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study is to improve recognition of OHCA and time to initiation of telephone assisted chest compressions in an emergency medical communication centre (EMCC). A prospective, interventional study implementing targeted interventions in an EMCC. Interventions included: (1) lectures focusing on agonal breathing and interrogation strategy (2) simulation training (3) structured dispatcher feedback (4) web-based telephone assisted CPR training program. All ambulance-confirmed OHCA calls in the study period were assessed and relevant process and result measures were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Cardiac arrest was reported as (1) recognised, (2) not recognised or (3) delayed recognition. We included 331 and 230 calls pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Recognition of cardiac arrest improved significantly after intervention (89 vs. 95%, p=0.024). Delayed recognition was significantly reduced (21 vs. 6%, p>0.001), as was misinterpretation of agonal breathing (25 vs. 10%, pquality metrics can facilitate development of targeted education and training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical simulation of magneto-acoustic Wave Phase Conjugation with the DG method in the CPR framework (United States)

    Modarreszadeh, Seyedamirreza; Timofeev, Evgeny; Merlen, Alain; Matar, Olivier Bou; Pernod, Philippe


    The present paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of magneto-acoustic Wave Phase Conjugation (WPC) phenomena. Since ultrasonic waves in the WPC applications have short wavelengths relative to the traveling distances, high-order numerical methods in both space and time domains are required. The numerical scheme chosen for the current research is the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method incorporated into the Correction Procedure via Reconstruction (CPR) framework. In order to avoid non-physical oscillations near high-gradient regions, a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) limiter is used to reconstruct the solutions in the affected cells. After being assured that the numerical scheme has appropriate accuracy and performance, the WPC process is modeled in both linear and non-linear regimes. The results in the linear regime are in acceptable agreement with the analytical solution. The only significant deviation between the linear and non-linear results is at the sensor within the passive zone, where the mean pressure starts to grow gradually in the non-linear regime due to overtaking of the low-velocity pressure waves by the high-velocity ones.

  16. Genetically Engineered Phage-Templated MnO2 Nanowires: Synthesis and Their Application in Electrochemical Glucose Biosensor Operated at Neutral pH Condition. (United States)

    Han, Lei; Shao, Changxu; Liang, Bo; Liu, Aihua


    To conveniently obtain one-dimensional MnO2 nanowires (NWs) with controlled structure and unique properties for electron transfer, the genetically engineered M13 phages were used as templates for precise nucleation and growth of MnO2 crystals in filamentous phage scaffolds, via the spontaneous oxidation of Mn(2+) in alkaline solution. It was found that the morphology of NWs could be tailored by the surface charge of M13 mutants. MnO2 crystals were uniformly distributed on the surface of negatively charged tetraglutamate-fused phage (M13-E4), significantly different from irregular MnO2 agglomeration on the weakly negatively charged wild-type phage and positively charged tetraarginine-fused phage. The as-synthesized M13-E4@MnO2 NWs could catalyze the electro-oxidation of H2O2 at neutral pH. To demonstrate the superiority of the electrocatalytic activity in the solution containing plenty of chloride ions at neutral pH, both glucose oxidase and as-prepared MnO2 NWs were used for fabricating the glucose biosensor. The proposed biosensor showed a wide linear range (5 μM to 2 mM glucose), a low limit of detection of 1.8 μM glucose (S/N = 3), good interassay and intra-assay reproducibility and satisfactory storage stability. Due to the superiorities of synthesis and electrochemical performance, the as-prepared MnO2 NWs are promising for applications in electrocatalysis, electrochemical sensor, and supercapacitor.

  17. Effect of MnO2 doped on physical, structure and optical properties of zinc silicate glasses from waste rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jabbar Abed Al-Nidawi

    Full Text Available In this study, an investigation was conducted to explore and synthesize silicate (SiO2 glass from waste rice husk ash (RHA. MnO2 doped zinc silicate glasses with chemical formula [(ZnO55 + (WRHA45]100-X[MnO2]X, (where X = 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% was prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The glass samples were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that by increasing the concentration of MnO2, the color of glass samples changed from colorless to brown and the density of glass increased. XRD results showed that a broad halo peak which centered on the low angle (2θ = 30° indicated the amorphous nature of the glass. FTIR results showed basic structural units of Si-O-Si in non-bridging oxygen, Si-O and Mn-O in the glass network. FESEM result showed a decreasing porosity with an increasing MnO2 content, which was attributed to the Mn ions resort to occupy interstitial sites inside the pores of glass. Besides, the absorption intensity of glass increased and the band gap value decreased with increasing the MnO2 percentage. In this synthesized glass system of MnO2 doped zinc silicate glasses using RHA as a source of silica, the MnO2 affect most of the properties of the glass system under investigation. Keywords: Rice husk, Manganese dioxide, Glass, Zinc silicate, Sintering, Optical properties

  18. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey (United States)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon


    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  19. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza


    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  20. Direct chemical synthesis of MnO2 nanowhiskers on MXene surfaces for supercapacitor applications

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, Raghavan Baby


    Transition metal carbides (MXenes) are an emerging class of two dimensional (2D) materials with promising electrochemical energy storage performance. Herein, for the first time, by direct chemical synthesis, nanocrystalline ε-MnO2 whiskers were formed on MXene nanosheet surfaces (ε-MnO2/Ti2CTx and ε-MnO2/Ti3C2Tx) to make nanocomposite electrodes for aqueous pseudocapacitors. The ε-MnO2 nanowhiskers increase the surface area of the composite electrode and enhance the specific capacitance by nearly three orders of magnitude compared to pure MXene based symmetric supercapacitors. Combined with enhanced pseudocapacitance, the fabricated ε-MnO2/MXene supercapacitors exhibited excellent cycling stability with ~88% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 10000 cycles which is much higher than pure ε-MnO2 based supercapacitors (~74%). The proposed electrode structure capitalizes on the high specific capacitance of MnO2 and the ability of MXenes to improve conductivity and cycling stability.

  1. Collapse of magnetic moment drives the Mott transition in MnO. (United States)

    Kunes, Jan; Lukoyanov, Alexey V; Anisimov, Vladimir I; Scalettar, Richard T; Pickett, Warren E


    The metal-insulator transition in correlated electron systems, where electron states transform from itinerant to localized, has been one of the central themes of condensed-matter physics for more than half a century. The persistence of this question has been a consequence both of the intricacy of the fundamental issues and the growing recognition of the complexities that arise in real materials, when strong repulsive interactions play the primary role. The initial concept of Mott was based on the relative importance of kinetic hopping (measured by the bandwidth) and onsite repulsion of electrons. Real materials, however, have many further degrees of freedom that, as is recently attracting note, give rise to a rich variety of scenarios for a 'Mott transition'. Here, we report results for the classic correlated insulator MnO that reproduce a simultaneous moment collapse, volume collapse and metallization transition near the observed pressure, and identify the mechanism as collapse of the magnetic moment due to an increase of crystal-field splitting, rather than to variation in the bandwidth.

  2. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  3. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

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    Yu Fan


    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 proteins. Results: Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P < 0.01. Artesunate can effectively inhibit the expression of cancer cell ICAM-1 gene proteins, and was time- and concentration-dependant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Artesunate can significantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  4. Dosimetric properties of a Solid Water High Equivalency (SW557) phantom for megavoltage photon beams. (United States)

    Araki, Fujio


    The dosimetric properties of the recently developed SW557 phantom have been investigated by comparison with those of the existing SW457 phantom in megavoltage photon beams. The electron fluence ratio φplw, and chamber ionization ratio kpl, of water to SW457 and water to SW557 for 4-15MV photons were calculated as a function of depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and compared with measured values. Values of φplw for SW457 were in the range of 1.004-1.014 for 4MV, and 1.014-1.018 for 15MV photons. The φplw for SW557 ranged from 1.005 to 1.008 for 4MV and from 1.010 to 1.015 for 15MV photons and the variation of φplw with depth for each beam energy was within ±0.5%. Values of kpl were obtained with a PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionization chamber. The kpl for SW457 ranged from 0.997 to 1.011 for 4-15MV photons. Values of kpl for SW557 were almost unity for 4 and 6MV photons, while in the case of 10 and 15MV photons they were less than 1.006, excepting the build-up region. The measured and calculated kpl values of water to SW557 were in the range of 0.997-1.002 and 1.000-1.006, respectively, for 4-15MV photons, at a depth of 10cm with a source-to-axis distance of 100cm. The measured and calculated kpl values were in agreement within their uncertainty ranges. As a water-equivalent phantom, SW557 can be used with a dosimetric difference within±0.6%, for 4-15MV photons, and is more water-equivalent than SW457 in megavoltage photon beams. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Facile synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous weirds-like morphological MnO2 thin films on carbon cloth for high performance supercapacitor application. (United States)

    Shinde, Pragati A; Lokhande, Vaibhav C; Ji, Taeksoo; Lokhande, Chandrakant D


    The mesoporous nanostructured metal oxides have a lot of capabilities to upsurge the energy storing capacity of the supercapacitor. In present work, different nanostructured morphologies of MnO2 have been successfully fabricated on flexible carbon cloth by simple but capable hydrothermal method at different deposition temperatures. The deposition temperature has strong influence on reaction kinetics, which subsequently alters the morphology and electrochemical performance. Among different nanostructured MnO2 thin films, the mesoporous weirds composed thin film obtained at temperature of 453K exhibits excellent physical and electrochemical features for supercapacitor application. The weirds composed MnO2 thin film exhibits specific surface area of 109m2g-1, high specific capacitance of 595Fg-1 with areal capacitance of 4.16Fcm-2 at a scan rate of 5mVs-1 and high specific energy of 56.32Whkg-1. In addition to this, MnO2 weirds attain capacity retention of 87 % over 2000 CV cycles, representing better cycling stability. The enhanced electrochemical performance could be ascribed to direct growth of highly porous MnO2 weirds on carbon cloth which provide more pathways for easy diffusion of electrolyte into the interior of electroactive material. The as-fabricated electrode with improved performance could be ascribed as a potential electrode material for energy storage devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic, electric and electron magnetic resonance properties of orthorhombic self-doped La sub 1 sub - sub x MnO sub 3 single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Markovich, V; Shames, A I; Puzniak, R; Rozenberg, E; Yuzhelevski, Y; Mogilyansky, D; Wisniewski, A; Mukovskii, Y M; Gorodetsky, G


    The effect of lanthanum deficiency on structural, magnetic, transport, and electron magnetic resonance (EMR) properties has been studied in a series of La sub 1 sub - sub x MnO sub 3 (x = 0.01, 0.05, 0.11, 0.13) single crystals. The x-ray diffraction study results for the crystals were found to be compatible with a single phase of orthorhombic symmetry. The magnetization curves exhibit weak ferromagnetism for all samples below 138 K. It was found that both the spontaneous magnetization and the coercive field increase linearly with x. The pressure coefficient dT sub N /dP decreases linearly with self-doping, from a value of 0.68 K kbar sup - sup 1 for La sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 9 MnO sub 3 to 0.33 K kbar sup - sup 1 for La sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 7 MnO sub 3. The resistivity of low-doped La sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 9 MnO sub 3 crystal is of semiconducting character, while that of La sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 7 MnO sub 3 depends weakly on temperature between 180 and 210 K. It was found that the magnetic and transport prop...

  7. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window. (United States)

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa


    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings.

  8. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede


    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  9. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.


    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  10. Microseismicity and active deformation of Messinia, SW Greece (United States)

    Papoulia, J.; Makris, J.

    By deploying a 30 3-component digital seismic array in the Messiniakos gulf and the surrounding region, we recorded for a period of 45 days the microseismic activity. With a minimum of six records per event, we located 1121 earthquakes corresponding to an average of 20 events per day. For the hypocenter location we used a local velocity model adopted to two controlled source seismic experiments. Within the array, traveltime residuals were within ± 0.2 s and the epicentral accuracy in the order of ± 2 km, while the hypocentral one is twice this value. Correlation of the seismicity with the tectonic elements indicated that most of the NW-SE oriented faults are active with strike-slip movement along this orientation and extension perpendicular to it. The neogene basins of Messini, Meligalas and Megalopolis are seismically very active and their eastern flanks are delineated by higher seismic activity than their western ones. This indicates that the basins are asymmetric with master faults defining their eastern-northeastern flanks. This hypothesis is supported by the asymmetric structure mapped at the offshore Messiniakos basin as densely spaced high resolution reflection seismic profiles have revealed. The western margins of the basins are less deformed and the seismic activity is dispersed over several minor NW-SE faults. Since the NW-SE striking faults onshore are truncated by major NE-SW oriented ones, their overall length is shortened, reducing their seismic potential and capacity to store large stresses that could produce events above Ms6.1. Offshore western Messinia, in the Ionian Sea, the size and activity of the faults is significantly larger and prone to develop events of larger magnitudes. Subcrustal seismicity indicates a deepening of the foci to the east-northeast.

  11. Preliminary Results of EEWS Parameters for SW Iberia (United States)

    Carranza, Marta; Buforn, Elisa; Pro, Carmen; Zollo, Aldo; Pazos, Antonio; Lozano, Lucia; Carrilho, Fernando


    SW Iberia is an area where potential large and damaging earthquakes may occur such as the 1755 (Lisbon Imax=X), 1969 (S. Vicente Cape Ms=8,1) or 1964 (Gulf of Cádiz Ms=6.5) shocks. We have estimated the peak displacement (Pd) and mean period (τc) for a rapid estimation of the potential damage for earthquakes occurring in this region (ALERT-ES project), from the first seconds of the beginning of P-waves. This estimation is carried out by the correlation of these parameters with the magnitude and the peak ground velocity (PGV) of recorded shocks. The database is formed by earthquakes with epicentres at S. Vicente Cape and Gulf of Cadiz regions, occurred on the period 2006-2011 with magnitude larger than 3.8 and recorded at regional distances (less than 500 km) at real time broad-band seismic stations. We have studied different lengths of time-windows (2 to 20s) and applied different filters. Due to the off-shore foci occurrence and the bad azimuthal coverage, we have corrected the Pd parameter by the radiation pattern obtained from focal mechanisms of the largest earthquakes of this region. We have normalized the Pd value to a reference distance (200 km) and after that we have obtained empirical correlation laws for Pd and τc versus magnitude. We have also obtained an empirical correlation between Pd parameter and the PGV estimated over the total seismogram. The PGV could be correlated to the earthquakes damages through the Modified Mercalli Intensity (IMM). Applying the scaling laws obtained (Pd and PGV), we have estimated the theoretical intensity maps for the 2007 and 2009 earthquakes occurred in this area.

  12. The influence of nonlinear intra-thoracic vascular behaviour and compression characteristics on cardiac output during CPR. (United States)

    Koeken, Yvette; Aelen, Paul; Noordergraaf, Gerrit J; Paulussen, Igor; Woerlee, Pierre; Noordergraaf, Abraham


    Clinical observations suggest that the assumption of a linear relationship between chest compression pressure and cardiac output may be oversimplified. More complex behaviour may occur when the transmural pressure is large, changing the compliances and resistances in the intra-thoracic vasculature. A fundamental understanding of these compression induced phenomena is required for improving CPR. An extensively used, lumped element computer model (model I) of the circulation was upgraded and refined to include the intrathoracic vasculature (model II). After validation, model II was extended by adding variable compliances and resistances (model III) to the vascular structures. Successively, ranges of compression pressures, frequencies, duty cycles and compression pulse shapes were applied while controlling all other parameters. Cardiac output was then compared. The nonlinearities in compliance and resistance become important, limiting factors in cardiac output, starting in our experimental series at 70 mmHg peak compression pressure, and increasing with higher pressures. This effect is reproducible for sinusoidal and trapezoidal compression forms, resulting in lower cardiac output in all experiments at high compression pressures. Duty cycle and wait time are key parameters for cardiac output. Our data strongly indicate that vascular compliance, especially the ability of vessels to collapse (and potentially the cardiac chambers), can be a central factor in the limited output generated by chest compressions. Just pushing 'harder' or 'faster' is not always better, as an 'optimal' force and frequency may exist. Overly forceful compression can limit blood flow by restricting filling or depleting volume in the cardiac chambers and central great vessels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Grade of a doctor does not influence acquisition of knowledge and skill during CPR training in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi B Bankole


    Full Text Available Background: Our teaching hospitals have different grades of doctors with varied exposure to cardiac arrest settings and their resuscitation skills are often inadequate. Objectives: We investigated whether the grade of a doctor influenced acquisition of knowledge and skill during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Doctors who attended a two-day resuscitation training program between December 2007 and April 2009 were scored on their knowledge of Basic Life Support, Advanced Life Support, and performance at five skill stations. A pass mark was awarded for a post-test score ≥ 75% and a pass in all skill stations. Results: A total of 130 doctors were studied with a mean of 10.99 ± 6.51 years since medical qualification (range, 2-28 years. The mean pre-test score was 54.43 ± 16.10% (range 30.5-91.8% while the mean post-test score was 88.48 ± 6.8% (range, 54.6-94%, (P < 0.001. Mean post-test scores were not significantly different between grades. Mean scores for questions on Basic Life Support, defibrillator use, and drug therapy and in performance at skill stations were not significantly different between grades. A significant difference however existed in questions on cardiac arrest rhythms (P = 0.031. Sixty-five participants (50% passed the post-test at first attempt. Consultants, senior registrars, and registrars had pass rates of 59.2%, 53.6%, and 43.5% respectively (P = 0.336. After re-training at performance stations, 124 doctors (95.4% passed the test with no significant difference in overall pass in the various grades (P = 0.605. Conclusion : Grade of doctor did not affect the acquisition of knowledge and skill during resuscitation training.

  14. Electric field modification of magnetism in Au/La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/Pt device. (United States)

    Xiong, Y Q; Zhou, W P; Li, Q; Cao, Q Q; Tang, T; Wang, D H; Du, Y W


    The La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 film is deposited in a CMOS-compatible Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate with the oxygen pressure of 10 Pa for investigating magnetoelectric effect. Bipolar resistive switching effect with excellent endurance and retention is observed in this Au/La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/Pt device. Through this effect, a significant nonvolatile change of magnetization is obtained in this device as well. The change of magnetization can be understood by the break and repair of the -Mn(3+)-O(2-)-Mn(4+)- chains induced by the electric field through the oxygen vacancies migration. The resistance and magnetization of the Au/La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/Pt device can be simultaneously manipulated by the electric field, which makes it to be a promising candidate for the multifunctional memory devices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Navarro Correia de Siqueira


    Full Text Available Nanostructured oxides with interesting magnetic properties, such as the spinel Al2 MnO4 , can be synthesized through thermal decomposition of nitrate solution followed by thermal treatment under a reducing atmosphere. The present work can be understood as a study of the synthesis of Al2 MnO4 samples based on the H2 reduction of Al and Mn oxide mixtures, including a discussion of the effect of some important process variables over the kinetic behavior of the system, such as temperature and thermal treatment time. For the temperature range considered (1,073 K to 1,173 K both the total reduction of manganese oxides to MnO, as well as the formation of spinel structures could be verified. At the beginning of the formation process, the spinel shows considerable cationic disorder (non-stoichiometric structure. The structure then evolves to the equilibrium stoichiometric form for higher process temperature and time.

  16. Removal of PFOA in groundwater by Fe0 and MnO2 nanoparticles under visible light. (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Weinholtz, Lindsey; Zheng, Linan; Peiravi, Meisam; Wu, Yan; Chen, Da


    The main objective of this study was to find a cost-effective, efficient and environmentally-friendly solution to remove perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA) from groundwater by using Fe0 and MnO2 nanoparticles. The selected method was expected to be applicable to the remediation of PFOA-contaminated groundwater. Phytotoxicity of the nanoparticle treatment was studied to demonstrate the safe application of the nanomaterials. Zero-valent Fe (100 mg L-1) and MnO2 (100 mg L-1) nanoparticles, produced in our lab, were used to remove PFOA up to 10 mg L-1. The test was conducted under visible light with or without addition of 0.88 mol L-1 H2O2 in a pH range of 0.5-11.0 for a duration of 18 h. Using Fe nanoparticles, a higher percentage of PFOA was removed under extreme acidic environment of pH 0.5 than under the basic environment of pH 11.0, and a minimum removal rate was reached under the neutral environment. The Fe nanoparticles were more efficient than the MnO2 nanoparticles at pH 0.5 with a removal rate of 69.7% and 89.7% without and with H2O2 addition, respectively. Phytotoxicity study showed that the treatment by Fe nanoparticles under mild pH reduced the phytotoxicity of groundwater-associated PFOA to Arabidopsis thaliana. The Fe nanoparticles did not show negative effect to A. thaliana under the experimental conditions used in this study.

  17. Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanofilms with high rate capability and long cyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Wu


    Full Text Available Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using MnO2 nanofilms growing directly on carbon cloth as the electrodes and PVA/H3PO4 gel as the electrolyte/separator. The device can be operated at a stable cell-voltage up to 1.4 V, obviously larger than that of conventional solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (≤1 V. It exhibited excellent rate capability with a scan rate as high as 20 V s−1 and a long cyclability (∼60000 cycles even under severe mechanical deformation. The charge storage mechanism at different scan rates was also quantitatively analyzed.

  18. Direct observation of inhomogeneous solid electrolyte interphase on MnO anode with atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Rui; Yang, Xiaocheng; Lu, Wei; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Hong; Chen, Liwei


    Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is an in situ formed thin coating on lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes. The mechanical property of SEI largely defines the cycling performance and the safety of LIBs but has been rarely investigated. Here, we report quantitatively the Young's modulus of SEI films on MnO anodes. The inhomogeneity of SEI film in morphology, structure, and mechanical properties provides new insights to the evolution of SEI on electrodes. Furthermore, the quantitative methodology established in this study opens a new approach to direct investigation of SEI properties in various electrode materials systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  19. The effects of high magnetic field on the morphology and microwave electromagnetic properties of MnO 2 powder (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Yuping, Duan; Shuqing, Li; Xiaogang, Li; Shunhua, Liu


    MnO 2 with a sea urchin-like ball chain shape was first synthesized in a high magnetic field via a simple chemical process, and a mechanism for the formation of this grain shape was discussed. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and vector network analysis. The dielectric constant and the loss tangent clearly decreased under a magnetic field. The magnetic loss tangent and the imaginary part of the magnetic permeability increased substantially. Furthermore, the theoretically calculated values of reflection loss showed that the absorption peaks shifted to a higher frequency with increases in the magnetic field strength.

  20. Anisotropic stress relief mechanism in epitaxial La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films (United States)

    Vailionis, Arturas; Boschker, Hans; Houwman, Evert; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus; Blank, Dave H. A.


    We report an anisotropic misfit stress relief mechanism in thin La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) films coherently grown on NdGaO3(110) substrates. These results are uniquely related to the orthorhombicity of the LSMO. The x-ray diffraction measurements and quantitative simulations demonstrate that biaxial mismatch stress is relieved differently along in-plane directions perpendicular to each other: in the [11¯0] direction stress is accommodated by decrease of the γ angle of the orthorhombic LSMO unit cell, while in the [001] direction stress is partially relieved by periodic lattice modulations.

  1. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Ryzner, Kamila; Skurzyński, Jacek; Jary, Zdzisław


    High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills) and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills). Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm). Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  2. Carbon supported MnO2-CoFe2O4 with enhanced electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Qing; Hu, Tianjun; Zhang, Limin; Deng, Youquan


    The catalyst MnO2-CoFe2O4/C was firstly synthesized via a two-step process and applied as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. The composite exhibits better bifunctional activity than CoFe2O4/C and MnO2/C. Moreover, superior durability and high methanol tolerance in alkaline media outperforms the commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst, which signifying its excellent potential for applications in metal-air batteries and alkaline fuel cells.

  3. Interfacial magnetic coupling in ultrathin all-manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-TbMnO3 superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Y. F.


    We report the growth and magnetic properties of all-manganite superlattices composed of ultrathin double-exchange ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and noncollinear multiferroic TbMnO3 layers. Spontaneous magnetization and hysteresis loops are observed in such superlattices with individual La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 layers as thin as two unit cells, which are accompanied by pronounced exchange bias and enhanced coercivity. Our results indicate substantial interfacial magnetic coupling between spin sublattices in such superlattices, providing a powerful approach towards tailoring the properties of artificial magnetic heterostructures.

  4. Magnetic vortex evolution in self-assembled La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoislands under in-plane magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zabaleta


    Full Text Available The magnetic vortex formation at room temperature and its evolution under in-plane magnetic field is studied in chemically grown self-assembled La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoislands of less than 200 nm in width. We use variable field magnetic force microscopy and numerical simulations to confirm that the vortex state is ubiquitous in these square-base pyramid shape epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanostructures, and that it requires in-plane magnetic fields below 40 kA/m to be annihilated.

  5. Study of morphological and mechanical features of multinuclear and mononuclear SW480 cells by atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Liu, Jinyun; Qu, Yingmin; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Xinyue; Zhang, Wenxiao; Li, Jingmei; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Jiang, Jinlan


    This article studies the morphological and mechanical features of multinuclear and mononuclear SW480 colon cancer cells by atomic force microscopy to understand their drug-resistance. The SW480 cells were incubated with the fullerenol concentrations of 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. Morphological and mechanical features including the height, length, width, roughness, adhesion force and Young's modulus of three multinuclear cell groups and three mononuclear cell groups were imaged and analyzed. It was observed that the features of multinuclear cancer cells and mononuclear cancer cells were significantly different after the treatment with fullerenol. The experiment results indicated that the mononuclear SW480 cells were more sensitive to fullerenol than the multinuclear SW480 cells, and the multinuclear SW480 cells exhibited a stronger drug-resistance than the mononuclear SW480 cells. This work provides a guideline for the treatments of multinuclear and mononuclear cancer cells with drugs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Use of a checklist during observation of a simulated cardiac arrest scenario does not improve time to CPR and defibrillation over observation alone for subsequent scenarios. (United States)

    Dilley, Stuart J; Weiland, Tracey J; O'Brien, Robert; Cunningham, Neil J; Van Dijk, Julian E; Mahoney, Rosie M; Williams, Matthew J


    Immersive simulation is a common mode of education for medical students. Observation of clinical simulations prior to participation is believed to be beneficial, though this is often a passive process. Active observation may be more beneficial. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the active use of a simple checklist during observation of an immersive simulation would result in better participant performance in a subsequent scenario compared with passive observation alone. Medical students were randomized to either passive or active (with checklist) observation of an immersive simulation involving cardiac arrest prior to participating in their own simulation. Performance measures included time to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and time to defibrillation and were compared between first and second scenarios as well as between passive and active observers. Seventy-nine simulations involving 232 students were conducted. Mean time to CPR was 18 seconds (SD = 11.6) for those using the checklist and 24 seconds (SD = 15.8) for those who observed passively (M difference = 6 seconds), t(35) = 1.46, p =.153. Time to defibrillation was 94 seconds (SD = 26.4) for those using the checklist and 92 seconds (SD = 23.8) for those who observed passively (M difference = -2 seconds), t(38) =.21, p =.837. Time to CPR was 24 seconds (SD = 15.8) for passive observers and 31 seconds (SD = 21.0; M difference = 7 seconds), t(35) = 1.13, p =.265, for their first scenario counterparts. Time to CPR was 18 seconds (SD = 11.6) for active observers and 36 seconds (SD = 26.2; M difference = 18 seconds), t(24) = 2.81, p =.010, for their first scenario counterparts. Time to defibrillation was 92 seconds (SD = 23.8) for passive observers and 125 seconds (SD = 32.2; M difference = 33 seconds), t(33) = 3.63, p =.001, for their first scenario counterparts. Time to defibrillation was 94 seconds (SD = 26.4) for the active observers and 132 seconds (SD = 52.9; M difference = 38 seconds), t(28

  7. Synthesis of Pr0.70Sr0.30MnO3δ and Nd0.70Sr0.30MnO3δ powders by solution-combustion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Azevedo Vargas


    Full Text Available Powders of Pr0.70Sr0.30MnO3δ (PSM and Nd0.70Sr0.30MnO3δ (NSM compositions are being investigated as alternative cathode materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The compositions were synthesized by a solution-combustion method using metal nitrates and urea as fuel. Combustion synthesis is a highly suitable synthesis route for achieving fine and homogeneous powders at low temperatures. Single phase pseudo-perovskite was obtained by X-ray diffraction after heat treatment of PSM and NSM powders at 900 ºC. The synthesized and milling powders had an average particle size between 0.27 to 0.07 μm. Chemical analyses of the powders calcined was performed by X-ray fluorescence and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with literature values, indicating characteristics adjusted for preparation of ceramic suspensions.

  8. Magnetic structure determination from the magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF): ground state of MnO. (United States)

    Frandsen, Benjamin A; Billinge, Simon J L


    An experimental determination of the magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF) defined in an earlier paper [Frandsen et al. (2014). Acta Cryst. A70, 3-11] is presented for the first time. The mPDF was determined from neutron powder diffraction data from a reactor and a neutron time-of-flight total scattering source on a powder sample of the antiferromagnetic oxide MnO. A description of the data treatment that allowed the measured mPDF to be extracted and then modelled is provided and utilized to investigate the low-temperature structure of MnO. Atomic and magnetic co-refinements support the scenario of a locally monoclinic ground-state atomic structure, despite the average structure being rhombohedral, with the mPDF analysis successfully recovering the known antiferromagnetic spin configuration. The total scattering data suggest a preference for the spin axis to lie along the pseudocubic [10{\\overline 1}] direction. Finally, r-dependent PDF refinements indicate that the local monoclinic structure tends toward the average rhombohedral R{\\overline 3}m symmetry over a length scale of approximately 100 Å.

  9. Verification of Anderson Superexchange in MnO via Magnetic Pair Distribution Function Analysis and ab initio Theory. (United States)

    Frandsen, Benjamin A; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; Uemura, Yasutomo J; Staunton, Julie B; Billinge, Simon J L


    We present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ∼1  nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominated by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. The Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.

  10. Asymmetric capacitors based on TiO2 and mesoporous MnO2 electrodes using neutral aqueous electrolyte (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Jin, Cuihong; Bian, Zhenpan; Liu, Xin; Li, Siheng; Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling


    Asymmetric capacitor based on TiO2 with the size range from 90 to 410 nm and mesoporous MnO2 (ca. 200-380 nm) electrodes has been successfully constructed and characterized in LiClO4 aqueous electrolyte. The samples of both metal oxides were fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption-desorption, and so on. The electrochemical capacitive performances of both electrode materials were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge in 1 mol/L LiClO4 with a working voltage of 2.0 V. The discharge profile of the asymmetric capacitor exhibited an excellent capacitive behavior and good cycling stability after 2000 cycles. Moreover, the TiO2//MnO2 asymmetric capacitor possesses both higher energy density and power density (7.7 Wh/kg, 762.5 W/kg) than that of Maxsorb//Maxsorb symmetrical capacitor (7.0 Wh/kg, 400.0 W/kg). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Application of biomass-derived flexible carbon cloth coated with MnO2 nanosheets in supercapacitors (United States)

    He, Shuijian; Chen, Wei


    Successful application of inexpensive energy storage devices lies in the exploitation of fabrication approaches that are based on cost-efficient materials and that can be easily scaled up. Here, inexpensive textile weaved by natural flax fiber is selected as raw material in preparing flexible and binder-free electrode material for supercapacitors. Although carbon fiber cloth obtained from the direct carbonization of flax textile exhibits a low specific capacitance of 0.78 F g-1, carbon fiber cloth electrode shows a very short relaxation time of 39.1 m s and good stability with almost 100% capacitance retaining after 104 cycles at 5 A g-1. To extend the application of the resulting carbon cloth in supercapacitor field, a layer of MnO2 nanosheets is deposited on the surface of carbon fiber via in situ redox reaction between carbon and KMnO4. The specific capacitance of MnO2 reaches 683.73 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and still retains 269.04 F g-1 at 300 A g-1, indicating the excellent rate capacitance performance of the carbon cloth/MnO2 hybrids. The present study shows that carbon cloth derived from flax textile can provide a low-cost material platform for the facile, cost-efficient and large scale fabrication of binder-free electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  12. The design of an Fe-12Mn-O.2Ti alloy steel for low temperature use (United States)

    Hwang, S. K.; Morris, J. W., Jr.


    An investigation was made to improve the low temperature mechanical properties of Fe-8 approximately 12% Mn-O 2Ti alloy steels. A two-phase(alpha + gamma) tempering in combination with cold working or hot working was identified as an effective treatment. A potential application as a Ni-free cryogenic steel was shown for this alloy. It was also shown that an Fe-8Mn steel could be grain-refined by a purely thermal treatment because of its dislocated martensitic structure and absence of epsilon phase. A significant reduction of the ductile-brittle transition temperature was obtained in this alloy. The nature and origin of brittle fracture in Fe-Mn alloys were also investigated. Two embrittling regions were found in a cooling curve of an Fe-12Mn-O 2Ti steel which was shown to be responsible for intergranular fracture. Auger electron spectroscopy identified no segregation during solution-annealing treatment. Avoiding the embrittling zones by controlled cooling led to a high cryogenic toughness in a solution-annealed condition.

  13. Effect of P2O5 and MnO2 on crystallization of magnetic glass ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa A.M. Abdel-Hameed


    Full Text Available This work pointed out the effect of adding P2O5 and/or MnO2 on the crystallization behavior of magnetic glass ceramic in the system Fe2O3·ZnO·CaO·SiO2·B2O3. The differential thermal analysis of the quenched samples revealed decrease in the thermal effects by adding P2O5 and/or MnO2 to the base sample. The X-ray diffraction patterns show the development of nanometric magnetite crystals in a glassy matrix. Heat treatment at 800 °C for 2 h, under reducing atmosphere, caused an increase in the amount of the crystallized magnetite with the appearance of minor hematite and Ca2SiO4. The transmission electron microscope revealed a crystallite size in the range 10–30 nm. Magnetic hysteresis cycles were analyzed with a maximum applied field of 25 kOe at room temperature. The prepared magnetic glass ceramics are expected to be useful for localized treatment of cancer.

  14. Effect of P2O5 and MnO2 on crystallization of magnetic glass ceramics. (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, Salwa A M; Marzouk, Mohamed A; Farag, Mohamed M


    This work pointed out the effect of adding P2O5 and/or MnO2 on the crystallization behavior of magnetic glass ceramic in the system Fe2O3·ZnO·CaO·SiO2·B2O3. The differential thermal analysis of the quenched samples revealed decrease in the thermal effects by adding P2O5 and/or MnO2 to the base sample. The X-ray diffraction patterns show the development of nanometric magnetite crystals in a glassy matrix. Heat treatment at 800 °C for 2 h, under reducing atmosphere, caused an increase in the amount of the crystallized magnetite with the appearance of minor hematite and Ca2SiO4. The transmission electron microscope revealed a crystallite size in the range 10-30 nm. Magnetic hysteresis cycles were analyzed with a maximum applied field of 25 kOe at room temperature. The prepared magnetic glass ceramics are expected to be useful for localized treatment of cancer.

  15. Synthesis of vertical MnO2 wire arrays on hemp-derived carbon for efficient and robust green catalysts (United States)

    Yang, MinHo; Kim, Dong Seok; Sim, Jae-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Min; Kim, Do Hyun; Choi, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Bong Gill


    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon materials derived from waste biomass have been attracted increasing attention in catalysis and materials science because of their great potential of catalyst supports with respect to multi-functionality, unique structures, high surface area, and low cost. Here, we present a facile and efficient way for preparing 3D heterogeneous catalysts based on vertical MnO2 wires deposited on hemp-derived 3D porous carbon. The 3D porous carbon materials are fabricated by carbonization and activation processes using hemp (Cannabis Sttiva L.). These 3D porous carbon materials are employed as catalyst supports for direct deposition of vertical MnO2 wires using a one-step hydrothermal method. The XRD and XPS results reveal the crystalline structure of α-MnO2 wires. The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with high conversion yield of 98%, which is expected to be expressly profitable for plastics recycling industry.

  16. Redetermination of the distorted perovskite Nd0.53Sr0.47MnO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Makita


    Full Text Available Neodymium strontium manganese oxide with ideal composition Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 was reported to have two different structure models. In one model, the x coordinate of an O atom is at x > 1/2, while in the other model the x-coordinate of this atom is at x < 1/2. Difference-density maps around this O atom obtained from the current redetermination clearly show that the structure with the O atom at x < 1/2 result in a more satisfactory model than that with x > 1/2. The title compound with a refined composition of Nd0.53 (5Sr0.47 (5MnO3 is a distorted perovskite-type structure with site symmetries 2mm for the statistically occupied (Nd, Sr site and for the above-mentioned O atom, .2/m. for the Mn atom and ..2 for a second O-atom site. In contrast to previous studies, the displacement factors for all atoms were refined anisotropically.

  17. Electrodeposition of amorphous MnO x films on Fe-Ni substrates from aqueous sulfate solution (United States)

    Pires, Manoel J. M.; Fernandes, Lucas S.


    Manganese oxides have a number of promising applications from new magnetic phases to high electrical capacitance systems. A common way of producing these materials is by electrochemical deposition using, for instance, baths with manganous acetate or chloride. As an alternative to acetate or chloride, we have used a solution with MnSO4 for the deposition of MnO x films on a magnetic alloy. Fe-Ni sheets with composition around the Invar point were used as substrates showing the practicability of this kind of growth of the Fe-Ni/MnO x system. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, x-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopies. The obtained films are predominantly amorphous oxides with compositions tending to MnO2, and the most homogeneous samples were deposited from a solution with MnSO4 and H3BO3. Solutions with Na2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 were also tested, but the resulting films were rather heterogeneous and presented poor adhesion to the Fe-Ni substrates. Direct deposition at constant electric potential as well as deposition by cycling the applied potential were analyzed, and the films prepared by both methods are very similar each other respect to morphology, composition and structure.

  18. Electrochemical characterizations on MnO2 supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide gel polymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kuang-Tsin


    MnO2·nH2O supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide (PAAK-co-PAAM) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) having the weight compositions of polymer:KCl:H2O = 9%:6.7%:84.3% have been characterized for their electrochemical performance. Compared with the liquid electrolyte (LE) counterpart, the GPE cells exhibit remarkable (∼50-130%) enhancement in specific capacitance of the oxide electrode, and the extent of the enhancement increases with increasing amount of the carboxylate groups in the polymers as well as with increasing oxide/electrolyte interfacial area. In situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis indicates that the oxide electrodes of the GPE cells possess higher Mn-ion valences and are subjected to greater extent of valence variation than that of the LE cell upon charging/discharging over the same potential range. Copolymerization of PAAK with PAAM greatly improves the cycling stability of the MnO2·nH2O electrode, and the improvement is attributable to the alkaline nature of the amino groups. Both GPEs exhibit ionic conductivities greater than 1.0 × 10-1 S cm-1 and are promising for high-rate applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. District Energy Corporation SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davlin, Thomas [District Energy Corporation, Lincoln, NE (United States)


    The overall deliverable from the project is the design, construction and commissioning of a detention facility heating and cooling system that minimizes ownership costs and maximizes efficiency (and therefore minimizes environmental impact). The primary deliverables were the proof of concept for the application of geothermal systems for an institutional facility and the ongoing, quarterly system operating data downloads to the Department of Energy . The primary advantage of geothermal based heat pump systems is the higher efficiency of the system compared to a conventional chiller, boiler, cooling tower based system. The higher efficiency results in a smaller environmental foot print and lower energy costs for the detention facility owner, Lancaster County. The higher efficiency for building cooling is primarily due to a more constant compressor condensing temperature with the geothermal well field acting as a thermal “sink” (in place of the conventional system’s cooling tower). In the heating mode, Ground Couple Heat Pump (GCHP) systems benefits from the advantage of a heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) of approximately 3.6, significantly better than a conventional gas boiler. The geothermal well field acting as a thermal “source” allows the heat pumps to operate efficiently in the heating mode regardless of ambient temperatures. The well field is partially located in a wetland with a high water table so, over time, the project will be able to identify the thermal loading characteristics of a well field located in a high water table location. The project demonstrated how a large geothermal well field can be installed in a wetland area in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Finally, the SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant project demonstrates the benefits of providing domestic hot water energy, as well as space heating, to help balance well filed thermal loading in a cooling dominated application. During the period of August 2012 thru


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The conodont collection from the nodular limestone beds of the Su Nuargi II outcrop near Domusnovas in SW-Sardinia (Italy is restudied for the purpose of reassessing the outcrop and updating the conodont collection to the most recent taxonomy. Su Nuargi II is the most important outcrop in the SW of the island exposing Middle Devonian rocks. Forty-five conodont taxa have been identified in the collection, positioning the outcrop within the interval covering the timorensis to latifossatus zones (Lower to Middle Givetian slightly widening the interpretation of Olivieri (1985. A new morphotype of Polygnathus linguiformis linguiformis is described. The genera Tortodus and Schmidtognathus are identified for the first time in the Middle Devonian of Sardinia. Additionally, a second Middle Devonian outcrop is discovered in the SW of the Island. 

  1. Practice characteristics of Emergency Department extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) programs in the United States: The current state of the art of Emergency Department extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ED ECMO). (United States)

    Tonna, Joseph E; Johnson, Nicholas J; Greenwood, John; Gaieski, David F; Shinar, Zachary; Bellezo, Joseph M; Becker, Lance; Shah, Atman P; Youngquist, Scott T; Mallin, Michael P; Fair, James Franklin; Gunnerson, Kyle J; Weng, Cindy; McKellar, Stephen


    To characterize the current scope and practices of centers performing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) on the undifferentiated patient with cardiac arrest in the emergency department. We contacted all US centers in January 2016 that had submitted adult eCPR cases to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry and surveyed them, querying for programs that had performed eCPR in the Emergency Department (ED ECMO). Our objective was to characterize the following domains of ED ECMO practice: program characteristics, patient selection, devices and techniques, and personnel. Among 99 centers queried, 70 responded. Among these, 36 centers performed ED ECMO. Nearly 93% of programs are based at academic/teaching hospitals. 65% of programs are less than 5 years old, and 60% of programs perform ≤3 cases per year. Most programs (90%) had inpatient eCPR or salvage ECMO programs prior to starting ED ECMO programs. The majority of programs do not have formal inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most programs preferentially obtain vascular access via the percutaneous route (70%) and many (40%) use mechanical CPR during cannulation. The most commonly used console is the Maquet Rotaflow(®). Cannulation is most often performed by cardiothoracic (CT) surgery, and nearly all programs (>85%) involve CT surgeons, perfusionists, and pharmacists. Over a third of centers that submitted adult eCPR cases to ELSO have performed ED ECMO. These programs are largely based at academic hospitals, new, and have low volumes. They do not have many formal inclusion or exclusion criteria, and devices and techniques are variable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular cloning, expression of CPR gene from Rhizopus oryzae into Rhizopus nigericans and its application in the 11α-hydroxylation of 16α, 17-epoxy-progesterone. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Luo, Xinrong; Cao, Feifei; Zhu, Tingheng; Fan, Yongxian; Jia, Xiaoqing; Shen, Yinchu


    The hydroxylations of the steroid skeleton structure are catalyzed by a family of enzymes, the cytochromes P450 (CYPs). In this study, the pCB1004-PgpdA plasmid was used for cloning the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) gene from Rhizopus oryzae into Rhizopus nigericans to strengthen the expression of CPR gene in R. nigericans with REMI (Restriction Enzyme Mediate Integration) mediated protoplast transformation. The conditions for the protoplast production of R. nigericans were optimized as follows: 75 μg/mL yatalase, 50 μg/mL lywallzyme, fungus age of 12h, digestion time of 3 h and digestion temperature of 30°C. REMI mediated protoplast transformation with plasmid pCB1004-PgpdA into R. nigericans was performed to construct the transformants. More than 30 transformants were successfully selected from the hygromycin B-resistant plates and 6 transformants had the abilities to improve the biotransformation of 16α, 17-epoxyprogesterone. The highest biotransformation rate of the transformants was 65.38%, which was 7.06% higher than that of the original strain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intercomparison of Vertical Structure of Storms Revealed by Ground-Based (NMQ and Spaceborne Radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Fall


    Full Text Available Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR, which are onboard NASA’s CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE. This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors’ type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Bacillus cereus SW7-1 in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). (United States)

    Li, Guan-Nan; Xia, Xue-Juan; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Sendegeya, Parfait; Zhu, Yong


    The bacterial diseases of silkworms cause significant reductions in sericulture and result in huge economic loss. This study aimed to identify and characterize a pathogen from diseased silkworm. SW7-1, a pathogenic bacterial strain, was isolated from the diseased silkworm. The strain was identified on the basis of its bacteriological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The colony was round, slightly convex, opaque, dry, and milky on a nutrient agar medium, the colony also exhibited jagged edges. SW7-1 was Gram-positive, without parasporal crystal, and 0.8-1.2 by 2.6-3.4 µm in length, resembling long rods with rounded ends. The strain was positive to most of the physiological biochemical tests used in this study. The strain could utilize glucose, sucrose, and maltose. The results of its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that SW7-1 shared the highest sequence identity (>99%) with Bacillus cereus strain 14. The bacterial strain was highly susceptible to gentamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin and moderately susceptible to tetracycline and rifampicin. It exhibited resistance to other antibiotics. SW7-1 had hemolytic activity and could produce extracellular casease, lipase, and amylase. SW7-1 could reproduce septicemia-like symptoms with high mortality rate when re-fed to healthy silkworm. .The median lethal concentration (LC50) was 5.45 × 10(4) cfu/ml. Thus, SW7-1 was identified as B. cereus, which is a pathogen for silkworm and human infections are possible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Targeted pancreatic cancer therapy with the small molecule drug conjugate SW IV-134. (United States)

    Hashim, Yassar M; Spitzer, Dirk; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Hornick, Mary C; Garg, Gunjal; Hornick, John R; Goedegebuure, Peter; Mach, Robert H; Hawkins, William G


    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is highly resistant to conventional therapeutics and has been shown to evade apoptosis by deregulation of the X-linked and cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (XIAP and cIAP). Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) induces and amplifies cell death by reversing the anti-apoptotic activity of IAPs. Thus, Smac-derived peptide analogues (peptidomimetics) have been developed and shown to represent promising cancer therapeutics. Sigma-2 receptors are overexpressed in many proliferating tumor cells including pancreatic cancer. Selected ligands to this receptor are rapidly internalized by cancer cells. These characteristics have made the sigma-2 receptor an attractive target for drug delivery because selective delivery to cancer cells has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. Here, we describe the initial characterization of SW IV-134, a chemically linked drug conjugate between the sigma-2 ligand SW43 and the Smac mimetic SW IV-52 as a novel treatment option for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The tumor killing characteristics of our dual-domain therapeutic SW IV-134 was far greater than either component in isolation or in an equimolar mix and suggests enhanced cellular delivery when chemically linked to the sigma-2 ligand. One of the key findings was that SW IV-134 retained target selectivity of the Smac cargo with the involvement of the NF-κB/TNFα signaling pathway. Importantly, SW IV-134 slowed tumor growth and improved survival in murine models of pancreatic cancer. Our data support further study of this novel therapeutic and this drug delivery strategy because it may eventually benefit patients with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 10026 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W-3cPR... (United States)


    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W-3cPR, W-3PR, and W-3SS AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... comments concerning Forms W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W- 3cPR, W-3PR, and W-3SS. DATES...

  7. Thermoelectric and Magnetic Properties of Ca0.98RE0.02MnO3- δ (RE = Sm, Gd, and Dy) (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ankam; Liu, Chia-Jyi; Yuan, J. J.


    Polycrystalline samples of Ca0.98RE0.02MnO3- δ (RE = Sm, Gd, and Dy) have been prepared by conventional solid-state reactions and their properties measured at 300 K to 700 K. All samples were single phase with orthorhombic structure. The average valence and oxygen content of Ca0.98RE0.02MnO3- δ were determined by iodometric titration. Doping at the Ca site by rare-earth metals causes a strong decrease of electrical resistivity due to the creation of charge carrier content by Mn3+ in the Mn4+ matrix, as evidenced by iodometric titration results. The Seebeck coefficient of all the samples was negative, indicating that the predominant carriers are electrons over the entire temperature range. Among the doped samples, Ca0.98Dy0.02MnO3- δ had the highest dimensionless figure of merit of 0.073 at 612 K, representing an improvement of about 115% with respect to the undoped CaMnO3- δ sample at the same temperature. All the samples exhibited an antiferromagnetic transition with Néel temperature of around 120 K. Magnetization measurements indicated that Ca0.98RE0.02 MnO3- δ samples exhibited a high-spin state of Mn3+.

  8. Nitrogen-doped hollow porous carbon nanospheres coated with MnO2 nanosheets as excellent sulfur hosts for Li–S batteries (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Yang, He; Guo, Junling; Zhao, Shupeng; Gong, Shoutao; Du, Xinyu; Zhang, Fengxiang


    In this work, nitrogen-doped hollow porous carbon nanospheres coated with MnO2 nanosheets (NHPC@MnO2) were prepared as a novel sulfur host for the cathode of lithium–sulfur battery. N-doping of carbon and deposition of the inherently polar MnO2 promote chemical binding of the host with sulfur and its reduction products, known as polysulfides. Meanwhile, proper N-doping can improve the electron conductivity of carbon, and the nanosheet structure may help to guarantee facile electron- and lithium-ion transport through MnO2. Attributed to these advantages, the NHPC@MnO2/S cathode with a high sulfur content (70 wt% and 2.6 mg cm‑2) exhibited an excellent cycle stability: its capacity retention was 93% within 100 cycles at 0.5 C. It also displayed a good rate capability: discharge capacities being ∼1130 mAh g‑1 at 0.2 C, ∼1000 mAh g‑1 at 0.5 C, ∼820 mAh g‑1 at 1 C, and ∼630 mAh g‑1 at 2 C. Our work demonstrates the synergistic effect of MnO2 nanostructure and N-doped carbon nanospheres for enhanced performance of lithium–sulfur battery cathodes.

  9. LaMnO3, La0⋅67Sr0⋅33MnO3 and La0⋅67Ca0⋅33Mn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and 200 K for La0⋅67Ca0⋅33MnO3. These Curie temperatures correspond well with those reported for bulk materials with similar composition. Keywords. Reverse micellar synthesis; nanomaterials; magnetism; rare-earth manganites. 1. Introduction. Nanomaterials of perovskite-related manganites have attracted attention ...

  10. Charge and orbital ordering in Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 studied by O-17 NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakubovskii, A; Trokiner, A; Verkhovskii, S; Gerashenko, A; Khomskii, D


    The charge and orbital ordering in Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 is studied for the first time by(17)O NMR. This local probe is sensitive to spin, charge, and orbital correlations. Two transitions exist in this system: the charge and orbital ordering at T-CO=225 K and the antiferromagnetic (AF) transition at

  11. Temperature-dependent and anisotropic optical response of layered Pr0.5Ca1.5MnO4 probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majidi, M. A.; Thoeng, E.; Gogoi, P. K.; Wendt, F.; Wang, S. H.; Santoso, I.; Asmara, T. C.; Handayani, I. P.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Nugroho, A. A.; Ruebhausen, M.; Rusydi, A.; Rübhausen, M.


    We study the temperature dependence as well as anisotropy of optical conductivity (sigma(1)) in the pseudocubic single crystal Pr0.5Ca1.5MnO4 using spectrocopic ellipsometry. Three transition temperatures are observed and can be linked to charge-orbital (T-CO/OO similar to 320 K),

  12. Si Wire Supported MnO2/Al/Fluorocarbon 3D Core/Shell Nanoenergetic Arrays with Long-Term Storage Stability. (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhou, Xiang; Wu, Chun; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Zhang, Kaili


    Three-dimensional MnO2/Al/fluorocarbon core/shell nanoenergetic arrays are prepared on silicon substrate that is with silicon wires on top. Silicon wires are first prepared as the scaffolds by maskless deep reactive ion etching of silicon wafer, which is followed by the hydrothermal growth of MnO2. Al and fluorocarbon are then deposited sequentially around the silicon wire (Si-W) supported MnO2 arrays by magnetron sputtering to realize the core/shell nanoenergetic composite. Several characterization techniques are used to investigate the prepared Si-W/MnO2/Al/fluorocarbon arrays, including the scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. 3D upright aligned core/shell structure with an intimate contact between MnO2 and Al is confirmed from the morphological characterization. Superhydrophobicity is achieved after the fluorocarbon coating. Most importantly, the Si-W/MnO2/Al/fluorocarbon nanoenergetic arrays show no decay of energy density after 9 months of storage, indicating potential applications in nanoenergetics-on-a-chip when long-term storage is needed.

  13. Examination of the magnetism dynamics from intermixing effects in γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnO core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoropata, E., E-mail:; Lierop, J. van, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 Canada (Canada); Su, T. T.; Ouyang, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    We have examined the effects of core-shell intermixing on the dynamical magnetism of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnO nanoparticles. The core and shell phases were identified using x-ray diffraction, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy identified Mn ions in both octahedral and tetrahedral sites, consistent with a significant amount of substitution at the core-shell interface to form an Fe/Mn-ferrite. The dynamical response was probed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, which decouples surface and core spins, and suggested a change in the relaxation behaviour among the spin populations within γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnO relative to the γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} seed particles. Interestingly, the magnetic relaxation effects at the atomic scale, measured via Mössbauer spectroscopy, were enhanced, indicating that the addition of an MnO shell and intermixing affected the dynamical freezing process which altered the surface magnetism of the γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core. Our results show that both the MnO shell and the interfacial intermixed layer are important in determining the core-shell nanoparticle magnetism.

  14. Enhancing the charge ordering temperature in thin films of Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 by strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.Q.; Zhang, Y.Q.; Aarts, J.; Wu, M.Y.; Zandbergen, H.W.


    We report the effects of biaxial strain on the charge ordering temperature Tco of the mixed-valent manganite perovskite oxide Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3. Thin films were grown on SrTiO3, which has a 1.3% larger in-plane lattice parameter. Other substrates were used for comparison. Transport measurements

  15. Facile Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Sandwiched MnO2@GCs@MnO2 Hybrid Nanostructured Electrode for Electrochemical Capacitors. (United States)

    Jian, Xian; Liu, Shiyu; Gao, Yuqi; Zhang, Wanli; He, Weidong; Mahmood, Asif; M Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar; Wang, Xiaolin; Mahmood, Nasir; Dou, Shi Xue


    Designable control over the morphology and structure of active materials is highly desirable for achieving high-performance devices. Here, we develop a facile microwave-assisted synthesis to decorate MnO2 nanocrystals on three-dimensional (3D) graphite-like capsules (GCs) to obtain sandwich nanostructures (3D MnO2@GCs@MnO2) as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors (ECs). A templated growth of the 3D GCs was carried out via catalytic chemical vapor deposition and MnO2 was decorated on the exterior and interior surfaces of the GC walls through microwave irradiation to build an engineered architecture with robust structural and morphological stability. The unique sandwiched architecture has a large interfacial surface area, and allows for rapid electrolyte diffusion through its hollow/open framework and fast electronic motion via the carbon backbone. Furthermore, the tough and rigid nature of GCs provides the necessary structural stability, and the strong synergy between MnO2 and GCs leads to high electrochemical activity in both neutral (265.1 F/g at 0.5 A/g) and alkaline (390 F/g at 0.5 A/g) electrolytes. The developed hybrid exhibits stable capacitance up to 6000 cycles in 1 M Na2SO4. The hybrid is a potential candidate for future ECs and the present study opens up an effective avenue to design hybrid materials for various applications.

  16. Interface ferromagnetism and orbital reconstruction in BiFeO3-La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, P.; Lee, J.S.; Okamoto, S.; Rossell, M.D.; Huijben, Mark; Yang, C.H.; He, Q.; He, Qiwei; Zhang, J.X.; Yang, S.Y.; Lee, M.J.; Ramasse, Q.M.; Emi, R.; Chu, Y.H.; Arena, D.A.; Kao, C.C.; Martin, L.W.; Ramesh, R.


    We report the formation of a novel ferromagnetic state in the antiferromagnet BiFeO3 at the interface with ferromagnet La0.7Sr0.3MnO3. Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at Mn and Fe L2,3 edges, we discovered that the development of this ferromagnetic spin structure is strongly associated with

  17. Ultrasound-assisted MnO2 catalyzed homolysis of peracetic acid for phenol degradation: The assessment of process chemistry and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rokhina, E.V.; Makarova, K.; Lathinen, M.; Golovina, E.A.; As, van H.; Virkutyte, J.


    The combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and heterogeneous catalyst (MnO2) was used for the degradation of phenol in an aqueous solution in the presence of ultrasound irradiation (US). As a relevant source of free radicals (e.g. OH), peracetic acid was comprehensively studied by means of electron

  18. Microstructures and the corresponding magnetic properties of half-doped Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokhorov, V.G.; Hyun, Y.H.; Park, J.S.; Kim, J.B.; Kim, G.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Lee, Y.P.; Svetchnikov, V.L.


    The microstructural and magnetic properties of amorphous, nanoclustered, and self-organized bilayer Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 films, prepared by rf magnetron sputtering, are investigated. The amorphous film was found to be a typical paramagnet with free motion of the individual Mn spins, and the magnetic

  19. Direct and indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in a La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 ceramic perovskite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, A.R.; Linderoth, Søren; Mørup, Steen


    The adiabatic temperature change DeltaT(ad) due to a change of the external magnetic field (the magnetocaloric effect) for a perovskite-type La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 sample has been measured directly and indirectly (from the entropy change) and the results are compared. From the indirect method, involving...

  20. A MnO2/Graphene Oxide/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Sulfur Composite with Dual-Efficient Polysulfide Adsorption for Improving Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Li, Yong; Ye, Daixin; Liu, Wen; Shi, Bin; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Hongbin; Pei, Haijuan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Xie, Jingying


    Lithium-sulfur batteries can potentially be used as a chemical power source because of their high energy density. However, the sulfur cathode has several shortcomings, including fast capacity attenuation, poor electrochemical activity, and low Coulombic efficiency. Herein, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide (GO), and manganese dioxide are introduced to the sulfur cathode. A MnO2/GO/CNTs-S composite with a unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture was synthesized by a one-pot chemical method and heat treatment approach. In this structure, the innermost CNTs work as a conducting additive and backbone to form a conducting network. The MnO2/GO nanosheets anchored on the sidewalls of CNTs have a dual-efficient absorption capability for polysulfide intermediates as well as afford adequate space for sulfur loading. The outmost nanosized sulfur particles are well-distributed on the surface of the MnO2/GO nanosheets and provide a short transmission path for Li+ and the electrons. The sulfur content in the MnO2/GO/CNTs-S composite is as high as 80 wt %, and the as-designed MnO2/GO/CNTs-S cathode displays excellent comprehensive performance. The initial specific capacities are up to 1500, 1300, 1150, 1048, and 960 mAh g-1 at discharging rates of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 C, respectively. Moreover, the composite cathode shows a good cycle performance: the specific capacity remains at 963.5 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C after 100 cycles when the area density of sulfur is 2.8 mg cm-2.

  1. Improvement in the etching performance of the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin by MnO2-H3PO4-H2SO4 colloid. (United States)

    Zhao, Wenxia; Ding, Jie; Wang, Zenglin


    The present study aimed to evaluate the surface etching of the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin in the MnO2-H3PO4-H2SO4 colloid. To enhance the soluble Mn(IV) ion concentration and improve the etching performance of ABS resin, H3PO4 was added as a complexing agent into the MnO2-H2SO4 etching system. The effects of the H2SO4 concentration and etching time on the surface topography, surface roughness, adhesion strength, and the surface chemistry of the ABS substrates were investigated. The optimal oxidation potentials of MnO2 in the colloids decreased from 1.426 to 1.369 V with the addition of H3PO4. Though the etching conditions changed from 70 °C for 20 min to 60 °C for 10 min, the adhesion strength between the ABS substrates and electroless copper film increased from 1.19 to 1.33 KN/m after etching treatment. This could be attributed to the significant increase of the soluble Mn(IV) ion concentration in the MnO2-H3PO4-H2SO4 colloid. The surface chemistry results demonstrated that the oxidation reaction of -C═C- bonds in the polybutadiene phase was accelerated in the etching process by the addition of H3PO4, and the abundant -COOH and -OH groups were formed rapidly on the ABS surface with the etching treatment. These results were in agreement with the results of surface scanning electron microscopic observations and adhesion strength measurement. The results suggested that the MnO2-H3PO4-H2SO4 colloid was an effective surface etching system for the ABS surface roughness.

  2. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Donana National Park, SW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz-Hansen, O.; Montes, C.; Duarte, C.M.


    metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Donana marsh (SW Spain) was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic) was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m(-2) d(-1...

  3. A reference time scale for Site U1385 (Shackleton Site) on the SW Iberian Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodell, D.; Lourens, L.; Crowhurst, S.; Konijnendijk, T.; Tjallingii, R.; Jiménez-Espejo, F.; Skinner, L.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Abrantes, Fatima; Acton, Gary D.; Zarikian, Carlos A Alvarez; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Barranco, Estefanìa Llave; Carrara, Gabriela; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger D.; José-Abel Flores, Flores; Furota, Satoshi; Grimalt, Joan; Grunert, Patrick; Hernández-Molina, Javier; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence A.; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Lofi, Johanna; Margari, Vasiliki; Martrat, Belen; Miller, Madeline D.; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Rodrigues, Teresa; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Roque, Ana Cristina Freixo; Goñi, Maria F Sanchez; Sánchez, Francisco J Sierro; Singh, Arun D.; Sloss, Craig R.; Stow, Dorrik A V; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Xuan, Chuang; Williams, Trevor


    We produced a composite depth scale and chronology for Site U1385 on the SW Iberian Margin. Using log(Ca/Ti) measured by core scanning XRF at 1-cm resolution in all holes, a composite section was constructed to 166.5meter composite depth (mcd) that corrects for stretching and squeezing in each core.

  4. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  5. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.


    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area.

  6. On lower tertiary Mollusca from S.W. and Central Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.


    1) In the “Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie”, Leyden, there is a small collection of Lower Tertiary mollusca from S.W. Celebes which allows of comparison with Abendanon's Celebes fossils described by Dollfus and kept in the “Instituut voor Mijnbouwkunde”, Delft. The present note deals

  7. Lateglacial and early Holocene tephrostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Store Slotseng basin, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna


    The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes...

  8. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  9. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  10. Lower Maastrichtian cyclostratigraphy of the Bidart section (Basque Country, SW France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothée; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno


    Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Maastrichtian limestone-marl alternations of Bidart (SW France) allows the hypothesis of orbital control on lithological cycles to be evaluated. Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), oxygen and carbon isotope measurements, sampled at a high resolution, are analyzed using...

  11. sw-SVM: sensor weighting support vector machines for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (United States)

    Jrad, N.; Congedo, M.; Phlypo, R.; Rousseau, S.; Flamary, R.; Yger, F.; Rakotomamonjy, A.


    In many machine learning applications, like brain-computer interfaces (BCI), high-dimensional sensor array data are available. Sensor measurements are often highly correlated and signal-to-noise ratio is not homogeneously spread across sensors. Thus, collected data are highly variable and discrimination tasks are challenging. In this work, we focus on sensor weighting as an efficient tool to improve the classification procedure. We present an approach integrating sensor weighting in the classification framework. Sensor weights are considered as hyper-parameters to be learned by a support vector machine (SVM). The resulting sensor weighting SVM (sw-SVM) is designed to satisfy a margin criterion, that is, the generalization error. Experimental studies on two data sets are presented, a P300 data set and an error-related potential (ErrP) data set. For the P300 data set (BCI competition III), for which a large number of trials is available, the sw-SVM proves to perform equivalently with respect to the ensemble SVM strategy that won the competition. For the ErrP data set, for which a small number of trials are available, the sw-SVM shows superior performances as compared to three state-of-the art approaches. Results suggest that the sw-SVM promises to be useful in event-related potentials classification, even with a small number of training trials.

  12. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.


    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  13. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Lupa gold field, SW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of AS, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were determined in water, stream sediments, soil, and mine tailings from Lupa Gold Field (LGF), SW Tanzania, in order to assess their pollution levels. As, Cd and Cr were determined by automated Graphite Furnace Absorption Spectrophotometry. Cu and Pb were analysed ...

  14. Basin evolution at the SW Barents Sea margin and its conjugate off NE Greenland (United States)

    Faleide, Jan Inge; Wong, Po Wan; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy; Tsikalas, Filippos; Blaich, Olav A.; Planke, Sverre; Myklebust, Reidun


    The SW Barents Sea margin developed from a megashear zone which linked the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Artic Eurasia Basin during the initial Eocene opening. Within the dextral megashear system, a series of deep and narrow basins formed in the SW Barents Sea. These basins formed in response to multiple rift events and rapid differential subsidence. The distribution of salt structures both in the SW Barents Sea and on the conjugate NE Greenland margin reflects the Late Paleozoic basin configuration. Late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting affected all deep basins in the SW Barents Sea (e.g., Bjørnøya, Tromsø, Harstad and Sørvestsnaget basins) as on the mid-Norwegian margin and the conjugate NE Greenland margin. Following rifting, a wide region subsided and was covered by thick Cretaceous strata. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene rifting between Norway and Greenland was taken up within the megashear zone and pull-apart basins formed in the SW Barents Sea and in the Wandel Sea Basin in NE Greenland. Contraction/inversion formed structural highs separating distinct Late Cretaceous depocenters that continued to subside rapidly. The rifting culminated in crustal breakup and accretion of oceanic crust near the Paleocene-Eocene transition. NE Atlantic breakup was accompanied by large-scale igneous activity, which also affected parts of the SW Barents Sea margin. The sheared Senja FZ margin is segmented, each segment having different structural styles reflecting a complex interplay between the geometry of the sheared margin segments and the opening direction. A continental sliver was also cut off the SW Barents Sea margin, now forming the Greenland Ridge which is a protrusion of the NE Greenland margin. The continent-ocean transition is confined within a narrow zone, bounded by a characteristic marginal high along the Senja Fracture Zone. During Eocene, the Harstad and southern Sørvestsnaget basins developed as narrow, elongated, en echelon basins landward of the

  15. Magnetoresistive memory in phase-separated La0.5Ca0.5MnO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacanell, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Unidad de Actividad Fisica-Centro Atomico de Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail:; Parisi, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Unidad de Actividad Fisica-Centro Atomico de Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Levy, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Unidad de Actividad Fisica-Centro Atomico de Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ghivelder, L. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    We have studied a non-volatile memory effect in the mixed valent compound La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 induced by magnetic field (H). In a previous work (Phys. Rev. B 65 (2002) 104403), it has been shown that the response of this system upon application of H strongly depends on the temperature range, related to three well-differentiated regimes of phase separation occurring below 220K. In this work we compare memory capabilities of the compound, determined following two different experimental procedures for applying H, namely zero-field cooling and field cooling the sample. These results are analyzed and discussed within the scenario of phase separation.

  16. Unusual large magnetostriction in the ferrimagnet Gd2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (United States)

    Correa, V. F.; Haberkorn, N.; Nieva, G.; García, D. J.; Alascio, B.


    We report an unusual large linear magnetostrictive effect in the ferrimagnet Gd2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (Tc≈80 K). Remarkably, the magnetostriction, negative at high temperature (T≈Tc), becomes positive below 15 K when the magnetization of the Gd sublattice overcomes the magnetization of the Mn sublattice. A rather simple model where the magnetic energy competes against the elastic energy gives a good account of the observed results and confirms that Gd plays a crucial role in this unusual observation. Unlike previous works in manganites where only striction associated with 3d Mn orbitals is considered, our results show that the lanthanide 4f-orbitals-related striction can be very important too and it cannot be disregarded.

  17. Strong magnetorefractive effect in epitaxial La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3 thin films (United States)

    Hrabovský, D.; Herranz, G.; Caicedo, J. M.; Infante, I. C.; Sánchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J.


    We report here on the magneto-optical characterization of epitaxial La 2/3Ca 1/3MnO 3 thin films. We observe that the magnetic field dependence of the magneto-optical signal measured in transverse Kerr geometry can be decomposed into even and odd contributions which evolve differently with the temperature. We demonstrate that whereas the odd component is proportional to the magnetization, the even contribution is related to the magnetorefractive effect, which is caused by the changes of the refractive index and optical conductivity with the magnetic field. This phenomenon, previously reported only at infrared wavelengths in some spin valves and granular systems, is shown here to be very relevant at visible frequencies for the colossal magnetoresistance manganites, thus allowing simultaneous optical characterization of the magnetic and magnetotransport properties. We argue that these characteristics result from inherent transport properties of these strongly correlated ferromagnetic oxides.

  18. Pressure induced magnetic phase separation in La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 manganite. (United States)

    Baldini, M; Capogna, L; Capone, M; Arcangeletti, E; Petrillo, C; Goncharenko, I; Postorino, P


    The pressure dependence of the Curie temperature T(C)(P) in La(0.75)Ca(0.25)MnO(3) was determined by neutron diffraction up to 8 GPa, and compared with the metallization temperature T(IM)(P) (Postorino et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 175501). The behavior of the two temperatures appears similar over the whole pressure range, suggesting a key role of magnetic double-exchange also in the pressure regime where the superexchange interaction is dominant. The coexistence of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic peaks at high pressure and low temperature indicates a phase separated regime which is well reproduced with a dynamical mean-field calculation for a simplified model. A new P-T phase diagram has been proposed on the basis of the whole set of experimental data.

  19. Phase separation, orbital ordering and magnetism in (La0.375Ca0.625)MnO3 (United States)

    Martinelli, A.; Ferretti, M.; Ritter, C.


    At 300 K (La0.375Ca0.625)MnO3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pnma space group; on cooling a Pnma → Pnma structural transition occurs due to charge-orbital ordering within the Mn sub-lattice, producing a superstructure consistent with a Wigner-crystal model with a tripling of the cell parameter a. The primary active mode yielding the observed ordered structure corresponds to the irreducible representation labelled Σ3, with wave vector (⅓,0,0). Nevertheless, the disordered polymorph stable at room temperature is retained at low temperature as a secondary phase, coexisting with the charge-orbital ordered structure. These two phases display different spin orderings; the antiferromagnetic structure associated to the charge-orbital ordered phase is characterized by a magnetic propagation wave vector k=(0,0,½), with a canted spin ordering in the ac plane, whereas a Cy-type arrangement develops within the disordered polymorph.

  20. Long-Term Charge/Discharge Cycling Stability of MnO2 Aqueous Supercapacitor under Positive Polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Ataherian, Fatemeh


    The long-term charge/discharge cycling stability of MnO 2 electrode under positive polarization in aqueous KCl electrolyte has been studied over different potential windows spanning from the open circuit potential to varied higher-end potential limited by O 2 evolution. Cycling up to 1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl (aq)) causes partial (35) capacitance fading to a plateau value within the initial cycles, accompanied by morphological reconstruction, reduction of surface Mn ions and oxygen evolution. The surface Mn-ion reduction has been attributed to a two-step oxidation-reduction mechanism involving OH oxidation in electrolyte, based on electrochemical analysis. When cycling potential extends to 1.4 V, extensive oxygen evolution takes place. The combination of surface passivation of current collector and extensive gas bubbling, which deteriorates electrical contact among the constituent particles within the electrode, results in further monotonic capacitance reduction. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  1. Switchable aptamers for biosensing and bioseparation of viruses (SwAps-V). (United States)

    Wehbe, Mohamed; Labib, Mahmoud; Muharemagic, Darija; Zamay, Anna S; Berezovski, Maxim V


    There is a widespread interest in the development of aptamer-based affinity chromatographic methods for purification of biomolecules. Regardless of the many advantages exhibited by aptamers when compared to other recognition elements, the lack of an efficient regeneration technique that can be generalized to all targets has encumbered further integration of aptamers into affinity-based purification methods. Here we offer switchable aptamers (SwAps) that have been developed to solve this problem and move aptamer-based chromatography forward. SwAps are controlled-affinity aptamers, which have been employed here to purify vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a model case, however this technique can be extended to all biologically significant molecules. VSV is one oncolytic virus out of an arsenal of potential candidates shown to provide selective destruction of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. These SwAps were developed in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions where they cannot bind to their target VSV in absence of these cations. Upon addition of EDTA and EGTA, the divalent cations were sequestered from the stabilized aptameric structure causing a conformational change and subsequently release of the virus. Both flow cytometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to estimate the binding affinities between the selected SwAps and VSV and to determine the coefficient of switching (CoS) upon elution. Among fifteen sequenced SwAps, four have exhibited high affinity to VSV and ability to switch upon elution and thus were further integrated into streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for purification of VSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. X-ray emission and photoelectron spectra of Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 (United States)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Korotin, M. A.; Galakhov, V. R.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Zabolotzky, E. I.; Efremova, N. N.; Lobachevskaya, N. I.; Stadler, S.; Ederer, D. L.; Callcott, T. A.; Zhou, L.; Moewes, A.; Bartkowski, S.; Neumann, M.; Matsuno, J.; Mizokawa, T.; Fujimori, A.; Mitchell, J.


    The results of measurements of x-ray photoelectron (XPS), x-ray emission (XES), and x-ray absorption spectra and local spin-density approximation band structure (LSDA) calculations of Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 are presented. The excitation energy dependence of Mn L2,3 and O Kα x-ray emission spectra of Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3 is measured using tunable synchrotron radiation. The XES measurements yielded no photon energy dependence for the O Kα spectra, but the Mn L2,3 spectra yielded inelastic scattering losses of 2 and 6 eV, corresponding to features in the structure of the occupied part of the valence band. Comparing XPS and XES measurements with LSDA band-structure calculations, one concludes that the electronic structure of the compound consists mainly of Mn 3d and O 2p states. States of 3d character localized at the Mn site predominate near the top of the valence band (VB). Some differences in the Mn 3d distribution in this part of the XPS valence band and Mn L3 XES with d symmetry due to spin-selection rules that govern the Mn L3 XES. In addition, the Mn 3d states distribution is hybridized with the O 2p part of the VB. Mn L3 XES spectra were determined relative to the Fermi energy by assuming normal x-ray emission begins from the lowest level of the p5dn+1L intermediate state (which is the Mn 2p ionizatation threshold). From the local spin-density approximation, the orbital character of the Mn 3d electrons can be assigned eg symmetry at the top of the valence band T2g in the central part of the VB, and equal contributions of eg and t2g states at the bottom of the valence band.

  3. The design of instructional tools affects secondary school students' learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in reciprocal peer learning: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Byra, Mark


    Research investigating design effects of instructional tools for learning Basic Life Support (BLS) is almost non-existent. To demonstrate the design of instructional tools matter. The effect of spatial contiguity, a design principle stating that people learn more deeply when words and corresponding pictures are placed close (i.e., integrated) rather than far from each other on a page was investigated on task cards for learning Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) during reciprocal peer learning. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 111 students (mean age: 13 years) constituting six intact classes learned BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. Task cards combine a picture of the skill with written instructions about how to perform it. In each class, students were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control. In the control, written instructions were placed under the picture on the task cards. In the experimental group, written instructions were placed close to the corresponding part of the picture on the task cards reflecting application of the spatial contiguity principle. One-way analysis of variance found significantly better performances in the experimental group for ventilation volumes (P=.03, ηp2=.10) and flow rates (P=.02, ηp2=.10). For chest compression depth, compression frequency, compressions with correct hand placement, and duty cycles no significant differences were found. This study shows that the design of instructional tools (i.e., task cards) affects student learning. Research-based design of learning tools can enhance BLS and CPR education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical synthesis of hollow sea urchin like nanostructured polypyrrole particles through a core-shell redox mechanism using a MnO2 powder as oxidizing agent and sacrificial nanostructured template


    Benhaddad, Lynda; Bernard, Marie-Claude; Deslouis, Claude; Makhloufi, Laid; Messaoudi, Bouzid; Pailleret, Alain; Takenouti, Hisasi


    International audience; Hollow sea urchin shaped nanostructured polypyrrole powder was successfully synthesized chemically in an acidic medium through a core-shell redox mechanism by using a nanostructured MnO2 powder as oxidizing agent and sacrificial template simultaneously. The morphology and the structure of MnO2 powder based reactant and produced polypyrrole powder were characterized respectively by using FEG-SEM, TEM, EDX and XRD techniques, which led us to demonstrate clearly the forma...

  5. Controlled synthesis of MnO2 nanosheets vertically covered FeCo2O4 nanoflakes as a binder-free electrode for a high-power and durable asymmetric supercapacitor. (United States)

    Gao, Hongyan; Xiang, Junjie; Cao, Yan


    We developed a simple and controlled method to synthesize FeCo2O4@MnO2 core-sheath nanoarchitecture (CSN) grown on Ni foam. Ultrathin FeCo2O4 nanoflakes with an average thickness of 10 nm served as the scaffold to deposit the MnO2 nanosheets. The MnO2 nanosheets were able to vertically grow on FeCo2O4 nanoflakes to form a sheath via a hydrothermal reaction. The nanocomposites' thickness could be tailored from 80 nm-550 nm by changing the reaction times. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that FeCo2O4@MnO2 CSN with an optimal thickness of about 400 nm achieved an areal capacitance of 3.077 F cm-2 at 2 mA cm-2, which is much higher than individual FeCo2O4 nanoflakes (0.295 F cm-2) and MnO2 nanosheets (1.065 F cm-2). An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was assembled using FeCo2O4@MnO2 CSN as its positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as its negative electrode. The FeCo2O4@MnO2⫽AC ASC exhibited a capacitance of 0.538 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with a potential window of 1.65 V, and an excellent cycling stability (99.1% retention even after 5000 cycles). Furthermore, the maximum energy density and power density of FeCo2O4@MnO2⫽AC ASC was 0.203 mWh cm-2 at 3.44 mW cm-2 and 28.6 mW cm-2 at 0.061 mWh cm-2, respectively.

  6. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne


    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  7. Introducing Ratiometric Fluorescence to MnO2 Nanosheet-Based Biosensing: A Simple, Label-Free Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor Programmed by Cascade Logic Circuit for Ultrasensitive GSH Detection. (United States)

    Fan, Daoqing; Shang, Changshuai; Gu, Wenling; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun


    Glutathione (GSH) plays crucial roles in various biological functions, the level alterations of which have been linked to varieties of diseases. Herein, we for the first time expanded the application of oxidase-like property of MnO2 nanosheet (MnO2 NS) to fluorescent substrates of peroxidase. Different from previously reported fluorescent quenching phenomena, we found that MnO2 NS could not only largely quench the fluorescence of highly fluorescent Scopoletin (SC) but also surprisingly enhance that of nonfluorescent Amplex Red (AR) via oxidation reaction. If MnO2 NS is premixed with GSH, it will be reduced to Mn2+ and lose the oxidase-like property, accompanied by subsequent increase in SC's fluorescence and decrease in AR's. On the basis of the above mechanism, we construct the first MnO2 NS-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for ultrasensitive and selective detection of GSH. Notably, this ratiometric sensor is programmed by the cascade logic circuit (an INHIBIT gate cascade with a 1 to 2 decoder). And a linear relationship between ratiometric fluorescent intensities of the two substrates and logarithmic values of GSH's concentrations is obtained. The detection limit of GSH is as low as 6.7 nM, which is much lower than previous ratiometric fluorescent sensors, and the lowest MnO2 NS-based fluorescent GSH sensor reported so far. Furthermore, this sensor is simple, label-free, and low-cost; it also presents excellent applicability in human serum samples.

  8. Interface-induced spontaneous positive and conventional negative exchange bias effects in bilayer La^sub 0.7^Sr^sub 0.3^MnO3/Eu^sub 0.45^Sr^sub 0.55^MnO3 heterostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Krishna Murthy; P S Anil Kumar


    (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae and/or non-USASCII text omitted; see image) We report zero-field-cooled spontaneous-positive and field-cooled conventional-negative exchange bias effects in epitaxial bilayer composed of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO...

  9. Pembuatan La0,8Ca0,2MnO3 sebagai Katoda pada Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC dan Karakteristiknya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riska Ekawati


    Full Text Available The making of La0,8Ca0,2MnO3 cathode material of solid oxide fuel cell from lanthanum oxide (La2O3, calcium oxide (CaO, and manganese carbonate hydrate (MnCO3.H2O has been done using tape casting method. Time of firing the La0,8Ca0,2MnO3 varied. The values of t = 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 120 minutes. Microstructure of these materials was analyzed and characterized by means of their electric conductivity, XRD (x ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope. It is found that formulated micro structure is orthorhombic. The result of measurement shows that density is in linear (positive correlation with increasing of holding time of firing, porosity and coefficient of thermal expansion is negatively correlated with density and electric conductivity is in linear (positive correlation with increase density.

  10. Unveiling the synergistic effect of polysulfide additive and MnO2 hollow spheres in evolving a stable cyclic performance in Li-S batteries. (United States)

    Ahad, Syed Abdul; Ragupathy, P; Ryu, Soojy; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Do Kyung


    Herein, we demonstrate a synergistic approach involving polar-based oxide and polysulfide additives for effectively suppressing polysulfide dissolution during cycling. The MnO2 hollow spheres not only provide physical confinement for the polysulfide species but also enable strong chemical interactions between polysulfide species and oxides, while the added polysulfide furnishes a mass buffering effect and compensates for the capacity losses due to partial cathode dissolution during discharge. The capacity retentions of S/KB, S/KB/LiPS, S/KB/MnO2, and S/KB/MnO2/LiPS composite cathodes are 31%, 45%, 59%, and 91% respectively. The remarkable capacity retention of the S/KB/LiPS/MnO2 composite electrode is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect between MnO2 and polysulfide additives.

  11. Tuning the dead-layer behavior of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3 via interfacial engineering (United States)

    Peng, R.; Xu, H. C.; Xia, M.; Zhao, J. F.; Xie, X.; Xu, D. F.; Xie, B. P.; Feng, D. L.


    The dead-layer behavior, deterioration of the bulk properties in near-interface layers, restricts the applications of many oxide heterostructures. We present the systematic study of the dead-layer in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3 grown by ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Dead-layer behavior is systematically tuned by varying the interfacial doping, while unchanged with varied doping at any other atomic layers. In situ photoemission and low energy electron diffraction measurements suggest intrinsic oxygen vacancies at the surface of ultra-thin La0.67Sr0.33MnO3, which are more concentrated in thinner films. Our results show correlation between interfacial doping, oxygen vacancies, and the dead-layer, which can be explained by a simplified electrostatic model.

  12. Local distortion of MnO6 clusters in the metallic phase of La1-xSrxMnO3 (United States)

    Shibata, Tomohiro; Bunker, Bruce A.; Mitchell, J. F.


    The local structure of the MnO6 octahedron in La1-xSrxMnO3 was investigated by Mn K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure at T≈10 K and room temperature as a function of x (0⩽x⩽0.475). For both temperatures, we observed that some distortion exists in a metallic phase observed using neutron scattering measurements [D. Louca et al., Phys. Rev. B 56, R8475 (1997)], but the bond-length splitting is significantly reduced. The observed reduction of distortion may be attributed to the partial charge transfer between the Mn ions by the double exchange mechanism. The details of the Mn-O bond length and the Debye Waller factor are presented.

  13. Break-up of two-dimensional MnO2 nanosheets promotes ultrasensitive pH-triggered theranostics of cancer. (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ye, Delai; Wu, Meiying; Chen, Hangrong; Zhang, Linlin; Shi, Jianlin; Wang, Lianzhou


    Chemically exfoliated two-dimensional MnO2 nanosheets are successfully modified with amino-polyethylene glycol as a theranostic platform for ultrasensitive stimuli-responsive theranostics of cancer. The highly dispersed MnO2 nanosheets exhibit a unique break-up in the mildly acidic microenvironment of tumor tissues, which could substantially enhance their in vitro and in vivo performances in T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Such a pH-triggered breaking-up behavior could further promote the fast release of loaded anticancer drugs for concurrent pH-responsive drug release and circumvent the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Resistive switching behavior of BaTiO3/La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 heterostructures (United States)

    Wang, S. Y.; Li, Meng; Liu, W. F.; Gao, J.


    The electric transport properties of BaTiO3/La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 heterostructures were investigated in the temperature range 100-320 K. It is found that the leakage current versus voltage (I-V) curves show strong temperature dependence, and at lower temperature (curves are diode-like asymmetric characteristics; while they exhibit resistive switching behavior at higher temperature. Moreover, the resistive switching coefficient increases with the elevated temperature. Such switching conduction has been ascribed to the modulation of interfacial barrier height in BaTiO3/La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 heterostructures upon the ferroelectric polarization flipping. Such type of resistive switching behavior based on a correlation between ferroelectric polarization and conductivity might become of particular interest for nonvolatile memory applications.

  15. Unsaturated magnetoconductance of epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Niu


    Full Text Available We report on the temperature and field dependence of resistance of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films over a wide temperature range and in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T. The epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films were deposited by laser molecular beam epitaxy. High magnetic field magnetoresistance curves were fitted by the Brillouin function, which indicated the existence of magnetically polarized regions and the underlying hopping mechanism. The unsaturated magnetoconductance was the most striking finding observed in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T. These observations can deepen the fundamental understanding of the colossal magnetoresistance in manganites with strong correlation of transport properties and magnetic ordering.

  16. MnO2Nanofilms on Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Graphene Spheres as a High-Performance Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. (United States)

    Yu, Qiangmin; Xu, Jiaoxing; Wu, Chuxin; Zhang, Jianshuo; Guan, Lunhui


    Platinum is commonly chosen as an electrocatalyst used for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this study, we report an active catalyst composed of MnO 2 nanofilms grown directly on nitrogen-doped hollow graphene spheres, which exhibits high activity toward ORR with positive onset potential (0.94 V vs RHE), large current density (5.2 mA cm -2 ), and perfect stability. Significantly, when it was used as catalyst for air electrode, a zinc-air battery exhibited a high power density (82 mW cm -2 ) and specific capacities (744 mA h g -1 ) comparable to that with Pt/C (20 wt %) as air cathode. The enhanced activity is ascribed to the synergistic interaction between MnO 2 and the doped hollow carbon nanomaterials. This easy and cheap method paves a way of synthesizing high-performance electrocatalysts for ORR.

  17. Nanostructured porous RuO2/MnO2 as a highly efficient catalyst for high-rate Li-O2 batteries. (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Huang, Liliang; Huang, Wei; Xie, Jian; Du, Gaohui; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing


    Despite the recent advancements in Li-O(2) (or Li-air) batteries, great challenges still remain to realize high-rate, long-term cycling. In this work, a binder-free, nanostructured RuO(2)/MnO(2) catalytic cathode was designed to realize the operation of Li-O(2) batteries at high rates. At a current density as high as 3200 mA g(-1) (or ∼1.3 mA cm(-2)), the RuO(2)/MnO(2) catalyzed Li-O(2) batteries with LiI can sustain stable cycling of 170 and 800 times at limited capacities of 1000 and 500 mA h g(-1), respectively, with low charge cutoff potentials of ∼4.0 and electric vehicles.

  18. Superior Properties of Energetically Stable La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/Tetragonal BiFeO3 Multiferroic Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Nan


    The superlattice of energetically stable La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and tetragonal BiFeO3 is investigated by means of density functional theory. The superlattice as a whole exhibits a half-metallic character, as is desired for spintronic devices. The interfacial electronic states and exchange coupling are analyzed in details. We demonstrate that the interfacial O atoms play a key role in controlling the coupling. The higher ferroelectricity of tetragonal BiFeO3 and stronger response to the magnetic moment in La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/BiFeO3 superlattice show a strongly enhanced electric control of the magnetism as compared to the rhombohedral one. Therefore, it is particularly practical interest in the magnetoelectric controlled spintronic devices.

  19. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)


    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  20. REE in cretaceous to tertiary granitoids of Chugoku and Shikoku district, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Harada, Michiru


    `Niho plutonic composite rocks` distributed in Niho Kamigo area in the northeast of Yamaguchi-city in Japan. It is small plutonic composite rocks, of about 2 km in long length and 1 km of short length. The rocks were studied by the geological survey. Many kinds of rock and rare earth elements were determined. The constitution process is estimated by these results. It consists of gabbro-quartz diorite-tonalite{center_dot}granodiorite-granito. The more inside of rock existed, the more felsic rock are discovered. Chemical compositions were TiO{sub 2}, FeO, MnO and K{sub 2}O. It is estimated that intrusion of tonalite and successive intrusion of granodiorite generated and then formed in situ crystallization differentiation. (S.Y.)

  1. 5-Geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin inhibits colon cancer (SW480) cells growth by inducing apoptosis. (United States)

    Patil, Jaiprakash R; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Kim, Jinhee; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Chetti, Mahadev B; Nam, Sang-Yong; Patil, Bhimanagouda S


    For the first time, three coumarins were isolated from the hexane extract of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and purified by flash chromatography. The structures were identified by NMR (1D, 2D) and mass spectral analyses as 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, limettin, and isopimpinellin. These compounds inhibited human colon cancer (SW-480) cell proliferation, with 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin showing the highest inhibition activity (67 %) at 25 µM. Suppression of SW480 cell proliferation by 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin was associated with induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation. In addition, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, and induction of apoptosis was demonstrated through the activation of tumour suppressor gene p53, caspase8/3, regulation of Bcl2, and inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin has potential as a cancer preventive agent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Reaction of aqueous Cu-Citrate with MnO2 birnessite: characterization of Mn dissolution, oxidation products and surface interactions. (United States)

    Jefferson, William A; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui


    Citric acid, a widespread soil rhizosphere plant/microbe carboxylic acid exudate can easily form chelates with heavy metals, increasing their availability in the environment. When Cu(II) from algal control in water bodies or reservoirs and fungicides, such as the Bordeaux mixture, and citrate interact, solubilization through chelation is a possible outcome. Manganese (hydr)oxides represent a significant portion of the subsurface environment and can affect the fate and transport of chemical species through adsorption and oxidation. This study explores the possible interaction between MnO2 and Cu-Citrate under ambient oxic conditions. The calculated Mn(II) dissolution rates during the initial 1h of reaction followed the series Cu(II)>Cu-Citrate 1:0.5>Cu-Citrate 1:1(oxic)>Citrate>Cu-Citrate 1:1(Anoxic), reinforcing the central role of (complexed or un-complexed) Cu(II) during the initial surface-coordination instead of following the s-shaped auto-catalytic curves of Mn(II) dissolution in citrate solution. The use of capillary electrophoresis allowed the detection of an intermediate Cu(II)Acetonedicarboxylate complex and the oxidation products acetonedicarboxylate, acetoacetate, acetone and acetic acid. The mass balance analysis of Cu-Citrate 1:1 suggests the partial adsorption of Cu-Citrate(ads) and catalytic degradation of acetonedicarboxylate through a MnO2-Cu surface sorbed complex. Lastly, XPS analysis confirmed the MnO2 surface Cu(II) reduction along with an outer-hydration layer at the MnO2 interface, where electron transfer and aquo ligand exchange may lead to the oxidation of Cu-Citrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic phase diagram and structural separation of La0.7(Ca1?ySry)0.3MnO3 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.P.; Park, S.Y.; Park, J.S.; Prokhorov, V.G.; Komashko, V.A.; Svetschnikov, V.L.; Kang, J.H.


    The structural, magnetic, and transport properties of La0.7(Ca1?ySry)0.3MnO3 films, deposited on a LaAlO3?(001) single crystalline substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering using “soft” (or powder) targets, have been investigated. It was found that at 0.3 ? y ? 0.5 both the rhombohedral (R3c) and the

  4. Self-injection length in La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3–YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have carried out extensive studies on the self-injection problem in barrierless heterojunctions between La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) and YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO) thin films. The heterojunctions were formed in situ by sequentially growing LCMO and YBCO films on ⟨ 100 ⟩ LaAlO3 (LAO) substrate using a pulsed laser ...

  5. The Effect of MnO2 Content and Sintering Atmosphere on The Electrical Properties of Iron Titanium Oxide NTC Thermistors using Yarosite (United States)

    Wiendartun; Gustaman Syarif, Dani


    The effect of MnO2 content and sintering atmosphere on the characteristics of Fe2TiO5 ceramics for Negative Thermal Coefficient (NTC) thermistors by using Fe2O3 derived from yarosite has been studied. The ceramics were produced by pressing a homogeneous mixture of Fe2O3, TiO2 and MnO2 (0-2.0 w/o) powders in appropriate proportions to produce Fe2TiO5 based ceramics and sintering the pressed powder at 1100-1200°C for 3 hours in air, O2 and N2 gas. Electrical characterization was done by measuring electrical resistivity of the sintered ceramics at various temperatures from 30°C to 200°C. Microstructure and structural analyses were also carried out by using an scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data showed that the pellets crystallize in orthorhombic. The presence of second phase could not be identified from the XRD analyses. The SEM images showed that the grain size of pellet ceramics increase with increasing of MnO2 addition, and the grains size of the ceramic sintered in oxygen gas is smaller than sintered in nitrogen gas. Electrical data showed that the value of room temperature resistance (RRT) tend to decrease with respect to the increasing of MnO2 addition and the pellet ceramics sintered in oxygen gas had the largest thermistor constant (B), activation energy (Ea), sensitivity (α) and room temperature resistance (RRT), compared to the sintered in nitrogen gas. From the electrical characteristics data, it was known that the electrical characteristics of the Fe2TiO5 pellet ceramics followed the NTC characteristic. The fabricated Fe2TiO5 ceramics have thermistor constants (B = 2207-7145K). This can be applied as temperature sensor, and will fulfill the market requirement.

  6. Single crystalline La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 molecular sieve nanowires with high temperature ferromagnetism. (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gázquez, Jaume; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Oró, Judith; Arbiol, Jordi; Varela, María; Ferain, Etienne; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Juan; Puig, Teresa; Mestres, Narcís; Obradors, Xavier


    Porous mixed-valent manganese oxides are a group of multifunctional materials that can be used as molecular sieves, catalysts, battery materials, and gas sensors. However, material properties and thus activity can vary significantly with different synthesis methods or process conditions, such as temperature and time. Here, we report on a new synthesis route for MnO(2) and LaSr-doped molecular sieve single crystalline nanowires based on a solution chemistry methodology combined with the use of nanoporous polymer templates supported on top of single crystalline substrates. Because of the confined nucleation in high aspect ratio nanopores and of the high temperatures attained, new structures with novel physical properties have been produced. During the calcination process, the nucleation and crystallization of ε-MnO(2) nanoparticles with a new hexagonal structure is promoted. These nanoparticles generated up to 30 μm long and flexible hexagonal nanowires at mild growth temperatures (T(g) = 700 °C) as a consequence of the large crystallographic anisotropy of ε-MnO(2). The nanocrystallites of MnO(2) formed at low temperatures serve as seeds for the growth of La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) nanowires at growth temperatures above 800 °C, through the diffusion of La and Sr into the empty 1D-channels of ε-MnO(2). Our particular growth method has allowed the synthesis of single crystalline molecular sieve (LaSr-2 × 4) monoclinic nanowires with composition La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) and with ordered arrangement of La(3+) and Sr(2+) cations inside the 1D-channels. These nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic ordering with strongly enhanced Curie temperature (T(c) > 500 K) that probably results from the new crystallographic order and from the mixed valence of manganese.

  7. High loading MnO2 nanowires on graphene paper: facile electrochemical synthesis and use as flexible electrode for tracking hydrogen peroxide secretion in live cells. (United States)

    Dong, Shuang; Xi, Jiangbo; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Hongwei; Fu, Chaoyang; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Fei


    Recent progress in flexible and lightweight electrochemical sensor systems requires the development of paper-like electrode materials. Here, we report a facile and green synthesis of a new type of MnO2 nanowires-graphene nanohybrid paper by one-step electrochemical method. This strategy demonstrates a collection of unique features including the effective electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) paper and the high loading of MnO2 nanowires on electrochemical reduced GO (ERGO) paper. When used as flexible electrode for nonenzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), MnO2-ERGO paper exhibits high electrocatalytic activity toward the redox of H2O2 as well as excellent stability, selectivity and reproducibility. The amperometric responses are linearly proportional to H2O2 concentration in the range 0.1-45.4 mM, with a detection limit of 10 μM (S/N=3) and detection sensitivity of 59.0 μA cm(-2) mM(-1). These outstanding sensing performances enable the practical application of MnO2-ERGO paper electrode for the real-time tracking H2O2 secretion by live cells macrophages. Therefore, the proposed graphene-based nanohybrid paper electrode with intrinsic flexibility, tailorable shapes and adjustable properties can contribute to the full realization of high-performance flexible electrode material used in point-of-care testing devices and portable instruments for in-vivo clinical diagnostics and on-site environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electron spin resonance study of a La sub 0 sub . sub 7 Ca sub 0 sub . sub 3 MnO sub 3 single crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Joh, K W; Lee, C E; Hur, N H; Ri, H C


    Comprehensive measurements of electron spin resonance were carried out on a La sub 0 sub . sub 7 Ca sub 0 sub . sub 3 MnO sub 3 single crystal over a wide temperature range covering the ferromagnetic as well as the paramagnetic phases. Our analysis of the asymmetric lineshapes indicates that the phase segregation of good and poor conducting regions persists far above the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition temperature.

  9. Interface resistance of YBa2Cu3O7−δ/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 ramp-type contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zalk, M.; Brinkman, Alexander; Aarts, J.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.


    We fabricated and characterized YBa2Cu3O7−δ/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (YBCO/LSMO) ramp-type contacts and junctions. An interlayer technique was applied to repair the ramp stoichiometry after etching. It was found that, typically, the resistance of the YBCO/LSMO interface is high compared to the resistances

  10. Broadening of the magnetic entropy change in La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.10MnO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan Venkatesh, Radha; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Pryds, Nini


    A broad table-like entropy change (ΔS) at room temperature has been observed in the ferromagnetic compound La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.10MnO3, which is analyzed in the concept of Landau theory and with critical exponent analysis obtained from the magnetization measurements. The change in entropy in La0.75Ca0...

  11. Controlling Spatial Confinement Effects in La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 Microbridges via Post Ar and Air Annealing (United States)

    Jeon, Jaechun; Jung, Jan; Chow, Kim H.


    We report the effects of post Ar and air annealing of La0.3Pr0.4Ca0.3MnO3 microbridges which do not initially show spatial confinement effects. The removal or addition of oxygen via the post annealing changes the sizes and distribution of the metallic and insulating phase domains within these films and can create spatial confinement effects such as percolation induced resistance jumps and tunneling magnetoresistance.

  12. Bonding MnO2/Fe3O4 shell-core nanostructures to catalyze H2O2 degrading organic dyes. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Wang, Shulin; Li, Shengjuan


    Shell-core nanostructures with both high catalytic activation and recyclability have been becoming hot property in nano-catalysis. By respectively using co-precipitation method, sol-gel method, and homogeneous precipitation method we manufactured shell-core nano-particles of Fe3O4 core and MnO2 shell. The Bonding mechanism of the composite is discussed in detail, and the efficiency and nature of the particles to degrade methyl orange by catalyzing H2O2 is also demonstrated. We show that by using homogeneous precipitation method one can obtain morphologically uniform nano-particles of about 5-6 nm MnO2 shell and 13-14 nm Fe3O4 core. The characteristic peak of Fe3O4 in the Infrared spectra of the composite particles was blue shifted, and a novel peak appears at 775.68 cm(-1) referring to occurrence of new bond. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis showed that the bonding energy of Fe2p and Ols was increased due to the combination of the MnO2 shell and the Fe3O4 core, suggesting a new bond of Fe-O-Mn occurred in the composite. The MnO2 shell has abundant hydroxyl radicals and exhibits high chemical activity in catalyzing H2O2 and degrading methyl orange with a degree of greater than 95%. On the other hand, the shell-core nanostructures are super-paramagnetic, and the saturated magnetization reaches 33.5 eum/g, which is sufficient for the catalyst to be recycled.

  13. 3d-Übergangsmetalloxide: Ultradünne Schichten und Grenzflächen von MnO und NiO


    Nagel, Mathias


    Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht binäre Übergangsmetalloxide. Im Speziellen werden sowohl ultradünne und epitaktische Manganoxid-Schichten (MnO) auf einkristallinen Silbersubstraten als auch Grenzflächen zwischen Übergangsmetallen und Oxiden betrachtet. Strukturelle, elektronische und magnetische Eigenschaften von Übergangsmetalloxiden in dünnen Schichtsystemen sind von grundlegendem Interesse. Für Anwendungen im Bereich der magnetischen Datenspeicherung oder in der Entwicklung von Spintr...

  14. Three Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Waterborne Vessels (United States)


    currents and provided analytical tools to describe the effects of these currents on the hydrodynamics of the water body. Stockstill et al. (1999...pressure is in terms of the depth of the node under consideration. Incorporation of boat pressures into ADH-SW3 takes advantage of this, and the...upper-right portion of the flume. Figure 2. Angle flume domain. Figure 3. Boat definition parameters (parameters are defined in section “Boundary

  15. 234U/238U as a ground-water tracer, SW Nevada-SE California (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Gutentag, E.D.


    The 234U/238U ratio of uranium in oxidizing ground waters is potentially an excellent ground-water tracer because of its high solubility and insensitivity to chemical reactions. Moreover, recent advances in analytical capability have made possible very precise uranium-isotopic analyses on modest (approx.100 ml) amounts of normal ground water. Preliminary results on waters from SW Nevada/Se California indicate two main mixing trends, but in detail indicate significant complexity requiring three or more main components.

  16. The Chernobyl accident--radionuclide fallout in S.W. England. (United States)

    Hamilton, E I; Zou, B; Clifton, R J


    Initial fallout data from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl is presented for the Plymouth region of Devon S.W. England which received low levels of radioactivity. During the period of maximum fallout the overall gross gamma activity for the Plymouth area was approximately 10% higher than levels recorded prior to the Chernobyl accident. The increase in levels of radioactivity were within the variability of natural background found in local houses.

  17. Degradative treatment of bispyribac sodium herbicide from synthetically contaminated water by colloidal MnO2 dioxide in the absence and presence of surfactants. (United States)

    Qamruzzaman; Nasar, Abu


    Bispyribac sodium (BS) is one of the most commonly used herbicides used to kill selectively unwanted herbs particularly in rice plantation. However, the increasing use of herbicides in agricultural field is associated with a potential risk to water resources and aquatic system. Thus, the treatment of such pesticides after fulfillment of their herbicidal activity is of quite interest to minimize the contamination of water. The degradation kinetics of BS from synthetic contaminated water by water-soluble colloidal MnO2 in acidic medium (HClO4) has been studied spectrophotometrically in the absence and presence of different surfactants. The degradation has been observed to be fractionally ordered in both BS and HClO4 under pseudo-first-order reaction condition with respect to MnO2. The anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) has been observed to be ineffective whereas the cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide) causes flocculation with oppositely charged colloidal MnO2 and therefore could not be studied further. However, the non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) has been observed to accelerate the reaction rate. The catalytic effect of this surfactant has been analyzed and discussed in the light of the available mathematical model. The kinetic data have been used to generate the various activation parameters accompanying the degradation process of BS in the absence and presence of the non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100.

  18. Organic dye removal by MnO2 and Ag micromotors under various ambient conditions: The comparison between two abatement mechanisms. (United States)

    He, Xu; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; Wang, Jing


    MnO2- and Ag- based micromotors were developed recently as new types of micromotors with the advantage of low costs and have been utilized to treat environmental pollutants. However, knowledge about the effects of ambient conditions on the performance of them is still lacking. In this article, the influences of pH, electrolytes and surfactant on the treatment of organic dye (with methylene blue as the representative) by the commercial MnO2 and Ag micromotors with H2O2 as the fuel were studied. In the motion visualization experiments, besides the routine types of trajectories, the circular motion of micromotors around the already formed bubbles was observed for the first time. In the pollutant removal experiments, two abatement mechanisms (catalytic degradation and adsorptive bubble separation) were studied. The decolorization efficiency for MnO2 due to catalytic degradation increased with the increasing pH, which disagreed with previous studies in which no H2O2 was added. The inhibitory effects of the tested electrolytes were in the order: CaCl2>NaNO3>NaCl. Surfactant can increase the decolorization efficiency only under highly alkaline conditions. For Ag, decolorization only occurs with the existence of surfactant at high pH values (pH = 11.4) indicating that the dominant mechanism is adsorptive bubble separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction of hierarchical FeCo2O4@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures on carbon fibers for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor. (United States)

    Zhu, Fangfang; Liu, Yu; Yan, Ming; Shi, Weidong


    In this work, the novel hierarchical FeCo2O4@MnO2 core-shell nanosheet arrays have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, which are grown directly on a flexible carbon fiber (CF) as an integrated electrode for supercapacitors. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements illustrate that MnO2 nanoflakes uniformly wrap around the surface of two-dimensional FeCo2O4 nanosheets. The electrode exhibits high areal capacitance of 4.8Fcm-2 at a current density of 1mAcm-2. Moreover, an asymmetric FeCo2O4@MnO2//active carbon (AC) cell is successfully fabricated. The asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) displays high energy density/power density (22.68Whkg-1 at 406.01Wkg-1 and 7.06Whkg-1 at 1802.5Wkg-1), as well as excellent cycling stability with 90.1% of the initial capacitance after 5000 continuous cycles. Moreover, two ASCs connected in series can light a LED. These performances demonstrate great potential of the designed ASC in the field of energy storage due to their remarkable electrochemical properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. MnO Nanoparticle@Mesoporous Carbon Composites Grown on Conducting Substrates Featuring High-performance Lithium-ion Battery, Supercapacitor and Sensor (United States)

    Wang, Tianyu; Peng, Zheng; Wang, Yuhang; Tang, Jing; Zheng, Gengfeng


    We demonstrate a facile, two-step coating/calcination approach to grow a uniform MnO nanoparticle@mesoporous carbon (MnO@C) composite on conducting substrates, by direct coating of the Mn-oleate precursor solution without any conducting/binding reagents, and subsequent thermal calcination. The monodispersed, sub-10 nm MnO nanoparticles offer high theoretical energy storage capacities and catalytic properties, and the mesoporous carbon coating allows for enhanced electrolyte transport and charge transfer towards/from MnO surface. In addition, the direct growth and attachment of the MnO@C nanocomposite in the supporting conductive substrates provide much reduced contact resistances and efficient charge transfer. These excellent features allow the use of MnO@C nanocomposites as lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor electrodes for energy storage, with high reversible capacity at large current densities, as well as excellent cycling and mechanical stabilities. Moreover, this MnO@C nanocomposite has also demonstrated a high sensitivity for H2O2 detection, and also exhibited attractive potential for the tumor cell analysis. PMID:24045767

  1. Live-Cell MicroRNA Imaging through MnO2Nanosheet-Mediated DD-A Hybridization Chain Reaction. (United States)

    Ou, Min; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; He, Xiaoxiao; Quan, Ke; Yang, Yanjing; Xie, Nuli; Li, Jing; Wang, Kemin


    Innovative techniques to visualize native microRNAs (miRNAs) in live cells can dramatically impact current research on the roles of miRNA in biology and medicine. Here, we report a novel approach for live-cell miRNA imaging using a biodegradable MnO 2 nanosheet-mediated DD-A FRET hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The MnO 2 nanosheets can adsorb DNA hairpin probes and deliver them into live cells. After entering cells, the MnO 2 nanosheets are degraded by cellular GSH. Then, the target miR-21 triggers cascaded assembly of the liberated hairpin probes into long dsDNA polymers, which brings each two FAMs (donor) and one TAMRA (acceptor) into close proximity to generate significantly enhanced DD-A FRET signals, which was discovered and proven by our previous report. We think the developed approach can serve as an excellent intracellular miRNAs detection tool, which promises the potential for biological and disease studies. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Redox mediated synthesis of hierarchical Bi2O3/MnO2 nanoflowers: a non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide electrochemical sensor. (United States)

    Ray, Chaiti; Dutta, Soumen; Roy, Anindita; Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Pal, Tarasankar


    Uniform hierarchical Bi2O3/MnO2 nanoflowers (BM NFs) are fabricated via a reaction strategy by combining redox reaction and hydrothermal treatment. This wet chemical method reports for the first time a one pot synthesis of Bi2O3/MnO2 nanoflowers via a thermodynamically allowed galvanic reaction between Bi(0) and KMnO4 in aqueous solution under modified hydrothermal (MHT) conditions. The Bi2O3/MnO2 NF composites are then applied as a catalyst for electrochemical hydrogen peroxide detection. Exceedingly high H2O2 detection sensitivity (0.914 μA μM(-1) cm(-2)) lies in a wide linear range of 0.2-290 μM and the detection limit goes down to 0.05 μM (S/N = 3) for non-enzymatic detection of H2O2 in solution. This prototype sensor demonstrates an admirable analytical performance considering its long-term stability, good reproducibility and acceptable selectivity against common interfering species. The employment of the stable nanocomposite for real sample analysis makes it a deliverable for H2O2 sensing.

  3. Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Boli; Li, Dan; Liu, Zhengjiao; Gu, Lili; Xie, Wenhe; Li, Qun; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The C-MnO/rGO composites were anchored on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. • The novel architecture of anodes effectively improved the electrochemical performance of lithium ion battery. • The active MnO nanodendrites became smaller nanoparticles still wrapped in graphene sheets after cycles. - Abstract: Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets (C-MnO/rGO) were prepared on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. As a binder-free anode of lithium-ion battery, the nanodendritic structure of C-MnO accommodates the huge volume expansion and shortens the diffusion length for lithium ion and electron, rGO sheets prevent C-MnO nanodendites from aggregation and offer a good electronic conduction. As a result, the electrode with such a novel architecture delivers superior electrochemical properties including high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and cycle stability. Moreover, MnO nanodendrites change to nanoparticles wrapped in graphene sheets during the lithiation/delithiation process, which is a more beneficial microstructure to further increase the specific capacity and cycle life of the electrode.

  4. Raman scattering study of Nd sub 1 sub - sub x Sr sub x MnO sub 3 (x = 0.3, 0.5)

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, K Y; Güntherodt, G; Pattabiraman, M; Rangarajan, G; Gnezdilov, V P; Balakrishnan, G; Paul, D M; Lees, M R


    We report on polarized Raman scattering of single crystals of Nd sub 1 sub - sub x Sr sub x MnO sub 3 (x = 0.3, 0.5). Raman spectra of Nd sub 0 sub . sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3 MnO sub 3 show a significant change through the metal-insulator transition. In the ferromagnetic metallic phase phonon modes grow in intensity and number while the electronic continuum becomes more pronounced. We suggest that these effects are due to the strong competition between the localization and the delocalization of carriers which is the origin of the largest colossal magnetoresistance effect ever reported for the manganites. Raman spectra of Nd sub 0 sub . sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 MnO sub 3 , upon cooling through the charge-ordering temperature T sub C sub O = 148 K, exhibit several new lines which undergo a substantial hardening. This hardening is interpreted as a freezing of the Jahn-Teller distortions with a gradual decrease of a fraction of the ferromagnetic phase in the CE-type charge/orbital ordered state.

  5. MnO2-Nanosheet-Modified Upconversion Nanosystem for Sensitive Turn-On Fluorescence Detection of H2O2 and Glucose in Blood. (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Cen, Yao; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Chen-Liwei; Yu, Ru-Qin; Chu, Xia


    Blood glucose monitoring has attracted extensive attention because diabetes mellitus is a worldwide public health problem. Here, we reported an upconversion fluorescence detection method based on manganese dioxide (MnO2)-nanosheet-modified upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for rapid, sensitive detection of glucose levels in human serum and whole blood. In this strategy, MnO2 nanosheets on the UCNP surface serve as a quencher. UCNP fluorescence can make a recovery by the addition of H2O2, which can reduce MnO2 to Mn(2+), and the glucose can thus be monitored based on the enzymatic conversion of glucose by glucose oxidase to generate H2O2. Because of the nonautofluorescent assays offered by UCNPs, the developed method has been applied to monitor glucose levels in human serum and whole blood samples with satisfactory results. The proposed approach holds great potential for diabetes mellitus research and clinical diagnosis. Meanwhile, this nanosystem is also generalizable and can be easily expanded to the detection of various H2O2-involved analytes.

  6. Enhanced simultaneous detection of ractopamine and salbutamol--Via electrochemical-facial deposition of MnO2 nanoflowers onto 3D RGO/Ni foam templates. (United States)

    Wang, Ming Yan; Zhu, Wei; Ma, Lin; Ma, Juan Juan; Zhang, Dong En; Tong, Zhi Wei; Chen, Jun


    In this paper, we report a facile method to successfully fabricate MnO2 nanoflowers loaded onto 3D RGO@nickel foam, showing enhanced biosensing activity due to the improved structural integration of different electrode materials components. When the as-prepared 3D hybrid electrodes were investigated as a binder-free biosensor, two well-defined and separate differential pulse voltammetric peaks for ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) were observed, indicating the simultaneous selective detection of both β-agonists possible. The MnO2/RGO@NF sensor also demonstrated a linear relationship over a wide concentration range of 17 nM to 962 nM (R=0.9997) for RAC and 42 nM to 1463 nM (R=0.9996) for SAL, with the detection limits of 11.6 nM for RAC and 23.0 nM for SAL. In addition, the developed MnO2/RGO@NF sensor was further investigated to detect RAC and SAL in pork samples, showing satisfied comparable results in comparison with analytic results from HPLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of MnO2 nanoparticles and microparticles distribution in CNS and muscle and effect on acute pain threshold in rats

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    Nahid Nosrati


    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Recently, applications of MnO2 nanoparticles and microparticles in industry, pharmacology, and medicine have considerably expanded. Mn distribution and clearance from brain and spinal cord tissue compared with muscle tissue of rats after single subcutaneous injection of nanoparticles and microparticle of MnO2 . Pain sensory threshold of rat was evaluated as neurologic consequence of the particles on CNS activity of rats.   Materials and Methods: Rats divided to control and two experimental groups. Each experimental group received a single subcutaneous injection of MnO2 nano- and microparticles, respectively. Acute pain thresholds of rats were evaluated by tail immersion method and its weight gain was recorded during these weeks. Samples taken from brain, spinal cord and muscle tissues of rats, once every 2 week for 8 weeks. The tissue Mn level was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method. Results: Both particles size passed from blood barriers. Unlike brain tissue, manganese completely cleared from spinal tissue after 8 weeks in both groups. Clearance of Mn from muscle tissue is not complete in both of the groups. Weight gain of rats in both groups was slower than control rats. In microparticle group, rats showed progressive analgesia (p

  8. Doping Li-rich cathode material Li2MnO3 : Interplay between lattice site preference, electronic structure, and delithiation mechanism (United States)

    Hoang, Khang


    We report a detailed first-principles study of doping in Li2MnO3 , in both the dilute doping limit and heavy doping, using hybrid density-functional calculations. We find that Al, Fe, Mo, and Ru impurities are energetically most favorable when incorporated into Li2MnO3 at the Mn site, whereas Mg is most favorable when doped at the Li sites. Nickel, on the other hand, can be incorporated at the Li site and/or the Mn site, and the distribution of Ni over the lattice sites can be tuned by tuning the material preparation conditions. There is a strong interplay among the lattice site preference and charge and spin states of the dopant, the electronic structure of the doped material, and the delithiation mechanism. The calculated electronic structure and voltage profile indicate that in Ni-, Mo-, or Ru-doped Li2MnO3 , oxidation occurs on the electrochemically active transition-metal ion(s) before it does on oxygen during the delithiation process. The role of the dopants is to provide charge compensation and bulk electronic conduction mechanisms in the initial stages of delithiation, hence enabling the oxidation of the lattice oxygen in the later stages. This work thus illustrates how the oxygen-oxidation mechanism can be used in combination with the conventional mechanism involving transition-metal cations in design of high-capacity battery cathode materials.

  9. Europium substitution effects on structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in La0.5Ca0.5MnO3

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    Boujelben W.


    Full Text Available We have investigated structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline samples La0.5-xEuxCa0.5MnO3 (x=0 and 0.1. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns show that our samples are single phase and crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. Magnetization measurements versus temperature at a magnetic applied field of 500 Oe indicate that La0.4Eu0.1Ca0.5MnO3 sample exhibits a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature. Magnetic measurements reveal strong magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the Curie temperature TC. The parent compound shows a negative magnetic entropy change of ∆SM=−1.13Jkg−1K−1 at 220K and a positive magnetocaloric effects ∆SM=1Jkg−1K−1 at 150K under a magnetic applied field of 2T. La0.4Eu0.1Ca0.5MnO3 exhibits a maximum value of magnetic entropy change ∆SM=−1.15Jkg−1K−1 at 130K under an applied field of 2T and a large relative cooling power RCP with a maximum value of 72 J/kg.

  10. Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks Based on HW/SW Cosimulation Platform

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    Priyanka Mekala


    Full Text Available Hardware/software (HW/SW cosimulation integrates software simulation and hardware simulation simultaneously. Usually, HW/SW co-simulation platform is used to ease debugging and verification for very large-scale integration (VLSI design. To accelerate the computation of the gesture recognition technique, an HW/SW implementation using field programmable gate array (FPGA technology is presented in this paper. The major contributions of this work are: (1 a novel design of memory controller in the Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL to reduce memory consumption and load on the processor. (2 The testing part of the neural network algorithm is being hardwired to improve the speed and performance. The American Sign Language gesture recognition is chosen to verify the performance of the approach. Several experiments were carried out on four databases of the gestures (alphabet signs A to Z. (3 The major benefit of this design is that it takes only few milliseconds to recognize the hand gesture which makes it computationally more efficient.

  11. Ocean warming-induced gas hydrate dissociation in the SW Barents Sea (United States)

    Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Chand, Shyam; Bünz, Stefan


    The Barents Sea is a major part of the North Atlantic where warm Atlantic water mix with the cold Arctic waters. Abundant shallow gas accumulations, fluid flow features, and gas hydrates occur in the SW Barents Sea owing to hydrocarbon leakage from deep reservoirs. Recent Ocean warming has increased the bottom water temperature in the SW Barents Sea by at least one degree Celsius. We model the gas hydrate stability field in the SW Barents Sea over the last 50 years taking in to account the lateral variations of geothermal gradient, bottom water temperature, and gas composition. The hydrate stability zone thickness is highly sensitive to the gas composition and the geothermal gradient, and show very high local variability. Seismic images show numerous gas hydrate accumulations with well-defined bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) associated with gas chimneys and leaking faults. The shallow geothermal gradient is in equilibrium showing no residual effects of last glaciations, and ceased to affect shallow hydrate stability conditions. Ocean warming primarily affects hydrate stability most likely only in the upper few tens of meters of sediments. Our results show that increasing global ocean temperatures could cause destabilization of hydrates located within 100 meters of the seafloor in approximately 200 years.

  12. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

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    T. C. Hinse


    Full Text Available We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010. The two candidate companions are of stellar to substellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system’s primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behavior. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically viable explanation for measured eclipse timing variations. We conclude that dynamical considerations reveal that the proposed SW Lyncis multi-body system most likely does not exist or the companions have significantly different orbital properties from those conjectured in Kim et al. (2010.

  13. Apigenin Inhibits Human SW620 Cell Growth by Targeting Polyamine Catabolism

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    Jing Wang


    Full Text Available Apigenin is a nonmutagenic flavonoid that has antitumor properties. Polyamines are ubiquitous cellular polycations, which play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of cancer cells. Highly regulated pathways control the biosynthesis and degradation of polyamines. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC is the rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism, and spermidine/spermine-N1-Acetyl transferase (SSAT is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of polyamines. In the current study, the effect of increasing concentrations of apigenin on polyamine levels, ODC and SSAT protein expression, mRNA expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was investigated in SW620 colon cancer cells. The results showed that apigenin significantly reduced cell proliferation, decreased the levels of spermidine and spermine, and increased previously downregulated putrescine contents. Apigenin also enhanced SSAT protein and mRNA levels and the production of reactive oxygen species in SW620 cells, though it had no significant effect on the levels of ODC protein or mRNA. Apigenin appears to decrease the proliferation rate of human SW620 cells by facilitating SSAT expression to induce polyamine catabolism and increasing ROS levels to induce cell apoptosis.

  14. Zircon LA-ICPMS geochronology of the Cornubian Batholith, SW England (United States)

    Neace, Erika R.; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Lancaster, Penelope J.; Shail, Robin K.


    Available Usbnd Pb age data for the Cornubian Batholith of SW England is based almost entirely on monazite and xenotime, and very little zircon Usbnd Pb age data has been published. As a result, no zircon inheritance data is available for the batholith, by which the nature of the unexposed basement of the Rhenohercynian Zone in SW England might be constrained. Zircon LA-ICPMS data for the Cornubian Batholith provides Concordia ages (Bodmin Moor granite: 316 ± 4 Ma, Carnmenellis granite: 313 ± 3 Ma, Dartmoor granite: ~ 310 Ma, St. Austell granite: 305 ± 5 Ma, and Land's End granite: 300 ± 5 Ma) that are consistently 20-30 Ma older than previously published emplacement ages for the batholith and unrealistic in terms of geologic relative age relationships with respect to the country rock. This discrepancy is likely as a consequence of minor pre-granitic Pb inheritance. Several of the batholith's granite plutons contain a component of late-Devonian inheritance that may record rift-related, lower crustal melting or arc-related magmatism associated with subduction of the Rheic Ocean. In addition, the older granites likely contain Mesoproterozoic inheritance, although the highly discordant nature of the Mesoproterozoic ages precludes their use in assigning an affinity to the Rhenohercynian basement in SW England.

  15. New data on distribution of Cypripedium macranthon sw. on the territory of Altai krai

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    S. V. Vazhov


    Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.

  16. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support. (United States)


    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  17. Effect of an interactive cardiopulmonary resuscitation assist device with an automated external defibrillator synchronised with a ventilator on the CPR performance of emergency medical service staff: a randomised simulation study. (United States)

    Nitzschke, Rainer; Doehn, Christoph; Kersten, Jan F; Blanz, Julian; Kalwa, Tobias J; Scotti, Norman A; Kubitz, Jens C


    The present study evaluates whether the quality of advanced cardiac life support (ALS) is improved with an interactive prototype assist device. This device consists of an automated external defibrillator linked to a ventilator and provides synchronised visual and acoustic instructions for guidance through the ALS algorithm and assistance for face-mask ventilations. We compared the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality of emergency medical system (EMS) staff members using the study device or standard equipment in a mannequin simulation study with a prospective, controlled, randomised cross-over study design. Main outcome was the effect of the study device compared to the standard equipment and the effect of the number of prior ALS trainings of the EMS staff on the CPR quality. Data were analysed using analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and binary logistic regression, accounting for the study design. In 106 simulations of 56 two-person rescuer teams, the mean hands-off time was 24.5% with study equipment and 23.5% with standard equipment (Difference 1.0% (95% CI: -0.4 to 2.5%); p = 0.156). With both types of equipment, the hands-off time decreased with an increasing cumulative number of previous CPR trainings (p = 0.042). The study equipment reduced the mean time until administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by 23 s (p = 0.003) and that of amiodarone by 17 s (p = 0.016). It also increased the mean number of changes in the person doing chest compressions (0.6 per simulation; p compared to the standard equipment (p = 0.004). With an increasing number of prior CPR trainings, the time intervals in the ALS algorithm until the defibrillations decreased with standard equipment but increased with the study device. EMS staff with limited training in CPR profit from guidance through the ALS algorithm by the study device. However, the study device somehow reduced the ALS quality of well-trained rescuers and thus can only be recommended for

  18. The Characteristics of Seismogenic Zones in SW Taiwan: Implications from Studying Mechanisms of Microearthquakes (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Chang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Wen, Yi-Ying


    Due to the complicated geomorphology and geological conditions, the southwest (SW) Taiwan suffers the invasion of various natural disasters, such as landslide, mud flow and especially the threat of strong earthquakes as result of convergence between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate. Several disastrous earthquakes had occurred in this area and often caused serious hazards. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the correlation between seismic activity and seismogenic structures in SW Taiwan. Previous studies have indicated that before the failure of rock strength, the behaviors of micro-earthquakes can provide essential clues to help investigating the process of rock deformation. Thus, monitoring the activity of micro-earthquakes plays an important role in studying fault rupture or crustal deformation before the occurrence of a large earthquake. Because the time duration of micro-earthquakes activity can last for years, this phenomenon can be used to indicate the change of physical properties in the crust, such as crustal stress changes or fluid migration. The main purpose of this research is to perform a nonlinear waveform inversion to investigate source parameters of micro-earthquakes which include the non-double couple components owing to the shear rupture usually associated with complex morphology as well as tectonic fault systems. We applied a nonlinear waveform procedure to investigate local stress status and source parameters of micro-earthquakes that occurred in SW Taiwan. Previous studies has shown that microseismic fracture behaviors were controlled by the non-double components, which could lead to cracks generating and fluid migration, which can result in changing rock volume and produce partial compensation. Our results not only giving better understanding the seismogenic structures in the SW Taiwan, but also allowing us to detect variations of physical parameters caused by crack propagating in stratum. Thus, the derived source

  19. Surfaces and their effect on the magnetic properties of polycrystalline hollow γ-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Mohamed A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Newark, DE (United States); Jaffari, G. Hassnain [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khan, F.A. [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Shah, S. Ismat, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Newark, DE (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, DE (United States)


    Graphical abstract: Polycrystalline hollow nanoparticles composed of γ-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO were grown in an inert gas condensation system. Particles where found to range from 15 nm to 30 nm in diameter with different void sizes. Both γ-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO phases were found to exist in a single nanoparticle, and in close proximity. The oxides had different size and random lattice orientations. The morphology of the nanoparticles with the specific oxide is believed to be the leading cause for the observed high coercivity and exchange bias. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline hollow nanoparticles composed of γ-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ferrimagnetic(FiM)) and MnO (antiferromagnetic(AFM)) crystallites. • γ-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO co-exist in a single nanoparticles. • FC loops exhibited noticeably larger coercivity compared to the ZFC loops. • Compared to the core/shell counter parts, large coercivity and exchange bias, up to 11 kOe and 7 kOe, respectively, were observed at low temperature. • Strong coupling between the FiM and AFM phases. • Large horizontal and vertical shifts. - Abstract: Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared in an inert gas condensation system. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies revealed presence of multiple manganese oxide phases while high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed polycrystalline hollow nanoparticle morphology. The additional inner surface of the hollow nanoparticle directly affect the magnetic properties of these particles. Combined physical structure, electronic structure and magnetic susceptibility analyses led to the conclusion that the prepared nanoparticles are polycrystalline and composed of γ-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO crystallites. Magnetic study found a sharp peak around 38 K with no frequency dependence in the AC susceptibility measurement. Large coercivity (H{sub C}) and exchange bias (H{sub EB}) fields, up to 11 kOe and 7 kOe, respectively, were observed below the order

  20. Hydrostatic pressure effect on the spin reorientation transition of ferromagnetic Sm0.7-xLaxSr0.3MnO3 (x = 0, 0.1) polycrystals (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, R.; Arumugam, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Kannan, M.; Saravanan, C.; Yang, Wenge


    The hydrostatic pressure effect on the resistivity and magnetization of the narrow band gap manganite Sm0.7-xLaxSr0.3MnO3 (x = 0, 0.1) systems has been investigated. At ambient pressure measurements, the parent compound Sm0.7Sr0.3MnO3 showed a ferromagnetic-insulating nature, whereas the 10% La-doped compound Sm0.6La0.1Sr0.3MnO3 showed a ferromagnetic-metallic nature. Furthermore, both samples showed a spin-reorientation transition (TSR) below Curie temperature, which originated from the Mn sublattice and was supported by an antiferromagnetic Sm(4f)-Mn(3d) interaction. Both samples exhibited a normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect as a result of these two different magnetic transitions. Magnetization measurements on Sm0.7Sr0.3MnO3 under pressure did not show an appreciable change in the Curie temperature, but enhanced TSR, whereas an insulator-metallic transition was observed during resistivity measurements under pressure. On the other hand, for Sm0.6La0.1Sr0.3MnO3, TC increased and TSR reduced upon the application of pressure. The metallic nature which is observed at ambient pressure resistivity measurement was further enhanced with 97% of piezoresistance. The pressure did not change the normal magnetocaloric effect of Sm0.7Sr0.3MnO3, but increased it in Sm0.6La0.1Sr0.3MnO3. However, there was not much change in the inverse magnetocaloric effect of both compounds. These studies were analyzed based on the pressure effect on the activation energy and scattering interaction factors.