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Sample records for sw bermuda rise

  1. Oceanographic controls over sediment water content: northern Bermuda rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Cores taken from the plateaus of Northern Bermuda Rise show that the region is underlain at depths of 1-5 m by a 1-3 m thick layer of hemipelagic lutites with anomalously high water contents. The lack of visually apparent textural and lithological changes in this extremely fine grained sediment rule out these common causes for variation in water content. The water content averages 175% within this layer and 100% immediately above and below it. This is an increase of 9.5% in porosity. The high water content sediment is confined to a period between 12 and 16 ka. Current work on the mineralogy of the sediments which comprise this layer suggest two oceanographic factors that may have influenced its formation. A meltwater spike associated with deglaciation may have altered the ecological conditions above the thermocline sufficiently to promote the increased production of radiolaria, resulting in the deposition of silica enriched sediment on the sea floor. A combination of textural and perhaps chemical factors caused by the silica enrichment may have influenced the increase in water content. Intensified bottom currents at this time also may have eroded smectite rich sediments from exposures of Neogene age and deposited them on the plateaus. An increase in smectite would increase the water content due to the extremely fine grain size and the chemistry of the clay. Thus, the lateral continuity and isochroniety of this layer, combined with its mineralogical characteristics suggests that oceanographic changes can influence water content and perhaps other geotechnical properties on a regional scale.

  2. Reconstructing Deep Ocean Circulation in the North Atlantic from Bermuda Rise, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The large-scale subsurface circulation of the ocean is an important component of the Earth's climate system, and contributes to the global and regional transport of heat and mass. Assessing how this system has changed in the past is thus a priority for understanding natural climate variability. A long-coring campaign on Bermuda Rise has provided additional abundant high-quality sediments from this site of rapid accumulation in the deep western basin, situated beneath the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. These sediments allow the high-resolution reconstruction of deepwater chemistry and export from this key location throughout the last 150,000 years, covering the entire last glacial cycle in a continuous section of 35 meters in core KNR191-CDH19. The suite of proxy indicators analyzed includes uranium-series disequilibria, neodymium isotopes, and benthic stable isotopes. Combined with multiple previous studies of nearby cores on Bermuda Rise, the published and new proxy data from CDH19 confirm the variability of the deep circulation in the Atlantic Ocean in association with past climate changes. The multiple indicators, along with complementary data from other locations, display coherent evidence for contrasts between deep circulation during glacial and interglacial intervals, with persistent strong, deep ventilation only within the peak interglacial of marine isotope stage 5e (MIS 5e) and the Holocene. In contrast, repeated, dramatic variability in deep ocean circulation accompanied the millennial climate changes of the last glaciation and deglaciation. The largest magnitude circulation shifts occurred at the transitions into stadials associated with the Hudson strait iceberg discharges and between them and the ensuing northern interstadial warmings, significantly exceeding that of the overall glacial-interglacial difference, highlighting the potential oceanographic and climatic importance of short-term perturbations to the deep ocean circulation.

  3. ODP Site 1063 (Bermuda Rise) revisited: Oxygen isotopes, excursions and paleointensity in the Brunhes Chron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    An age model for the Brunhes Chron of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1063 (Bermuda Rise) is constructed by tandem correlation of oxygen isotope and relative paleointensity data to calibrated reference templates. Four intervals in the Brunhes Chron where paleomagnetic inclinations are negative for both u-channel samples and discrete samples are correlated to the following magnetic excursions with Site 1063 ages in brackets: Laschamp (41 ka), Blake (116 ka), Iceland Basin (190 ka), Pringle Falls (239 ka). These ages are consistent with current age estimates for three of these excursions, but not for "Pringle Falls" which has an apparent age older than a recently published estimate by ˜28 kyr. For each of these excursions (termed Category 1 excursions), virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) reach high southerly latitudes implying paired polarity reversals of the Earth's main dipole field, that apparently occurred in a brief time span (<2 kyr in each case), several times shorter than the apparent duration of regular polarity transitions. In addition, several intervals of low paleomagnetic inclination (low and negative in one case) are observed both in u-channel and discrete samples at ˜318 ka (MIS 9), ˜412 ka (MIS 11) and in the 500-600 ka interval (MIS 14-15). These "Category 2" excursions may constitute inadequately recorded (Category 1) excursions, or high amplitude secular variation.

  4. Deep-sea dives reveal an unexpected hexactinellid sponge garden on the Rio Grande Rise (SW Atlantic). A mimicking habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana; Lopes, Daniela A.; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez

    2017-12-01

    Long overlooked, sponge grounds are now recognised as important habitats which support high biodiversity. Some of these deep-sea sponge aggregations are formed by hexactinellids, in varying densities, which can occur on both soft and hard substrates. Despite their ecological importance as habitat framework building taxa, hexactinellids have been little studied and only 33 species in this Class were reported from the entire South Atlantic until now. Most of this knowledge was gained from studies conducted on the eastern South America continental slope. Here we report a new hexactinellid sponge garden found by the Shinkai 6500 manned submersible on the Rio Grande Rise, a prominent topographic feature of the deep SW Atlantic. This is the first sponge garden worldwide found to be dominated by the stiff, often dichotomously branching, Sarostegia oculata which may occur in densities of over 5 individuals per square meter. This sponge, of uncertain familial allocation, seems to always carry epibiotic zoanthids, thus mimicking the 3D skeletal framework of actual coral gardens

  5. Meltwater pulse recorded in Last Interglacial mollusk shells from Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelstern, Ian Z.; Rowe, Mark P.; Lohmann, Kyger C.; Defliese, William F.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Brewer, Aaron W.

    2017-02-01

    The warm climate of Bermuda today is modulated by the nearby presence of the Gulf Stream current. However, iceberg scours in the Florida Strait and the presence of ice-rafted debris in Bermuda Rise sediments indicate that, during the last deglaciation, icebergs discharged from the Laurentide Ice Sheet traveled as far south as subtropical latitudes. We present evidence that an event of similar magnitude affected the subtropics during the Last Interglacial, potentially due to melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using the clumped isotope paleothermometer, we found temperatures 10°C colder and seawater δ18O values 2‰ lower than modern in Last Interglacial Cittarium pica shells from Grape Bay, Bermuda. In contrast, Last Interglacial shells from Rocky Bay, Bermuda, record temperatures only slightly colder and seawater δ18O values similar to modern, likely representing more typical Last Interglacial conditions in Bermuda outside of a meltwater event. The significantly colder ocean temperatures observed in Grape Bay samples illustrate the extreme sensitivity of Bermudian climate to broad-scale ocean circulation changes. They indicate routine meltwater transport in the North Atlantic to near-equatorial latitudes, which would likely have resulted in disruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. These data demonstrate that future melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a potential source of the Last Interglacial meltwater event, could have dramatic climate effects outside of the high latitudes.

  6. Sea-level rise and anthropogenic activities recorded in the late Pleistocene/Holocene sedimentary infill of the Guadiana Estuary (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Boski, T.; Nieto, J. M.; Pereira, L.; Moura, D.; Gomes, A.; Sousa, C.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2012-02-01

    This study reviews data on sea-level rise during the last 13000 yr cal. BP (13 kyr) as recorded in the estuarine sediments of the Guadiana River (SE Portugal, SW Spain). We combined new data from a 63 m-long borehole, drilled through the entire postglacial sedimentary sequence, with information on five previously studied cores. By integrating sedimentological, geochemical and palaeontological proxies, we were able to make a palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Guadiana terminal palaeovalley during the last 13 kyr and propose a curve of sea-level rise for the SW Iberian Atlantic margin. Our foraminifera-based palaeoecological reconstruction, anchored to a 14C age model, reveals rapid sea-level rise from 13 kyr, interrupted during the Younger Dryas and resuming ca 11.5 kyr. The pace of marine transgression slackened ca. 7.5 kyr and since then has progressed upwards at a rate of 1.2 mm yr-1. Holocene-Anthropocene sediments from two boreholes were also analysed to assess the timing, levels and sources of trace metals produced by acid mine drainage from the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Study of metal/aluminium ratios through the profiles allowed background metal concentrations to be estimated from lithostratigraphic units older than ca. 5 kyr (i.e. unaffected by anthropogenic activities). Human activities are especially evident from 4.5 kyr (the beginning of the Copper Age), with anthropogenic sources of metal fluxes prevailing over natural sources (especially Pb, Co, Ni, and Mn, and, to a lesser extent, Zn, Cu, and Ni). Mining activities became particularly intensive between the late Bronze Age and the Roman period (3-1.5 kyr), when the highest metal enrichment factors were recorded: EFPb ≈ 2, EFCd > 10, EFCr ≈ 2, EFCu ≈ 3, EFZn = 1.4.This study reveals the utility of postglacial sedimentary records for reconstructing historical changes in regional water-sediment quality and separating natural and anthropogenic sources of geochemical contaminants.

  7. A Bermuda Triangle of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelsas, John

    2006-01-01

    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  8. RISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortenzi, M.; Petrini, F.; Bontempi, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper originates from a European research proposal entitled RISE (Resilient Infrastructures and Structures against Emergencies). In RISE the assessment of the resilience of an urban development is carried out within an effective theoretical framework in which the large scale urban built...... are considered both at a local level, by investi-gating the network elements (nodes and links) and at a global level, by considering the interactions between the elements and the response of the entire network. A basic application focusing on a specific analysis aspect (the local resilience of a critical...

  9. RISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortenzi, M.; Petrini, F.; Bontempi, F.

    2013-01-01

    infrastructure is perceived as a network, where nodes represent premises for the activities of the infrastructure and links represent the physical connections between them. The framework implies that the response to a critical event and the capability of recovering from the consequence of a disaster......This paper originates from a European research proposal entitled RISE (Resilient Infrastructures and Structures against Emergencies). In RISE the assessment of the resilience of an urban development is carried out within an effective theoretical framework in which the large scale urban built...... are considered both at a local level, by investi-gating the network elements (nodes and links) and at a global level, by considering the interactions between the elements and the response of the entire network. A basic application focusing on a specific analysis aspect (the local resilience of a critical...

  10. 78 FR 52099 - Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex-Grano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex- Grano AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Type Onions which were issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural Marketing...

  11. Bermuda 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  12. Bermuda 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  13. 'Boilers' along the southeast coast of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Along the south shore of Bermuda, waves break continuously along algal/vermetid reefs (composed of algae and molluscs, not coral), forming 'boilers.' Boilers are named because the continuous breaking of waves makes it look as if the sea is boiling. This photograph taken from the International Space Station shows the eastern half of the main islands of Bermuda. Land use is about 6 percent cropland, 55 percent developed and 34 percent rural. Reflective white-colored areas are buildings and other developments surrounded by green areas of vegetation. St. David's Island is also home to the airport, with runways built out into Castle Harbour. Hurricane Erin passed northeast of Bermuda early on September 10 with 115 mile-per-hour winds (a Category 3 storm on the Saffir-Simpson Scale), but causing very minimal damage. Astronauts aboard Space Station Alpha photographed the area on September 14, 2001. By then, the skies had cleared and Erin had become an extratropical low near Newfoundland. Image ISS003-E-5735, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  14. Bermuda׳s balancing act: The economic dependence of cruise and air tourism on healthy coral reefs

    OpenAIRE

    van Beukering, Pieter; Sarkis, Samia; van der Putten, Loes; Papyrakis, Elissaios

    2015-01-01

    Although Bermuda has to date managed to achieve equilibrium between tourism and coral reef conservation, this delicate balance may be threatened by the growth and changing face of the tourism industry. This may result in negative impacts on the coral reefs and services provided by this valuable ecosystem. The reef-associated value to Bermuda׳s tourism industry was determined, distinguishing between the added value of cruise and air tourism. Economic valuation techniques used were the travel c...

  15. Naise võim Bermudas : kubjas kukutati / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritanniale kuuluva Bermuda saare parlamendivalimised vallandasid sündmuste ahela, mis võivad muuta asumaa poliitikat. Ametist tagandati peaminister Jennifer Meredith Smith ja uueks peaministriks sai senine tööminister William Alexander Scott

  16. Integrating multisource imagery and GIS analysis for mapping Bermuda`s benthic habitats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierros, M.K. [Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)

    1997-06-01

    Bermuda is a group of isolated oceanic situated in the northwest Atlantic Ocean and surrounded by the Sargasso Sea. Bermuda possesses the northernmost coral reefs and mangroves in the Atlantic Ocean, and because of its high population density, both the terrestrial and marine environments are under intense human pressure. Although a long record of scientific research exists, this study is the first attempt to comprehensively map the area`s benthic habitats, despite the need for such a map for resource assessment and management purposes. Multi-source and multi-date imagery were used for producing the habitat map due to lack of a complete up-to-date image. Classifications were performed with SPOT data, and the results verified from recent aerial photography and current aerial video, along with extensive ground truthing. Stratification of the image into regions prior to classification reduced the confusing effects of varying water depth. Classification accuracy in shallow areas was increased by derivation of a texture pseudo-channel, while bathymetry was used as a classification tool in deeper areas, where local patterns of zonation were well known. Because of seasonal variation in extent of seagrasses, a classification scheme based on density could not be used. Instead, a set of classes based on the seagrass area`s exposure to the open ocean were developed. The resulting habitat map is currently being assessed for accuracy with promising preliminary results, indicating its usefulness as a basis for future resource assessment studies.

  17. Efeitos de doses crescentes de calcário em solo Latossolo Amarelo na produção de mudas de pau-de-balsa (Ochroma lagopus sw., bombacaceae Effects of the rising heat in Yellow Oxisoil in the production of silent wood rafts (Ochroma lagopus sw., bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de mudas de qualidade com adequado teor nutricional é fundamental para o desenvolvimento da planta e para a formação do sistema radicular, a qual apresentará melhor capacidade de adaptação ao novo local após o plantio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes de calcário na produção de mudas de pau-de-balsa. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de doses crescentes de corretivo e equivaleram a 0,0; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 t ha-1 de calcário e o delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. As características avaliadas foram: altura da planta; diâmetro do colo, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca total, relação raiz/parte aérea, teores totais de macronutrientes nas plantas (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Os resultados demonstraram que a prática de calagem como fator de correção do solo usado no substrato favoreceu todas as características de crescimento avaliadas na produção de mudas de pau-de-balsa. A correção do solo influenciou positivamente a absorção de Ca, Mg e S, por outro lado, não apresentou efeitos estatisticamente significativos para a absorção de N, P e K.The production of quality rafts with appropriate nutritional tenor is fundamental for plant development and for forming of root systems, which present best ability to adapt to new locations after plantation. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of rising heat levels in the production of silent wood rafts. The treatment was constituted by rising doses of correction and was equal to 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.5, and 2.0 t ha-1 of lime and the experimental detail used was of blocks, repeating five times. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height; diameter, dry material of the aerial part, root relation/aerial part, content of macronutrients in the plants (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. The results demonstrate that the practice of liming as a soil correction

  18. The Bermuda Triangle mysteries: an explanation based on the diffraction of heat waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njau, E.C. [Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania, United Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    Studies based on actual meteorological records [E.C. Njau, Nuovo Cimento 15C, 17-23 (1992)] as well as analytical methods [E.C. Njau, Proc. Ind. Natn. Sci. Acad., 61A (4) (1995); Renewable Energy 4, 261-263 (1994)] have established the continuous existence of a series of large-scale, Eastward-moving heat waves along the Earth`s surface, whose individual crests and troughs are stretched approximately along the geographical North-South direction. In moving across the American continent, these waves encounter a line of physical barriers formed by the lofty Rocky and Andes ranges of mountains, which is continuous except for a significant gap or opening between Colombia and Mexico. This line of physical barriers consistently maintains a maximum height of 3000-4000 m between latitudes 40{sup o}S and 55{sup o}N except for a significant opening or slit located between Mexico and Colombia where the maximum height hardly exceeds 600 m. The Eastward-moving heat waves are thus incident obliquely on an approximately single-slit barrier when crossing the American continent and those parts of the waves which filter through this single slit essentially form some kind of single-slit diffraction (heat) patterns in, around and past the Bermuda Triangle. These diffraction heat patterns give rise to corresponding weather and ocean patterns which, to a large extent, account for the mysteries already noted in the Bermuda region. (Author)

  19. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  20. Timing and warmth of the Last Interglacial period: New U-series evidence from Hawaii and Bermuda and a new fossil compilation for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Steinke, B.

    2002-01-01

    The timing and duration of the Last Interglacial period have been controversial, with some studies suggesting a relatively short duration that is orbitally forced and others suggesting a long duration that is at most only partly related to orbital forcing. New, high-precison thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) U-series ages of Last Interglacial corals from Hawaii and Bermuda test these competing hypotheses. Waimanalo Formation corals from slowly uplifting Oahu, Hawaii range in age from ???134 to ???113 ka, with most ages between ???125 and ???115 ka. Combined with published U-series ages from nearby Lanai, the data suggest a long Last Interglacial period that may have occurred from ???136 to at least 115 ka. The results indicate that orbital forcing may not have been the only control on ice sheet growth and decay, because sea level would have been high at times of relatively low Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. On tectonically stable Bermuda, deposits from the ???200 ka (penultimate interglacial period), ???120 ka (peak Last Interglacial period) and ???80 ka (late Last Interglacial period) high sea stands have been newly dated. Fossil corals on Bermuda are derived from patch reefs that likely were "catch-up" responses to sea level rise. It is expected that U-series ages of Last-Interglacial corals on Bermuda should overlap with, but not be as old as the range of corals on Oahu. Last-Interglacial corals on Bermuda give a range of ???125-113 ka, which supports this hypothesis. A large number of emergent marine deposits on Hawaii, Bermuda and along coastal North America have now been dated to the Last Interglacial period. Both Oahu and Bermuda have marine invertebrate faunas with a number of extralimital southern species of mollusks, suggesting warmer-than-present waters during the Last Interglacial period. Warmer waters are also suggested for Last-Interglacial localities around most of North America, from Florida to Canada and Greenland and Baja

  1. The SW Sex enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, V. S.; Smith, D. A.; Marsh, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    The SW Sex stars are a class of cataclysmic variables, originally identified because they shared a number of enigmatic properties – most notably, single-peaked emission lines instead of the double-peaked lines one would expect from their high-inclination accretion discs. We present high-time-resolution spectrophotometry of the eclipsing nova-like variables SW Sex and DW UMa, two of the founding members of the SW Sex class. Both systems show single-peaked Balmer and He II λ4686 Å emission line...

  2. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  3. Is Chronic Groin Pain a Bermuda Triangle of Sports Medicine?

    OpenAIRE

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Čuljak, Vencel; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncertain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes w...

  4. North Atlantic climate variability recorded in reef corals from Bermuda.

    OpenAIRE

    Draschba , S.

    1999-01-01

    Climate sensitive proxies can open windows into tines, for which instrumental observations are lacking. A strong tool for gaining insight into climate changes through the most recent geological period of the past several centuries, is the use of massive reef coral skeletons. The research reported in this thesis analyzes climate sensitive coral proxy records from Bermuda and is directed at characterizing seasonal, inter-annual and long-term climate fluctuations relevant to the western Sargasso...

  5. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine.

  7. The SW Sex enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, V. S.; Smith, D. A.; Marsh, T. R.

    2013-02-01

    The SW Sex stars are a class of cataclysmic variables, originally identified because they shared a number of enigmatic properties - most notably, single-peaked emission lines instead of the double-peaked lines one would expect from their high-inclination accretion discs. We present high-time-resolution spectrophotometry of the eclipsing nova-like variables SW Sex and DW UMa, two of the founding members of the SW Sex class. Both systems show single-peaked Balmer and He ii λ4686 Å emission lines that appear to originate from a region in the disc that lies close to, but downstream of, the bright spot. The emission-line light curves are consistent with the finding from X-ray and ultraviolet observations that we predominantly see the flared disc rim and the unobscured back portion of the disc in these systems. In DW UMa, the He ii λ4686 Å emission line originates from close to the white dwarf and exhibits flaring. Such flares have been used to argue for magnetically channelled accretion, as in the intermediate polars, but the lack of a clear periodicity in the flares argues for a simpler model in which we are viewing the central regions of the disc through the non-uniform upper edge of a flared disc rim. We also observe narrow, blueshifted, transient absorption features in the Balmer lines of DW UMa, which we attribute to blobs of material ejected from the system, possibly by a magnetic propeller, that happen to be passing between us and the binary. Our results suggest that the solution to the SW Sex enigma is a combination of dominant bright-spot emission and a self-occulting disc. We also propose a simplified classification scheme for nova-like variables.

  8. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  9. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  10. Isotopic evidence for a marine ammonium source in rainwater at Bermuda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altieri, K. E; Hastings, M. G; Peters, A. J; Oleynik, S; Sigman, D. M

    2014-01-01

    ...s. The sources of N deposition to the ocean, however, are poorly understood. Two years of event‐based rainwater samples were collected on the island of Bermuda in the western North Atlantic, which experiences both continent...

  11. Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2013-08-01

    Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism. The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  13. Complexation of lead by Bermuda grass root exudates in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine; Butler, Afrachanna; Larson, Steven; Medina, Victor; Begonia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Exudates produced from Bermuda grass roots were collected in deionized water from sterilized Bermuda grass sod at 3-day intervals over a period of 15 days. Exudates were analyzed for total organic carbon, and characterized via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Exudate samples were adjusted to pH values of 4.5, 6.5, and 7.5, amended with lead and quantified for soluble and complexed lead via Inductively Coupled Plasma--Optical Emission Spectrometry. Data obtained from total organic carbon measurements indicated compositional changes in Bermuda grass root exudates as organic carbon concentrations increased over time. Analysis of the infrared spectroscopy data indicated that carboxylic acids and amine functional groups were present in root exudates. Also, the ability of root-exuded compounds to solubilize lead in aqueous media was demonstrated as exudate samples dissolved an average of 60% more lead than deionized water. At pH values 4.5 and 7.5, lead complexation by Bermuda grass root exudates increased with decreasing molecular weight size fractions, while an opposite trend was observed at pH 6.5. Results from this study demonstrated the ability of Bermuda grass root exudates to complex lead in aqueous media.

  14. Vernon Bermuda Workshop: A Course in Sub-tropical Island Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, educators in central Connecticut developed the Vernon Bermuda Workshop as a means of introducing middle- and high-school students to subtropical island ecology. Each year, after months of classroom preparation, approximately 20 top students spend one week at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (St. George's, Bermuda) studying the local flora and fauna in both the field and laboratory. The curriculum includes an additional array of activities, ranging from historical and ecological tours to spelunking, and culminates in a series of field-observation-related presentations. I am responsible for the meteorological and oceanographic components of the curriculum. In the field, my students collect time-series of biophysical variables over the course of a day, which they use to interpret diurnal patterns and interactions amongst the variables. I also add remote-sensing and phytoplankton biology components to the curriculum - in previous years, my students have studied time-series of Sea WIFS imagery collected at Bermuda during our trip. I have been an Instructor for this Workshop since 2003. The Workshop provides an outreach activity for GSFC Code 616.

  15. 33 CFR 100.119 - Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI 100.119 Section 100.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI, within the following points (NAD 83): Latitude Longitude 41°27′51...

  16. 77 FR 27115 - Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI AGENCY... Bay, Newport, RI, from 10 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on Friday, June 15, 2012. A portion of the navigable waters of the East Passage, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI or its approaches will be closed during the...

  17. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  18. Speleothem evidence for MIS 5c and 5a sea level above modern level at Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Karine A. I.; Rowe, Mark P.; Thomas, Alexander L.; Mason, Andrew J.; Williams, Bruce; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Williams, Felicity H.; Düsterhus, André; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2017-01-01

    The history of sea level in regions impacted by glacio-isostasy provides constraints on past ice-sheet distribution and on the characteristics of deformation of the planet in response to loading. The Western North Atlantic-Caribbean region, and Bermuda in particular, is strongly affected by the glacial forebulge that forms as a result of the Laurentide ice-sheet present during glacial periods. The timing of growth of speleothems, at elevations close to sea level can provide records of minimum relative sea level (RSL). In this study we used U-Th dating to precisely date growth periods of speleothems from Bermuda which were found close to modern-day sea level. Results suggest that RSL at this location was above modern during MIS5e, MIS5c and MIS5a. These data support controversial previous indications that Bermudian RSL was significantly higher than RSL at other locations during MIS 5c and MIS 5a. We confirm that it is possible to explain a wide range of MIS5c-a relative sea levels observed across the Western North Atlantic-Caribbean in glacial isostatic adjustment models, but only with a limited range of mantle deformation constants. This study demonstrates the particular power of Bermuda as a gauge for response of the forebulge to glacial loading, and demonstrates the potential for highstands at this location to be significantly higher than in other regions, helping to explain the high sea levels observed for Bermuda from earlier highstands.

  19. Homogeneous Solution for SW Lacertae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjoo Kim

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed collected photoelectric light curves for light variations of SW Lac. The method of Fourier analysis was adopted to quantify the light variation from season to season. We found the linear relation between the Fourier coefficient, B1 and the magnitude difference between two maxima. The total light of the system has been decreased as much as 0m.04 during approximately 20 years time interval. Photoelectric parameters including spot parameters for all light curves were obtained by the method of the Wilson and Devinney differential correction in order to secure the variations of parameters from season to season. SW Lac, not like RS CVn type stars, required to adjust all parameters as well as spot parameters for a reasonable fit to the observations of each epoch. A surface temperature of cooler star is one of the most sensitive parameters to affect a shape of light curve of SW Lac. We conclude that the shape of light curve of SW Lac varies even during one season as well as season to season. The light curve is mainly caused by inhomogeneous surface temperature due to strong chromospheric activity of the system.

  20. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... by factors like grazing and human disturbance; II. which climatic factors control shrub growth in SW Greenland and whether these have improved sufficiently over the past century to allow shrub expansion; III. whether growth of A. viridis is promoted by experimental warming; IV. and whether plant genotypes...

  1. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Eberechi Akpaka

    Full Text Available Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes. The MLST analysis confirmed most isolates were of the sequence types linked to clonal complex 17 (CC17 that is widely associated with outbreaks in hospitals. Infection control measures, antibiotic stewardship, and surveillance activities will continue to be a priority in hospital on the Island.

  2. Deeper than rhizomes, becoming decalcomaniacal: a reflexive response to Murakami and Siegel's "Becoming Bermuda grass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Debra Bailey

    2017-09-01

    In responding to Murakami and Siegel's "Becoming Bermuda grass," one is led to reflect on one's own practice in what becomes an example of reflexivity. Following the authors' lead of incorporating Deleuze and Guattari's rhizomatic theory and the art form of decalcomania to reflect on practice, discoveries are made regarding the practice of a middle school science teacher. These reflective discoveries can be used to inform teaching practice in a manner that supports the development of identities of participation.

  3. The Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Stasiuk, David; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The research-based installation, The Rise, is led by the concept of a growing architecture able to sense and dynamically adapt to its environment as it grows into form while continuously reacting to its own material performance and behavioral constraints. This process is enabled through the careful...... a material system with simulation and the iterative generation of geometry through a process of calibration at different stages of design. The project leverages emerging computational strategies for growth in a model for an architectural practice that engages the complexity and interdependencies...

  4. Copernicus Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael A.

    2007-08-01

    Copernicus Rising began as a historical biography when it was first conceived, but as the writing progressed it quickly became a rather absurd play that took historical research and twisted it through the lens of my own wit, philosophy and personal affection for the characters. When working with historical figures--characters who existed in a very tangible way in our own history--the playwriting process opens a dialogue between different points in time and space. The difficulty lies in finding a unique and clear voice amongst the discordant personalities involved in this time and space overlap, both in the writing and production processes, in order to get to the heart of what the play is really all about. This thesis follows the journey of the play from its historical roots through the creation of an absurd journey both insides and outside time, space and the human mind. The first part of the thesis explains the beginnings of the concept and outlines much of the research and development that went into the play. The next part outlines the process of production and integrating the world on paper with that of moving bodies on stage. In the final part, post-production discussions and audience feedback sessions shape the play into the draft included in this thesis.

  5. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    , and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... including only undisturbed sites. Shrub cover increased most on E and SE facing slopes, in sites with stable substrate, in areas characterised by human disturbance and in areas without muskoxen grazing. Aspect and human disturbances had the strongest effect on shrub expansion, followed by muskoxen...... locations. A. viridis represents an interesting case to study these effects. SW Greenland is a subarctic to low-arctic region with only limited increases in temperatures during the past decades, and observed climate trends being largely dependent on the observation period. In this region there is limited...

  6. Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

    2008-06-01

    Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination.

  7. Sea-level records at ~80 ka from tectonically stable platforms: Florida and Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Halley, R.B.; Shinn, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies from technically active coasts on New Guinea and Barbados have suggested that sea level at ???80 ka was significantly lower than present, whereas data from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America indicate an ???80 ka sea level close to that of the present. We determined ages of corals from a shallow submerged reef off the Florida Keys and an emergent marine deposit on Bermuda. Both localities are on tectonically stable platforms distant from plate boundaries. Uranium-series ages show that corals at both localities grew during the ???80 ka sea-level highstand, and geologic data show that sea level at that time was no lower than 7-9 m below present (Florida) and may have been 1-2 m above present (Bermuda). The ice-volume discrepancy of the 80 ka sea-level estimates is greater than the volume of the Greenland or West Antarctic ice sheets. Comparison of our ages with high-latitude insolation values indicates that the sea-level stand near the present at ???80 ka could have been orbitally forced.

  8. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley

    Full Text Available Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We surveyed abundance and size-frequency of M. cavernosa populations at six shallow (10m and six upper mesophotic (45m sites in Bermuda and found population structure was depth dependent. The mean surface area of colonies at mesophotic sites was significantly smaller than at shallow sites, suggesting that growth rates and maximum colony surface area are limited on mesophotic reefs. Colony density was significantly higher at mesophotic sites, however, resulting in equal contributions to overall percent cover. Size-frequency distributions between shallow and mesophotic sites were also significantly different with populations at mesophotic reefs skewed towards smaller individuals. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable baseline data on population structure, which indicate that the mesophotic reefs of Bermuda support an established population of M. cavernosa.

  9. Investigating Bermuda's pollution history through stable isotope analyses of modern and museum-held gorgonian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M; Murdoch, Thaddeus J T; Conti-Jerpe, Inga; Fogel, Marilyn

    2017-01-15

    For centuries, Bermuda has been challenged with wastewater management for the protection of human and environmental health. By quantifying the δ(15)N of the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina sampled from 30 sites throughout Bermuda we show that sewage-derived nitrogen is detectable on nearshore coral reefs and declines across the lagoon to the outer rim. We also sampled gorgonians from two museum collections representing a 50y time-series (1958-2008). These samples revealed an increase in δ(15)N of >4.0‰ until the mid-1970s, after which δ(15)N values slowly declined by ~2.0‰. A δ(15)N chronology from a gorgonian skeleton exhibited a similar decline over the last 30-40years of approximately 0.6‰. We conclude that policies have been effective in reducing sewage impacts to Bermudian reefs. However, significant sources of sewage pollution persist and are likely have a strong impact on harbor and nearshore coral communities and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The black coral fauna (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) of Bermuda with new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel; Shuler, Andrew

    2017-11-07

    The black coral fauna of Bermudan waters is poorly known, in large part due to the logistical challenges of surveying deep-water (>50 m) environments where most species occur. In 2016, the Nekton Expedition sought to survey the deep-water biodiversity around Bermuda using manned submersibles and mixed-gas technical SCUBA. A total of 28 black coral specimens were collected, and these were examined based on skeletal spine morphology, polyp morphology, colony branching pattern and in situ photographs. The specimens were assigned to seven species in three families and four genera, including (1) Antipathes atlantica Gray, 1857, (2) Antipathes furcata Gray, 1857, (3) Stichopathes pourtalesi Brook, 1889, (4) Stichopathes sp., (5) Distichopathes filix (Pourtales, 1867), (6) Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray, 1857), and (7) Tanacetipathes tanacetum (Pourtales, 1867). Of these, three species (Stichopathes sp., S. pourtalesi, and D. filix), one genus (Distichopathes) and one family (Aphanipathidae) are reported from Bermudan waters for the first time, thereby increasing the known black coral diversity of Bermuda to twelve species, five genera and four families. The diagnostic characters of the taxa identified as part of this study are illustrated and described.

  11. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Marchini, Chiara; Chequer, Alex D; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We surveyed abundance and size-frequency of M. cavernosa populations at six shallow (10m) and six upper mesophotic (45m) sites in Bermuda and found population structure was depth dependent. The mean surface area of colonies at mesophotic sites was significantly smaller than at shallow sites, suggesting that growth rates and maximum colony surface area are limited on mesophotic reefs. Colony density was significantly higher at mesophotic sites, however, resulting in equal contributions to overall percent cover. Size-frequency distributions between shallow and mesophotic sites were also significantly different with populations at mesophotic reefs skewed towards smaller individuals. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable baseline data on population structure, which indicate that the mesophotic reefs of Bermuda support an established population of M. cavernosa.

  12. Hazardous Waste Test Methods / SW-846

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) provide guidance to analytical scientists, enforcement officers and method developers across a variety of sectors.

  13. Laboratory Characterization of Solid Grade SW Brick

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Erin M; Akers, Stephen A; Reed, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of solid Grade SW brick...

  14. Depth, temperature, oxygen and salinity profile data from repetitive occupation of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda from 1954 through 1984 (NODC Accession 0000650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the PANULIRUS and other platforms from repetitive occupations of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda....

  15. [A PhD completed. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease: a Bermuda triangle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeuw, W J

    2017-10-01

    The relationship among periodontitis, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is complex and can be thought of as a Bermuda triangle. A relationship has been demonstrated between periodontitis, a worsening in the condition of the vascular system and an increased total level of inflammatory markers. Patients with severe periodontitis also show raised levels of glycosylated haemoglobin. This means that severe periodontitis can be an early indication of diabetes mellitus. Periodontal treatment generally promotes improved blood sugar regulation in diabetes patients, an improved condition of the vascular system and a decrease in the total levels of inflammation. Factors such as genetics, lifestyle and the presence of other chronic co-morbidities contribute to the complexity of this relationship. For the treatment of severe periodontitis, interdisciplinary cooperation among dentists, general practitioners and internists is therefore recommended.

  16. N 2O and no emissions from poultry litter and urea applications to Bermuda grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, F. C.; Shurpali, N. J.; Bock, B. R.; Reddy, K. C.

    The objectives of the study were to quantify N 2O and NO emissions from poultry litter and urea applications to Bermuda grass ( Cynodaon dactylon L.) and examine the seasonal variations in emissions. Soil N 2O and NO emissions were measured in a Bermuda grass pasture treated with two sources of poultry litter, composted poultry litter (CPL) and fresh poultry litter (FPL) and urea (URE). Nitrogen (N) was applied to supply 336 kg available N ha -1 in four split applications made during the period from April to August 1995. An automated closed chamber system was employed to monitor N 2O and NO emissions. The seasonal N 2O emission patterns were characterized by several peaks occurring in phase with intermittent rain events and increasing soil N and organic carbon (C) associated with fertilizer application. The cumulative N 2O emissions over the season (May to mid September) from the various treatments were, 3.87 kg N ha -1 from FPL, 2.96 kg N ha -1 from URE, and 1.64 kg N ha -1 from CPL. These seasonal N 2O losses accounted for 1.0, 0.73 and 0.32% of the added available N for the, FPL, URE and CPL treatments, respectively. Denitrification was suggested as the primary source of N 2O following rain events when inorganic N and C soil concentrations were highest and soil water-filled-pore-space (WFPS) was elevated. Peaks in NO emissions were observed primarily immediately after the addition of N sources. The seasonal NO emissions were smaller and ranged from 1.36 kg N ha -1 for URE, and 0.97 kg N ha -1 for FPL, to 0.47 kg N ha -1 for CPL. The seasonal NO emissions accounted for 0.36, 0.24 and 0.09% of the added N for the URE, FPL, and CPL treatments, respectively.

  17. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McLean Pirkle

    Full Text Available In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish, substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies. Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold.Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why.Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information.95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy.In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger

  18. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean Pirkle, Catherine; Peek-Ball, Cheryl; Outerbridge, Eugene; Rouja, Philippe Max

    2015-01-01

    In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish), substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies). Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold. Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why. Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information. 95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy. In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger, higher mercury

  19. Use of Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] on ash and slag dumps of thermoelectric power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavretović N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological recultivation is conducted regularly on ash and slag dumps of thermoelectric power plants. New methods and new plant species for use in the process of recultivation are being investigated by experts the world over. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon represents a potentially valuable species that should become an ingredient of sowing mixtures used in the process of revitalisation of ash and slag dumps of thermoelectric power plants.

  20. Bermuda grass sod production as related to nitrogen rates Produção de tapetes de grama bermuda em função de doses de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Paulo de Lima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all nutrients, N has the strongest effect on grass growth and an adequate N fertilization can reduce the time required for the formation of high-quality mats. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of N fertilization on Bermuda grass sod production and quality. The experiment was conducted in an area of commercial sod production, in Capela do Alto, state of São Paulo. Cynodon dactylon (Pers L., known as Bermuda grass, was evaluated in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of five N rates: 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1. Increasing N applications to Bermuda grass increased the soil cover rate, reducing the time required for mat formation. The accumulation of rhizome + root + stolon dry matter was highest at a rate of 354 kg ha-1 N and the mat resistance to breakage at a rate of 365 kg ha-1 N. Nitrogen rates between 354 and 365 kg ha-1 increased mat resistance and consequently the suitability for postharvest handling, tending to improve the efficiency in the area.O N é o nutriente que proporciona as maiores respostas no crescimento das gramas, e a adubação nitrogenada adequada pode proporcionar a formação do tapete com boa qualidade em menor tempo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adubação nitrogenada na produção e qualidade de tapetes de grama-bermuda. O experimento foi instalado e conduzido em área de produção comercial de grama, localizada na cidade de Capela do Alto, SP. A grama utilizada foi a Cynodon dactylon (Pers L., conhecida como grama-bermuda. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco doses de N: 0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg ha-1. O aumento das doses de N aumentou a taxa de cobertura do solo pela gramabermuda, reduzindo o tempo para formação do tapete. O máximo acúmulo de matéria seca de rizomas + estolões + ra

  1. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  2. Richtlijnen voor het werken met gemengde teams in de SW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.; Giesen, F.; Luijters, K.

    2012-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de pilot 'Regulier en SW'. De pilot 'Regulier en SW' is uitgevoerd door de Inclusief Groep in nauwe samenwerking met TNO. Doel van deze pilot was na te gaan of en zo ja hoe, het inzetten van reguliere krachten in (delen van) de Sociale Werkplaats (SW) de ontwikkeling en eventuele

  3. Origin of Bermuda's clay-rich Quaternary paleosols and their paleoclimatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, S.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Mahan, S.; Vaughn, B.

    1996-01-01

    Red clayey paleosols that are chiefly the product of aerosolic dust deposition are interbedded in the Quaternary carbonate formations of the Bermuda oceanic island system. These paleosols provide a basis for reconstructing Quaternary atmospheric circulation patterns in the northwestern Atlantic. Geochemical analyses were performed on representative paleosol samples to identify their parent dust source. Fine-grained fractions were analyzed by energy-dispersive X ray fluorescence to determine trace element (Zr, Y, La, Ti, and Nb) concentrations and to derive geochemical signatures based on immobile element ratios. These ratios were compared with geochemical signatures determined for three possible sources of airborne dust: (1) Great Plains loess, (2) Mississippi River Valley loess, and (3) Saharan dust. The Zr/Y and Zr/La ratios provided the clearest distinction between the hypothesized dust sources. The low ratios in the paleosol B horizons most closely resemble Saharan dust in the winds were stronger than at present and reached latitudes higher than 30 ?? N despite lower-than-present sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic.

  4. A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolizio, Thea R; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, molecular-assisted alpha-taxonomic examination of the rhodophyte family Liagoraceae sensu lato, a group that has not previously been targeted for molecular studies in the western Atlantic. Sequence data from three molecular markers indicate that in Bermuda alone there are 10 species in nine different genera. These include the addition of three genera to the flora - Hommersandiophycus, Trichogloeopsis, and Yamadaella. Liagora pectinata, a species with a type locality in Bermuda, is phylogenetically allied with Indo-Pacific species of Hommersandiophycus, and the species historically reported as L. ceranoides for the islands is morphologically and genetically distinct from that taxon, and is herein described as L. nesophila sp. nov. Molecular sequence data have also uncovered the Indo-Pacific L. mannarensis in Bermuda, a long-distance new western Atlantic record. DNA sequences of Trichogloeopsis pedicellata from the type locality (Bahamas) match with local specimens demonstrating its presence in Bermuda. We described Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. from Bermuda, a species phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the generitype, Y. caenomyce of the Indo-Pacific. Our data also indicated a single species each of Ganonema, Gloiocallis, Helminthocladia, Titanophycus, and Trichogloea in the flora. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  5. A Testing Framework for Critical Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs ([1]). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.

  6. Centre of Excellence in Observational Oceanography: Nippon Foundation and POGO Supported Programme at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, F. G.; Sathyendranath, S.; Frouin, R.; Knap, T.

    2008-05-01

    Building on previous experience in capacity building for ocean observations, the Nippon Foundation (NF) and the Partnership for Observations of the Global Oceans (POGO) have announced a new Centre of Excellence (C of E) at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). The goals of the C of E are to expand the world-wide capacity and expertise to observe the oceans and to expand capacity-building projects and promote international collaboration and networking in ocean sciences. Over the past 104 years, BIOS has built a global reputation in blue-water oceanography, coral reef ecology, and the relationships between ocean health and human health coupled with high quality education programmes that provide direct, hands-on experience with BIOS-based research. The C of E at BIOS will build upon this model to establish a new, graduate-level education and training programme in operational oceanography. The 10 month Programme will offer course modules in ocean disciplines with a focus on observatory sciences complemented by hands-on training in observational methods and techniques based on the multi-disciplinary expertise of BIOS and BIOS-affiliated scientists who direct ongoing, ocean observational programmes such as: - Hydrostation S, since 1954; - Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study, since 1988; - Oceanic Flux Program sediment trap time-series, since 1978; - Bermuda Test-Bed and Science Mooring, since 1994; - Bermuda Microbial Observatory, since 1997; - Bermuda Bio-Optics Program, since 1992; - Atmospheric chemistry and air-sea fluxes, since 1990 Additional areas of BIOS research expertise will be incorporated in the C of E to broaden the scope of education and training. These include the nearshore observational network of the BIOS Marine Environmental Program and the environmental air-water chemistry network of the Bermuda Environmental Quality Program. A key resource of the C of E is the newly acquired 168 ft. research vessel, the RV Atlantic Explorer, which was

  7. High rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M.

    1980-06-01

    The feasibility of developing new energy conservation standards for high rise residential-type buildings including hotels, motels, apartment houses, and lodging houses is discussed. Differences between the high and low rise residential building energy regulations are summarized. The data collection method and results are presented. (MCW)

  8. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  9. Soil genesis on the island of Bermuda in the Quaternary: the importance of African dust transport and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Skipp, Gary; Herwitz, Stanley R.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of terra rossa, red or reddish-brown, clay-rich soils overlying high-purity carbonate substrates, has intrigued geologists and pedologists for decades. Terra rossa soils can form from accumulation of insoluble residues during dissolution of the host limestones, addition of volcanic ash, or addition of externally derived, long-range-transported (LRT) aeolian particles. We studied soils and paleosols on high-purity, carbonate aeolianites of Quaternary age on Bermuda, where terra rossa origins have been debated for more than a century. Potential soil parent materials on this island include sand-sized fragments of local volcanic bedrock, the LRT, fine-grained (N/YbN, GdN/YbN that can be distinguished from African dust and lower Mississippi River valley loess. Bermuda soils have Sc-Th-La, Cr-Ta-Nd, and Eu/Eu*, LaN/YbN, GdN/YbN that indicate derivation from a combination of LRT dust from Africa and local volcanic bedrock. Our results indicate that soils on islands in a very broad latitudinal belt of the western Atlantic margin have been influenced by African LRT dust inputs over much of the past –500 ka.

  10. The rise and rise of renewable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The decoupling of fossil fuels from growth in economic activity has been proceeding rapidly for most of the 21st century and is analysed globally in terms of structures and technologies for energy efficiency and for switching to renewable energy in the world’s cities. This is leading to the decline of coal and oil. The evidence suggests that the changes are based on demand for the structures and technologies that are emerging, facilitating a disruptive process. The rise of renewable cities can therefore be expected to accelerate.

  11. Understanding the Enigmatic SW Sex Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula

    The SW Sex stars are a subgroup of cataclysmic variables that are known for several peculiar features, including high excitation single-peaked lines in their spectra, absorption features in the low excitation lines, phase offsets between the radial velocity curves and photometric eclipse times, unusual high velocity components, and orbital periods between 3-4 hrs. The cause of these peculiarities is controversial, with possibilities ranging from mass transfer stream impact and overflow at high mass transfer rates to magnetic propellers, winds and jets. As many of these suggestions depend on the inclination of the system, we propose to confront such theories by contrasting FUSE observations of the low inclination SW Sex star LS Peg and a more typical high inclination system DW UMa. The high quality, high resolution FUSE spectra we will obtain will allow us to construct detailed models of the inner accretion disk and velocity flows of both systems. This will resolve which of the properties are geometry dependent, and thereby lead to a basic advance in our understanding of this class of objects and ultimately, of the general effects of high mass transfer in close binaries.

  12. Differences in Academic Achievement of Students Involved in Extracurricular Activities in Seventh-Day Adventist Schools in the United States and Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Anderson P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in the academic performance of students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 in Seventh-day Adventist schools in the United States and Bermuda based on their level of involvement in school music organizations--band or choir--and school sports--varsity or intramural--as measured by standardized achievement and ability tests.…

  13. Tropical species at the northern limit of their range: composition and distribution in Bermuda's benthic habitats in relation to depth and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Sarah A; Coates, Kathryn A; Kenworthy, W Judson; Fourqurean, James W

    2013-08-01

    Surveys were undertaken on the shallow Bermuda marine platform between 2006 and 2008 to provide a baseline of the distribution, condition and environmental characteristics of benthic communities. Bermuda is located in temperate latitudes but coral reefs, tropical seagrasses and calcareous green algae are common in the shallow waters of the platform. The dominant organisms of these communities are all living at or near their northern latitudinal range limits in the Atlantic Ocean. Among the major benthic autotrophs surveyed, seagrasses were most restricted by light availability. We found that the relatively slow-growing and long-lived seagrass Thalassia testudinum is restricted to habitats with much higher light availability than in the tropical locations where this species is commonly found. In contrast, the faster growing tropical seagrasses in Bermuda, Syringodium filiforme, Halodule sp. and Halophila decipiens, had similar ecological compensation depths (ECD) as in tropical locations. Increasing sea surface temperatures, concomitant with global climate change, may either drive or allow the poleward extensions of the ranges of such tropical species. However, due to latitudinal light limitations at least one abundant and common tropical autotroph, T. testudinum, is able to occupy only shallower depths at the more temperate latitudes of Bermuda. We hypothesize that the poleward shift of seagrass species ranges would be accompanied by restrictions to even shallower depths of T. testudinum and by very different seagrass community structures than in tropical locations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Intercomparison of Dissolved Iron Speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) Site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, K.N.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The organic complexation of dissolved iron (Fe) was determined in depth profile samples collected from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site, as part of the Dutch and U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic programs in June 2010 and November 2011, respectively. The

  15. Estimates of oceanic mesozooplankton production: a comparison using the Bermuda and Hawaii time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, M. R.; Adolf, H. A.; Landry, M. R.; Madin, L. P.; Steinberg, D. K.; Zhang, X.

    Mesozooplankton growth rates were estimated for the Hawaiian (HOT) and Bermuda (BATS) ocean time-series stations using the empirical model of Hirst and Lampitt (Marine Biology 132 (1998) 247), which predicts copepod growth rate from temperature and body size. Using this approach we derived seasonal and annual estimates of mesozooplankton production as well as rates of mesozooplankton ingestion and egestion using assumed growth and assimilation efficiencies for the period 1994-1997. Annual mesozooplankton production estimates at HOT (average 0.79 mol C m -2 yr -1) were higher than production estimates at BATS (average 0.33 mol C m -2 yr -1) due to both higher mesozooplankton biomass and higher estimated mesozooplankton individual growth rates. Annual primary production at the two sites was similar (average 14.92 mol C m -2 yr -1 at HOT and 13.43 mol C m -2 yr -1 at BATS). Thus, mesozooplankton production was a greater fraction of primary production at HOT (0.05) as compared to BATS (0.02). Mesozooplankton potentially contributed more to the gravitational flux of carbon at HOT, where the ratio of the average annual estimate of mesozooplankton fecal pellet carbon production/annual estimate of carbon flux at the base of the euphotic zone was 1.03 compared to the same ratio of 0.39 at BATS. Mortality estimates were similar to estimates of mesozooplankton production when compared over the entire study period. The higher mesozooplankton biomass and derived rate parameters at HOT compared to BATS may be due to the more episodic nature of nutrient inputs at BATS, which could result in mis-matches between increases in phytoplankton production and the grazing/production response by mesozooplankton. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that there are periodic blooms of gelatinous macrozooplankton (salps) at BATS that may not be captured sufficiently by the monthly sampling program. Thus the gelatinous zooplankton would add to the overall grazing impact on the

  16. Multiple driving factors explain spatial and temporal variability in coral calcification rates on the Bermuda platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venti, A.; Andersson, A.; Langdon, C.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental studies have shown that coral calcification rates are dependent on light, nutrients, food availability, temperature, and seawater aragonite saturation ( Ω arag), but the relative importance of each parameter in natural settings remains uncertain. In this study, we applied Calcein fluorescent dyes as time indicators within the skeleton of coral colonies ( n = 3) of Porites astreoides and Diploria strigosa at three study sites distributed across the northern Bermuda coral reef platform. We evaluated the correlation between seasonal average growth rates based on coral density and extension rates with average temperature, light, and seawater Ω arag in an effort to decipher the relative importance of each parameter. The results show significant seasonal differences among coral calcification rates ranging from summer maximums of 243 ± 58 and 274 ± 57 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1 to winter minimums of 135 ± 39 and 101 ± 34 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1 for P. astreoides and D. strigosa, respectively. We also placed small coral colonies ( n = 10) in transparent chambers and measured the instantaneous rate of calcification under light and dark treatments at the same study sites. The results showed that the skeletal growth of D. strigosa and P. astreoides, whether hourly or seasonal, was highly sensitive to Ω arag. We believe this high sensitivity, however, is misleading, due to covariance between light and Ω arag, with the former being the strongest driver of calcification variability. For the seasonal data, we assessed the impact that the observed seasonal differences in temperature (4.0 °C), light (5.1 mol photons m-2 d-1), and Ω arag (0.16 units) would have on coral growth rates based on established relationships derived from laboratory studies and found that they could account for approximately 44, 52, and 5 %, respectively, of the observed seasonal change of 81 ± 14 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1. Using short-term light and dark incubations, we show how the covariance of light

  17. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkus Kristen A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  18. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Kristen A; Tsika, Elpida; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2009-06-05

    While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD) as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  19. High Frequency, Long Time Series Measurements from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring in Support of SIMBIOS. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Tommy; Dobeck, Laura; Sigurdson, David; Zedler, Sarah; Manov, Derek; Yu, Xuri

    2001-01-01

    It has been recognized that optical moorings are important platforms for the validation of Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). It was recommended that optical moorings be maintained in order to: (1) provide long-term time series comparisons between in situ and SeaWIFS measurements of normalized water-leaving radiance; (2) develop and test algorithms for pigment biomass and phytoplankton primary productivity; and (3) provide long-term, virtually continuous in situ observations which can be used to determine and optimize the accuracy of derived satellite products. These applications require the use of in situ radiometers for long periods of time to evaluate and correct for inherent satellite undersampling (aliasing and biasing) and degradation of satellite color sensors (e.g., drifts as experienced by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner). The Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) program was initiated in 1994 at a site located about 80km southeast of Bermuda in waters of about 4530 m depth. In August 1997, with NASA's support, we started to provide the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program with large volumes of high frequency, long-term time-series bio-optical data from the BTM for SeaWiFS satellite ocean color groundtruthing and algorithm development. This NASA supported portion of the BTM activity spanned three years and covered five BTM deployments. During these three years, the quality of radiometric data has improved dramatically. Excellent agreement between BTM moored data and both SeaWiFS and nearby ship profile radiometric data demonstrate that technical advances in the moored optical observations have reduced the major difficulties that moored platforms face: biofouling and less frequent calibration.

  20. Influence of the Bermuda High on interannual variability of summertime ozone in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bermuda High (BH quasi-permanent pressure system is the key large-scale circulation pattern influencing summertime weather over the eastern and southern US. Here we developed a multiple linear regression (MLR model to characterize the effect of the BH on year-to-year changes in monthly-mean maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8 ozone in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria (HGB metropolitan region during June, July, and August (JJA. The BH indicators include the longitude of the BH western edge (BH-Lon and the BH intensity index (BHI defined as the pressure gradient along its western edge. Both BH-Lon and BHI are selected by MLR as significant predictors (p < 0.05 of the interannual (1990–2015 variability of the HGB-mean ozone throughout JJA, while local-scale meridional wind speed is selected as an additional predictor for August only. Local-scale temperature and zonal wind speed are not identified as important factors for any summer month. The best-fit MLR model can explain 61–72 % of the interannual variability of the HGB-mean summertime ozone over 1990–2015 and shows good performance in cross-validation (R2 higher than 0.48. The BH-Lon is the most important factor, which alone explains 38–48 % of such variability. The location and strength of the Bermuda High appears to control whether or not low-ozone maritime air from the Gulf of Mexico can enter southeastern Texas and affect air quality. This mechanism also applies to other coastal urban regions along the Gulf Coast (e.g., New Orleans, LA, Mobile, AL, and Pensacola, FL, suggesting that the BH circulation pattern can affect surface ozone variability through a large portion of the Gulf Coast.

  1. Influence of the Bermuda High on interannual variability of summertime ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Jia, Beixi; Wang, Sing-Chun; Estes, Mark; Shen, Lu; Xie, Yuanyu

    2016-12-01

    The Bermuda High (BH) quasi-permanent pressure system is the key large-scale circulation pattern influencing summertime weather over the eastern and southern US. Here we developed a multiple linear regression (MLR) model to characterize the effect of the BH on year-to-year changes in monthly-mean maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) metropolitan region during June, July, and August (JJA). The BH indicators include the longitude of the BH western edge (BH-Lon) and the BH intensity index (BHI) defined as the pressure gradient along its western edge. Both BH-Lon and BHI are selected by MLR as significant predictors (p temperature and zonal wind speed are not identified as important factors for any summer month. The best-fit MLR model can explain 61-72 % of the interannual variability of the HGB-mean summertime ozone over 1990-2015 and shows good performance in cross-validation (R2 higher than 0.48). The BH-Lon is the most important factor, which alone explains 38-48 % of such variability. The location and strength of the Bermuda High appears to control whether or not low-ozone maritime air from the Gulf of Mexico can enter southeastern Texas and affect air quality. This mechanism also applies to other coastal urban regions along the Gulf Coast (e.g., New Orleans, LA, Mobile, AL, and Pensacola, FL), suggesting that the BH circulation pattern can affect surface ozone variability through a large portion of the Gulf Coast.

  2. A sustained +21 m sea-level highstand during MIS 11 (400 ka): direct fossil and sedimentary evidence from Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2009-02-01

    A small, protected karstic feature exposed in a limestone quarry in Bermuda preserved abundant sedimentary and biogenic materials documenting a transgressive phase, still-stand, and regressive phase of a sea-level in excess of 21.3 m above present during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (400 ka) as determined by U/Th dating and amino acid racemization. Cobbles and marine sediments deposited during the high-energy transgressive phase exhibit rim cements indicating a subsequent phreatic environment. This was succeeded stratigraphically by a still-stand deposition of fine calcareous lagoonal sediments containing bioclasts of red algae and benthic and planktonic foraminifera that was intensely burrowed by marine invertebrates, probably upogebiid shrimp, that could not be produced under any condition other than sustained marine submergence. Overlying this were pure carbonate beach sands of a low-energy regressive phase containing abundant remains of terrestrial and marine vertebrates and invertebrates. The considerable diversity of this fauna along with taphonomic evidence from seabird remains indicates deposition by high run-up waves over a minimum duration of months, if not years. The maximum duration has yet to be determined but probably did not exceed one or two thousand years. The most abundant snails in this fauna are two species indicative of brackish water and high-tide line showing that a Ghyben-Herzberg lens must have existed at > + 20 m. The nature of these sediments and fossil accumulation is incompatible with tsunami deposition and, given the absence of evidence for tectonic uplift of the Bermuda pedestal or platform, provide proof that sea-level during MIS 11 exceeded +20 m, a fact that has widespread ramifications for geologists, biogeographers, and human demographics along the world's coastlines.

  3. SW radiative effect of aerosol in GRAPES_GFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiying

    2017-04-01

    The aerosol particles can scatter and absorb solar radiation, and so change the shortwave radiation absorbed by the atmosphere, reached the surface and that reflected back to outer space at TOA. Since this process doesn't interact with other processes, it is called direct radiation effect. The clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in GRAPES_GFS of China Meteorological Administration are overestimated in Northern multitudes and Tropics. The main source of these errors is the absence of aerosol SW effect in GRAPES_GFS. The climatic aerosol mass concentration data, which include 13 kinds of aerosol and their 14 SW bands optical properties are considered in GRAPES_GFS. The calculated total optical depth, single scatter albedo and asymmetry factor are used as the input to radiation scheme. Compared with the satellite observation from MISER, the calculated total optical depth is in good consistent. The seasonal experiments show that, the summer averaged clear sky radiation fluxes at the surface are improved after including the SW effect of aerosol. The biases in the clear sky downward SW and net SW fluxes at the surface in Northern multitudes and Tropic reduced obviously. Furthermore, the weather forecast experiments also show that the skill scores in Northern hemisphere and East Asia also become better.

  4. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middl...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...

  5. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East, ...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one......., and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...

  6. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East, ...... powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one......., and its brand of Shi‘ism  has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other regional...

  7. Mating system parameters in Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Sw. based on RAPD markers. Lucimara ... AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism. such as ... guianensis under experimental conditions based on ... Cattle were grown in the field in two randomized block design.

  8. Milestone Report - M31SW030904 - Sigma Team Coordination Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-11-24

    This documents the completion of the FCR&D Level 3 milestone for the Off-Gas Sigma Team - ORNL work package (FTOR11SW0309), “Sigma Team Coordination Meeting” (M31SW030904), due 30 November 10. The subject meeting was held at Idaho National Laboratory on October 12 and 13, 2010. The agenda and meeting minutes are attached to this memo.

  9. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  10. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    There has been considerable research on sea-level-rise caused by global warming. The various reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made assessments of observed sea level rise and future projections. Figure 1 shows a global...

  11. Curie point depth in the SW Caribbean using the radially averaged spectra of magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan M.; Vargas, Carlos A.; Leon, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    We have estimated the Curie Point Depth (CPD) using the average radial power spectrum in a tectonically complex area located in the SW Caribbean basin. Data analyzed came from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, and three methods have been used to compare results and evaluate uncertainties: Centroid, Spectral Peak, and Forward Modeling. Results show a match along the three methods, suggesting that the CPD values in the area ranging between 6 km and 50 km. The results share the following characteristics: A) High values (> 30 km) are in continental regions; B) There is a trend of maximum CPD values along the SW-NE direction, starting from the Central Cordillera in Colombia to the Maracaibo Lake in Venezuela; C) There is a maximum CPD at the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) as well as between Costa Rica - Nicaragua and Nicaragua - Honduras borders. The lowest CPD values (Venezuela Basin, the Beata Ridge and the Colombia Basin up to longitude parallel to the Providencia Throat. B) The area that includes zones to the north of the Cocos Ridge and Panam Basin up to the trench. C) The orogenic region of the northern Andes and including areas of the Santa Marta Massif. D) The continental sector that encompasses Nicaragua, northern Costa Rica and eastern of Honduras. E) Corresponds to areas of the northern Venezuela and Colombia, NW of Colombia, the Panamanian territory and the transition zones between the Upper and Lower Nicaragua Rise.

  12. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  13. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU are likely a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  14. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Particle Swarm Optimization for HW/SW Partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhalim, M. B.; Habib, S. E. &#;D.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent introduction of the Particle Swarm Optimization technique to solve the HW/SW partitioning problem is reviewed, along with its “re-exited PSO” modification. The re-exited PSO algorithm is a recently-introduced restarting technique for PSO. The Re-exited PSO proved to be highly effective for solving the HW/SW partitioning problem. Efficient cost function formulation is of a paramount importance for an efficient optimization algorithm. Each component in the design...

  16. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS, an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  17. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  18. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  19. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  20. Basic Information about How to Use SW-846

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses the Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Methods compendium, or SW-846, which is the EPA’s official collection of methods for use in complying with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations.

  1. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990).

  2. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  3. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Shrub expansion has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic. This phenomenon has been partially attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century. However, relationships among shrub expansion, grazing, and human disturbance have been studied little. SW Greenland is a suba...

  4. Geochemistry of crystalline basement rocks SW Ugep, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical data on low-grade metasedimentary phyllites and schists of SW Ugep show that they were derived from predominantly pelitic parent rocks. They form a supracrustal cover on an orthogneiss of granitic composition. The metasediments are enriched in Si02, Al203 and Zr but improverished in Ni. Intrusion of ...

  5. Pharmacognostic Investigation of Leaves of Mitracarpus vilosus (SW)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacognostic investigation on fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of leaf of Mitracarpus vilosus (S.W) D.C was carried out to determine its macromorphological, micromorphological and chemomicromorphological profiles. Qualitative and quantitative studies indicated presence of amphicribal vascular bundle ...

  6. Freely rising light solid spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Christian; Biesheuvel, A.; Lohse, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior of spheres rising freely in a Newtonian fluid when the ratio between the density of the spheres and that of the surrounding fluid is about 0.02. High-speed imaging is used to reconstruct three-dimensional trajectories of the rising spheres. From the analysis of the

  7. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  8. File list: Oth.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 TFs and others Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467367,SRX467366,SRX467...364,SRX467365,SRX467362,SRX467363,SRX467361,SRX467360 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 Histone Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467384,SRX467378,SRX467382,SRX...RX467375,SRX467376,SRX467385,SRX467369 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 All antigens Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467384,SRX467378,SRX46738...67376,SRX467385,SRX467387,SRX467369 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Bon.05.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bon.05.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 All antigens Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467385,SRX467386,SRX46738...67364,SRX467376,SRX467361,SRX467360 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bon.05.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 All antigens Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467377,SRX467378,SRX46738...67360,SRX467387,SRX467386,SRX467385 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Bon.05.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bon.05.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 TFs and others Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467366,SRX467367,SRX467...363,SRX467362,SRX467365,SRX467364,SRX467361,SRX467360 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bon.05.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 Histone Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467377,SRX467378,SRX467384,SRX...RX467369,SRX467375,SRX467376,SRX467385 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bon.10.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 TFs and others Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467367,SRX467364,SRX467...362,SRX467361,SRX467363,SRX467366,SRX467360,SRX467365 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Bon.20.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Bon.50.AllAg.IDG-SW3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bon.50.AllAg.IDG-SW3 mm9 Histone Bone IDG-SW3 SRX467378,SRX467382,SRX467373,SRX...RX467385,SRX467368,SRX467369,SRX467375 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bon.50.AllAg.IDG-SW3.bed ...

  17. Metals in Racomitrium lanuginosum from Arctic (SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago) and alpine (Karkonosze, SW Poland) tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2018-02-19

    Arctic-alpine tundra habitats are very vulnerable to the input of relatively small amounts of xenobiotics, and thus their level in such areas must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we collected the terrestrial widespread moss Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. in Spitsbergen in the Arctic moss lichen tundra and, for comparison, in the Arctic-alpine tundra in the Karkonosze (SW Poland). Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in this species and in the parent rock material were measured. We tested the following hypothesis: R. lanuginosum from Spitsbergen contains lower metal levels than the species from the Karkonosze collected at altitudes influenced by long-range transport from former Black Triangle industry. Principal component and classification analysis (PCCA) ordination revealed that mosses of Spitsbergen were distinguished by a significantly higher Na concentration of marine spray origin and mosses of Karkonosze were distinguished by significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn probably from long-range atmospheric transport. The influence of the polar station with a waste incinerator resulted in significantly higher Co, Li, and Ni concentrations in neighbouring mosses in comparison with this species from other sites. This investigation contributes to the use of R. lanuginosum as a bioindicator for metal contamination in Arctic and alpine tundra regions characterised by severe climate habitats with a restricted number of species. This moss enables the control of pollution usually brought solely by long-range atmospheric transport in high mountains as well as in Arctic areas.

  18. An international comparison of the association among literacy, education, and health across the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Norway, and Bermuda: implications for health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between education and health is well-established, but theoretical pathways are not fully understood. Economic resources, stress, and health behaviors partially explain how education influences health, but further study is needed. Previous studies show that health literacy mediates the education-health relationship, as do general literacy skills. However, little is known whether such mediation effects are consistent across different societies. This study analyzed data from the International Assessment of Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey conducted in Canada, the United States, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, and Bermuda to investigate the mediation effects of literacy on the education-health relationship and the degree of such mediation in different cultural contexts. Results showed that literacy skills mediated the effect of education on health in all study locations, but the degree of mediation varied. This mediation effect was particularly strong in Bermuda. This study also found that different types of literacy skills are more or less important in each study location. For example, numeracy skills in the United States and prose (reading) literacy skills in Italy were stronger predictors of health than were other literacy skills. These findings suggest a new direction for addressing health disparities: focusing on relevant types of literacy skills.

  19. Water quality, isoscapes and stoichioscapes of seagrasses indicate general P limitation and unique N cycling in shallow water benthos of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J. W.; Manuel, S. A.; Coates, K. A.; Kenworthy, W. J.; Boyer, J. N.

    2015-10-01

    Striking spatial patterns in stable isotope ratios (isoscapes) and elemental ratios (stoichioscapes) of seagrass leaves and the water column nutrients indicate general P-limitation of both water column and benthic primary productivity on the Bermuda Platform, and they highlight the role of the Bermuda Islands as a source of N and P. We found consistent differences among the four seagrass species (Syringodium filiforme, Thalassia testudinum, Halodule sp. and Halophila decipiens) in the N, P, δ13C and δ15N of leaf tissues. The δ15N of seagrass leaves was especially variable, with values from -10.1 to 8.8 ‰, greatly expanding the reported range of values for all seagrass species globally. Spatial patterns from both the water column and the seagrass leaves indicated that P availability was higher near shore, and δ15N values suggest this was likely a result of human waste disposal. Spatially contiguous areas of extremely depleted seagrass 15N suggest unique N sources and cycling compared to other seagrass-dominated environments. Seagrass N : P values were not as far from the stoichiometric balance between N and P availability as in the water column, and there were no strong relationships between the water column N : P and the seagrass N : P. Such isoscapes and stoichioscapes provide valuable ecogeochemical tools to infer ecosystem processes as well as provide information that can inform food web and animal movement studies.

  20. Surface Tension and Capillary Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Alan J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the shortcomings of textbook explanations of surface tension, distinguishing between concepts of tension and capillary rise. The arguments require only a clear understanding of Newtonian mechanics, notably potential energy. (DF)

  1. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  2. Comparing Chemistry and Census-based Estimates of Net Ecosystem Calcification on a Rim Reef in Bermuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis A Courtney

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef net ecosystem calcification (NEC has decreased for many Caribbean reefs over recent decades primarily due to a combination of declining coral cover and changing benthic community composition. Chemistry-based approaches to calculate NEC utilize the drawdown of seawater total alkalinity (TA combined with residence time to calculate an instantaneous measurement of NEC. Census-based approaches combine annual growth rates with benthic cover and reef structural complexity to estimate NEC occurring over annual timescales. Here, NEC was calculated for Hog Reef in Bermuda using both chemistry and census-based NEC techniques to compare the mass-balance generated by the two methods and identify the dominant biocalcifiers at Hog Reef. Our findings indicate close agreement between the annual 2011 census-based NEC 2.35±1.01 kg CaCO3•m-2•y-1 and the chemistry-based NEC 2.23±1.02 kg CaCO3•m-2•y-1 at Hog Reef. An additional record of Hog Reef TA data calculated from an autonomous CO2 mooring measuring pCO2 and modeled pHtotal every 3-hours highlights the dynamic temporal variability in coral reef NEC. This ability for chemistry-based NEC techniques to capture higher frequency variability in coral reef NEC allows the mechanisms driving NEC variability to be explored and tested. Just four coral species, Diploria labyrinthiformis, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Millepora alcicornis, and Orbicella franksi, were identified by the census-based NEC as contributing to 94±19% of the total calcium carbonate production at Hog Reef suggesting these species should be highlighted for conservation to preserve current calcium carbonate production rates at Hog Reef. As coral cover continues to decline globally, the agreement between these NEC estimates suggest that either method, but ideally both methods, may serve as a useful tool for coral reef managers and conservation scientists to monitor the maintenance of coral reef structure and ecosystem services.

  3. {Omega}/{Xi} production ratio in S-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abatzis, S. [Nuclear Physics Department, Athens University, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Carney, J.N.; de la Cruz, B.; Di Bari, D.; Dufey, J.P.; Davies, J.P.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Lassalle, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Manzari, V.; Narjoux, J.L.; Navach, F.; Quercigh, E.; Rossi, L.; Safarik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Storas, T.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; Federico Antinori/CERN & Genova for WA85 Collaboration

    1995-07-20

    We have measured the ({Omega}{sup {minus}}+{bar {Omega}}{sup +})/({Xi}{sup {minus}}+{bar {Xi}}{sup +}) production ratio in central S-W collisions to be 0.8{plus_minus}0.4 at central rapidity and p{sub T}{gt}1.6 GeV/{ital c}. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  4. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Ming; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Makhtar, Nor 'Adilah; Khalid, Mohamed Hanief; Khalid, Syamimi; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Mastuki, Siti Nurulhuda; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Lajis, Nordin; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2011-01-07

    Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. is a medicinal herbaceous plant that is commonly used by the Malay community in Malaysia to relieve pain often associated with mouth ulcers, toothache, sore throat, and stomach ache. The study was carried out to investigate the antinociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of A. uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. flowers (MEAU) using murine models of chemicals and thermal nociception. Chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-induced paw licking test) and thermal models (hot plate test) of nociception in mice were employed to evaluate the MEAU analgesic effect. The extract was given via oral administration at doses of 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg. It was demonstrated that MEAU produced significant antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which indicates the presence of both centrally and peripherally mediated activities. Furthermore, the reversal of antinociception of MEAU by naloxone suggests the involvement of opioid system in its centrally mediated analgesic activity. Moreover, MEAU-treated mice did not show any significant motor performance alterations. No mortality and signs of toxicity were recorded following treatment of the MEAU. The results from the present study appear to support the folkloric belief in the medicinal properties of A. uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. which against pain at both central and peripheral levels, in which the central antinociception is probably due to the participation of the opioid receptors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects' relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...

  6. Orbital science's 'Bermuda Triangle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Thomas J.

    1991-02-01

    The effects of a part of the inner Van Allen belt lying closest to the earth, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) upon spacecraft including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are discussed. The area consists of positively charged ions and electrons from the Van Allen Belt which become trapped in the earth's dipole field. Contor maps representing the number of protons per square centimeter per second having energies greater than 10 million electron volts are presented. It is noted that the HST orbit causes it to spend about 15 percent of its time in the SAA, but that, unlike the experience with earlier spacecraft, the satellite's skin, internal structure, and normal electronic's packaging provides sufficient protection against eletrons, although some higher energy protons still get through. Various charged particle effects which can arise within scientific instruments including fluorescence, Cerenkov radiation, and induced radioactivity are described.

  7. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  8. Temperature rise of installed FCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Report discusses temperature profiles of installed FCC for wood and tile surfaces. Three-conductor FCC was tested at twice nominal current-carrying capacity over bare floor and under carpet, with result indicating that temperature rise is not a linear function of current with FCC at this level.

  9. Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the SW Iberian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Arnaiz, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    The SW Iberian margin lies at the eastern termination of the Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone (AGFZ), the diffuse transform plate boundary between Africa and Iberia (Sartori et al., 1994). It comprises the Gulf of Cadiz and the Algarve Basin, which were developed under two main different regional stages of deformation. During the Mesozoic, the SW Iberian margin evolution since the Late Triassic was dominated by the Pangea break-up and the Central Atlantic opening up to Early Jurssic, followed by the westernmost Tethyan opening up to Mid/Late Jurassic, and the North Atlantic rifting from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (e.g., Schettino and Turco, 2010). This phase of extension led to the formation of E-W to NE-SW trending, basement-involved extensional faults, the triggering of salt tectonics and the uplifting of basement highs (e.g., Guadalquivir Bank). This extensional phase was responsible not only for the sedimentary depocenter distribution, but also for the crustal configuration of this passive margin, extending from continental crust in the proximal part, to oceanic crust in the distal and deepest portion of the margin. Since the Late Cretaceous, the margin was inverted due to the N-S convergence between Africa and Iberia, being still undergoing collision given the dominance of reverse fault earthquake mechanisms (e.g., Zitellini et al., 2009). The shortening in the margin is mainly accommodated by the north-dipping foliation of the basin, expressed by south-directed blind thrusts affecting the present-day bathymetry, re-activating the basement highs and the salt tectonics, and controlling the Cenozoic depocenters. The emplacement of the Betics to the east led to the westward emplacement of the gravitational unit partially overlying the sedimentary basins, corresponding to the Allochthonous Unit of the Gulf of Cadiz (AUGC). Our observations of the margin configuration have been based on the interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys throughout the

  10. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  11. China’s Peaceful Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    strategic defeat.”8 Mearsheimer’s analysis falls short in its presumption that security dilemmas, though the theoretical honey traps9 of great power...victim.” See http://www.oxforddictionaries.com, “ honey trap,” (accessed August 23, 2013). 10 Charles Glaser, “Will China’s Rise Lead to War? Why...Indonesia, tunnels in Brazil, power grids in Cambodia, hydroelectric projects in Laos, bridges in Vietnam, roads in Zambia, factories in Malaysia

  12. Centrifuge modelling of capillary rise

    OpenAIRE

    Depountis, N.; DAVIES, MCR; Harris, C; Burkhart, S; THOREL, L; A. Rezzoug; Konig, D; Merrifield, C; CRAIG, WH

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports results from centrifuge tests designed to investigate capillary rise in soils subjected to different gravitational fields. The experimental programme is part of the EU-funded NECER project (Network of European Centrifuges for Environmental Geotechnic Research), whose objective is to investigate the appropriateness of geotechnical centrifuge modelling for the investigation of geoenvironmental problems, particularly with reference to partially saturated soils. The tests were ...

  13. The role of neo-tectonics in the sedimentary infilling and geomorphological evolution of the Guadalquivir estuary (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Spain) during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Antonio; Flores-Hurtado, Enrique; Contreras, Carmen; Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Pérez-Asensio, José Noel; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Celestino-Pérez, Sebastián; Cerrillo-Cuenca, Enrique; León, Ángel

    2014-08-01

    A multidisciplinary analysis of cores and geomorphic patterns in the marshes of Doñana National Park (SW Spain) has yielded new evidence regarding the sedimentary infilling and geomorphological evolution of the Guadalquivir estuary during the Holocene. The sedimentation and geomorphological disposition have been strongly conditioned by neotectonic activity along a set of SW-NE alignments, interrupted by other alignments that follow E-W and NW-SE directions. The most conspicuous of the SW-NE alignments is the Torre Carbonero-Marilópez Fault (TCMF). South of this fault, the estuary experienced a marked subsidence from about 4000 to 2000 cal. yr BP through a series of sedimentary sequences of retrogradation and aggradation within the context of relative sea-level rise. From c. 2000 cal. yr BP to the present the subsidence has remained relatively dormant, with progradation of the littoral systems and infilling of the marshland progressing within a context of sea-level stability. Our results reveal that neotectonic activity is a critical factor that must also be reckoned with in any attempt to understand the Holocene geomorphological evolution in the Guadalquivir estuary.

  14. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  15. Van SW-bedrijf naar Centrum voor Werk: interview met Gert Jan Engbers, SOWECO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, R.

    2008-01-01

    De wet Sociale werkvoorziening wordt uitgevoerd door ongeveer negentig "monopolisten", de huidige SW-bedrijven. Deze krijgen daartoe opdracht van de ongeveer 440 Nederlandse gemeenten, die de uitvoering neerleggen bij één partij: het regionale SW-bedrijf. Dit komt mede omdat de wet de gemeenten tot

  16. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules in...

  17. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of the Cork Harbour area, SW Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A. R.; Milenic, D.

    2007-11-01

    In the Cork Harbour area of SW Ireland, high yield karst and intergranular gravel aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution from a variety of sources, mainly due to the limited protection afforded by the thin cover of low permeability glacial and alluvial overburden. The main potential sources of pollution are due to rapid urbanisation of the Cork city area and its attendant infrastructure, and increased industrialisation in the area, with numerous new industries, particularly pharmaceutical and chemical industries, located around Cork Harbour. Other potential sources of pollution are a number of landfills in the area and an oil refinery near the mouth of Cork Harbour. Traditional agricultural sources of pollution also exist, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers. Finally, the susceptibility to saline intrusion of the karst and gravel aquifers around Cork Harbour is high due to the long coastline of the harbour and the low-lying nature of the karst synclines with their superimposed buried valleys.

  18. Super high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryon, J.C.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a super high-rise building for human occupation having at least 100 vertically spaced, human-occupiable stories comprising: a foundation; and a hollow vertical prism of reinforced concrete, mounted on the foundation and being at least 100 stories high, for transmitting to the foundation substantially all loads above at least the 75th floor of the building in a manner such that automatic lateral rigidity, stability, and strength are attained. The sides of the prism have apertures for such purposes as allowing human movement between the inside end and outside of the prism. The portion of substantially any horizontal circumference of the prism which is occupied by the apertures is less than about 25% of the horizontal circumference.

  19. An intercomparison of dissolved iron speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Nicolle Buck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The organic complexation of dissolved iron (Fe was determined in depth profile samples collected from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site, as part of the Dutch and U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic programs in June 2010 and November 2011, respectively. The two groups employed distinct competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV methods, and resulting ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants from each profile were compared. Excellent agreement was found between the total ligand concentrations determined in June 2010 and the strongest, L1-type, ligand concentrations determined in November 2011. Yet a primary distinction between the datasets was the number of ligand classes observed: a single ligand class was characterized in the June 2010 profile while two ligand classes were observed in the November 2011 profile. To assess the role of differing interpretation approaches in determining final results, analysts exchanged titration data and accompanying parameters from the profiles for reinterpretation. The reinterpretation exercises highlighted the considerable influence of the sensitivity (S parameter applied on interpretation results, consistent with recent intercalibration work on interpretation of copper speciation titrations. The potential role of titration data structure, humic-type substances, differing dissolved Fe concentrations, and seasonality are also discussed as possible drivers of the one versus two ligand class determinations between the two profiles, leading to recommendations for future studies of Fe-binding ligand cycling in the oceans.

  20. Source Mechanisms of Recent Earthquakes occurred in the Fethiye-Rhodes Basin and Anaximander Seamounts (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the active tectonics of southern Turkey involves integrating earthquake source parameters with the regional tectonics. In this respect, seismological studies have played important roles in deciphering tectonic deformations and existing stress accumulations in the region. This study is concerned with the source mechanism parameters and spatio-temporal finite-fault slip distributions of recent earthquakes occurred along the Pliny-Strabo Trench (PST), which constitutes the eastern part of the Hellenic subduction zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Region, and along the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey). The study area is located at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs along which the African plate plunges northwards beneath the Aegean Sea and the Anatolian block. Bathymetry and topography including large-scale tectonic structures such as the Rhodes Basin, Anaximander Seamounts, the Florence Rise, the Isparta Angle, the Taurus Mountains, and Kyrenia Range also reflect the tectonic complexities in the region. In this study, we performed point-source inversions by using teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) and the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) stations. We obtained source mechanism parameters and finite-fault slip distributions of recent Fethiye-Rhodes earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.0) by comparing the shapes and amplitudes of long period P- and SH-waveforms, recorded in the distance range of 30 - 90 degrees, with synthetic waveforms. We further obtained rupture histories of the earthquakes to determine the fault area (fault length and width), maximum displacement, rupture duration and stress drop. Inversion results exhibit that recent earthquakes show left-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanisms with relatively deeper focal depths (h > 40 km) consistent with tectonic characteristics of the region, for example, the June 10, 2012 Fethiye earthquake (Mw

  1. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  2. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon

    2015-06-01

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  3. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  4. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  5. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 proteins. Results: Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P < 0.01. Artesunate can effectively inhibit the expression of cancer cell ICAM-1 gene proteins, and was time- and concentration-dependant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Artesunate can significantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  6. Dosimetric properties of a Solid Water High Equivalency (SW557) phantom for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Fujio

    2017-07-01

    The dosimetric properties of the recently developed SW557 phantom have been investigated by comparison with those of the existing SW457 phantom in megavoltage photon beams. The electron fluence ratio φplw, and chamber ionization ratio kpl, of water to SW457 and water to SW557 for 4-15MV photons were calculated as a function of depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and compared with measured values. Values of φplw for SW457 were in the range of 1.004-1.014 for 4MV, and 1.014-1.018 for 15MV photons. The φplw for SW557 ranged from 1.005 to 1.008 for 4MV and from 1.010 to 1.015 for 15MV photons and the variation of φplw with depth for each beam energy was within ±0.5%. Values of kpl were obtained with a PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionization chamber. The kpl for SW457 ranged from 0.997 to 1.011 for 4-15MV photons. Values of kpl for SW557 were almost unity for 4 and 6MV photons, while in the case of 10 and 15MV photons they were less than 1.006, excepting the build-up region. The measured and calculated kpl values of water to SW557 were in the range of 0.997-1.002 and 1.000-1.006, respectively, for 4-15MV photons, at a depth of 10cm with a source-to-axis distance of 100cm. The measured and calculated kpl values were in agreement within their uncertainty ranges. As a water-equivalent phantom, SW557 can be used with a dosimetric difference within±0.6%, for 4-15MV photons, and is more water-equivalent than SW457 in megavoltage photon beams. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  8. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  9. Microseismicity and active deformation of Messinia, SW Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulia, J.; Makris, J.

    By deploying a 30 3-component digital seismic array in the Messiniakos gulf and the surrounding region, we recorded for a period of 45 days the microseismic activity. With a minimum of six records per event, we located 1121 earthquakes corresponding to an average of 20 events per day. For the hypocenter location we used a local velocity model adopted to two controlled source seismic experiments. Within the array, traveltime residuals were within ± 0.2 s and the epicentral accuracy in the order of ± 2 km, while the hypocentral one is twice this value. Correlation of the seismicity with the tectonic elements indicated that most of the NW-SE oriented faults are active with strike-slip movement along this orientation and extension perpendicular to it. The neogene basins of Messini, Meligalas and Megalopolis are seismically very active and their eastern flanks are delineated by higher seismic activity than their western ones. This indicates that the basins are asymmetric with master faults defining their eastern-northeastern flanks. This hypothesis is supported by the asymmetric structure mapped at the offshore Messiniakos basin as densely spaced high resolution reflection seismic profiles have revealed. The western margins of the basins are less deformed and the seismic activity is dispersed over several minor NW-SE faults. Since the NW-SE striking faults onshore are truncated by major NE-SW oriented ones, their overall length is shortened, reducing their seismic potential and capacity to store large stresses that could produce events above Ms6.1. Offshore western Messinia, in the Ionian Sea, the size and activity of the faults is significantly larger and prone to develop events of larger magnitudes. Subcrustal seismicity indicates a deepening of the foci to the east-northeast.

  10. Preliminary Results of EEWS Parameters for SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Marta; Buforn, Elisa; Pro, Carmen; Zollo, Aldo; Pazos, Antonio; Lozano, Lucia; Carrilho, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    SW Iberia is an area where potential large and damaging earthquakes may occur such as the 1755 (Lisbon Imax=X), 1969 (S. Vicente Cape Ms=8,1) or 1964 (Gulf of Cádiz Ms=6.5) shocks. We have estimated the peak displacement (Pd) and mean period (τc) for a rapid estimation of the potential damage for earthquakes occurring in this region (ALERT-ES project), from the first seconds of the beginning of P-waves. This estimation is carried out by the correlation of these parameters with the magnitude and the peak ground velocity (PGV) of recorded shocks. The database is formed by earthquakes with epicentres at S. Vicente Cape and Gulf of Cadiz regions, occurred on the period 2006-2011 with magnitude larger than 3.8 and recorded at regional distances (less than 500 km) at real time broad-band seismic stations. We have studied different lengths of time-windows (2 to 20s) and applied different filters. Due to the off-shore foci occurrence and the bad azimuthal coverage, we have corrected the Pd parameter by the radiation pattern obtained from focal mechanisms of the largest earthquakes of this region. We have normalized the Pd value to a reference distance (200 km) and after that we have obtained empirical correlation laws for Pd and τc versus magnitude. We have also obtained an empirical correlation between Pd parameter and the PGV estimated over the total seismogram. The PGV could be correlated to the earthquakes damages through the Modified Mercalli Intensity (IMM). Applying the scaling laws obtained (Pd and PGV), we have estimated the theoretical intensity maps for the 2007 and 2009 earthquakes occurred in this area.

  11. Criteria Describing High-Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Ernestas Gaudutis

    2011-01-01

    Although the evolution of high rise buildings according to different literature sources counts the 2nd century, however, until now, no universally accepted criterion to characterize them has been established. Considering standards used in different countries of the world and various sources of literature, this article tries to sign the existing situation and offer a criterion to mark high rise buildings. The analysis of the reasons of the notion describing high rise buildings is carried out a...

  12. Criteria Describing High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Gaudutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the evolution of high rise buildings according to different literature sources counts the 2nd century, however, until now, no universally accepted criterion to characterize them has been established. Considering standards used in different countries of the world and various sources of literature, this article tries to sign the existing situation and offer a criterion to mark high rise buildings. The analysis of the reasons of the notion describing high rise buildings is carried out and its relations with high rise construction rudiments found in different cultures are characterized. Article in Lithuanian

  13. The 3He flux gauge in the Sargasso Sea: a determination of physical nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic time series site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Doney, S. C.; Lott, D. E., III

    2015-03-01

    We provide a new determination of the annual mean physical supply of nitrate to the euphotic zone in the western subtropical North Atlantic based on a three year time-series of measurements of tritiugenic 3He from 2003 to 2006 in the surface ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. We combine the 3He data with a sophisticated noble gas calibrated air-sea gas exchange model to constrain the 3He flux across the sea-air interface, which must closely balance the upward 3He flux into the euphotic zone. The product of the 3He flux and the observed subsurface nitrate-3He relationship provides an estimate of the minimum rate of new production in the BATS region. We also applied the gas model to an earlier time series of 3He measurements at BATS in order to recalculate new production fluxes for the 1985 to 1988 time period. The observations, despite an almost three-fold difference in the nitrate-3He relationship, yield a roughly consistent estimate of nitrate flux. In particular, the nitrate flux from 2003-2006 is estimated to be 0.65 ± 0.3 mol m-2 y-1, which is ~ 40% smaller than the calculated flux for the period from 1985 to 1988. The difference between the time periods, which is barely significant, may be due to a real difference in new production resulting from changes in subtropical mode water formation. Overall, the nitrate flux is larger than most estimates of export fluxes or net community production fluxes made locally for BATS site, which is likely a reflection of the larger spatial scale covered by the 3He technique and potentially also by decoupling of 3He and nitrate during obduction of water masses from the main thermocline into the upper ocean.

  14. CHINA'S RISE DOESN'T MEAN WAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph S Nye Jr

    2011-01-01

    .... A century ago, Germany's rise and the fear it created in Britain helped cause World War I. Now, it's become a new conventional wisdom in some circles that China's rise and the fear it is creating in the US -- where recent polls show 60...

  15. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Ryzner, Kamila; Skurzyński, Jacek; Jary, Zdzisław

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills) and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills). Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm). Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  16. Study of morphological and mechanical features of multinuclear and mononuclear SW480 cells by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyun; Qu, Yingmin; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Xinyue; Zhang, Wenxiao; Li, Jingmei; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Jiang, Jinlan

    2017-10-09

    This article studies the morphological and mechanical features of multinuclear and mononuclear SW480 colon cancer cells by atomic force microscopy to understand their drug-resistance. The SW480 cells were incubated with the fullerenol concentrations of 1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml. Morphological and mechanical features including the height, length, width, roughness, adhesion force and Young's modulus of three multinuclear cell groups and three mononuclear cell groups were imaged and analyzed. It was observed that the features of multinuclear cancer cells and mononuclear cancer cells were significantly different after the treatment with fullerenol. The experiment results indicated that the mononuclear SW480 cells were more sensitive to fullerenol than the multinuclear SW480 cells, and the multinuclear SW480 cells exhibited a stronger drug-resistance than the mononuclear SW480 cells. This work provides a guideline for the treatments of multinuclear and mononuclear cancer cells with drugs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A millennial-scale record of tidewater glacier advance and retreat, SW Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Danni; Mair, Doug; Rea, Brice; Schofield, Ed; Lea, James; Barr, Iestyn; Kamenos, Nick; Schoenrock, Kate

    2017-04-01

    Tidewater glaciers (TWGs) exert a major control on the short- and long-term mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and have experienced widespread retreat over the last century. However, in many cases inferences on their dynamics, prior to this, are poorly constrained due to a lack of observations and paucity of mapped or mappable deglacial geomorphology. Especially lacking is evidence associated with TWG advance during the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD c. 1300 to 1850). Such data are crucial for numerical model calibration and validation in order to more confidently forward model ice sheet dynamics and projection future sea-level rise. Therefore, empirical data constraints from the palaeo-record, that span such timescales (decadal to millennial), are essential. Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) is the most dynamic TWG in SW Greenland, located c. 100 km inland from Nuuk, at the head of Godthabsfjord. KNS has received considerable research attention over the last decade but glacial geomorphological and numerical dating investigations have been limited. However, the adjacent topography and geomorphology presents a unique opportunity to reconstruct the advance and retreat dynamics over the LIA. We present detailed glacial geomorphological mapping for KNS, which followed a morphostratigraphic approach, using a combination of aerial photos, Landsat, a DEM and field mapping. This identified a three landsystems, which are associated with the LIA, pre-LIA and neoglacial. From the mapping inferences on rapid changes in meltwater routing have been inferred. When KNS reached its LIA maximum (c. 1761), the calving front was c. >22 km further along the fjord than present and a number of ice-dammed lakes were formed. We present new 14C dating from peat underlying lake sediments associated with an ice-dammed lake and buried palaeosols resulting from meltwater re-routing over topographic spillways. The ages support an early and rapid LIA advance phase, with advance rates being

  18. Paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental implications of magnetofossil occurrences in late Miocene marine sediments from the Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrasoaña, Juan C; Liu, Qingsong; Hu, Pengxiang; Roberts, Andrew P; Mata, Pilar; Civis, Jorge; Sierro, Francisco J; Pérez-Asensio, José N

    2014-01-01

    Although recent studies have revealed more widespread occurrences of magnetofossils in pre-Quaternary sediments than have been previously reported, their significance for paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental studies is not fully understood. We present a paleo- and rock-magnetic study of late Miocene marine sediments recovered from the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain). Well-defined paleomagnetic directions provide a robust magnetostratigraphic chronology for the two studied sediment cores. Rock magnetic results indicate the dominance of intact magnetosome chains throughout the studied sediments. These results provide a link between the highest-quality paleomagnetic directions and higher magnetofossil abundances. We interpret that bacterial magnetite formed in the surface sediment mixed layer and that these magnetic particles gave rise to a paleomagnetic signal in the same way as detrital grains. They, therefore, carry a magnetization that is essentially identical to a post-depositional remanent magnetization, which we term a bio-depositional remanent magnetization. Some studied polarity reversals record paleomagnetic directions with an apparent 60-70 kyr recording delay. Magnetofossils in these cases are interpreted to carry a biogeochemical remanent magnetization that is locked in at greater depth in the sediment column. A sharp decrease in magnetofossil abundance toward the middle of the studied boreholes coincides broadly with a major rise in sediment accumulation rates near the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), an event caused by interruption of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. This correlation appears to have resulted from dilution of magnetofossils by enhanced terrigenous inputs that were driven, in turn, by sedimentary changes triggered in the basin at the onset of the MSC. Our results highlight the importance of magnetofossils as carriers of high-quality paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental signals even in

  19. Paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental implications of magnetofossil occurrences in late Miocene marine sediments from the Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz Larrasoaña

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although recent studies have revealed more widespread occurrences of magnetofossils in pre-Quaternary sediments than has been previously reported, their significance for paleomagetic and paleoenvironmental studies is not fully understood. We present a paleo- and rock-magnetic study of late Miocene marine sediments recovered from the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain. Well-defined paleomagnetic directions provide a robust magnetostratigraphic chronology for the two studied sediment cores. Rock magnetic results indicate the dominance of intact magnetosome chains throughout the studied sediments. These results provide a link between the highest-quality paleomagnetic directions and higher magnetofossil abundances. We interpret that bacterial magnetite formed in the surface sediment mixed layer and that these magnetic particles gave rise to a paleomagnetic signal in the same way as detrital grains. They, therefore, carry a magnetization that is essentially identical to a post-depositional remanent magnetization and that we term a bio-depositional remanent magnetization (BDRM. Some studied polarity reversals record paleomagnetic directions that appear to be delayed by 60-70 kyr. Magnetofossils in these cases are interpreted to carry a biogeochemical remanent magnetization (BGRM that is locked in at greater depth in the sediment column. A sharp decrease in magnetofossil abundance toward the middle of the studied boreholes broadly coincides with a major rise in sediment accumulation rates near the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC, an event caused by interruption of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. This correlation appears to have resulted from dilution of magnetofossils by enhanced terrigenous inputs that were driven, in turn, by sedimentary changes triggered in the basin at the onset of the MSC. Our study highlights the importance of magnetofossils as carriers of high-quality paleomagnetic and

  20. Arrested Bubble Rise in a Narrow Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamstaes, Catherine; Eggers, Jens

    2017-05-01

    If a long air bubble is placed inside a vertical tube closed at the top it can rise by displacing the fluid above it. However, Bretherton found that if the tube radius, R, is smaller than a critical value Rc=0.918 ℓ _c, where ℓ _c=√{γ /ρ g} is the capillary length, there is no solution corresponding to steady rise. Experimentally, the bubble rise appears to have stopped altogether. Here we explain this observation by studying the unsteady bubble motion for Rmotion.

  1. District Energy Corporation SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davlin, Thomas [District Energy Corporation, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2014-06-06

    The overall deliverable from the project is the design, construction and commissioning of a detention facility heating and cooling system that minimizes ownership costs and maximizes efficiency (and therefore minimizes environmental impact). The primary deliverables were the proof of concept for the application of geothermal systems for an institutional facility and the ongoing, quarterly system operating data downloads to the Department of Energy . The primary advantage of geothermal based heat pump systems is the higher efficiency of the system compared to a conventional chiller, boiler, cooling tower based system. The higher efficiency results in a smaller environmental foot print and lower energy costs for the detention facility owner, Lancaster County. The higher efficiency for building cooling is primarily due to a more constant compressor condensing temperature with the geothermal well field acting as a thermal “sink” (in place of the conventional system’s cooling tower). In the heating mode, Ground Couple Heat Pump (GCHP) systems benefits from the advantage of a heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) of approximately 3.6, significantly better than a conventional gas boiler. The geothermal well field acting as a thermal “source” allows the heat pumps to operate efficiently in the heating mode regardless of ambient temperatures. The well field is partially located in a wetland with a high water table so, over time, the project will be able to identify the thermal loading characteristics of a well field located in a high water table location. The project demonstrated how a large geothermal well field can be installed in a wetland area in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Finally, the SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant project demonstrates the benefits of providing domestic hot water energy, as well as space heating, to help balance well filed thermal loading in a cooling dominated application. During the period of August 2012 thru

  2. The 3He flux gauge in the Sargasso Sea: a determination of physical nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Doney, S. C.; Lott, D. E., III

    2015-09-01

    Significant rates of primary production occur in the oligotrophic ocean, without any measurable nutrients present in the mixed layer, fueling a scientific paradox that has lasted for decades. Here, we provide a new determination of the annual mean physical supply of nitrate to the euphotic zone in the western subtropical North Atlantic. We combine a 3-year time series of measurements of tritiugenic 3He from 2003 to 2006 in the surface ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site with a sophisticated noble gas calibrated air-sea gas exchange model to constrain the 3He flux across the sea-air interface, which must closely mirror the upward 3He flux into the euphotic zone. The product of the 3He flux and the observed subsurface nitrate-3He relationship provides an estimate of the minimum rate of new production in the BATS region. We also apply the gas model to an earlier time series of 3He measurements at BATS in order to recalculate new production fluxes for the 1985 to 1988 time period. The observations, despite an almost 3-fold difference in the nitrate-3He relationship, yield a roughly consistent estimate of nitrate flux. In particular, the nitrate flux from 2003 to 2006 is estimated to be 0.65 ± 0.14 mol m-2 yr-1, which is ~40 % smaller than the calculated flux for the period from 1985 to 1988. The difference in nitrate flux between the time periods may be signifying a real difference in new production resulting from changes in subtropical mode water formation. Overall, the nitrate flux is larger than most estimates of export fluxes or net community production fluxes made locally for the BATS site, which is likely a reflection of the larger spatial scale covered by the 3He technique and potentially also by the decoupling of 3He and nitrate during the obduction of water masses from the main thermocline into the upper ocean. The upward nitrate flux is certainly large enough to support observed rates of primary production at BATS and more generally

  3. NEW DATA ON MIDDLE DEVONIAN CONODONTS FROM SW-SARDINIA:THE SU NUARGI II SECTION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIE GOUWY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The conodont collection from the nodular limestone beds of the Su Nuargi II outcrop near Domusnovas in SW-Sardinia (Italy is restudied for the purpose of reassessing the outcrop and updating the conodont collection to the most recent taxonomy. Su Nuargi II is the most important outcrop in the SW of the island exposing Middle Devonian rocks. Forty-five conodont taxa have been identified in the collection, positioning the outcrop within the interval covering the timorensis to latifossatus zones (Lower to Middle Givetian slightly widening the interpretation of Olivieri (1985. A new morphotype of Polygnathus linguiformis linguiformis is described. The genera Tortodus and Schmidtognathus are identified for the first time in the Middle Devonian of Sardinia. Additionally, a second Middle Devonian outcrop is discovered in the SW of the Island. 

  4. Why did employee health insurance contributions rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jonathan; McKnight, Robin

    2003-11-01

    We explore the causes of the dramatic rise in employee contributions to health insurance over the past two decades. In 1982, 44% of those who were covered by their employer-provided health insurance had their costs fully financed by their employer, but by 1998 this had fallen to 28%. We discuss the theory of why employers might shift premiums to their employees, and empirically model the role of four factors suggested by the theory. We find that there was a large impact of falling tax rates, rising eligibility for insurance through the Medicaid system, rising medical costs, and increased managed care penetration. Overall, this set of factors can explain more than one-half of the rise in employee premiums over the 1982-1996 period.

  5. Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement by David Maxwell (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006) – XI + 250 pp., ISBN 13:978-0-8124-1738-6, Paperback.

  6. Rapid rise and decay in petition signing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yasseri, Taha; Hale, Scott A; Margetts, Helen Z

    2017-01-01

    .... Petition signing is an example of collective action which has gained in popularity with rising use of social media and provides such data for the whole population of petition signatories for a given platform...

  7. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  8. Bubble streams rising beneath an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Brasz, Frederik; Kim, Dayoung; Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Bubbles released beneath a submerged inclined surface can tumble along the wall as they rise, dragging the surrounding fluid with them. This effect has recently regained attention as a method to mitigate biofouling in marine environment, such as a ship hull. It appears that the efficacy of this approach may be related to the velocity of the rising bubbles and the extent that they spread laterally as they rise. Yet, it is unclear how bubble stream rise velocity and lateral migration depend on bubble size, flow rate, and inclination angle. Here we perform systematic experiments to quantify these relationships for both individual bubble trajectories and ensemble average statistics. Research supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant Number award N00014-16-1-3000.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Bacillus cereus SW7-1 in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guan-Nan; Xia, Xue-Juan; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Sendegeya, Parfait; Zhu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial diseases of silkworms cause significant reductions in sericulture and result in huge economic loss. This study aimed to identify and characterize a pathogen from diseased silkworm. SW7-1, a pathogenic bacterial strain, was isolated from the diseased silkworm. The strain was identified on the basis of its bacteriological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The colony was round, slightly convex, opaque, dry, and milky on a nutrient agar medium, the colony also exhibited jagged edges. SW7-1 was Gram-positive, without parasporal crystal, and 0.8-1.2 by 2.6-3.4 µm in length, resembling long rods with rounded ends. The strain was positive to most of the physiological biochemical tests used in this study. The strain could utilize glucose, sucrose, and maltose. The results of its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that SW7-1 shared the highest sequence identity (>99%) with Bacillus cereus strain 14. The bacterial strain was highly susceptible to gentamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin and moderately susceptible to tetracycline and rifampicin. It exhibited resistance to other antibiotics. SW7-1 had hemolytic activity and could produce extracellular casease, lipase, and amylase. SW7-1 could reproduce septicemia-like symptoms with high mortality rate when re-fed to healthy silkworm. .The median lethal concentration (LC50) was 5.45 × 10(4) cfu/ml. Thus, SW7-1 was identified as B. cereus, which is a pathogen for silkworm and human infections are possible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Targeted pancreatic cancer therapy with the small molecule drug conjugate SW IV-134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yassar M; Spitzer, Dirk; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Hornick, Mary C; Garg, Gunjal; Hornick, John R; Goedegebuure, Peter; Mach, Robert H; Hawkins, William G

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is highly resistant to conventional therapeutics and has been shown to evade apoptosis by deregulation of the X-linked and cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (XIAP and cIAP). Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) induces and amplifies cell death by reversing the anti-apoptotic activity of IAPs. Thus, Smac-derived peptide analogues (peptidomimetics) have been developed and shown to represent promising cancer therapeutics. Sigma-2 receptors are overexpressed in many proliferating tumor cells including pancreatic cancer. Selected ligands to this receptor are rapidly internalized by cancer cells. These characteristics have made the sigma-2 receptor an attractive target for drug delivery because selective delivery to cancer cells has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. Here, we describe the initial characterization of SW IV-134, a chemically linked drug conjugate between the sigma-2 ligand SW43 and the Smac mimetic SW IV-52 as a novel treatment option for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The tumor killing characteristics of our dual-domain therapeutic SW IV-134 was far greater than either component in isolation or in an equimolar mix and suggests enhanced cellular delivery when chemically linked to the sigma-2 ligand. One of the key findings was that SW IV-134 retained target selectivity of the Smac cargo with the involvement of the NF-κB/TNFα signaling pathway. Importantly, SW IV-134 slowed tumor growth and improved survival in murine models of pancreatic cancer. Our data support further study of this novel therapeutic and this drug delivery strategy because it may eventually benefit patients with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cusped Bubbles Rising through Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Andrew; Sostarecz, Michael

    2000-11-01

    It is well known that a bubble rising in a polymer fluid can have a cusp-like tail. We report on an experimental study of bubbles rising through solutions of glycerol/water with the addition of the polymer xanthan gum, a polyelectrolyte which becomes more rigid as the free ion concentration is increased. The addition of salt also decreases the elasticity of the xanthan gum solutions, and we observe its effects on the velocity and shape of the cusped bubble.

  12. Roles of Transpiration, Forest Bioproductivity and Fire on a Long-Term Dripwater Hydrochemistry Dataset from Golgotha Cave, SW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, P. C.; Baker, A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Bradley, C.; Mahmud, K.; Andersen, M. S.; Meredith, K.; Mariethoz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Golgotha Cave is located in a forested catchment in SW Australia where evapotranspiration losses from the vadose-zone are high and forest biomass has been disturbed by fire. The cave has been continuously monitored since 2005 and this extensive dataset has been used to quantify key processes determining dripwater hydrology and chemistry (Mahmud et al., 2015; Treble et al., 2013; 2015). In this paper we present a synthesis of these findings and derive a conceptual model to illustrate the main hydrochemical processes that will impact cave dripwater in similar environments. We applied mass-balance techniques to quantify sources (water/rock interactions and aerosol) and sinks (prior calcite precipitation and biomass uptake). Mass-balance results suggest that transpiration and elemental sequestration into biomass modifies dripwater ion concentrations. The vegetation uptake impacts dripwater Mg, K and SO4, with the largest impact on SO4, estimated to be up to 60% at some drip sites. Overall, our findings suggest that varying amounts of transpiration by deeply-rooted trees contribute significantly to spatial and temporal variability in dripwater solute concentrations. This is in addition to the partitioning of infiltrating water between characteristic flow pathways. Applying principal components analysis, we identify a common long-term rising trend in dripwater Cl, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Si. We assess whether the long-term trends in dripwater solutes are driven by post-fire biomass recovery and/or the impacts of a drying climate in SW Australia.ReferencesMahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to Identify Infiltration Properties in the Tamala Limestone, Western Australia, doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2451088. Treble et al. (2013), An isotopic and modelling study of flow paths and storage in Quaternary calcarenite, doi:10.1016/J.Quascirev.2012.12.015. Treble et al. (2015), Impacts of cave air ventilation and in-cave prior calcite precipitation on

  13. Nothing But MORB at Shatsky Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    I compare basaltic rocks and glasses obtained by IODP Expedition 324 drilling at Shatsky Rise, a Jurassic Large Igneous Province in the northwestern Pacific, to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the Indian Ocean and East Pacific Rise. Data are compositions in Sano et al (2012) and electron-probe microanalyses of spinel and clinopyroxene. Although several different basalt types were obtained from Shatsky Rise, they all have counterparts along modern spreading ridges, namely depleted (normal, or N-type) and enriched (E-type) MORB plus one extremely depleted type, here termed 'truly depleted'. The latter is similar to eastern Pacific basalts from small intra-transform spreading segments (e.g., Siqueiros fracture zone) and near-ridge seamounts. Basalts from Shatsky Rise are mainly strongly differentiated ferrobasalts; some appear to have mixed with or assimilated small amounts of silicic differentiates and with E-MORB. Similar processes also occur along the East Pacific Rise (9N, Endeavor Deep, Pacific-Antarctic East Pacific Rise). Some clinopyroxene crystals occur in gabbro clots at one site. The textures and mineral compositions resemble those of gabbro cumulates at Hess Deep, eastern Pacific. Spinel compositions from two sites, including in 'truly depleted' basalt, are similar to those in strongly depleted picritic basalt from Siqueiros Fracture Zone, except that they crystallized at lower temperature. Petrogenetic models suggest slightly lower temperatures and smaller degrees of partial melting for all parental Shatsky basalts than for either the N-type or depleted (D-type) MORB of Gale et al (2013). Those with smaller extents of melting resemble basalts from the very slowly spreading and deeply rifted Southwest Indian Ridge near the Indian Ocean triple junction. In summary, Shatsky Rise basalts in all respects resemble those of modern spreading ridges, but mostly to the East Pacific Rise. Compositions of mantle sources were similar; conditions of partial melting

  14. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Donana National Park, SW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz-Hansen, O.; Montes, C.; Duarte, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Donana marsh (SW Spain) was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic) was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m(-2) d(-1...

  15. A reference time scale for Site U1385 (Shackleton Site) on the SW Iberian Margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodell, D.; Lourens, L.; Crowhurst, S.; Konijnendijk, T.; Tjallingii, R.; Jiménez-Espejo, F.; Skinner, L.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Abrantes, Fatima; Acton, Gary D.; Zarikian, Carlos A Alvarez; Bahr, André; Balestra, Barbara; Barranco, Estefanìa Llave; Carrara, Gabriela; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Flood, Roger D.; José-Abel Flores, Flores; Furota, Satoshi; Grimalt, Joan; Grunert, Patrick; Hernández-Molina, Javier; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Krissek, Lawrence A.; Kuroda, Junichiro; Li, Baohua; Lofi, Johanna; Margari, Vasiliki; Martrat, Belen; Miller, Madeline D.; Nanayama, Futoshi; Nishida, Naohisa; Richter, Carl; Rodrigues, Teresa; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Roque, Ana Cristina Freixo; Goñi, Maria F Sanchez; Sánchez, Francisco J Sierro; Singh, Arun D.; Sloss, Craig R.; Stow, Dorrik A V; Takashimizu, Yasuhiro; Tzanova, Alexandrina; Voelker, Antje; Xuan, Chuang; Williams, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    We produced a composite depth scale and chronology for Site U1385 on the SW Iberian Margin. Using log(Ca/Ti) measured by core scanning XRF at 1-cm resolution in all holes, a composite section was constructed to 166.5meter composite depth (mcd) that corrects for stretching and squeezing in each core.

  16. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  17. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area.

  18. On lower tertiary Mollusca from S.W. and Central Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1950-01-01

    1) In the “Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie”, Leyden, there is a small collection of Lower Tertiary mollusca from S.W. Celebes which allows of comparison with Abendanon's Celebes fossils described by Dollfus and kept in the “Instituut voor Mijnbouwkunde”, Delft. The present note deals

  19. Lateglacial and early Holocene tephrostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Store Slotseng basin, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes...

  20. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  1. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  2. Lower Maastrichtian cyclostratigraphy of the Bidart section (Basque Country, SW France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothée; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Maastrichtian limestone-marl alternations of Bidart (SW France) allows the hypothesis of orbital control on lithological cycles to be evaluated. Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), oxygen and carbon isotope measurements, sampled at a high resolution, are analyzed using...

  3. sw-SVM: sensor weighting support vector machines for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jrad, N.; Congedo, M.; Phlypo, R.; Rousseau, S.; Flamary, R.; Yger, F.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

    2011-10-01

    In many machine learning applications, like brain-computer interfaces (BCI), high-dimensional sensor array data are available. Sensor measurements are often highly correlated and signal-to-noise ratio is not homogeneously spread across sensors. Thus, collected data are highly variable and discrimination tasks are challenging. In this work, we focus on sensor weighting as an efficient tool to improve the classification procedure. We present an approach integrating sensor weighting in the classification framework. Sensor weights are considered as hyper-parameters to be learned by a support vector machine (SVM). The resulting sensor weighting SVM (sw-SVM) is designed to satisfy a margin criterion, that is, the generalization error. Experimental studies on two data sets are presented, a P300 data set and an error-related potential (ErrP) data set. For the P300 data set (BCI competition III), for which a large number of trials is available, the sw-SVM proves to perform equivalently with respect to the ensemble SVM strategy that won the competition. For the ErrP data set, for which a small number of trials are available, the sw-SVM shows superior performances as compared to three state-of-the art approaches. Results suggest that the sw-SVM promises to be useful in event-related potentials classification, even with a small number of training trials.

  4. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  5. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Lupa gold field, SW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of AS, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were determined in water, stream sediments, soil, and mine tailings from Lupa Gold Field (LGF), SW Tanzania, in order to assess their pollution levels. As, Cd and Cr were determined by automated Graphite Furnace Absorption Spectrophotometry. Cu and Pb were analysed ...

  6. Basin evolution at the SW Barents Sea margin and its conjugate off NE Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleide, Jan Inge; Wong, Po Wan; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy; Tsikalas, Filippos; Blaich, Olav A.; Planke, Sverre; Myklebust, Reidun

    2015-04-01

    The SW Barents Sea margin developed from a megashear zone which linked the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Artic Eurasia Basin during the initial Eocene opening. Within the dextral megashear system, a series of deep and narrow basins formed in the SW Barents Sea. These basins formed in response to multiple rift events and rapid differential subsidence. The distribution of salt structures both in the SW Barents Sea and on the conjugate NE Greenland margin reflects the Late Paleozoic basin configuration. Late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting affected all deep basins in the SW Barents Sea (e.g., Bjørnøya, Tromsø, Harstad and Sørvestsnaget basins) as on the mid-Norwegian margin and the conjugate NE Greenland margin. Following rifting, a wide region subsided and was covered by thick Cretaceous strata. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene rifting between Norway and Greenland was taken up within the megashear zone and pull-apart basins formed in the SW Barents Sea and in the Wandel Sea Basin in NE Greenland. Contraction/inversion formed structural highs separating distinct Late Cretaceous depocenters that continued to subside rapidly. The rifting culminated in crustal breakup and accretion of oceanic crust near the Paleocene-Eocene transition. NE Atlantic breakup was accompanied by large-scale igneous activity, which also affected parts of the SW Barents Sea margin. The sheared Senja FZ margin is segmented, each segment having different structural styles reflecting a complex interplay between the geometry of the sheared margin segments and the opening direction. A continental sliver was also cut off the SW Barents Sea margin, now forming the Greenland Ridge which is a protrusion of the NE Greenland margin. The continent-ocean transition is confined within a narrow zone, bounded by a characteristic marginal high along the Senja Fracture Zone. During Eocene, the Harstad and southern Sørvestsnaget basins developed as narrow, elongated, en echelon basins landward of the

  7. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  8. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  9. An analysis of rising health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L M

    1992-02-01

    Why are medical costs rising so rapidly? What are the factors involved that influence those costs? Does inflation affect health care costs? Can anything be done? The solutions to these complex issues are not clearly understood. It is clear, however, that the resolutions to these questions must be found quickly. If the causes of rising medical care costs are not promptly diagnosed and treated, we may find our economic health to be in critical condition. This paper attempts to better understand the reasons for increasing health care costs. The role that inflation plays relative to health care costs is investigated.

  10. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...

  11. Switchable aptamers for biosensing and bioseparation of viruses (SwAps-V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Mohamed; Labib, Mahmoud; Muharemagic, Darija; Zamay, Anna S; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2015-05-15

    There is a widespread interest in the development of aptamer-based affinity chromatographic methods for purification of biomolecules. Regardless of the many advantages exhibited by aptamers when compared to other recognition elements, the lack of an efficient regeneration technique that can be generalized to all targets has encumbered further integration of aptamers into affinity-based purification methods. Here we offer switchable aptamers (SwAps) that have been developed to solve this problem and move aptamer-based chromatography forward. SwAps are controlled-affinity aptamers, which have been employed here to purify vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a model case, however this technique can be extended to all biologically significant molecules. VSV is one oncolytic virus out of an arsenal of potential candidates shown to provide selective destruction of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. These SwAps were developed in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions where they cannot bind to their target VSV in absence of these cations. Upon addition of EDTA and EGTA, the divalent cations were sequestered from the stabilized aptameric structure causing a conformational change and subsequently release of the virus. Both flow cytometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to estimate the binding affinities between the selected SwAps and VSV and to determine the coefficient of switching (CoS) upon elution. Among fifteen sequenced SwAps, four have exhibited high affinity to VSV and ability to switch upon elution and thus were further integrated into streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for purification of VSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Bermuda Triangle of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  13. Sea Level Rise National Coastal Property Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of sea level rise on coastal properties depends critically on the human response to the threat, which in turn depends on several factors, including the immediacy of the risk, the magnitude of property value at risk, options for adapting to the threat and the cost of th...

  14. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  15. The Rise of School-Supporting Nonprofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko; Gazley, Beth

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines voluntary contributions to public education via charitable school foundations, booster clubs, parent teacher associations, and parent teacher organizations. We use panel data on school-supporting charities with national coverage from 1995 to 2010, which we geocode and match to school districts. We document the meteoric rise of…

  16. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  17. the Rising Profile of Modern Nigerian Art

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Art Pricing and the Nigerian Economy, 1960-2008; the. Rising Profile of Modern Nigerian ... for a piece of painting by a Nigerian artist to be priced for so much as five hundred guineas(about five ..... up sculptural pieces, mural, or mosaic works on new buildings built all over the country. By beginning of the ...

  18. Ideology and the rise of early states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Professor Carneiro is a distinguished American scholar who made a seminal contribution to the debate about the rise of the early state. As early as in 1970, he published a landmark paper in the authoritative journal Science on the circumscription theory about the emergence of the (early) state. This

  19. The Rise of the Digital Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing shift to digital offerings among public libraries. Libraries increasingly are fulfilling roles as technology hubs for their communities, with high demand for technology and career development training resources. Ebooks and other digital materials are on the rise, while print is being scaled back. More libraries are turning to…

  20. Melanoma continues to rise throughout the world

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Melanoma continues to rise throughout the world. 530 ... of melanoma. The radiation in the ultraviolet B range is said to be the critical component. Generally, worldwide, the incidence of melanoma in white people4,5 correlates inversely with .... lymphocytes, mitotic rate, regression, angiolymphatic invasion ...

  1. The rise and fall of spinning tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-04-01

    The motion of four different spinning tops was filmed with a high-speed video camera. Unlike pointed tops, tops with a rounded peg precess initially about a vertical axis that lies well outside the top, and then spiral inward until the precession axis passes through a point close to the center-of-mass. The center-of-mass of a top with a rounded peg can rise as a result of rolling rather than sliding friction, contrary to the explanation normally given for the rise of spinning tops. A tippe top was also filmed and was observed to jump vertically off a horizontal surface several times while the center-of-mass was rising, contrary to the usual assumption that the normal reaction force on a tippe top remains approximately equal to its weight. It was found that the center-of-mass of a tippe top rises as a result of rolling friction at low spin frequencies and as a result of sliding friction at high spin frequencies. It was also found that, at low spin frequencies, a tippe top can precess at two different frequencies simultaneously.

  2. Pay rise should be at least 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Melody

    2017-07-12

    I think a minimum 10% pay rise would retain homegrown nurses. Morale and nursing levels need to be improved to help reduce stress. When you go to the wire with nothing to spare in the establishment, and it all goes pear-shaped, everyone becomes stretched and stressed. Managers should listen to staff at the coal face about this.

  3. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  4. Calculation of Temperature Rise in Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Witt, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Gives a simple but fuller account of the basis for accurately calculating temperature rise in calorimetry. Points out some misconceptions regarding these calculations. Describes two basic methods, the extrapolation to zero time and the equal area method. Discusses the theoretical basis of each and their underlying assumptions. (CW)

  5. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.

  6. The Apseudomorpha (Crustacea: Tanaidacea) of the Gulf of Cadiz and Horseshoe Continental Rise (NE Atlantic): A taxonomic review with new records, species, and ecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquete, P; Cunha, M R

    2017-06-09

    The apseudomorphan tanaidaceans of the deep sea have been under-studied, especially in chemosynthetic habitats. A total of ten species present in the Gulf of Cadiz and the Horseshoe Continental Rise (SW off the Iberian Peninsula) are listed here, and new distribution data, ecological remarks and description of one new species of Atlantapseudes (Atlantapseudes curvatus sp. nov.) from recent research cruises are added. Pseudosphyrapus azorensis and Francapseudes uniarticulatus are recorded for the first time since the original descriptions. Notes on morphological development of Leviapseudes segonzaci and intraspecific variation of F. uniarticulatus are included, together with illustrations and descriptions of the material from the Gulf of Cadiz to complement previous descriptions.

  7. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  8. Vertical growth of a young back barrier salt marsh, Skallingen, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels; Nielsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    salt marsh, rate of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, storm surge frequency, Danish wadden sea......salt marsh, rate of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, storm surge frequency, Danish wadden sea...

  9. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  10. Simulations of Rising Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, P. M.; Robinson, K.; Dursi, L. J.; Rosner, R.; Calder, A. C.; Zingale, M.; Truran, J. W.; Linde, T.; Caceres, A.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Riley, K.; Siegel, A.; Vladimirova, N.

    Motivated by recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of X-ray emission voids in galaxy cluster cooling flows, we have investigated the behavior of rising bubbles in stratified atmospheres using the FLASH adaptive-mesh simulation code. We present results from two-dimensional simulations with and without the effects of magnetic fields, and with varying bubble sizes and background stratifications. We find purely hydrodynamic bubbles to be unstable; a dynamically important magnetic field is required to maintain a bubble's integrity. This suggests that, even absent thermal conduction, for bubbles to be persistent enough to be regularly observed, they must be supported in large part by magnetic fields. We also observe that magnetically supported bubbles leave a tail as they rise. The structure of these tails may provide clues to the bubble's dynamical history.

  11. Numerical and approximate solutions for plume rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Ramesh; Gordon Hall, J.

    Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are compared for turbulent plume rise in a crosswind. The numerical solutions were calculated using the plume rise model of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969, J. Air Pollut. Control Ass.19, 585-590), over a wide range of pertinent parameters. Some wind shear and elevated inversion effects are included. The numerical solutions are seen to agree with the approximate solutions over a fairly wide range of the parameters. For the conditions considered in the study, wind shear effects are seen to be quite small. A limited study was made of the penetration of elevated inversions by plumes. The results indicate the adequacy of a simple criterion proposed by Briggs (1969, AEC Critical Review Series, USAEC Division of Technical Information extension, Oak Ridge, Tennesse).

  12. 5-Geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin inhibits colon cancer (SW480) cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jaiprakash R; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Kim, Jinhee; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Chetti, Mahadev B; Nam, Sang-Yong; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2013-03-01

    For the first time, three coumarins were isolated from the hexane extract of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and purified by flash chromatography. The structures were identified by NMR (1D, 2D) and mass spectral analyses as 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, limettin, and isopimpinellin. These compounds inhibited human colon cancer (SW-480) cell proliferation, with 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin showing the highest inhibition activity (67 %) at 25 µM. Suppression of SW480 cell proliferation by 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin was associated with induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation. In addition, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, and induction of apoptosis was demonstrated through the activation of tumour suppressor gene p53, caspase8/3, regulation of Bcl2, and inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin has potential as a cancer preventive agent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich; Dinh Cong Hung Dinh Cong Hung

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds th...

  14. Social Sustainability of High-Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Mahdavinejad; Ali Sadraie; Golrokh Sadraie

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, High-rise building is proposed as a dominant form in world’s Major cities which its rapid growth has caused social and cultural concerns of the residents of these buildings. Social capital is remembered as a basis for economic development of any society. Its importance can be seen in the economic development of developing countries. Social capital is the invisible wealth of a country that encompasses institutions, relationships and norms that shape social interactions. In this paper...

  15. Claritas rise, Mars: Pre-Tharsis magmatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Ruiz, J.; McGuire, P.C.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wang, R.; Scharenbroich, L.; Hare, T.M.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Baker, V.R.; Wheelock, S.J.; Ferris, J.C.; Miyamoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Claritas rise is a prominent ancient (Noachian) center of tectonism identified through investigation of comprehensive paleotectonic information of the western hemisphere of Mars. This center is interpreted to be the result of magmatic-driven activity, including uplift and associated tectonism, as well as possible hydrothermal activity. Coupled with its ancient stratigraphy, high density of impact craters, and complex structure, a possible magnetic signature may indicate that it formed during an ancient period of Mars' evolution, such as when the dynamo was in operation. As Tharsis lacks magnetic signatures, Claritas rise may pre-date the development of Tharsis or mark incipient development, since some of the crustal materials underlying Tharsis and older parts of the magmatic complex, respectively, could have been highly resurfaced, destroying any remanent magnetism. Here, we detail the significant characteristics of the Claritas rise, and present a case for why it should be targeted by the Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Express spacecrafts, as well as be considered as a prime target for future tier-scalable robotic reconnaissance. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Three Dimensional Shallow Water Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH-SW3): Waterborne Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    currents and provided analytical tools to describe the effects of these currents on the hydrodynamics of the water body. Stockstill et al. (1999...pressure is in terms of the depth of the node under consideration. Incorporation of boat pressures into ADH-SW3 takes advantage of this, and the...upper-right portion of the flume. Figure 2. Angle flume domain. Figure 3. Boat definition parameters (parameters are defined in section “Boundary

  17. 234U/238U as a ground-water tracer, SW Nevada-SE California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Gutentag, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    The 234U/238U ratio of uranium in oxidizing ground waters is potentially an excellent ground-water tracer because of its high solubility and insensitivity to chemical reactions. Moreover, recent advances in analytical capability have made possible very precise uranium-isotopic analyses on modest (approx.100 ml) amounts of normal ground water. Preliminary results on waters from SW Nevada/Se California indicate two main mixing trends, but in detail indicate significant complexity requiring three or more main components.

  18. The Chernobyl accident--radionuclide fallout in S.W. England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E I; Zou, B; Clifton, R J

    1986-12-01

    Initial fallout data from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl is presented for the Plymouth region of Devon S.W. England which received low levels of radioactivity. During the period of maximum fallout the overall gross gamma activity for the Plymouth area was approximately 10% higher than levels recorded prior to the Chernobyl accident. The increase in levels of radioactivity were within the variability of natural background found in local houses.

  19. Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks Based on HW/SW Cosimulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mekala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardware/software (HW/SW cosimulation integrates software simulation and hardware simulation simultaneously. Usually, HW/SW co-simulation platform is used to ease debugging and verification for very large-scale integration (VLSI design. To accelerate the computation of the gesture recognition technique, an HW/SW implementation using field programmable gate array (FPGA technology is presented in this paper. The major contributions of this work are: (1 a novel design of memory controller in the Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL to reduce memory consumption and load on the processor. (2 The testing part of the neural network algorithm is being hardwired to improve the speed and performance. The American Sign Language gesture recognition is chosen to verify the performance of the approach. Several experiments were carried out on four databases of the gestures (alphabet signs A to Z. (3 The major benefit of this design is that it takes only few milliseconds to recognize the hand gesture which makes it computationally more efficient.

  20. Ocean warming-induced gas hydrate dissociation in the SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Chand, Shyam; Bünz, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The Barents Sea is a major part of the North Atlantic where warm Atlantic water mix with the cold Arctic waters. Abundant shallow gas accumulations, fluid flow features, and gas hydrates occur in the SW Barents Sea owing to hydrocarbon leakage from deep reservoirs. Recent Ocean warming has increased the bottom water temperature in the SW Barents Sea by at least one degree Celsius. We model the gas hydrate stability field in the SW Barents Sea over the last 50 years taking in to account the lateral variations of geothermal gradient, bottom water temperature, and gas composition. The hydrate stability zone thickness is highly sensitive to the gas composition and the geothermal gradient, and show very high local variability. Seismic images show numerous gas hydrate accumulations with well-defined bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) associated with gas chimneys and leaking faults. The shallow geothermal gradient is in equilibrium showing no residual effects of last glaciations, and ceased to affect shallow hydrate stability conditions. Ocean warming primarily affects hydrate stability most likely only in the upper few tens of meters of sediments. Our results show that increasing global ocean temperatures could cause destabilization of hydrates located within 100 meters of the seafloor in approximately 200 years.

  1. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Hinse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010. The two candidate companions are of stellar to substellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system’s primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behavior. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically viable explanation for measured eclipse timing variations. We conclude that dynamical considerations reveal that the proposed SW Lyncis multi-body system most likely does not exist or the companions have significantly different orbital properties from those conjectured in Kim et al. (2010.

  2. Apigenin Inhibits Human SW620 Cell Growth by Targeting Polyamine Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apigenin is a nonmutagenic flavonoid that has antitumor properties. Polyamines are ubiquitous cellular polycations, which play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of cancer cells. Highly regulated pathways control the biosynthesis and degradation of polyamines. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC is the rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism, and spermidine/spermine-N1-Acetyl transferase (SSAT is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of polyamines. In the current study, the effect of increasing concentrations of apigenin on polyamine levels, ODC and SSAT protein expression, mRNA expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was investigated in SW620 colon cancer cells. The results showed that apigenin significantly reduced cell proliferation, decreased the levels of spermidine and spermine, and increased previously downregulated putrescine contents. Apigenin also enhanced SSAT protein and mRNA levels and the production of reactive oxygen species in SW620 cells, though it had no significant effect on the levels of ODC protein or mRNA. Apigenin appears to decrease the proliferation rate of human SW620 cells by facilitating SSAT expression to induce polyamine catabolism and increasing ROS levels to induce cell apoptosis.

  3. Zircon LA-ICPMS geochronology of the Cornubian Batholith, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neace, Erika R.; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Lancaster, Penelope J.; Shail, Robin K.

    2016-06-01

    Available Usbnd Pb age data for the Cornubian Batholith of SW England is based almost entirely on monazite and xenotime, and very little zircon Usbnd Pb age data has been published. As a result, no zircon inheritance data is available for the batholith, by which the nature of the unexposed basement of the Rhenohercynian Zone in SW England might be constrained. Zircon LA-ICPMS data for the Cornubian Batholith provides Concordia ages (Bodmin Moor granite: 316 ± 4 Ma, Carnmenellis granite: 313 ± 3 Ma, Dartmoor granite: ~ 310 Ma, St. Austell granite: 305 ± 5 Ma, and Land's End granite: 300 ± 5 Ma) that are consistently 20-30 Ma older than previously published emplacement ages for the batholith and unrealistic in terms of geologic relative age relationships with respect to the country rock. This discrepancy is likely as a consequence of minor pre-granitic Pb inheritance. Several of the batholith's granite plutons contain a component of late-Devonian inheritance that may record rift-related, lower crustal melting or arc-related magmatism associated with subduction of the Rheic Ocean. In addition, the older granites likely contain Mesoproterozoic inheritance, although the highly discordant nature of the Mesoproterozoic ages precludes their use in assigning an affinity to the Rhenohercynian basement in SW England.

  4. New data on distribution of Cypripedium macranthon sw. on the territory of Altai krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vazhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.

  5. The Characteristics of Seismogenic Zones in SW Taiwan: Implications from Studying Mechanisms of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Chang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Wen, Yi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    Due to the complicated geomorphology and geological conditions, the southwest (SW) Taiwan suffers the invasion of various natural disasters, such as landslide, mud flow and especially the threat of strong earthquakes as result of convergence between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate. Several disastrous earthquakes had occurred in this area and often caused serious hazards. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the correlation between seismic activity and seismogenic structures in SW Taiwan. Previous studies have indicated that before the failure of rock strength, the behaviors of micro-earthquakes can provide essential clues to help investigating the process of rock deformation. Thus, monitoring the activity of micro-earthquakes plays an important role in studying fault rupture or crustal deformation before the occurrence of a large earthquake. Because the time duration of micro-earthquakes activity can last for years, this phenomenon can be used to indicate the change of physical properties in the crust, such as crustal stress changes or fluid migration. The main purpose of this research is to perform a nonlinear waveform inversion to investigate source parameters of micro-earthquakes which include the non-double couple components owing to the shear rupture usually associated with complex morphology as well as tectonic fault systems. We applied a nonlinear waveform procedure to investigate local stress status and source parameters of micro-earthquakes that occurred in SW Taiwan. Previous studies has shown that microseismic fracture behaviors were controlled by the non-double components, which could lead to cracks generating and fluid migration, which can result in changing rock volume and produce partial compensation. Our results not only giving better understanding the seismogenic structures in the SW Taiwan, but also allowing us to detect variations of physical parameters caused by crack propagating in stratum. Thus, the derived source

  6. Neotectonic fault detection and lithosphere structure beneath SW of High Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoulali, Youssef; Radi, Said; Azguet, Roumaissae; Bachaoui, Mostapha

    2016-08-01

    The High Atlas is a 100 km wide zone defined by E-W to NE-SW trending folds nearly orthogonal to the Atlantic coastline. The major compressional structures in the High Atlas consist of large-scale fold systems which affect Mesozoic and Cainozoic formations. The extreme West of the High Atlas including the region of Agadir is defined as an earthquake Zone. Historical seismicity data shows that the Agadir region was hit by two destructive earthquakes in 1731 and 1960 with magnitude 6.4 and 6.0, respectively. The present study has two main goals: 1) to use remote sensing techniques to detect and map the surface geological structures including faults; 2) to use the local earthquake tomography for imaging the lithosphere (subsurface) and detect deep structures. For the remote sensing techniques we used ETM + Landsat7 images and the SRTM 90 m image as a Digital Terrane Elevation Model. This study focuses on the computerized identification, feature extraction and quantitative interpretation of lineaments over the SW High Atlas. The analysis developed here is based on the numerical enhancement of a Landsat image and on the statistical processing of data generated through enhancement. The results generated by the numerical enhancement and statistical analysis are presented on fault maps, lineament maps, polar diagrams and lineament density maps. The lineaments have a high concentration of orientations around the directions N40E, N80W and N-S. For the subsurface study, seismic data sets were used to define the 3-D velocity structures. We also used local earthquake tomography to obtain the velocity map and crustal structure of the SW High Atlas region. The tomography results show a new and detailed lithosphere structure defined by a high velocity body in the northern of SW High Atlas from 15 to 45 Km depth, dipping to the north beneath the Essaouira basin in the western Meseta with P velocity variations from 6.5 to 7.8 km/s. This anomaly can be interpreted as an old

  7. Diabesity: an overview of a rising epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Youssef M K; Gaballa, Mahmoud R

    2011-01-01

    'Diabesity' is the term for diabetes occurring in the context of obesity. In this review, we will overview the latest epidemiological data available describing the rising prevalence, health impact and economic impact of diabesity. We will also outline the measures required to slowdown this newly evolving epidemic. The global prevalence of diabetes in 2010 was 284 million people worldwide constituting around 6.4% of the world population, which is higher than was projected in earlier studies. Furthermore, the projections for 2030 show the prevalence to reach 439 million individuals comprising ~7.7% of the world population. The burden of diabetes on the world economy has been rising steadily in the last decade to reach $376 billion in 2010 and is expected to reach $490 billion in 2030. Diabesity represents a substantial economic burden as reflected by diabetes and obesity consuming 14 and 5.7% of the USA's total health expenditure, respectively, representing the highest known expenditure on diabesity worldwide. When costs associated with being overweight were also included, the upper limit of obesity expenditure rises to 9.1% of the USA's total healthcare expenditure. The highest recorded expenditure on diabetes alone was in Saudi Arabia consuming 21% of the country's total health expenditure, with no data available about the health expenditure on obesity. The health impact of diabesity is substantial to include long-term diabetic complications, reduction in health-related functioning, reduction of quality of life and reduced overall life expectancy. Long-term complications include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular stroke and end-stage renal disease. Also recent advances have found that there is an association between chronic stress, depression and sleeping troubles to both diabetes and obesity. This century is the unprecedented diabetogenic era in human history. It is thus urgent to take steps including screening, prevention and early management in an attempt to

  8. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  9. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  10. Sea-Level Rise by 2100

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A; Clark, P.A; Cazenave, A; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A; Merrifield, M.A; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    VOL 342 20 DECEMBER 2013 1445 LETTERS edited by Jennifer Sills 1462 COMMENTARY LETTERS I BOOKS I POLICY FORUM I EDUCATION FORUM I PERSPECTIVES 1452 Defending the nest IBI Prize Essay C R E D IT : A N D R E W M A N D E M A K E R /W IK IM E... D IA C O M M O N S Sea-Level Rise by 2100 IN HIS NEWS AND ANALYSIS PIECE REPORTING ON THE NEWLY RELEASED FIFTH ASSESSMENT report (AR5) by Working Group I (WGI) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (“A Stronger IPCC Report,” 4...

  11. Consumerism and wellness: rising tide, falling cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaszewicz, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Annual employer-sponsored health plan cost increases have been slowing incrementally due to slowing health care utilization--a phenomenon very likely tied to the proliferation of health management activities, wellness programs and other consumerism strategies. This article describes the sharp rise in recent years of consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) and explains what developments must happen for genuine consumer-directed health care to realize its full potential. These developments include gathering transparent health care information, increasing consumer demand for that information and creating truly intuitive data solutions that allow consumers to easily access information in order to make better health care decisions.

  12. Efficient production of high-rise buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hoseini, Hanif

    2007-01-01

    Production of one family houses has over time developed successfully in Sweden and producers have managed to reduce the production costs and industrialize the production process. The development has however not been that successful when it comes to high-rise buildings. There are many attempts made, but no one has really managed to create a product that can persuade the market. The systems used are not flexible and cannot cope very well with variations in the design. The aim of this work has b...

  13. Temperature Rises In Pumps For Superfluid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses increases in temperature of superfluid helium in centrifugal and fountain-effect pumps. Intended for use in transfers of superfluid helium in outer space. Increases in temperature significantly affect losses during transfers and are important in selection of temperatures of supply tanks. Purpose of study, increase in temperature in fountain-effect pump calculated on basis of thermodynamic considerations, starting from assumption of ideal pump. Results of recent tests of ceramic material intended for use in such pumps support this assumption. Overall, centrifugal pumps more effective because it produces smaller rise in temperature.

  14. Mesozoic break-up of SW Gondwana: implications for regional hydrocarbon potential of the southern South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom). CASP; University of Abderdeen (United Kingdom). Kings College; Gomez-Perez, I. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom). CASP; Franzese, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas, La Plata (AR)] (and others)

    2003-04-01

    This work provides new palinspastic palaeofacies reconstructions of SW Gondwana incorporating rotation of a Falkland/Malvinas microplate. We discuss the implications of this for the tectonic evolution of the southern South Atlantic and hence for the regional hydrocarbon potential. Existing Gondwana reconstructions display good fits of major continents but poorly constrained fits of microcontinents. In most continental reconstructions, the Falkland/Malvinas Plateau was assumed to be a rigid fragment of pre-Permian South American crust. However, it has been suggested, on the basis of palaeomagnetic data, that the Falkland/Malvinas Islands were rotated by {approx} 180{sup o} after 190 Ma. This rotation hypothesis has been successfully tested on the basis of Devonian stratigraphy and palaeontology, Permian stratigraphy and sedimentology and Late Palaeozoic and Early Mesozoic structure, making it unlikely that the plateau behaved as a rigid structure during breakup. We have explored the consequences of accepting this hypothesis for the tectonic evolution of SW Gondwana by compiling new palaeogeographic maps for the Permian-Cretaceous of the southern Atlantic area. To achieve a realistic close fit, we have devised a pre-rift proxy for the ocean-continent boundary for the South Atlantic. In order to produce the best fit, it is necessary to subdivide South America into four plates. The consequences of this are far-reaching. Our work suggests that although sedimentary basins were initiated at different times, three major tectonic phases can be recognised; in regional terms these can be thought of as pre-, syn- and post-rift. During the pre-rift time (until the Late Triassic), the area was dominated by compressional tectonism and formed part of the Gondwana foreland. The Falkland/Malvinas Islands lay cast of Africa, the Falkland/Malvinas Plateau was {approx} 33% shorter and Patagonia was displaced east with respect to the rest of South America, in part along the line of the

  15. Produção de forragem em pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém Forage production on bermudagrass sod seeding with oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar dois sistemas forrageiros manejados com vacas da raça Holandesa. Os sistemas foram constituídos por pastagem de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. "Coastcross" sobre-semeada com aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. "Comum" e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. "Comum" e aveia e azevém em cultivo estreme. Foram conduzidos oito pastejos (de 09/06/04 a 13/10/04 e de 02/08/05 a 29/10/05, sendo avaliada a massa de forragem pré e pós-pastejo, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (MS, a produção total de forragem, a oferta de forragem, a composição botânica, a biomassa total de lâminas foliares e carga animal. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para os referidos parâmetros. A produção total de MS, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS e a carga animal foram de 8467,9; 7105,7kg de MS ha-1; 54,1 e 69,2kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 1050,8 e 925,5kg de peso vivo ha-1, para a pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém e para a pastagem anual, respectivamente. Houve maior participação de lâminas foliares de aveia na pastagem constituída por aveia e azevém (P0,05 entre os sistemas forrageiros quanto à produção total de biomassa de lâminas foliares. Estes resultados indicam que o sistema forrageiro constituído por bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém, utilizada no período hibernal, pode ser usada em condições climáticas similares às do presente estudo.This study was aimed at comparing two pasture-based systems grazed by Holstein cows. The systems were sod seeding of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. Common and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. Coastcross and oat and ryegrass mixture in extreme cultivation. From 06/09/04 to 10/13/04 and 08/02/05 to 10/29/05, in eight grazing periods, the pregraze and postgraze herbage mass, dry matter (DM daily acumulation rate, total dry matter production

  16. Colliding Epidemics and the Rise of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovered more than 100 years ago as a human pathogen, the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans–C. gattii complex has seen a large global resurgence in its association with clinical disease in the last 30 years. First isolated in fermenting peach juice, and identified as a human pathogen in 1894 in a patient with bone lesions, this environmental pathogen has now found niches in soil, trees, birds, and domestic pets. Cryptococcosis is well recognized as an opportunistic infection and was first noted to be associated with reticuloendothelial cancers in the 1950s. Since then, advances in transplant immunology, medical science and surgical techniques have led to increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOT and hematological stem cell transplantations being performed, and the use of biological immunotherapeutics in increasingly high-risk and older individuals, have contributed to the further rise in cryptococcosis. Globally, however, the major driver for revivification of cryptococcosis is undoubtedly the HIV epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to care and antiretroviral therapy remains limited and advanced immunodeficiency, poverty and malnutrition remains the norm. As a zoonotic disease, environmental outbreaks of both human and animal cryptococcosis have been reported, possibly driven by climate change. This is best exemplified by the resurgence of C. gattii infection in Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States since 1999. Here we describe how the colliding epidemics of HIV, transplantation and immunologics, climate change and migration have contributed to the rise of cryptococcosis.

  17. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  18. Stomatal conductance increases with rising temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2017-08-03

    Stomatal conductance directly modifies plant water relations and photosynthesis. Many environmental factors affecting the stomatal conductance have been intensively studied but temperature has been largely neglected, even though it is one of the fastest changing environmental variables and it is rising due to climate change. In this study, we describe how stomata open when the temperature increases. Stomatal conductance increased by ca 40% in a broadleaf and a coniferous species, poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) when temperature was increased by 10 °C, from 30 °C to 40 °C at a constant vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa. The mechanism of regulating stomatal conductance by temperature was, at least partly, independent of other known mechanisms linked to water status and carbon metabolism. Stomatal conductance increased with rising temperature despite the decrease in leaf water potential, increase in transpiration, increase in intercellular CO2 concentration and was decoupled from photosynthesis. Increase in xylem and mesophyll hydraulic conductance coming from lower water viscosity may to some degree explain temperature dependent opening of stomata. The direct stomatal response to temperature allows plants to benefit from increased evaporative cooling during the heat waves and from lower stomatal limitations to photosynthesis but they may be jeopardized by faster depletion of soil water.

  19. Investigating migration inhibition and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extract on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.m Karst (FPK which belongs to the Basidiomycota fungal class is one of the most popular medical fungi in China. It has been used for many diseases: cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and so on. However, little study on the pro-apoptotic effect and migration inhibition of FPK chloroform extract (FPKc has been reported and the possible involved mechanism has not been illuminated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chemical analysis was performed by HPLC which showed ergosterol (ES concentration was 105 µg/mg. MTT assay revealed that FPKc could selectively inhibit SW-480 cells viability with the IC50 of 190.28 µg/ml. Wound healing and transwell assay indicated that FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells obviously, FPKc could also dramatically decreased the matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that FPKc and ES could induce SW-480 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis process closely involved in ROS accumulation and depletion of GSH, activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP degradation. FPKc could also up-regulate P53 expression and thus lead to G1 phase arrest. When SW-480 cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, the ROS generation, cell viability and apoptotic ratio were partially declined, which indicated that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptosis process induced by FPKc. Moreover, in the whole process, ES which has been previously found in FPKc had the similar effect to FPKc. Thus we could conclude that ES, as one of the highest abundant components in FPKc, might also be one of the active constituents. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells, induce SW-480 cells G1 phase arrest and cause ROS-mediated apoptosis effect. And ES might be one of the effective constituents in the whole process.

  20. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  1. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  2. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  3. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae) in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae) in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee) and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet) and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee) were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  4. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Based on gravimetric modeling results and the structures interpreted on reflection seismic profiles, 3 crustal domains reflecting progressive thinning have been defined for the SW Iberian margin. These domains trend roughly WSW-ENE, parallel to the main extensional fabric of the margin. Gravimetric modeling results are compatible with the presence of exhumed sub-continental mantle in the distal part of the margin. Integrated modeling also supports the fact that Cenozoic contraction is responsible for major uplift along the Guadalquivir Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  5. Deconstructing mammal dispersals and faunal dynamics in SW Europe during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Maria Rita

    2014-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationships between climate change and faunal dynamics in south-west Europe, disentangling the asynchronous and diachronous dispersal bioevents of large mammals across geographical and ecological boundaries, analysing biodiversity and its changes through time. The analysis of local versus regional biological dynamics may shed new light on whether turnovers and ecological and evolutionary changes developed because of global climate changes and related phenomena, or because of intrinsic biological factors. The SW European Quaternary fossil record is particularly suitable for studying the role of climate change at local and regional levels because of the complex physiographic and climatic heterogeneity of the study area, the presence of important geographical/ecological barriers and the complex history of invasions of species of varying geographical origin and provenance. The data base consists of taxonomically revised lists of large mammal species from selected SW European local faunal assemblages ranging in age from the Early to the late Middle Pleistocene (middle Villafranchian to early Aurelian European Land Mammal Ages). The new biochronological scheme proposed here allows for the comparison of local turnovers and biodiversity trends, yielding a better understanding of the action of geographical/ecological barriers that either prevented the range of some taxa from reaching some regions or caused delays in the dispersal of a taxon in some territories. The results obtained provide evidence that major environmental perturbations, triggering dispersal events and removing keystone species, modified the structure of the pre-existing mammalian faunas, merging previously independently-evolved taxa into new palaeo-communities. The coupled action of climatic changes and internal biotic dynamics thus caused the Quaternary SW European faunal complexes to significantly restructure. Diachroneity in local turnover across the study area

  6. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a

  7. AHP 21: Review: The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. ...

  8. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    , and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  9. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K. M.; Huang, T.; Quach, N. T.; Boening, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Sea Level Change Portal provides scientists and the general public with "one-stop" source for current sea level change information and data. Sea Level Rise research is a multidisciplinary research and in order to understand its causes, scientists must be able to access different measurements and to be able to compare them. The portal includes an interactive tool, called the Data Analysis Tool (DAT), for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing observations and models relevant to the study of Sea Level Rise. Using NEXUS, an open source, big data analytic technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the DAT is able provide user on-the-fly data analysis on all relevant parameters. DAT is composed of three major components: A dedicated instance of OnEarth (a WMTS service), NEXUS deep data analytic platform, and the JPL Common Mapping Client (CMC) for web browser based user interface (UI). Utilizing the global imagery, a user is capable of browsing the data in a visual manner and isolate areas of interest for further study. The interfaces "Analysis" tool provides tools for area or point selection, single and/or comparative dataset selection, and a range of options, algorithms, and plotting. This analysis component utilizes the Nexus cloud computing platform to provide on-demand processing of the data within the user-selected parameters and immediate display of the results. A RESTful web API is exposed for users comfortable with other interfaces and who may want to take advantage of the cloud computing capabilities. This talk discuss how DAT enables on-the-fly sea level research. The talk will introduce the DAT with an end-to-end tour of the tool with exploration and animating of available imagery, a demonstration of comparative analysis and plotting, and how to share and export data along with images for use in publications/presentations. The session will cover what kind of data is available, what kind of analysis is possible, and what are the outputs.

  10. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  11. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Eustache

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  12. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustache Yvan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  13. Krill diversity and population structure along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2014-01-01

    In June 2010 four krill species were collected in Godtha°bsfjord, SW Greenland, namely Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis, T. longicaudata and Meganyctiphanes norvegica. A transect from offshore Fyllas Bank to the inner Godtha°bsfjord revealed a zonation of the species in relation to hydrography. Of...... inermis matured after 2 years, while T. raschii matured after 1 and 2 years, respectively, depending on temperature The present study suggests that a warmer future will favour Atlantic species and result in a more diverse self-sustainable krill community in the Godtha°bsfjord....

  14. Diapiric uplift of an MIS 3 marine deposit in SW Spain: Implications for Late Pleistocene sea level reconstruction and palaeogeography of the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, F. J.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Cáceres, L. M.; Belluomini, G.; Benavente, J.; Alonso, C.

    2008-11-01

    In the Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain) an Upper Pleistocene beach deposit (31.5 ka BP) has been recognised at about 1-3 m above m.s.l. The deposit is affected by a set of joints and fractures filled by calcretes and other subaerial sediments, dated at 19.9 ka BP. Deformation and uplift of this level is related to the moderate activity of a diapiric structure. The resulting uplift produced local emersion of the deposit and a transition from marine to continental conditions during the Late Quaternary. The deformational style and tectonic location of the deposit argue against strong vertical motion. Regional comparisons between this diapir and other similar and coeval structures near the zone suggest a vertical uplift of about 25 m. Therefore, between 30 and 20 ka BP the sea level can be supposed to have been placed near to its present-day position, probably less than 30 m below. These results confirm other regional data indicating that during MIS 3 several relative sea level rises took place, reaching heights of only several tens of metres below the present m.s.l. The palaeogeographical implications of these results include the existing controversy about the possible crossing of the Strait of Gibraltar by Neanderthals between ca 40 and 30 ka. The palaeogeographical reconstruction of the Strait for this period suggests that its width and depth were very similar to the present ones.

  15. Variation of depositional environment during the evolution of deepwater fold-and-thrust belt in the Frontal Ridge area offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. F.; Liu, C. S.; Lin, C. C.; Hsu, H. H.; Chang, J. H.; Chen, S. C.; Wang, Y.; Chung, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    The area offshore SW Taiwan is an active margin where the accretionary prism of the Luzon arc-trench system has obliquely overridden the continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). Located by the Penghu Submarine Canyon, the Frontal Ridge is the westernmost structural relief of the orogenic wedge which is separated from the SCS continental margin by a deformation front. The Penghu submarine canyon, which starts from the China continental shelf and cuts across the fold-and-thrust belt, may plays an important role for transporting orogenic sediments from on shore Taiwan to the deep sea South China Sea basin. In this study, high-resolution seismic data collected in the Frontal Ridge area have been analyzed, a significant variation of stratigraphic architectures with time were identified by detailed analyzing both structural and depositional characteristics. Seismic facies analysis shows that the older parallel strata were eroded and superimposed by a series of lobe-channel-levee complex, interpreted as the fan deposits of the paleo Penghu Submarine Canyon. These deposits were later deformed by a multi-stage frontal thrusting. We propose a model to show how tectonic processes change the depositional environment. During the evolution of fold-and-thrust belt, the slope gradient and sedimentation rate changed. The Frontal Ridge area was at the abyssal plain, and then changed to the continental rise environment. Finally, convergent tectonics changed this area to be part of the orogenic wedge, and frontal fold developed.

  16. Identification of the Novel TMEM16A Inhibitor Dehydroandrographolide and Its Anticancer Activity on SW620 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Sui

    Full Text Available TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, is highly amplified and expressed in human cancers and is involved in the growth and metastasis of some malignancies. Inhibition of TMEM16A represents a novel pharmaceutical approach for the treatment of cancers and metastases. The purpose of this study is to identify a new TMEM16A inhibitor, investigate the effects of this inhibitor on the proliferation and metastasis of TMEM16A-amplified SW620 cells, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in vitro. We identified a novel small-molecule TMEM16A inhibitor dehydroandrographolide (DP. By using patch clamp electrophysiology, we showed that DP inhibited TMEM16A chloride currents in Fisher rat thyroid (FRT cells that were transfected stably with human TMEM16A and in TMEM16A-overexpressed SW620 cells but did not alter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR chloride currents. Further functional studies showed that DP suppressed the proliferation of SW620 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using MTT assays. Moreover, DP significantly inhibited migration and invasion of SW620 cells as detected by wound-healing and transwell assays. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that knockdown of human TMEM16A decreased the inhibitory effect of DP on the proliferation of SW620 cells and that TMEM16A-dependent cells (SW620 and HCT116 were more sensitive to DP than TMEM16A-independent cells (SW480 and HCT8. In addition, we found that treatment of SW620 cells with DP led to a decrease in TMEM16A protein levels but had no effect on TMEM16A mRNA levels. The current work reveals that DP, a novel TMEM16A inhibitor, exerts its anticancer activity on SW620 cells partly through a TMEM16A-dependent mechanism, which may introduce a new targeting approach for an antitumour therapy in TMEM16A-amplified cancers.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline change of a 280-km high-energy disrupted sandy coast from 1950 to 2014: SW France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelle, Bruno; Guillot, Benoit; Marieu, Vincent; Chaumillon, Eric; Hanquiez, Vincent; Bujan, Stéphane; Poppeschi, Coline

    2018-01-01

    A dataset of 15 geo-referenced orthomosaics photos was generated to address long-term shoreline change along approximately 270 km of high-energy sandy coast in SW France between 1950 and 2014. The coast consists of sandy beaches backed by coastal dunes, which are only disrupted by two wide tidal inlets (Arcachon and Maumusson), a wide estuary mouth (Gironde) and a few small wave-dominated inlets and coastal towns. A time and spatially averaged erosion trend of 1.12 m/year is found over 1950-2014, with a local maximum of approximately 11 m/year and a maximum local accretion of approximately 6 m/year, respectively. Maximum shoreline evolutions are observed along coasts adjacent to the inlets and to the estuary mouth, with erosion and accretion alternating over time on the timescale of decades. The two inlet-sandspit systems of Arcachon and Maumusson show a quasi-synchronous behaviour with the two updrift coasts accreting until the 1970s and subsequently eroding since then, which suggests that shoreline change at these locations is controlled by allocyclic mechanisms. Despite sea level rise and the well-established increase in winter wave height over the last decades, there is no capture of significant increase in mean erosion rate. This is hypothesized to be partly the result of relevant coastal dune management works from the 1960s to the 1980s after a long period of coastal dune disrepair during and after the Second World War. This study suggests that long-term shoreline change of high-energy sandy coasts disrupted by inlets and/or estuaries is complex and needs to consider a wide range of parameters including, non-extensively, waves, tides, inlet dynamics, sea level rise, coastal dune management and coastal defences, which challenges the development of reliable long-term coastal evolution numerical models.

  18. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) hear rising frequency sounds as looming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Asif A; Maier, Joost X

    2009-08-01

    Rising sound intensity provides an important cue for the detection of looming objects. Studies with humans indirectly suggest that rising pitch can also signal a looming object. This link between rising intensity and rising frequency is puzzling because no physical rise in frequency occurs when a sound source approaches. Putative explanations include (a) the idea that the loudness of sound depends on its frequency, (b) the frequent co-occurrence of rising intensity with rising frequency in vocalizations generates an association between the 2 features, and (c) auditory neurons process amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds similarly. If these hypotheses are valid, then rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)--which share some homologies in the vocal production apparatus and auditory system--should also associate rising frequency with rising intensity, and thus should perceive rising frequency as a looming sound source. A head-turning assay and a preferential-looking paradigm revealed that monkeys show an attentional bias toward rising versus falling frequency sounds and link the former to visual looming signals. This suggests that monkeys hear a rising frequency sound as a looming sound source even though, in the real world, no such link exists. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  19. 46 CFR 111.20-5 - Temperature rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature rise. 111.20-5 Section 111.20-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Transformer Construction, Installation, and Protection § 111.20-5 Temperature rise. (a) The temperature rise, based on an ambient temperature of 40 degrees C, must not exceed the following: (1) For...

  20. Sensitivity of air quality simulation to smoke plume rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; Gary Achtemeier; Scott Goodrick

    2008-01-01

    Plume rise is the height smoke plumes can reach. This information is needed by air quality models such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate physical and chemical processes of point-source fire emissions. This study seeks to understand the importance of plume rise to CMAQ air quality simulation of prescribed burning to plume rise. CMAQ...

  1. HPV16-E7 Expression Causes Fluorodeoxyuridine-mediated Radiosensitization in SW620 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Axelson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that HT29 colon cancer cells, which are radiosensitized by fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd, exhibit a greater increase in cyclin E—dependent kinase activity and progress further into S phase in the presence of FdUrd than do SW620 colon cancer cells, which are only minimally sensitized by this drug (Cancer Res 56: 3203, 1996. Although these findings suggested that the ability to progress into S phase in the presence of FdUrd permits cells to be radiosensitized, we wished to test this hypothesis by attempting to drive SW620 human colon cells into S phase by transducing them with the HPV16-E7 gene. Two-parameter flow cytometry showed that E7-transduced cells progressed through S phase after radiation and FdUrd treatment more rapidly than SW620 parental cells. We found that E7-transduced SW620 cells were significantly radiosensitized by FdUrd (100 nmol/L, 14 hours with an enhancement ratio for 2 clones of 1.47±0.03 and 1.51±0.14, compared with 1.24±0.04 in SW620 parental cells. These data strongly support the hypothesis that dysregulation of S-phase progression is an important factor in FdUrd-mediated radiosensitization.

  2. Baicalin Induces Apoptosis in SW620 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells in Vitro and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shiuan Tzeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most frequent malignancy and the fourth most common cause of cancer death. Baicalin, a flavone derivative isolated and purified from the dry root of Scutellaria, was assessed for its antitumor effects in human SW620 CRC cells. Baicalin (200 μM inhibited proliferation of SW620 cells. Baicalin (200 μM increased activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SW620 cells. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of baicalin-treated SW620 cells showed an increase in sub-G1 cells, and the dihydroethidium assay showed significant enhancement of intracellular peroxide production in baicalin-treated cells. Addition of N-acetylcysteine prevented most of the baicalin-induced apoptosis, which in turn mediated cytotoxicity in human SW620 cells. In vivo, baicalin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p. treatment inhibited 55% of tumor growth in xenografted nude mice by 4 weeks, compared to that of the vehicle control (p < 0.05. Baicalin had no noteworthy influence on body weight. Thus, we suggest the development of baicalin as a potential leading antitumor agent in CRC.

  3. Geochemistry and Age of Shatsky, Hess, and Ojin Rise seamounts: Implications for a connection between the Shatsky and Hess Rises

    OpenAIRE

    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Geldmacher, Jörg; Hauff, Folkmar; Heaton, Daniel; Koppers, Anthony A.P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hoernle, Kaj; Heydolph, Ken; Sager, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Shatsky Rise in the Northwest Pacific is the best example so far of an oceanic plateau with two potential hotspot tracks emanating from it: the linear Papanin volcanic ridge and the seamounts comprising Ojin Rise. Arguably, these hotspot tracks also project toward the direction of Hess Rise, located ∼1200 km away, leading to speculations that the two plateaus are connected. Dredging was conducted on the massifs and seamounts around Shatsky Rise in an effort to understand the relationship betw...

  4. Active tectonics in Southern Portugal (SW Iberia) inferred from GPS data. Implications on the regional geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Mendes, Virgílio Brito; Figueiredo, Paula; Silveira, António Brum da; Pagarete, Joaquim; Ribeiro, António; Dias, Ruben; Ressurreição, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    A GPS-based crustal velocity field for the SW Portuguese territory (Algarve region, SW Iberia) was estimated from the analysis of data from a network of campaign-style GPS stations set up in the region since 1998, complemented with permanent stations, covering an overall period of 16.5 years. The GPS monitoring sites were chosen attending to the display of the regional active faults, in an attempt to detect and monitor any related crustal straining. The residual horizontal velocities relative to Eurasia unveil a relatively consistent pattern towards WNW, with magnitudes that noticeably increase from NNE to SSW. Although the obtained velocity field does not evidence a sharp velocity gradient it suggests the presence of a NW-SE trending crustal shear zone separating two domains, which may be slowly accumulating a slightly transtensional right-lateral shear strain. Based on the WNW velocity differential between the northeastern block and the southwestern block, a shear strain rate accumulation across the shear zone is estimated. This ongoing crustal deformation is taken as evidence that a nearby major active structure, the São Marcos - Quarteira fault, may be presently accumulating strain, therefore being potentially loaded for seismic rupture and the generation of a large magnitude earthquake. Further inferences are made concerning the interseismic dynamic loading of other major onshore and offshore active structures located to the west.

  5. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  6. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  7. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CRECIMIENTO EN ALTURA DE Hibiscus elatus Sw CULTIVADA EN CONTENEDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cobas-López

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua es una especie nativa de Cuba, incluida en los planes de reforestación del país por su importancia económica, ecológica y su condición de ser una madera preciosa. En el trabajo se describe el comportamiento en vivero del crecimiento en altura de la especie, cultivada en contenedores. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de sustratos, que fueron los siguientes: S1- Turba (40 %, humus de lombriz (40 % y corteza de pino compostada (20 %; S2- Estiércol de caballo (45 %, composta (40 %, y humus de lombriz (15 %; S3- Humus de lombriz (30 %, composta (25 %, turba (25 %, y estiércol de caballo (20 %; S4- Testigo, consistente en suelo proveniente de una plantación de la especie. A través del análisis de regresión se probaron nueve modelos matemáticos del tipo y = f (x, polinómicos, exponenciales y logarítmicos. De acuerdo con el coeficiente de determinación obtenido, del análisis de residuos y la validación de los modelos, se comprobó que la función que mejor representa el crecimiento en altura de Hibiscus elatus Sw., para los sustratos estudiados fue b t y b e 1 = 0 + .

  8. Effects of Lidocaine on HT-29 and SW480 Colon Cancer CellsIn Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundscherer, Anika C; Malsy, Manuela; Bitzinger, Diane I; Wiese, Christoph H R; Gruber, Michael A; Graf, Bernhard M

    2017-04-01

    Evidence is growing that the risk of cancer dissemination may be enhanced during the perioperative period. Whether particular anesthetic techniques influence oncological outcome is still under discussion. For pain management, lidocaine can be administered perioperatively by intravenous, intraperitoneal or epidural infusion. Here we investigated the effect of lidocaine on colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and SW480) in vitro. ELISA BrdU (Roche) for cell proliferation and FITC Annexin V detection kit (BD Pharming) for apoptosis analysis were applied. Cell-cycle profiles were investigated by flow cytometry. Cell-cycle arrest was induced in both cell lines by 1000 μM lidocaine, while no inhibition of cell proliferation was detected. Apoptosis decreased in SW480 but not in HT-29 cells. Lidocaine induces cell-cycle arrest in both colon carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The effective drug concentration can be obtained by local infiltration. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancement of docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium SW1 using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Mohd Yusuf Mohd; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-09-01

    In this study, three factors (fructose concentration, agitation speed and monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentration) were optimized to enhance DHA production by Schizochytrium SW1 using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design was applied as the experimental design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. The experiments were conducted using 500 mL flask with 100 mL working volume at 30°C for 96 hours. ANOVA analysis revealed that the process was adequately represented significantly by the quadratic model (p<0.0001) and two of the factors namely agitation speed and MSG concentration significantly affect DHA production (p<0.005). Level of influence for each variable and quadratic polynomial equation were obtained for DHA production by multiple regression analyses. The estimated optimum conditions for maximizing DHA production by SW1 were 70 g/L fructose, 250 rpm agitation speed and 12 g/L MSG. Consequently, the quadratic model was validated by applying of the estimated optimum conditions, which confirmed the model validity and 52.86% of DHA was produced.

  10. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  11. Effect of essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line SW742.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie-Tavirani, Mostafa; Fayazfar, Setareh; Heydari-Keshel, Saeid; Rezaee, Mohamad Bagher; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Majid; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the effect of the essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line (SW742) and human fibroblast cells. Colon cancer is the second most common fatal malignancy. Owing to the existence of many side effects and problems related to common treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, alternative treatments are being investigated. Some herbal medicines have shown promising results against different types of cancers. Herbal medicines used have included the use naturally occurring essential oils. The essential oil of Rosa Damascena was obtained by distillation and its effect on SW742 cell-line and fibroblast cells were investigated with cell culture. The cells were cultured and different volumes of essential oil were induced to the cells. After48hincubation, cell survival was measured and using statistical analysis, the findings were evaluated and reported. This study showed that soluble part of Rosa Damascena oil increases cell proliferation in high volumes and the non-soluble component decreases cell proliferation. The effects of essential oils, such as Rosa Damascena, on cell proliferation require more thorough investigation.

  12. Predicted satellite based sampling errors of the SW and LW spectra in support of CLARREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelling, D.; Keyes, D. F.; Nguyen, C.; Speth, P. W.; Young, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey has called for SI traceability of long-term hyper-spectral flux measurements in order to monitor climate variability. The proposed Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is currently in Extended Pre-Phase A (EPPA) status. Until mission funding is fully restored, several proof of concept platforms have been proposed. Although the main objective is the CLARREO instrument absolute calibration accuracy, can these venture class missions obtain sufficient sampling for climate benchmarking? These platforms include the International Space Station (ISS) and Iridium constellation. The CLARREO proposed orbits repeat annually, however this is not the case with the ISS and Iridium, where natural variability, manifested in the seasonal and diurnal cycles, may alias into the inter-annual variability signal. The study will incorporate Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) SYN1deg 10-year product TOA LW and SW climate quality fluxes. The flux dataset derived by combining Terra and Aqua CERES fluxes with the 3-hourly 5-geostationary satellite estimated broadband fluxes, which are carefully normalized using the CERES fluxes, to complete the diurnal cycle. These regional fluxes were saved hourly during processing and considered the truth dataset. The 90°, 83° and 74° inclination precessionary, sun-synchronous as well as ISS and Iridium orbits will be evaluated. The inter-annual variability SW and LW sampling error will be stratified globally/zonally and annually/seasonally and compared with the corresponding truth anomalies.

  13. Effect of essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line SW742

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie-Tavirani, Mostafa; Heydari-Keshel, Saeid; Rezaee, Mohamad Bagher; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Majid; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Aim In this study, we report the effect of the essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line (SW742) and human fibroblast cells. Background Colon cancer is the second most common fatal malignancy. Owing to the existence of many side effects and problems related to common treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, alternative treatments are being investigated. Some herbal medicines have shown promising results against different types of cancers. Herbal medicines used have included the use naturally occurring essential oils. Patients and methods The essential oil of Rosa Damascena was obtained by distillation and its effect on SW742 cell-line and fibroblast cells were investigated with cell culture. The cells were cultured and different volumes of essential oil were induced to the cells. After48hincubation, cell survival was measured and using statistical analysis, the findings were evaluated and reported. Results This study showed that soluble part of Rosa Damascena oil increases cell proliferation in high volumes and the non-soluble component decreases cell proliferation. Conclusion The effects of essential oils, such as Rosa Damascena, on cell proliferation require more thorough investigation. PMID:24834241

  14. Volcanic rocks cored on hess rise, Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Windom, K.E.; Seifert, K.E.; Thiede, Jorn

    1980-01-01

    Large aseismic rises and plateaus in the western Pacific include the Ontong-Java Plateau, Magellan Rise, Shatsky Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountains, and Hess Rise. These are relatively old features that rise above surrounding sea floors as bathymetric highs. Thick sequences of carbonate sediments overlie, what are believed to be, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous volcanic pedestals. We discuss here petrological and tectonic implications of data from volcanic rocks cored on Hess Rise. The data suggest that Hess Rise originated at a spreading centre in the late early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian stages). Subsequent off-ridge volcanism in the late Albian-early Cenomanian stages built a large archipelago of oceanic islands and seamounts composed, at least in part, of alkalic rocks. The volcanic platform subsided during its northward passage through the mid-Cretaceousequatorial zone. Faulting and uplift, and possibly volcanism, occurred in the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian stages). Since then, Hess Rise continued its northward movement and subsidence. Volcanic rocks from holes drilled on Hess Rise during IPOD Leg 62 (Fig. 1) are briefly described here and we relate the petrological data to the origin and evolution of that rise. These are the first volcanic rocks reported from Hess Rise. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Detection of Cytotoxic Activity of Lectin on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma (Sw480 and Epithelial Cervical Carcinoma (C33-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirandeli Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a heterogeneous class of proteins that recognize the carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates with high specificity. Numerous studies have shown that lectins are capable of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties displayed by malignant cells or tissues. The present work was performed to investigate the effects of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius lectins on proliferation, colony formation, and alteration of DNA synthesis of human malignant cells. Tepary bean lectin showed dose dependent  effects on the inhibition of viability as well as on colony formation in two human malignant cells lines (C33-A, Sw480; By contrast, tepary bean lectin only showed significant effects on DNA synthesis on Sw480 cells. Our results provide evidence of the anti- proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the tepary bean lectins on C33-A and Sw480 cells lines.

  16. The Rise of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya al-Mughni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the emergence of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait, based on the writings and personal accounts of leading Islamist women activists.  It begins with an analysis of the socio-political factors that led to the creation of Islamic groups in the 1980s. It then outlines the role of women in the growth of the Islamic movement and shows how the contradictions between women’s contributions to the Islamic cause and the secondary role they play within the Islamic organizations controlled by men were conducive to the rise of Islamic feminism in the 1990s. The paper also demonstrates how the involvement of islamist women in the struggle for suffrage forging a coalition with liberal women activists had played a decisive role in changing the position of islamist groups towards the enfranchisement of women. The last two sections of the paper look at the participation of islamist women activists in the re-definition of the dichotomy between the public and private spheres and at their involvement in the process of interpretation of Islamic sources, known as Ijtihâd. The paper concludes that the engagement of islamist women activists in the discourse of women’s rights can be powerful agent of change towards a more egalitarian society.

  17. Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw exhibitsin vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities andin vivo hypolipidemic effect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ESPINOSA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae is a shrub that occurs in forests of Southern Brazil; its leaves are widely used in folk medicine as a depurative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic agent. The objective of this study was to perform the phytochemical description and to evaluate the pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EE of C. sylvestris Sw. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of the EE ofC. sylvestris Sw on the glucose levels and lipid profile in blood serum of rats submitted to a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and Methods: In vitro assay: the detection of chemical groups was done through chemical reactions with the development of color or precipitate and by chromatographic profile; the antioxidant activity was measured by the method of reduction of DPPH free radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was evaluated by the broth microdilution method, and the Minimum Bactericide Concentration and the Minimum Fungicide Concentration were performed in Petri dishes; the cytotoxic activity was measured by the Artemia salina test. In vivo assay: diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated with EE of C. sylvestris Sw (300 mg/kg for 45 days, and the glycaemia and lipid profile were analyzed. Results: The EE showed a Lethal Dose50 of 724.76 μg.mL-1 and important antioxidant, fungicide and fungistatic activities. The EE showed better antimicrobial activity regarding the microorganismsStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andSalmonella setubal. Conclusion: The EE of C. sylvestris Sw produces a significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL levels without any significant alteration in the glycaemia. The EE of C. sylvestris Sw presents antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and it exhibits a potent hypolipidemic effect.

  18. Seismic Stratigraphy of the Shatsky Rise Sediment Cap and Implications for Pelagic Sedimentation on Oceanic Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, W. W.; Clark, R. W.; Weil, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Shatsky Rise, an oceanic plateau in the northwest Pacific, contains several basement highs (Tamu, Ori, and Shirshov massifs), each capped with an expanded record of pelagic sedimentation since the early Cretaceous. A common view is that these layers reflect basin-wide oceanographic conditions, including such major events as Cretaceous ocean anoxia and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In previous years, the seismic stratigraphy for the Shatsky Rise sediment cap has been interpreted from DSDP and ODP drilling data and low-quality seismic reflection profiles from several cruises. These studies focused primarily on the southern summit of Tamu Massif and concluded that sedimentation was continuous except during major oceanographic events resulting in hiatuses across Shatsky Rise (e.g. increased circulation or shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth). The accepted stratigraphic model, based on data from Tamu Massif, includes five major layers punctuated by four unconformities. Recent, high-quality seismic reflection data and additional drilling allow us to revisit this model. The data reveal that deposition was more heterogeneous than previously thought. While all three sediment caps appear to have similar depositional histories, the records of each massif also display local variability. Both Ori and Shirshov have unique stratigraphic sequences that deviate from the five-part model of Tamu Massif. At a finer scale, each sediment cap exhibits significant internal complexities within seismic units, in contrast to the expected uniform deposition. The stratigraphic model determined in one part of the sediment cap cannot be confidently applied to the rest of the massif (or to adjacent massifs) without additional evidence to aid correlations. Our study suggests that factors such as variable currents flowing over the plateau topography contributed to significant lateral variability of the sedimentation atop Shatsky Rise.

  19. Historical Perspective on the Rise and Fall and Rise of Antibiotics and Human Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Scott H

    2017-01-17

    In recent medical and popular literature, audiences have been asked to consider whether antibiotics have contributed to the rising obesity epidemic. Prominent magazines have stated that weight may be adversely affected by antibiotics that destroy existing microbiomes and replace them with less helpful ones. However, there is a long history of efforts to investigate the relationship between antibiotics and human weight gain. In the early 1950s, amid initial findings that low doses of antibiotics served as growth promoters in animal livestock, investigators explored the role of antibiotics as magic bullets for human malnutrition. Nevertheless, early enthusiasm was tempered by controlled studies showing that antibiotics did not serve as useful, nonspecific growth promoters for humans. In subsequent decades, against the backdrop of rising concern over antibiotic resistance, investigators studying the role of antibiotics in acute malnutrition have had to navigate a more complicated public health calculus. In a related historical stream, scientists since the 1910s have explored the role of the intestinal microflora in human health. By the 2000s, as increasing resources and more sophisticated tools were devoted to understanding the microbiome (a term coined in 2001), attention would turn to the role of antibiotics and the intestinal microflora in the rising obesity epidemic. Despite scientific and commercial enthusiasm, easy answers (whether about antibiotics or probiotics) have again given way to an appreciation for the complexity of human growth. History encourages caution about our hopes for simplistic answers for presumed "fat drugs" and slimming probiotics alike.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics of rising droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Matthew [Lake Superior State University; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-05

    The main goal of this study is to perform simulations of droplet dynamics using Truchas, a LANL-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and compare them to a computational study of Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259]. Understanding droplet dynamics is of fundamental importance in liquid-liquid extraction, a process used in the nuclear fuel cycle to separate various components. Simulations of a single droplet rising by buoyancy are conducted in two-dimensions. Multiple parametric studies are carried out to ensure the problem set-up is optimized. An Interface Smoothing Length (ISL) study and mesh resolution study are performed to verify convergence of the calculations. ISL is a parameter for the interface curvature calculation. Further, wall effects are investigated and checked against existing correlations. The ISL study found that the optimal ISL value is 2.5{Delta}x, with {Delta}x being the mesh cell spacing. The mesh resolution study found that the optimal mesh resolution is d/h=40, for d=drop diameter and h={Delta}x. In order for wall effects on terminal velocity to be insignificant, a conservative wall width of 9d or a nonconservative wall width of 7d can be used. The percentage difference between Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259] and Truchas for the velocity profiles vary from 7.9% to 9.9%. The computed droplet velocity and interface profiles are found in agreement with the study. The CFD calculations are performed on multiple cores, using LANL's Institutional High Performance Computing.

  1. The rise and fall of gluten!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Branchi, Federica; Sanders, David S

    2015-08-01

    Mankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the last 10,000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Wheat was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent (South Western Asia) with a farming expansion that lasted from about 9000BC to 4000BC. Thus it could be considered that wheat (and gluten) is a novel introduction to man's diet! Prior to 1939 the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat. This goal was achieved and by the end of the 20th century, global wheat output had expanded 5-fold. Perhaps as a result the epidemiology of coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy has changed. CD is a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD now affects 1 % or more of all adults, for which the treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, there is a growing body of evidence to show that a far greater proportion of individuals without coeliac disease are taking a gluten-free diet of their own volition. This clinical entity has been termed non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), although the condition is fraught with complexities due to overlap with other gluten-based constituents that can also trigger similar clinical symptoms. This review will explore the relationship between gluten, the rising prevalence of modern coeliac disease, and the new entity of NCGS along with its associated uncertainties.

  2. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  3. Rising cost of anticancer drugs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikios, D J; Schofield, D; Salkeld, G; Mann, K P; Trotman, J; Stockler, M R

    2014-05-01

    Anticancer drugs are often expensive and are contributing to the growing cost of cancer care. Concerns have been raised about the effect rising costs may have on availability of new anticancer drugs. This study aims to determine the recent changes in the costs of anticancer drugs in Australia. Publicly available expenditure and prices paid by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) for anticancer drugs from 2000 to 2012 were reviewed. The measures used to determine changes in cost were total PBS expenditure and average price paid by the PBS per prescription for anticancer drugs and for all PBS listed drugs. An estimated monthly price paid for newly listed anticancer drugs was also calculated. Annual PBS expenditure on anticancer drugs rose from A$65 million in 1999-2000 to A$466 million in 2011-2012; an average increase of 19% per annum. The average price paid by the PBS per anticancer drug prescription, adjusted for inflation, increased 133% from A$337 to A$786. The real average annual increase in the price per anticancer drug prescription was more than double that for all other PBS drugs combined (7.6% vs 2.8%, difference 4.8%, 95% confidence interval -0.4% to 10.1%, P = 0.07). The median price for a month's treatment of the new anticancer drugs listed was A$4919 (range A$1003 to A$12 578, 2012 prices). PBS expenditure and the price of anticancer drugs in Australia rose substantially from 2000 to 2012. Dealing with these burgeoning costs will be a major challenge for our health system and for those affected by cancer. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Cretaceous crust beneath SW Borneo: U-Pb dating of zircons from metamorphic and granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L.; Hall, R.; Armstrong, R.

    2012-12-01

    Metamorphic basement rocks from SW Borneo are undated but have been suggested to be Palaeozoic. This study shows they record low pressure 'Buchan-type' metamorphism and U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircons indicates a mid-Cretaceous (volcaniclastic) protolith. SW Borneo is the southeast promontory of Sundaland, the continental core of SE Asia. It has no sedimentary cover and the exposed basement has been widely assumed to be a crustal fragment from the Indochina-China margin. Metamorphic rocks of the Pinoh Group in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) are intruded by granitoid rocks of Jurassic-Cretaceous age, based on K-Ar dating, suggesting emplacement mainly between 130 and 80 Ma. The Pinoh metamorphic rocks have been described as a suite of pelitic schists, slates, phyllites, and hornfelses, and have not been dated, although they have been correlated with rocks elsewhere in Borneo of supposed Palaeozoic age. Pelitic schists contain biotite, chlorite, cordierite, andalusite, quartz, plagioclase and in some cases high-Mn almandine-rich garnet. Many have a shear fabric associated with biotite and fibrolite intergrowth. Contact metamorphism due to intrusion of the granitoid rocks produced hornfelses with abundant andalusite and cordierite porphyroblasts. Granitoids range from alkali-granite to tonalite and contain abundant hornblende and biotite, with rare white mica. Zircons from granitoid rocks exhibit sector- and concentric- zoning; some have xenocrystic cores mantled by magmatic zircon. There are four important age populations at c. 112, 98, 84 and 84 Ma broadly confirming earlier dating studies. There is a single granite body with a Jurassic age (186 ± 2.3 Ma). Zircons from pelitic metamorphic rocks are typically euhedral, with no evidence of rounding or resorbing of grains; a few preserve volcanic textures. They record older ages than those from igneous rocks; U-Pb ages are Cretaceous with a major population between 134 and 110 Ma. A single sample contains Proterozoic

  5. Kinky thresholds revisited: opportunity costs differ in the NE and SW quadrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon

    2015-02-01

    Historically, a kinked threshold line on the cost-effectiveness plane at the origin was suggested due to differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for health gain with trade-offs in the north-east (NE) quadrant versus willingness to accept (WTA) cost reductions for health loss with trade-offs in the south-west (SW) quadrant. Empirically, WTA is greater than WTP for equivalent units of health, a finding supported by loss aversion under prospect theory. More recently, appropriate threshold values for health effects have been shown to require an endogenous consideration of the opportunity cost of alternative actions in budget-constrained health systems, but also allocative and displacement inefficiency observed in health system practice. Allocative and displacement inefficiency arise in health systems where the least cost-effective program in contraction has a higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER = m) than the most cost-effective program in expansion (ICER = n) and displaced services (ICER = d), respectively. The health shadow price derived by Pekarsky, [Formula: see text] reflects the opportunity cost of best alternative adoption and financing actions in reimbursing new technology with expected incremental costs and net effect allowing for allocative (n cost while lower expected net effect than current practice, the opportunity cost is contraction of the least cost-effective program, with threshold ICER m. That is, in the SW quadrant, the cost reduction per unit of decreased effect should be compared with the appropriate opportunity cost, best alternative generation of funding. Consequently, appropriate consideration of opportunity cost produces a kink in the threshold at the origin, with the health shadow price in the NE quadrant and ICER of the least cost-effective program in contraction (m) in the SW quadrant having the same general shape as that previously suggested by WTP versus WTA. The extent of this kink depends on the degree of allocative

  6. Pliocene Quaternary faulting in the Lycian Taurides - new insights into the neotectonic evolution of SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veen, J.; Huibregtse, J.; Zwart, L.

    2003-04-01

    The submarine Anaximander Mountains connect the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs and form a zone that accommodates the different tectonic regimes along these arcs. The Lycian Tauride Mountains in southwestern Turkey are situated just north of the Anaximander Mts. and likely have a comparable neotectonic evolution. The Lycian Taurides comprise the Bey Daglari positioned between the Lycian Nappes in the west and the Antalya Nappe Complex in the east. Here we focus on two tectonic basins, the Kasaba and Esen Çay basins, that are located in the Bey Daglari and Lycian Nappes respectively. Until the Langhian, NW-SW compression associated with the emplacement of the Lycian Nappes, caused (ductile) folding of the Bey Daglari autochthon and syntectonic sedimentation in a NE-SW trending foreland-type basin. After foreland deposition of Upper Miocene (Langhian-Serravallian) conglomerates, a phase of S-vergent thrusting and reverse faulting started, probably related to the late Miocene - Early Pliocene Aksu phase. Fault data from the Kasaba basin show that the Pliocene-Recent tectonic evolution is characterized by extension, although no sedimentary basins formed. From slickensides, striae and other kinematic indicators, in combination with stratigraphical and geomorphological information, 3 extensional fault phases are inferred: (1) ?Pliocene (post Miocene) WNW-ESE extension, forming approximately N-S trending asymmetrical grabens. (2) More recent (?Pleistocene) NE-SW extension that resulted in large 135^o tilt-block basins that are cut by less pronounced 070^o left lateral strike-slip faults. The Pleistocene - Recent period is dominated by N-S extension that resulted in formation of 90^o -100^o normal faults and reactivation of older (normal) faults. Although extension prevails, exhumation and lowering of base level, evident from crosscutting scree, point at relative uplift. From the structural data of the Esen Çay Basin, 2 extensional phases are inferred: (1) Pliocene E

  7. Mesozoic and Cenozoic exhumation history of the SW Iberian Variscides inferred from low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Vílchez, Mercedes; Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Azor, Antonio; Stuart, Finlay; Persano, Cristina; Alonso-Chaves, Francisco M.; Martín-Parra, Luis Miguel; Matas, Jerónimo; García-Navarro, Encarnación

    2015-11-01

    The post-Paleozoic tectonothermal evolution of the SW Iberian Variscides is poorly known mainly due to the scarce low-temperature geochronological data available. We have obtained new apatite fission-tracks and apatite (U-Th)/He ages to constrain the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of this portion of the Iberian Massif located just north of the Betic-Rif Alpine orogen. We have obtained nine apatite fission-track ages on samples from Variscan and pre-Variscan granitoids. These ages range from 174.4 (± 10.8) to 54.1 (± 4.9) Ma, with mean track lengths between 10.3 and 13.9 μm. We have also performed 5 (U-Th)/He datings on some of the same samples, obtaining ages between 74.6 (± 1.6) and 18.5 (± 1.4) Ma. Time-temperature path modeling of these low-temperature geochronological data leads us to envisage four post-Paleozoic tectonically controlled exhumation episodes in the SW Iberian Variscides. Three of these episodes occurred in Mesozoic times (Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous) at rates of ≈ 1.1 to 2.5 °C Ma- 1, separated by periods with almost no cooling. We relate these Mesozoic cooling events to the formation of important marginal reliefs during the rifting and opening of the central and northern Atlantic realm. The fourth exhumation episode occurred in Cenozoic times at rates of ≈ 3.2 to 3.6 °C Ma- 1, being only recorded in samples next to faults with topographic escarpments. These samples cooled below 80 °C at ≈ 20 Ma at rates of 3-13 °C Ma- 1 due to roughly N-S oriented compressional stresses affecting the whole Iberian plate, which, in the particular case of SW Iberia, reactivated some of the previous Late Paleozoic thrusts.

  8. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Stevens and its application to physically map the Sw-5 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, MI; Prins, M; Stevens, MR; Hille, J; Goldbach, RW; Spassova, Mariana I.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Goldbach, Rob W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sw-5 gene is a dominantly inherited resistance gene in tomato and functional against a number of tospovirus species. The gene has been mapped on chromosome 9, tightly linked to RFLP markers CT220 and SCAR421. To analyse the Sw-5 locus, a BAC genomic library was constructed of tomato cv. Stevens,

  9. Rethinking of Critical Regionalism in High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Zahiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of height and density of newly high-rise cities, along with the force of globalization, have jeopardized the character of dwellings once entailing a regional flavor. The critical regionalism which serves as a resistant medium against placelessness and lack of identity in the International Style has focused more on mid-rise or low-rise solutions rather than providing direct high-rise resolutions. Additionally, high-rise endeavors are not compatible with critical regionalism theories. This has happened partly due to critical regionalism theories multi-facet character inherent in its dialectic structure. Thus, to remedy the inadvertency of texts in the discourse of architectural regionalism, the present study seeks rethinking of critical regionalism by focusing on the pathology of high-rise buildings in the issues pertaining to place and identity. Finally, the architectonic articulation to place-making and identity-giving is discussed.

  10. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  11. Phenolic compounds and interaction between aminoglycosides and natural products of Lygodium venustum SW against multiresistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, M F B; Souza, T M; Santos, K K A; Guedes, G M M; Andrade, J C; Tintino, S R; Sobral-Souza, C E; Costa, J G M; Saraiva, A A F; Coutinho, H D M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the interactions between aminoglycosides and the ethyl-acetate fraction of the fern Lygodium venustum SW (EAFLV) METHODS: The ethyl-acetate fraction was obtained from the ethanol extract of L. venustum and was assayed via the checkerboard method associated with aminoglycosides against two bacterial strains multiresistant to antibiotics. The antibiotic activity of all drugs, when associated with the ethyl-acetate fraction, was enhanced in an additive manner, except for the association between EAFLV and amikacin, which showed a synergistic interaction against the Escherichia coli strain. The results indicated that L. venustum can be a source of secondary metabolites to be used in association with antibiotics like aminoglycosides in antibiotic chemotherapy against resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  13. Evolutionary analysis of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmelo; Aramburu, José; Galipienso, Luis; Soler, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando; Rubio, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes severe economic losses in many crops worldwide and often overcomes resistant cultivars used for disease control. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that tomato resistance conferred by the gene Sw-5 can be overcome by the amino acid substitution C to Y at position 118 (C118Y) or T120N in the TSWV movement protein, NSm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that substitution C118Y has occurred independently three times in the studied isolates by convergent evolution, whereas the substitution T120N was a unique event. Analysis of rates of non-synonymous and synonymous changes at individual codons showed that substitution C118Y was positively selected.

  14. Two new species of Distaplia (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) from the SW Atlantic, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagger, Cristian; Tatián, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The ascidian fauna from the Southwestern Atlantic (Argentine Sea) have scarcely been studied and have rarely been sampled. The existing scanty ascidian records are from specimens collected by dredging many decades ago. During samplings in the San Matias Gulf (Río Negro, Patagonia), two new Distaplia species were found. Distaplia naufragii sp. nov. was collected in the subtidal zone attached to a shipwreck, while the other species, Distaplia fortuita sp. nov. was found released by the tides in the sandy intertidal zone. These two new species differ deeply from each other in the size and morphology of their zooids. They represent one third of the known species belonging to the family Holozoidae in the SW Atlantic. These results reinforce the importance of new studies in this extensive but little explored area that is, in addition, susceptible to invasion by non-native species.

  15. Effect of morphactine on differentiation and development of Cymbidium Sw. protocorms cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kukułczanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenetic effect of morphactine IT 3456 on meristematic tissue of Cymbidium Sw. was investigated within the dose range 0.01 to 10 ppm in in vitro culture on liquid and agar-solidified medium. In the doses applied, morphactine increased the number of protocorms differentiating from isolated meristematic tissues, and, in dependence on the dose, affected their shape and proliferation. Morphactine retards, and in large doses completely inhibits, the development of rhizoids, shoots and roots. Various developmental anomalies were observed under the influence of morphactine: leaf syncotylia, and their deformation, thickening, shortening, flattening and branching of shoots as well as formation of 2-3 shoots by one protocorm and development of secondary protocorms on the leaves.

  16. Identification of significant medium components that affect docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Hamid, Aidil A.

    2013-11-01

    Central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the significance of glucose, yeast extract, MSG and sea salt in affecting the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulated by a locally isolated strain of Schizochytrium. Design Expert software was used to construct a set of experiments where each medium component mentioned above was varied over three levels. Cultivation was carried out in 250mL flasks containing 50mL of medium, incubated at 30°C with 200 rpm agitation for 96 hours. ANOVA was conducted to identify the influential factors and the level of their significance where factors that scored a probability value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The level of influence for each independent variable was also interpreted using perturbation whereas pattern of interaction between the factors were interpreted using interaction plots. This experiment revealed that yeast extract and monosodium glutamate have significant influence on DHA accumulation process by Schizochytrium sp. SW1.

  17. Young green turtles, Chelonia mydas, exposed to plastic in a frontal area of the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carman, Victoria; Acha, E Marcelo; Maxwell, Sara M; Albareda, Diego; Campagna, Claudio; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-15

    Ingestion of anthropogenic debris represents an important threat to marine turtle populations. Information has been limited to inventories of debris ingested and its consequences, but why ingestion occurs and the conditions that enable it are less understood. Here we report on the occurrence of plastic ingestion in young green turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabiting the Río de la Plata (SW Atlantic). This estuarine area is characterized by a frontal system that accumulates anthropogenic debris. We explored exposure of green turtles to plastic and its ingestion via debris distribution, habitat use and digestive tract examination. Results indicated that there is considerable overlap of frontal accumulated plastic and core foraging areas of the animals. Exposure results in ingestion, as shown by the high frequency of plastic found in the digestive tracts. The Río de la Plata estuarine front is an area of conservation concern for young green turtles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: a.palau@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  19. USB HW/SW Co-Simulation Environment with Custom Test Tool Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor Y. Zargaryan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new verification environment for USB 2.0 controller. New methodology is presented, where a co-simulation environment is used as one of the starting points for the embedded hardware/software development and as an accelerator of the overall design process. The verification environment is based on the device emulation/virtualization technique, using USB controller’s real register transfer level (RTL instead of models. This approach is functionally very close to the corresponding real-world devices and allows wider opportunities for hardware debugging. The new software utilities for USB host and device functionality testing are also presented. This tool allows generating custom tests by including various transfer types and modifying parameters such as data payload, interval, number of pipes, etc. It can be used for both hardware (HW and software (SW limitations characterization, as well as debugging.

  20. Physiological responses of coastal phytoplankton (Visakhapatnam, SW Bay of Bengal, India) to experimental copper addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2017-10-01

    Trace amount of copper (Cu) is essential for many physiological processes; however, it can be potentially toxic at elevated levels. The impact of variable Cu concentrations on a coastal phytoplankton community was investigated along a coastal transect in SW Bay of Bengal. A small increase in Cu supply enhanced the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic silica, total pigment, phytoplankton cell and total bacterial count. At elevated Cu levels all these parameters were adversely affected. δ 13 C POM and δ 15 N POC reflected a visible signature of both beneficial and toxic impacts of Cu supply. Skeletonema costatum, the dominant diatom species, showed higher tolerance to increasing Cu levels relative to Chaetoceros sp. Cyanobacteria showed greater sensitivity to copper than diatoms. The magnitude of Cu toxicity on the phytoplankton communities was inversely related to the distance from the coast. Co-enrichment of iron alleviated Cu toxicity to phytoplankton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring physical properties of a submarine groundwater discharge source at Kalogria Bay, SW Peloponnissos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An impressive SGD in Kalogria Bay (SW Peloponnissos was surveyed for the first time in 2006, revealing the existence of 2 major and 2 minor point sources of freshwater (salinity ~l-2; the discharge was ~ 1000 m3 h−1. The major point source was located in a karstic cavity at 25 m depth. In July 2009, and for a period of one year, the site was monitored intensively. During summer, the underwater discharge was not very strong, the water was flowing from many dispersed points, and salinity range was 20–36. During autumn and winter, flow velocity increased considerably (> 1 m s−1, and the SGDs discharged water of low salinity (< 2. Gradually, the smaller SGDs ceased their operation, and the major SGD emanated brackish water during spring and summer, thus hampering the possibilities of freshwater exploitation, in a touristic area which suffers from great aridity and water demand is high during summer.

  2. Chronic Hypertension Leads to Neurodegeneration in the TgSwDI Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyer, Anna; Soplop, Nadine; Strickland, Sidney; Norris, Erin H

    2015-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies link vascular disorders, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke, with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hypertension, specifically, is an important modifiable risk factor for late-onset AD. To examine the link between midlife hypertension and the onset of AD later in life, we chemically induced chronic hypertension in the TgSwDI mouse model of AD in early adulthood. Hypertension accelerated cognitive deficits in the Barnes maze test (Phypertension induced hippocampal neurodegeneration at an early age in this mouse line (43% reduction in the dorsal subiculum; P<0.05), establishing this as a useful research model of AD with mixed vascular and amyloid pathologies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Dynamics of bubble rising at small Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental study of a single spherical bubble rising in the non-stationary regime in a viscous liquid (with and without surfactant at small Reynolds numbers Re<1 have been presented. Improved empirical correlations for drag coefficient of the bubble rising with and without surfactant in the stationary regime have been obtained. Influence of nonstationary effects on the dynamics of bubble rising has been analyzed.

  4. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  5. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ1) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ1/λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ1/4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  6. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  7. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad

    2014-08-01

    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW-SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW-NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene in SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Myung Hwan; Chang, Moon Jeong

    2017-04-01

    Although the antioxidative effects of lycopene are generally known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene are not fully elucidated. This study aimed to examine the role and mechanism of lycopene as an inhibitor of inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells were treated with 0, 10, 20, and 30 µM lycopene. The MTT assay was performed to determine the effects of lycopene on cell proliferation. Western blotting was performed to observe the expression of inflammation-related proteins, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitor kappa B (IκB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 (p38 MAP kinase). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In cells treated with lycopene and LPS, the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 were decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P lycopene concentration (P lycopene concertation (P Lycopene restrains NF-κB and JNK activation, which causes inflammation, and suppresses the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS in SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.

  9. Holocene Climate Reconstructions from Lake Water Oxygen Isotopes in NW and SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, G. E.; Axford, Y.; McFarlin, J. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Berman, K.; Kotecki, P.; Gawin, B.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructions of stable isotopes of precipitation (SIP) from currently unglaciated parts of Greenland can help elucidate spatial patterns of past climate shifts in this climatically important and complex region. We have developed a 7700-year record of lake water δ18O from a small non-glacial lake in NW Greenland (near Thule Air Base), inferred from the δ18O of subfossil chironomid (insect) head capsules and aquatic mosses. Lake water δ18O remains constant from 8 ka until 4 ka and then declines by 2.5 ‰ to the present, representing a +2.5 to 5.5 °C Holocene Thermal Maximum temperature anomaly for this region. For comparison, two new sediment records from hydrologically connected lakes south of Nuuk in SW Greenland record 8500 years of lake water δ18O, also inferred from δ18O of chironomids. At the time cores were collected during the summer in 2014 and 2015, all lakes reflected SIP and exhibited minimal evaporation influence. Historical monitoring of stable isotopes of precipitation from Thule Air Base and Grønnedal in south Greenland suggest the controls on SIP differ greatly between our two study sites, as would be predicted based upon the strongly Arctic (in the NW) versus North Atlantic (in the SW) atmospheric and marine influences at the two sites. Interpretation of Holocene climate from these two contrasting sites will be discussed. These climate records from the same proxy allow us to compare millennial scale Holocene climate responses to northern hemisphere solar insolation trends in two different climate regimes of Greenland.

  10. Characterization of side population cells isolated from the colon cancer cell line SW480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Binghong; Ma, Li; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Caiquan; Cheng, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many types of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells, including colon cancer cell lines. This study aimed to identify cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the SP of the colon cancer cell line SW480. SP cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), followed by serum-free medium (SFM) culture. The self-renewal, differentiated progeny, clone formation, proliferation, invasion ability, cell cycle, chemosensitivity and tumorigenic properties in SP and non-SP (NSP) cells were investigated through in vitro culture and in vivo serial transplantation. The expression profiles of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein transporters and stem cell-related genes were examined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The human colon cancer cell lines SW480, Lovo and HCT116 contain 1.1 ± 0.10, 0.93 ± 0.11 and 1.33 ± 0.05% SP cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that SP cells could differentiate into SP and NSP cells. SP cells had a higher proliferation potency and CFE than NSP cells. Compared to NSP cells, SP cells were also more resistant to CDDP and 5-FU, and were more invasive and displayed increased tumorigenic ability. Moreover, SP cells showed higher mRNA and protein expression of ABCG2, MDR1, OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, CD44 and CD133. SP cells isolated from human colon cancer cell lines harbor CSC properties that may be related to the invasive potential and therapeutic resistance of colon cancer.

  11. Rising atmospheric methane: 2007–2014 growth and isotopic shift

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nisbet, E. G; Dlugokencky, E. J; Manning, M. R; Lowry, D; Fisher, R. E; France, J. L; Michel, S. E; Miller, J. B; White, J. W. C; Vaughn, B; Bousquet, P; Pyle, J. A; Warwick, N. J; Cain, M; Brownlow, R; Zazzeri, G; Lanoisellé, M; Manning, A. C; Gloor, E; Worthy, D. E. J; Brunke, E.‐G; Labuschagne, C; Wolff, E. W; Ganesan, A. L

    2016-01-01

    .... The isotopic evidence presented here suggests that the methane rise was dominated by significant increases in biogenic methane emissions, particularly in the tropics, for example, from expansion...

  12. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: anna.hurlimann@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: colettem@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: elissa.waters@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  13. swDMR: A Sliding Window Approach to Identify Differentially Methylated Regions Based on Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a widespread epigenetic modification that plays an essential role in gene expression through transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. The emergence of whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS represents an important milestone in the detection of DNA methylation. Characterization of differential methylated regions (DMRs is fundamental as well for further functional analysis. In this study, we present swDMR (http://sourceforge.net/projects/swDMR/ for the comprehensive analysis of DMRs from whole genome methylation profiles by a sliding window approach. It is an integrated tool designed for WGBS data, which not only implements accessible statistical methods to perform hypothesis test adapted to two or more samples without replicates, but false discovery rate was also controlled by multiple test correction. Downstream analysis tools were also provided, including cluster, annotation and visualization modules. In summary, based on WGBS data, swDMR can produce abundant information of differential methylated regions. As a convenient and flexible tool, we believe swDMR will bring us closer to unveil the potential functional regions involved in epigenetic regulation.

  14. Long-lasting transcurrent tectonics in SW Alps evidenced by Neogene to present-day stress fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauve, Victorien; Plateaux, Romain; Rolland, Yann; Sanchez, Guillaume; Bethoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand; Darnault, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The SW Alps are an active orogen undergoing intra-mountainous extension and peripheral compression. We discuss the significance of syn-orogenic extension based on a comparison of paleo-stress derived from fault-slip data inversion reflecting the long-term (San Remo.

  15. Applications of the SW96 formulation in the thermodynamic calculation of fluid inclusions and mineral-fluid equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The SW96 formulation explicit in Helmholtz free energy proposed by Span and Wagner (1996 is the most accurate multifunction equation of state of CO2 fluid, from which all thermodynamic properties can be obtained over a wide temperature-pressure range from 216.592 to 1100 K and from 0 to 8000 bar with or close to experimental accuracy. This paper reports the applications of the SW96 formulation in fluid inclusions and mineral-fluid equilibria. A reliable and highly efficient algorithm is presented for the saturated properties of CO2 so that the formulation can be conveniently applied in the study of fluid inclusions, such as calculation of homogenization pressures, homogenization densities (or molar volumes, volume fractions of vapor phase and isochores. Meanwhile, the univariant curves of some typical decarbonation reactions of minerals are calculated with the SW96 formulation and relevant thermodynamic models of minerals. The computer code of the SW96 formulation can be obtained from the corresponding author.

  16. Late-Quaternary variations in clay minerals along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence of climatic variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Sukhija, B.S.; Gujar, A; Nagabhushanam, P.; Paropkari, A

    Down-core variations in illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite (the major clays) in two sup(14)C-dated cores collected along the SW continental margin of India show that illite and chlorite have enhanced abundance during 20-17, 12.5, 11-9.5, and 5...

  17. Filtration and resuspension of particulate matter and phytoplankton on an intertidal mussel bed in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.C.; Smaal, A.C.; Pouwer, A.J.; Dankers, N.

    1996-01-01

    In situ measurements were carried out on an intertidal mussel bed in the Oosterschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. Exchange of suspended particulate matter and phytoplankton between the water column and the mussel bed was measured with a Benthic Ecosystem Tunnel. In situ clearance rates of the mussel

  18. Contrasting variability in foraminiferal and organic paleotemperature proxies in sedimenting particles of the Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fallet, U.; Ullgren, J.E; Castañeda, I.S.; van Aken, H.M.; Schouten, S.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Brummer, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate sea surface temperature (SST) proxies are important for understanding past ocean and climate systems. Here, we examine material collected from a deep-moored sediment trap in the Mozambique Channel (SW Indian Ocean) to constrain and compare both inorganic (delta O-18, Mg/Ca) and organic

  19. Increased chromosome exchange frequencies in iodo-deoxyuridine-sensitized human SW-1573 cells after gamma-irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; van Bree, C.; Veltmaat, M. A.; Ludwików, G.; Kipp, J. B.; Barendsen, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    The induction of chromosome exchanges was investigated in SW-1573 human lung tumour cells radiosensitized with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and irradiated with gamma-rays. Following treatment chromosome 2 and X were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA

  20. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women’s life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lenart, Adam; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier or later. Because it is difficult to disentangle period effects from cohort effects, demographers, epidemiologists, actuaries, and other population scientists often disagree about cohort effects’ relative importance. In particular, some advocate forecasts of life expectancy based on period trends; others favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975–2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915–1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts and is not attributable to period effects. PMID:27035998

  1. Historical Consumption of Heating Natural Gas and Thermal Monitoring of a Multifamily High-Rise Building in a Temperate/Cold Climate in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Filippín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the historical consumption of natural gas in a multifamily high-rise building and the monitored winter thermal behavior of an apartment sample. The building is located in the center of Argentina (latitude: 36º27’S; longitude: 64º27’W, where the climate is a cold temperate with an absolute minimum temperature that may reach −10 °C. The building has two blocks, North and South. The building’s annual gas consumption and its variability between 1996 and 2008 are shown. The South block consumed 78% more gas, a situation expected due to lower solar resource availability and greater vulnerability regarding strong and cold SW winds. Indoor temperatures monitored during 2009 in four apartments are described. The outdoor minimum temperature reached −5 °C, with solar irradiance around 500 W/m2 at midday. Results showed that the average indoor temperatures were 20.1, 20.6, 24.0 and 22.1 °C. The highest consumption value corresponded to the apartment exposed to SW cold winds. Compared to the rest of the building, the apartment on the top floor consumes 59% more energy than the average for the gas consumed throughout the year. The authors assume that the energy potentials of intervention are different, and not necessarily all the apartments should have the same technological response.

  2. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  3. Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning Process using Response Surface Methodology. ... Reducing the temperature rise during turning operation improves the quality of the product and reduces tool wear. Experiments are conducted as per the Design of Experiments (DoE) of Response Surface ...

  4. The rise of free daily newspapers in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Piet Bakker

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most continents see circulation of newspapers drop, Latin America is one of the few areas in the world with rising newspaper circulation. A substantial part of this rise is caused by the introduction of free newspapers in a dozen countries on the continent. We map this development, discuss

  5. A model with nonzero rise time for AE signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Abstract. Acoustic emission (AE) signals are conventionally modelled as damped or decaying sinusoidal functions. A major drawback of this model is its negligible or zero rise time. This paper proposes an alternative model, which provides for the rising part of the signal without sacrificing the analytical tractability and ...

  6. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  7. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  8. Social scientists' failure of analytical nerve: 'Africa Rising' from above ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If Africa has been 'rising' since the outset of early 2000s commodity super-cycle, as so many of its elites and allied international economic actors claim, what are we to make of the evidence of growing popular uprisings? This survey of narratives and evidence finds convincing the converse claim that 'rising' translates into ...

  9. The Rise and Fall of the Neo-Liberal University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bronwyn; Gottsche, Michael; Bansel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The rise of neo-liberal universities over the last 15-20 years has been characterised as an inevitable effect both of globalisation and the associated dominance of capital. In this article we will analyse that rise, seeking to understand how it has come about and its impact on intellectual work. In the final pages of the article we turn towards…

  10. The Florence Rise, the Western Bend of the Cyprus Arc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.M.; Mascle, J.; Zitter, T.A.C.; Limonov, A.F.; Ergun, M.; Volkonskaia, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Florence Rise is a submarine feature extending from the island of Cyprus in the southeast to the Anaximander Mountains which form the northwestern end of the Cyprus Arc south of western Turkey. The eastern Florence Rise includes a topographic high near Cyprus while its central domain displays

  11. Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and Hibiscus Sabdariffa Yeast. Isolates. Ado, A. 1. , Ajibade, G.A. 2 ... yeasts correlate positively with the standard yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisea) in maize dough rising (α = 0.05> p – value 0.02, .... The sterile medium was allowed to cool at 55. 0. C, subsequently ...

  12. Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuth, Christopher; Moholdt, Geir; Kohler, Jack; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kääb, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    ... third of the total observed global sea level rise. It is therefore important to quantify glacier volume changes for the various glaciated regions in the world, both to estimate glacial sea level contribution and to link such contributions to regional climatic changes. In this paper we estimate the contribution of Svalbard glaciers to sea level rise. Various m...

  13. Counting rises and levels in r-color compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we address the problem of counting the r -color compositions having a prescribed number of rises. Formulas for the relevant generating functions are computed which count the compositions in question according to a certain statistic. Furthermore, we find explicit formulas for the total number of rises within all of ...

  14. Recording non-local temperature rise in the RTP tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Mantica, P.; Gorini, G.; de Kloe, J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; R. T. P. Team,

    2000-01-01

    In the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) plasmas with electron cyclotron heating (ECH), a transient rise of the core T-e is observed when hydrogen pellets are injected tangentially to induce fast cooling of the peripheral region. The core T-e rise is a sharp function of the normalized power

  15. Validation of smoke plume rise models using ground based lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle E. Wold; Shawn Urbanski; Vladimir Kovalev; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2010-01-01

    Biomass fires can significantly degrade regional air quality. Plume rise height is one of the critical factors determining the impact of fire emissions on air quality. Plume rise models are used to prescribe the vertical distribution of fire emissions which are critical input for smoke dispersion and air quality models. The poor state of model evaluation is due in...

  16. Solasodine accumulation in regenerated plants of Solanum torvum Sw Acúmulo de solasodina em plantas micropropagadas de Solanum torvum Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B Moreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A nodal segment culture was developed in order to assess Solanum torvum Sw. regeneration and solasodine levels. The influence of auxins (indoleacetic acid, 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyl adenine on S. torvum growth in micropropagation was investigated. A nodal segment culture was initiated with seeds germinated in MS basal medium added of GA3 and grown in different concentrations of IAA, IAA + BAP and NAA + BAP. Sixty-day-old plants from the in vitro culture were collected, frozen and lyophilized; then, the methyl orange method was used to quantify solasodine for the spectrophotometric assay. The best results regarding plant regeneration and solasodine accumulation were obtained by using the MS basal medium without addition of plant growth regulators; however, there was great production of calluses presenting friable bases. Based on these results, cell cultures can be initiated from such calluses with application of other auxins and cytokinins to enhance solasodine production, besides different elicitors, light intensities and sucrose concentrations.A regeneração de Solanum torvum e a avaliação do conteúdo de solasodina foram os objetivos de cultura de segmentos nodais. A influência de auxinas (ácido 3-indolacético, ácido naftalenoacético e de 6-benzilaminopurina no crescimento de S. torvum na micropropagação foi investigado. Cultura de segmentos nodais foi iniciada por sementes germinadas em meio básico MS acrescido de GA3 e cultivadas em diferentes concentrações de AIA, AIA + BAP e ANA + BAP. Plantas da cultura in vitro com 60 dias foram coletadas, congeladas e liofilizadas e o método de alaranjado de metila foi utilizado para quantificação de solasodina para o ensaio espectrofotométrico. Os melhores resultados para regeneração vegetal e acúmulo de solasodina foram alcançados no meio MS sem adição de reguladores de crescimento havendo, porém grande produção de calos de base friáveis. Esses resultados mostram

  17. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  18. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  19. Sea level rise with warming above 2 degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2017-04-01

    Holding the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C, has been agreed by the representatives of the 196 parties of United Nations, as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. Sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate for the more than 600 million people living in low-elevation coastal areas less than 10 meters above sea level. Fragile coastal ecosystems and increasing concentrations of population and economic activity in coastal areas, are reasons why future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of the warming climate. Furthermore, sea level is set to continue to rise for centuries after greenhouse gas emissions concentrations are stabilised due to system inertia and feedback time scales. Impact, risk, adaptation policies and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on regional and local sea level rise projections and local projections can differ substantially from the global one. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 degree goal. A warming of 2°C makes global ocean rise on average by 20 cm, but more than 90% of coastal areas will experience greater rises, 40 cm along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway, due to ocean dynamics. If warming continues above 2°C, then by 2100 sea level will rise with speeds unprecedented throughout human civilization, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the global coastline will exceed the global ocean sea level rise upper 95% confidence limit of 1.8 m. Coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, small island states, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems will have a very limited time after mid-century to adapt to sea level rises.

  20. The role of landslides in downslope transport of caprock-derived boulders in sedimentary tablelands, Stołowe Mts, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyński, Filip; Jancewicz, Kacper; Kasprzak, Marek; Migoń, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    Escarpment slopes in sedimentary tablelands are often mantled by extensive boulder blankets. While lithology shows beyond doubt that caprock is the source of boulders, the processes involved in boulder movement and their distribution patterns are rarely examined. In this paper we investigate the role of landslides initiated within middle and lower escarpment slopes in redistributing boulder covers, on the example of the Stołowe Mountains in SW Poland. Quartz sandstones form caprock and give rise to precipitous, albeit rather low (30 m high at most, typically 10-15 m) uppermost slope sections, and are the source of boulders which occur at distances even 1 km away from the caprock, on the nearly flat footslope. Sedimentary series beneath caprock include fine-grained rocks such as mudstones, claystone and calcareous sandstones. Geomorphological mapping and geomorphometric analysis of a high-resolution DEM allowed us to identify landform patterns interpreted as resulting from landslides, both rotational and translational. The latter produced distinctive tread-and-riser topography, with risers up to 10 m high. Results of geophysical prospecting using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) confirm the presence of allochthonous, sandstone-derived upper layer that wedges out downslope and indicate resistivity contrasts at depth of 5-15 m, interpreted as basal boundaries of landslide material. Sandstone boulders rafted on top of slid masses and reached very distant footslope settings. The primary role of landsliding consists of transporting allochthonous boulders further than would be possible otherwise and accumulating boulders in clusters and linear belts across the slope, notably on risers.

  1. Factors controlling gully erosion at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.; Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    Gully erosion has been recognized as an important soil degradation process in rangelands of SW Spain. However, little is known about gullying processes at different spatial and temporal scales in these areas. Three different approaches were used in this paper to analyze the factors determining gully erosion intensity and rates at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain. The first approach was based on the monitoring of a permanent valley bottom gully and continuous measurement of rainfall and discharge during the period 2001-2007 in the Parapuños experimental basin. Parapuños is a small catchment (99.5 ha) representative of dehesa land use, with an undulated topography and Mediterranean climate. Gully erosion volume was obtained by means of 28 fixed cross sections measured with a frequency of 6 months. Discharge and rainfall were monitored using a water depth probe installed in a weir at the outlet of the catchment and 6 tipping bucket rain gauges, respectively. The second approach was based on analyzing the development of the same permanent gully located in Parapuños using six series of aerial ortophotographs for the period 1945-2006. This methodology allowed to relate gully evolution with land use and vegetation cover changes. Finally, a relatively new data mining technique, called Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), was applied to construct a model capable of predicting the location of gullies at the regional scale. A large database composed of 36 independent variables related to topography, lithology, soils, rainfall, land use and vegetation cover was used. This statistical technique allowed to determine the importance of the variables involved. This database was gathered in 46 farms representative of rangelands of SW Spain in Extremadura, covering a surface area of 35,459 ha. Farms were quite diverse although their main characteristics were undulating landforms, acid rocks (schists, greywackes and granites), and

  2. Sea-Level Rise Impacts on Hudson River Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, A.; Nitsche, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    The response of tidal marshes to increasing sea-level rise is uncertain. Tidal marshes can adapt to rising sea levels through vertical accretion and inland migration. Yet tidal marshes are vulnerable to submergence if the rate of sea-level rise exceeds the rate of accretion and if inland migration is limited by natural features or development. We studied how Piermont and Iona Island Marsh, two tidal marshes on the Hudson River, New York, would be affected by sea-level rise of 0.5m, 1m, and 1.5m by 2100. This study was based on the 2011-2012 Coastal New York LiDAR survey. Using GIS we mapped sea-level rise projections accounting for accretion rates and calculated the submerged area of the marsh. Based on the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Vegetation 2005 dataset, we studied how elevation zones based on vegetation distributions would change. To evaluate the potential for inland migration, we assessed land cover around each marsh using the National Land Cover Database 2011 Land Cover dataset and examined the slope beyond the marsh boundaries. With an accretion rate of 0.29cm/year and 0.5m of sea-level rise by 2100, Piermont Marsh would be mostly unchanged. With 1.5m of sea-level rise, 86% of Piermont Marsh would be flooded. For Iona Island Marsh with an accretion rate of 0.78cm/year, sea-level rise of 0.5m by 2100 would result in a 4% expansion while 1.5m sea-level rise would cause inundation of 17% of the marsh. The results indicate that Piermont and Iona Island Marsh may be able to survive rates of sea-level rise such as 0.5m by 2100 through vertical accretion. At rates of sea-level rise like 1.5m by 2100, vertical accretion cannot match sea-level rise, submerging parts of the marshes. High elevations and steep slopes limit Piermont and Iona Island Marsh's ability to migrate inland. Understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on Piermont and Iona Island Marsh allows for long-term planning and could motivate marsh conservation programs.

  3. Influence of axial tensile strain on the electronic and structural properties as well as NO gas sensitivity and reactivity of C-doped SW-BNNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Hossein; Maleki, Layla

    2017-11-01

    The insulating character of BNNTs strongly imposes a great restriction on their applicability in nano-electronic devices. Therefore, it is desirable to find the practical routes for reducing the H-L gap. In this work, we demonstrate that the structural and electronic properties of the C-doped SW-BNNT can be significantly engineered and tuned by applying the axial tensile strain. Defect formation energies, cohesive energies, dipole moments, NBO charges, and global reactivity descriptors for un-doped SW-BNNT and C1-3-doped SW-BNNTs are calculated upon the axial strain. The B3LYP/6-31 +G(d) calculated H-L gap for five C-doped SW-BNNTs are expected to be smaller than that of un-doped SW-BNNT. At 10% axial tensile strain, CB NT is a suitable conductance with a 1.947 eV H-L gap. The decrease in the H-L gap for 2C-doped CN,B (-0.839 eV) NT within 15% strain is greater than 1C- and 3C-doped SW-BNNTs. In the second part of this work, reactivity and the sensitivity of strained C1-2-doped SW-BNNTs toward NO gas were evaluated at M06-2X/6-31 ++G(d,p) level of theory. Optimized structures, molecular graphs, adsorption energies (AE), dispersion corrected AEs, H-L gap, NBO charges, charge transfer values, density of states and electrostatic potentials were calculated. The strained C1-doped SW-BNNTs showed an increased ability for the sensitivity and adsorption of NO molecule, as compared with unstrained doped SW-BNNT. In general, the CN,B NTs have practically less potential for the adsorption of NO molecule than CB and CN ones.

  4. Studying sub-crustal reflectors in SW-Spain with wide-angle profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, Imma; Ayarza, Puy; Carbonell, Ramon; Afonso, JuanCarlos; Diaz, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    It is nowadays widely accepted that the mantle is highly heterogeneous and has lithologies that are capable of giving impedance enough to be observed in seismic data. Nevertheless, observing those impedance contrasts at mantle depths is a challenging problem. SW Iberia has been sampled by different deep vertical reflection and wide-angle reflection/refraction experiments ILIHA, IBERSEIS, and ALCUDIA, and hence provide a good opportunity to study seismically sub-crustal reflectors. These datasets have imaged a conspicuous sub-crustal reflector. This mantle reflector was first identified on the IBERSEIS wide angle reflection shot-gathers at large offsets (above 180 km). It was modeled as a boundary located between 61-72 km depth with a Vp increase from 8.2 km/s to 8.3 km/s. The fact that this reflector was not identified in the coincident vertical incidence dataset led us to interpret it as a gradient zone. A correlation with the 'Hales gradient zone', i.e. the boundary between spinel and garnet peridotites, was our preferred interpretation. The ALCUDIA experiment also shows prominent sub-crustal arrivals with the same characteristics as those observed in the IBERSEIS wide-angle data. However, these reflections also appear, locally and at 19 s TWT, in the vertical incidence dataset. In addition, the ALCUDIA wide-angle dataset shows a deeper reflector that maybe preliminarily associated with mantle anisotropy or even with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Both upper mantle reflectors are modeled at 65 km and 100 km depth, respectively, shallowing to the north to 55 km and 90 km depth. Integration of the information provided by the IBERSEIS and ALCUDIA datasets with older and lower resolution data from the ILIHA project, where three sub-crustal phases were identified in SW Iberia, allows us to conclude that, in this area, mantle reflectivity is outstanding. Also, modeling of all the datasets contributes to map, at a regional scale, the Hales discontinuity or

  5. The Paris Agreement's imprint on 2300 sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Nauels, Alexander; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims at reducing climate-related risks by putting a limit to global mean temperature increase. Furthermore, global greenhouse gas emissions should peak as soon as possible and reach net-zero in the second half of the 21st century under the agreement. Sea level rise is one of the major impacts of climate change and will continue for long after emissions have ceased. Here we quantify the effect of near-term and long-term emissions constraints of the Paris Agreement on climate-driven sea level rise until 2300 using a contribution-based methodology that is consistent with the IPCC AR5 sea level estimates. We study median sea level rise for scenarios stabilizing global mean temperatures between 1.5° C and 2° C above pre-industrial levels and net-zero greenhouse gas emission scenarios that lead to declining temperatures. Once global mean temperatures pass 1.5 °C, sea level rise below one meter until 2300 is out of reach for temperature stabilization scenarios. Net-zero emissions can reduce sea level rise caused by temperature overshoot only within limits. By linking sea level rise to near-term mitigation action, we find that delayed near-term mitigation action leads to increased sea level rise far beyond 2100.

  6. Potential impact of sea level rise on French islands worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Bellard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although sea level rise is one of the most certain consequences of global warming, yet it remains one of the least studied. Several studies strongly suggested that sea level rise will accelerate in the future with a potentially rise from 0.5 to 2 m at the end of the century. However, currently island conservation programs do not take into account the potential effects of sea level rise. Therefore, we investigated the potential consequences of sea level rise for 1,269 French islands worldwide, by assessing the total number of island that will be totally submerged for three different scenarios (1, 2 and 3 m. Under the worst scenario, up to 12% of all islands could be entirely submerged. Two regions displayed the most significant loss of island: New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Focusing on New Caledonia, we highlighted that endemic plant species that are already classified as critically endangered by the IUCN will be the most vulnerable to sea level rise. Losses of insular habitats will thus be important in the next decades for the French islands. Given that French islands covers all latitudes in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans and in the Mediterranean, our results suggested that the implications for the 180 000 islands around the world should be considerable. Therefore, decision makers are required to define island conservation priorities that will suffer of the future sea level rise.

  7. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2009-01-01

    The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use a delayed response statistical model to attribute the past 1000 years of sea level variability to various natural (volcanic and solar radiative) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcings. We show...... that until 1800 the main drivers of sea level change are volcanic and solar radiative forcings. For the past 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25% of total sea level rise) during the 20th century is attributed to natural forcings, the remaining 14 ± 1...

  8. Geochemistry and age of Shatsky, Hess, and Ojin Rise seamounts: Implications for a connection between the Shatsky and Hess Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Geldmacher, Jörg; Hauff, Folkmar; Heaton, Daniel; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hoernle, Kaj; Heydolph, Ken; Sager, William W.

    2016-07-01

    Shatsky Rise in the Northwest Pacific is the best example so far of an oceanic plateau with two potential hotspot tracks emanating from it: the linear Papanin volcanic ridge and the seamounts comprising Ojin Rise. Arguably, these hotspot tracks also project toward the direction of Hess Rise, located ∼1200 km away, leading to speculations that the two plateaus are connected. Dredging was conducted on the massifs and seamounts around Shatsky Rise in an effort to understand the relationship between these plateaus and associated seamounts. Here, we present new 40Ar/39Ar ages and trace element and Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopic data for the recovered dredged rocks and new trace elements and isotopic data for a few drill core samples from Hess Rise. Chemically, the samples can be subdivided into plateau basalt-like tholeiites and trachytic to alkalic ocean-island basalt compositions, indicating at least two types of volcanic activity. Tholeiites from the northern Hess Rise (DSDP Site 464) and the trachytes from Toronto Ridge on Shatsky's TAMU massif have isotopic compositions that overlap with those of the drilled Shatsky Rise plateau basalts, suggesting that both Rises formed from the same mantle source. In contrast, trachytes from the southern Hess Rise (DSDP Site 465A) have more radiogenic Pb isotopic ratios that are shifted toward a high time-integrated U/Pb (HIMU-type mantle) composition. The compositions of the dredged seamount samples show two trends relative to Shatsky Rise data: one toward lower 143Nd/144Nd but similar 206Pb/204Pb ratios, the other toward similar 143Nd/144Nd but more radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb ratios. These trends can be attributed to lower degrees of melting either from lower mantle material during hotspot-related transition to plume tail or from less refractory shallow mantle components tapped during intermittent deformation-related volcanism induced by local tectonic extension between and after the main volcanic-edifice building episodes on Shatsky

  9. Foraminiferal response to environmental changes in Kiel Fjord, SW Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikulina, A.; Polovodova, I.; Schoenfeld, J. [Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The living benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Kiel Fjord (SW Baltic Sea) were investigated in the years 2005 and 2006. The faunal studies were accomplished by geochemical analyses of surface sediments. In general, sediment pollution by copper, zinc, tin and lead is assessed as moderate in comparison with levels reported from other areas of the Baltic Sea. However, the inner Kiel Fjord is still exposed to a high load of metals and organic matter due to enhanced accumulation of fine-grained sediments in conjunction with potential pollution sources as shipyards, harbours and intensive traffic. The results of our survey show that the dominant environmental forcing of benthic foraminifera is nutrients availability coupled with human impact. A comparison with faunal data from the 1960s reveals apparent changes in species composition and population densities. The stress-tolerant species Ammonia beccarii invaded Kiel Fjord. Ammotium cassis had disappeared that reflects apparently the changes in salinity over the last 10 years. These changes in foraminiferal community and a significant increase of test abnormalities indicate an intensified environmental stress since the 1960s. (orig.)

  10. Integrating technologies for oil spill response in the SW Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, J.; Neves, A.; Martins, F.; Relvas, P.

    2017-09-01

    An operational oil spill modelling system developed for the SW Iberia Coast is used to investigate the relative importance of the different components and technologies integrating an oil spill monitoring and response structure. A backtrack of a CleanSeaNet oil detection in the region is used to demonstrate the concept. Taking advantage of regional operational products available, the system provides the necessary resolution to go from regional to coastal scales using a downscalling approach, while a multi-grid methodology allows the based oil spill model to span across model domains taking full advantage of the increasing resolution between the model grids. An extensive validation procedure using a multiplicity of sensors, with good spatial and temporal coverage, strengthens the operational system ability to accurately solve coastal scale processes. The model is validated using available trajectories from satellite-tracked drifters. Finally, a methodology is proposed to identifying potential origins for the CleanSeaNet oil detection, by combining model backtrack results with ship trajectories supplied by AIS was developed, including the error estimations found in the backtrack validation.

  11. Subglacial hydrological modelling of a rapid lake drainage event on the Russell Glacier catchment, SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. F.; Pimentel, S.; Doyle, S. H.; Booth, A. D.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Jones, G. A.; Kulessa, B.; Hubbard, A.

    2011-12-01

    We use local-scale subglacial hydrological models to assess the development of the basal drainage system in response to a rapid lake-tapping event on the Russell Glacier catchment, SW Greenland. Water inputs to the model are constrained by in-situ records of the lake drainage rate. Subglacial conditions are estimated from active seismic line analysis including basal topography and substrate characteristics. A borehole slug test model is used to determine the radial flux of water from the drainage input point. Water flowing in the downstream direction is used to drive a 1-D flowband model, which allows development of interacting channelised and distributed drainage systems. The simulated basal water pressures are applied to an elastic beam model to assess vertical uplift at the lake drainage site. Modelled uplift outputs are compared with results from GPS stations located next to the lake. Initial modelling results suggest that channels are necessary for evacuation of water from rapid lake drainage events, even with the presence of a sediment-based bed, the latter of which is usually associated with distributed drainage.

  12. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  13. SW-620 cells treated with topoisomerase I inhibitor SN-38: gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias Wolfgang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in gene expression in SW-620 cells in response to SN-38 in order to further elucidate the mechanisms by which SN-38 causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Methods We used a quantitative gene expression microarray assay to identify the genes regulated by SN-38 treatment in colon cancer cells and confirmed our results with RT-PCR. By gene expression profiling, we first screened a proprietary list of about 22,000 genes. Results Treatment with SN-38 cells resulted in two-fold or greater alteration in the level of expression of 192 genes compared to control treatment. Most of the affected genes were not known to be responsive to SN-38 prior to this study. SN-38 treatment of these cells was found to affect the expression of various genes involved in DNA replication, transcription, signal transduction, growth factors, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis, as well as other genes with unknown function. Changes in expression of 14 genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Conclusion This study leads to an increased understanding of the biochemical pathways involved in SN-38-induced apoptosis and possibly to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  14. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Bona, F; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Badino, G; Isaia, M

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transportation and transformation of mercury in a calcine profile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Gu, Chunhao; Feng, Xinbin; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Ningning

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of Hg ores has resulted in serious contamination of mercury (Hg) in the environment. To understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile, the speciation of Hg in a profile of a large calcine pile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China was investigated using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES), to understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile. Higher concentrations of Hg were observed at the 30-50 cm depth of the profile, corresponding to a cemented layer. This layer is observed in the entire pile, and was formed due to cementation of calcines. Hg species in calcines include cinnabar (α-HgS), metacinnabar (β-HgS), elemental Hg(0), and minor mercuric chloride (HgCl2), but these Hg species show dramatic changes in the profile. Variations in Hg speciation suggest that extensive mobilization of Hg can occur during weathering processes. We show that the cemented layer can prevent the leaching of Hg and the emission of Hg(0) from the pile. High MeHg concentrations were found near the cemented layer, indicating Hg methylation occurs. This study provides important insights into the environmental risk of Hg in mining areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Field distribution and osmoregulatory capacity of shrimps in a temperate European estuary (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Pascual, Emilio; Cuesta, Jose A.; Drake, Pilar

    2006-03-01

    The spatial distribution of the six most common crustacean decapods in the benthos and hyperbenthos of the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain) has been analysed in relation to their osmoregulatory capacities (at 20 °C). Field densities along the estuarine salinity gradient revealed that, although the species studied showed salinity tolerance ranges in the field that do overlap to some extent, there was a considerable spatial and/or salinity-related segregation between several of them. Concerning their isosmotic points and their osmoregulatory salinity ranges, two main groups of species were distinguished: species with higher isosmotic points and tight ranges in osmoregulation, represented by marine species that entered the estuary from open sea and remained there for only part of the year ( Crangon crangon, Melicertus kerathurus and Palaemon serratus); and those with slightly lower isosmotic points and wide ranges in osmoregulation, represented by estuarine species which completed their life cycle in brackish water ( Palaemon longirostris, Palaemon macrodactylus and Palaemonetes varians). For all the species studied, their field distributions were clearly biased towards the lower end of the salinity ranges within which they osmoregulate. Nevertheless, individuals of the less euryhaline species ( M. kerathurus and P. serratus) were mainly found in less saline water when the estuarine gradient was displaced downstream and low salinities occurred close to the river mouth.

  17. Tide transformation in the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain) and process-based zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DíEz-Minguito, M.; Baquerizo, A.; Ortega-SáNchez, M.; Navarro, G.; Losada, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzes tide transformation in the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain). When fresh water discharges are less than 40 m3/s, the estuary is tidally-dominated (flood-dominated) and well mixed. Under such conditions, the estuary can be divided into three stretches, each characterized by a different tide propagation process. In the first stretch of 25 km, the dominant process is diffusion. In the next stretch, approximately over 35 km length, convergence and friction processes are in balance. At the head of the estuary, in the last stretch, the tidal motion is partially standing because of tidal reflection on the Alcalá del Río dam, located 110 km upstream from the estuary mouth. The reflection coefficient R varies with the frequency; for diurnal constituents its magnitude ∣RD∣ is 0.25; this value increases in the case of semi-diurnal (∣RS∣ ≈ 0.40), and quarter-diurnal constituents (∣RQ∣ ≈ 0.65), and reaches its minimum at the sixth-diurnal components (∣RX∣ ≈ 0.10). The tidal reflection can generate residual currents that have consequences in the bed morphology. Furthermore, when the fresh water discharges are greater than 400 m3/s, the estuary is fluvially-dominated and the water level can be calculated as the linear superposition of tide and river contributions. However, superposition arguments do not hold for currents at any point in the estuary.

  18. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Turbidity Currents, Submarine Landslides and the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides or slumps may generate turbidity currents consisting of mixture of sediment and water. Large and fast-moving turbidity currents can incise and erode continental margins and cause damage to artificial structures such as telecommunication cables on the seafloor. In this study, we report that eleven submarine cables across the Kaoping canyon and Manila trench were broken in sequence from 1500 to 4000 m deep, as a consequence of submarine landslides and turbidity currents associated with the 2006 Pingtung earthquakes offshore SW Taiwan. We have established a full-scale scenario and calculation of the turbidity currents along the Kaoping canyon channel from the middle continental slope to the adjacent deep ocean. Our results show that turbidity current velocities vary downstream ranging from 20 to 3.7 and 5.7 m/s, which demonstrates a positive relationship between turbidity current velocity and bathymetric slope. The violent cable failures happened in this case evidenced the destructive power of the turbidity current to seafloor or underwater facilities that should not be underestimated.

  20. Inhibition of Autophagy Increases 2-Methoxyestradiol-Induced Cytotoxicity in SW1353 Chondrosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumann, Stephan; Shogren, Kristen L; Yaszemski, Michael J; Maran, Avudaiappan

    2016-03-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a cartilage tumor and is the second most common malignant bone cancer. Unlike many tumors, chondrosarcomas are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Autophagy is a homeostatic mechanism through which cellular proteins and organelles are subjected to lysosomal degradation and recycling. Autophagy could play a dual role in cancer by facilitating either cell death or cell survival. To determine whether autophagy plays a role in cell death in chondrosarcoma, we have studied the effect of the anti-tumor compound 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) in chondrosarcoma cells in culture. Transmission electron microscopy imaging indicates that 2-ME treatment leads to the accumulation of autophagosomes in human chondrosarcoma (SW1353 and Hs819T) cells. Also, 2-ME induces the conversion of microtubule-associated protein LC3-I to LC3-II, a protein marker that is correlated with the formation of autophagosomes. Our results show that siRNAs directed against ATG3 blocks 2-ME-induced autophagosome formation in chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, treatment with Bafilomycin A1 (Baf) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA), the inhibitors of autophagy, further increased the cell death in 2-ME-treated chondrosarcoma cells. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that autophagy causes resistance to cytotoxicity in chondrosarcoma cells, and the efficacy and anti-tumor effects of drugs in chondrosarcoma could be enhanced by modulating autophagy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the two layer fault system of Antalya (SW Turkey) area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Cangir, Bülent

    2017-09-01

    Southwest Turkey, along Mediterranean coast, is prone to large earthquakes resulting from subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate and shallow crustal faults. Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw = 6.5 whereas that of crustal earthquakes is Mw = 6.6. Crustal earthquakes are sourced from faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. The primary goal of this study is to assess seismic hazard for Antalya area (SW Turkey) using a probabilistic approach. A new earthquake catalog for Antalya area, with unified moment magnitude scale, was prepared in the scope of the study. Seismicity of the area has been evaluated by the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. For hazard computation, CRISIS2007 software was used following the standard Cornell-McGuire methodology. Attenuation model developed by Youngs et al. Seismol Res Lett 68(1):58-73, (1997) was used for deep subduction earthquakes and Chiou and Youngs Earthq Spectra 24(1):173-215, (2008) model was used for shallow crustal earthquakes. A seismic hazard map was developed for peak ground acceleration and for rock ground with a hazard level of a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Results of the study show that peak ground acceleration values on bedrock change between 0.215 and 0.23 g in the center of Antalya.

  2. Effects of krill oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Jin; Shi, Jia-Hui; Qian, Wen-Bin; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Duo

    2008-08-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO) on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480). Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG) of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  3. Exceptional appendage and soft-tissue preservation in a Middle Triassic horseshoe crab from SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shixue; Zhang, Qiyue; Feldmann, Rodney M; Benton, Michael J; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Huang, Jinyuan; Wen, Wen; Zhou, Changyong; Xie, Tao; Lü, Tao; Hong, Shuigen

    2017-10-26

    Horseshoe crabs are classic "living fossils", supposedly slowly evolving, conservative taxa, with a long fossil record back to the Ordovician. The evolution of their exoskeleton is well documented by fossils, but appendage and soft-tissue preservation is extremely rare. Here we analyse details of appendage and soft-tissue preservation in Yunnanolimulus luopingensis, a Middle Triassic (ca. 244 million years old) horseshoe crab from Yunnan Province, SW China. The remarkable preservation of anatomical details including the chelicerae, five pairs of walking appendages, opisthosomal appendages with book gills, muscles, and fine setae permits comparison with extant horseshoe crabs. The close anatomical similarity between the Middle Triassic horseshoe crabs and their recent analogues documents anatomical conservatism for over 240 million years, suggesting persistence of lifestyle. The occurrence of Carcinoscorpius-type claspers on the first and second walking legs in male individuals of Y. luopingensis indicates that simple chelate claspers in males are plesiomorphic for horseshoe crabs, and the bulbous claspers in Tachypleus and Limulus are derived.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of conventional land management in privately-owned rangelands of Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Manuel; Herguido, Estela; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2017-04-01

    Extensive grazing is a key factor for the conservation of High Nature Value (HNV) farming systems such as woody rangelands (dehesas or montados) or grasslands (pastizales) in SW Europe. They have been created from clearing the former Mediterranean forest and have been subject to land use and management changes, particularly during recent decades. Environmental and economic consequences of those changes have been scarcely studied so far. In this study, the land management of 10 privately-owned farms (ranging from 200 to 1,000 ha in size) has been analysed from various perspectives: [1] environmental (soil quality, land degradation, tree regeneration, etc.), [2] economic (inputs, outputs, infrastructure and vehicles) and [3] sociodemographic (type of exploitation, generational relay, etc.). Data were obtained through field surveys, aerial image analysis and personal interviews with owners and shepherds. The results showed negative economic consequences (e.g. more expenses on food supply) on farms where soils are more degraded. Approximately 30% of the farms had negative economic balances, compensated by subsidy payments from the European Union. Furthermore, 50% of the samples do not have guaranteed the generational relay. The obtained information is relevant to evaluate the sustainability of these farming systems. However, a larger number of cases is still necessary in order to draw definitive conclusions. Keywords: Dehesas, Land management, Sustainability, Integrated approach

  5. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi

    2010-05-15

    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Krill Oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480. Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  7. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height, while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  8. Geological Study of Active Cold Seeps in the Syn-collision Accretionary Prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogonophoran tube worms, elongated pyrite tubes and authigenic carbonate nodules are used to evaluate the occurrence of potential cold seeps in the syn-collision accretionary prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan. At least two species of pogonophoran tubeworms were found in surface and core sediments. Pyrites occur in three different forms: fillings inside foraminiferal chambers, cements between calcareous microfossils, and elongated tubes. The bottom water off SW Taiwan is aerobic, but authigenic pyrites are found in the surface sediments at several sites, suggesting the existence of local reducing environments enabling the formation of pyrites. These environments are most likely caused by the occurrence of active cold seeps where methane expulses. Authigenic carbonates with highly depleted carbon isotope values (-54 to -43‰ were found at more than 5 locations, in agreement with a methane-derived source for the carbon.

  9. Methane Venting in Gas Hydrate Potential Area Offshore of SW Taiwan: Evidence of Gas Analysis of Water Column Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsanyao Frank Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column samples were collected systematically in several potential gas hydrate areas offshore of SW Taiwan for analysis of dissolved gases. Some these samples show unusually high dissolved methane concentrations at sites A, B, C, and H of cruise ORI-765. The profiles of helium concentrations in the dissolved gases of the water column also exhibit consistent results with an increasing trend toward the seafloor. The 3He/4He ratios range from 0.2 to 0.4 times that of the atmospheric air ratio after air correction, which fall in the range of typical crustal gas composition and are similar to those of on-shore mud volcanoes in SW Taiwan. This indicates that gases are venting actively from the seafloor in the region and may share similar gas sources to on-shore mud volcanoes. The venting gases are considered to have originated from dissociation of gas hydrates and/or a deeper gas reservoir.

  10. Integrins are not essential for entry of coxsackievirus A9 into SW480 human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Outi; Merilahti, Pirjo; Hakanen, Marika; Karelehto, Eveliina; Alanko, Jonna; Sukki, Maria; Kiljunen, Saija; Susi, Petri

    2016-10-18

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) is a pathogenic enterovirus type within the family Picornaviridae. CV-A9 infects A549 human epithelial lung carcinoma cells by attaching to the αVβ6 integrin receptor through a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is located at the exposed carboxy-terminus of the capsid protein VP1 detected in all studied clinical isolates. However, genetically-modified CV-A9 that lacks the RGD motif (CV-A9-RGDdel) has been shown to be infectious in some cell lines but not in A549, suggesting that RGD-mediated integrin binding is not always essential for efficient entry of CV-A9. Two cell lines, A549 and SW480, were used in the study. SW480 was the study object for the integrin-independent entry and A549 was used as the control for integrin-dependent entry. Receptor levels were quantitated by cell sorting and quantitative PCR. Antibody blocking assay and siRNA silencing of receptor-encoding genes were used to block virus infection. Peptide phage display library was used to identify peptide binders to CV-A9. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the virus infection in the cells. We investigated the receptor use and early stages of CV-A9 internalization to SW480 human epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells. Contrary to A549 infection, we showed that both CV-A9 and CV-A9-RGDdel internalized into SW480 cells and that function-blocking anti-αV integrin antibodies had no effect on the binding and entry of CV-A9. Whereas siRNA silencing of β6 integrin subunit had no influence on virus infection in SW480, silencing of β2-microglobulin (β2M) inhibited the virus infection in both cell lines. By using a peptide phage display screening, the virus-binding peptide identical to the N-terminal sequence of HSPA5 protein was identified and shown to block the virus infection in both A549 and SW480 cell lines. HSPA5 was also found to co-localize with CV-A9 at the SW480 cell periphery during the early stages of infection by confocal

  11. Extensive soft sediment deformation and peperite formation at the base of a rhyolite lava: Owyhee Mountains, SW Idaho, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mclean, Charlotte E.; Brown, David J.; Rawcliffe, Heather J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern Owyhee Mountains (SW Idaho), a >200 m thick flow of the Miocene Jump Creek Rhyolite was erupted on to a sequence of tuffs, lapilli-tuffs, breccias and lacustrine siltstones of the Sucker Creek Formation. The rhyolite lava flowed over steep palaeotopography, resulting in the forceful emplacement of lava into poorly consolidated sediments. The lava invaded this sequence, liquefying and mobilizing the sediment, propagating sediment sub-vertically in large metre-scale fluidal diap...

  12. Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates that overcome the Sw-5 resistance gene in tomato and fitness assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose ARAMBURU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance-breaking (RB isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV that overcome the resistance conferred by the Sw-5 gene in tomato have had only a limited spread since they were first detected in north-eastern Spain in 2002. Symptom expression, homogeneity, stability and the transmission capacity of RB and non-resistance breaking (NRB isolates were biologically compared. The fitness of both types of isolates infecting tomato plants was determined in competition assays. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in a wide range of plant species, except RB isolates in tomato carrying the Sw-5 resistance gene and pepper carrying the Tsw resistance gene. The mechanical transmission of RB isolates to tomato plants with the Sw-5 gene failed in some trials, although NRB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when tested with the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Biological clones from individual local lesions obtained by mechanically inoculating Nicotiana glutinosa in some TSWV field samples showed that they were biologically homogeneous. Mixed infections of RB and wilt-type isolates were not found. The RB isolates were relatively stable because no reversion to NRB isolates was seen after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants. In competition assays between RB and NRB isolates, after serial passages in susceptible tomato plants, the prevalence of a particular isolate was not related to its capacity to overcome Sw-5 gene resistance. The low spread of the RB isolates in Spain does not seem to be related to a loss of fitness in tomato plants or to differences in transmission capacity by thrips, but it could be related to the reduction of the selection pressure of RB isolates as consequence of the gradual replacement of susceptible tomato plants by resistant tomato plants by growers.

  13. Denudation of SW Iberia during Pangea's break-up: geochemical and detrital zircon geochronology characterization of Triassic basins

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M. francisco; Ribeiro, Carlos; Vilallonga, Filipa; Chichorro, Martim; Drost, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    This provenance study is mainly based on new whole-rock geochemistry data but also involves detrital zircon geochronology. More specifically, this study investigates the Early Mesozoic denudation of a Late Paleozoic mountain range and the coeval development of basins during Pangea break-up in SW Iberia. The relations with past dynamic Earth events in Western Europe also include the amalgamation of Pangea and the development of the Carboniferous basins. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology on ...

  14. Anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of gypenosides on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gypenosides (Gyp, the main components from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of Gyp on human colorectal cancer cells SW-480. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effect of Gyp on SW-480 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was detected by nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Cell membrane integrity was evaluated with flow cytometry following PI staining. Changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm were detected through flow cytometry analysis of rhodamine 123 (Rh123. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Gyp induced cell death was investigated by intracellular ROS generation and general ROS scavenger. Wound-healing assay was carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration of SW-480 cells in vitro. Additionally, the alterations in F-actin microfilaments were analyzed by FITC-labeled phalloidin toxin staining and the morphological changes were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM. RESULTS: After the Gyp treatment, the plasma membrane permeability of SW-480 cell was increased, Δψm was decreased significantly, the level of intracellular ROS level was increased, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology were observed. Cells treated with Gyp exert serious microfilament network collapse as well as the significant decrease in the number of microvilli. Gyp induced the changes of cell viability, cell migration, intracellular ROS generation and nuclear morphology were alleviated obviously by NAC. CONCLUSION: The results in this study implied that ROS play an important role in Gyp induced cell toxicity and apoptosis, and the mitochondria damage may be upstream of ROS generation post Gyp treatment. The findings of the present study provide new evidences for anti

  15. Phenotypic and genetic diversities are not correlated in strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa isolated in SW Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo; Figueirido, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic diversities are not correlated in strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa isolated in SW Spain. The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing is notorious for forming extensive and toxic blooms but the genetic structure of natural populations, and in particular during blooms, remains to be explored. In order to add more knowledge about the genetic structure of M. aeruginosa, we compared phenotypic and genetic variabilities in seventeen strains...

  16. Sustainability of organic and conventional beef cattle farms in SW Spanish rangelands (‘dehesas’): a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, A.J.; Mesias, F.J.; Gaspar, P.; M. Escribano; Pulido, F.

    2012-01-01

    Organic production in Spain has increased substantially in recent years due to several factors, such as the growing interest of the European Union towards preserving sensitive ecosystems; the potential role of organic production in the socio-economic development of rural areas and the growing consumers' demand for safer and higher quality foods. Within this framework, this paper analyzes the beef sector of SW Spanish rangelands (dehesas). These are traditional systems characteristic of the Ib...

  17. Smoking on the Rise in Movies Aimed at Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167051.html Smoking On the Rise in Movies Aimed at Young: ... The number of youth-focused films that showed smoking rose sharply between 2010 and 2016, a new ...

  18. Analysis of coastal protection under rising flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Lickley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure located along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts is exposed to rising risk of flooding from sea level rise, increasing storm surge, and subsidence. In these circumstances coastal management commonly based on 100-year flood maps assuming current climatology is no longer adequate. A dynamic programming cost–benefit analysis is applied to the adaptation decision, illustrated by application to an energy facility in Galveston Bay. Projections of several global climate models provide inputs to estimates of the change in hurricane and storm surge activity as well as the increase in sea level. The projected rise in physical flood risk is combined with estimates of flood damage and protection costs in an analysis of the multi-period nature of adaptation choice. The result is a planning method, using dynamic programming, which is appropriate for investment and abandonment decisions under rising coastal risk.

  19. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  20. Counting rises and levels in r-color compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOUFIK MANSOUR

    0331-x. Counting rises and levels in r-color compositions. TOUFIK MANSOUR. ∗ and MARK SHATTUCK. 1Department of Mathematics, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa, Israel. *Corresponding author. E-mail: tmansour@univ.haifa.ac.il; ...

  1. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  2. Sediment Data from the Continental Rise (ZIMMERMAN72 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Short cores were collected on the continental rise off Georges Bank. The character of the sediments and measured bottom currents show that the Western Boundary...

  3. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a unique disease on the rise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Monsjou, Hester S.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van den Brekel, Michiel M.; Wreesmann, Volkert B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite successful efforts to control tobacco and alcohol consumption in the western world, several developed countries report rising oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence figures, specifically in young individuals. Similar to anogenital cancers, a significant proportion of OPSCC

  4. USGS Map service: Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coastal vulnerability index (CVI)provides a preliminary overview, at a National scale, of the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise....

  5. Magma chamber and mantle reflections - East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Thomas J.; Stoffa, Paul L.; Buhl, Peter

    1980-11-01

    A multichannel seismic reflection profile of stacked and migrated common depth point data across the East Pacific Rise near the Siqueiros Fracture Zone supports and extends previous observations (at two crossings 27 to 50 km to the south) of reflections assumed to be from the top of a magma chamber and of reflections from the M-discontinuity. The reflection assumed to be associated with the top of the magma chamber is 1-1/2 to 2 km below the sea floor. The combined results of the three crossings suggest that the chamber is continuous along the Rise crest and that its width, which varies from 2 to 8 km, correlates with the width of the Rise crest as indicated by the bathymetric contours. The reflections from the crust-mantle boundary can be detected beneath the raised axial block of the East Pacific Rise and although weak, can be detected beneath the magma chamber.

  6. Sea Level Rise Impacts on Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sea Level Rise Impacts on Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance data set represents the results of an analysis using the boundaries for Ramsar sites...

  7. Simulation of coastal floodings during a typhoon event with the consideration of future sea-level rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-Huei, Jhang; Chih-Chung, Wen; Dong-Jiing, Doong; Cheng-Han, Tsai

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan is an Island in the western Pacific Ocean and experienced more than 3 typhoons in a year. Typhoons bring intense rainfall, high waves, and storm surges, which often resulted in coastal flooding. The flooding can be aggravated by the sea level rise due to the global warming, which may subject Taiwan's coastal areas to more serious damage in the future than present. The objectives of this study are to investigate the flooding caused by typhoons in the Annan District, Tainan, a city on the southwest coast of Taiwan by numerical simulations, considering the effects of sea-level rises according to the level suggested by the 5th Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) for 2050 and 2100, respectively. The simulations were carried out by using MIKE21 HD (a hydrodynamic model) and MIKE21 SW (a spectral wave model). In our simulation, we used an intense typhoon, named Soudelor, as our base typhoon, which made its landfall on the east coast of Taiwan in the summer of 2015, traveled through the width of the island, and exited the island to the north of Tainan. The reasons we pick this typhoon are that it passed near our objective area, wind field data for this typhoon are available, and we have well documented coastal wave and water level measurements during the passage of Typhoon Soudelor. We firstly used ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) wind field data to reconstruct typhoon waves and storm surges for this typhoon by using coupled MIKE21 SW and MIKE21 HD in a regional model. The resultant simulated wave height and sea-level height matched satisfactorily with the measured data. The wave height and storm surge calculated by the regional model provided the boundary conditions for our fine-grid domain. Then different sea-level rises suggested by the IPCC were incorporated into the fine-grid model. Since river discharge due to intense rainfall has also to be considered for coastal flooding, our fine-grid models

  8. Empirical Operational Energy Analysis of Downtown High-Rise vs. Suburban Low-Rise Lifestyles: A Chicago Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the concentration of people living in high-density city centers offers greater operational energy efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions than lower-density expanded suburbs. The prevailing assumption is that lower-density suburbs are dominated by larger low-rise buildings that have higher building energy use requirements and greater per-person automobile travel requirements than high-density city centers dominated by medium- and high-rise buildings located in close proximity to a variety of public transit systems. However, very few studies to date have utilized empirical data at an individual household scale to evaluate differences in the operational energy (OE footprints for both building and transportation energy end-uses between high-rise urban and low-rise suburban households. Therefore, this work collects empirical data on building and transportation OE consumption by individuals and households living in two economically similar groups: existing high-rise residential buildings in downtown Chicago, IL, USA and existing low-rise residential buildings in suburban Oak Park, IL, USA. Data were collected from over 500 households via an online survey. We considered the following components of residential living: (1 building OE (BOE, which includes electricity and/or natural gas use for all building energy end-uses; and (2 transportation OE (TOE, which includes the OE for multiple modes of transportation (i.e., automobile, bus, subway, regional train, etc. based on average travel behavior in each location, as well as the OE for supporting transportation infrastructure. We estimate that downtown high-rise living in this sample of residences in Chicago, IL accounts for approximately 427 GJ of primary OE per household per year, on average, which was 14% lower than the average for suburban low-rise living in the Oak Park, IL homes (499 GJ per household per year. However, on a per-person basis, downtown high-rise living

  9. Vzpomínání na Easter Rising

    OpenAIRE

    Reiterová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    5 Abstract The bachelor thesis focuses on the official policy of remembering the Easter Rising in Ireland in 1916. The attention concentrates on the political representatives of the Irish Free State and Irish Republic from 1922 to 2006 and their attitude towards commemorations of the Easter Rising. The topic is elaborated using mainly English secondary sources and also some primary sources like political documents and videos. Regarding the methodology, the so-called collective memory concept ...

  10. Adapting to Rising Sea Level: A Florida Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Randall W.

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change and concomitant rising sea level will have a profound impact on Florida's coastal and marine systems. Sea-level rise will increase erosion of beaches, cause saltwater intrusion into water supplies, inundate coastal marshes and other important habitats, and make coastal property more vulnerable to erosion and flooding. Yet most coastal areas are currently managed under the premise that sea-level rise is not significant and the shorelines are static or can be fixed in place by engineering structures. The new reality of sea-level rise and extreme weather due to climate change requires a new style of planning and management to protect resources and reduce risk to humans. Scientists must: (1) assess existing coastal vulnerability to address short term management issues and (2) model future landscape change and develop sustainable plans to address long term planning and management issues. Furthermore, this information must be effectively transferred to planners, managers, and elected officials to ensure their decisions are based upon the best available information. While there is still some uncertainty regarding the details of rising sea level and climate change, development decisions are being made today which commit public and private investment in real estate and associated infrastructure. With a design life of 30 yrs to 75 yrs or more, many of these investments are on a collision course with rising sea level and the resulting impacts will be significant. In the near term, the utilization of engineering structures may be required, but these are not sustainable and must ultimately yield to "managed withdrawal" programs if higher sea-level elevations or rates of rise are forthcoming. As an initial step towards successful adaptation, coastal management and planning documents (i.e., comprehensive plans) must be revised to include reference to climate change and rising sea-level.

  11. Effect of LED irradiation on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in SW1353 cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Guo, Zhou-yi; Zhang, Feng-xue; Deng, Wen-di; Liu, Song-hao

    2007-05-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an active role in remodeling cartilage in osteoarthritic cartilage. To find an effective method of prevention of osteoclasia, this in vitro study focuses on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in the SW1353 cells by LED irradiation. The human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 were stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and were received the irradiation of LED (632nm, 4mW/cm2). The cell count was assessed over a 96-hour period by using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and the cell activity was evaluated with a Cell Counting Kit-8 Assays. The subsequent expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was quantified. Results of this experiment showed that the cultural cell activity was decreased, and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was increased by being stimulated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. After received LED irradiation, the death rate of cultural cell was increased and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was decreased significantly. The present study concluded that particular LED irradiation stimulates SW1353 cell proliferation activity and inhibit the MMP-3 and MMP-13 enzymatic activity. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that the low power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  12. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Masuelli, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Marchese, Rodolfo [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Misiti, Silvia [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Stigliano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.stigliano@uniroma1.it [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  13. Hydrographic features of the western Bay of Bengal in the upper 500 m under the influence of NE and SW monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y; Babu, M; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    The distribution of temperature, salinity, density and geostrophic currents in the upper 500 m of the western Bay of Bengal within 500 km adjoining the East Coast of India for NE and SW monsoons have been studied. These distributions show...

  14. Cyclic AMP-independent secretion of mucin by SW1116 human colon carcinoma cells. Differential control by Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and arachidonic acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yedgar, S; Eidelman, O; Malden, E; Roberts, D; Etcheberrigaray, R; Goping, G; Fox, C; Pollard, H B

    1992-01-01

    The regulation of mucin secretion by SW1116 human colon carcinoma cells has been studied using monoclonal antibody 19-9, which has previously been used to detect mucin in the serum of cancer and cystic fibrosis patients...

  15. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) from 27 January 1986 to 01 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8800329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) from 27 January 1986 to 01 April 1987. Data were collected by...

  16. Benthic organisms collected using sediment sampler from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977 (NODC Accession 8100224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms were collected using sediment sampler casts from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977. Data were...

  17. Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2017-04-01

    Two degrees global warming above the pre-industrial level has been suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This '2 degree' threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass-redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 degree goal. We demonstrate that by 2040 with two degree warming under the RCP8.5 scenario more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. If warming continues above two degree, then by 2100 sea level will rise with speeds unprecedented throughout human civilization, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the global coastline will exceed the global ocean sea level rise upper 95% confidence limit of 1.8 m. Coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, small island states, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems will have a very limited time after mid-century to adapt to sea level rises.

  18. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Deok-Beom; Kim, Hyunseok; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Bonglee; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPK α blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPK α in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPK α . Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1 α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPK α and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPK α in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPK α and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  19. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yun Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPKα blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPKα in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPKα. Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPKα and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPKα in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPKα and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  20. "Too posh to push": the rise and rise of a catchphrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jane; Magill-Cuerden, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The phrase "too posh to push" was coined over 14 years ago to describe maternal request for cesarean section in the absence of clinical indications. The phrase was readily taken up and used by the United Kingdom media despite limited evidence that many women request cesarean sections or have an aversion to vaginal birth. The objectives of this study were to explore the way in which the phrase was used; the context and themes associated with it. To better understand the part the news media might play in public and health care professionals' perceptions, all articles using the phrase in eight UK national weekday newspapers from 1999 to 2011 (n = 335) were subjected to content analysis. Key themes have changed over the years but some themes, such as celebrity cesareans, the risks of cesarean section, and the rising cesarean rate, have remained. Four different definitions of the term "too posh to push" were identified. Levels of usage of these terms changed over time. Misinterpretation of the National Sentinel Cesarean Section Audit results and a tendency to confuse elective cesarean section with maternal request for a cesarean have suggested that more "too posh to push" cesareans occurred than is probably the case. The phrase seems to have become well established. It is likely that press handling of the topic has continued to contribute to the impression that cesarean purely for maternal request is common. The association with celebrity continues to fuel press interest in the topic. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  2. Distribution of Ag in Cu-sulfides in Kupferschiefer deposit, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Gabriela A.

    2014-05-01

    The Cu-Ag Kupferschiefer deposit located at the Fore-Sudetic Monocline (SW Poland) is a world class deposit of stratabound type. The Cu-Ag mineralization in the deposit occurs in the Permian sedimentary rocks (Rotliegend and Zechstein) in three lithological types of ore: the dolomite, the black shale and the sandstone. Silver, next to copper, is the most important element in the Kupferschiefer deposit (Salamon 1979; Piestrzyński 2007; Pieczonka 2011). Although occurrence of the Ag-minerals such as native silver, silver amalgams, stromeyerite, jalpaite and mckinstryite, silver is mainly present in the deposit due to isomorphic substitutions in Cu-minerals such as chalcocite, bornite, tennantite, covellite and chalcopyrite. The aim of the study was to define distribution of silver in Cu-minerals and correlate occurrence of Ag-enriched Cu-sulfides with native silver and silver amalgams. Identification of minerals and textural observation were performed using field emission scanning electron microscope. Analyzes of chemical composition of Cu-sulfides were performed utilizing electron microprobe. Silver concentration in Cu sulfides ranges from 0.1 to 10.4 wt.% in chalcocite, 0.2-15.8 wt.% in bornite, 0.1-2.9 wt.% in tennantite, 0.05-0.3 wt.% in chalcopyrite and ca. 0.4 wt.% in covellite. In general, distribution of silver in Cu-minerals is irregular, as indicated by high variations of Ag concentration in each mineral. Content of Ag in Cu-sulphides, in samples where native silver and silver amalgams are not found, is lower than in samples, where native silver and silver amalgams are noted. The chemical analyzes of Ag-bearing Cu-minerals indicate decrease of Cu content in minerals with high Ag concentration. In such case, decrease of Fe content is also noted in bornite. Lack of micro-inclusions of the native silver or silver amalgams in the Cu-minerals indicates that presence of Ag is mainly related to the isomorphic substitutions. This is in agreement with previous

  3. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  4. Global coastal hazards from future sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien

    1991-03-01

    A rise of sea level between 0.3 and 0.9 m by the end of the next century, caused by predicted greenhouse climate warming, would endanger human populations, cities, ports, and wetlands in low-lying coastal areas, through inundation, erosion and salinization. The consequences of a global sea level rise would be spatially non-uniform because of local or regional vertical crustal movements, differential resistance to erosion, varying wave climates, and changeable longshore currents. Although many factors can influence sea level, leading to a noisy record, various studies utilizing tide-gauge data find an average global rate of sea level rise of 1-2 mm/yr, over the last 100 years. This trend is part of a general rise over the last 300 years, since the low point of the Little Ice Age. Sea level rise may accelerate 3-8 times over present rates, within the next century. The permanently inundated coastal zone would extend to a depth equivalent to the vertical rise in sea level. Major river deltas, coastal wetlands and coral islands would be most affected. Episodic flooding by storm waves and surges would penetrate even farther inland. Beach and cliff erosion will be accentuated. Saltwater penetration into coastal aquifers and estuaries could contaminate urban water supplies and affect agricultural production. Research on relative risks and impacts of sea level rise on specific localities is still at an early stage. Development of a global coastal hazards data base, intended to provide an overview of the relative vulnerabilities of the world's coastlines, is described in this paper. To date, information on seven variables, associated with inundation and erosion hazards, has been compiled for the U.S., and parts of Canada and Mexico. A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) has been designed to flag high risk coastal segments. Preliminary results are presented for the eastern United States, as a test case.

  5. Mapping Vesta Southern Quadrangle V-14SW: Identification of Dark and Bright Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedemann, N.; Neukum, G.; Kneissl, T.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R.; Ammannito, E.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Schenk, P.; Hiesinger, H.; McCord, T. B.; Buczkowski, D.; Nathues, A.; Büttner, I.; Krohn, K.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-14SW. This quadrangle can be divided into the northern part which is characterized by a comparatively smooth inter-crater plain and the southern part which is more of a tectonically embossed nature. These tectonic features lie at the northern fringes of the complex network of deep grooves and ridges found in the south-pole area (see V-15SP). In the south-eastern part of this quadrangle we observe an isolated depression possibly associated with a distinct scarp. In general, the material of the southern part of this quadrangle has a higher albedo than the northern part. In a number of cases high-albedo features also seem to be topographically elevated. One of the highest albedo features in the southern hemisphere of Vesta has a spot-like appearance in low resolution image data. It is located in the eastern part of this quadrangle and is associated with several radial high-albedo streaks, similar to ray craters found on other solar system bodies. The western part of this quadrangle shows some small low-albedo areas as well as some craters displaying internal dark and bright radial streaks. We are using FC stereo and VIR spectroscopic data in order to constrain the formation and mineralogy of these bright and dark materials. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

  6. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha -1 . The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  7. MENEKAN LAJU PENYEBARAN KOLERA DI ASIA DENGAN 3SW (STERILIZATION, SEWAGE, SOURCES, AND WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Anggaraditya Anggaraditya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penyakit taun atau kolera (juga disebut Asiatic cholera adalah penyakit menular di saluran pencernaan yang disebabkan oleh bakterium Vibrio cholerae. Kolera ditemukan pada tahun 1883 karena infeksi Vibrio cholerae, bakteri berbentuk koma. Penemuan ini ditemukan oleh bakteriologi Robert Koch (Jerman, 1843-1910.Penyebab kolera, adalah bakteri Vibrio cholerae, yang merupakan bakteri gram negatif, berbentuk basil (batang dan bersifat motil (dapat bergerak, memiliki struktur antogenik dari antigen flagelar H dan antigen somatik O, gamma-proteobacteria, mesofilik dan kemoorganotrof, berhabitat alami di lingkungan akuatik dan umumnya berasosiasi dengan eukariot. Pada orang yang feacesnya ditemukan bakteri kolera mungkin selama 1-2 minggu belum merasakan keluhan berarti, Tetapi saat terjadinya serangan infeksi maka tiba-tiba terjadi diare dan muntah dengan kondisi cukup serius sebagai serangan akut yang menyebabkan samarnya jenis diare yg dialamiCara pencegahan dan memutuskan tali penularan penyakit kolera adalah dengan prinsip sanitasi lingkungan, terutama kebersihan air dan pembuangan kotoran (feaces pada tempatnya yang memenuhi standar lingkungan. Lainnya ialah meminum air yang sudah dimasak terlebih dahulu, cuci tangan dengan bersih sebelum makan memakai sabun/antiseptik, cuci sayuran dangan air bersih terutama sayuran yang dimakan mentah (lalapan, hindari memakan ikan dan kerang yang dimasak setengah matang. Kolera memang sudah menjadi momok yang menakutkan di dunia, dan belajar dari negara-negara di Asia yang sudah pernah mengalami wabah kolera, dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa pengobatan dengan vaksin tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan.Selain karena tidak menjangkau seluruh warga miskin di sebuah negara, harga vaksin kolera juga dirasa cukup memberatkan anggaran negara-negara yang sedang berkembang di Asia.Cara yang dirasa paling tepat dalam menekan laju penyebara kolera adalah 3SW (Sterilization, Sewage, Sources, and Water

  8. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  9. A high resolution temporal study of phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the eutrophic Taw Estuary (SW England).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Gerald; Glegg, Gillian A; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J

    2012-09-15

    The Taw Estuary (SW England) is eutrophic as a result of enhanced nutrient inputs from its catchment. However, factors influencing the timing and extent of phytoplankton bloom formation are not fully understood in this system. In this study, high resolution chemical and biological sampling was undertaken in late-winter/spring and summer 2008 in order to gain further insights into bloom dynamics in the Taw Estuary. Temporal variations in chlorophyll a maxima in the upper and middle estuary during summer were controlled by river flow and tidal amplitude, with nutrient limitation probably less important. Concentrations of chlorophyll a were highest during low river flow and neap tides. Increased river flows advected the chlorophyll maximum to the outer estuary, and under highest river discharges, chlorophyll a concentrations were further reduced. This feature was even more pronounced when spring tides coincided with high flows. The main bloom species were the diatoms Asterionellopsis glacialis and Thalassiosira guillardii. Using two multivariate statistical techniques in combination, five distinct physical and biogeochemical states in the Taw estuarine waters were identified. These states can be summarised as: A(1), high chlorophyll a, high temperature, long residence times, nutrient depletion; A(2), strong coastal water influence; B(1), decreasing chlorophyll a, increasing river flow and/or spring tides; B(2), transitional between states A(1) and B(3); B(3), high river flow. It was thus possible to differentiate between contrasting environmental conditions that were either beneficial or detrimental for the development of algal blooms. A conceptual model of diatom - dominated primary production for the Taw Estuary is proposed which describes how physical controls (river flow, tidal state) moderate plankton biomass production in the upper and mid - estuarine regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  11. The crust and lithospheric mantle beneath SE Tibet and Sichuan Province (SW China) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Yao, H.; Huang, H.; Liu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Studying the crust and upper mantle beneath SE Tibet and Sichuan Province, SW China, is important for (at least) two reasons. First, this region has been central in discussions about the mechanisms of the formation and (eastward) expansion of the Tibetan plateau and, in particular, about the role of lower crustal flow. Second, as the southern part of the Trans China Seismic Belt the region is often struck by powerful earthquakes - such as the devastating 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and its countless aftershocks along the Longmenshan fault system that separates the (mechanically rigid) Sichuan basin from the actively deforming and slowly eastward moving (eastern) Tibetan plateau (Burchfiel et al., GSA Today, 2008). In 2003-04, MIT and Lehigh University deployed (in separate experiments) a total of 75 broadband seismograph stations in western Sichuan and SE Tibet, and in 2006 the Institute of Geology of the Chinese Earthquake Administration (CEA), installed 300 temporary stations in west Sichuan. Data from these arrays have been used for a wide range of studies of the crust and upper mantle, including shear wave splitting (Lev et al., EPSL, 2006; Sol et al, Geology, 2007), receiver function analysis (Xu et al., PEPI, 2007), surface wave array tomography (Yao et al., 2006, 2008), and travel time tomography (Li et al., 2006, 2008). These analyses reveal substantial 3D heterogeneity as well as complex spatial variations of (azimuthal and radial) anisotropy in the crust and lithospheric mantle. Both the surface wave inversions and the receiver function analyses suggest the existence of low shear velocity (and, presumably, mechanically weak) zones in the middle and lower crust, and the inferred 3D variations in anisotropy are inconsistent with vertically coherent deformation. We will review and summarize the findings of these studies and present the latest results of our ongoing investigation of the lithosphere in this region.

  12. Geoarchaeological approaches to Palaeolithic surface artefact distributions and hominin landscape use in SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Robyn; Sinclair, Anthony; Fanning, Patricia; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Bailey, Geoff

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of Palaeolithic archaeological material in arid and semi-arid regions exists in the form of scatters of stone tools across the surface of present-day landscapes. This is particularly the case in the Saharo-Arabian desert belt, a region vital to understanding the global dispersal of hominins from Africa. These surface artefacts possess little stratigraphic context, but comprise the only record we possess to examine spatial behavioural patterning and landscape use by hominin populations. Interpretation of the observed spatial distribution of artefacts is far from straightforward. Surface artefact distributions result from a complex interplay of varying human behaviours over time. Also, geomorphological processes affect the preservation, exposure and visibility of the artefacts, as well as alter the presence and location of attractive resources. The SURFACE project employs an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the distribution of Palaeolithic artefacts in SW Saudi Arabia. By combining remote sensing, geomorphological fieldwork, archaeological survey and GIS analyses, the project is developing a geomorphological context for the artefacts that guides survey to areas of high archaeological potential, as well as allowing the robust interpretation of the observed artefact distribution in a dynamic landscape in terms of past landscape use. This paper will present the ongoing multi-scalar approaches employed by the project to Palaeolithic landscapes, particularly focussing on the site of Wadi Dabsa, Asir Province, where Lower and Middle Palaeolithic artefacts have been found in association with extensive tufa deposits. Investigation in early 2017 at the site will apply SURFACE's methods to understand the present-day artefact distributions at the exposure, and their relationship to the tufa deposition, as well as their potential to inform on Palaeolithic activity and landscape use at the site.

  13. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  14. DIVERSITY AND GENETIC STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF ARAÇÁ (Psidium guineense Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSON FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guineense Sw , popularly known as araçá, is a fruit tree there is widely distributed in Brazil and belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In northeastern Brazil, araçá occurs along coast and in the Zona da Mata; its fruit looks like guava but is more acidic and has a stronger smell. There is a little information about this species, which increases the difficulty of conserving its genetic resources and exploiting araçá as an economic resource. The objective of this research was the evaluation of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of P. guineense from Pernambuco’s Zona da Mata. One hundred and fourteen individuals and 18 isozyme loci were evaluated, showing 28 alleles. The percentage of polymorphic loci ( and the average number of alleles per locus ( were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively, in this population. The expected heterozygosity , which corresponds to the genetic diversity, ranged from 0.22 to 0.23, a high value when considering that isozymes mark access from the functional genome. The differentiation index among the population was ( = 0.015; therefore, the populations were not different among the sampled places. The inbreeding values ( ranged from - 0.549 to - 0.794, indicating an absence of inbreeding and a greater - than - expected heterozygosity in all the studied populations. The estimated gene flow ( N m for a pair of this population ranged from 3.23 to 20.77, sufficient to avoid genetic differentiation among the population and in accordance with the values of genetic divergence found in this study.

  15. Carbon losses by tillage under semi-arid Mediterranean rainfed agriculture (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Garrido, R.; Diaz-Espejo, A.; Madejon, E.; Murillo, J. M.; Moreno, F.

    2009-07-01

    Conservation tillage has been promoted as a solution to counteract constraints caused by intensive agriculture. In this work the effects of two conservation tillage systems, reduced tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT) were compared to the traditional tillage (TT) in a long- (15 years, RT) and short-term experiment (3 years, NT). Both experiments were carried out under semi-arid, rainfed agriculture of Mediterranean SW Spain. Tillage caused a sharp increase in soil CO{sub 2} emissions immediately after tillage implementation, with a maximum value of 6.24 g CO{sub 2} m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 under long-term TT treatment. Along the year, losses of carbon through CO{sub 2} emission were higher (905 and 801 g C m{sup -}2 year-1 for the long- and short term TT treatments respectively), than those estimated for conservation systems (764 and 718 g C m{sup -}2 year-1 for RT and NT respectively). Conservation tillage systems accumulated more soil organic carbon (SOC) in surface than the corresponding TT treatments (1.24 and 1.17 times greater for RT and NT, respectively, at 0-10 cm depth). Despite SOC accumulation would be moderate other variables related to soil quality, such as dehydrogenase activity, can be consistently increased in soil surface in conservation tillage, as the stratification ratio values indicated. Crop yields in conservation tillage were similar to or even greater than those obtained in TT. The agricultural (soil quality) and environmental (less CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere) benefits derived from conservation tillage make this system recommendable for semi-arid Mediterranean rainfed agriculture. (Author) 50 refs.

  16. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  17. Interaction between compressional and transcurrent structures: insights from the Sicilian Channel and SW Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorik, J.; Toscani, G.; Lodolo, E.; Bonini, L.; Seno, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Sicilian Channel presents a very remarkable structural complexity due to the presence and superposition of compressional, extensional and transcurrent structures. In particular, the SW Sicily and its offshore area are affected by two different tectonic processes: (1) compressional, responsible of the Late Miocene Maghrebian Fold-Thrust Belt; (2) transcurrent, responsible of the NS trending lineaments modeled offshore. A geophysical data set composed by seismic reflection profiles (VIDEPI, MS, CROP, OGS profiles) and GEBCO bathymetric data, in addition with analog models, have been used here to shed light on the interaction between the thrust belt and transcurrent deformation.We use clay box with thrust front precut and an undergoing mobile plate for the simulation of the transcurrent movement. Through this setup the interaction angle between the thrust belt and transcurrent displacement was varied in order to check the influence of the interaction angle on the newly formed structures. From the 3D model, we have seen that the region is dominated by N-NE transpressional structure called Sciacca structural high. In the southern part of this structure some faults are still active, as they deform the sea-floor. Lateral branches composing positive flower structures form an open horsetail splays. The plate on the eastern side of the Sciacca high is uplifted due a transpressional displacement and shortening in front of Maghrebian Fold-Thrust Belt. The analog modelling supports the structural setting of Sciacca high, where we equally observe comparable positive flower structures, horsetail splays, and uplift of the moving plate. From the offshore dataset we have seen that these two geodynamic processes coexist independently, but from the onshore structural map, the transcurrent strike-slip deformation affects the Maghrebian Fold-Thrust Belt. These two coexisting geodynamic processes can help in interpreting the 1968 Belice earthquake sequence, where both right

  18. Resveratrol induces mitochondrial respiration and apoptosis in SW620 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquer-Rosselló, Mª Del Mar; Hernández-López, Reyniel; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi; Valle, Adamo

    2017-02-01

    The polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) is found in the skin of red grapes and has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties. The antitumor effects of RSV in the gastrointestinal tract have gained considerable interest due to the high exposure of this tissue to this dietary compound. One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is their particular metabolism mainly relying on glycolysis for ATP production rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Although RSV has been described to act as a calorie-restriction mimetic, modulating energy metabolism in normal tissues, little efforts have been done to study the effects of this polyphenol in the metabolism of cancer cells. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to explore metabolic effects of this polyphenol in colon cancer. Oxygen consumption, ATP levels, Western blotting and other molecular biology techniques were carried out to characterize the metabolic signature of RSV in SW620 colon cancer cells. Paradoxically, the cytotoxic effects of RSV were associated with an increase in oxygen consumption supported by mitochondrial biogenesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. This partial reversion of the Warburg effect was followed by hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane and ROS production, leading to an increased apoptosis. Our results propose that the anticancer mechanisms of RSV could reside in targeting cancer cell metabolism, promoting mitochondrial electron transport chain overload and, ultimately, increasing ROS production. These results shed new light into the anticancer mechanism of RSV supporting the ability of this compound in potentiating the effects of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microplankton composition, production and upwelling dynamics in Sagres (SW Portugal during summer of 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Loureiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Microplankton community, production, and respiration were studied alongside physical and chemical conditions at Sagres (SW Portugal during the upwelling season, from May to September 2001. The sampling station was 5 km east of the upwelling centre off Cabo S. Vicente, and 2 km west of an offshore installation for bivalve aquaculture. Three major periods were distinguished according to sea surface temperature (SST: period 1 (P1; May and June, characterised by high temperature values (17.0±1.8°C; period 2 (P2; July, characterised by lower temperatures (14.6±0.3°C, identified as an upwelling-blooming stage; and period 3 (P3; August, characterised by a high temperature pattern (16.25±1.14°C. Chaetoceros spp., Thalassiosira spp., Lauderia spp., Detonula spp. and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. were the major taxa contributing to the dissimilarities between P2 (July and the other periods. In July (P2, the average gross production (GP; 52.5±12.3 µM O2 d-1 and net community production (NCP; 46.9±15.3 µM O2 d-1 peaked with the maximal concentrations of diatom-chl a. Dark community respiration (DCR remained low and more constant throughout (4.6±3.6 µM O2 d-1. The plankton assemblage was dominated by diatoms throughout the survey. Physical events were the primary factors determining the microplankton structure and distribution at this location.

  20. Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soils and crops in Shiraz suburban area, SW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qishlaqi, Afshin; Moore, Farid; Forghani, Giti

    2008-06-01

    In this study an assessment is made of the negative impacts of wastewater irrigation on soils and crops sampled along the Khoshk River channel in suburban area of Shiraz City, SW Iran. For this purpose, samples of soil profiles (0-60 cm in depth) and crops were collected from two wastewater irrigated sites and a tube well-irrigated (control) site. Total concentrations of the five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr) and their phytoavailable contents were determined. The Pollution Load Indexes (PLIs) and Contamination Factors (CFs) for soils and Hazard quotients (Sigma HQ) for some vegetables were also calculated. The results showed the use of untreated wastewater has caused the following changes as compared to control site: (1) a 20-30% increase in organic matter content of soil; (2) increase in pH by 2-3 units; (3) significant concentration increase in Ex-Ca especially in top layers of soil resulting in high CEC; (4) build up of heavy metals (notably Pb and Ni) in topsoil above Maximum Permissible Limits (MPLs) indicating a moderate contamination (PLI > 1, CF > 2.5); (5) contamination of some vegetables (spinach and lettuce) with Cd due to its high phytoavailability in topsoil causing a HQ > 1; (6) excessive accumulation of Ni and Pb in wheat due to continual addition of heavy metals through long-term wastewater application. The study concludes that strict protection measures, stringent guidelines and an integrated system for the treatment and recycling of wastewater are needed to minimize the negative impacts of wastewater irrigation in the study area.

  1. LREE Enrichments of Altered Alkaline Pyroclastics at Kuyubasi Region Burdur, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoglu, Murat; Tugcan Unluer, Ali; Doner, Zeynep; Kocaturk, Huseyin; Sezai Kırıkoǧlu, M.

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the Kuyubasi region of Burdur, Bucak district, Inner Isparta Apex, SW Anatolia, Turkey, the investigation carried out for the potential in-situ enrichments of REE in highly altered alkaline tuffs originated from Golcuk volcano. This volcano is the most significant product of the widely known post collisional, Afyon-Isparta potassic-ultrapotassic volcanic province in southwestern Turkey. Partial melting of oceanic crust and subcontinental lithospheric mantle resulted in the formation of florocarbonates and pyrochlore group minerals which are responsible for the LREE enrichment in Golcuk volcanics. These extrusive rocks are mainly trachyandesites, augite-trachytes, porphyry trachytes and tephriphonolite dikes which are formed in several eruptive cycles. Pyroclastics from the last eruptions can be encountered in various locations beneath the Isparta apex. The pyroclastics in study area described as mafic crystal metatuffs which predominantly consist of calcic-plagioclase with clinopyroxene, K-feldspar, and quartz set in a hyalo-microcrystalline tuffaceous matrix of microcrystalline aggregates of kaolinized and sericitized feldspar, biotite, chlorite, quartz, and dusty iron oxide. The results indicate high values for the LREE elements such as La (251-369 ppm), Ce (412-660 ppm), Sc (45-48 ppm). The average ΣREE content of samples are 1012 ppm. These results are compatible with the samples from Golcuk Caldera which is located 30 km north of study area in terms of LREE contents (La and Ce values are 400-500 ppm and 500-600 ppm respectively). Key words: Rare earth elements (REE), Pyroclastic occurrences, Bucak region, Burdur, Southwest Turkey *This research was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) project. Principal Investigator (PI) of this ongoing TUBITAK, CAYDAG-114Y646 project is Prof.Dr. M. Sezai KIRIKOGLU.

  2. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  3. Benthic foraminiferal responses to operational drill cutting discharge in the SW Barents Sea - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen; Junttila, Juho; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum related exploration activities started in the Barents Sea 1980, reaching 97 exploration wells drilled per January 2013. The biggest operational discharge from drilling operations in the Barents Sea is the release of drill cuttings (crushed seabed and/or bedrock) and water based drilling muds including the commonly used weighing material barite (BaSO4). Barium (Ba), a constituent of barite, does not degrade and can be used to evaluate dispersion and accumulation of drill waste. The environmental impact associated with exploration drilling within the Goliat Field, SW Barents Sea in 2006 was evaluated via a multiproxy investigation of local sediments. The sediments were retrieved in November 2014 at ~350 meters water depth and coring sites were selected at distances of 5, 30, 60, 125 and 250 meters from the drill hole in the eastward downstream direction. The dispersion pattern of drill waste was estimated via measurements of sediment parameters including grain size distribution and water content in addition to heavy metal and total organic carbon contents. The environmental impact was evaluated via micro faunal analysis based on benthic foraminiferal (marine shell bearing protists) fauna composition and concentration changes. Observing the sediment parameters, most notably Ba levels, reveals that dispersion of drill waste was limited to waste thicknesses decreasing downstream. The abruptness and quantity of drill waste sedimentation initially smothered the foraminiferal fauna at ≤ 30 meters from the drill site, while at a distance of 60 meters, the fauna seemingly survived and bioturbation persisted. Analysis of the live (Nov 2014) foraminiferal fauna reveals a natural species composition at all distances from the drill site within the top sediments (0-5 cm core depth). Furthermore, the fossil foraminiferal fauna composition found within post-impacted top sediment sections, particularly in the cores situated at 30 and 60 meters from the drill site

  4. SW#db: GPU-Accelerated Exact Sequence Similarity Database Search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Korpar

    Full Text Available In recent years we have witnessed a growth in sequencing yield, the number of samples sequenced, and as a result-the growth of publicly maintained sequence databases. The increase of data present all around has put high requirements on protein similarity search algorithms with two ever-opposite goals: how to keep the running times acceptable while maintaining a high-enough level of sensitivity. The most time consuming step of similarity search are the local alignments between query and database sequences. This step is usually performed using exact local alignment algorithms such as Smith-Waterman. Due to its quadratic time complexity, alignments of a query to the whole database are usually too slow. Therefore, the majority of the protein similarity search methods prior to doing the exact local alignment apply heuristics to reduce the number of possible candidate sequences in the database. However, there is still a need for the alignment of a query sequence to a reduced database. In this paper we present the SW#db tool and a library for fast exact similarity search. Although its running times, as a standalone tool, are comparable to the running times of BLAST, it is primarily intended to be used for exact local alignment phase in which the database of sequences has already been reduced. It uses both GPU and CPU parallelization and was 4-5 times faster than SSEARCH, 6-25 times faster than CUDASW++ and more than 20 times faster than SSW at the time of writing, using multiple queries on Swiss-prot and Uniref90 databases.

  5. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  6. Persistence of pristine deep-sea coral gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Bo

    Full Text Available Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea. L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection.

  7. Reaction path modelling of in-situ mineralisation of CO2 at the CarbFix site at Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snæbjörnsdóttir, Sandra Ó.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.; Galeczka, Iwona M.; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2018-01-01

    Results from injection of 175 tonnes of CO2 into the basaltic subsurface rocks at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland in 2012 show almost complete mineralisation of the injected carbon in less than two years (Matter et al., 2016; Snæbjörnsdóttir et al., 2017). Reaction path modelling was performed to illuminate the rate and extent of CO2-water-rock reactions during and after the injection. The modelling calculations were constrained by the compositions of fluids sampled prior to, during, and after the injection, as reported by Alfredsson et al. (2013) and Snæbjörnsdóttir et al. (2017). The pH of the injected fluid, prior to CO2 dissolution was ∼9.5, whereas the pH of the background waters in the first monitoring well prior to the injections was ∼9.4. The pH of the sampled fluids used in the modelling ranged from ∼3.7 at the injection well to as high as 8.2 in the first monitoring well. Modelling results suggest that CO2-rich water-basalt interaction is dominated by crystalline basalt dissolution along a faster, high permeability flow path, but by basaltic glass dissolution along a slower, pervasive flow path through which the bulk of the injected fluid flows. Dissolution of pre-existing calcite at the onset of the injection does not have a net effect on the carbonation, but does contribute to a rapid early pH rise during the injection, and influences which carbonate minerals precipitate. At low pH, Mg, and Fe are preferentially released from crystalline basalts due to the higher dissolution rates of olivine, and to lesser extent pyroxene, compared to plagioclase and glass (Gudbrandsson et al., 2011). This favours the formation of siderite and Fe-Mg carbonates over calcite during early mineralisation. The model suggests the formation of the following carbonate mineral sequences: siderite at pH 5, and calcite at higher pH. Other minerals forming with the carbonates are Al- and Fe-hydroxides and chalcedony, and zeolites and smectites at elevated pH. The most

  8. Identifying the Academic Rising Stars via Pairwise Citation Increment Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu

    2017-08-02

    Predicting the fast-rising young researchers (the Academic Rising Stars) in the future provides useful guidance to the research community, e.g., offering competitive candidates to university for young faculty hiring as they are expected to have success academic careers. In this work, given a set of young researchers who have published the first first-author paper recently, we solve the problem of how to effectively predict the top k% researchers who achieve the highest citation increment in Δt years. We explore a series of factors that can drive an author to be fast-rising and design a novel pairwise citation increment ranking (PCIR) method that leverages those factors to predict the academic rising stars. Experimental results on the large ArnetMiner dataset with over 1.7 million authors demonstrate the effectiveness of PCIR. Specifically, it outperforms all given benchmark methods, with over 8% average improvement. Further analysis demonstrates that temporal features are the best indicators for rising stars prediction, while venue features are less relevant.

  9. Recent results in fragmentation isomer spectroscopy with rising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietri, S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.pietri@surrey.ac.uk; Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2007-08-15

    The first results from the stopped beam RISING experimental campaign performed at the GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany, are presented. RISING (Rare ISotope Investigations at GSI) constitutes a major new experimental program in European nuclear structure physics research aimed at using relativistic energy (typically around 1 GeV per nucleon) projectile fragmentation reactions to populate nuclei with highly exotic proton-to-neutron ratios compared to the line of beta stability. In its high-efficiency 'stopped beam' configuration, the RISING {gamma}-ray spectrometer consists of 105 individual, large volume germanium crystals which view a focal plane in which the exotic nuclei are brought to rest (i.e. 'stopped'). Here, decays from metastable or 'isomeric' states with half-lives in the nano to milliseconds range can be observed, often providing the first spectroscopic information on these exotic nuclear species. This paper introduces the physics aims of the stopped RISING collaboration and presents some technical details on the RISING detector array. Results of initial commissioning experiments are also shown and details of the planned future experimental program are given.

  10. Modelling of Air Bubble Rising in Water and Polymeric Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, N. M. S.; Khan, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Subaschandar, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for a single air bubble rising in water and xanthan gum solution. The bubble rise characteristics through the stagnant water and 0.05% xanthan gum solution in a vertical cylindrical column is modelled using the CFD code Fluent. Single air bubble rise dispersed into the continuous liquid phase has been considered and modelled for two different bubble sizes. Bubble velocity and vorticity magnitudes were captured through a surface-tracking technique i.e. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method by solving a single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each fluid throughout the domain. The simulated results of the bubble flow contours at two different heights of the cylindrical column were validated by the experimental results and literature data. The model developed is capable of predicting the entire flow characteristics of different sizes of bubble inside the liquid column.

  11. Technological innovations and the rise of social inequalities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel; Eikemo, Terje Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Social inequalities in health have been categorised as a human-rights issue that requires action. Unfortunately, these inequalities are on the rise in many countries, including welfare states. Various theories have been offered to explain the persistence (and rise) of these inequalities over time, including the social determinants of health and fundamental cause theory. Interestingly, the rise of modern social inequalities in health has come at a time of great technological innovation. This article addresses whether these technological innovations are significantly influencing the persistence of modern social inequalities in health. A theoretical argument is offered for this potential connection and is discussed alongside the typical social determinants of health perspective and the increasingly popular fundamental cause perspective. This is followed by a proposed research agenda for further investigation of the potential role that technological innovations may play in influencing social inequalities in health.

  12. Temperature rise and stress induced by microcracks in accelerating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature rise and induced stress due to Ohmic heating in the vicinity of microcracks on the walls of high-gradient accelerating structures are considered. The temperature rise and induced stress depend on the orientation of the crack with respect to the rf magnetic field, the shape of the crack, and the power and duration of the rf pulse. Under certain conditions the presence of cracks can double the temperature rise over that of a smooth surface. Stress at the bottom of the cracks can be several times larger than that of the case when there are no cracks. We study these effects both analytically and by computer simulation. It is shown that the stress in cracks is maximal when the crack depth is on the order of the thermal penetration depth.

  13. Fertility postponement is largely due to rising educational enrolment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire; Beaujouan, Eva

    2012-11-01

    The rise in educational enrolment is often cited as a possible cause of the trend to later childbearing in developed societies but direct evidence of its contribution to the aggregate change in fertility tempo is scarce. We show that rising enrolment, resulting in later ages at the end of education, accounts for a substantial part of the upward shift in the mean age at first birth in the 1980s and 1990s in Britain and in France. The postponement of first birth over that period has two components: a longer average period of enrolment and a post-enrolment component that is also related to educational level. The relationship between rising educational participation and the move to later fertility timing is almost certainly causal. Our findings therefore suggest that fertility tempo change is rooted in macro-economic and structural forces rather than in the cultural domain.

  14. Slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Geetanjali; Gupta, Sumita; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Talwar, Anjana

    2015-02-01

    To measure exhaled breath temperature in patients with cystic fibrosis. 17 patients (6-18 years) with cystic fibrosis and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this cross sectional study. Exhaled breath temperature was measured in subjects recruited in both the groups with a device X-halo and analyzed as plateau temperature achieved and rate of temperature rise. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed no significant difference in plateau temperature [34.4(32.3-34.6) versus 33.9 (33.0-34.4)oC; P=0.35] while mean (SEM.) rate of temperature rise was significantly less in patients [0.09 (0.01) versus 0.14 (0.02) ƼC/s ; P=0.04] as compared to controls. There was a slower rise of exhaled breath temperature in patients with cystic fibrosis whereas plateau temperature was not significantly different from controls.

  15. Life Satisfaction of Downtown High-Rise vs. Suburban Low-Rise Living: A Chicago Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long-standing debate about whether urban living is more or less sustainable than suburban living, and quality of life (QoL is one of several key measures of the social sustainability of residential living. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has examined life satisfaction among residents of downtown high-rise living compared to residents living in suburban low-rise housing. Further, very few studies have utilized building or neighborhood-scale data sets to evaluate residents’ life satisfaction, and even fewer have controlled for both individual and household-level variables such as gender, age, household size, annual income, and length of residence, to evaluate residents’ life satisfaction across different living scenarios. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate residents’ satisfaction with their place of residence as well as overall life in general via surveys of individuals living in existing high-rise residential buildings in downtown Chicago, IL, and in existing low-rise residential buildings in suburban Oak Park, IL. Over 1500 individuals were contacted directly, resulting in over 500 responses. The number of fully completed responses for this study was 177, including 94 from residents of four downtown high-rise buildings and 83 from residents in suburban low-rise homes. Residents living in downtown high-rise buildings had significantly higher life satisfaction scores than residents living in suburban low-rise homes when controlling for demographic differences; however, the differences were small, as housing type explained less than 5% of the observed variance in life satisfaction outcomes. The research also evaluated five life satisfaction domains including travel, accessibility, social interaction, safety, and overall residential environment (ORE. In all cases, residents of the downtown high-rises reported higher satisfaction levels, although the scores on all these five satisfaction domains

  16. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  17. Infrastructure of Bulgarian High-Rise Estates: Realities and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Kalcheva, Elena; Taki, A. H.; Hadi, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    This chapter studies the quality and characteristics of the infrastructure in several high-rise estates in Sofia, Bulgaria and evaluates to which extend it serves the residents in the tall buildings. Most of the highrises in Sofia and their surroundings were built in the Soviet era so they represent a very old design concept and this is why it is no surprise that the quality of the public realm and the buildings is quite substandard. The spaces around the high-rises lack pub...

  18. The Dark Knight Rises: Kita Butuh Simbol untuk Menggerakkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danu Widhyatmoko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dark knight rises: We Need Symbols to Make Movements is a writing that covers values existing in the last movie of Batman trilogy: The Dark Knight Rises (TDKR. In the film, it is described how batman is not only presented as a hero who saved the town, but also is presented as a symbol that keeps hope of the Gotham city society. Through this writing, it is also discussed the relation between TDKR and the recent condition of Indonesia.   

  19. Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Jonathan D; Irish, Jennifer L; Camargo, Suzana J

    2013-12-05

    The future impacts of climate change on landfalling tropical cyclones are unclear. Regardless of this uncertainty, flooding by tropical cyclones will increase as a result of accelerated sea-level rise. Under similar rates of rapid sea-level rise during the early Holocene epoch most low-lying sedimentary coastlines were generally much less resilient to storm impacts. Society must learn to live with a rapidly evolving shoreline that is increasingly prone to flooding from tropical cyclones. These impacts can be mitigated partly with adaptive strategies, which include careful stewardship of sediments and reductions in human-induced land subsidence.

  20. Structural response of steel high rise buildings to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Due to the significant vertical elevation and complexity of the structural system, high rise buildings may suffer from the effects of fire more than other structures. For this reason, in addition to evacuation strategies and active fire protection, a careful consideration of structural response...... to fire is also very important. In this context, it is of interest to investigate the characteristics of the structural system that could possibly reduce local damages or mitigate the progression of failures in case of fire. In this paper, a steel high rise building is taken as case study and the response...

  1. Envelope parameters, their effect on high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Makeup of the exterior envelope of a high-rise building - walls, insulation, glass, mass - greatly affects both peak and total structure energy usages. The influence of a well-designed building envelope on energy conservation is considered and the effects of envelope parameters on high-rise building energy use and costs are addressed. A general guideline for the building design team is given. By knowing the ramifications of certain design decisions, a design team can effectively plan a useful and energy-efficient building.

  2. Gravitational salt tectonics above a rising basement plateau offshore Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Vendeville, Bruno C.; Besème, Grégoire; Legoux, Gaetan; Déverchère, Jacques; Lymer, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    Seismic data (survey "MARADJA 1", 2003) offshore the Algerian coast have imaged an unexpected deformation pattern of the Messinian salt (Mobile Unit; MU) and its sedimentary overburden (Messinian Upper Unit and Plio-Quaternary) above an actively rising plateau in the subsalt basement. From a geodynamic point of view, the region is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (2003, magnitude 6.8). The rise of this plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers, is associated with that geodynamic setting. The seismic profiles show several subsalt thrusts (Domzig et al. 2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporitic unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little activity during Messinian times, then grew more during Plio-Quaternary times. A few normal faults are also present, but are not accompanied by salt rise. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges (symptomatic with their triangular shape in cross section) formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using two analogue models, one where we assumed that the rise of the plateau started after Messinian times (initially tabular salt across the entire region), the second model assumed that the plateau had already risen partially as the Messininan Mobile Unit was deposited (salt initially thinner above the plateau than in the adjacent regions). In both experiments, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, combined with N-S shortening. Extension was caused by gravity gliding of the salt from

  3. Educational Research and the 'Bermuda Triangle.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    In answer to the suggestion that policymakers, researchers, and teachers unanimously agree that research is hardly taken into account by its potential users, the author provides an overview of educational research in Western Europe. Projects involve disciplines, history of education, and curriculum. (KC)

  4. Dynamic modulation of DNA replication and gene transcription in deep-sea filamentous phage SW1 in response to changes of host growth and temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua Jian

    Full Text Available Little is known about the response of deep-sea virus and their relationship with their host towards environmental change. Although viruses are thought to play key roles in the deep-sea ecological evolution and biogeochemical cycling, these roles are yet to be defined. This study aims to delineate the relationship between a deep-sea filamentous phage SW1 and its host Shewanella piezotolerans (S. piezotolerans WP3, and their response towards temperature change. The copy number of SW1's replicative form (RF- DNA and single-stranded (ss- DNA along the different growth phases of WP3 were quantified at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. The copy number of SW1 RF-DNA was found to be temperature and growth phase-dependent, while the ssDNA of SW1 was only produced at 4°C. This is the first report showing low-temperature dependence of phage DNA replication. The transcription of SW1 key genes fpsA and fpsR were also found to be induced at low temperature during all the monitored growth periods of WP3. Additionally, the transcription of SW1 was found to be induced by cold-shock while its DNA replication was not changed. Our data demonstrates a dynamic change of virus DNA replication and transcription in accordance with host growth, and the low temperature adapted mechanisms for SW1 activities in the deep sea. This low temperature adapted deep-sea virus-bacterium system could serve as an ideal model to further study the mechanism and relationship of deep-sea virus-bacteria ecosystems.

  5. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  6. Rainfall events as landslide triggers - implications for the evolution of the SW-German cuesta landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Götz, Joachim; Berger, Hannah; Jäger, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The cuesta landscape of southwestern Germany (Swabian Alb) is characterized by layered sedimentary rocks (Jurassic) of variable strength. Due to this geologic preconditioning, where porous limestone (Malm) is underlain by impermeable claystone (Dogger), and the deeply incised valleys of the Rhine river system, landslides play an important role in the landscape evolution of the region, continually eroding the slopes of the Swabian Alb and displacing the escarpment further backwards. One of the largest (well documented) landslides happened in April 1983, when an estimated volume of 6 x 106 m3 (˜0.5 x 106 m2) was mobilized at the Hirschkopf close to Mössingen, after 1/3 of the mean annual precipitation was delivered in only a few days. The historic record holds further evidence of at least four landslides of similar size (>0.25 x 106 m2) in the past 250 years, most of which have been attributed to high-intensity and/or long-duration precipitation events. During summer 2013, at least eight landslides have been initiated in the vicinity (period before these events was very wet, suggesting that high-intensity and/or long-duration precipitation plays a key role in the evolution of the SW German cuesta landscape. We take this opportunity to a) quantify the volume of material mobilized during the events and b) to estimate the sediment output from the affected catchments. By comparing post-event digital elevation models (DEMs) obtained from UAV/SfM and TLS surveys with a pre-event DEM (ALS), we estimate that at least 2.5 x 106 m3have been mobilized by these landslides, with the largest of them accounting for >1 x 106 m3 of material. Assessing data from more than 20 rainfall stations in the region (<40 km distance) reveals the June 2013 precipitation to exceed the 95th percentile of the past decade by far, in six locations constituting the maximum of the ten-year record. Preliminary results of suspended sediment export that we estimate from sediment-discharge rating curves

  7. Development of soil quality along a chronosequence under natural succession in the Dragonja catchment, SW Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hall, Rutger; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural fields have been increasingly abandoned in several regions in Southern Europe. In many cases this leads to natural vegetation succession which may have a direct impact on soil quality,biodiversity and hydrological connectivity. This research aims at getting insight on the effects of natural vegetation succession on the development of soil quality in the Sub-Mediterranean Dragonja catchment in SW Slovenia. This site was chosen due to its uniform geology, geomorphology and soil types. Four different stages of vegetation succession (i.e. field, abandoned field, young forest, semi-mature forest) were selected and sampled on both north-, and south-facing slopes, resulting in 8 treatments for which 6 representative sites were sampled. Samples were analysed on OC and TN content, EC, pH, bulk density, aggregate stability and grain size distribution. To get insight on the changes in biodiversity vegetation records were made distinguishing five different plant functional groups (i.e. juveniles, grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees). Age group (i.e. stage of vegetation succession) significantly influenced the OC and TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Directly after abandonment, between age group 0 and 1, OC and TN content, aggregate stability and pH increased significantly and bulk density decreased significantly. OC content was most affected by age group and furthermore significantly correlated to TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Regarding biodiversity, there was a significant increase in cover by trees between age group 1 and 2 and a significant decrease between age group 2 and 3. Cover by herbs decreased significantly between age group 1 and 2. The number of different trees and shrubs increased significantly between age group 0 and 1, and the number of different juveniles increased significantly between age group 2 and 3. Another factor significantly influencing the soil's quality is aspect. Although not found for each age

  8. 450,000 years of groundwater (234U/238U)0 variations in SW Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kathleen A.; Moseley, Gina E.; Pythoud, Mathieu; Dublyansky, Yuri; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Spötl, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Subaqueous speleothems represent a unique archive for geochemical variations in regional groundwater systems. Devils Hole 2 cave, located in SW Nevada, USA, is an open fault zone intersecting the Ash Meadows groundwater flow system. Speleothem layers that coat the submerged walls of Devils Hole 2 cave record the isotopic composition of groundwater uranium at the time of precipitation. Past variations of 234U/238U initial activity ratios in groundwater may provide insight into paleohydrological conditions, such as changes to groundwater flow rates or source inputs. We aim to reconstruct 450 ka of groundwater (234U/238U)0 variations at Devils Hole 2 cave. To do so, an 80 cm-long core was drilled from the cave wall. Over 100 (234U/238U) and U-Th ages were measured in order to calculate initial activity ratios. Despite relatively constant uranium concentrations and growth rates throughout the core, preliminary results show a range in values (2.851 -2.616) deviating from modern day groundwater (234U/238U)0 which we measured to 2.762 (±0.002). (234U/238U)0 variations appear to follow interglacial-glacial cycles from 450 ka to present day, such that maximum (234U/238U)0 ratios identified at roughly 43, 185, 289, 374, and 449 ka correspond to glacial periods, while minimum (234U/238U)0 ratios at roughly 5, 121, 239, 336 and 422 ka correspond to interglacial periods. Focusing on the last 200 ka, we observe increasing (234U/238U)0 ratios coupled with depleted Devils Hole 2 δ18O values and water table high-stands (Moseley et al. 2016, Science 2016). We suggest that (234U/238U)0 variations are positively correlated to precipitation amount, contrary to dripstone speleothem records in the Great Basin region. Mechanisms driving the fluctuation in (234U/238U)0 values are still uncertain, but may be due to increased inputs of additional minor groundwater sources to the Ash Meadows flow system during pluvial periods.

  9. Long-Term Water Quality Studies in a Eutrophic Lake Catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring is the process by which we keep the behaviour of the environment in view, an essential way of discovering whether there are significant undesirable changes taking place. Long-term datasets reveal important patterns for scientists to explain and are essential for testing hypotheses undreamt of at the time monitoring scheme was set up. Many environmental processes take place over relatively long periods of time; very often, subtle processes are embedded within highly variable systems so that their weak signal cannot be extracted without a long record. Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, wetland 116 ha in area which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is open water. In the 1960s it became apparent that the Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in late 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large rivers like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for small rural basins. Other issues to be explored will be the phosphorus legacy in lake sediments and a long-term decline in lake pH. The Slapton water quality record has confirmed that undesirable changes are taking place, revealed evidence of important patterns to be explained, allowed testing of new hypotheses (e.g. links with land-use change) and helped

  10. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  11. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    2017-09-01

    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  12. Molybdenite Re Os dating constrains gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen, SW Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Stein, Holly J.; Bogaerts, Michel; Bolle, Olivier; Mansfeld, Joakim

    2006-04-01

    Re-Os dating of molybdenite from small deposits is used to define crustal domains exhibiting ductile versus brittle behaviour during gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen in SW Scandinavia. A 1019 ± 3 Ma planar quartz vein defines a minimum age for brittle behaviour in central Telemark. In Rogaland-Vest Agder, molybdenite associated with deformed quartz and pegmatite veins formed between 982 ± 3 and 947 ± 3 Ma in the amphibolite-facies domain (three deposits) and between 953 ± 3 and 931 ± 3 Ma west of the clinopyroxene-in isograd (two deposits) in the vicinity of the 0.93-0.92 Ga Rogaland anorthosite complex. The data constrain the last increment of ductile deformation to be younger than 0.95 and 0.93 Ga in these two metamorphic zones, respectively. Molybdenite is the product of an equilibrium between biotite, oxide and sulfide minerals and a fluid or hydrated melt phase, after the peak of 1.03-0.97 Ga regional metamorphism. Molybdenite precipitation is locally episodic. A model for gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen controlled by lithospheric extension after 0.97 Ga is proposed. In the west of the orogen, the Rogaland-Vest Agder sector is interpreted as a large shallow gneiss dome, formed slowly in two stages in a warm and structurally weak crust. The first stage at 0.96-0.93 Ga was associated with intrusion of the post-collisional hornblende-biotite granite suite. The second stage at 0.93-0.92 Ga, restricted to the southwesternmost area, was associated with intrusion of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite suite. Most of the central part of the orogen was already situated in the brittle upper crust well before 0.97 Ga, and did not undergo significant exhumation during collapse. In the east of the orogen, situated against the colder cratonic foreland, exhumation of high-grade rocks of the Eastern Segment occurred between 0.97 and 0.95 Ga, and included preservation of high-pressure rocks but no plutonism.

  13. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Gallego Volcanic Field, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific and geotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, M. G.; Haldane, M. I.; Smith, D. J.; Billy, D.; Jordan, N. J.

    2011-08-01

    The Upper Miocene to present day Gallego Volcanic Field (GVF) is located in northwest Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific, and potentially includes the offshore Savo volcano. The GVF is a multi-centred complex covering an area of ~ 800 km 2 on Guadalcanal and a further ~ 30 km 2 on the island of Savo, north of west Guadalcanal. GVF volcanism is characterised by effusive eruptions of lava, intrusion of sub-volcanic plutons, as well as pyroclastic flow and fall deposits dominated by block and ash flow deposits. Geochemical analysis of a representative suite of samples from the GVF demonstrates that the GVF comprise largely a 'main suite' of basalts to andesites and minor trachyandesites. The predominant mineralogy of the GVF comprises plagioclase, amphibole, clinopyroxene and magnetite-ilmenite. Associated with the 'main suite' are cognate nodules composed of hornblendite, gabbros, and clinopyroxenite. Interpretation of major and trace element geochemistry and petrographic studies suggests that fractionation was dominated by early clinopyroxene, and later amphibole + clinopyroxene + minor plagioclase. Geochemical features such as the incompatibility of Sr suggest that plagioclase largely crystallised en-masse late in the fractionation sequence. The presence of amphibole and late fractionation of plagioclase is suggestive of derivation from initially water-rich magmas. The region is characterised by strong geographically-related geochemical variations as evidenced by the Woodlark (and Manus) basins: basalts become more arc-like within the ocean basins with decreasing distance to the subducting trench. The GVF-Savo volcanoes are spatially and geochemically affected by deep N-S fractures that show some evidence of sympathetic geochemical variations with distance from the trench (e.g. Sr/Y ratios). Comparison with a range of international data for Th/Nb vs Pb/Nb and Dy/Yb vs SiO 2 indicate that: amphibole was indeed a strong controlling phase on magmatic evolution

  14. Geology, geochemistry and genesis of the Eocene Lailishan Sn deposit in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua-Wen; Pei, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Zhang, Lin-Kui; Tang, Li; Lin, Jin-Zhan; Zheng, Luo

    2017-04-01

    The Lailishan deposit is an important tin deposit that is genetically associated with an Early Eocene biotite granite in the western Yunnan metallogenic belt in the Sanjiang region, SW China. This study reports new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, whole-rock elements, mica Ar-Ar age and C-H-O-S-Pb isotope for the Lailishan Sn deposit. The mineralization-related biotite granite crystallized during the Early Eocene (50.5 Ma), with its zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -11.5 to -7.6 and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) ranging from 1.60 to 1.85 Ga. The rocks are peraluminous with A/CNK values of 0.99-1.08. The granites display high Si, Al and K contents but low Mg, Fe and Ca contents. The rocks show flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong Eu negative anomalies. These characteristics indicate that the magma originated from a continental crustal source. The hydrothermal muscovite exhibits an Ar-Ar plateau age of 50.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The δ18O and δD values of hydrothermal quartz from the deposit range from -7.32‰ to 4.01‰ and from -124.9‰ to -87.1‰, respectively. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of calcite range from -11.3‰ to -3.7‰ and from +2.2‰ to +12.7‰, respectively. The sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34SV-CDT) range from +3.3‰ to +8.6‰ for sulfide separates, and the lead isotopic ratios 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb range from 18.668 to 18.746, from 15.710 to 15.743 and from 39.202 to 39.295, respectively. These isotopic compositions are similar to those of magma-derived fluids, indicating that the ore-forming fluids and materials mainly originated from magmatic rocks with some input from meteoric water. This evidence suggests that the tin mineralization is closely linked to the Lailishan I-type granites. In combination with previous data, it is proposed in this study that widespread early Eocene magmatism resulted from the slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan slab at ca. 55 Ma.

  15. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  16. Estudio fitoquímico de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Márquez Hernández

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio fitoquímico preliminar de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W. Se practicó un tamizaje fitoquímico sobre material seco y fresco, en el que se obtuvieron resultados positivos para mucílagos, sustancias reductoras, antocianinas, aminoácidos, taninos y flavonoides. Se determinó que las antocianinas se afectan durante el proceso de secado. Para la realización del estudio químico se maceró el material vegetal con 4 menstruos (fracciones A, B, C y D. A partir de las fracciones A y B se aisló el producto HE1, el cual se analizó por espectroscopia ultravioleta, infrarroja, de resonancia magnética nuclear protónica, de carbono 13, mediante uso de técnicas especiales y por espectrometría de masas, lo que permitió identificarlo como el flavonoide gossypitrina. La fracción C se sometió a un fraccionamiento según el método de absorción-desorción sobre silicagel, lo que permitió la detección de rutina y quercetina. Los flavonoides identificados se reportan por primera vez para la especie.A preliminary phytochemical study of Hibiscus elatus species was undertaken. A phytochemical sieving of fresch dry material made it possible to obtain positive results for mucilages, reducing substances, anthocyamins, aminoacids, tanines and flavonoids. Anthocyamines were determined to be affected during dryng process. For carry ing uot the chemical study, the plant was mecrated into 4 solvents (A, B, C and D fractions. Taking A and B fractions as a basis, product HE1 was isolated and analyzed by ultra - violet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, proton and carbon 13 spectroscopies as well as special techniques and mass spectrometry. This resulted in the identification of this product as gossypitrin flavonoid. Fraction C was fractioned by silicagel absorption - desorption methods which allowed us to detec rutin and quercetin. The identified flavonoids are reported for the first time in this species.

  17. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Van Wert, Michael J; Ewing, Whitney F; Grosso, Ashley L; Holland, Claire E; Katterl, Rachel; Rosman, Lori; Agarwal, Arnav; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men. This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%), were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma. With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  18. Present-day strain partitioning and strain transfer across the Fairweather and Denali Faults in SW Yukon - SE Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Schmidt, M.

    2012-12-01

    In SW Yukon - SE Alaska, the present-day Pacific - North America relative motion is highly oblique to the main plate boundary, resulting in strong strain partitioning tectonics that link the Aleutian subduction to the west to Queen-Charlotte transform to the south. This transition region is also the site of present-day orogeny and accretion of the allochthonous Yakutat Terrane to the Northern Cordillera. We present results from new campaign and permanent GPS stations deployed in SW Yukon, combined with STEEP data from SE Alaska, straddling the Fairweather and Denali Faults. GPS data are processed with the NRCan PPP software to derive long-term velocities and are corrected for transient effects primarily due to Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to recent ice mass loss. In the southern region (from Yakutat, AK to Whitehorse, YK), our preferred model gives slip rates of 49.9 +/- 2.6 mm/a on the Fairweather Fault and 1.1 +/- 1.0 mm/a on the Denali Fault; i.e., over 95% the Pacific - North America strike-slip motion is accommodated on the main plate-boundary fault. However, the fault-normal component is strongly partitioned, with ~25% of the Pacific - North America convergence transferred inland, into the Yukon and Northern Cordillera. This strain transfer could explain the seismicity observed in the Mackenzie Mountains 500 - 800 km from the coast. In the northern region (from Yakutat, AK to Beaver Creek, YK), the Pacific - North America convergence is strongly partitioned, with less than ~60% accommodated on the Chugach-St. Elias Fault and the residual motion distributed between the Pamplona thrust zone to the south (~15%) and internal shortening of the St. Elias Mountains to the north (~25%), where few faults and little seismicity are observed. The new GPS data also helps address the activity and slip rate of a potential "Connector Fault" that would link the Fairweather and Totschunda Faults, bypassing the Denali Fault in SW Yukon.

  19. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek

    Full Text Available Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men.This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%, were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma.With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  20. Analysis of surface air temperature variations and local urbanization effects on central Yunnan Plateau, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunling; Wu, Zhijie; Liu, Xuelian; Deng, Fuying

    2018-01-01

    With the surface air temperature (SAT) data at 37 stations on Central Yunnan Plateau (CYP) for 1961-2010 and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data, the temporal-spatial patterns of the SAT trends are detected using Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope approach and MK test, and the impact of urbanization on surface warming is analyzed by comparing the differences between the air temperature change trends of urban stations and their corresponding rural stations. Results indicated that annual mean air temperature showed a significant warming trend, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.17 °C/decade during the past 50 years. Seasonal mean air temperature presents a rising trend, and the trend was more significant in winter (0.31 °C/decade) than in other seasons. Annual/seasonal mean air temperature tends to increase in most areas, and higher warming trend appeared in urban areas, notably in Kunming city. The regional mean air temperature series was significantly impacted by urban warming, and the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 32.3-62.9 % of the total regional warming during the past 50 years. Meantime, the urbanization-induced warming trend in winter and spring was more significant than that in summer and autumn. Since 1985, the urban heat island (UHI) intensity has gradually increased. And the urban temperatures always rise faster than rural temperatures on the CYP.

  1. Distributions and seasonal abundances of krill eggs and larvae in the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Frederik Wolff; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Akther, Hasna

    2015-01-01

    The larval krill community (Thysanoessa spp.) was investigated along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland, in June 2010. In addition, the progress of krill development from egg to furcilia was studied from March to August 2010 in a fjord branching off the Godthåbsfjord. Krill spawned from...... and furcilia stages lasted 22 and 63 d, respectively. The growth rate from metanauplius to calyptopis was 0.12 d−1, while the growth rate across all developmental stages was 0.05 d−1. Mortality rates were calculated as 25% from eggs to nauplii, 48% from eggs to calyptopes and 83% from eggs to furcilia. During...

  2. Geochemical characterization of the Jurassic Amran deposits from Sharab area (SW Yemen): Origin of organic matter, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate conditions during deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Makeen, Yousif M.; Saeed, Shadi A.; Al-Hakame, Hitham; Al-Moliki, Tareq; Al-Sharabi, Kholah Qaid; Hatem, Baleid Ali

    2017-05-01

    Calcareous shales and black limestones of the Jurassic Amran Group, located in the Sharab area (SW Yemen), were analysed based on organic and inorganic geochemical methods. The results of this study were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during Jurassic time and their relevance to organic matter enrichment during deposition of the Amran calcareous shale and black limestone deposits. The analysed Amran samples have present-day TOC and Stotal content values in the range of 0.25-0.91 wt % and 0.59-4.96 wt %, respectively. The relationship between Stotal and TOC contents indicates that the Jurassic Amran deposits were deposited in a marine environment as supported by biomarker environmental indicators. Biomarker distributions also reflect that the analysed Amran deposits received high contributions of marine organic matter (e.g., algal and microbial) with minor amount of land plant source inputs. Low oxygen (reducing) conditions during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits are indicated from low Pr/Ph values and relatively high elemental ratios of V/Ni and V/(V + Ni). Enrichment in the pyrite grains and very high DOPT and high Fe/Al ratios further suggest reducing bottom waters. This paleo-redox (i.e., reducing) conditions contributed to preservation of organic matter during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits. Semi-arid to warm climatic conditions are also evidenced during deposition of the Amran sediments and consequently increased biological productivity within the photic zone of the water column during deposition. Therefore, the increased bio-productivity in combination with good preservation of organic matter identified as the major mechanisms that gave rise to organic matter enrichment. This contradicts with the low organic matter content of the present-day TOC values of less than 1%. The biomarker maturity data indicate that the analysed Amran samples are of high thermal maturity; therefore, the low present-day TOC

  3. Evolution of energy in flow driven by rising bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Lohse, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    We investigate by direct numerical simulations the flow that rising bubbles cause in an originally quiescent fluid. We employ the Eulerian-Lagrangian method with two-way coupling and periodic boundary conditions. In order to be able to treat up to 288000 bubbles, the following approximations and

  4. Managing Problems of Acceptability through High Rise-Fall Repetitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Trevor; Walker, Traci

    2013-01-01

    This article examines one of the ways in which matters of truth, appropriateness, and acceptability are raised and managed within the course of everyday conversation. Using the methodology of conversation analysis, we show that by repeating what another participant has said and doing so with a high rise-fall intonation contour, a speaker claims…

  5. The Rise and Fall of the Australian DBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortt, Michael A.; Pervan, Simon J; Hogan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the drivers behind the rise and fall of the Australian Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) and to assess its future. Design/methodology/approach: Data covering the period 1993-2013 was sourced from the Commonwealth Department of Education and Training to provide a comprehensive…

  6. Rising Sludge in Secondary Settlers Due to Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Dupont, Rene; Grau, Peter

    1993-01-01

    High suspended solids concentrations in settler effluents can be caused by rising sludge, which is the effect of flotation of solids by nitrogen gas resulting from biological denitrification. Many factors influence the nitrogen gas bubble evolution. The most important factor is the rate of biolog...

  7. The Resistable Rise of Surgical Sepsis in Malawi | Lavy | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Resistable Rise of Surgical Sepsis in Malawi. C Lavy, C Schmidt, E Kalau, J Phuka. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  8. The Hemispheric Sign Rule of Current Helicity during the Rising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We compute the signs of two different current helicity parameters (i.e., best and ) for 87 active regions during the rise of cycle 23. The results indicate that 59% of the active regions in the northern hemisphere have negative best and 65% in the southern hemisphere have positive. This is consistent with that of the cycle ...

  9. Rising trend in maternal mortality at the university of Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 1074/100,000 live births. The main causes of maternal mortality were eclampsia in 34.6% of cases, haemorrhage (9.1%), HIV(17.8%) and puerperal infections (7.5%). There was rising trend in maternal mortality ratio over the study period. Factors contributing to maternal ...

  10. John Ash and the Rise of the Children's Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navest, Karlijn Marianne

    2011-01-01

    From the second half of the eighteenth century onwards a knowledge of grammar served as an important marker of class in England. In order to enable their children to rise in society, middle-class parents expected their sons and daughters to learn English grammar. Since England did not have an

  11. Morphology of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau from high resolution bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinchang; Sager, William W.; Durkin, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Newly collected, high resolution multi-beam sonar data are combined with previous bathymetry data to produce an improved bathymetric map of Shatsky Rise oceanic plateau. Bathymetry data show that two massifs within Shatsky Rise are immense central volcanoes with gentle flank slopes declining from a central summit. Tamu Massif is a slightly elongated, dome-like volcanic edifice; Ori Massif is square shaped and smaller in area. Several down-to-basin normal faults are observed on the western flank of the massifs but they do not parallel the magnetic lineations, indicating that these faults are probably not related to spreading ridge faulting. Moreover, the faults are observed only on one side of the massifs, which is contrary to expectations from a mechanism of differential subsidence around the massif center. Multi-beam data show many small secondary cones with different shapes and sizes that are widely-distributed on Shatsky Rise massifs, which imply small late-stage magma sources scattered across the surface of the volcanoes in the form of lava flows or explosive volcanism. Erosional channels occur on the flanks of Shatsky Rise volcanoes due to mass wasting and display evidence of down-slope sediment movement. These channels are likely formed by sediments spalling off the edges of summit sediment cap.

  12. Does Electroconvulsive therapy aggravate the rise in potassium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium and creatine kinase levels increase after the administration of suxamethonium. This rise may be exaggerated by the combination of suxamethonium fasciculation and the modified tonic/clonic convulsion induced by electroconvulsive therapy. This study compared the magnitude of increase in ...

  13. Opioid-Linked Hospitalizations Rising Fastest for Women: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166799.html Opioid-Linked Hospitalizations Rising Fastest for Women: Study U.S. ... 21, 2017 WEDNESDAY, June 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Opioid-related hospitalizations among women in the United States ...

  14. Rising pattern of breast cancer in young women | Adeniji | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To study the rising pattern of breast cancer in young women. Design: Retrospective study of cases of breast cancer from histopathological diagnosis. Setting: Department of Pathology, Ilorin Teaching Hospital Subjects: Breast cancer tissues sent to histopathology department for diagnosis Interventions: Tissue ...

  15. Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    O’Kiely, Doireann

    2015-03-03

    © © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following the initiation of rise, t, like h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2}. This is in contrast to the rise on a vertical plate, which obeys the classic capillary-inertia scaling h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. We highlight a subtlety in the scaling analysis that yielded h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2} and investigate the consequences of this subtlety. We develop a potential flow model of the dynamic problem, which we solve using the finite element method. Our numerical results agree well with previous experiments but suggest that the correct early time behaviour is, in fact, h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. Furthermore, we show that at intermediate times the dynamic rise of the meniscus is governed by two parameters: the contact angle and the cylinder radius measured relative to the capillary length scale, t^{2/3}. This result allows us to collapse previous experimental results with different cylinder radii (but similar static contact angles) onto a single master curve.

  16. Rising energy prices and the economics of water in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, D.; Sproul, T.; Rajagopal, D.; Sexton, S.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rising energy prices will alter water allocation and distribution. Water extraction and conveyance will become more costly and demand for hydroelectric power will grow. The higher cost of energy will substantially increase the cost of groundwater, whereas increasing demand for hydroelectric power

  17. Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) for High Rise Construction: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehbaghi, Koorosh; Chenery, Rhea

    2017-12-01

    Due to its material element, Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) could be stronger than traditional Concrete. This is due to FRC internal material compounds and elements. Furthermore, FRC can also significantly improve flexural strength when compared to traditional Concrete. This improvement in flexural strength can be varied depending on the actual fibers used. Although not new, FRC is gradually gaining popularity in the construction industry, in particular for high rise structures. This is due to its flexural strength, especially for high seismic zones, as it will provide a better solution then reinforced Concrete. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the structural importance of FRC for the high rise construction. Although there has been numerous studies and literature in justifying the FRC for general construction; this paper will consider its use specifically for high rise construction. Moreover, this paper will closely investigate eight case studies from Australian and United States as a part of the FRC validation for high rise construction. In doing so, this paper will examine their Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) to determine their overall structural performance.

  18. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  19. Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Rise of Genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 11. Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Rise of Genetics. Amitabh Joshi. Article-in-a-Box Volume 8 ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064. India.

  20. Effects of rising food prices on household food security on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of rising food prices on people's perceptions and coping strategies regarding ... years. The village has 250 households, but of these, only 60 are femaleheaded. Therefore, the sample size was 60 households. The response rate was 100%.

  1. Cuchulain in the General Post Office : Gaelic revival, Irish rising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerssen, J.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the importance of the Gaelic language for the development of Irish nationalism in the decades leading up to, and following the Easter Rising of 1916. This importance was mainly symbolical: the Irish language was used mainly by revivalist activists, in a restricted number of

  2. Maud Rise - a snapshot through the water column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, A.; Bathmann, U.; Brix, S.; Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The benthic fauna was investigated during the expedition ANT-XXIV/2 (2007/08) in relation to oceanographic features, biogeochemical properties and sediment characteristics, as well as the pelagic, benthic pelagic and air-breathing fauna. The results document that Maud Rise (MR) differs distinctly

  3. The support systems of unique high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumeyko Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall buildings and skyscrapers perceive significant vertical loads and, moreover, have to resist large lateral effects which form strong gusts of wind and seismic events. In the world for the high-rise buildings with the nuclei of the stiffness are using streamers – outriggers, which connect the external column and the core form the support system and resist lateral loads. High-rise buildings construction grows promptly around the world and causes new problems which shall be solved on the basis of the modern constructive opportunities, by means of exact engineering assessment. Systems of outrigers and belts are very important in the modern engineering, because they provide effective control over side shifts of a building. They play an important role in high-rise unique buildings constructions, being a link between the central kernel and outer columns. The article deals with the design scheme of conventional conveyor of belts and outriggers – bandages, explores their applications, advantages and disadvantages of various options, problems with their design. Presented material enables the design of unique high-rise buildings to choose the most optimal design solution.

  4. Study on rapid evacuation in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More and more high rising buildings emerged in modern cities, but emergency evacuation of tall buildings has been a worldwide difficult problem. In this paper, a new evacuation device for high rising buildings in fire accident was proposed and studied. This device mainly consisted of special spiral slideway and shunt valve. People in this device could fast slide down to the first floor under gravity without any electric power and physical strength, which is suitable for various emergency evacuation including mobility-impaired persons. The plane simulation test has shown that human being in alternative clockwise and counterclockwise movement will not become dizzy. The evacuated people should wear protection pad, which can prevent slider from being injured by surface friction with the slide, and eliminate the friction coefficient difference caused by different clothes and slide surface. The calculation results show that the evacuation speed of the new device is much faster than traditional staircases. Moreover, such new evacuation device can also be used as a means of vertical transportation in high-rise buildings partly. People can take it from any floor to ground floor directly, which not only save time for waiting for the lifts but also save the power. The new evacuation system is of simple structure, easy to use, and suitable for evacuation and partly used as vertical downwards traffic, which shows light on solving world-wide difficulties on fast evacuation in high-rise buildings.

  5. Effects of rising food prices on household food security on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rising food prices can have a devastating effect on the health of poor households by making it more difficult for them to afford basic food baskets. Although South Africa is food secure as a nation, it does not mean that every household is able to access nutritionally adequate food. Objective: The objective of the ...

  6. The Rise and Fall of the United States Film Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Richard; Hunt, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the United States Film Service through the auspices of government relief organizations as part of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, the films which were produced by Pare Lorentz, and its demise brought about financial and political conflicts. (Author/AEF)

  7. The Rise of Asia and strategic questions for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, G.; Roborgh, S.; Sweijs, T.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of Asia will shape the global landscape of the 21st century and have profound implications for the way Europeans live and do business. Against the background of changes in the global balance of power, demographic shifts, and growing resource scarcity, Asia´s advance will challenge Western

  8. Rising South Korea : A Minor Player or a Regional Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Flamm, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    South Korea's rising status in regional and global affairs has received significant attention in recent years. In academic, media, and policy debates, though, South Korea is usually regarded as a mere middle power that, due to its geopolitical situation, has only limited leeway in its foreign policy

  9. Implications of Rising Sea Level on Everglades Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, H. R.

    2008-05-01

    The strong likelihood of a significant rise in sea level during this century must be incorporated into the design of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) and its execution. With a warming Arctic and increased wind shear in the waters adjacent to Antarctica, accelerated ice melt of both Greenland and Antarctica has begun. With positive feedbacks, this melt appears irreversible on the century scale. Scientists of the Miami-Dade County Climate Change Task Force project that a global rise of sea level of at least 0.9-1.5 meters (3-5 feet) will occur by the end of the century. This anticipated rise will diminish the value of CERP unless (a) the design thoroughly incorporates a realistic sea level rise scenario and (b) there is a refocus of CERP's design to optimize water flow for wetland-community peat growth with the purpose of retarding saline encroachment. The goals of Everglades restoration must become (1) to provide an increase in water flowing at a gradually increasing elevation to permit rapid accumulation of robust organic peat beneath the freshwater wetland and (2) to actively manage the coastal mangrove wetland (e.g., aid hurricane recovery) to help it maintain a robust upwards-building peat margin. If this is done, the central and northern Everglades may survive as a healthy wetland habitat and provide fresh groundwater resources well into the next century. Actively building freshwater and mangrove peat and a dependable supply of freshwater are both critical to retarding saline encroachment up the Everglades depression. Without these, a 1.5 meter rise in sea level could move saline water nearly to Lake Okeechobee. Critical research questions and changes in management need to be addressed for this to succeed. The communities and conditions for optimal freshwater peat buildup must be documented and demonstrated. New management strategies must be designed and maintained to encourage rapid recovery of mangrove forests destroyed by hurricanes

  10. Critical applications of SW 846 US EPA methods to evaluation of marine samples quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira Silvério

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical evaluation of analytical data is of extreme relevance considering it can be used for comparisons with environmental quality standards and decision-making as related to the management of disposal of dredged sediments and the evaluation of salt and brackish water quality in accordance with CONAMA 357/05 Resolution. It is, therefore, essential that the project manager discusses the environmental agency's technical requirements with the laboratory contracted for the follow-up of the analysis underway and even with a view to possible re-analysis when anomalous data are identified. The main technical requirements are: (1 method quantitation limits (QLs should fall below environmental standards; (2 analyses should be carried out in laboratories whose analytical scope is accredited by the National Institute of Metrology (INMETRO or qualified or accepted by a licensing agency; (3 chain of custody should be provided in order to ensure sample traceability; (4 control charts should be provided to prove method performance; (5 certified reference material analysis or, if that is not available, matrix spike analysis, should be undertaken and (6 chromatograms should be included in the analytical report. Within this context and with a view to helping environmental managers in analytical report evaluation, this work has as objectives the discussion of the limitations of the application of SW 846 US EPA methods to marine samples, the consequences of having data based on method detection limits (MDL and not sample quantitation limits (SQL, and present possible modifications of the principal method applied by laboratories in order to comply with environmental quality standards.Avaliação técnica do resultado analítico é de extrema relevância, pois o mesmo será utilizado para comparação com legislações e tomadas de decisão, tais como, disposição adequada de sedimento dragado e avaliação da qualidade de água superficial salobra e salina

  11. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  12. The 1590-1520 Ma Cachoeirinha magmatic arc and its tectonic implications for the Mesoproterozoic SW Amazonian craton crustal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Amarildo S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic and chemical data of rocks from the Cachoeirinha suite provide new insights on the Proterozoic evolution of the Rio Negro/Juruena Province in SW Amazonian craton. Six U-Pb and Sm-Nd analyses in granitoid rocks of the Cachoeirinha suite yielded ages of 1587-1522 Ma and T DM model ages of 1.88-1.75 Ga (EpsilonNd values of -0.8 to +1.0. In addition, three post-tectonic plutonic rocks yielded U-Pb ages from 1485-1389 Ma (T DM of 1.77-1.74 Ga and EpsilonNd values from -1.3 to +1.7. Variations in major and trace elements of the Cachoeirinha suite rocks indicate fractional crystallization process and magmatic arc geologic setting. These results suggest the following interpretations: (1 The interval of 1590-1520 Ma represents an important magmatic activity in SW Amazonian craton. (2 T DM and arc-related chemical affinity supportthe hypothesis that the rocks are genetically associated with an east-dipping subduction zone under the older (1.79-1.74 Ga continental margin. (3 The 1590-1520 Ma age of intrusive rocks adjacent to an older crust represents similar geological framework along the southern margin of Baltica, corroborating the hypothesis of tectonic relationship at that time.

  13. A microbial carbonate response in synchrony with the end-Triassic mass extinction across the SW UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Yadira; Corsetti, Frank A; Greene, Sarah E; Bottjer, David J

    2016-01-27

    The eruption of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)-the largest igneous province known-has been linked to the end-Triassic mass extinction event, however reconciling the response of the biosphere (at local and nonlocal scales) to potential CAMP-induced geochemical excursions has remained challenging. Here we present a combined sedimentary and biological response to an ecosystem collapse in Triassic-Jurassic strata of the southwest United Kingdom (SW UK) expressed as widely distributed carbonate microbialites and associated biogeochemical facies. The microbialites (1) occur at the same stratigraphic level as the mass extinction extinction, (2) host a negative isotope excursion in δ(13)Corg found in other successions around the world, and (3) co-occur with an acme of prasinophyte algae 'disaster taxa' also dominant in Triassic-Jurassic boundary strata of other European sections. Although the duration of microbialite deposition is uncertain, it is likely that they formed rapidly (perhaps fewer than ten thousand years), thus providing a high-resolution glimpse into the initial carbon isotopic perturbation coincident with the end-Triassic mass extinction. These findings indicate microbialites from the SW UK capture a nonlocal biosedimentary response to the cascading effects of massive volcanism and add to the current understanding of paleoecology in the aftermath of the end-Triassic extinction.

  14. Regulation of FGF23 expression in IDG-SW3 osteocytes and human bone by pro-inflammatory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuaki; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Prideaux, Matthew; Kogawa, Masakazu; Ormsby, Renee T; Evdokiou, Andreas; Bonewald, Lynda F; Findlay, David M; Atkins, Gerald J

    2015-01-05

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), produced by osteocytes, is the key physiological regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Sepsis patients often experience transient hypophosphataemia, suggesting the regulation of FGF23 levels by pro-inflammatory factors. Here, we used the osteocyte-like cell line IDG-SW3 to investigate the effect of pro-inflammatory stimuli on FGF23 production. In differentiated IDG-SW3 cultures, basal Fgf23 mRNA was dose-dependently up-regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1β and TWEAK, and bacterial LPS. Similar effects were observed in human bone samples. TNF- and IL-1β-induced Fgf23 expression was NF-κB-dependent. Conversely, mRNA encoding negative regulators of FGF23, Phex, Dmp1 and Enpp1, were suppressed by TNF, IL-1β, TWEAK and LPS, independent of NF-κβ signalling. Galnt3, the protein product of which protects intact FGF23 protein from furin/furin-like proprotein convertase cleavage, increased in response to these treatments. C-terminal FGF23 and intact FGF23 protein levels also increased, the latter only in the presence of Furin inhibitors, suggesting that enzymatic cleavage exerts critical control of active FGF23 secretion by osteocytes. Our results demonstrate in principle that pro-inflammatory stimuli are capable of increasing osteocyte secretion of FGF23, which may contribute to hypophosphataemia during sepsis and possibly other inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphoproteome Characterization of Human Colorectal Cancer SW620 Cell-Derived Exosomes and New Phosphosite Discovery for C-HPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahui; Cui, Yizhi; Yan, Ziqi; Luo, Yanzhang; Zhang, Wanling; Deng, Suyuan; Tang, Shengquan; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu; Wang, Tong

    2016-11-04

    Identification of all phosphorylation forms of known proteins is a major goal of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP). Recent studies have found that certain phosphoproteins can be encapsulated in exosomes and function as key regulators in tumor microenvironment, but no deep coverage phosphoproteome of human exosomes has been reported to date, which makes the exosome a potential source for the new phosphosite discovery. In this study, we performed highly optimized MS analyses on the exosomal and cellular proteins isolated from human colorectal cancer SW620 cells. With stringent data quality control, 313 phosphoproteins with 1091 phosphosites were confidently identified from the SW620 exosome, from which 202 new phosphosites were detected. Exosomal phosphoproteins were significantly enriched in the 11q12.1-13.5 region of chromosome 11 and had a remarkably high level of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins (6.4%), which were functionally relevant to ephrin signaling pathway-directed cytoskeleton remodeling. In conclusion, we here report the first high-coverage phosphoproteome of human cell-secreted exosomes, which leads to the identification of new phosphosites for C-HPP. Our findings provide insights into the exosomal phosphoprotein systems that help to understand the signaling language being delivered by exosomes in cell-cell communications. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange consortium with the data set identifier PXD004079, and iProX database (accession number: IPX00076800).

  16. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period and the challenge will be to develop a long-term proactive assessment approach to manage this challenge. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these coastal cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). In these cities we wish to avoid major flood events, with associated damage and potentially deaths and ultimately decline of the cities. Flood risks grow with sea-level rise as it raises extreme sea levels. As sea levels continue to rise, protection will have to be progressively upgraded. Even with this, the magnitude of losses when flood events do occur would increase as coastal cities expand, and water depths and hence unit damage increase with sea-level rise/subsidence. This makes it critical to also prepare for larger coastal flood disasters than we experience today and raises questions on the limits to adaptation. There is not an extensive literature or significant empirical information on the limits to adaptation in coastal cities. These limits are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment, a defence upgrade or something else. There are several types of potential limits that could be categorised into three broad types: • Physical

  17. Assessing the environmental sensitivity to land degradation. A validation of the MEDALUS method in SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado Contador, J. F.; Schnabel, S.; Gómez Gutiérrez, A.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    In places where drought is one of the main climatic constraints, land degradation and desertification can take place if soils have suffered from a loss of biological production and resilience caused by both, natural and anthropogenic factors. It is important to identify such sensitive areas and to describe the driving forces leading to land degradation in order to properly understand the phenomenon. The main goal of this work is to identify places with different sensitivity to land degradation in Extremadura (Spain) by means of a modeling approach developed in the European Commission funded MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification Land Use) (Kosmas et al., 1999), which identifies such areas on the basis of an index (ESA index, Environmental Sensitive Area index) in which environmental quality (climate, vegetation, soil) as well as anthropogenic factors (management) are included. A geographical information system approach was applied in this study. Sensitivity to degradation is analyzed by combining four quality indexes (soil, climate, vegetation and management). The first three giving information about environmental conditions and the later about man-related factors. Each of those quality indexes result from averaging several parameters involved in their calculation. The study area covered the whole region of the Extremadura (41.633 km²), located in the SW Iberian Peninsula. For the classification of soil cover classes, the CORINE land cover 2000 maps were used and reclassified according to the requirements. Some information was also gathered from the National Forest Inventory. A digital elevation model of 25 m pixel size was used to calculate terrain slope and aspect and the climate data were obtained from the Digital Climatic Atlas of the Iberian Peninsula. Two maps of environmental sensitivity to land degradation with different legend resolution (4 and 8 classes) were established and tested by comparing the results obtained (classes of sensitivity) with

  18. Timing of Svecofennian crustal growth and collisional tectonics in Åland, SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Ehlers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to quantify the time parameter in the tectonomagmatic evolution of what has been called the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex (SSAC of SW Finland, advanced radiometric dating techniques have here been applied to rock groups of key importance in that area. In this paper we report the results of 131 high-resolution ionmicroprobe spot analyses (SIMS of zircons, and 33 measurements using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS on zircon, monazite and titanite, and employing both large-sample multi-grain as well as single-grain techniques. The Torsholma area of the Åland archipelago, situated between southern Finland and central Sweden, is a key structural area significant to resolve the time dimension in Svecofennian tectonics. There a collage of imbricated rock slabs was formed by tectonic shortening representing the culmination of large-scale penetrative Svecofennian deformation. Another structurally significant feature investigated is the South FinlandShear Zone (SFSZ that transects the southwest-Finnish archipelago and further east follows the southern coast of Finland. This shear zone forms the southern limit of the c. 1830 Ma Late Svecofennian Granite and Migmatite Zone (LSGM and also features deformations of a later stage when the considered region of Svecofennian crust was consolidated. The obtained age results and their tectonic analysis can be summarized as follows. The Enklinge volcanic sequence (1885±6 Ma is within error limits coeval with the intrusion of abundant early-kinematic gneissose granodiorites whose average age of 1884±5 Ma marks the formation of new crust in this region. Some of these geisses contain a significant amount of 2000–2080 Ma zircon. Although many Svecofennian granitoids are known to contain heterogeneous zircon populations, mainly formed c. 1890 Ma ago but also containing an inherited component, the Kökar gneiss is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case where inheritance from c. 2030

  19. Structural and Petrophysical Characterization of Fault Zones in Shales: Example from the Tournemire Url (sw, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DICK, P.; Du Peloux de Saint Romain, A.; Moreno, E.; Homberg, C.; Renel, F.; Dauzères, A.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL) operated by IRSN (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety) is located on the western border of the Mesozoic sedimentary Causses Basin (SW France). The URL crosses a thick Toarcian shale formation (≈250 m) and is interbedded between two aquiferous limestone formations. In addition to the 250 m thick overlying limestones, the geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics of this site exhibit similarities with those measured by the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation of Bure (Meuse/Haute Marne, France). The Tournemire site is marked by numerous minor shear bands that affect not only the shale formation but also the over- and underlying limestone units. Since analogous discontinuities in an underground deep geological repository could act as a preferential pathway for radionuclide migration, the Tournemire site appears as an ideal location to understand the internal and permeability structures of such clay-based faults. In this study, we investigate the structural and petrophysical variations observed in a 10-15 m thick, subvertical, strike-slip shear band. For this, eight fully cored and logged horizontal boreholes were drilled normal to the fault's direction. The internal architecture and permeability of the fault was revealed through a combination of different tools (AMS, SEM, XRD and helium pycnometer) used on samples, as well as optical, induction and neutron porosity logging used in boreholes. The analysis of core samples from the different boreholes indicates that the studied fault zone is divided into a fault core (gouge), surrounded by a damaged zone (e.g., kinematically related fracture sets, small faults, and veins). Porosity and hydraulic conductivity values are low in the undisturbed shale (respectively, 9% and 10-14 m.s-1) and increase progressively towards the fault core (respectively, 15-20% and 5.10-12 m.s-1

  20. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda