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Sample records for svocs exhibit similarities

  1. Predicting SVOC Emissions into Air and Foods in Support of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The release of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from consumer articles may be a critical human exposure pathway. In addition, the migration of SVOCs from food packaging materials into foods may also be a dominant source of exposure for some chemicals. Here we describe recent efforts to characterize emission-related parameters for these exposure pathways to support prediction of aggregate exposures for thousands of chemicals For chemicals in consumer articles, Little et al. (2012) developed a screening-level indoor exposure prediction model which, for a given SVOC, principally depends on steady-state gas-phase concentrations (y0). We have developed a model that predicts y0 for SVOCs in consumer articles, allowing exposure predictions for 274 ToxCast chemicals. Published emissions data for 31 SVOCs found in flooring materials, provided a training set where both chemical-specific physicochemical properties, article specific formulation properties, and experimental design aspects were available as modeling descriptors. A linear regression yielded R2- and p- values of approximately 0.62 and 3.9E-05, respectively. A similar model was developed based upon physicochemical properties alone, since article information is often not available for a given SVOC or product. This latter model yielded R2 - and p- values of approximately 0.47 and 1.2E-10, respectively. Many SVOCs are also used as additives (e.g. plasticizers, antioxidants, lubricants) in plastic food pac

  2. Xenoturbella bocki exhibits direct development with similarities to Acoelomorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroaki; Lundin, Kennet; Bourlat, Sarah J; Telford, Maximilian J; Funch, Peter; Nyengaard, Jens R; Obst, Matthias; Thorndyke, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Xenoturbella bocki, a marine animal with a simple body plan, has recently been suggested to be sister group to the Acoelomorpha, together forming the new phylum Xenacoelomorpha. The phylogenetic position of the phylum is still under debate, either as an early branching bilaterian or as a sister group to the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms) within the deuterostomes. Although development has been described for several species of Acoelomorpha, little is known about the life cycle of Xenoturbella. Here we report the embryonic stages of Xenoturbella, and show that it is a direct developer without a feeding larval stage. This mode of development is similar to that of the acoelomorphs, supporting the newly proposed phylum Xenacoelomorpha and suggesting that the last common ancestor of the phylum might have been a direct developer.

  3. Desorption of SVOCs from Heated Surfaces in the Form of Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Ott, Wayne R.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    of the accumulation rate of SVOCs on surfaces were similar to those in studies of organic film buildup on indoor windows. Transfer of skin oils by touching the glass or foil surfaces, or after washing the glass surface with detergent and bare hands, was also observed, with measured particle production comparable...

  4. SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that - in central tendency - an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assumi...

  5. SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major class of indoor pollutants. Understanding SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust is important for characterizing the fate of these species indoors and the pathways by which humans are exposed to them. Such knowledge also helps...... than a thousand buildings, mostly residences, in seven countries. In aggregate, measured median data are reported in these studies for 66 different SVOCs whose octanol-air partition coefficients (K-oa) span more than five orders of magnitude. We use these data to test a simple equilibrium model...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  7. Using GC×GC-ToF-MS to characterise SVOC from diesel exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. S.; Ramadhas, A. S.; Stark, C. P.; Liu, D.; Xu, H.; Harrison, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite intensive research over the last 20 years, a number of major research questions remain concerning the sources and properties of road traffic-generated particulate matter. There are major knowledge gaps concerning the composition of primary vehicle exhaust aerosol, and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. These uncertainties relate especially to the semi-volatile component of the particles. Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) are compounds which partition directly between the gas and aerosol phases under ambient conditions, and include compounds with saturation concentrations roughly between 0.1 and 104 μg m-3. The SVOC in engine exhaust are typically hydrocarbons in the C15-C35 range. They are largely uncharacterised, other than the n-alkanes, because they are unresolved by traditional gas chromatography and form a large hump in the chromatogram referred to as Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM). In this study, samples were collected from the exhaust of a diesel engine with and without abatement devices fitted. Engine exhaust was diluted with air and collected using both filter and impaction (MOUDI), to resolve total mass and size resolved mass respectively. Particle size distribution was evaluated by sampling simultaneously with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). 2D Gas-Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was exploited to characterise and quantify the composition of SVOC from the exhaust emission. The SVOC was observed to contain predominantly n-alkanes, alkyl-cyclohexanes and aromatics; similar to both fresh lubricating oil and fuel. Preliminary results indicate that the contribution of diesel fuel to the exhaust SVOC composition is dominant at high speeds, and a more pronounced contribution from lubricating oil is observed at low speeds. Differences were also observed in the SVOC composition when using different fuel types, engine lubricants, starting temperatures and collecting samples with

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  9. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakky, Prabagaran; Hansen, Deborah A; Drury, Andrea M; Felder, Paul; Cusumano, Andrew; Moley, Kelle H

    2017-08-24

    Male exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with seminal defects and with congenital anomalies and childhood cancers in offspring. In mice, paternal exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) causes molecular defects in germ cells and phenotypic effects in their offspring. Here we used an ex vivo testicular explant model and in vivo exposure to determine the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis and offspring development. We explanted testis tissue at postnatal day (P)5.5 and cultured it until P11.5. Assessment of growth parameters by analyzing expression of cell-specific markers revealed that the explant system maintained structural and functional integrity. We exposed the P5.5 to -11.5 explants to various concentrations (40-160 µg/ml) of CSC and confirmed that nicotine in the CSC was metabolized to cotinine. We assessed various growth and differentiation parameters, as well as testosterone production, and observed that many spermatogenesis features were impaired at 160 µg/ml CSC. The same parameters were impaired by a similar CSC concentration in vivo Finally, females mated to males that were exposed to 160 µg/ml CSC neonatally had increased rates of pup resorption. We conclude that male exposure to CSC impairs offspring development and that the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis is similar in vivo and ex vivo. Given that the concentrations of CSC we used contained similar doses of nicotine as human smokers are exposed to, we argue that our model mimics human male reproductive effects of smoking.-Esakky, P., Hansen, D. A., Drury, A. M., Felder, P., Cusumano, A., Moley, K. H. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo. © FASEB.

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  12. Dancing attraction: followers of honey bee tremble and waggle dances exhibit similar behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the honey bee tremble dance and how it attracts signal receivers is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that tremble followers and waggle followers exhibit the same dance-following behavior. If correct, this could unify our understanding of dance following, provide insight into dance information transfer, and offer a way to identify the signal receivers of tremble dance information. Followers showed similar initial attraction to and tracking of dancers. However, waggle dancers were faster than tremble dancers, and follower-forward, -sideways, and -angular velocities were generally similar to the velocities of their respective dancers. Waggle dancers attracted followers from 1.3-fold greater distances away than tremble dancers. Both follower types were attracted to the lateral sides of dancers, but tremble followers were more attracted to the dancer's head, and waggle followers were more attracted to the dancer's abdomen. Tremble dancers engaged in 4-fold more brief food exchanges with their followers than waggle dancers. The behaviors of both follower types are therefore relatively conserved. Researchers can now take the next steps, observing tremble followers to determine their subsequent behaviors and testing the broader question of whether follower attraction and tracking is conserved in a wide range of social insects.

  13. Dancing attraction: followers of honey bee tremble and waggle dances exhibit similar behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Calvin; Li, Yanlei; Landgraf, Tim; Nieh, James

    2017-06-15

    The function of the honey bee tremble dance and how it attracts signal receivers is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that tremble followers and waggle followers exhibit the same dance-following behavior. If correct, this could unify our understanding of dance following, provide insight into dance information transfer, and offer a way to identify the signal receivers of tremble dance information. Followers showed similar initial attraction to and tracking of dancers. However, waggle dancers were faster than tremble dancers, and follower-forward, -sideways, and -angular velocities were generally similar to the velocities of their respective dancers. Waggle dancers attracted followers from 1.3-fold greater distances away than tremble dancers. Both follower types were attracted to the lateral sides of dancers, but tremble followers were more attracted to the dancer's head, and waggle followers were more attracted to the dancer's abdomen. Tremble dancers engaged in 4-fold more brief food exchanges with their followers than waggle dancers. The behaviors of both follower types are therefore relatively conserved. Researchers can now take the next steps, observing tremble followers to determine their subsequent behaviors and testing the broader question of whether follower attraction and tracking is conserved in a wide range of social insects. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Indoor Semi-volatile Organic Compounds (i-SVOC) Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    i-SVOC Version 1.0 is a general-purpose software application for dynamic modeling of the emission, transport, sorption, and distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor environments.

  15. Further advances in modeling transdermal uptake of SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To better simulate dermal uptake of SVOCs from air, we develop an enhanced transport model that includes skin surface lipids (SSL). As modeled, clothing can remove SSL by contact transfer and it can act as a source or sink for gas-phase transfer to and from SSL. Addition of SSL increases the over......To better simulate dermal uptake of SVOCs from air, we develop an enhanced transport model that includes skin surface lipids (SSL). As modeled, clothing can remove SSL by contact transfer and it can act as a source or sink for gas-phase transfer to and from SSL. Addition of SSL increases...... the overall resistance to uptake of SVOCs from air but also allows for more rapid release of SVOCs to sinks like clothing or clean air. We compare the model results to reported experimental uptake of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), normalized by exposed skin area and the phthalate...... air concentration during exposure (Weschler et al., 2015). Overall, the model predicts total uptake values that are consistent with those observed in the experiments. The model predicts a normalized mass uptake of DEP of 3.1 (µg/m2)/(µg/m3) whereas the experimental results range from 1.0 to 4.3 (µg/m2...

  16. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating on biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  17. Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-11-04

    Four chiral Os(II) arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. SPME-Based Ca-History Method for Measuring SVOC Diffusion Coefficients in Clothing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianping; Liu, Ningrui; Zhang, Yinping

    2017-08-15

    Clothes play an important role in dermal exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The diffusion coefficient of SVOCs in clothing material (Dm) is essential for estimating SVOC sorption by clothing material and subsequent dermal exposure to SVOCs. However, few studies have reported the measured Dm for clothing materials. In this paper, we present the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) based Ca-history method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first try to measure Dm with known relative standard deviation (RSD). A thin sealed chamber is formed by a circular ring and two pieces of flat SVOC source materials that are tightly covered by the targeted clothing materials. Dm is obtained by applying an SVOC mass transfer model in the chamber to the history of gas-phase SVOC concentrations (Ca) in the chamber measured by SPME. Dm's of three SVOCs, di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), in a cotton T-shirt can be obtained within 16 days, with RSD less than 3%. This study should prove useful for measuring SVOC Dm in various sink materials. Further studies are expected to facilitate application of this method and investigate the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and clothing material on Dm.

  19. Do homologous thermophilic-mesophilic proteins exhibit similar structures and dynamics at optimal growth temperatures? A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sohini; Sen, Srikanta

    2013-02-25

    Structure and dynamics both are known to be important for the activity of a protein. A fundamental question is whether a thermophilic protein and its mesophilic homologue exhibit similar dynamics at their respective optimal growth temperatures. We have addressed this question by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a natural mesophilic-thermophilic homologue pair at their respective optimal growth temperatures to compare their structural, dynamical, and solvent properties. The MD simulations were done in explicit aqueous solvent under periodic boundary and constant pressure and temperature (CPT) conditions and continued for 10.0 ns using the same protocol for the two proteins, excepting the temperatures. The trajectories were analyzed to compare the properties of the two proteins. Results indicated that the dynamical behaviors of the two proteins at the respective optimal growth temperatures were remarkably similar. For the common residues in the thermophilic protein, the rms fluctuations have a general trend to be slightly higher compared to that in the mesophilic counterpart. Lindemann parameter values indicated that only a few residues exhibited solid-like dynamics while the protein as a whole appeared as a molten globule in each case. Interestingly, the water-water interaction was found to be strikingly similar in spite of the difference in temperatures while, the protein-water interaction was significantly different in the two simulations.

  20. Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica exhibit similar symptomatic and epidemiological patterns in healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syeda Sadaf; Baqai, Rakhshanda; Qureshi, Fouad M; Boorom, Kenneth

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we collected data on the incidence of enteric parasites in healthcare-seeking individuals along with their symptoms to quantify the potential roles of factors such as age, sex, and seasonality in infection. We performed analysis to identify factors which could help differentiate parasitic infection from other causes of gastrointestinal illness in a community. The size of the patient population (n = 339), patient selection methodology, collection methods, and statistical analysis followed approaches from similar studies in core clinical journals. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Karachi's Ethical Review Board. Fecal specimens (n = 339) submitted by symptomatic patients were collected from two clinical laboratories, along with information about the patients' age, sex, and symptoms. We found that symptoms of fever, vomiting, and constipation were 100 % predictive of finding a parasitic infection, while diarrhea was 88 % predictive of a parasitic infection. Gastrointestinal parasite-positive patients reported diarrhea (~60 %), vomiting (~30 %), fever (~25 %) and constipation (~25 %), while parasite-negative patients exhibited a symptomatic profile without fever, vomiting, and constipation. The distribution of symptoms in parasite-positive patients remained relatively invariant regardless of the parasite identified. Blastocystis spp.-mono-infected patients reported a similar profile to patients positive for Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. Most parasitic infections exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with a peak incidence in summer months. Infection by Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent, and it was the only infection mathematically correlated to rainfall by Pearson's method. We observed no increase in healthcare-seeking behavior following a stressful community event, namely, the attempted assassination of Benazir Bhutto in Karachi. The data suggest that parasitological testing would produce a high

  1. Analysis of the dynamic interaction between SVOCs and airborne particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cong; Shi, Shanshan; Weschler, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    A proper quantitative understanding of the dynamic interaction between gas-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and airborne particles is important for human exposure assessment and risk evaluation. Questions regarding how to properly address gas/particle interactions have introduced...... of aerosols) is negligible compared with the external one (from bulk air to aerosol surfaces) is presented. The analysis is applicable regardless of the phase state of particles (either liquid or amorphous semisolid/solid). It is found that for both porous and nonporous particles, the internal resistance can...... cause a two orders of magnitude error in the estimation of the gas-phase concentration and a factor of two error in the estimation of the particle-phase concentration. Copyright © American Association for Aerosol Research....

  2. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Latha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group. These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments. Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02, hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that

  3. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group). These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments). Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02), hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that a collagen

  4. Two novel vitamin D receptor modulators with similar structures exhibit different hypercalcemic effects in 5/6 nephrectomized uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Kawai, Megumi; Chen, Yung-wu; Wessale, Jerry L; Huang, Ching-jang; Wu, Meng-ting; Nakane, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor modulators (VDRMs) are indicated for secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical observations demonstrate that VDRM therapy provides cardiovascular (CV) benefit in CKD. Current on-market VDRMs have a narrow therapeutic index at 1- to 4-fold [hypercalcemic toxicity vs. parathyroid hormone (PTH)-suppressing efficacy]. Hypercalcemia leads to the need for frequent drug dose titration and serum calcium (Ca) monitoring. A VDRM with a wider therapeutic index and beneficial CV effects will be clinically useful. Two structurally similar VDRMs were tested in the 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats with elevated PTH, endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy. VS-110 and VS-411 at 0.01-1 μg/kg (i.p. 3 times/week for 2 weeks) suppressed serum PTH effectively. VS-411 raised serum Ca with an 11% increase at 0.01 μg/kg (therapeutic index = ~1-fold), while VS-110 did not raise serum Ca even at 1 μg/kg (therapeutic index >50-fold). VS-110 improved endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation in a dose-dependent manner and significantly reduced left ventricular fibrosis without affecting serum Ca. VS-411 also exhibited effects on the CV parameters, but was less potent at the high doses with severe hypercalcemia. VS-110 and VS-411 specifically activated the reporter gene via a chimeric receptor containing the VDR ligand binding domain with EC(50) rats. While differences exist for the Ca and CV effects of VS-110 and VS-411, the clinical implications are unclear. VS-110's results are promising but clinical outcome studies need to be performed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  6. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C. Larson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG medicinal plants (succus will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs. The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples.

  7. Two patients with TAFRO syndrome exhibiting strikingly similar anterior mediastinal lesions with predominantly fat attenuation on chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yasuo, Masanori; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tateishi, Kazunari; Ushiki, Atsuhito; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Asaka, Shiho; Sano, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Hanaoka, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    We herein report on two middle-aged men with TAFRO (thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis or renal failure, and organomegaly) syndrome, a unique clinicopathological variant of multicentric Castleman׳s disease recently proposed in Japan. Strikingly similar anterior mediastinal fat swellings with soft tissue density were observed in the patients on chest computed tomography. In TAFRO syndrome, bilateral pleural effusion and slight lymph node swelling are common in the thoracic region; however, anterior mediastinal lesions have not been previously observed. Although the mechanisms of anterior mediastinal lesions have not been defined, these lesions seem to have a close relationship with TAFRO syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. African American women exhibit similar adherence to intervention but lose less weight due to lower energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLany, J P; Jakicic, J M; Lowery, J B; Hames, K C; Kelley, D E; Goodpaster, B H

    2014-09-01

    African American (AA) women have been shown to lose less weight than Caucasian women in response to behavioral interventions. Our objective was to examine adherence to intervention and metabolic factors that may explain this difference. We examined longitudinal changes in body weight and energy expenditure (EE), and objective assessment of physical activity (PA) and energy intake (EI) during 6 months of a weight-loss intervention program, including prescribed calorie restriction and increased PA in 66 Caucasian and 39 AA severely obese women. Comparisons were also made in 25 Caucasian and 25 AA women matched for initial body weight. The AA women lost 3.6 kg less weight than Caucasian women. Total daily EE (TDEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) adjusted for fat free mass (FFM) were significantly lower in the AA women, whereas the decrease in RMR in response to weight loss was greater in Caucasian women. Adherence to the prescribed PA and change in PA in response to intervention were similar in AA and Caucasian women. Prescribed EI (1794±153 and 1806±153 kcal per day) and measured EI during intervention (2591±371 vs 2630±442 kcal per day) were nearly identical in matched AA and Caucasian women. However, the AA women lost significantly less body weight due to lower energy requirements (2924±279 vs 3116±340 kcal per day; Pwomen. However, neglecting to account for the lower energy requirements in AA women when calculating the energy prescription resulted in a lower level of calorie restriction and, hence, less body weight loss. Therefore, to achieve similar weight loss in AA women, the prescribed caloric restriction cannot be based on weight alone, but must be lower than in Caucasians, to account for lower energy requirements.

  9. Stone formation in peach fruit exhibits spatial coordination of the lignin and flavonoid pathways and similarity to Arabidopsis dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piagnani M Claudia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignification of the fruit endocarp layer occurs in many angiosperms and plays a critical role in seed protection and dispersal. This process has been extensively studied with relationship to pod shatter or dehiscence in Arabidopsis. Dehiscence is controlled by a set of transcription factors that define the fruit tissue layers and whether or not they lignify. In contrast, relatively little is known about similar processes in other plants such as stone fruits which contain an extremely hard lignified endocarp or stone surrounding a single seed. Results Here we show that lignin deposition in peach initiates near the blossom end within the endocarp layer and proceeds in a distinct spatial-temporal pattern. Microarray studies using a developmental series from young fruits identified a sharp and transient induction of phenylpropanoid, lignin and flavonoid pathway genes concurrent with lignification and subsequent stone hardening. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that specific phenylpropanoid (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and lignin (caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, peroxidase and laccase pathway genes were induced in the endocarp layer over a 10 day time period, while two lignin genes (p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase and cinnamoyl CoA reductase were co-regulated with flavonoid pathway genes (chalcone synthase, dihydroflavanol 4-reductase, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygen-ase and flavanone-3-hydrosylase which were mesocarp and exocarp specific. Analysis of other fruit development expression studies revealed that flavonoid pathway induction is conserved in the related Rosaceae species apple while lignin pathway induction is not. The transcription factor expression of peach genes homologous to known endocarp determinant genes in Arabidopsis including SHATTERPROOF, SEEDSTCK and NAC SECONDARY WALL THICENING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 were found to be specifically expressed in the endocarp while the

  10. Direct and Air-Mediated Transfer of Labeled SVOCs from Indoor Sources to Dust.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukiene, Vilma; von Goetz, Natalie; Gerecke, Andreas C; Bakker, Martine I; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    Two small-scale field studies were conducted to investigate the transfer of substances from products into dust due to direct and air-mediated transfer. The project focused on semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which are frequently found in and re-emitted from dust. For the field studies, four

  11. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallow Muminatou

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sickle (βs mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB occurs on five "classical" βs haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the βs allele – a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes – has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical βs haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical βs haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI. Results The most common βs sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P s mutation. Conclusion Two different classical βs haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of βs haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from β-globin.

  12. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchard, Neil; Elzein, Abier; Trafford, Clare; Rockett, Kirk; Pinder, Margaret; Jallow, Muminatou; Harding, Rosalind; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; McKenzie, Colin

    2007-08-10

    The sickle (betas) mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB) occurs on five "classical" betas haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the betas allele - a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes - has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical betas haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical betas haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI). The most common betas sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P haplotypes were highly conserved, with very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) extending a megabase across the betas mutation. Two different classical betas haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of betas haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from beta-globin.

  13. Neurons in red nucleus and primary motor cortex exhibit similar responses to mechanical perturbations applied to the upper-limb during posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Michael Herter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary motor cortex (M1 and red nucleus (RN are brain regions involved in limb motor control. Both structures are highly interconnected with the cerebellum and project directly to the spinal cord, although the contribution of RN is smaller than M1. It remains uncertain whether RN and M1 serve similar or distinct roles during posture and movement. Many neurons in M1 respond rapidly to mechanical disturbances of the limb, but it remains unclear whether RN neurons also respond to such limb perturbations. We have compared discharges of single neurons in RN (n = 49 and M1 (n = 109 of one monkey during a postural perturbation task. Neural responses to whole-limb perturbations were examined by transiently applying (300 ms flexor or extensor torques to the shoulder and/or elbow while the monkeys attempted to maintain a static hand posture. Relative to baseline discharges before perturbation onset, perturbations evoked rapid (<100 ms changes of neural discharges in many RN (28 of 49, 57% and M1 (43 of 109, 39% neurons. In addition to exhibiting a greater proportion of perturbation-related neurons, RN neurons also tended to exhibit higher peak discharge frequencies in response to perturbations than M1 neurons. Importantly, neurons in both structures exhibited similar response latencies and tuning properties (preferred torque directions and tuning widths in joint-torque space. Proximal arm muscles also displayed similar tuning properties in joint-torque space. These results suggest that RN is more sensitive than M1 to mechanical perturbations applied during postural control but both structures may play a similar role in feedback control of posture.

  14. The impact of mass transfer limitations on size distributions of particle associated SVOCs in outdoor and indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Yinping; Weschler, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition between the gas phase and airborne particles. The size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs impacts their fate in outdoor and indoor environments, as well as human exposure to these compounds and subsequent health risks. Allen et al. (1996......) previously proposed that the rate of mass transfer can impact polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) partitioning among different sized particles, especially for time scales relevant to urban aerosols. The present study quantitatively builds on this idea, presenting a model that incorporates dynamic SVOC....../particle interaction and applying this model to typical outdoor and indoor scenarios. The model indicates that the impact of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of a particle-associated SVOC can be evaluated by the ratio of the time to achieve gas-particle equilibrium relative to the residence time...

  15. Autoreactive effector/memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrating grafted and endogenous islets in diabetic NOD mice exhibit similar T cell receptor usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Diz

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation provides a "cure" for type 1 diabetes but is limited in part by recurrent autoimmunity mediated by β cell-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Insight into the T cell receptor (TCR repertoire of effector T cells driving recurrent autoimmunity would aid the development of immunotherapies to prevent islet graft rejection. Accordingly, we used a multi-parameter flow cytometry strategy to assess the TCR variable β (Vβ chain repertoires of T cell subsets involved in autoimmune-mediated rejection of islet grafts in diabetic NOD mouse recipients. Naïve CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells exhibited a diverse TCR repertoire, which was similar in all tissues examined in NOD recipients including the pancreas and islet grafts. On the other hand, the effector/memory CD8(+ T cell repertoire in the islet graft was dominated by one to four TCR Vβ chains, and specific TCR Vβ chain usage varied from recipient to recipient. Similarly, islet graft- infiltrating effector/memory CD4(+ T cells expressed a limited number of prevalent TCR Vβ chains, although generally TCR repertoire diversity was increased compared to effector/memory CD8(+ T cells. Strikingly, the majority of NOD recipients showed an increase in TCR Vβ12-bearing effector/memory CD4(+ T cells in the islet graft, most of which were proliferating, indicating clonal expansion. Importantly, TCR Vβ usage by effector/memory CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells infiltrating the islet graft exhibited greater similarity to the repertoire found in the pancreas as opposed to the draining renal lymph node, pancreatic lymph node, or spleen. Together these results demonstrate that effector/memory CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells mediating autoimmune rejection of islet grafts are characterized by restricted TCR Vβ chain usage, and are similar to T cells that drive destruction of the endogenous islets.

  16. The impact of mass transfer limitations on size distributions of particle associated SVOCs in outdoor and indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Yinping; Weschler, Charles J

    2014-11-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition between the gas phase and airborne particles. The size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs impacts their fate in outdoor and indoor environments, as well as human exposure to these compounds and subsequent health risks. Allen et al. (1996) previously proposed that the rate of mass transfer can impact polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) partitioning among different sized particles, especially for time scales relevant to urban aerosols. The present study quantitatively builds on this idea, presenting a model that incorporates dynamic SVOC/particle interaction and applying this model to typical outdoor and indoor scenarios. The model indicates that the impact of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of a particle-associated SVOC can be evaluated by the ratio of the time to achieve gas-particle equilibrium relative to the residence time of particles. The higher this ratio, the greater the influence of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs. The influence of such constraints is largest on the fraction of particle-associated SVOCs in the coarse mode (>2 μm). Predictions from the model have been found to be in reasonable agreement with size distributions measured for PAHs at roadside and suburban locations in Japan. The model also quantitatively explains shifts in the size distributions of particle associated SVOCs compared to those for particle mass, and the manner in which these shifts vary with temperature and an SVOC's molecular weight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and derived hepatocyte-like cells exhibit similar therapeutic effects on an acute liver failure mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Zhou

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have exhibited therapeutic effects in multiple animal models so that are promising liver substitute for transplantation treatment of end-stage liver diseases. However, it has been shown that over-manipulation of these cells increased their tumorigenic potential, and that reducing the in vitro culture time could minimize the risk. In this study, we used a D-galactosamine plus lipopolysaccharide (Gal/LPS-induced acute liver failure mouse model, which caused death of about 50% of the mice with necrosis of more than 50% hepatocytes, to compare the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs before and after induction of differentiation into hepatocyte (i-Heps. Induction of hUCMSCs to become i-Heps was achieved by treatment of the cells with a group of growth factors within 4 weeks. The resulted i-Heps exhibited a panel of human hepatocyte biomarkers including cytokeratin (hCK-18, α-fetoprotein (hAFP, albumin (hALB, and hepatocyte-specific functions glycogen storage and urea metabolism. We demonstrated that transplantation of both cell types through tail vein injection rescued almost all of the Gal/LPS-intoxicated mice. Although both cell types exhibited similar ability in homing at the mouse livers, the populations of the hUCMSCs-derived cells, as judged by expressing hAFP, hCK-18 and human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF, were small. These observations let us to conclude that the hUCMSCs was as effective as the i-Heps in treatment of the mouse acute liver failure, and that the therapeutic effects of hUCMSCs were mediated largely via stimulation of host hepatocyte regeneration, and that delivery of the cells through intravenous injection was effective.

  18. Human iPS-derived retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells exhibit ion transport, membrane potential, polarized VEGF secretion and gene expression pattern similar to native RPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinaki, Maria; Sahibzada, Niaz; Golestaneh, Nady

    2012-01-01

    Aged-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of blindness in aging population and progresses with death of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor degeneration inducing impairment of central vision. Discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells has opened new avenues for the treatment of degenerative diseases using patient specific stem cells to generate tissues and cells for autologous cell-based therapy. Recently, RPE cells were generated from hiPS cells. However, there is no evidence that those hiPS-derived RPE possess specific RPE functions that fully distinguish them from other type of cells. Here we show for the first time that RPE generated from hiPS under defined conditions exhibit ion transport, membrane potential, polarized VEGF secretion and gene expression profile similar to those of native RPE. The hiPS-RPE could therefore be a very good candidate for RPE replacement therapy in AMD. However, these cells show rapid telomere shortening, DNA chromosomal damage and increased p21 expression that cause cell growth arrest. This rapid senescence might affect the survival of the transplanted cells in vivo and therefore, only the very early passages should be used for regeneration therapies. Future research needs to focus on the generation of “safe” as well as viable hiPS-derived somatic cells. PMID:21480547

  19. Oocytes from small and large follicles exhibit similar development competence following goat cloning despite their differences in meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hall, Justin; Fan, Zhiqiang; Regouski, Misha; Meng, Qinggang; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Stott, Rusty; Rood, Kerry A; Panter, Kip E; Polejaeva, Irina A

    2016-12-01

    Reduced developmental competence after IVF has been reported using oocyte derived from small follicles in several species including cattle, sheep, and goats. No information is currently available about the effect of follicle size of the cytoplast donor on in vivo development after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in goats. Oocytes collected from large (≥3 mm) and small follicles (<3 mm) were examined for maturation and in vivo developmental competence after SCNT. Significantly greater maturation rate was observed in oocytes derived from large follicles compared with that of small follicles (51.6% and 33.7%, P < 0.05). Greater percent of large follicle oocytes exhibited a low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity at germinal vesicle stage compared with small follicle oocytes (54.9% and 38.7%, P < 0.05). Relative mRNA expression analysis of 48 genes associated with embryonic and fetal development revealed that three genes (MATER, IGF2R, and GRB10) had higher level of expression in metaphase II oocytes from large follicles compared with oocytes from small follicles. Nevertheless, no difference was observed in pregnancy rates (33.3% vs. 47.1%) and birth rates (22.2% vs. 16.7%) after SCNT between the large and small follicle groups). These results indicate that metaphase II cytoplasts from small and large follicles have similar developmental competence when used in goat SCNT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  1. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, soil, and groundwater in a chemical industrial park in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benhua; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Linxian; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    China is suffering from serious water and soil pollution, especially in the North China Plain. This work investigated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in surface water, groundwater and soil within a chemical industrial park in Eastern China, for which the volatile organic compound (VOC) results have been previously reported. A total of 20 samples were collected from the field, and analyzed in the laboratory. A 100% detection frequency of SVOCs in samples from this chemical industrial park was observed (same as VOCs). Moreover, the detection frequency of 113 SVOCs in each sample reached 15.93, 12.39 and 20.35% for surface water, groundwater and soil, respectively. The most detected SVOCs in the park included N-containing SVOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, organic pesticides and polychlorodiphenyls. The elevated detecting frequencies and concentration levels of SVOCs identified in the groundwater were attributed to the intensive chemical production activities in the park. In addition, the agricultural activities in the area might also have contributed to the SVOCs to the groundwater. The results of VOCs and SVOCs from this and previous studies suggest that the groundwater in this industrial park has been severely contaminated, and the contamination likely spreads beyond the park. Imminent hydrogeological assessments and remedial actions are warranted to eliminate the source and mitigate the potential plume expansion beyond the park boundary.

  2. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn C; Weschler, Charles J; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.

  3. The status of soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Quanying [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)], E-mail: cai_quanying@yahoo.com; Mo Cehui [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: tchmo@jnu.edu.cn; Wu Qitang [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Katsoyiannis, Athanasios [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,), TP-281, Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 (Italy)], E-mail: athanasios.katsogiannis@jrc.it; Zeng Qiaoyun [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2008-01-25

    This paper summarizes the published scientific data on the soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China. Data has been found for more than 150 organic compounds which were grouped into six classes, namely, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs). An overview of data collected from the literature is presented in this paper. The Chinese regulation and/or other maximum acceptable values for SVOCs were used for the characterization of soils. In general, the compounds that are mostly studied in Chinese soils are OCPs, PAHs and PCBs. According to the studies reviewed here, the most abundant compounds were PAEs and PAHs (up to 46 and 28 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively); PCBs and OCPs occurred generally at concentrations lower than 100 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry weight. Nevertheless, quite high concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were observed in contaminated sites (e.g., the sites affected by electronic waste activities). The average concentrations of PAHs and OCPs in soils of North China were higher than those in South China. The principal component analysis demonstrated different distribution patterns for PAH, PCB and PCDD/F congeners and for the various sites/regions examined. The isomer ratios of DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) indicated different sources and residue levels in soils. Finally, this review has highlighted several areas where further research is considered necessary.

  4. Uncertainties in monitoring of SVOCs in air caused by within-sampler degradation during active and passive air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Přibylová, Petra; Vojta, Šimon; Kohoutek, Jiří; Lammel, Gerhard; Klánová, Jana

    2017-10-01

    Degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) occurs naturally in ambient air due to reactions with reactive trace gases (e.g., ozone, NOx). During air sampling there is also the possibility for degradation of SVOCs within the air sampler, leading to underestimates of ambient air concentrations. We investigated the possibility of this sampling artifact in commonly used active and passive air samplers for seven classes of SVOCs, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) typically covered by air monitoring programs, as well as SVOCs of emerging concern. Two active air samplers were used, one equipped with an ozone denuder and one without, to compare relative differences in mass of collected compounds. Two sets of passive samplers were also deployed to determine the influence of degradation during longer deployment times in passive sampling. In active air samplers, comparison of the two sampling configurations suggested degradation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with concentrations up to 2× higher in the denuder-equipped sampler, while halogenated POPs did not have clear evidence of degradation. In contrast, more polar, reactive compounds (e.g., organophosphate esters and current use pesticides) had evidence of losses in the sampler with denuder. This may be caused by the denuder itself, suggesting sampling bias for these compounds can be created when typical air sampling apparatuses are adapted to limit degradation. Passive air samplers recorded up to 4× higher concentrations when deployed for shorter consecutive sampling periods, suggesting that within-sampler degradation may also be relevant in passive air monitoring programs.

  5. Desorption of SVOCs from Heated Surfaces in the Form of Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Ott, Wayne R.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) produced by electric heating of stoves and metal cooking pans, absent food, have been hypothesized to be created from a surface film of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) sorbed from the surrounding air. This study tests that hypothesis by size-resolved measurements...... extending the lower range of the UFP studied from 10 to 2.3 nm, and including other surfaces (glass, aluminum, and porcelain). Heating glass Petri dishes or squares of aluminum foil to about 350-400 degrees C for 4-6 min removed all sorbed organic substances completely. Subsequent exposure of these "clean......" Petri dishes and foil squares to indoor air in two different residences for successively longer periods (1 h to 281 days), followed by heating the materials for 4-6 min, indicated a strong relationship of the number, size distribution, and mass of the UFP to the time exposed. Estimates...

  6. Human Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells from Umbilical Cord Blood and Placenta Exhibit Similar Capacities to Promote Expansion of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe R. Fajardo-Orduña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs from bone marrow (BM have been used in coculture systems as a feeder layer for promoting the expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs for hematopoietic cell transplantation. Because BM has some drawbacks, umbilical cord blood (UCB and placenta (PL have been proposed as possible alternative sources of MSCs. However, MSCs from UCB and PL sources have not been compared to determine which of these cell populations has the best capacity of promoting hematopoietic expansion. In this study, MSCs from UCB and PL were cultured under the same conditions to compare their capacities to support the expansion of HPCs in vitro. MSCs were cocultured with CD34+CD38−Lin− HPCs in the presence or absence of early acting cytokines. HPC expansion was analyzed through quantification of colony-forming cells (CFCs, long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs, and CD34+CD38−Lin− cells. MSCs from UCB and PL have similar capacities to increase HPC expansion, and this capacity is similar to that presented by BM-MSCs. Here, we are the first to determine that MSCs from UCB and PL have similar capacities to promote HPC expansion; however, PL is a better alternative source because MSCs can be obtained from a higher proportion of samples.

  7. Synovium fragment-derived cells exhibit characteristics similar to those of dissociated multipotent cells in synovial fluid of the temporomandibular joint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-peng Sun

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs found in the synovial fluid (SFMSCs of the tempromandibular joint (TMJ remain poorly understood. During TMJ arthrocentesis, we discovered that synovial fluid collected from some patients with TMJ disorders contained not only SFMSCs but also synovium fragments (SFs. In this study, we attempted to characterize both the SFMSCs and SF-derived cells (SFCs in order to further understand the role of MSCs in the synovial fluid of the TMJ. The SFs were membranous and translucent and consisted of several cell layers, indicating that their origin was only from the intima. SFCs were obtained by digestion of the SFs and subsequently expanded in vitro. SFMSCs were enriched by centrifugation of the synovial fluid and expanded in vitro. SFCs and SFMSCs displayed a similar fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped morphology, and we observed that some SFMSCs grew out of small tissue masses in culture. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both groups of cells expressed similar surface markers, including CD90, CD44, CD105, and CD73. However, both were negative for Stro-1, CD146, CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD19, and HLA-DR. Immunofluorescent staining showed that both SFs and SFMSCs expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Both SFCs and SFMSCs could be induced to differentiate down osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic lineages in vitro. Together, our results indicate that the intima is the most likely tissue origin of SFMSCs in the TMJ. Moreover, the SFs are composed of only intima and thus offer an improved source of synovium-derived MSCs compared to synovium specimens obtained by surgery, which contain both intima and subintima.

  8. A mouse model for triple-negative breast cancer tumor-initiating cells (TNBC-TICs) exhibits similar aggressive phenotype to the human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Punit; Nagaraja, Ganachari M; Zheng, Hongying; Gizachew, Dawit; Galukande, Moses; Krishnan, Sunil; Asea, Alexzander

    2012-03-27

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) exhibit characteristics quite distinct from other kinds of breast cancer, presenting as an aggressive disease--recurring and metastasizing more often than other kinds of breast cancer, without tumor-specific treatment options and accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer with higher percentages in premenopausal African-American and Hispanic women. The reason for this aggressive phenotype is currently the focus of intensive research. However, progress is hampered by the lack of suitable TNBC cell model systems. To understand the mechanistic basis for the aggressiveness of TNBC, we produced a stable TNBC cell line by sorting for 4T1 cells that do not express the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) or the gene for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). As a control, we produced a stable triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC) cell line by transfecting 4T1 cells with rat HER2, ER and PgR genes and sorted for cells with high expression of ER and PgR by flow cytometry and high expression of the HER2 gene by Western blot analysis. We isolated tumor-initiating cells (TICs) by sorting for CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells from TNBC (TNBC-TICs) and TPBC (TPBC-TICs) stable cell lines. Limiting dilution transplantation experiments revealed that CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells derived from TNBC (TNBC-TICs) and TPBC (TPBC-TICs) were significantly more effective at repopulating the mammary glands of naïve female BALB/c mice than CD24-/CD44-/ALDH1- cells. Implantation of the TNBC-TICs resulted in significantly larger tumors, which metastasized to the lungs to a significantly greater extent than TNBC, TPBC-TICs, TPBC or parental 4T1 cells. We further demonstrated that the increased aggressiveness of TNBC-TICs correlates with the presence of high levels of mouse twenty-five kDa heat shock protein (Hsp25/mouse HspB1) and seventy-two kDa heat shock protein (Hsp72/HspA1A). Taken together, we have developed a TNBC-TICs model system

  9. A mouse model for triple-negative breast cancer tumor-initiating cells (TNBC-TICs exhibits similar aggressive phenotype to the human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kau Punit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC exhibit characteristics quite distinct from other kinds of breast cancer, presenting as an aggressive disease--recurring and metastasizing more often than other kinds of breast cancer, without tumor-specific treatment options and accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer with higher percentages in premenopausal African-American and Hispanic women. The reason for this aggressive phenotype is currently the focus of intensive research. However, progress is hampered by the lack of suitable TNBC cell model systems. Methods To understand the mechanistic basis for the aggressiveness of TNBC, we produced a stable TNBC cell line by sorting for 4T1 cells that do not express the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR or the gene for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. As a control, we produced a stable triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC cell line by transfecting 4T1 cells with rat HER2, ER and PgR genes and sorted for cells with high expression of ER and PgR by flow cytometry and high expression of the HER2 gene by Western blot analysis. Results We isolated tumor-initiating cells (TICs by sorting for CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells from TNBC (TNBC-TICs and TPBC (TPBC-TICs stable cell lines. Limiting dilution transplantation experiments revealed that CD24+/CD44high/ALDH1+ cells derived from TNBC (TNBC-TICs and TPBC (TPBC-TICs were significantly more effective at repopulating the mammary glands of naïve female BALB/c mice than CD24-/CD44-/ALDH1- cells. Implantation of the TNBC-TICs resulted in significantly larger tumors, which metastasized to the lungs to a significantly greater extent than TNBC, TPBC-TICs, TPBC or parental 4T1 cells. We further demonstrated that the increased aggressiveness of TNBC-TICs correlates with the presence of high levels of mouse twenty-five kDa heat shock protein (Hsp25/mouse HspB1 and seventy-two kDa heat shock protein (Hsp72/HspA1A. Conclusions

  10. Lung tumors with distinct p53 mutations respond similarly to p53 targeted therapy but exhibit genotype-specific statin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Frances K.; Kerr, Emma M.; Gao, Meiling; Thorpe, Hannah; Doherty, Gary J.; Cridge, Jake; Shorthouse, David; Speed, Alyson; Samarajiwa, Shamith; Hall, Benjamin A.; Griffiths, Meryl; Martins, Carla P.

    2017-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma accounts for ∼40% of lung cancers, the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and current therapies provide only limited survival benefit. Approximately half of lung adenocarcinomas harbor mutations in TP53 (p53), making these mutants appealing targets for lung cancer therapy. As mutant p53 remains untargetable, mutant p53-dependent phenotypes represent alternative targeting opportunities, but the prevalence and therapeutic relevance of such effects (gain of function and dominant-negative activity) in lung adenocarcinoma are unclear. Through transcriptional and functional analysis of murine KrasG12D-p53null, -p53R172H (conformational), and -p53R270H (contact) mutant lung tumors, we identified genotype-independent and genotype-dependent therapeutic sensitivities. Unexpectedly, we found that wild-type p53 exerts a dominant tumor-suppressive effect on mutant tumors, as all genotypes were similarly sensitive to its restoration in vivo. These data show that the potential of p53 targeted therapies is comparable across all p53-deficient genotypes and may explain the high incidence of p53 loss of heterozygosity in mutant tumors. In contrast, mutant p53 gain of function and their associated vulnerabilities can vary according to mutation type. Notably, we identified a p53R270H-specific sensitivity to simvastatin in lung tumors, and the transcriptional signature that underlies this sensitivity was also present in human lung tumors, indicating that this therapeutic approach may be clinically relevant. PMID:28790158

  11. Lung tumors with distinct p53 mutations respond similarly to p53 targeted therapy but exhibit genotype-specific statin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, Frances K; Kerr, Emma M; Gao, Meiling; Thorpe, Hannah; Doherty, Gary J; Cridge, Jake; Shorthouse, David; Speed, Alyson; Samarajiwa, Shamith; Hall, Benjamin A; Griffiths, Meryl; Martins, Carla P

    2017-08-08

    Lung adenocarcinoma accounts for ∼40% of lung cancers, the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and current therapies provide only limited survival benefit. Approximately half of lung adenocarcinomas harbor mutations in TP53 (p53), making these mutants appealing targets for lung cancer therapy. As mutant p53 remains untargetable, mutant p53-dependent phenotypes represent alternative targeting opportunities, but the prevalence and therapeutic relevance of such effects (gain of function and dominant-negative activity) in lung adenocarcinoma are unclear. Through transcriptional and functional analysis of murine Kras(G12D) -p53(null) , -p53(R172H) (conformational), and -p53(R270H) (contact) mutant lung tumors, we identified genotype-independent and genotype-dependent therapeutic sensitivities. Unexpectedly, we found that wild-type p53 exerts a dominant tumor-suppressive effect on mutant tumors, as all genotypes were similarly sensitive to its restoration in vivo. These data show that the potential of p53 targeted therapies is comparable across all p53-deficient genotypes and may explain the high incidence of p53 loss of heterozygosity in mutant tumors. In contrast, mutant p53 gain of function and their associated vulnerabilities can vary according to mutation type. Notably, we identified a p53(R270H) -specific sensitivity to simvastatin in lung tumors, and the transcriptional signature that underlies this sensitivity was also present in human lung tumors, indicating that this therapeutic approach may be clinically relevant. © 2017 Turrell et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Predominant Acidilobus-like populations from geothermal environments in yellowstone national park exhibit similar metabolic potential in different hypoxic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Z J; Rusch, D B; Tringe, S G; Bailey, C; Jennings, R M; Inskeep, W P

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature (>70°C) ecosystems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to study chemotrophic archaea and their role in microbial community structure and function under highly constrained geochemical conditions. Acidilobus spp. (order Desulfurococcales) comprise one of the dominant phylotypes in hypoxic geothermal sulfur sediment and Fe(III)-oxide environments along with members of the Thermoproteales and Sulfolobales. Consequently, the primary goals of the current study were to analyze and compare replicate de novo sequence assemblies of Acidilobus-like populations from four different mildly acidic (pH 3.3 to 6.1) high-temperature (72°C to 82°C) environments and to identify metabolic pathways and/or protein-encoding genes that provide a detailed foundation of the potential functional role of these populations in situ. De novo assemblies of the highly similar Acidilobus-like populations (>99% 16S rRNA gene identity) represent near-complete consensus genomes based on an inventory of single-copy genes, deduced metabolic potential, and assembly statistics generated across sites. Functional analysis of coding sequences and confirmation of gene transcription by Acidilobus-like populations provide evidence that they are primarily chemoorganoheterotrophs, generating acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via the degradation of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and auxotrophic with respect to several external vitamins, cofactors, and metabolites. No obvious pathways or protein-encoding genes responsible for the dissimilatory reduction of sulfur were identified. The presence of a formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) and other protein-encoding genes involved in mixed-acid fermentation supports the hypothesis that Acidilobus spp. function as degraders of complex organic constituents in high-temperature, mildly acidic, hypoxic geothermal systems.

  13. Predominant Acidilobus-Like Populations from Geothermal Environments in Yellowstone National Park Exhibit Similar Metabolic Potential in Different Hypoxic Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Z. J.; Rusch, D. B.; Tringe, S. G.; Bailey, C.; Jennings, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature (>70°C) ecosystems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to study chemotrophic archaea and their role in microbial community structure and function under highly constrained geochemical conditions. Acidilobus spp. (order Desulfurococcales) comprise one of the dominant phylotypes in hypoxic geothermal sulfur sediment and Fe(III)-oxide environments along with members of the Thermoproteales and Sulfolobales. Consequently, the primary goals of the current study were to analyze and compare replicate de novo sequence assemblies of Acidilobus-like populations from four different mildly acidic (pH 3.3 to 6.1) high-temperature (72°C to 82°C) environments and to identify metabolic pathways and/or protein-encoding genes that provide a detailed foundation of the potential functional role of these populations in situ. De novo assemblies of the highly similar Acidilobus-like populations (>99% 16S rRNA gene identity) represent near-complete consensus genomes based on an inventory of single-copy genes, deduced metabolic potential, and assembly statistics generated across sites. Functional analysis of coding sequences and confirmation of gene transcription by Acidilobus-like populations provide evidence that they are primarily chemoorganoheterotrophs, generating acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via the degradation of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and auxotrophic with respect to several external vitamins, cofactors, and metabolites. No obvious pathways or protein-encoding genes responsible for the dissimilatory reduction of sulfur were identified. The presence of a formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) and other protein-encoding genes involved in mixed-acid fermentation supports the hypothesis that Acidilobus spp. function as degraders of complex organic constituents in high-temperature, mildly acidic, hypoxic geothermal systems. PMID:24162572

  14. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under....... The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m3); for exposed clothes...... the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m3), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6...

  15. Identification of sensitive parameters in the modeling of SVOCs reemission processes from soil to atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizeau, Vincent; Ciffroy, Philippe; Musson Genon, Luc; Roustan, Yelva

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have shown that semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are subject to Long-Range Atmospheric Transport (LRAT) and that such a transport may occur through a series of deposition-reemission events at the soil surface-air interface. This periodic movement of pollutants between soil and atmosphere is called the 'grasshopper effect'. Thus, it appears necessary to take into account the exchange between soil and atmosphere to properly simulate the fate of these pollutants at regional or global scale. The prediction of reemission from soils is however associated with large uncertainties, which can be schematically classified into three main sources : (i) natural variability, including nature of soil (organic matter content, porosity, water content) and meteorological conditions ; (ii) uncertainty about intrinsic properties of chemicals, like degradation rate or partitioning between environmental components, which govern the dynamics of chemicals in air and soils ; (iii) model structure, and particularly the discretization of soil compartment. Considering this background, a major challenge is to identify the most sensitive sources of uncertainty in modelling the reemission of chemicals from soils, in order to know where the priority has to be set for upgrading SVOC dispersion estimation. To answer this question, we studied a multi-layer soil model, including exchanges between soil and atmosphere. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by affecting probability density functions for each of model parameters. Four chemicals were selected (Benzo(a)Pyrene, PCB-28, Lindane and Hexachlorobenzene) because of their contrasted behaviors in soils, as expected by their partition and degradation properties. For this first exercise, simple emission scenarii were considered, i.e. a period of constant concentration in air (where realistic concentrations were estimated for each chemical from monitoring data provided by EMEP) followed by a zero-concentration in air. Although

  16. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...... as a result of the visitor’s interaction with the exhibit....

  17. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here differe...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - fate and long-range atmospheric transport studied using a global model, EMAC-SVOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Tost, Holger; Lammel, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted by incomplete combustion from fossil fuel, vehicles, and biomass burning. They may persist in environmental compartments, pose a health hazard and may bio accumulate along food chains. The ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model had been used to simulate global tropospheric, stratospheric chemistry and climate. In this study, we improve the model to include simulations of the transport and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). The EMAC-SVOC model takes into account essential environmental processes including gas-particle partitioning, dry and wet deposition, chemical and bio-degradation, and volatilization from sea surface, soils, vegetation, and snow. The model was evaluated against observational data in the Arctic, mid-latitudes, and tropics, and further applied to study total environmental lifetime and long-range transport potential (LRTP) of PAHs. We selected four compounds for study, spanning a wide range of volatility, i.e., phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Several LRTP indicators were investigated, including the Arctic contamination potential, meridional spreading, and zonal and meridional fluxes to remote regions.

  19. The evolution of pollution profile and health risk assessment for three groups SVOCs pollutants along with Beijiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiao; An, Taicheng; Xiong, Jukun; Li, Guiying

    2017-12-01

    Three important groups of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), were produced by various human activities and entered the water body. In this study, the pollution profiles of three species including 16 PAHs, 20 OCPs and 15 PAEs in water along the Beijiang River, China were investigated. The concentrations of Σ16PAHs in the dissolved and particulate phases were obtained as 69-1.5 × 102 ng L-1 and 2.3 × 103-8.6 × 104 ng g-1, respectively. The levels of Σ20OCPs were 23-66 ng L-1 (dissolved phase) and 19-1.7 × 103 ng g-1 (particulate phase). Nevertheless, higher levels of PAEs were found both in the dissolved and particulate phases due to abuse use of plastic products. Furthermore, non-cancer and cancer risks caused by these SVOCs through the ingestion absorption and dermal absorption were also assessed. There was no non-cancer risk existed through two kinds of exposure of them at current levels, whereas certain cancer risk existed through dermal absorption of PAHs in the particulate phase in some sampling sites. The results will show scientific insights into the evaluation of the status of combined pollution in river basins, and the determination of strategies for incident control and pollutant remediation.

  20. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  1. The exchange of SVOCs across the air-sea interface in Singapore's coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. He

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are vulnerable to the accumulation of semivolatile organic compounds, such as PAHs, OCPs and PCBs from atmospheric inputs. Dry particulate and wet depositions, and air-water diffusive exchange in the Singapore's south coastal area, where most of chemical and oil refinery industries are situated in, were estimated. Based on a yearly dataset, the mean annual dry particulate deposition fluxes of ∑16-PAHs, ∑7 OCPs and ∑21 PCBs were 1328.8±961.1 μg m−2 y−1, 5421.4±3426.7 ng m−2 y−1 and 811.8±578.3 ng m−2 y−1, and the wet deposition of ∑16-PAHs and ∑7 OCPs were 6667.1±1745.2 and 115.4±98.3 μg m−2 y−1, respectively. Seasonal variation of atmospheric depositions was influenced by meteorological conditions. Air-water gas exchange fluxes were shown to be negative values for PAHs, HCHs and DDXs, indicating Singapore's south coast as a sink for the above-mentioned SVOCs. The relative contribution of each depositional process to the total atmospheric input was assessed by annual fluxes. The profile of dry particulate deposition, wet deposition and gas exchange fluxes seemed to be correlated with individual pollutant's properties such as molecular weight and Henry's law constant, etc. For the water column partitioning, the organic carbon-normalized partition coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases (KOC for both PAHs and OCPs were obtained. The relationships between KOC of PAHs and OCPs and their respective octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW were examined. In addition, both adsorption onto combustion-derived soot carbon and absorption into natural organic matter for PAHs in marine water column were investigated. Enrichment factors in the sea-surface microlayer (SML of the particulate phase were 1.2

  2. Exhibiting design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases, it identif......This article explores how co-curatorial strategies and partnerships can work as driving forces for representing design, and how they can vitalize the exhibition as a media between enlightenment and experience. Focusing on Design Museum DK, drawing on historical as well as recent cases...

  3. Museum Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  4. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...

  5. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    , this book draws on unique archival material, including photographs, documentary evidence and newspaper articles, newly discovered in Copenhagen. This opens for new insights and perspectives on these European exhibitions. The book employs post-colonial and feminist approaches to the material to shed fresh...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  6. Evaluation and guidelines for using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers in double-dome chambers to assess semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in non-industrial indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Pernilla; Audy, Ondřej; Škrdlíková, Lenka; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2014-11-01

    Indoor air pollution has been recognized as an important risk factor for human health, especially in areas where people tend to spend most of their time indoors. Many semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have primarily indoor sources and are present in orders of magnitude higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Despite this, awareness of SVOCs in indoor air and assessment of the link between indoor concentrations and human health have lagged behind those of outdoor air. This is partially related to challenges associated with indoor sampling of SVOCs. Passive air samplers (PASs), which are widely accepted in established outdoor air monitoring networks, have been used to fill the knowledge gaps on indoor SVOCs distribution. However, their applicability for indoor environments and the assessment of human health risks lack sufficient experimental data. To address this issue, we performed an indoor calibration study of polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS deployed in a double-dome chamber, covering both legacy and new SVOC classes. PUF-PAS and a continuous low-volume active air sampler (AAS) were co-deployed for a calibration period of twelve weeks. Based on the results from this evaluation, PUF-PAS in a double-bowl chamber is recommended for indoor sampling and health risk assessment of gas phase SVOCs, including novel brominated flame retardants (nBFR) providing sufficient exposure time is applied. Data for particle associated SVOCs suffered from significant uncertainties caused by low level of detection and low precision in this study. A more open chamber design for indoor studies may allow for higher sampling rates (RS) and better performance for the particle associated SVOCs.

  7. Xenoturbella bocki exhibits direct development with similarities to Acoelomorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Hiroaki; Lundin, Kennet; BOURLAT Sarah J.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Funch, Peter; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Obst, Matthias; Thorndyke, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Xenoturbella bocki, a marine animal with a simple body plan, has recently been suggested to be sister group to the Acoelomorpha, together forming the new phylum Xenacoelomorpha. The phylogenetic position of the phylum is still under debate, either as an early branching bilaterian or as a sister group to the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms) within the deuterostomes. Although development has been described for several species of Acoelomorpha, little is known about the life cycle of ...

  8. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  9. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  10. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  11. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  12. Visitors Center Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A child enjoys building his own LEGO model at a play table which was included in the exhibit 'Travel in Space' World Show. The exhibit consisted of 21 displays designed to teach children about flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles.

  13. Sonnesgade 11 - Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This exhibition consists of site specific installations; a collection of work by students from Studio Constructing an Archive at the Aarhus School of Architecture, and SLETH Architects. The exhibition showcases the culmination of a common project which began in February 2013. The project has been...

  14. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    The traveling exhibition titled "The Wild Beasts: Fauvism and its Affinities" opened first at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and was then moved to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1976. Discusses the exhibition's historic value, how Fauvism passed through three fairly distinct stylistic phases, and the social…

  15. Space physics exhibits underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    AGU is planning a new space science exhibit for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington that will help visitors come to an understanding of space science as a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and exciting field. The title of the exhibit is “Electric Space: Our Earth-Sun Environment.” The exhibit's five modules will include demonstrations of the effects of particle and field radiation on humans and satellites in space and on human technology on the ground. The project also includes a larger traveling version that will visit science and technology centers throughout the United States. The first exhibit is planned to open at the Air and Space Museum in late summer or early fall 1992, in time for International Space Year activities; the traveling exhibit will begin touring in early 1993.

  16. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  17. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  18. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  19. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  20. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  1. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  2. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  3. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  4. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... local authorizations. (i) A copy of any certificate of public convenience and necessity or similar..., showing towns and communities to be served, and (b) gas producing and storage filed, or other sources of.... (8) Exhibit G-II—Flow diagram data. Exhibits G and G-I shall be accompanied by a statement of...

  5. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  6. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  7. Self-similar aftershock rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise --- intermittent avalanche-like relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes --- the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is in particular true for the case of seismicity and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing in particular clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved way of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  8. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents / ... April 17, Dr. Donald Lindberg officially opened the exhibition, "Against the Odds: Making a Difference in Global ...

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  3. Do cylinders exhibit a cubatic phase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, R.; Frenkel, D.; Mulder, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that freely rotating cylinders with an aspect ratio L/D = 0.9 exhibit a cubatic phase similar to the one found for a system of cut spheres. We present theoretical arguments why a cubatic phase might occur in this particular system. Monte Carlo simulations do not

  4. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  5. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  6. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  7. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  8. Similarity after Goodman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.; Douven, I.

    2011-01-01

    In a famous critique, Goodman dismissed similarity as a slippery and both philosophically and scientifically useless notion. We revisit his critique in the light of important recent work on similarity in psychology and cognitive science. Specifically, we use Tversky's influential set-theoretic

  9. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  10. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  11. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets......In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...... assignments. The paper introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD), and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD), two new distance functions that take into account the diversity in feature spaces. WFD functions perform better in supervised and unsupervised methods by comparing data objects on their feature...

  12. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  13. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  14. Additive Similarity Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  15. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  16. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  17. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field...... of action. It is theorized that to meet this challenge organizations may substitute increased similarity on one core dimension for increased idiosyncrasy on another, but only after a certain level of isomorphism is reached. Results of quantitative analyses support this theory and show that an inverse U...

  18. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  19. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  20. Murine cytomegalovirus (CMV) M33 and human CMV US28 receptors exhibit similar constitutive signaling activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldhoer, Maria; Kledal, Thomas N; Farrell, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Cellular infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with very early G-protein-mediated signal transduction and reprogramming of gene expression. Here we investigated the involvement of human CMV (HCMV)-encoded US27, US28, and UL33 receptors as well as murine CMV-encoded M33 transmembrane (7TM...

  1. Distinct subsets of nucleus basalis neurons exhibit similar sensitivity to excitotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, Tibor; Varga, Csaba; Grosche, Jens; Mulder, Jan; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Penke, Botond; Härtig, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Excitotoxic lesions in the magnocellular nucleus basalis (MBN) lead to a significant damage of cholinergic neurons concomitant with increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression in the cerebral cortex. However, the sensitivity of non-cholinergic neurons to excitotoxicity, and changes of APP

  2. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  3. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  4. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  5. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level.......Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support...

  6. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  7. Borneo 2007. Three European Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2007 appears to have been an exceptionally good one for Borneo in Europe. Two exhibitions were held in France, and one in Switzerland, which prominently featured the big island, its forests, its peoples, its cultures, and its arts. Here a brief review of these three events. Bornéo... Dayak et Punan. Peuples de la forêt tropicale humide, Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie, Laon, France, 25 November 2006 – 11 March 2007 The beautiful city of Laon, only a short distance by train or by car fro...

  8. CERN Permanent exhibitions short version

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Visits Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. CERN invites the public to discover the mysteries of the Universe and the work of the world's biggest physics laboratory through free of charge guided tours and permanent exhibitions. As a group, with friends, individually, on foot, on your bike, come and discover CERN or explore it virtually. Welcome!

  9. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  10. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  12. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  13. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Similarity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; António M Lopes; Galhano, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...

  14. Positive matrix factorization of PM2.5 – eliminating the effects of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs were calculated from gas/particle (G/P partitioning theory using their measured particle-phase concentrations. The particle-phase data were obtained from an existing filter measurement campaign (27 January 2003–2 October 2005 as a part of the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH study, including 970 observations of 71 SVOCs (Xie et al., 2013. In each compound class of SVOCs, the lighter species (e.g. docosane in n alkanes, fluoranthene in PAHs had higher total concentrations (gas + particle phase and lower particle-phase fractions. The total SVOC concentrations were analyzed using positive matrix factorization (PMF. Then the results were compared with source apportionment results where only particle-phase SVOC concentrations were used (particle only-based study; Xie et al., 2013. For the particle only-based PMF analysis, the factors primarily associated with primary or secondary sources (n alkane, EC/sterane and inorganic ion factors exhibit similar contribution time series (r = 0.92–0.98 with their corresponding factors (n alkane, sterane and nitrate + sulfate factors in the current work. Three other factors (light n alkane/PAH, PAH and summer/odd n alkane factors are linked with pollution sources influenced by atmospheric processes (e.g. G/P partitioning, photochemical reaction, and were less correlated (r = 0.69–0.84 with their corresponding factors (light SVOC, PAH and bulk carbon factors in the current work, suggesting that the source apportionment results derived from particle-only SVOC data could be affected by atmospheric processes. PMF analysis was also performed on three temperature-stratified subsets of the total SVOC data, representing ambient sampling during cold (daily average temperature 20 °C periods. Unlike the particle only-based study, in this work the factor characterized by the low molecular weight (MW compounds (light SVOC factor

  15. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition? With...

  16. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  17. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    The area of interest is transmedia experiences in exhibitions. The research question is: How to involve visitors in a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition, which bridges the pre-, during- and post-experience? Research through design, and action research are the methods used to design...... and reflect on a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition. This is framed with literature about exhibitions and transmedia, and analyzed with quantitative data from a case-study of visitors in the exhibition; this is organizationally contextualized. The contribution covers a significant gap...... in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  18. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  19. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  20. Space exhibitions: the science encounters the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coliolo, F.; Menendez, M.

    The widespread dissemination of science has always been one pillar of the development of human knowledge. There are several methods to structure interaction with the public: media, conferences, various written genres, and exhibitions. But: how to attract the public? How to arouse interest among future generation, insatiable for knowledge? In this paper we focus on space exhibitions, whose content combines mystery, discovery and science. The preparation of an exhibition is based on guidelines discussed between an interdisciplinary team and the exhibition project manager, the purpose of which is to find a coherent "strategy" to select information and to choose a concise, efficient, smart and original way to "visualize" the messages. Exhibition visitors are "privileged" because the interactivity is first emotive, then mental and cultural; the audience is universal. The goal of an exhibition is not to explain the content, but to stimulate the audience's curiosity in an attractive environment. We show some photos of ESA exhibitions, and try to understand if the visual impact is the first step towards a "multi-sensory" approach to communication. "A good exhibition can never be replaced by a book, a film or a lecture. A good exhibition creates a thirst for books, film, lectures. A good exhibition changes the visitors"(J. Wagensberg, Modern scientific museology")

  1. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  2. Which exhibition attributes create repeat visitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, J.; Webber, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies exhibition attributes deemed important by attendees’ in determining their attendance at the UK biennial MICROSCIENCE 2008 exhibition using a self-administered internet-based questionnaire. Perceived performance of attributes by attendees is also established. Attendees consider meeting specialists as well as gaining product and technical information to be very important attributes for exhibition selection. Application of an Importance Performance Analysis suggests that re...

  3. Renewing the respect for similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Shimon; Shahbazi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemming from its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problem at hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, by surveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preserving associative lookup and dimensionality reduction-critical components of many cognitive functions, as well as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing family of algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, and on the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-based ideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included in the core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience. In support of this stance, the present paper (1) offers a discussion of conceptual, mathematical, computational, and empirical aspects of similarity, as applied to the problems of visual object and scene representation, recognition, and interpretation, (2) mentions some key computational problems arising in attempts to put similarity to use, along with their possible solutions, (3) briefly states a previously developed similarity-based framework for visual object representation, the Chorus of Prototypes, along with the empirical support it enjoys, (4) presents new mathematical insights into the effectiveness of this framework, derived from its relationship to locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) and to concomitant statistics, (5) introduces a new model, the Chorus of Relational Descriptors (ChoRD), that extends this framework to scene representation and interpretation, (6) describes its implementation and testing, and finally (7) suggests possible directions in which the present research program can be

  4. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.7 Applications: exhibits. Each exhibit must contain a title page..., and substations description including: (i) Conductor size and type; (ii) Type of structures; (iii... existing if applicable) substations or switching stations that will be associated with the proposed new...

  5. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  6. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  7. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  8. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    The area of interest is transmedia experiences in exhibitions. The research question is: How to involve visitors in a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition, which bridges the pre-, during- and post-experience? Research through design, and action research are the methods used to design ...

  9. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition. The media...

  10. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  11. Paolo Gioli: An Exercise in Exhibition Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Camporesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The text is thought as a brief museological and museographical journey of Paolo Gioli’s exhibition “Volti” [“Faces”], that allows the reader to go through the exhibition-making process, discussing, among others, the difficulties that I have encountered.

  12. Method of similarity for cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espanet, L.; Tekatlian, A.; Barbier, D. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gouin, H. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France). Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique et Thermodynamique

    1998-07-01

    The knowledge of possible cavitation in subassembly nozzles of the fast reactor core implies the realization of a fluid dynamic model test. We propose a method of similarity based on the non-dimensionalization of the equation of motion for viscous capillarity fluid issued from the Cahn and Hilliard model. Taking into account the dissolved gas effect, a condition of compatibility is determined. This condition must be respected by the fluid in experiment, along with the scaling between the two similar flows. (author)

  13. Self-Similar Isentropic Implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Amable, L.

    1980-07-01

    The self-similar compression of an isentropic spherical gas pellet Is analyzed for large values of the ratio of the final to initial densities. An asymptotic analysis provides the solution corresponding to a prescribed value of the final density when it is high. In addition an approximate solution is given when the specific heat ratio is not constant. The time evolution of the pressure on the outer surface leading to the self-similar solutions, is calculated for large density ratios. (Author)

  14. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  15. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  16. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  17. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  18. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  19. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  20. Conversation level syntax similarity metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghrati, Reihane; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Garten, Justin; Dehghani, Morteza

    2017-07-11

    The syntax and semantics of human language can illuminate many individual psychological differences and important dimensions of social interaction. Accordingly, psychological and psycholinguistic research has begun incorporating sophisticated representations of semantic content to better understand the connection between word choice and psychological processes. In this work we introduce ConversAtion level Syntax SImilarity Metric (CASSIM), a novel method for calculating conversation-level syntax similarity. CASSIM estimates the syntax similarity between conversations by automatically generating syntactical representations of the sentences in conversation, estimating the structural differences between them, and calculating an optimized estimate of the conversation-level syntax similarity. After introducing and explaining this method, we report results from two method validation experiments (Study 1) and conduct a series of analyses with CASSIM to investigate syntax accommodation in social media discourse (Study 2). We run the same experiments using two well-known existing syntactic metrics, LSM and Coh-Metrix, and compare their results to CASSIM. Overall, our results indicate that CASSIM is able to reliably measure syntax similarity and to provide robust evidence of syntax accommodation within social media discourse.

  1. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  2. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  3. Kolmogorov's Lagrangian similarity law revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjona, Manuel; da Silva, Carlos B.

    2017-10-01

    Kolmogorov's similarity turbulence theory in a Lagrangian frame is assessed with new direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence with and without hyperviscosity, which attain higher Reynolds numbers than previously available. It is demonstrated that hyperviscous simulations can be used to accurately predict the second order Lagrangian velocity structure function (LVSF-2) in the inertial range, by using an original new procedure. The results strongly support Kolmogorov's Lagrangian similarity assumption and allow the universal constant of LVSF-2 to be computed with a new level of confidence with C0=7.4 ±0.2 .

  4. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  5. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the points...

  6. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  7. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  8. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  9. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-02-01

    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  10. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  11. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    a synthetic example from molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply the algorithms to revisit the problem of ensemble averaging during structure determination of proteins, and find that an ensemble refinement method is able to recover the correct distribution of conformations better than standard single....... However, instead of examining individual conformations it is in many cases more relevant to analyse ensembles of conformations that have been obtained either through experiments or from methods such as molecular dynamics simulations. We here present three approaches that can be used to compare......Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformations...

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cystic Fibrosis isolates of similar RAPD genotype exhibit diversity in biofilm forming ability in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elborn Stuart J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is considered to grow in a biofilm in cystic fibrosis (CF chronic lung infections. Bacterial cell motility is one of the main factors that have been connected with P. aeruginosa adherence to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. In this investigation, we employed molecular and microscopic methods to determine the presence or absence of motility in P. aeruginosa CF isolates, and statistically correlated this with their biofilm forming ability in vitro. Results Our investigations revealed a wide diversity in the production, architecture and control of biofilm formation. Of 96 isolates, 49% possessed swimming motility, 27% twitching and 52% swarming motility, while 47% were non-motile. Microtitre plate assays for biofilm formation showed a range of biofilm formation ability from biofilm deficient phenotypes to those that formed very thick biofilms. A comparison of the motility and adherence properties of individual strains demonstrated that the presence of swimming and twitching motility positively affected biofilm biomass. Crucially, however, motility was not an absolute requirement for biofilm formation, as 30 non-motile isolates actually formed thick biofilms, and three motile isolates that had both flagella and type IV pili attached only weakly. In addition, CLSM analysis showed that biofilm-forming strains of P. aeruginosa were in fact capable of entrapping non-biofilm forming strains, such that these 'non-biofilm forming' cells could be observed as part of the mature biofilm architecture. Conclusions Clinical isolates that do not produce biofilms in the laboratory must have the ability to survive in the patient lung. We propose that a synergy exists between isolates in vivo, which allows "non biofilm-forming" isolates to be incorporated into the biofilm. Therefore, there is the potential for strains that are apparently non-biofilm forming in vitro to participate in biofilm-mediated pathogenesis in the CF lung.

  13. Cervical total disc replacement exhibits similar stiffness to intact cervical functional spinal units tested on a dynamic pendulum testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmende, Sean M; Daniels, Alan H; Paller, David J; Koruprolu, Sarath; Palumbo, Mark A; Crisco, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The pendulum testing system is capable of applying physiologic compressive loads without constraining the motion of functional spinal units (FSUs). The number of cycles to equilibrium observed under pendulum testing is a measure of the energy absorbed by the FSU. To examine the dynamic bending stiffness and energy absorption of the cervical spine, with and without implanted cervical total disc replacement (TDR) under simulated physiologic motion. A biomechanical cadaver investigation. Nine unembalmed, frozen human cervical FSUs from levels C3-C4 and C5-C6 were tested on the pendulum system with axial compressive loads of 25, 50, and 100 N before and after TDR implantation. Testing in flexion, extension, and lateral bending began by rotating the pendulum to 5°, resulting in unconstrained oscillatory motion. The number of rotations to equilibrium was recorded and the bending stiffness (Newton-meter/°) was calculated and compared for each testing mode. In flexion/extension, with increasing compressive loading from 25 to 100 N, the average number of cycles to equilibrium for the intact FSUs increased from 6.6 to 19.1, compared with 4.1 to 12.7 after TDR implantation (ppendulum system. These results provide further insight into the biomechanical behavior of cervical TDR under approximated physiologic loading conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEF) Exhibit a Similar but not Identical Phenotype to Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells (BMSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Hamid; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Aldahmash, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts have been utilized as a surrogate stem cell model for the postnatal bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (BMSC) to study mesoderm-type cell differentiation e.g. osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. However, no formal characterization of MEF phenotype has been re...

  15. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  16. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  17. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  18. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  19. Synchronization in multicell systems exhibiting dynamic plasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using two perturbation analyses, we also show that this emergent synchronized dynamical state is fairly robust under external perturbations. Thus, the inherent plasticity in the oscillatory phenotypes in these model cells may get suppressed to exhibit collective dynamics of a single type in a multicell system, but ...

  20. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  1. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities in the United States and Canada or Mexico; (5) Exhibit E. If the proposal is to import or export..., OR MODIFY FACILITIES USED FOR THE EXPORT OR IMPORT OF NATURAL GAS Application Under Section 3 § 153.8... for the export or the import of natural gas is within the authorized powers of applicant, that...

  2. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  3. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  4. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  5. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  6. The palaeontological exhibition: a venue for dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dialogue between museums and their visitors enables museums to subsist, undergo transformations and become consolidated as socially valued cultural venues. The Museo de La Plata (Argentina) was created in the late nineteenth century as a natural history museum, and this study shows that currently the museum is valued socially as a venue for family leisure and education, at which people make sense to the objects exhibited through characteristics conferred upon them by both the institution and the visitor. Nevertheless, such dialogue is somehow affected by the museographic proposal and the public interpretation of the institutional narrative, which could be analysed within the frame of contextual learning. As a consequence, the evolutionary idea that the museum aims to communicate is distorted by the public. This article highlights the importance of considering the visitors' interpretations when planning museum exhibitions, a perspective that has been rather absent in the Argentinian museums. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Blebbishields and mitotic cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, Goodwin G; Kamat, Ashish M

    2017-03-01

    Cancer stem cells can survive and undergo transformation after apoptosis by initiating robust endocytosis. Endocytosis in-turn drives formation of serpentine filopodia, which promote construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. However, the status and role of macropinocytosis in blebbishields is not known. Here, we show by scanning electron microscopy and by macropinocytosis assays that blebbishields exhibit robust macropinocytosis. Inhibiting dynamin-mediated endocytosis does not affect macropinocytosis in blebbishields or in mitotic cells. In addition, inhibiting macropinocytosis did not inhibit construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. Thus, although apoptotic cancer stem cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis, macropinocytosis is not essential to generate blebbishields, although it may play other roles in blebbishield biology. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):181-186, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. CERN's new microcosm exhibition is now open

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    After a major revamp in 2015, CERN’s microcosm exhibition is once again open to visitors. The exhibition is free and open to all without reservation and visitors are encouraged to share their #microcosm @CERN experiences on social media. Read more: http://cern.ch/go/7HWC -Producer- CERN Video Productions -Director- Kate Kahle -Camera- indissoluble.com and Julien Ordan -Editor- Julien Ordan -Infography- Daniel Dominguez Noemi Caraban -Music- “Light Years” by Stellardrone http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Ste... You can follow us on: cern.ch youtube.com/cerntv google.com/+CERN facebook.com/cern twitter.com/cern/ linkedin.com/company/cern instagram.com/cern Copyright © 2016 CERN. Terms of use: http://copyright.web.cern.ch/

  9. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, D. (Marine Pollution Control Co., Detroit, MI (United States))

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide.

  10. Craft Generation - Exhibition / Symposium / Workshops / Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    2014 saw a national programme celebrating 25 years of contemporary visual art under the banner of GENERATION.  \\ud \\ud FCA&C (Fife Contemporary Art & Craft) wanted to recognise and celebrate the achievements of Contemporary Scottish Craft practitioners, highlighting creativity, skills, and the career of key individuals as well as and the continuation and renewal of skill and Craftsmanship. \\ud \\ud Established craft artists will exhibited along with artists from the following generation whose ...

  11. PLATE: Product Lifetimes And The Environment Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The PLATE (Product Lifetimes And The Environment) Exhibition explored critical themes related to how long products last in contemporary society. The topic of product longevity is examined in innovative ways through prototypes, objects, artefacts, posters, photographs and films produced by designers, social businesses, artists, researchers, lecturers and students.\\ud \\ud Featuring household products, furniture, lighting, fashion, jewellery and artworks, this collection of visual work embraced ...

  12. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  13. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  14. Imaging phonological similarity effects on verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Lawrence H; Paskavitz, James F; Haley, Andreana P; Gunstad, John J; Mulligan, Richard C; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K; Cohen, Ronald A

    2008-03-07

    Studies of verbal working memory (VWM) report that performance declines as the phonemic similarity of stimuli increases. To determine how phonological similarity affects brain function during VWM, "standard" and "similarity" versions of the 2-Back task were presented to 34 healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Letter consonants presented during similarity blocks rhymed, while consonants did not rhyme during standard blocks. Empirical ROIs were identified from significant 2-Back-related activity observed during either condition. A priori ROIs were selected from functional neuroimaging literature on phonological processing. Although VWM-related activity was not modulated by similarity in any of four regions recruited (dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, anterior insular, and supplementary motor cortices), four of five regions of deactivation exhibited significantly greater deactivation during the similarity compared to the standard condition (posterior cingulate, paracentral lobule, posterior insula, and parahippocampal gyrus). In a priori phonological processing-related ROIs, similarity did not affect observed increases in activity (supplementary motor area, Broca's area, and cerebellum), while two of the three regions exhibiting decreased activity (near Wernicke's area and Heschel's Gyrus) also exhibited more deactivation during similarity. Accuracy was lower during the similarity 2-Back, positively related to activity within recruited VWM-related ROIs, and inversely related to activity in regions of VWM-related deactivation. Based on known functions of these ROIs, we conclude that language, audition, and self-reflection processes may disengage during phonological interference, while activity levels are maintained in regions recruited during VWM processing. Similarity effects likely include suspension of attention to unrelated and distracting processes to improve concentration.

  15. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  16. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  17. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  18. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  19. Comparison of chemical compounds associated with sclerites from healthy and diseased sea fan corals (Gorgonia ventalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Toledo-Hernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The roles of gorgonian sclerites as structural components and predator deterrents have been widely studied. Yet their role as barriers against microbes has only recently been investigated, and even less is known about the diversity and roles of the chemical compounds associated with sclerites. Methods Here, we examine the semi-volatile organic compound fraction (SVOCs associated with sclerites from healthy and diseased Gorgonia ventalina sea fan corals to understand their possible role as a stress response or in defense of infection. We also measured the oxidative potential of compounds from diseased and healthy G. ventalina colonies. Results The results showed that sclerites harbor a great diversity of SVOCs. Overall, 70 compounds were identified, the majority of which are novel with unknown biological roles. The majority of SVOCs identified exhibit multiple immune-related roles including antimicrobial and radical scavenging functions. The free radical activity assays further confirmed the anti-oxidative potential of some these compounds. The anti-oxidative activity was, nonetheless, similar across sclerites regardless of the health condition of the colony, although sclerites from diseased sea fans display slightly higher anti-oxidative activity than the healthy ones. Discussion Sclerites harbor great SVOCs diversity, the majority of which are novel to sea fans or any other corals. Yet the scientific literature consulted showed that the roles of compounds found in sclerites vary from antioxidant to antimicrobial compounds. However, this study fell short in determine the origin of the SVOCs identified, undermining our capacity to determine the biological roles of the SVOCs on sclerites and sea fans.

  20. Mars in their eyes - a cartoon exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Pi.

    Recently a collection of 120 cartoons which tell the story of Mars exploration and scientific discovery, past, present and future, was held in London. We discuss the aims of the exhibition, to what extent we believe the original aims were met and report on additional outreach opportunities resulting from the project. The overriding aim was to capitalise on the popular appeal of accessible art - most people admit to enjoying cartoons. This was strengthened by hanging the originals of cartoons which had, mostly, been published in newspapers and magazines in a wide selection of countries. The provenances served to indicate the attraction of Mars to a wide public. We were fortunate to work with the Cartoon Art Trust of the UK who was in the process of relocating to new premises and opening as The Cartoon Museum, in the tourist area of Bloomsbury, central London, very close to the British Museum. "Mars in their Eyes" ran for 10 weeks during April to July 2006; immediately following which a selection of the cartoons was displayed at the week-long Royal Society Summer Exhibition. We explore the differences between the two exhibitions and comment on the various audience responses. We use this comparison to discuss whether a project which is primarily art can be extended to explain science. Does the coupling merely result in dumbing-down of both cultures or is there a true synergy? The experience has led us to coin the phrase "extreme outreach". Projects which are as ambitious as "Mars in their Eyes", without the security of a safe, captive audience, for example at a Science Centre, must be judged by different criteria. Indeed if the project does not meet comparable targets like large visitor numbers, then the honest evaluation of such details can only inform future activities and must not be reflected in the future funding of only "safe" outreach activities.

  1. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  2. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts....... In this article, we present the experiment and its results. They indicate that with such a setting it is relatively easy to reach a degree of consensus about criteria. Such an interactive program can therefore be very useful, for instance when choosing among design proposals or when selecting artefacts...

  3. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  4. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Receivable, in form and detail as required in Schedule 201 of annual report R-1 for the Class I railroads... and detail as required in Schedule 309 of the annual Report R-1 for Class I railroads in similar form... detail as required in Schedule 200 of the Commission's annual report R-1 or R-2, as appropriate, together...

  5. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  6. A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan N; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-09-11

    Advances in the field of metamaterials have enabled unprecedented control of light-matter interactions. Metamaterial constituents support high-frequency electric and magnetic dipoles, which can be used as building blocks for new materials capable of negative refraction, electromagnetic cloaking, strong visible-frequency circular dichroism, and enhancing magnetic or chiral transitions in ions and molecules. While all metamaterials to date have existed in the solid-state, considerable interest has emerged in designing a colloidal metamaterial or "metafluid". Such metafluids would combine the advantages of solution-based processing with facile integration into conventional optical components. Here we demonstrate the colloidal synthesis of an isotropic metafluid that exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible frequencies. Protein-antibody interactions are used to direct the solution-phase self-assembly of discrete metamolecules comprised of silver nanoparticles tightly packed around a single dielectric core. The electric and magnetic response of individual metamolecules and the bulk metamaterial solution are directly probed with optical scattering and spectroscopy. Effective medium calculations indicate that the bulk metamaterial exhibits a negative effective permeability and a negative refractive index at modest fill factors. This metafluid can be synthesized in large-quantity and high-quality and may accelerate development of advanced nanophotonic and metamaterial devices.

  7. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  8. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  9. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Similarity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS and parametric similarity indices (PSI in the analysis of complex systems (CS. Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, and we generate the corresponding MDS maps of ‘points’. Third, we use Procrustes analysis to linearly transform the MDS charts for maximum superposition and to build a globalMDS map of “shapes”. This final plot captures the time evolution of the phenomena and is sensitive to the PSI adopted. The generalized correlation, theMinkowski distance and four entropy-based indices are tested. The proposed approach is applied to the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock market index and the Europe Brent Spot Price FOB time-series.

  10. Similar or different? The role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in similarity detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe syndrome can exhibit two types of abnormal behaviour when asked to place a banana and an orange in a single category: some patients categorize them at a concrete level (e.g., "both have peel", while others continue to look for differences between these objects (e.g., "one is yellow, the other is orange". These observations raise the question of whether abstraction and similarity detection are distinct processes involved in abstract categorization, and that depend on separate areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We designed an original experimental paradigm for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study involving healthy subjects, confirming the existence of two distinct processes relying on different prefrontal areas, and thus explaining the behavioural dissociation in frontal lesion patients. We showed that: 1 Similarity detection involves the anterior ventrolateral PFC bilaterally with a right-left asymmetry: the right anterior ventrolateral PFC is only engaged in detecting physical similarities; 2 Abstraction per se activates the left dorsolateral PFC.

  11. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  12. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  14. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  15. Common neighbour structure and similarity intensity in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng

    2017-10-01

    Complex systems as networks always exhibit strong regularities, implying underlying mechanisms governing their evolution. In addition to the degree preference, the similarity has been argued to be another driver for networks. Assuming a network is randomly organised without similarity preference, the present paper studies the expected number of common neighbours between vertices. A symmetrical similarity index is accordingly developed by removing such expected number from the observed common neighbours. The developed index can not only describe the similarities between vertices, but also the dissimilarities. We further apply the proposed index to measure of the influence of similarity on the wring patterns of networks. Fifteen empirical networks as well as artificial networks are examined in terms of similarity intensity and degree heterogeneity. Results on real networks indicate that, social networks are strongly governed by the similarity as well as the degree preference, while the biological networks and infrastructure networks show no apparent similarity governance. Particularly, classical network models, such as the Barabási-Albert model, the Erdös-Rényi model and the Ring Lattice, cannot well describe the social networks in terms of the degree heterogeneity and similarity intensity. The findings may shed some light on the modelling and link prediction of different classes of networks.

  16. Exhibiting Good Health: Public Health Exhibitions in London, 1948-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Alex

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the changing nature of public health services and their relationship with the public in post-war Britain by an analysis of the exhibitions mounted by Medical Officers of Health (MOsH) in London. Focusing on the period 1948-71, the article explores a time when public health practice, and the problems it faced, were in flux. A decline in infectious disease and an increase in chronic conditions linked to lifestyle required a new role for public health services. Exhibitions were one of several methods that MOsH used to inform the public about dangers to their health, but also to persuade them to change their behaviour. The exhibition, though, offers a unique insight into the relationship between public health authorities and the public, as exhibitions brought MOsH into direct contact with people. It is suggested that in the MOsH exhibitions we can find signs of a new relationship between public health practitioners and the public. Whilst elements of the pre-war, often moralistic ideology of public health services could still be detected, there is also evidence of a more nuanced, responsive dynamic between practitioners and the people. By the end of the 1960s, 'the public' was increasingly being thought of as a collection of 'publics', including individuals, target groups and vocal respondents.

  17. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well-being of their vis......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......-being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......: There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize people’s multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. This paper demonstrates that museums are an ideal...

  18. Agitated honeybees exhibit pessimistic cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Desire, Suzanne; Gartside, Sarah E; Wright, Geraldine A

    2011-06-21

    Whether animals experience human-like emotions is controversial and of immense societal concern [1-3]. Because animals cannot provide subjective reports of how they feel, emotional state can only be inferred using physiological, cognitive, and behavioral measures [4-8]. In humans, negative feelings are reliably correlated with pessimistic cognitive biases, defined as the increased expectation of bad outcomes [9-11]. Recently, mammals [12-16] and birds [17-20] with poor welfare have also been found to display pessimistic-like decision making, but cognitive biases have not thus far been explored in invertebrates. Here, we ask whether honeybees display a pessimistic cognitive bias when they are subjected to an anxiety-like state induced by vigorous shaking designed to simulate a predatory attack. We show for the first time that agitated bees are more likely to classify ambiguous stimuli as predicting punishment. Shaken bees also have lower levels of hemolymph dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. In demonstrating state-dependent modulation of categorization in bees, and thereby a cognitive component of emotion, we show that the bees' response to a negatively valenced event has more in common with that of vertebrates than previously thought. This finding reinforces the use of cognitive bias as a measure of negative emotional states across species and suggests that honeybees could be regarded as exhibiting emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gastric schwannoma exhibiting increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daisuke; Koide, Naohiko; Hiraga, Risako; Furuya, Naoyuki; Akamatsu, Taiji; Uehara, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This is the first case of gastric schwannoma that exhibited increased accumulation of [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The patient was a 60-year-old woman in whom esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a submucosal tumor, about 25 mm in size, in the upper body of the stomach, with ulceration at the top of the tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a well-defined hypoechoic mass located in the proper muscle layer of the stomach. The specimen taken from the tumor showed only inflammatory degenerative tissue. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the upper body of the stomach. FDG-PET showed FDG uptake (standardized uptake value [SUV] max 5.8) coincident with the tumor. Hence, the tumor was diagnosed initially as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor consisted of spindle cells with large nuclei, and mitosis was absent. The Ki-67 labeling index of the tumor cells was 4%. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed a positive reaction for S-100 protein, whereas they were negative for KIT, CD 34, and alpha-smooth muscle actin protein. The tumor was diagnosed as a benign gastric schwannoma. Gastric schwannoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of submucosal tumors of the stomach with FDG uptake.

  20. Engaging Experiences in Interactive Museum Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja; Langballe, Line; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    and history museums. There is considerable potential in the development of experiences and in the communication of information customized to visitors in the museum apart from personally held information devices. The paper will present background research for developing solutions to a new media museum......The aim of the present paper is to outline possibilities for the development of combined IT and architectural concepts supported by joint engaging experiences for visitors to the room of the museum of the future. Focus is upon a joint experience, as many existing IT-systems designed for museums...... primarily appeal to a strong individualised experience where the visitor views a PDA or similar, rather than experience the atmosphere and interaction of the room. In this context, there are several examples from practice and in the research literature of IT-systems for science centres, art museums...

  1. 77 FR 18295 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The...

  2. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  3. BOLD subjective value signals exhibit robust range adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Karin M; Kable, Joseph W

    2014-12-03

    Many theories of decision making assume that choice options are assessed along a common subjective value (SV) scale. The neural correlates of SV are widespread and reliable, despite the wide variation in the range of values over which decisions are made (e.g., between goods worth a few dollars, in some cases, or hundreds of dollars, in others). According to adaptive coding theories (Barlow, 1961), an efficient value signal should exhibit range adaptation, such that neural activity maintains a fixed dynamic range, and the slope of the value response varies inversely with the range of values within the local context. Although monkey data have demonstrated range adaptation in single-unit correlates of value (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010), whether BOLD value signals exhibit similar range adaptation is unknown. To test for this possibility, we presented human participants with choices between a fixed immediate and variable delayed payment options. Across two conditions, the delayed options' SVs spanned either a narrow or wide range. SV-tracking activity emerged in the posterior cingulate, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Throughout this network, we observed evidence consistent with the predictions of range adaptation: the SV response slope increased in the narrow versus wide range, with statistically significant slope changes confirmed for the posterior cingulate and ventral striatum. No regions exhibited a reliably increased BOLD activity range in the wide versus narrow condition. Our observations of range adaptation present implications for the interpretation of BOLD SV responses that are measured across different contexts or individuals. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3316533-11$15.00/0.

  4. Long-Term Mean Wind Profiles Based on Similarity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    in turn facilitates the derivation of a long-term mean wind profile based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. The modelled stability distributions exhibit good agreement with measurements from sites having different local conditions. The long-term wind profile formulation is further extended to include...... the influence of the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (h), which becomes relevant for heights above h/3, and the resultant long-term ‘tall’ profile form also matches observations....

  5. THE CRM-BASED DIGITAL EXHIBITION SYSTEM FOR CLOTHING INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ming-Kuen Chen; Kuo-Hsuan Chen; Chia-Hon Chen

    2014-01-01

    .... Digital exhibition precludes the restrictions of time, location, space and planning on past physical exhibitions, and can demonstrate characteristics of diversity, interaction and low cost, and break...

  6. Lichtheimia species exhibit differences in virulence potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker U Schwartze

    Full Text Available Although the number of mucormycosis cases has increased during the last decades, little is known about the pathogenic potential of most mucoralean fungi. Lichtheimia species represent the second and third most common cause of mucormycosis in Europe and worldwide, respectively. To date only three of the five species of the genus have been found to be involved in mucormycosis, namely L. corymbifera, L. ramosa and L. ornata. However, it is not clear whether the clinical situation reflects differences in virulence between the species of Lichtheimia or whether other factors are responsible. In this study the virulence of 46 strains of all five species of Lichtheimia was investigated in chicken embryos. Additionally, strains of the closest-related genus Dichotomocladium were tested. Full virulence was restricted to the clinically relevant species while all strains of L. hyalospora, L. sphaerocystis and Dichotomocladium species were attenuated. Although virulence differences were present in the clinically relevant species, no connection between origin (environmental vs clinical or phylogenetic position within the species was observed. Physiological studies revealed no clear connection of stress resistance and carbon source utilization with the virulence of the strains. Slower growth at 37°C might explain low virulence of L. hyalospora, L. spaherocystis and Dichotomocladium; however, similarly slow growing strains of L. ornata were fully virulent. Thus, additional factors or a complex interplay of factors determines the virulence of strains. Our data suggest that the clinical situation in fact reflects different virulence potentials in the Lichtheimiaceae.

  7. Protein similarity from knot theory: geometric convolution and line weavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    . In the appendix, we exhibit an algorithm for answering the general rearrangement question. That algorithm has the complexity of robot motion planning. In the text, we consider a more common case in which one seeks protein similarity by rearrangements of relatively short peptide segments. We exhibit two algorithms, one based on writhing numbers and one based on line weavings. The algorithms have time complexities O(n (4)) and O(s (11)), respectively, where n is the maximum number of residues in the proteins being compared and s is the number of secondary structure elements. In practice, the running times were nearly interactive. We report results obtained with a dozen pairs of proteins, exhibiting a range of typical features.

  8. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  9. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  10. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  11. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar type. 51.1997 Section 51.1997 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.1997 Similar type. Similar type means that...

  12. Molecular quantum similarity using conceptual DFT descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a Molecular Quantum Similarity study for a set of congeneric steroid molecules, using as basic similarity descriptors electron density ρ (r), shape function (r), the Fukui functions +(r) and -(r) and local softness +(r) and -(r). Correlations are investigated between similarity indices for each couple of ...

  13. Pharmacophore fingerprint-based approach to binding site subpocket similarity and its application to bioisostere replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, D.J.; Vlieg, J. de; Wagener, M.; Ritschel, T.

    2012-01-01

    Bioisosteres have been defined as structurally different molecules or substructures that can form comparable intermolecular interactions, and therefore, fragments that bind to similar protein structures exhibit a degree of bioisosterism. We present KRIPO (Key Representation of Interaction in

  14. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its......Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  15. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  16. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  17. Bridging Database Applications and Declarative Similarity Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Ribeiro, Leonardo; Schneider, Natália Cristina; de Souza Inácio, Andrei; Wagner, Harley Michel; von Wangenheim, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Effective manipulation of string data is of fundamental importance to modern database applications. Very often, textual inconsistencies render equality comparisons meaningless and strings have to be matched in terms of their similarity. Previous work has proposed techniques to express similarity operations using declarative SQL statements. However, the non-trivial issue of embedding similarity support into object-oriented applications has received little attention. Particularly, declarative s...

  18. Integrating Triangle and Jaccard similarities for recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuang-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Dong, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Heng-Ru; Li, Tong-Jun; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new measure for recommendation through integrating Triangle and Jaccard similarities. The Triangle similarity considers both the length and the angle of rating vectors between them, while the Jaccard similarity considers non co-rating users. We compare the new similarity measure with eight state-of-the-art ones on four popular datasets under the leave-one-out scenario. Results show that the new measure outperforms all the counterparts in terms of the mean absolute error and the root mean square error. PMID:28817692

  19. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eYamada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders’ satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality. A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors’ impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  20. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, Yueyun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  1. 78 FR 7849 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Edwardian Opulence: British Art at... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Edwardian Opulence: British Art at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  2. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Exhibition Determinations: ``Transition to Christianity: Art of Late Antiquity, 3rd-7th Century AD'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Transition to Christianity: Art of Late Antiquity, 3rd-7th Century AD,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  3. 76 FR 52378 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``5,000 Years of Chinese Jade..., Smithsonian Institution'' Exhibition ACTION: Notice, correction. SUMMARY: On July 29, 2011, notice was... the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``5,000 Years of Chinese Jade Featuring...

  4. 45 CFR 1160.5 - Eligibility for domestic exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. 1160.5... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.5 Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for a domestic exhibition made under these regulations shall cover eligible items from the United States...

  5. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for international exhibitions. 1160.4... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for an international exhibition made under these regulations shall cover: (a) Eligible items from...

  6. 75 FR 6079 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Compass and Rule: Architecture as... 15, 2003 , I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Compass and Rule: Architecture as Mathematical Practice in England, 1500-1750,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  7. 33 CFR 20.807 - Exhibits and documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhibits and documents. 20.807 Section 20.807 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES... Evidence § 20.807 Exhibits and documents. (a) Each exhibit must be numbered and marked for identification...

  8. Learning deep similarity in fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Caliva, Francesco; Ometto, Giovanni; Hunter, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Similarity learning is one of the most fundamental tasks in image analysis. The ability to extract similar images in the medical domain as part of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems has been researched for many years. The vast majority of methods used in CBIR systems are based on hand-crafted feature descriptors. The approximation of a similarity mapping for medical images is difficult due to the big variety of pixel-level structures of interest. In fundus photography (FP) analysis, a subtle difference in e.g. lesions and vessels shape and size can result in a different diagnosis. In this work, we demonstrated how to learn a similarity function for image patches derived directly from FP image data without the need of manually designed feature descriptors. We used a convolutional neural network (CNN) with a novel architecture adapted for similarity learning to accomplish this task. Furthermore, we explored and studied multiple CNN architectures. We show that our method can approximate the similarity between FP patches more efficiently and accurately than the state-of- the-art feature descriptors, including SIFT and SURF using a publicly available dataset. Finally, we observe that our approach, which is purely data-driven, learns that features such as vessels calibre and orientation are important discriminative factors, which resembles the way how humans reason about similarity. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first attempt to approximate a visual similarity mapping in FP.

  9. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  10. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed and...

  11. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  12. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  13. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  14. Similarity and a Duality for Fullerenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Edmond

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are molecules of carbon that are modeled by trivalent plane graphs with only pentagonal and hexagonal faces. Scaling up a fullerene gives a notion of similarity, and fullerenes are partitioned into similarity classes. In this expository article, we illustrate how the values of two important fullerene parameters can be deduced for all fullerenes in a similarity class by computing the values of these parameters for just the three smallest representatives of that class. In addition, it turns out that there is a natural duality theory for similarity classes of fullerenes based on one of the most important fullerene construction techniques: leapfrog construction. The literature on fullerenes is very extensive, and since this is a general interest journal, we will summarize and illustrate the fundamental results that we will need to develop similarity and this duality.

  15. A Comparison of the Cognitive Behaviors Exhibited by Secondary Agriculture and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jonathan D.; Torres, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of cognitive behavior exhibited by secondary agriculture teachers and compare the behavior to science teachers. Teachers within the two groups were found to have similar attitudes toward teaching at higher levels of cognition. Agriculture teachers spent 83% of their time on lower-order…

  16. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating of biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. currently produces roughly 5 billion liters of biodiesel per year. Use of biodiesel is projected to increase based on its potential economic, energy, and environmental benefits. Despite these benefits, there is public health concern about the possible direct and indirect...

  17. [Review of the pharmaceutical exhibitions in the Meiji Era (Supplement)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T

    1994-01-01

    The author described (Jpn. J. History Pharm. 16(1), 9-20 (1981) the Review of the Pharmaceutical Exhibitions in the Meiji era. But afterwards the author found there were omissions of three exhibitions. These are the Nagaoka, the Osaka, and the Akita Exhibitions. The Nagaoka Exhibition was organized by the Nagaoka Pharmacists Association in June, 1890. The Osaka Exhibition opened on Jan. 18, 1891 by Osaka Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. The Akita Pharmaceutical Exhibition was held on Sept. 24-26, 1892, as the chief event of the opening ceremony of the Akita Drug-Trader Association, united pharmacists, druggists, and drug-manufacturers throughout Akita Prefecture. It is the most large-scaled of the three. The exhibits were 1,419, and the visitors were above 8,830. The planning originated with a young pharmacist Masayasu Hanyu.

  18. Digital Natives: Creating Emergent Exhibitions through Digital Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Digital Technology can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, both playful and reflective, that allow audiences to engage in the ongoing construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future....... In this way, digital technology can contribute to the creation of emergent exhibitions in which the exhibition is created in dialogue between audiences and the museum. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which digital technology was designed...... as an integral part of the exhibition to encourage dialogue between audiences and the exhibition materials and thereby investigate how the exhibition emerge as a result of this dialogic co-construction inside the exhibition space. In short, the opportunities offered by digital technologies prompts us to consider...

  19. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  20. Two perspectives on similarity between words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    This presentation examines the similarity between words from both bottom up (phonetic) and top down (phonological/psycholinguistic) perspectives. From the phonological perspective, the influence of structure on similarity is explored using metalinguistic acceptability judgments for multisyllabic nonwords. Results from an experiment suggest that subjects try to align novel words with known words in order to maximize similarities while minimizing dissimilarities. This finding parallels results from psychology on similarity judgments for visual scenes. From the phonetic perspective, the influence of similar gestures on speech error rates is examined using ultrasound measurement of tongue position. In a pilot experiment, subjects, produced tongue twisters containing words where onset and vowel phonemes had similar gestures (e.g., tip, comb) and where the onset and vowel had dissimilar gestures (e.g., tube, keep). Preliminary results suggest that misarticulations are more frequent in the context of dissimilar gestures (e.g., in the tongue twister tip cape keep tape, error rates are higher for /k/ than /t/). These errors appear to be gestural interactions rather than errors at the phonemic or featural level of phonological spellout. Together, these two experiments indicate that similarity relations between words are found at multiple levels, any which are potentially relevant to the structure of phonological systems.

  1. Electrostatic Similarity Determination Using Multiresolution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkoymaz, Huseyin; Kieslich, Chris A; Jr, Ronald D Gorham; Gunopulos, Dimitrios; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-01

    Molecular similarity is an important tool in protein and drug design for analyzing the quantitative relationships between physicochemical properties of two molecules. We present a family of similarity measures which exploits the ability of wavelet transformation to analyze the spectral components of physicochemical properties and suggests a sensitive way for measuring similarities of biological molecules. In order to investigate how effective wavelet-based similarity measures were against conventional measures, we defined several patterns which involve scalar or topological changes in the distribution of electrostatic properties. The wavelet-based measures were more successful in discriminating these patterns in contrast to the current state-of-art similarity measures. We also present the validity of wavelet-based similarity measures through the hierarchical clustering of two protein datasets consisting of families of homologous domains and alanine scan mutants. This type of similarity analysis is useful for protein structure-function studies and protein design. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  3. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  4. Similarity and Decay Laws of Momentumless Wakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-26

    Naval Sea Systems Command , Code NSEA—03133. -‘ F 9 —2— 26 May 1977 SN : j ep SIMILARITY AND DECAY LAWS OF MOMENTUI’ILESS WAKE S by Samuel Ilassid...and this neg lect will have to be justified a posteriori. Now, one seeks self-similar solutions of the type: k = Xh(ri) c = Ee(n) Ud = UDf (n) ~ = where...0 9x r 3r L6 c Again, seeking self-similar solutions of the type: k = Kh(ti) c = Ee(ri) Ud = UDf (n) r~ = (6.4) and letting 2 2 = 1 (6.5)E L one

  5. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  6. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  7. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-02-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.

  8. Distances and similarities in intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    CERN Document Server

    Szmidt, Eulalia

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in theory and practice regarding similarity and distance measures for intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Quantifying similarity and distances is crucial for many applications, e.g. data mining, machine learning, decision making, and control. The work provides readers with a comprehensive set of theoretical concepts and practical tools for both defining and determining similarity between intuitionistic fuzzy sets. It describes an automatic algorithm for deriving intuitionistic fuzzy sets from data, which can aid in the analysis of information in large databases. The book also discusses other important applications, e.g. the use of similarity measures to evaluate the extent of agreement between experts in the context of decision making.

  9. Comparing methods for single paragraph similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dennis, Simon; Kwantes, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-fold. First, similarities generated from six semantic models were compared to human ratings of paragraph similarity on two datasets-23 World Entertainment News Network paragraphs and 50 ABC newswire paragraphs. Contrary to findings on smaller textual units such as word associations (Griffiths, Tenenbaum, & Steyvers, 2007), our results suggest that when single paragraphs are compared, simple nonreductive models (word overlap and vector space) can provide better similarity estimates than more complex models (LSA, Topic Model, SpNMF, and CSM). Second, various methods of corpus creation were explored to facilitate the semantic models' similarity estimates. Removing numeric and single characters, and also truncating document length improved performance. Automated construction of smaller Wikipedia-based corpora proved to be very effective, even improving upon the performance of corpora that had been chosen for the domain. Model performance was further improved by augmenting corpora with dataset paragraphs. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Parrado-Hernandez, Emilio; Meng, Anders

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation....

  11. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  12. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes...... the observation that some of the distributional assumptions made to derive this measure are very restrictive and, considered simultaneously, even inconsistent....

  13. Privacy-preserving matching of similar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsalan, Dinusha; Christen, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The identification of similar entities represented by records in different databases has drawn considerable attention in many application areas, including in the health domain. One important type of entity matching application that is vital for quality healthcare analytics is the identification of similar patients, known as similar patient matching. A key component of identifying similar records is the calculation of similarity of the values in attributes (fields) between these records. Due to increasing privacy and confidentiality concerns, using the actual attribute values of patient records to identify similar records across different organizations is becoming non-trivial because the attributes in such records often contain highly sensitive information such as personal and medical details of patients. Therefore, the matching needs to be based on masked (encoded) values while being effective and efficient to allow matching of large databases. Bloom filter encoding has widely been used as an efficient masking technique for privacy-preserving matching of string and categorical values. However, no work on Bloom filter-based masking of numerical data, such as integer (e.g. age), floating point (e.g. body mass index), and modulus (numbers wrap around upon reaching a certain value, e.g. date and time), which are commonly required in the health domain, has been presented in the literature. We propose a framework with novel methods for masking numerical data using Bloom filters, thereby facilitating the calculation of similarities between records. We conduct an empirical study on publicly available real-world datasets which shows that our framework provides efficient masking and achieves similar matching accuracy compared to the matching of actual unencoded patient records. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Similarity search processing. Paralelization and indexing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    The next Scientific-Technical Report addresses the similarity search and the implementation of metric structures on parallel environments. It also presents the state of the art related to similarity search on metric structures and parallelism technologies. Comparative analysis are also proposed, seeking to identify the behavior of a set of metric spaces and metric structures over processing platforms multicore-based and GPU-based.

  15. Protein structural similarity search by Ramachandran codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chih-Hung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structural data has increased exponentially, such that fast and accurate tools are necessary to access structure similarity search. To improve the search speed, several methods have been designed to reduce three-dimensional protein structures to one-dimensional text strings that are then analyzed by traditional sequence alignment methods; however, the accuracy is usually sacrificed and the speed is still unable to match sequence similarity search tools. Here, we aimed to improve the linear encoding methodology and develop efficient search tools that can rapidly retrieve structural homologs from large protein databases. Results We propose a new linear encoding method, SARST (Structural similarity search Aided by Ramachandran Sequential Transformation. SARST transforms protein structures into text strings through a Ramachandran map organized by nearest-neighbor clustering and uses a regenerative approach to produce substitution matrices. Then, classical sequence similarity search methods can be applied to the structural similarity search. Its accuracy is similar to Combinatorial Extension (CE and works over 243,000 times faster, searching 34,000 proteins in 0.34 sec with a 3.2-GHz CPU. SARST provides statistically meaningful expectation values to assess the retrieved information. It has been implemented into a web service and a stand-alone Java program that is able to run on many different platforms. Conclusion As a database search method, SARST can rapidly distinguish high from low similarities and efficiently retrieve homologous structures. It demonstrates that the easily accessible linear encoding methodology has the potential to serve as a foundation for efficient protein structural similarity search tools. These search tools are supposed applicable to automated and high-throughput functional annotations or predictions for the ever increasing number of published protein structures in this post-genomic era.

  16. Co-expression Network Approach Reveals Functional Similarities among Diseases Affecting Human Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha Mukund; Shankar Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Diseases affecting skeletal muscle exhibit considerable heterogeneity in intensity, etiology, phenotypic manifestation and gene expression. Systems biology approaches using network theory, allows for a holistic understanding of functional similarities amongst diseases. Here we propose a co-expression based, network theoretic approach to extract functional similarities from 20 heterogeneous diseases comprising of dystrophinopathies, inflammatory myopathies, neuromuscular, and muscle metabolic ...

  17. Composition and similarity of bovine rumen microbiota across individual animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Jami

    Full Text Available The bovine rumen houses a complex microbiota which is responsible for cattle's remarkable ability to convert indigestible plant mass into food products. Despite this ecosystem's enormous significance for humans, the composition and similarity of bacterial communities across different animals and the possible presence of some bacterial taxa in all animals' rumens have yet to be determined. We characterized the rumen bacterial populations of 16 individual lactating cows using tag amplicon pyrosequencing. Our data showed 51% similarity in bacterial taxa across samples when abundance and occurrence were analyzed using the Bray-Curtis metric. By adding taxon phylogeny to the analysis using a weighted UniFrac metric, the similarity increased to 82%. We also counted 32 genera that are shared by all samples, exhibiting high variability in abundance across samples. Taken together, our results suggest a core microbiome in the bovine rumen. Furthermore, although the bacterial taxa may vary considerably between cow rumens, they appear to be phylogenetically related. This suggests that the functional requirement imposed by the rumen ecological niche selects taxa that potentially share similar genetic features.

  18. The Eugenides Foundation Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology is installed in an area of 1200 m2 at the Eugenides Foundation. 65 interactive exhibits, designed by the "Cites des Science et de l' Industrie" are organised in themes, stimulate the visitors' mind and provoke scientific thinking. Parallel activities take place inside the exhibition, such as live science demonstrations, performed by young scientists. Extra material such as news bulletins (short news, science comics and portraits), educational paths and treasure-hunting based games, all available online as well, are prepared on a monthly basis and provided along with the visit to the exhibition. Through these exhibits and activities, scientific facts are made simple and easy to comprehend using modern presentation tools. We present details on how this exhibition acts complementary to the science education provided by schools, making it a highly sophisticated educational tool.

  19. CERN exhibition attracts over 100,000 visitors in Belgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    “This must be an 'all-time record',” says Ray Lewis, CERN travelling exhibition manager. “In all my time with the various permanent and travelling exhibitions that have taken place locally and within our Member States I have never experienced such figures.”   Zarko Obradovic (left), Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technology, and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN Director-General, at the CERN travelling exhibition in Belgrade. Indeed, in approximately 20 days of exhibition time about 120,000 people, mainly school visiters and the general public, visited the 100 m2 CERN mini-exhibition. It was set up in the centre of Belgrade in October, in association with the meeting of the Restricted European Committee for Future Accelerators (RECFA). After attending the RECFA meeting, CERN's Director-General Rofl Heuer opened the CERN exhibition on the evening of 19 October. Lectures about CERN were held every afternoon, and two public de...

  20. Similarity Search for Continuous Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    OReilly, O. J.; Yoon, C. E.; Beroza, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Cross-correlation of seismic data streams with a priori known waveform templates has emerged as an effective tool to identify the occurrence of similar seismic signals; yet, this approach is difficult if the form of the templates is unknown. This challenge has been partially met by constructing waveform templates using reoccurring seismic signals sharing similar waveforms. This waveform similarity arises because the Earth's structure is essentially time invariant at the temporal scales considered in seismology. The problem of finding similar waveforms without known templates has been approached previously by segmenting incoming seismic data streams into multiple overlapping windows, each with a fixed length and lag, followed by matched filtering using each window as a template. An immediate shortcoming of this strategy is that it is computationally expensive; it scales quadratically with the number of lags needed, which limits the analysis to time series of short duration. The principal concept behind our approach, which enables scalable similarity search is to use a hierarchical approach to investigate only a small, near-constant sized subset of all possible waveform pairs for each query. In computer science and related fields, there are efficient techniques to solve this problem, which appears in numerous applications. Here, we bring these techniques into detection seismology. As a first step, we present a prototype database application that relies on a fingerprinting scheme that produces numerous high-dimensional sparse binary data representations of the windowed data streams (each fingerprint is significantly compressed compared to the actual window). These fingerprints encode key features of the actual window, enabling comparison among fingerprints rather than cross-correlating windows for comparison. Further dimensionality reduction is then applied to each fingerprint and similar fingerprints are grouped together using locality-sensitive hashing. Developing

  1. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  2. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Motion Capture: Drawing and the Moving Image Exhibition, Letterkenny, Donegal.

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Motion Capture Drawing & the Moving Image A GLUCKSMAN exhibition, touring to Regional Cultural Centre, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal, 22 January – 9 March 2013 Supported by a Touring and Dissemination award from the Arts Council of Ireland/An Chomhairle Ealaíon. Motion Capture is an exhibition that explores the relationship of movement in two artistic media: drawing and the moving image. Featuring artworks from the mid-twentieth century through to the present day, the exhibition emphasises the ...

  4. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A

    2015-10-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as "Kalydeco." Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit gastric differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Emma; Liu, Xiuli; Xiao, Shu-Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Primary small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare. Although generally similar to colonic adenocarcinoma, some small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit unique morphologic features, particularly those arising in association with Crohn disease. In this study, 15 sporadic small bowel adenocarcinomas and 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas were examined for histology and immunohistochemical profile including cytokeratins (CK) 7 and 20, intestinal markers CDX2 and MUC2, and gastric epithelial markers MUC5AC and MUC6. We found that Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas frequently resemble gastric tubular adenocarcinoma histologically. In addition, when compared to sporadic small bowel adenocarcinoma, the former expressed MUC5AC and MUC6 with much higher frequency (82% vs. 7% and 73% vs. 0%, respectively). Ten of 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas (91%) were positive for at least one gastric-type marker (MUC5AC or MUC6). Expression of CK7 was also more frequent in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma (73% versus 27%) while expression of CK20 was less frequent (64% vs. 100%). There was no difference between sporadic and Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma in expression of CDX2 (100% vs. 91%) and MUC2 (93% vs. 73%). These observations suggest that there is a difference in the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of sporadic versus Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma, particularly in their expression of gastric-type mucin. The findings also suggest that gastric differentiation in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma is related to gastric metaplasia, a common phenomenon in Crohn disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are... Ereli, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of...

  7. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Clara E; O'Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J; Beroza, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection-identification of seismic events in continuous data-is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact "fingerprints" of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes.

  8. Geometrical and frequential watermarking scheme using similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Patrick; Chassery, Jean-Marc; Davoine, Franck

    1999-04-01

    Watermarking schemes are more and more robust to classical degradations. The NEC system developed by Cox, using both original and marked images, can detect the mark with a JPEG compression ratio of 30. Nevertheless a very simple geometric attack done by the program Stirmark can remove the watermark. Most of the present watermarking schemes only map a mark on the image without geometric reference and therefore are not robust to geometric transformation. We present a scheme based on the modification of a collage map (issued from a fractal code used in fractal compression). We add a mark introducing similarities in the image. The embedding of the mark is done by selection of points of interest supporting blocks on which similarities are hided. This selection is done by the Stephens-Harris detector. The similarity is embedded locally to be robust to cropping. Contrary to many schemes, the reference mark used for the detection comes from the marked image and thus undergoes geometrical distortions. The detection of the mark is done by searching interest blocks and their similarities. It does not use the original image and the robustness is guaranteed by a key. Our first results show that the similarities-based watermarking is quite robust to geometric transformation such as translations, rotations and cropping.

  9. Affinity Propagation Clustering Using Path Based Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a fundamental task in data mining. Affinity propagation clustering (APC is an effective and efficient clustering technique that has been applied in various domains. APC iteratively propagates information between affinity samples, updates the responsibility matrix and availability matrix, and employs these matrices to choose cluster centers (or exemplars of respective clusters. However, since it mainly uses negative Euclidean distance between exemplars and samples as the similarity between them, it is difficult to identify clusters with complex structure. Therefore, the performance of APC deteriorates on samples distributed with complex structure. To mitigate this problem, we propose an improved APC based on a path-based similarity (APC-PS. APC-PS firstly utilizes negative Euclidean distance to find exemplars of clusters. Then, it employs the path-based similarity to measure the similarity between exemplars and samples, and to explore the underlying structure of clusters. Next, it assigns non-exemplar samples to their respective clusters via that similarity. Our empirical study on synthetic and UCI datasets shows that the proposed APC-PS significantly outperforms original APC and other related approaches.

  10. C-Rank: A Link-based Similarity Measure for Scientific Literature Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Seok-Ho; Park, Sunju

    2011-01-01

    As the number of people who use scientific literature databases grows, the demand for literature retrieval services has been steadily increased. One of the most popular retrieval services is to find a set of papers similar to the paper under consideration, which requires a measure that computes similarities between papers. Scientific literature databases exhibit two interesting characteristics that are different from general databases. First, the papers cited by old papers are often not included in the database due to technical and economic reasons. Second, since a paper references the papers published before it, few papers cite recently-published papers. These two characteristics cause all existing similarity measures to fail in at least one of the following cases: (1) measuring the similarity between old, but similar papers, (2) measuring the similarity between recent, but similar papers, and (3) measuring the similarity between two similar papers: one old, the other recent. In this paper, we propose a new ...

  11. Percolation in Self-Similar Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M. Ángeles; Krioukov, Dmitri; Boguñá, Marián

    2011-01-01

    We provide a simple proof that graphs in a general class of self-similar networks have zero percolation threshold. The considered self-similar networks include random scale-free graphs with given expected node degrees and zero clustering, scale-free graphs with finite clustering and metric structure, growing scale-free networks, and many real networks. The proof and the derivation of the giant component size do not require the assumption that networks are treelike. Our results rely only on the observation that self-similar networks possess a hierarchy of nested subgraphs whose average degree grows with their depth in the hierarchy. We conjecture that this property is pivotal for percolation in networks.

  12. Biosequence Similarity Search on the Mercury System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Praveen; Buhler, Jeremy; Chamberlain, Roger; Franklin, Mark; Gyang, Kwame; Jacob, Arpith; Lancaster, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Biosequence similarity search is an important application in modern molecular biology. Search algorithms aim to identify sets of sequences whose extensional similarity suggests a common evolutionary origin or function. The most widely used similarity search tool for biosequences is BLAST, a program designed to compare query sequences to a database. Here, we present the design of BLASTN, the version of BLAST that searches DNA sequences, on the Mercury system, an architecture that supports high-volume, high-throughput data movement off a data store and into reconfigurable hardware. An important component of application deployment on the Mercury system is the functional decomposition of the application onto both the reconfigurable hardware and the traditional processor. Both the Mercury BLASTN application design and its performance analysis are described. PMID:18846267

  13. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data......The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  14. Fast similarity search for learned metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Brian; Jain, Prateek; Grauman, Kristen

    2009-12-01

    We introduce a method that enables scalable similarity search for learned metrics. Given pairwise similarity and dissimilarity constraints between some examples, we learn a Mahalanobis distance function that captures the examples' underlying relationships well. To allow sublinear time similarity search under the learned metric, we show how to encode the learned metric parameterization into randomized locality-sensitive hash functions. We further formulate an indirect solution that enables metric learning and hashing for vector spaces whose high dimensionality makes it infeasible to learn an explicit transformation over the feature dimensions. We demonstrate the approach applied to a variety of image data sets, as well as a systems data set. The learned metrics improve accuracy relative to commonly used metric baselines, while our hashing construction enables efficient indexing with learned distances and very large databases.

  15. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-07

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer condition is not satisfied, or the Mercer condition is difficult to verify. Examples of such indefinite similarities in machine learning applications are ample including, for instance, the BLAST similarity score between protein sequences, human-judged similarities between concepts and words, and the tangent distance or the shape matching distance in computer vision. Nevertheless, previous works on classification with indefinite similarities are not fully satisfactory. They have either introduced sources of inconsistency in handling past and future examples using kernel approximation, settled for local-minimum solutions using non-convex optimization, or produced non-sparse solutions by learning in Krein spaces. Despite the large volume of research devoted to this subject lately, we demonstrate in this paper how an old idea, namely the 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) proposed more than 15 years ago, has several advantages over more recent work. In particular, the 1-norm SVM method is conceptually simpler, which makes it easier to implement and maintain. It is competitive, if not superior to, all other methods in terms of predictive accuracy. Moreover, it produces solutions that are often sparser than more recent methods by several orders of magnitude. In addition, we provide various theoretical justifications by relating 1-norm SVM to well-established learning algorithms such as neural networks, SVM, and nearest neighbor classifiers. Finally, we conduct a thorough experimental evaluation, which reveals that the evidence in favor of 1-norm SVM is statistically significant.

  16. Inferring Trust Based on Similarity with TILLIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolifard, Mozhgan; Herrmann, Peter; Knapskog, Svein J.

    A network of people having established trust relations and a model for propagation of related trust scores are fundamental building blocks in many of today’s most successful e-commerce and recommendation systems. However, the web of trust is often too sparse to predict trust values between non-familiar people with high accuracy. Trust inferences are transitive associations among users in the context of an underlying social network and may provide additional information to alleviate the consequences of the sparsity and possible cold-start problems. Such approaches are helpful, provided that a complete trust path exists between the two users. An alternative approach to the problem is advocated in this paper. Based on collaborative filtering one can exploit the like-mindedness resp. similarity of individuals to infer trust to yet unknown parties which increases the trust relations in the web. For instance, if one knows that with respect to a specific property, two parties are trusted alike by a large number of different trusters, one can assume that they are similar. Thus, if one has a certain degree of trust to the one party, one can safely assume a very similar trustworthiness of the other one. In an attempt to provide high quality recommendations and proper initial trust values even when no complete trust propagation path or user profile exists, we propose TILLIT — a model based on combination of trust inferences and user similarity. The similarity is derived from the structure of the trust graph and users’ trust behavior as opposed to other collaborative-filtering based approaches which use ratings of items or user’s profile. We describe an algorithm realizing the approach based on a combination of trust inferences and user similarity, and validate the algorithm using a real large-scale data-set.

  17. Temporal similarity measures for querying clinical workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Gozzi, Matteo; Oliboni, Barbara; Juarez, Jose M; Marin, Roque

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we extend a preliminary proposal and discuss in a deeper and more formal way an approach to evaluate temporal similarity between clinical workflow cases (i.e., executions of clinical processes). More precisely, we focus on (i) the representation of clinical processes by using a temporal conceptual workflow model; (ii) the definition of ad hoc temporal constraint networks to formally represent clinical workflow cases; (iii) the definition of temporal similarity for clinical workflow cases based on the comparison of temporal constraint networks; (iv) the management of the similarity of clinical processes related to the Italian guideline for stroke prevention and management (SPREAD). Clinical processes are composed by clinical activities to be done by given actors in a given order satisfying given temporal constraints. This description means that clinical processes can be seen as organizational processes, and modeled by workflow schemata. When a workflow schema represents a clinical process, its cases represent different instances derived from dealing with different patients in different situations. With respect to all the cases related to a workflow schema, each clinical case can be different with respect to its structure and to its temporal aspects. Clinical cases can be stored in clinical databases and information retrieval can be done evaluating the similarity between workflow cases. We first describe a possible approach to the conceptual modeling of a clinical process, by using a temporally extended workflow model. Then, we define how a workflow case can be represented as a set of activities, and show how to express them through temporal constraint networks. Once we have built temporal constraint networks related to the cases to compare, we propose a similarity function able to evaluate the differences between the considered cases with respect to the order and duration of corresponding activities, and with respect to the presence/absence of some

  18. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , how to do so is not obvious. In this paper, we build on the ideas of the Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) that have been successfully used in the document retrieval community. Under this probabilistic framework, any song will be projected into a relatively low dimensional space of “latent...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...

  19. Unveiling Music Structure Via PLSA Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Meng, Anders; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious...... observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Additionally, this approach significantly simplifies the song retrieval phase, leading to a more practical system implementation. The suitability of the PLSA model for representing music structure is studied in a simplified...

  20. Earth Similarity Index with two free parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Suresh; Nepal, Subas; Sharma, Mohit K

    2015-01-01

    We have derived Earth Similarity Index (ESI) with two free parameters m and T. These free parameters are optimized with the consideration that the planet Mars is almost similar to the Earth. For the optimized values of free parameters, the interior-ESI, surface-ESI and ESI for some planets are calculated. The results for m = 0.8 and T = 0.8 are compared with the values obtained by Schulze-Makuch {\\it et al.} (2011). We have found that the exoplanet 55 Cnc f is within 10% away from the thresho...

  1. PubChem3D: Similar conformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Evan E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features. Results The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds" for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity. In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average

  2. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Daud; Seki, Shingo; Horic, Michio; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2006-08-01

    The apparent inter-lake morphological similarity among East African Great Lakes' cichlid species/genera has left evolutionary biologists asking whether such similarity is due to sharing of common ancestor or mere convergent evolution. In order to answer such question, we first used Geometric Morphometrics, GM, to quantify morphological similarity and then subsequently used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP, to determine if similar morphologies imply shared ancestry or convergent evolution. GM revealed that not all presumed morphological similar pairs were indeed similar, and the dendrogram generated from AFLP data indicated distinct clusters corresponding to each lake and not inter-lake morphological similar pairs. Such results imply that the morphological similarity is due to convergent evolution and not shared ancestry. The congruency of GM and AFLP generated dendrograms imply that GM is capable of picking up phylogenetic signal, and thus GM can be potential tool in phylogenetic systematics.

  3. Data Collection Methods for Evaluating Museum Programs and Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Amy Crack; Cohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Museums often evaluate various aspects of their audiences' experiences, be it what they learn from a program or how they react to an exhibition. Each museum program or exhibition has its own set of goals, which can drive what an evaluator studies and how an evaluation evolves. When designing an evaluation, data collection methods are purposefully…

  4. Presentation and exhibition activities for promoting theexportof transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Vladimirovna Nesterova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of presentation and exhibition activities is considered as an important factor in providing new competitive advantages at the strategic markets for exporting of transportation services. A specific role for exhibition activities as a factor to overcome market failures arose from imperfect information and incomplete markets is displayed. Exhibitions are considered as a true reflection of most market parameters, as a means to get correct information concerning market capacity and its borders, as an instrument to access to new markets. At the firm level presentation and branding activities should be considered as a modern technology (especially it concerns Russian companies which provide to hold up already existed markets and to conquer new ones. Presentation and branding activities are an effective technology to promote company trade-mark, competitive advantages for market demand increasing. Comparative analysis of the main exhibitions on transport and logistics issues is fulfilled on the data basecollected by authors. Data observes geographical distribution of transport exhibition and exhibition facilities development at several regions for the last years. The analyses allow to revealing a geographical structure of the exhibitions and its distribution by type of transport. The most promising and economically favorable exhibition areas for the promotion of Russian transport services are shown.

  5. Making Your Trade Fair Exhibit More Productive and More Interesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Jack

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions for producing a successful exhibit booth include the following: the effectiveness of an exhibit depends on the effectiveness of the people staffing it; avoid games and unrelated giveaway items; demonstrate product in the booth; give special attention to existing customers; and make literature available only from the booth personnel.…

  6. When Places Speak: Developing an Exhibit in Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasoulla Hadjiyanni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay outlines the partnership that developed among a faculty member, students, two photographers, University of Minnesota units, and a multitude of community collaborators to develop the When Places Speak exhibit. Featuring places enmeshed in sex trafficking in Minnesota, the exhibit sheds light on the instrumental role partnerships can play in overcoming domination.

  7. The Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The artist Paola Pivi with her work at the Signatures of the Invisible exhibition in Geneva during February 2002. This piece with needles suspended on nylon thread 'detects' people as they approach. The exhibition was for art inspired by research carried out at CERN.

  8. CERN Industrials Exhibitions - Over 30 Years of Tradition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Industrial exhibitions have been part of the CERN landscape for 33 years. At least once each year several companies from the same country come to CERN to present their products and services. Now, a new scheme of one-day visits is giving potential exhibitors at CERN a lighter option. The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present. Four years after joining CERN, Poland inaugurated its first exhibition at CERN in 1995 in the presence of the former Director-General Chris Llewellyn-Smith. Almost all the Member States have held industrial exhibitions at the Organization. May '68 wasn't only revolutionary in Paris. For the very first time, an industrial exhibition took place at CERN. Great Britain was first to come with eight companies and remains until this day the most devoted country to the programme with 17 exhibitions and ...

  9. 78 FR 68479 - Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions Meeting AGENCY..., notice is hereby given that one meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions...

  10. 46 CFR 169.805 - Exhibition of merchant mariner credentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhibition of merchant mariner credentials. 169.805 Section 169.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.805 Exhibition of merchant mariner credentials. Officers on any vessel...

  11. Informing the Development of Science Exhibitions through Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laherto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    This paper calls for greater use of educational research in the development of science exhibitions. During the past few decades, museums and science centres throughout the world have placed increasing emphasis on their educational function. Although exhibitions are the primary means of promoting visitors' learning, educational research is not…

  12. Outreach to Science Faculty and Students through Research Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tina; Hebblethwaite, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Penfield Library at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) has a gallery exhibit space near the front entrance that is used to showcase student-faculty research and art class projects. This article features the library's outreach efforts to science faculty and students through research exhibitions. The library held an exhibition…

  13. Exhibitions: Connecting Classroom Assessment with Culminating Demonstrations of Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Exhibitions are public demonstrations of mastery that occur at culminating moments, such as at the conclusion of a unit of study, the transition from one level of schooling to the next, and graduation. Exhibitions require students to speak publicly, use evidence, present engaging visual displays, and otherwise demonstrate mastery to educators,…

  14. Modelling the Future: Exhibitions and the Materiality of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The role of World Exhibitions in the 19th and early 20th centuries was to confirm a relation between the nation state and modernity. As a display about industries, inventions and identities, the Exhibition, in a sense, put entire nations into an elevated, viewable space. It is a significant element in modernity as comparisons can be made, progress…

  15. 78 FR 21979 - Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions Meeting AGENCY..., notice is hereby given that one meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions...

  16. Sponsorship and exhibitions at Nordic science centres and museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology centres (STC) and science museums tend increasingly to rely on external economic support in order to create new exhibitions. But in what ways may the economic situation affect what is presented in their exhibitions? This article aims to explore how staff members consider...

  17. Using Museum Exhibits: An Innovation in Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satarupa

    2015-01-01

    Museum exhibits can be a tool in experiential learning. While instructors have documented various methods of experiential learning, they have not sufficiently explored such learning from museum exhibits. Museum researchers, however, have long found a satisfying cognitive component to museum visits. This paper narrates the author's design to…

  18. Social Media and Scientific Meetings: Education Exhibit "Likes" at the Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M; Wortman, Jeremy R; Andriole, Katherine P

    2016-03-01

    Viewers of electronic education exhibits at the 2013 and 2014 Radiological Society of North America meetings had the opportunity to "like" exhibits, as one might "like" a Facebook or an Instagram post. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate for a relationship between exhibit popularity and receiving an award or RadioGraphics invitation, (2) to evaluate for a relationship between exhibit recognition and subsequent popularity, and (3) to quantify and compare the electronic education exhibit likes at the 2013 and the 2014 meetings. Exhibit likes were recorded at the midpoints and ends of both meetings. Data analyses were performed by means of one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. There were similar numbers of electronic education exhibits at the 2013 (1856) and 2014 (1793) meetings with no significant difference between meeting years in the number of exhibits chosen for awards (423 vs. 404, P = 0.88) or for RadioGraphics solicitation (190 vs. 169, P = 0.46). In both meeting years, there were statistically significant associations between initial and overall exhibit popularity and exhibit recognition, as well as between exhibit recognition and subsequent popularity. A 152% increase in total likes recorded was observed at the 2014 meeting as compared to the 2013 meeting (11074 vs. 4391, P Society of North America meeting than at the 2013 meeting. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting spatial similarity of freshwater fish biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaele, Sandro; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2009-04-28

    A major issue in modern ecology is to understand how ecological complexity at broad scales is regulated by mechanisms operating at the organismic level. What specific underlying processes are essential for a macroecological pattern to emerge? Here, we analyze the analytical predictions of a general model suitable for describing the spatial biodiversity similarity in river ecosystems, and benchmark them against the empirical occurrence data of freshwater fish species collected in the Mississippi-Missouri river system. Encapsulating immigration, emigration, and stochastic noise, and without resorting to species abundance data, the model is able to reproduce the observed probability distribution of the Jaccard similarity index at any given distance. In addition to providing an excellent agreement with the empirical data, this approach accounts for heterogeneities of different subbasins, suggesting a strong dependence of biodiversity similarity on their respective climates. Strikingly, the model can also predict the actual probability distribution of the Jaccard similarity index for any distance when considering just a relatively small sample. The proposed framework supports the notion that simplified macroecological models are capable of predicting fundamental patterns-a theme at the heart of modern community ecology.

  20. Houses and Apartments: Similar Assets, Different Financials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Chinloy; Prashant K Das; Jonathan A Wiley

    2014-01-01

    ....) Apartments and houses are highly substitutable in production and consumption. With similar materials and production costs, any differences in the markets for these two assets should have origins in financial contracts. The lessons available from this comparison have greater urgency given evidence that investment in new housing dominates the business cyc...

  1. Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in medical research have revealed how humans rely on their microbiome for diverse traits and functions. Similarly, microbiomes of other higher organisms play key roles in disease, health, growth and development of their host. Exploring microbiome functions across kingdoms holds

  2. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music...

  3. The triangle inequality constraint in similarity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, James M; Barque-Duran, Albert; Scerrati, Elisa; Hampton, James A; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2017-11-01

    Since Tversky's (1977) seminal investigation, the triangle inequality, along with symmetry and minimality, have had a central role in investigations of the fundamental constraints on human similarity judgments. The meaning of minimality and symmetry in similarity judgments has been straightforward, but this is not the case for the triangle inequality. Expressed in terms of dissimilarities, and assuming a simple, linear function between dissimilarities and distances, the triangle inequality constraint implies that human behaviour should be consistent with Dissimilarity (A,B) + Dissimilarity (B,C) ≥ Dissimilarity (A,C), where A, B, and C are any three stimuli. We show how we can translate this constraint into one for similarities, using Shepard's (1987) generalization law, and so derive the multiplicative triangle inequality for similarities, Sim(A,C)≥Sim(A,B)⋅Sim(B,C) where 0≤Sim(x,y)≤1. Can humans violate the multiplicative triangle inequality? An empirical demonstration shows that they can. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 6. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and chemical distinction – A case study from India and its implications. Ambalika Niyogi Jayanta K Pati Suresh C Patel Dipak Panda Shiv K Patil. Volume 120 Issue 6 December 2011 pp ...

  5. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  6. Partial order similarity based on mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the ranking of candidates by different voters is an important topic in social and information science with a high relevance from the point of view of practical applications. In general, ties and pairs of incomparable candidates may occur, thus, the alternative rankings are described by partial orders. Various distance measures between partial orders have already been introduced, where zero distance is corresponding to a perfect match between a pair of partial orders, and larger values signal greater differences. Here we take a different approach and propose a similarity measure based on adjusted mutual information. In general, the similarity value of unity is corresponding to exactly matching partial orders, while a low similarity is associated to a pair of independent partial orders. The time complexity of the computation of this similarity measure is $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^3)$ in the worst case, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^2\\ln \\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|)$ in the typi...

  7. Measurement of Similarity in Academic Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose some reflections, comments and suggestions about the measurement of similar and matched content in scientific papers and documents, and the need to develop appropriate tools and standards for an ethically fair and equitable treatment of authors.

  8. Music Retrieval based on Melodic Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Typke, R.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis introduces a method for measuring melodic similarity for notated music such as MIDI files. This music search algorithm views music as sets of notes that are represented as weighted points in the two-dimensional space of time and pitch. Two point sets can be compared by calculating how

  9. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...

  10. UMLS-Interface and UMLS-Similarity : Open Source Software for Measuring Paths and Semantic Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    McInnes, Bridget T.; Pedersen, Ted; Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.

    2009-01-01

    A number of computational measures for determining semantic similarity between pairs of biomedical concepts have been developed using various standards and programming platforms. In this paper, we introduce two new open-source frameworks based on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These frameworks consist of the UMLS-Similarity and UMLS-Interface packages. UMLS-Interface provides path information about UMLS concepts. UMLS-Similarity calculates the semantic similarity between UMLS con...

  11. Morphological similarity and ecological overlap in two rotifer species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gabaldón

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of cryptic species raises theoretically relevant questions regarding their coexistence and ecological similarity. Given their great morphological similitude and close phylogenetic relationship (i.e., niche retention, these species will have similar ecological requirements and are expected to have strong competitive interactions. This raises the problem of finding the mechanisms that may explain the coexistence of cryptic species and challenges the conventional view of coexistence based on niche differentiation. The cryptic species complex of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis is an excellent model to study these questions and to test hypotheses regarding ecological differentiation. Rotifer species within this complex are filtering zooplankters commonly found inhabiting the same ponds across the Iberian Peninsula and exhibit an extremely similar morphology-some of them being even virtually identical. Here, we explore whether subtle differences in body size and morphology translate into ecological differentiation by comparing two extremely morphologically similar species belonging to this complex: B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas. We focus on three key ecological features related to body size: (1 functional response, expressed by clearance rates; (2 tolerance to starvation, measured by growth and reproduction; and (3 vulnerability to copepod predation, measured by the number of preyed upon neonates. No major differences between B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas were found in the response to these features. Our results demonstrate the existence of a substantial niche overlap, suggesting that the subtle size differences between these two cryptic species are not sufficient to explain their coexistence. This lack of evidence for ecological differentiation in the studied biotic niche features is in agreement with the phylogenetic limiting similarity hypothesis but requires a mechanistic explanation of the coexistence of these species not

  12. CERN’s travelling exhibition goes to Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    Mélissa Lanaro

    2011-01-01

    Since April 2009 CERN’s travelling exhibition has been touring through some of the Organization's Member States. After Italy and Denmark it has been on show since February at Austria’s Hartberg Ökopark, a very popular science museum situated some one hundred kilometres from Vienna. To coincide with the CERN exhibition, Austria’s scientific community has organised a series of events for the general public which have had marked success. The exhibition's next destination will be Portugal and preparations are already underway to ensure that it is another resounding success   The travelling exhibition was designed in collaboration with the University of Geneva, as part of the celebrations for its 450th anniversary, and has already notched up a good number of kilometres as it travels from country to country. “In 2010 the exhibition already had around 55,000 visitors,” explains Rolf Landua, who heads the Education Group. Since its inauguration ...

  13. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect : The effects of When-Similarity in mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  14. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  15. Cosmic Origins: A Traveling Science Exhibit and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Space Science Institute of Boulder, Colorado, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Cosmic Origins, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Cosmic Origins will have three interrelated exhibit areas: Star Formation, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists' use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. Exhibit content will address age-old questions that form the basis of NASA's Origins and Astrobiology programs: Where did we come from? Are we alone? In addition to the exhibit, our project will include workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public Web site that will use a virtual rendering of exhibit content. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in underserved regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005. A second 3-year tour is also planned for 2008. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. Current partners in the Cosmic Origins project include ASTC, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (e.g. PlanetQuest, SIRTF, and Kepler), New York Hall of Science, the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The exhibition is supported by grants from NSF and NASA. This report will focus on the Planet Quest part of the exhibition.

  16. Multicriteria Similarity-Based Anomaly Detection Using Pareto Depth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ko-Jen; Xu, Kevin S; Calder, Jeff; Hero, Alfred O

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of identifying patterns in a data set that exhibits anomalous behavior, often referred to as anomaly detection. Similarity-based anomaly detection algorithms detect abnormally large amounts of similarity or dissimilarity, e.g., as measured by the nearest neighbor Euclidean distances between a test sample and the training samples. In many application domains, there may not exist a single dissimilarity measure that captures all possible anomalous patterns. In such cases, multiple dissimilarity measures can be defined, including nonmetric measures, and one can test for anomalies by scalarizing using a nonnegative linear combination of them. If the relative importance of the different dissimilarity measures are not known in advance, as in many anomaly detection applications, the anomaly detection algorithm may need to be executed multiple times with different choices of weights in the linear combination. In this paper, we propose a method for similarity-based anomaly detection using a novel multicriteria dissimilarity measure, the Pareto depth. The proposed Pareto depth analysis (PDA) anomaly detection algorithm uses the concept of Pareto optimality to detect anomalies under multiple criteria without having to run an algorithm multiple times with different choices of weights. The proposed PDA approach is provably better than using linear combinations of the criteria, and shows superior performance on experiments with synthetic and real data sets.

  17. Walking on a user similarity network towards personalized recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Gan

    Full Text Available Personalized recommender systems have been receiving more and more attention in addressing the serious problem of information overload accompanying the rapid evolution of the world-wide-web. Although traditional collaborative filtering approaches based on similarities between users have achieved remarkable success, it has been shown that the existence of popular objects may adversely influence the correct scoring of candidate objects, which lead to unreasonable recommendation results. Meanwhile, recent advances have demonstrated that approaches based on diffusion and random walk processes exhibit superior performance over collaborative filtering methods in both the recommendation accuracy and diversity. Building on these results, we adopt three strategies (power-law adjustment, nearest neighbor, and threshold filtration to adjust a user similarity network from user similarity scores calculated on historical data, and then propose a random walk with restart model on the constructed network to achieve personalized recommendations. We perform cross-validation experiments on two real data sets (MovieLens and Netflix and compare the performance of our method against the existing state-of-the-art methods. Results show that our method outperforms existing methods in not only recommendation accuracy and diversity, but also retrieval performance.

  18. Walking on a user similarity network towards personalized recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Mingxin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommender systems have been receiving more and more attention in addressing the serious problem of information overload accompanying the rapid evolution of the world-wide-web. Although traditional collaborative filtering approaches based on similarities between users have achieved remarkable success, it has been shown that the existence of popular objects may adversely influence the correct scoring of candidate objects, which lead to unreasonable recommendation results. Meanwhile, recent advances have demonstrated that approaches based on diffusion and random walk processes exhibit superior performance over collaborative filtering methods in both the recommendation accuracy and diversity. Building on these results, we adopt three strategies (power-law adjustment, nearest neighbor, and threshold filtration) to adjust a user similarity network from user similarity scores calculated on historical data, and then propose a random walk with restart model on the constructed network to achieve personalized recommendations. We perform cross-validation experiments on two real data sets (MovieLens and Netflix) and compare the performance of our method against the existing state-of-the-art methods. Results show that our method outperforms existing methods in not only recommendation accuracy and diversity, but also retrieval performance.

  19. Walking on a User Similarity Network towards Personalized Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Mingxin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommender systems have been receiving more and more attention in addressing the serious problem of information overload accompanying the rapid evolution of the world-wide-web. Although traditional collaborative filtering approaches based on similarities between users have achieved remarkable success, it has been shown that the existence of popular objects may adversely influence the correct scoring of candidate objects, which lead to unreasonable recommendation results. Meanwhile, recent advances have demonstrated that approaches based on diffusion and random walk processes exhibit superior performance over collaborative filtering methods in both the recommendation accuracy and diversity. Building on these results, we adopt three strategies (power-law adjustment, nearest neighbor, and threshold filtration) to adjust a user similarity network from user similarity scores calculated on historical data, and then propose a random walk with restart model on the constructed network to achieve personalized recommendations. We perform cross-validation experiments on two real data sets (MovieLens and Netflix) and compare the performance of our method against the existing state-of-the-art methods. Results show that our method outperforms existing methods in not only recommendation accuracy and diversity, but also retrieval performance. PMID:25489942

  20. Measuring Source Code Similarity Using Reference Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Asako; Murao, Hajime

    In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure similarity between program source codes. Different to others, our method doues not compare two source codes directly but compares two reference vectors, where a reference vector is calculated from one source code and a set of reference source codes. This means that our method requires no original source code when considering an application open to public such as a search engine for the program source code on the internet. We have built a simple search system and have evaluated with Java source codes made in the university course of basic programming. Results show that the system can achieve quite high average precision rate in very short time which means the proposed method can measure correct similarity very fast.

  1. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious that these res......The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious...... that these results also are applicable to other groups of expatriates. To explore this eventuality, an electronic survey was directed towards expatriate academics in 34 universities in five European countries. For the purpose of this study, they were sorted into two groups, expatriate academics from EU countries...

  2. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy....... Finally, the paper discusses what conclusions we can draw from the fact that genetic modification and established technologies are similar for the ethical status of genetic modification....... transferability of reasons from one case to another; and (iii) it runs the risk of equivocations, especially in cases where the anti-genetic-modification argument relies on gradable features. The paper then shows how these issues play out in three specific Similarity Arguments that can be found in the literature...

  3. Maine Exhibitions Assessment Project, September 2002-June 2004. Technical Criteria for Including Exhibition Assessments in Comprehensive Local Assessment Systems. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In September 2002, the Maine Department of Education began organizing an Exhibition Assessment Advisory Committee whose purpose it was to consider meaningful ways to include exhibition assessments in comprehensive local assessment systems. School administrators were invited to participate and/or nominate practitioners in their districts to become…

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart C of... - Checklist of Visual Exhibits and Documentation for RRH, RCH, and LH Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RRH, RCH, and LH Proposals C Exhibit C to Subpart C of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the... REPAIR Planning and Performing Site Development Work Pt. 1924, Subpt. C, Exh. C Exhibit C to Subpart C of... the required information will be sufficient. C. Property Survey Map. A current survey map of the...

  5. Hashing for Similarity Search: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingdong; Shen, Heng Tao; Song, Jingkuan; Ji, Jianqiu

    2014-01-01

    Similarity search (nearest neighbor search) is a problem of pursuing the data items whose distances to a query item are the smallest from a large database. Various methods have been developed to address this problem, and recently a lot of efforts have been devoted to approximate search. In this paper, we present a survey on one of the main solutions, hashing, which has been widely studied since the pioneering work locality sensitive hashing. We divide the hashing algorithms two main categorie...

  6. Similarity-based Polymorphic Shellcode Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Yurievich Gamayunov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the work the method for polymorphic shellcode dedection based on the set of known shellcodes is proposed. The method’s main idea is in sequential applying of deobfuscating transformations to a data analyzed and then recognizing similarity with malware samples. The method has been tested on the sets of shellcodes generated using Metasploit Framework v.4.1.0 and PELock Obfuscator and shows 87 % precision with zero false positives rate.

  7. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious. In this paper, we build on the ideas of the Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) that have been successfully used in the document retrieval community. Under thi...

  8. Privacy preserving similarity detection for data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leontiadis, Iraklis; Önen, Melek; Molva, Refik; Chorley, M.J.; Colombo, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Current applications tend to use personal sensitive information to achieve better quality with respect to their services. Since the third parties are not trusted the data must be protected such that individual data privacy is not compromised but at the same time operations on it would be compatible. A wide range of data analysis operations entails a similarity detection algorithm between user data. For instance clustering on big data groups together objects based on th...

  9. Spectral clustering based on learning similarity matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyoung; Zhao, Hongyu; Birol, Inanc

    2018-02-08

    Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology can generate genome-wide expression data at the single-cell levels. One important objective in scRNA-seq analysis is to cluster cells where each cluster consists of cells belonging to the same cell type based on gene expression patterns. We introduce a novel spectral clustering framework that imposes sparse structures on a target matrix. Specifically, we utilize multiple doubly stochastic similarity matrices to learn a similarity matrix, motivated by the observation that each similarity matrix can be a different informative representation of the data. We impose a sparse structure on the target matrix followed by shrinking pairwise differences of the rows in the target matrix, motivated by the fact that the target matrix should have these structures in the ideal case. We solve the proposed non-convex problem iteratively using the ADMM algorithm and show the convergence of the algorithm. We evaluate the performance of the proposed clustering method on various simulated as well as real scRNA-seq data, and show that it can identify clusters accurately and robustly. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB. The source code can be downloaded at https://github.com/ishspsy/project/tree/master/MPSSC. seyoung.park@yale.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  11. Developing Exhibit-based, Interactive Web Sites to Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J.

    2003-12-01

    New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. ASTC, the trade association of science museums, gave its 2000 innovation award to the Exploratorium's Web page rather than a physical exhibit. The increased power of the Web as an informal learning tool is partly the result of technologies (such as Java, Flash and Shockwave) that allow the development of inquiry-based, interactive experiences. Web site visitors can now "learn science by doing science." This report features two online projects funded by NSF and NASA: MarsQuest Online and the Space Weather Center. TERC, the Space Science Institute, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing MarsQuest Online, an interactive, exploration-based Web site that extends the reach and scope of the MarsQuest exhibit. The Space Weather Center Web site is based on the Space Weather Center exhibit that was developed in partnership with scientists and educators at NASA/GSFC. Both exhibits represent a tremendous, collaborative effort by scientists, educators, and designers to communicate the essentials of Mars science and space weather to the public. As such, the graphics, text, and story developed for the exhibits represent a valuable resource that will provide the framework and base content for the public site. Given that framework, the Web sites can then expand both the content and audience of the exhibits in key ways. In particular, the sites will 1) extend the reach of the exhibit by making it available online, 2) extend the scope of the exhibit, linking to the latest imagery and results from ground and space-based missions, and 3) provide support and follow-up for the exhibit education programs, while making materials available to more teachers, parents, and museum educators and docents.

  12. Postmodern Exhibition Discourse: Anthropological Study of an Art Display Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wieczorek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies tendencies in contemporary museum exhibitions and art display trends. While analysing current status quo of art in the museum context, it discusses the limitations of curatorial impact on the audience perception of the displayed objects. The paper presents a case study of a permanent museum exhibition with an added performance element. As argued in the article, such approach allows a stratified narrative and provokes a dialogue between the audience, performers, and curators, fully reflecting postmodern polyphonic tendency. The aim of the article is to comment on postmodern trends in museology, the status of the displayed art (object, and contemporary exhibition identity.

  13. From sample similarity to ensemble similarity: probabilistic distance measures in reproducing kernel Hilbert space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaohua Kevin; Chellappa, Rama

    2006-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of characterizing ensemble similarity from sample similarity in a principled manner. Using reproducing kernel as a characterization of sample similarity, we suggest a probabilistic distance measure in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) as the ensemble similarity. Assuming normality in the RKHS, we derive analytic expressions for probabilistic distance measures that are commonly used in many applications, such as Chernoff distance (or the Bhattacharyya distance as its special case), Kullback-Leibler divergence, etc. Since the reproducing kernel implicitly embeds a nonlinear mapping, our approach presents a new way to study these distances whose feasibility and efficiency is demonstrated using experiments with synthetic and real examples. Further, we extend the ensemble similarity to the reproducing kernel for ensemble and study the ensemble similarity for more general data representations.

  14. The Role of the Freelance Curator in an Art Exhibition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ieva Vitkauskaite

    2015-01-01

      This article analyses the role of the freelance curator in an art exhibition. The first part of the article conceptualises the notion of the modern curator and surveys the categories of curators...

  15. British Museum Exhibition Review: The Jericho Skull, Creating an Ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Hirst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporary exhibit at the British Museum, open 15th December-19th February, and located to the right of the main entrance in the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery (Room 59; is dedicated to a single Neolithic crania from Jericho, known as the Jericho Skull. This exhibit demonstrates the value of relatively recent technologies in archaeological research, highlighting the previously hidden information made possible through CT scanning and the value of these methods in both archaeological research but also in communicating archaeology in a visually stimulating manner which allows an exhibit to take a single item, and create an in depth exhibit featuring both the original material and two cranial 3D prints along with a facial reconstruction.

  16. Ballroom Music Spillover into a Beluga Whale Aquarium Exhibit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Scheifele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not uncommon for modern aquaria to be built with special entertainment areas. There are no known measurements of sound spillover from such entertainment areas into underwater animal exhibits. Entertainment organizations typically prefer to play music for events at 95 and 100 dBA in a ballroom at Georgia Aquarium. Concern over the potential effects of the music and noise on animals in adjacent exhibits inspired an initial project to monitor and compare sound levels in the adjacent underwater exhibits against the typical in-air sound levels of the ballroom. Measured underwater noise levels were compared to modeled levels based on finite element analysis and plane wave transmission loss calculations through the acrylic viewing window. Results were compared with the model to determine how, if at all, the ambient noise level in the Cold Water Quest exhibit changed as a result of music played in the ballroom.

  17. Translating land use science to a museum exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Nazario, Javier A.

    2016-01-01

    For land use science to engage the general public it must successfully translate its concepts and conclusions and make them public outside of traditional scientific venues. Here we explore science-art exhibits, which blend artistic presentations with specific scientific data or themes, as a possible effective way of communicating scientific information and disrupting misconceptions. We describe the process of producing a science-art exhibit on remote sensing and Puerto Rican landscape history from 1937 to the present, sited at a rural Puerto Rican community museum, and examine the visitor experience and educational outcomes of the museum exhibit through analysis of survey data. The exhibit project engaged undergraduate students from a variety of academic backgrounds, introduced land use science concepts to the public in an engaging format, and was effective at reshaping visitors’ misconceptions of Puerto Rico's landscape change history. PMID:28191029

  18. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  19. Editorial Notes: Exhibition Complex: Displaying People, Identity, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Cymbala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Editorial Notes on section relating to submissions from the symposium Exhibition Complex: Displaying People, Identity, and Culture held October 18-20, 2012 at the Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  20. Knowledge Generation in Technology-Enhanced Health Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Kharlamov, Nikita; Zachariasssen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from eye-tracking studies of audience interaction and knowledge generation in the technology-enhanced health promotion exhibition PULSE at a science centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main purpose of the study was to understand what types of knowledge audiences build...... in health promotion exhibitions designed to include direct physical interaction. The current study is part of the larger PULSE project, which aims to develop innovative health promotion activities that include a science museum exhibition as a key setting. The primary target group is families with children...... the science centre. Eye-tracking glasses and qualitative interviews were used to collect data. Before entering the PULSE exhibition, one adult in each family group and one child in each school group were asked to wear eye-tracking equipment while interacting with various installations. Primarily adult test...

  1. Exhibit celebrates five decades of women in engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Karen

    2007-01-01

    "Petticoats and Slide Rules," a historical exhibit on women in engineering from the Society of Women Engineers (SWE), is currently on display in the lobby of Hancock 100 and will remain at Virginia Tech through March of 2007.

  2. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  3. Exhibition “Space. Information. Research.”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darko Šiško

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Space. Information. Research. was opened in ZgForum, premises of the City Office of Strategic Planning and Development of the City of Zagreb for communication with professional and the general public on December 18, 2014...

  4. 5 CFR 2610.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 2610.202 Net worth exhibit. (a... Government Ethics' established procedures under the Freedom of Information Act. ...

  5. Dutch hi-tech companies exhibit at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven Dutch companies will present the state of the art of their technological developments at the industrial exhibition Holland @ CERN from 8 to 11 November. The exhibition is designed to help strengthen the ties between fundamental science and Dutch industry.   The exhibition, supported by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and organised by the Netherlands National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), in cooperation with the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, and Dutch Scientific, an association of manufacturers of scientific equipment, will be held in the Main Building from 8 to11 November. “The last Holland @ CERN exhibition took place fifteen years ago”, says Robert Klöpping from Nikhef, Dutch Industrial Liaison Officer for CERN and Purchasing Advisor for Grenoble ESRF. “This kind of event is very important for Dutch industry as it allows us to show what Dutch companies c...

  6. Auditory perception of self-similarity in water sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neimark Geffen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many natural signals, including environmental sounds, exhibit scale-invariant statistics: their structure is repeated at multiple scales. Such scale invariance has been identified separately across spectral and temporal correlations of natural sounds (Clarke and Voss, 1975; Attias and Schreiner, 1997; Escabi et al., 2003; Singh and Theunissen, 2003. Yet the role of scale-invariance across overall spectro-temporal structure of the sound has not been explored directly in auditory perception. Here, we identify that the sound wave of a recording of running water is a self-similar fractal, exhibiting scale-invariance not only within spectral channels, but also across the full spectral bandwidth. The auditory perception of the water sound did not change with its scale. We tested the role of scale-invariance in perception by using an artificial sound, which could be rendered scale-invariant. We generated a random chirp stimulus: an auditory signal controlled by two parameters, Q, controlling the relative, and r, controlling the absolute, temporal structure of the sound. Imposing scale-invariant statistics on the artificial sound was required for its perception as natural and water-like. Further, Q had to be restricted to a specific range for the sound to be perceived as natural. To detect self-similarity in the water sound, and identify Q, the auditory system needs to process the temporal dynamics of the waveform across spectral bands in terms of the number of cycles, rather than absolute timing. We propose a two-stage neural model implementing this computation. This computation may be carried out by circuits of neurons in the auditory cortex. The set of auditory stimuli developed in this study are particularly suitable for measurements of response properties of neurons in the auditory pathway, allowing for quantification of the effects of varying the statistics of the spectro-temporal statistical structure of the stimulus.

  7. Similarity of superior colliculus involvement in microsaccade and saccade generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of microsaccades, or small fixational saccades, and their influence on visual function have been studied extensively. However, the detailed mechanisms for generating these movements are less understood. We recently found that the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure involved in saccade generation, also plays a role in microsaccade generation. Here we compared the dynamics of neuronal activity in the SC associated with microsaccades to those observed in this structure in association with larger voluntary saccades. We found that microsaccade-related activity in the SC is characterized by a gradual increase in firing rate starting ∼100 ms prior to microsaccade onset, a peak of neuronal discharge just after movement onset, and a subsequent gradual decrease in firing rate until ∼100 ms after movement onset. These properties were shared with saccade-related SC neurons, recorded from the same monkeys but preferring larger eye movements, suggesting that at the level of the SC the neuronal control of microsaccades is similar to that for larger voluntary saccades. We also found that neurons exhibiting microsaccade-related activity often also exhibited saccade-related activity for slightly larger movements of similar direction, suggesting a continuity of the spatial representation in the SC, in both amplitude and direction, down to the smallest movements. Our results indicate that the mechanisms controlling microsaccades may be fundamentally the same as those for larger saccades, and thus shed new light on the functional role of these eye movements and their possible influence on sensory and sensory-motor processes. PMID:22236714

  8. [re]connect: Postmodern Documentary Photography Symposium and Traveling Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Park, Min; Soon-Hwa, Oh

    2014-01-01

    The Postmodern Documentary Photography Exhibition features selected works from leading artists in the field of contemporary documentary photography. Their research focuses on finding new ways to portray 'truth' through photography, exploring new subject matter in unique locations, confronting societal expectations and social norms, and discovering new ways of enhancing documentary photography in the digital age. Min Kim Park, director of Postmodern Documentary Photography Exhibition, discusse...

  9. Female visualities: exhibitions of womens artists in Brazil and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Corrêa e Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most known regenerating means, re-signifying and diffuser of visualities: the museum’s exhibitions. We intend to demonstrate the importance of this type of event in the museum’s context and for the society, from a perspective that integrates sociomuseology and gender. These concepts were applied to a comparative analysis of two new recents exhibitions dedicated to the artist women, seen in cases of Brazil and Portugal.

  10. CULTURAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Tunkkari, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research the influence of culture on consumer behaviour and to determine if there are similarities and/or differences in consumer behaviour between cultures. For marketers all around the world, it is extremely important to understand the needs and behaviours of individuals in order to get a deeper insight to how they choose to purchase products and services. The influence of culture on consumer behaviour is vital to get to terms with. Culture can be defined a...

  11. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  12. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance (R(2)) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related to

  13. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...

  14. Poster exhibitions at national conferences: education or farce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzl, Gabriele; Gölder, Stefan; Timmer, Antje; Marienhagen, Jörg; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Grossmann, Johannes

    2008-02-01

    The so-called poster exhibition is an established element of medical meetings which often receives little attention. The aim of this study was to analyze the organization, acceptance and value of poster exhibitions. Interview based study conducted during the annual meeting of a German specialist medical conference. A total of 247 attendees, poster authors and "poster chairpersons" were interviewed. Attendance at poster exhibitions was documented, the poster review and award process analyzed, and abstracts assessed for redundancy of presentation. Participation in poster exhibitions was very low. Despite this, their scientific value was esteemed high by young authors and the poster chairpersons. Almost a third (29.4%) of posters had been displayed at other meetings. Several attendees (55.4%) and poster presenters (49.1%) say they would welcome the opportunity for personal one-on-one discussion at the poster in addition to poster viewing. The option of additional personal discussion with the poster presenter may lead to an increase of the rather modest participation of attendees at poster exhibitions. Poster exhibitions are of value in particular for young scientists and poster chairpersons.

  15. Exhibits Recognition System for Combining Online Services and Offline Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2017-10-01

    In order to achieve a more convenient and accurate digital museum navigation, we have developed a real–time and online-to-offline museum exhibits recognition system using image recognition method based on deep learning. In this paper, the client and server of the system are separated and connected through the HTTP. Firstly, by using the client app in the Android mobile phone, the user can take pictures and upload them to the server. Secondly, the features of the picture are extracted using the deep learning network in the server. With the help of the features, the pictures user uploaded are classified with a well-trained SVM. Finally, the classification results are sent to the client and the detailed exhibition’s introduction corresponding to the classification results are shown in the client app. Experimental results demonstrate that the recognition accuracy is close to 100% and the computing time from the image uploading to the exhibit information show is less than 1S. By means of exhibition image recognition algorithm, our implemented exhibits recognition system can combine online detailed exhibition information to the user in the offline exhibition hall so as to achieve better digital navigation.

  16. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST. Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively, whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05. We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be selected, reducing their genetic variability.

  17. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Sanchez, Gie-Bele; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Ramirez-Guerrero, Celedonio; Vargas-Hernandez, Ines; Ramirez-Miranda, Maria Elena; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Valadez, Alicia; Ximenez, Cecilia; Lopez-Escamilla, Eduardo; Hernandez-Campos, Maria Elena; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST). Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π) as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively), whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (pBlastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be selected, reducing their genetic variability.

  18. Impact of country of birth on genetic testing of metastatic lung adenocarcinomas in France: African women exhibit a mutational spectrum more similar to Asians than to Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffroy, Raphael; Morère, Jean-François; Bosselut, Nelly; Innominato, Pasquale F; Hamelin, Jocelyne; Trédaniel, Jean; Masse, Sophie; Dussaule-Duchatelle, Véronique; Balaton, André; Validire, Pierre; Guettier, Catherine; Bouchahda, Mohamed; Lemoine, Antoinette

    2017-08-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of oncogenic driver mutations in Caucasian populations, and especially in Europeans. To evaluate the targetable mutational spectra in unselected patients with lung adenocarcinoma in routine clinical practice from several French hospitals, using the same molecular platform. Samples from 2,219 consecutive patients with histologically-proven advanced lung adenocarcinoma were centrally analysed at a referenced and certified diagnostic platform in order to test for activating and resistance mutations in EGFR , KRAS , BRAF , ERBB2 and PI3KCA . Demographic and clinical features were retrieved from the medical charts. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictive factors for the occurrence of specific mutations, in the whole study population or in selected subgroups. The overall respective incidence of EGFR , KRAS , BRAF , ERBB2 and PI3KCA mutations was 10.5%, 0.9%, 25%, 1.5%, 2.1% and 1.4%, in our study sample including 87.4% white Caucasians, 10.8% Africans and 1.8% Asians; 60.6% men, 30.7% never smoker (median age: 68.3 years). Ethnicity was an independent predictor for EGFR, KRAS and ERBB2 gene abnormalities. In all cases, a significantly higher prevalence of targetable EGFR and ERBB2 , and a lower prevalence of resistance KRAS mutations were observed in African women as compared to African men or Caucasians. In real life conditions of routine genetic testing, we have identified subsets of patients with specific targetable activating somatic mutations according to ethnicity, who could preferentially benefit from anti- EGFR and anti- ERBB2 targeted therapies.

  19. Characterization of Klebsiella sp. strain 10982, a colonizer of humans that contains novel antibiotic resistance alleles and exhibits genetic similarities to plant and clinical Klebsiella isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Tracy H; Zhao, LiCheng; Sahl, Jason W; Robinson, Gwen; Harris, Anthony D; Rasko, David A; Johnson, J Kristie

    2014-01-01

    A unique Klebsiella species strain, 10982, was cultured from a perianal swab specimen obtained from a patient in the University of Maryland Medical Center intensive care unit. Klebsiella sp. 10982 possesses a large IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid encoding a novel FOX AmpC β-lactamase designated FOX-10. A novel variant of the LEN β-lactamase was also identified. Genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that this isolate contains genes associated with nitrogen fixation, allantoin metabolism, and citrate fermentation. These three gene regions are typically present in either Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates or Klebsiella nitrogen-fixing endophytes but usually not in the same organism. Phylogenomic analysis of Klebsiella sp. 10982 and sequenced Klebsiella genomes demonstrated that Klebsiella sp. 10982 is present on a branch that is located intermediate between the genomes of nitrogen-fixing endophytes and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. Metabolic features identified in the genome of Klebsiella sp. 10982 distinguish this isolate from other Klebsiella clinical isolates. These features include the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster, which is typically present in endophytic Klebsiella isolates and is absent from Klebsiella clinical isolates. Additionally, the Klebsiella sp. 10982 genome contains genes associated with allantoin metabolism, which have been detected primarily in K. pneumoniae isolates from liver abscesses. Comparative genomic analysis of Klebsiella sp. 10982 demonstrated that this organism has acquired genes conferring new metabolic strategies and novel antibiotic resistance alleles, both of which may enhance its ability to colonize the human body.

  20. Parasite community similarity between four Irish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C J; Grey, C; Holland, C; Poole, R

    2000-12-01

    A total of 140 trout were examined from four lakes in north west Ireland, Loughs Craghy, Waskel, Meela and Owennamarve. Eleven species of metazoan parasite were recorded, ten of which were of freshwater origin and Anisakissp. was the only marine species. No acanthocephalan species were found. Diphyllobothrium ditremum, D. dendriticum and Anisakissp. were the only allogenic species. Lough Owennamarve had the largest component community with nine species recorded. Lough Meela, the only brackish water lake had the smallest component community with six species recorded. Lough Waskel and Craghy had intermediate component community values. Lough Meela showed the lowest levels of similarity to any of the other lakes. Values for the Shannon-Wiener diversity index were highest for Lough Owennamarve and lowest for Lough Meela and intermediate for the other two lakes. Lough Meela had the highest values for the Simpson's dominance index and the Berger-Parker index. Lough Owennamarve had the highest Brillouin's index and Lough Meela had the lowest. The use of multiple regression techniques to control for the potentially confounding effect of geographical distance as a predictor of community similarity was discussed. No parasite species found could be considered as regionally and locally abundant and therefore described as a core species. The helminth community appears to have some degree of predictability, but chance colonization events are also important.

  1. Pharmacophore-based similarity scoring for DOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingling; Rizzo, Robert C

    2015-01-22

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein-ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK.

  2. The similarity of life across the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2016-05-15

    Is the hypothesis correct that if life exists elsewhere in the universe, it would have forms and structures unlike anything we could imagine? From the subatomic level in cellular energy acquisition to the assembly and even behavior of organisms at the scale of populations, life on Earth exhibits characteristics that suggest it is a universal norm for life at all levels of hierarchy. These patterns emerge from physical and biochemical limitations. Their potentially universal nature is supported by recent data on the astrophysical abundance and availability of carbon compounds and water. Within these constraints, biochemical and biological variation is certainly possible, but it is limited. If life exists elsewhere, life on Earth, rather than being a contingent product of one specific experiment in biological evolution, is likely to reflect common patterns for the assembly of living matter. © 2016 Cockell. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. The Evolution of Facultative Conformity Based on Similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Efferson

    Full Text Available Conformist social learning can have a pronounced impact on the cultural evolution of human societies, and it can shape both the genetic and cultural evolution of human social behavior more broadly. Conformist social learning is beneficial when the social learner and the demonstrators from whom she learns are similar in the sense that the same behavior is optimal for both. Otherwise, the social learner's optimum is likely to be rare among demonstrators, and conformity is costly. The trade-off between these two situations has figured prominently in the longstanding debate about the evolution of conformity, but the importance of the trade-off can depend critically on the flexibility of one's social learning strategy. We developed a gene-culture coevolutionary model that allows cognition to encode and process information about the similarity between naive learners and experienced demonstrators. Facultative social learning strategies that condition on perceived similarity evolve under certain circumstances. When this happens, facultative adjustments are often asymmetric. Asymmetric adjustments mean that the tendency to follow the majority when learners perceive demonstrators as similar is stronger than the tendency to follow the minority when learners perceive demonstrators as different. In an associated incentivized experiment, we found that social learners adjusted how they used social information based on perceived similarity, but adjustments were symmetric. The symmetry of adjustments completely eliminated the commonly assumed trade-off between cases in which learners and demonstrators share an optimum versus cases in which they do not. In a second experiment that maximized the potential for social learners to follow their preferred strategies, a few social learners exhibited an inclination to follow the majority. Most, however, did not respond systematically to social information. Additionally, in the complete absence of information about their

  4. Creating Birds of Similar Feathers: Leveraging Similarity to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; King, Aaron M.; Hsu, Laura M.; McIntyre, Joseph; Rogers, Todd

    2016-01-01

    When people perceive themselves as similar to others, greater liking and closer relationships typically result. In the first randomized field experiment that leverages actual similarities to improve real-world relationships, we examined the affiliations between 315 9th grade students and their 25 teachers. Students in the treatment condition…

  5. Similar or different?: the importance of similarities and differences for support between siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, M.; van der Lippe, T.; Dykstra, P.A.; Flap, H.

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  6. Similar or Different? The Importance of Similarities and Differences for Support Between Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Flap, Henk

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  7. UMLS-Interface and UMLS-Similarity : open source software for measuring paths and semantic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Bridget T; Pedersen, Ted; Pakhomov, Serguei V S

    2009-11-14

    A number of computational measures for determining semantic similarity between pairs of biomedical concepts have been developed using various standards and programming platforms. In this paper, we introduce two new open-source frameworks based on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These frameworks consist of the UMLS-Similarity and UMLS-Interface packages. UMLS-Interface provides path information about UMLS concepts. UMLS-Similarity calculates the semantic similarity between UMLS concepts using several previously developed measures and can be extended to include new measures. We validate the functionality of these frameworks by reproducing the results from previous work. Our frameworks constitute a significant contribution to the field of biomedical Natural Language Processing by providing a common development and testing platform for semantic similarity measures based on the UMLS.

  8. A ligand's view of target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, Stephen L; Gloriam, David E

    2011-01-01

    shows with several examples how focusing on the binding site(s) has a clear advantage when it comes to establishing sequence-correlated pharmacological profiles. By organizing and comparing sequence and structural data it is possible to "borrow" SAR from similar targets to increase the speed of lead......-finding and, potentially, to produce ligands for previously intractable receptors. Sequence motifs correlated with ligands can be applied in the design of target-specific focused libraries that are both efficient and cost-effective and should provide increased hit-rates over diversity screening. Furthermore......, in the optimization phase, the binding motif approach offers the possibility to identify quickly the most likely off-target candidates to be chosen for selectivity screening, as well as potentially characterizing those pockets which may best be exploited for improved selectivity....

  9. Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., equality leads to freedom. Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness.

  10. [Generics: similarities, bioequivalence but no conformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Adin, D; De Muylder, J A; Sternon, J

    2002-01-01

    The using of generic forms (GF) is presented as a potential source of budgetary "saving of money" in the field of pharmaceutical expenses. Not frequently prescribed in Belgium, they win a new interest thanks to the recent making use of the "reference repayment". Sale's authorization of GF is controlled by european rules, but some questions about their identity to original medications remain. Do similarities based only upon qualitative and quantitative composition in active molecules, pharmaceutical forms and biodisponibility give us all requested guaranties? Several cases of discordances can appear; the major elements of non conformity are the nature of excipients, notice's contents and the value of biodisponibility studies. However, in term of economy, in the drug market, development of GF appears to constitute an unavoidable phenomenon.

  11. [Generics: essentially similar, bioequivalent but not identical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Adin, D; De Muylder, J A; Sternon, J

    2001-12-01

    The using of generic forms (GF) is presented as a potential source of budgetary "saving of money" in the field of pharmaceutical expenses. Not frequently prescribed in Belgium, they win a new interest thanks to the recent making use of the "reference repayment". Sale's authorization of GF is controlled by european rules, but some questions about their identity to original medications remain. Do similarities based only upon qualitative and quantitative composition in active molecules, pharmaceutical forms and biodisponibility give us all requested guarantees? Several cases of discordances can appear: the major elements of non conformity are the nature of excipients, notice's contents and the value of biodisponibility studies. However, in term of economy, in the drug market, development of GF appears to constitute an unavoidable phenomenon.

  12. Retrieving Similar Styles to Parse Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kota; Kiapour, M Hadi; Ortiz, Luis E; Berg, Tamara L

    2015-05-01

    Clothing recognition is a societally and commercially important yet extremely challenging problem due to large variations in clothing appearance, layering, style, and body shape and pose. In this paper, we tackle the clothing parsing problem using a retrieval-based approach. For a query image, we find similar styles from a large database of tagged fashion images and use these examples to recognize clothing items in the query. Our approach combines parsing from: pre-trained global clothing models, local clothing models learned on the fly from retrieved examples, and transferred parse-masks (Paper Doll item transfer) from retrieved examples. We evaluate our approach extensively and show significant improvements over previous state-of-the-art for both localization (clothing parsing given weak supervision in the form of tags) and detection (general clothing parsing). Our experimental results also indicate that the general pose estimation problem can benefit from clothing parsing.

  13. Similarity, trust in institutions, affect, and populism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Finucane, Melissa L.

    Following up on ideas originally proposed by Niklas Luhmann, recent research has suggested that individuals may trust institutions and political actors only to the degree that they assume them to share their own value orientations. Two studies were conducted to test this proposition. Study 1 was ...... the suspicion that this particular mechanism may be responsible for the success of populist politics. Understanding the role of affect is key to reducing polarization in debates about the value of new technologies....... on affect is a quicker, easier, and a more efficient way of navigating in a complex and uncertain world. Hence, many theorists give affect a direct and primary role in motivating behavior. Taken together, the results provide uncannily strong support for the value-similarity hypothesis, strengthening...

  14. Ubiquitin-binding proteins: similar, but different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine M; Hofmann, Kay; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    described. UBA (ubiquitin-associated) domain-containing proteins is the largest family and includes members involved in different cell processes. The smaller groups of UIM (ubiquitin-interacting motif), GAT [GGA (Golgi-associated gamma-adaptin homologous) and Tom1 (target of Myb 1)], CUE (coupling......Covalent modification of proteins with ubiquitin is a common regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Typically, ubiquitinated proteins are targeted for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. However, more recently the ubiquitin signal has also been connected with many other cell processes, including...... endocytosis, vesicle fusion, DNA repair and transcriptional silencing. Hence ubiquitination may be comparable with phosphorylation in its importance as an intracellular switch, controlling various signal-transduction pathways. Similar to the regulation of the extent of phosphorylation by kinases...

  15. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Gregory R.; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., “equality leads to freedom”). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  16. Generalized Entropies and the Similarity of Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Gerlach, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We show how generalized Gibbs-Shannon entropies can provide new insights on the statistical properties of texts. The universal distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) implies that the generalized entropies, computed at the word level, are dominated by words in a specific range of frequencies. Here we show that this is the case not only for the generalized entropies but also for the generalized (Jensen-Shannon) divergences, used to compute the similarity between different texts. This finding allows us to identify the contribution of specific words (and word frequencies) for the different generalized entropies and also to estimate the size of the databases needed to obtain a reliable estimation of the divergences. We test our results in large databases of books (from the Google n-gram database) and scientific papers (indexed by Web of Science).

  17. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  18. Self-Similar Dynamics of SNe Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lile

    2012-01-01

    With proper physical mechanisms of energy and momentum input from around the centre of a self-gravitating polytropic gas sphere, a central spherical "void" or "cavity" or "bubble" of very much less mass contents may emerge and then dynamically expand into a variety of surrounding more massive gas envelopes with or without shocks. We explore self-similar evolution of a self-gravitating polytropic hydrodynamic flow of spherical symmetry with such an expanding "void" embedded around the center. The void boundary supporting a massive envelope represents a pressure-balanced contact discontinuity where drastic changes in mass density and temperature occur. We obtain numerical void solutions that can cross the sonic critical surface either smoothly or by shocks. Using the conventional polytropic equation of state, we construct global void solutions with shocks travelling into various envelopes including static polytropic sphere, outflow, inflow, breeze and contraction types. In the context of supernovae, we discuss the possible scenario of separating a central collapsing compact object from an outgoing gas envelope with a powerful void in dynamic expansion. Initially, a central bubble is carved out by an extremely powerful neutrinosphere. After the escape of neutrinos during the decoupling, the strong electromagnetic radiation field and/or electron-positron pair plasma continue to drive the cavity expansion. In a self-similar dynamic evolution, the pressure across the contact discontinuity decreases with time to a negligible level for a sufficiently long lapse and eventually, the gas envelope continues to expand by inertia. We describe model cases of polytropic index γ=4/3-ɛ with ɛ>0 and discuss pertinent requirements to justify our proposed scenario.

  19. Optimal neighborhood indexing for protein similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlongo, Pierre; Noé, Laurent; Lavenier, Dominique; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Kucherov, Gregory; Giraud, Mathieu

    2008-12-16

    Similarity inference, one of the main bioinformatics tasks, has to face an exponential growth of the biological data. A classical approach used to cope with this data flow involves heuristics with large seed indexes. In order to speed up this technique, the index can be enhanced by storing additional information to limit the number of random memory accesses. However, this improvement leads to a larger index that may become a bottleneck. In the case of protein similarity search, we propose to decrease the index size by reducing the amino acid alphabet. The paper presents two main contributions. First, we show that an optimal neighborhood indexing combining an alphabet reduction and a longer neighborhood leads to a reduction of 35% of memory involved into the process, without sacrificing the quality of results nor the computational time. Second, our approach led us to develop a new kind of substitution score matrices and their associated e-value parameters. In contrast to usual matrices, these matrices are rectangular since they compare amino acid groups from different alphabets. We describe the method used for computing those matrices and we provide some typical examples that can be used in such comparisons. Supplementary data can be found on the website http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/reblosum. We propose a practical index size reduction of the neighborhood data, that does not negatively affect the performance of large-scale search in protein sequences. Such an index can be used in any study involving large protein data. Moreover, rectangular substitution score matrices and their associated statistical parameters can have applications in any study involving an alphabet reduction.

  20. “Accelerating Science” exhibition zooms to Turkey

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    'Accelerating Science', CERN’s travelling science outreach exhibition, has just arrived at the Middle East Technical University (METU) in Ankara, Turkey for a four-month stay there. This is the first time it has moved outside the circle of the Member States. The Turkish venue will inaugurate some new exhibits that have recently been developed by CERN’s software developers.   “It’s been a very busy day,” says Bilge Demirkoz, an associate professor of physics at METU and a member of AMS-02, who had been overseeing the unloading of the lorries when we spoke to her. “As the University doesn’t have a specific exhibition space, the CERN exhibits are going to be housed in the covered tennis courts just behind the cultural and congress centre. It’s a beautiful venue, and there are plenty of parking spaces.” The University has sent invitations to the exhibition to high schools and to about 100 ...

  1. Performative exhibition and its different modes of experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    The avant-gardes of the late 60s and 70s challenged many conventions associated with the (classical) modernist art exhibition such as: a static timeless display of autonomous objects, the spectator as a disembodied visual receptor, and the personal experience emphasizing the individual and never...... the social. The avant-gardes have not, however, let to the disappearance of a modernist exhibition format but to a proliferation of formats including some that are more performative in its character, which means: more dynamic, developing over time, with a higher degree of bodily and discursive exchange, and......, in some senses more social and contingent. My paper will discuss the performative exhibitions today. With departure in a recent presentation of Antonio Dias’s work Do it yourself: freedom territory (1968) at Istanbul Biennale, 2011, and a number of other examples I will address possible clashes between...

  2. Correlation dimension of self-similar surfaces and application to Kirchhoff integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Holschneider, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    International audience; For surfaces generated by a class of asymptotically self-similar processes we define a probability measure, supported by the surface. We show that the correlation dimension of that surface measure is linked to the self-similarity exponent almost surely. This result is applied to the Kirchhoff integral well known in scattering from rough surfaces. We show that a certain average of the scattered intensity exhibits almost surely a scaling that allows us to recover the sel...

  3. Do birds and beetles show similar responses to urbanization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Sara A; Fahrig, Lenore

    2011-09-01

    To date, the vast majority of studies in urban areas have been carried out on birds, yet it is not known whether the responses of birds to urbanization are congruent with those of other taxa. In this paper, we compared the responses of breeding birds and carabid beetles to urbanization, specifically asking whether the emerging generalizations of the effects of extreme levels of urbanization on birds (declines in total species richness and the richness of specialist species, increases in total abundance and the abundances of native generalist and introduced species, and community simplification, including increasing similarity) could also be applied to ground beetles. We also directly tested for congruence between birds and ground beetles using correlations between variables describing bird and beetle community structure and correlations between bird and beetle distance matrices describing community dissimilarity between pairs of sampling locations. Breeding bird and carabid beetle community data were collected in Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Quebec, Canada, in two groups of sites: developed sites representing the predictor variable within-site housing density, and forested sites adjacent to development representing the predictor variable neighboring housing density (each site was 0.25 km2). Breeding birds and carabid beetles do not respond similarly to increasing within-site housing density but do exhibit some similar responses to increasing neighboring housing density. Birds displayed strong declines in diversity, compositional changes, and community simplification in response to increasing within-site housing density. Forest and introduced species of birds and beetles responded similarly to increasing housing density within a site, but responses of overall diversity and open-habitat species richness and patterns of community simplification differed between birds and beetles. Increasing neighboring housing density resulted in increases in the abundances of

  4. American Telemedicine Association: First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the support of Tianjin Municipal People’s Government and the People’s Government of Binhai New Area, the “First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition” hosted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA, will be held October 28- 30, 2014 at the Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The three day event will feature keynote sessions, concurrent discussion forums, exhibits (e.g., telemedicine, information technology, mHealth, a venture summit, meet-and-greet sessions for international and domestic companies for potential business collaboration, and policy discussions on China healthcare. For registration information: http://www.atacn.org/en/

  5. TrayGen: Arranging objects for exhibition and packaging

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework, called TrayGen, to generate tray designs for the exhibition and packaging of a collection of objects. Based on principles from shape perception and visual merchandising, we abstract a number of design guidelines on how to organize the objects on the tray for the exhibition of their individual features and mutual relationships. Our framework realizes these guidelines by analyzing geometric shapes of the objects and optimizing their arrangement. We demonstrate that the resultant tray designs not only save space, but also highlight the characteristic of each object and the inter-relations between objects. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Exhibition of Monogamy Relations between Entropic Non-contextuality Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yi-Dong

    2017-06-01

    We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. Supported by 973 Programs of China under Grant Nos. 2011CBA00303 and 2013CB328700, Basic Research Foundation of Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList)

  7. Artists’ publications: expanded editions and the challenges of exhibiting them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Picazo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this text, Gloria Picazo reflects on the diffusion and presentation of artists’ books in museums and art centers. The starting point is her experience in this matter, resulting from her term as director of the Centre d’Art la Panera de Lleida. This paper analyzes exhibitions and editorial projects that focus on artists’ publications and their production, exhibition and dissemination, such as those by Francesc Ruiz, Ana García Pineda, Fito Conesa or the Panera on Line project. There, different curators present, in video format, a selection of publications that belong to the funds of the Documentation Center of La Panera.

  8. State and Mafia, Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfano Vincenzo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate about the differences and, if any, the similarities among the modern State and the mafia criminal organizations. In particular, starting from their definitions, I will try to find the differences between State and mafia, to then focus on the operational aspects of the functioning of these two organizations, with specific reference to the effect/impact that both these human constructs have on citizens’ existences, and especially on citizen’s economic lives. All this in order to understand whether it is possible to identify an objective difference – beside morals – between taxation by the modern State and extortion by criminal organizations. With this of course I do not want to argue that the mafia is in any way justifiable or absolvable, nor that it is better than the State. However, I want to investigate whether there is a real, logical reason why the State should be considered by the citizens more desirable than the criminal organizations oppressing Southern Italy, from a strictly logical point of view and not from the point of view of ethics and morality.

  9. Reading network in dyslexia: Similar, yet different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Karen E; Wilson, Anna J; Roberts, Reece P; Moreau, David

    2017-11-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental disorder characterized by reading and phonological difficulties, yet important questions remain regarding its underlying neural correlates. In this study, we used partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analytic technique, to investigate the neural networks used by dyslexics while performing a word-rhyming task. Although the overall reading network was largely similar in dyslexics and typical readers, it did not correlate with behavior in the same way in the two groups. In particular, there was a positive association between reading performance and both right superior temporal gyrus and bilateral insula activation in dyslexic readers but a negative correlation in typical readers. Together with differences in lateralization unique to dyslexics, this suggests that the combination of poor reading performance with high insula activity and atypical laterality is a consistent marker of dyslexia. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding right-hemisphere activation in dyslexia and provide promising directions for the remediation of reading disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mining patents using molecular similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James; Boyer, Stephen; Kreulen, Jeffrey; Chen, Ying; Ordonez, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Text analytics is becoming an increasingly important tool used in biomedical research. While advances continue to be made in the core algorithms for entity identification and relation extraction, a need for practical applications of these technologies arises. We developed a system that allows users to explore the US Patent corpus using molecular information. The core of our system contains three main technologies: A high performing chemical annotator which identifies chemical terms and converts them to structures, a similarity search engine based on the emerging IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI) standard, and a set of on demand data mining tools. By leveraging this technology we were able to rapidly identify and index 3,623,248 unique chemical structures from 4,375,036 US Patents and Patent Applications. Using this system a user may go to a web page, draw a molecule, search for related Intellectual Property (IP) and analyze the results. Our results prove that this is a far more effective way for identifying IP than traditional keyword based approaches.

  11. Similarities and differences in conceptualizing critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the core similarities and differences in conceptualizing critical thinking. The framework of analysis refers to conceptions of leading critical thinking theorists: Ennis, Siegel, Paul, McPeck and Lipman. Two key questions are in the focus of consideration: which are the defining characteristics of critical thinking, distinguishing it from other types of thinking, and what are its constituents. The nature of identified differences has lead to a dilemma whether critical thinking skills are generalized or domain specific, as well as to the question regarding the role of noncognitive critical thinking dispositions. We also discuss the relation between the dominant approach founded in informal logic and epistemological conceptions that expanded the meaning of critical thinking by elaborating its reflective, dialectical and dialogical dimensions. The prevailing view that emphasizes the pragmatic purpose of critical thinking is contrasted with the competing Endeavour to base and justify its purpose in the concept of emancipatory rationality. The analysis outcomes suggest that, in spite of the lack of a consistent theoretical framework, competing conceptions do share some core principles, especially with respect to the distinctive features of critical thinking. However, there are deep and intrinsic differences regarding the nature of critical thinking standards and constituents, which can probably be attributed to complex and multidiscoursive nature of the concept itself. .

  12. Voxel similarity measures for automated image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Derek L.; Studholme, Colin; Hawkes, David J.

    1994-09-01

    We present the concept of the feature space sequence: 2D distributions of voxel features of two images generated at registration and a sequence of misregistrations. We provide an explanation of the structure seen in these images. Feature space sequences have been generated for a pair of MR image volumes identical apart from the addition of Gaussian noise to one, MR image volumes with and without Gadolinium enhancement, MR and PET-FDG image volumes and MR and CT image volumes, all of the head. The structure seen in the feature space sequences was used to devise two new measures of similarity which in turn were used to produce plots of cost versus misregistration for the 6 degrees of freedom of rigid body motion. One of these, the third order moment of the feature space histogram, was used to register the MR image volumes with and without Gadolinium enhancement. These techniques have the potential for registration accuracy to within a small fraction of a voxel or resolution element and therefore interpolation errors in image transformation can be the dominant source of error in subtracted images. We present a method for removing these errors using sinc interpolation and show how interpolation errors can be reduced by over two orders of magnitude.

  13. Different-but-Similar Judgments by Bumblebees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines picture perception in an invertebrate. Two questions regarding possible picture-object correspondence are addressed for bumblebees (Bombus impatiens: (1 Do bees perceive the difference between an object and its corresponding picture even when they have not been trained to do so? (2 Do they also perceive the similarity? Twenty bees from each of four colonies underwent discrimination training of stimuli placed in a radial maze. Bees were trained to discriminate between two objects (artificial flowers in one group and between photos of those objects in another. Subsequent testing on unrewarding stimuli revealed, for both groups, a significant discrimination between the object and its photo: discrimination training was not necessary for bees to detect a difference between corresponding objects and pictures. We obtained not only object-to-picture transfer, as in previous research, but also the reverse: picture-to-object transfer. In the absence of the rewarding object, its photo, though never seen before by the bees, was accepted as a substitute. The reverse was also true. Bumblebees treated pictures as “different-but-similar” without having been trained to do so, which is in turn useful in floral categorization.

  14. Extended Self Similarity in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2005-12-01

    The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of MHD turbulence over extended temporal scales. A hallmark of turbulence is scaling- and scaling in the Probability Density Functions (PDF) of fluctuations in certain solar wind in- situ bulk plasma parameters has been established from WIND and ACE observations on `short' timescales up to a few hours. On longer timescales there is a crossover in scaling to uncorrelated behaviour. The intermittency of the system is expressed in these parameters through the non-Gaussian nature of the fluctuations PDF up to this timescale. Here we apply a generic approach to turbulence- that of Extended Self Similarity (ESS)- to the analysis of solar wind observations. We find that ESS can extend the range of scaling and for some parameters reveals two distinct scaling regions for the `short' and long timescales, whereas for others, a single scaling encompasses the behaviour over the full range of timescales. That certain parameters, and conditions, can be distinguished via ESS may provide physical insight into the turbulent solar wind.

  15. Effects of categorical labels on similarity judgments: A critical analysis of similarity-based approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children’s judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked to make perceptual judgments about identical items judge discriminable items less accurately when making subsequent similarity judgments. Thus, label...

  16. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Similarity and assumed similarity in personality reports of well-acquainted persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C; Pozzebon, Julie A; Visser, Beth A; Bourdage, Joshua S; Ogunfowora, Babatunde

    2009-02-01

    The authors obtained self- and observer reports of personality from pairs of well-acquainted college students. Consistent with previous findings, results of Study 1 showed strong cross-source agreement for all 6 HEXACO personality factors (rs approximately .55). In addition, the authors found modest levels of similarity (r approximately .25) between dyad members' self-reports on each of 2 dimensions, Honesty-Humility and Openness to Experience. For these same 2 factors, dyad members' self-reports were correlated with their observer reports of the other dyad member (r approximately .40), thus indicating moderately high assumed similarity. In Study 2, Honesty-Humility and Openness to Experience were the 2 personality factors most strongly associated with the 2 major dimensions of personal values, which also showed substantial assumed similarity. In Study 3, assumed similarity was considerably stronger for close friends than for nonfriend acquaintances. Results suggest that assumed similarity for Honesty-Humility and Openness to Experience reflects a tendency to overestimate one's similarity to persons with whom one has a close relationship, but only on those personality characteristics whose relevance to values gives them central importance to one's identity.

  18. A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Nili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA, which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The

  19. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  20. On the Politics of Exhibiting North Korean Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David

    2011-01-01

    This essay was written in reaction to the international symposium "Exploring North Korean Arts," which was held on the occasion of the art exhibition "Flowers for Kim Il Sung—Art and Architecture from the DPR Korea," in Vienna on September 3 and 4, 2010. The essay argues that scholars must recognize

  1. (Un)Disturbing Exhibitions: Indigenous Historical Memory at the NMAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio, Myla Vicenti

    2006-01-01

    Museums in particular are educational tools used to create and perpetuate specific ideologies and historical memories. They have played a prominent role in defining the visibility of Indigenous peoples and cultures in America historical memory by creating exhibits of Indigenous peoples based on perceptions and views that benefit and justify…

  2. 7 CFR Appendix - Exhibits to Subpart E of Part 1951

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibits to Subpart E of Part 1951 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND...

  3. Designing museum exhibits that facilitate visitor reflection and discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... pupils’ attention but also worked well with other design principles to engage the pupils in sustained reflection and discussion. While other contextual factors remain significant in determining visitor responses, this paper argues that the use of design principles can help create visitor experiences...

  4. Exhibition: Fibre optics, the future is at hand

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Until 20 June, the Pont de la Machine in Geneva will host an exhibition on fibre optics, sponsored by SIG. CERN, a major user of this technology, was invited to take part with a presentation of some of its scintillating fibre detectors.   The CERN module, designed for the SIG's fibre optics exhibition. Visitors can discover a cosmic ray detector (on the right) and its oscilloscope (on the left), as well as one of the ALFA detector modules (at the back). The Services industriels genevois (SIG), who are in the process of deploying an optical fibre network in Geneva, have decided to showcase this technology with an exhibition entitled “Fibre optique – Le futur à portée de main.” The exhibition, which will be open to the public from 26 April to 20 June, is being held at the Espace ExpoSIG, at the Pont de la Machine in the centre of Geneva. “CERN’s Physics Department was approached by SIG at the start of this year to ...

  5. The "Gravity-Powered Calculator," a Galilean Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerreta, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The Gravity-Powered Calculator is an exhibit of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. It is presented by its American creators as an amazing device that extracts the square roots of numbers, using only the force of gravity. But if you analyze his concept construction one can not help but recall the research of Galileo on falling bodies, the inclined…

  6. A new theory of doped manganites exhibiting colossal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    xAxMnO3, exhibit colossal magnetoresistance, metal insulator transitions, competing magnetic, or- bital and charge ordering, and many other interesting but poorly understood phenomena. In this article I outline our recent theory based on the idea ...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Servicing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing Company B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1806 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL... of Part 1806—Servicing Company The servicing company office to be contacted for information relative...

  8. Do Online Learning Patterns Exhibit Regional and Demographic Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsui-Chuan; Yang, Chyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper used a multi-level latent class model to evaluate whether online learning patterns exhibit regional differences and demographics. This study discovered that the Internet learning pattern consists of five segments, and the region of Taiwan is divided into two segments and further found that both the user and the regional segments are…

  9. Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Global asymptotic stability and convergence of the sum of the dynamical variables representing the Eulerian state space of the two rigid bodies was verified by numerical simulations. JONAMP ...

  10. Highlights of the inauguration ceremony for the new permanent exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The new “Universe of Particles" permanent exhibition in the Globe was unveiled this week to its first visitors. On Monday, 28 June, in the presence of representatives of the local authorities, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer cut the ribbon; on Tuesday, 29 and Wednesday 30 June the Globe's doors remained open for visits by the CERN personnel.   Cutting the ribbon at the inauguration of the Globe's new permanent exhibition At the conclusion of the inauguration ceremony, the Head of the Education Group, Rolf Landua, expressed his satisfaction: “It's wonderful. We are very happy that it has all turned out so well. Now we look forward to lots of visitors.” The exhibition represents a major addition to the tourist destinations in the region and an important tool for the public awareness of science, which could also be useful for schools. “The purpose of the exhibition is to inspire visitors, to arouse their curiosity about science and to motivate them t...

  11. Exploring Matter: An Interactive, Inexpensive Chemistry Exhibit for Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murov, Steven; Chavez, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Despite its vital importance in our lives, chemistry is inadequately represented in most museums. Issues such as safety, replenishing and disposal of chemicals, supervision required, and cost are constraints that have limited the number and size of chemistry exhibits. Taking into account the constraints, a 21-station interactive and inexpensive…

  12. Personalising content presentation in museum exhibitions: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.S.; Oinonen, K.; Sablatnig, R.; Kampel, M.; Lettner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Museums need to attract more visitors. Personalization of exhibitions is one way to achieve this end. Various options for personalization using information systems have been proposed. A major question is how directive personalization should be. Is visitor satisfaction highest if the system limits

  13. Multifunctional materials exhibiting spin crossover and liquid-crystalline properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seredyuk, M. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analystiche Chemie (Germany); Gaspar, Ana B. [Universitat de Valencia, Edifici de Instituts de Paterna, Institut de Ciencia Molecular/Departament de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Ksenofontov, V., E-mail: v.ksenofontov@uni-mainz.de; Reiman, S. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analystiche Chemie (Germany); Galyametdinov, Y. [Russian Academy of Science, Kazan Physical technical Institute (Russian Federation); Haase, W. [Darmstad University of Technology, Institute of Physical Chemistry (Germany); Rentschler, E.; Guetlich, P. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analystiche Chemie (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    The physical characterization of a new class of Fe(II) multifunctional SCO materials exhibiting spin crossover and liquid crystalline properties in the room temperatures region is reported. Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and optical polarizing microscopy studies have been performed on such materials.

  14. A simple coordination complex exhibiting colour change on slight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    gens (from two OPDA ligands) that define equato- rial positions and the axial positions are filled by the nitrogen atoms coming from two different thiocy- anate ligands (figure 1). The thiocyanate ligands generally exhibit different binding modes in its metal complexes like S-bonded, N-bonded, bridging or ionic, etc. 19.

  15. Columnar phases exhibited by some polycatenar ligands and a few ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 61; Issue 2. Columnar phases exhibited by some polycatenar ligands and a few related metal complexes. B K Sadashiva V A Raghunathan. Volume 61 Issue 2 August 2003 pp 219-229 ... Keywords. Columnar phase; cubic phase; polycatenar; metal complex.

  16. 75 FR 3862 - Photography in Public Exhibit Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1280 RIN 3095-AB60 Photography in Public Exhibit Space AGENCY: National... documents accessible and available to the public, and that by prohibiting photography, NARA will make its... from visitors requesting and demanding that NARA eliminate all photography. Comments such as these...

  17. A new theory of doped manganites exhibiting colossal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rare earth manganites doped with alkaline earths, namely Re1-AMnO3, exhibit colossal magnetoresistance, metal insulator transitions, competing magnetic, orbital and charge ordering, and many other interesting but poorly understood phenomena. In this article I outline our recent theory based on the idea that in the ...

  18. Does the classically chaotic Henon–Heiles oscillator exhibit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HHO can exhibit quantum chaos under a time-dependent Hamiltonian does not seem to have been addressed so far. In this paper, we pursue this question by taking the TD potential as arising from an intense laser field acting on an electron moving as an HHO, without employing an external wave packet. The reasons for.

  19. 77 FR 31909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat. 2681, et seq... agreement with the foreign owners or custodians. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-05-P ...

  20. 76 FR 61472 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat... agreement with the foreign owner or custodian. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the... Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Department of State. BILLING CODE...

  1. Peasants on display: the Czechoslavic Ethnographic Exhibition of 1895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly modernized Central Europe of the late nineteenth century, folk culture, with its alleged ancient character, was still understood by some scholars as the bearer of national identity. The Czechoslavic [sic] Ethnographic Exhibition, which took place in Prague in 1895, aimed to promote the idea of the ethnically unified, but at the same time regionally diverse, identity of the Czech-speaking people living in Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. Having to negotiate their identity with the ethnic Germans of Bohemia, the Czechs consciously excluded them from the event both as organizers and as exhibitors. The exhibition could therefore be seen as a symptom of its time—in the late nineteenth century Central Europe, locating national heritage was crucial and folk culture played an important role in the national politics, and not only for the Czechs. This article focuses mainly on the ethnographic exhibit entitled ‘the Exhibition Village’, which consisted of an eclectic selection of village houses and their imitations from Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. On this basis, it explores the political intentions behind the display of folk culture to both urban and rural audiences and brings attention to the question of integration of the diverse regional objects in a utopian national whole. The article thus also aims to demonstrate issues related to the use of folk artefacts for the purposes of cultural nationalism in Austria-Hungary in the late nineteenth century.

  2. Alien Earths: A Traveling Science Exhibit and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.

    2004-05-01

    Where did we come from? Are we alone? These age-old questions form the basis of NASA's Origins Program, a series of missions spanning the next twenty years that will use a host of space- and ground-based observatories to understand the origin and development of galaxies, stars, planets, and the conditions necessary to support life. The Space Science Institute in Boulder, CO, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths will have four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in all regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005 at the Lawrence Hall of Science in Berkeley, California. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. In addition to the exhibit, the project includes workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public website that will use exhibit content to delve deeper into origins research. Current partners in the Alien Earths project include ASTC, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (Navigator, SIRTF, and Kepler), the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute

  3. Assessing the User Resistance to Recommender Systems in Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulmo Koo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the paradigm shift toward smart tourism, the exhibition industry is making efforts to introduce innovative technologies that can provide more diverse and valuable experiences to attendees. However, various new information technologies have failed in a market in practice due to the user’s resistance against it. Since innovative technology, such as booth recommender systems (BRS, is changing, creating uncertainty among consumers, consumer’s resistance to innovative technology can be considered a normal reaction. Therefore, it is important for a company to understand the psychological aspect of the consumer’s resistance and make measures to overcome the resistance. Accordingly, based on the model of Kim and Kankanhalli (2009, by applying the perceived value, the technology acceptance model, and the status quo bias theory, this study focused on the importance of self-efficacy and technical support in the context of using BRS. To do this purpose, a total of 455 survey data that was collected from “Korea franchise exhibition” attendees were used to analyze the proposed model. Structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis. The result shows that perceived value was affected by relative advantage and switching cost, also switching cost reduced the perceived value. However, self-efficacy reduced the switching cost, thereby decreasing the resistance of exhibition attendees. In addition, technical support increased the relative advantage switching cost and the perceived value. Exhibition attendee’s resistance was significantly negatively affected by perceived value, and positively affected by switching cost. The results will provide balanced viewpoints between the relative advantage and switching cost for exhibition marketers, helping to strengthen the competitiveness in terms of sustainable tourism of exhibition.

  4. Poster exhibitions at conferences: are we doing it properly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Andrew J; Ansell, James; Foster, Jessica J; Foster, Kathryn A; Egan, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Literature exploring the educational value and quality of conference poster presentation is scarce. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the variation in poster exhibitions across a spectrum of conferences attended by trainees. Prospective observational assessment of conference posters was carried out across 7 variables at 4 conferences attended by surgical trainees in 2012. Posters were compared by individual variables and according to overall poster score combining all 7 variables examined. The number of authors listed was also compared. Random samples of consecutively numbered posters were examined at the exhibitions of 4 conferences, which included a UK national medical education conference (Association for the Study of Medical Education), a UK international surgical conference (Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland), a European oncology conference (European Society of Surgical Oncology), and a North American joint medical and surgical conference (Digestive Diseases Week). Significant variation existed between conferences in posters and their presentation. The proportion of presenters failing to display their posters ranged from 3% to 26% (p posters that were formatted using aims, methods, results, and conclusion sections (81%-93%; p = 0.513) or in the proportion of posters that were identified as difficult to read (24%-28%; p = 0.919). Association for the Study of Medical Education outperformed each of the other exhibitions overall (p Posters with greater than the median of 4 authors performed significantly better across all areas (p Poster exhibitions varied widely, with room for improvement at all 4 conferences. Lessons can be learned by all conferences from each other to improve presenter engagement with and the educational value of poster exhibitions. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyanide single-molecule magnets exhibiting solvent dependent reversible "on" and "off" exchange bias behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkowicz, Dawid; Southerland, Heather I.; Avendaño, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Co/Os analogue (PPN){[Mn(III)(salphen)(MeOH)]2[Co(III)0.92Os(III)0.08(CN)6]}·7MeOH were undertaken. It was found that all compounds exhibit switchable single-molecule magnet (SMM) and exchange-bias behavior depending on the interstitial methanol content. The pristine (PPN){[Mn(salphen)(MeOH)]2[Os......(CN)6]}·7MeOH (Mn2Os·7MeOH) behaves as an SMM with an effective barrier for the magnetization reversal, (Ueff/kB), of 17.1 K. Upon desolvation, Mn2Os exhibits an increase of Ueff/kB to 42.0 K and an opening of the hysteresis loop observable at 1.8 K. Mn2Os·7MeOH shows also exchange-bias behavior...... with magnetic hysteresis loops exhibiting a shift in the quantum tunneling to 0.25 T from zero-field. The Fe(III) and Ru(III) analogues were prepared as reference compounds for assessing the effect of the 5d versus 4d and 3d metal ions on the SMM properties. These compounds are also SMMs and exhibit similar...

  6. Similar Symmetries: The Role of Wallpaper Groups in Perceptual Texture Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Halley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic patterns and symmetries are striking visual properties that have been used decoratively around the world throughout human history. Periodic patterns can be mathematically classified into one of 17 different Wallpaper groups, and while computational models have been developed which can extract an image's symmetry group, very little work has been done on how humans perceive these patterns. This study presents the results from a grouping experiment using stimuli from the different wallpaper groups. We find that while different images from the same wallpaper group are perceived as similar to one another, not all groups have the same degree of self-similarity. The similarity relationships between wallpaper groups appear to be dominated by rotations.

  7. Similarity, agreement, and assumed similarity in proxy end-of-life decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Watson, David; Beer, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Medical decisions near the end of life are often made by proxies who can be inaccurate in their judgments of patient preferences. Given that accuracy in surrogate decision making is an important goal in end-of-life decision making, and in light of that previously seen levels of accuracy reflect substantial disagreement, error, or both, this study examined both relationship and individual factors that potentially affect surrogate accuracy. Specifically, this study examined similarity, agreement, and assumed similarity-a process whereby raters use their own traits and preferences to rate another person-in spousal ratings of end-of-life treatment. This study expands on previous research by examining the potential influence of relationship factors and assumed similarity on end-of-life decision making among a sample of newlyweds. Newly married couples (n = 197) completed self and spouse measures of hypothetical end-of-life preferences and scales assessing marital satisfaction, personality, and attitudes. Results indicate a moderate level of similarity on husband and wife self-rated end-of-life treatment preferences (rs = .18-.29) and a moderate level of agreement between self and proxy ratings (rs = .17-.41). The largest correlations were seen between self ratings and proxy ratings (e.g., husband self ratings and husband proxy ratings of wife preferences, rs = .46-.69), reflecting strong assumed similarity in proxy ratings. For wives, similarity with husbands on a few attitudinal variables (i.e., spirituality, moral strictness, and conservatism) influenced proxy accuracy. Recognizing the potential impact of personal preferences on proxy ratings, as well as the potential influence of relationship factors, may help improve proxy accuracy and end-of-life care for patients and families.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa from canine otitis externa exhibit a quorum sensing deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, E A M; Wilke, H L; Petermann, S R; Rust, L

    2004-04-05

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasB elastase gene (lasB) transcription depends on cell density-dependent quorum-sensing mechanisms of gene activation. Previously, we collected several non-mucoid P. aeruginosa veterinary isolates and showed that the total matrix protease phenotype was similar for isolates regardless of host and site of isolation. In contrast, isolates from chronic canine ear infections (otitis externa) were significantly more likely to exhibit less elastase activity as measured by elastin Congo red than from any other site [Clin. Diag. Lab. Immun. 8 (2001) 632]. In this study, we found that the elastase deficiency phenotype is stable upon passage in broth culture. Transcript amplification analyses indicated that the elastase deficiency appears to be strain-specific, with each isolate exhibiting a unique expression profile relative to strain PAO1. Although a number of strain-specific transcriptional differences were observed, the overall pattern that emerges is a quorum sensing deficiency among canine ear P. aeruginosa isolates.

  9. Walk Through Solar System Times: An Exhibit with an Astrobiology Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this astrobiology outreach project, we attempt to present the research of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (GCA) in the context of the history of the Solar System. GCA research emphasizes the origin and formation of complex pre-biotic organic materials in extraterrestrial environments and explores whether the delivery of these primordial materials and water to the early Earth enabled the emergence and evolution of life. The content expounds on areas that are usually not touched upon in a timeline of the Earth's formation. The exhibit addresses the questions: How did our solar system form? How is the formation of our solar systems similar or different from others? How did the organic molecules we observe in space get to the Earth? What conditions are most suitable for life? We will address the issues and challenges of designing the exhibit and of explaining advanced astrobiology research topics to the public.

  10. Lessons from life: Learning from exhibits, animals and interaction in a museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Alexander Noah

    This study examines the effect of interaction on visitor behavior at a public aquarium, experimentally comparing one exhibit under interactive and noninteractive conditions. A quantitative analysis showed that the time visitor groups spent in the study area significantly increased in the interactive condition (median 73 vs. 32 seconds). Further, this effect extended only to those groups within the interactive condition in which at least one member operated the exhibit (median 102 vs. 36 seconds). Both median times and survival curves are compared, and the analysis controlled for group size, age and sex ratios, visitor density, queuing time, and animal activity. Qualitative analyses focused on visitors' spontaneous conversation at the exhibit. Interactive visitors were found to engage in more in-depth exploration, including conducting informal experiments. The amount of discussion was found to correlate with stay time (r = 0.47). Visitor discussion centered on the exhibit, with frequent observations of penguin behavior. Greater enthusiasm was observed for interactive visitors, and coding showed interactive visitors laughed more frequently, and were significantly more likely to speculate on the penguins' reactions and motivations for behaviors. The experimental setup included a control condition consisting of a typical aquarium exhibit, including live penguins, naturalistic habitat, and graphics. The interactive condition added a device designed to mediate a two-way interaction between the visitors and penguins: visitors moved a light beam across the bottom of the pool. The penguins, intern, chased the light. This exhibit was designed both to benefit visitors and to serve as behavioral enrichment for the penguins. A third condition employed an automatically moving light, which elicited similar penguin behaviors, but without allowing visitor interaction. Videotaped data was analyzed for 301 visitor groups (756 individuals). A supplemental study employed video recall

  11. Neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder: Similarities to pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth-Bühler, M; Mann, K

    2017-01-01

    The number of massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) is on the rise worldwide along with the fascination that they inspire. Problems occur when the use of MMOs becomes excessive at the expense of other life domains. Although not yet formally included as disorder in common diagnostic systems, internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered a "condition for further study" in section III of the DSM-5. The current review aims to provide an overview of cognitive and neurobiological data currently available on IGD, with a particular focus on impulsivity, compulsivity, and sensitivity to reward and punishment. Additionally, we also compare these findings on IGD with data from studies on pathological gambling (PG)-so far the only condition officially classified as a behavioral addiction in the DSM-5. Multiple similarities have been observed in the neurobiology of IGD and PG, as measured by alterations in brain function and behavior. Both patients with IGD and those with PG exhibited decreased loss sensitivity; enhanced reactivity to gaming and gambling cues, respectively; enhanced impulsive choice behavior; aberrant reward-based learning; and no changes in cognitive flexibility. In conclusion, the evidence base on the neurobiology of gaming and gambling disorders is beginning to illuminate the similarities between the two. However, as only a few studies have addressed the neurobiological basis of IGD, and some of these studies suffer from significant limitations, more research is required before IGD's inclusion as a second behavioral addiction in the next versions of the ICD and DSM can be justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exhibition “Space. Information. Research.”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Šiško

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The exhibition Space. Information. Research. was opened in ZgForum, premises of the City Office of Strategic Planning and Development of the City of Zagreb for communication with professional and the general public on December 18, 2014. The exhibition was opened by deputy mayor of the City of Zagreb, Mrs. Sandra Švaljek Ph.D. and guests were also addressed by Jadranka Veselić Bruvo, Head of the City Office of Strategic Planning and Development and Boris Koružnjak, Dean of the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb. The event was attended by about a hundred invited guests from city administration, City Assembly, academic community, NGOs, private sector, etc.

  13. The Role of the Freelance Curator in an Art Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva VITKAUSKAITĖ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role of the freelance curator in an art exhibition. The first part of the article conceptualises the notion of the modern curator and surveys the categories of curators. The next part of the article surveys the potential models of curation. There are 7 models of curation distinguished: self- reflexive, “sampling”, traditional, decentralisation curation, virtual curation, art – curator, collaborative – curatorial platform. The third part analyses the activity of a freelance curator in the art exhibition, which is divided into five stages, namely preliminary work, preparation and completion of the organisation plan, realisation, operation, dismantling and evaluation. Each stage is described in great detail specifying what works should be carried out by the curator. The final part of the article analyses the remarks of the curators which are then used to derive the formula of successful curatorship.

  14. Design of contemporary art exhibitions - a struggle or an embracement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    the individual works together (in liniear or non-liniear structures). Finally, the insitutuion has its guidelines (corporate identity), museum pedagogs have their method and ideas, etc. This paper will address the use of exhibition design in relation to contemporary art and will discuss a number of examples......In established museums and art centres the design tasks related to exhibition galleries are often limited to graphic design in wall texts and lables, on the one side, and temporary support structures such as white walls, plinths, and black boxes for video projections, on the other....... And that is for good reasons. There are already many agendas involved in this process: Artists and artworks claiming (at least some) authonomy not only in the visual realm but also the organisation of space (ex. in installation art). Curators installing the works are seeking not only to give bests conditions to each...

  15. Case study of virtual reality in CNC machine tool exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Kao Yung-Chou; Lee Chung-Shuo; Liu Zhi-Ren; Lin Yu-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Exhibition and demonstration are generally used in the promotion and sale-assistance of manufactured products. However, the transportation cost of the real goods from the vender factory to the exposition venue is generally expensive for huge and heavy commodity. With the advancement of computing, graphics, mobile apps, and mobile hardware the 3D visibility technology is getting more and more popular to be adopted in visual-assisted communication such as amusement games. Virtual reality (VR) t...

  16. [Aspects of animal welfare relevant to poultry exhibitions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, T

    1995-03-01

    After a summary of the organized poultry racebreeding and the ways of exhibitions in the FRG, we point out the most frequent collisions with the law for animal protection nowadays: The forbidden clipping of parts about the head at certain game fowl e.g. Modern and Old English Game and the bantams of these races, dealings to avoid flying and the acute strain through transports. Because of his competence the civil servant vet is asked for to stop grievances primarily by advice.

  17. Preserving and Exhibiting Media Art. Challenges and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Despodt, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    This important and first-of-its-kind collection addresses the emerging challenges in the field of media art preservation and exhibition, providing an outline for the training of professionals in this field. Since the emergence of time-based media such as film, video and digital technology, artists have used them to experiment with their potential. The resulting artworks, with their basis in rapidly developing technologies that cross over into other domains such as broadcasting and social medi...

  18. Marcel Duchamp and the art of exhibition making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Cousijn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcel Duchamp made his first readymade over a century ago: a deceptively simple gesture that would turn the art world upside down. The core of artistic practise no longer lies in creating, but in selecting and displaying. But selecting and displaying are also the core tasks of the independent curator. Duchamp already proved in the 1930’s how powerful an exhibition maker can be. A power struggle arose: who gives meaning to art, the curator or the artist?

  19. On some liquid crystalline phases exhibited by compounds made of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... This system exhibits the biaxial smectic A phase down to 30°C. Using polarized infrared spectroscopy we find that the mutual orientation of the R and BC molecules in the SmAdb liquid crystal is such that the arrow axes of the BC molecules are along the layer normal of the partial bilayer smectic structure ...

  20. Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change': A Traveling Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, E. M.; Hakala, J. S.; Gearheard, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Inuit of Nunavut, Canada, have an intimate relationship with their surroundings. As a culture that relies on knowledge of sea ice, snow, and weather conditions for success in hunting, fishing, and healthy wellbeing, Inuit have observed and studied environmental patterns for generations. An ongoing study into their traditional knowledge and their observations of environmental change is being conducted by researcher Dr. Shari Gearheard, who has worked with Inuit communities in Nunavut for over a decade. The results of the research have been published in scientific journals, and to communicate the results to a broader audience, Dr. Gearheard designed an interactive CD-ROM displaying photographs, maps, and interview videos of Inuit Elders' perspectives on the changes they have witnessed. Receiving immediate popularity since its release in 2004, copies of `When the Weather is Uggianaqtuq: Inuit Observations of Environmental Change' have been distributed worldwide, to indigenous peoples, social science and climate change researchers, teachers, students, and the general public. To further disseminate the information contained on the CD-ROM, the National Snow and Ice Data Center and the Museum of Natural History, both of the University of Colorado, are partnering to create an exhibition which will open at the Museum during the International Polar Year in April 2008. The exhibit, tentatively titled `Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change,' will feature photographs, graphics, and text in both English and Inuktitut describing environmental change in the North. The goals are to make the information and interpretation contained on the CD-ROM available and more accessible to a broad audience and to raise awareness about Arctic climate change and the important contribution of Inuit knowledge. Following exhibition at the Museum, the exhibit will travel throughout the United States, Alaska, and Nunavut, through a network of museums, schools, libraries, tribal

  1. Surface Conductive Graphene-Wrapped Micromotors Exhibiting Enhanced Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing; Katuri, Jaideep; Zeng, Yongfei; Zhao, Yanli; Sanchez, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Surface-conductive Janus spherical motors are fabricated by wrapping silica particles with reduced graphene oxide capped with a thin Pt layer. These motors exhibit a 100% enhanced velocity as compared to standard SiO2 -Pt motors. Furthermore, the versatility of graphene may open up possibilities for a diverse range of applications from active drug delivery systems to water remediation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. art@CMS students' exhibition in Centre des Arts, ECOLINT

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS Communications Group; Geneva, Switzerland; Vaso Sideri

    2015-01-01

    This video documents the outcome of a science and art workshop with the participation of high-school students from the International School of Geneva (ECOLINT). The project was implemented in the framework of art@CMS, an education and outreach programme of the CMS experiment at CERN. In the video, the students present their artworks during the opening of their exhibition at the Centre des Arts of ECOLINT in Geneva.

  3. Caecilians exhibit cutaneous respiration and high evaporative water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caecilians exhibit cutaneous respiration and high evaporative water loss. W.K. Steele, G.N. Louw. Abstract. Scolecomorphus kirki het 'n gemiddelde rustende VO2 van 0,052 ± 0,009 ml O2 g-1 h by 20% rh en 20°C. Die gemiddelde RK was 1,06 en 54,5% van die totale CO2-produksie het deur die vel verlore gegaan.

  4. Effects of Categorical Labels on Similarity Judgments: A Critical Analysis of Similarity-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked…

  5. Sexual Preference Similarity, Attitude Similarity, and Perceived Counselor Credibility and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Donald R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effect of membership group and attitudinal similarity on perceived counselor credibility and attractiveness. Homosexual men (N=84) rated the counselor's credibility and attractiveness after listening to a recorded counseling interview. The counselor was rated more expert, trustworthy, and attractive when he stated a sexual preference…

  6. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Media gather at the KSC Visitor Complex for the kickoff of the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which will open to the public on Saturday, June 17. At the podium is Mike Quattrone, executive vice president and general manager, Discovery Channel. Standing to the left of the podium is Rick Abramson, president and chief operating officer of Delaware North Parks Services of Spaceport, Inc., and far left, Jim Jennings, deputy director of Kennedy Space Center. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961 on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking to the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, three miles deep. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule is now restored and preserved, and part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  7. “Draw me a physicist” exhibition opens

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    From 12 to 23 June, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be hosting the “Draw me a physicist” exhibition: over 160 drawings and definitions that illustrate how children see the world of research.   In a child’s imagination, scientists are colourful, slightly eccentric figures with unusual powers. This is what emerges from the exhibition on the second floor of the Globe of Science and Innovation, opening on 12 June. “Draw me a physicist” brings together 160 drawings and definitions by children about the profession of research scientist. The exhibition is the result of a six-month project by CERN and 20 primary school classes from the Pays de Gex and the communes of Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier. Some 400 schoolchildren aged 9 to 11 were asked in class to make drawings and come up with definitions of a physicist. Subsequently they came to CERN, visited one of the Laboratory’s sites, and met and interviewed some physicists. They used t...

  8. Exhibition: Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The exhibition "Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie” will be held at CERN (Pas Perdus Corridor, 1st floor, building 61) from the 8 to 24 March.   It is organised under the auspices of the Ambassador R. Henczel, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the UN Office at Geneva to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry given to Maria Sklodowska-Curie. The exhibition is also one of the events celebrating the 20th anniversary of Poland joining CERN as a Member State. Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Nobel Prize winner both in physics and chemistry, is one of the greatest scientists of Polish origin. The exhibition, consisting of 20 posters, presents her not only as a brilliant scientist, but also an exceptional woman of great heart, character and organizational talents, sensitive to contemporary problems. The authors are Mrs M. Sobieszczak-Marciniak, the director of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Museum in Warsaw and Mrs H. Krajewska, the direct...

  9. HAPTIC DEVICES AND TACTILE EXPERIENCES IN MUSEUM EXHIBITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Comes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Museums all around the globe are starting to adopt advanced technologies that enable the visitors to interact with digital replicas of their collections and artworks. Immersive and interactive virtual reality applications represent one of the most appealing and most used technologies within modern museum exhibitions areas. Using these types of applications the visitors can have access to additional layers of information which can be presented in different languages and presented to the visitor when they demand it using advanced digital interactivity. But the major drawback of these applications is that they don’t allow the users to experience tactile exploration regarding the shapes and ornaments of the cultural heritage artefacts. People are programmed to gather and receive sensory information using their sight, hearing but also using tactile experiences. In order to enable tactile experiences within museum exhibitions, modern technologies such as haptic devices can be installed to enable the visitors to examine the shape of the 3D digital replicas of real artefacts. This paper presents a case study of a haptic device instalment within a museum exhibition that can enable real time tactile exploration of digitized artefacts.

  10. Didactical Holographic Exhibit Including Holo TV (holographic Television)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunazzi, José J.; Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Rivera, Noemí I. R.

    2008-04-01

    Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where nice holograms are shown altogether with basic experiments of geometric and wave optics. This experiments lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of images of an ample way. Thousands of people have been present at them, in their majority of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, where since 2002 they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided in four modules, in each one of them are shown different holograms, experiments of optics and applications of diffractive images with white light developed in the Institute of Physics. The sequence of the learning through the modules begins with the geometric optics, later we explain the wave optics and finally holography. The phenomenon of the diffraction in daily elements is shown experimentally from the beginning. As well as the application of the holographic screens in white light: the television images that appear in front of the screen and the spectator can try to experience the reality illusion. Put something so exclusive (that only exists in the laboratory) to the public is a way to approximate the persons to an investigation in course. The vision of images that seem to be of holograms, but in movement, and size of until a square meter completes this exhibition of an exclusive way in the world.

  11. Stable functional networks exhibit consistent timing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeton, Julio I; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-03-01

    Despite many advances in the study of large-scale human functional networks, the question of timing, stability, and direction of communication between cortical regions has not been fully addressed. At the cellular level, neuronal communication occurs through axons and dendrites, and the time required for such communication is well defined and preserved. At larger spatial scales, however, the relationship between timing, direction, and communication between brain regions is less clear. Here, we use a measure of effective connectivity to identify connections between brain regions that exhibit communication with consistent timing. We hypothesized that if two brain regions are communicating, then knowledge of the activity in one region should allow an external observer to better predict activity in the other region, and that such communication involves a consistent time delay. We examine this question using intracranial electroencephalography captured from nine human participants with medically refractory epilepsy. We use a coupling measure based on time-lagged mutual information to identify effective connections between brain regions that exhibit a statistically significant increase in average mutual information at a consistent time delay. These identified connections result in sparse, directed functional networks that are stable over minutes, hours, and days. Notably, the time delays associated with these connections are also highly preserved over multiple time scales. We characterize the anatomic locations of these connections, and find that the propagation of activity exhibits a preferred posterior to anterior temporal lobe direction, consistent across participants. Moreover, networks constructed from connections that reliably exhibit consistent timing between anatomic regions demonstrate features of a small-world architecture, with many reliable connections between anatomically neighbouring regions and few long range connections. Together, our results demonstrate

  12. A mouse model of the schizophrenia-associated 1q21.1 microdeletion syndrome exhibits altered mesolimbic dopamine transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Fejgin, Kim; Sotty, Florence

    2017-01-01

    and basic functions such as reflexes, ASR, thermal pain sensitivity, and motor performance were unaltered. Similarly, anxiety related measures, baseline prepulse inhibition, and seizure threshold were unaltered. In addition to the central nervous system-related phenotypes, Df(h1q21)/+ mice exhibited reduced...

  13. Assessment of structural and functional similarity of biosimilar products: Rituximab as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupur, Neh; Chhabra, Nidhi; Dash, Rozaleen; Rathore, Anurag S

    2017-12-04

    Biosimilars are products that are similar in terms of quality, safety, and efficacy to an already licensed reference/ innovator product and are expected to offer improved affordability. The most significant source of reduction in the cost of development of a biosimilar is the reduced clinical examination that it is expected to undergo as compared to the innovator product. However, this clinical relief is predicated on the assumption that there is analytical similarity between the biosimilar and the innovator product. As a result, establishing analytical similarity is arguably the most important step towards successful development of a biosimilar. Here, we present results from an analytical similarity exercise that was performed with five biosimilars of rituximab (Ristova®, Roche), a chimeric mouse/ human monoclonal antibody biotherapeutic, that are available on the Indian market. The results show that, while the biosimilars exhibited similarity with respect to protein structure and function, there were significant differences with respect to size heterogeneity, charge heterogeneity and glycosylation pattern.

  14. Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder and coping style modification: similar clinical outcomes, similar mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sagar V; Hawke, Lisa D; Zaretsky, Ari; Beaulieu, Serge; Patelis-Siotis, Irene; Macqueen, Glenda; Young, L Trevor; Yatham, Lakshmi; Velyvis, Vytas; Bélanger, Claude; Poirier, Nancy; Enright, Jean; Cervantes, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    To investigate changes in the use of coping styles in response to early symptoms of mania in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), compared with psychoeducation, for bipolar disorder. Data were drawn from a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and psychoeducation. A subsample of 119 participants completed the Coping Inventory for the Prodromes of Mania and symptom assessments before treatment and 72 weeks later. Both CBT and psychoeducation were associated with similar improvements in symptom burden. Both treatments also produced equivalent improvements in stimulation reduction and problem-directed coping styles, but no statistically significant change on the endorsement of help-seeking behaviours. A treatment interaction showed that a reduction in denial and blame was present only in the CBT treatment condition. CBT and psychoeducation have similar impacts on coping styles for the prodromes of mania. The exception to this is denial and blame, which is positively impacted only by CBT but which does not translate into improved outcome. Given the similar change in coping styles and mood burden, teaching patients about how to cope in adaptive ways with the symptoms of mania may be a shared mechanism of change for CBT and psychoeducation. NCT00188838.

  15. Inauguration of the Exhibition of the Volmeur collection

    CERN Document Server

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Several hundred slide photos of CERN, created in the 1980s for the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) have not survived the ravages of time. They have deteriorated so badly that it is often impossible to tell what they are supposed to show. But, in doing so, they have become abstract canvases, true works of art. A dozen of these amazing images have been revealed in CERN Main Building on the 29th of January 2018 and are exhibited up to 9th of February.

  16. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  17. Mies in Brussels 1934. Synthesis of an Unbuilt Exhibition Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lizondo Sevilla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article delves into the complex world of exhibition architectures, those whose destiny is reduced to be mounted, exposed and dismantled in a short period of time. A process that allows a quick experience of architecture, bounded in time, and whose experimentation gives rise to the birth of new concepts. The text focuses on the German Pavilion designed by Mies van der Rohe for the Brussels World’s Fair of 1934, his only unbuilt ephemeral architecture due to the political uniqueness of the moment. Now, criticism and the archive allow us to reinterpret its contribution to the history of architecture.

  18. Designing Meta Material Slabs Exhibiting Negative Refraction Using Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a topology optimization based approach for designing meta materials exhibiting a desired negative refraction with high transmission at a given angle of incidence and frequency. The approach considers a finite slab of meta material consisting of axis-symmetric designable unit...... cells subjected to an exterior field. The unit cell is designed to achieve the desired properties based on tailoring the response of the meta material slab underthe exterior field. The approach is directly applicable to physical problems modeled by the Helmholtz equation, such as acoustic, elastic...

  19. Perception of timbre and rhythm similarity in electronic dance music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, A.; Panteli, M.; Brockmeier, T.; López Mejía, D.I.; Sadakata, M.

    2015-01-01

    Music similarity is known to be a multi-dimensional concept, depending among others on rhythm similarity and timbre similarity. The present study aims to investigate whether such sub-dimensions of similarity can be assessed independently and how they relate to general similarity. To this end, we

  20. Perception of Timbre and Rhythm Similarity in Electronic Dance Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, A.; Panteli, M.; Brockmeier, T.; López Mejía, D.I.; Sadakata, M.

    2015-01-01

    Music similarity is known to be a multi-dimensional concept, depending among others on rhythm similarity and timbre similarity. The present study aims to investigate whether such sub-dimensions of similarity can be assessed independently and how they relate to general similarity. To this end, we

  1. Methods of communication exhibited by captive slender mongooses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an alert standing posture, the tail was held in a similar position. When a mongoose changed an alert or a relaxed posture into an escape reaction, there was an initial up- ward and then ... Buzzing may be interpreted as a warning produced during threat situations. Smithers (1971) and Taylor (1975) report that the 'huh-.

  2. Parallax Park - A bilingual, outdoor, interactive family exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Benedict, G. F.; Preston, S. L.; Armosky, B. J.; Cianciolo, F. W., Jr.; Wetzel, M. N.; Freeman, R.; Ransenberg, A.

    2004-12-01

    We present a design for Parallax Park, an outdoor, interactive family exhibit for McDonald Observatory that will bring the quest for learning about extra-solar planets and the astronomical distance ladder down to Earth for the more than 100,000 visitors who come to the Observatory each year. The Park will teach visitors the basic principles of astrometry. It will concentrate on distance determination and extrasolar planet detection, and emphasize the advantages of space-based astrometric measurements. Visitors will experience parallax by traveling a path around a representation of the Sun, mimicking Earth's orbit, while viewing representations of stars at various distances and in various directions. Concepts include Cepheids as standard candles, the inverse square law, and motion around a center of mass. The exhibit includes interactive components suitable for children's use. Text labels and printed guides, in English and Spanish, will explain how to use the Park to explore the uses of astrometry in modern science. This program was made possible through funding from the Hubble Space Telescope Cycle 11 and 12 Education and Public Outreach Grant Programs. Support from the NASA/JPL Space Interferometry Mission (JPL contract #1227563) is also gratefully acknowledged.

  3. A more modern look for the Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    When the Council Chamber was renovated, the old photographs displayed on the walls were taken down... they've now been replaced by new panels printed on Plexiglas. The theme of the exhibition is still the history of CERN, but it now features the very latest from graphic design. Fabienne Marcastel, who designed it, tells us more. Two of the new panels recently installed in the Council Chamber. The presentation is simple and elegant. The content is based essentially on the accelerators and the aim of the graphic design is not to attract the public's attention to the panels but rather to provide a pleasant décor for the Chamber's users. "The old photographs stopped at the LEP. The new panels show the history of CERN but also what the Laboratory is like today. Visually, the plan is the starting point, the key to understanding how CERN has changed. It shows how CERN occupies the land it is built on," explains Fabienne Marcastel, the exhibition's graphic designer. The four panels a...

  4. Industrial Exhibition “11th Germany at CERN“

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2010-01-01

    Administration Building (Bldg. 60/61) Tuesday 25 January: 11a.m. - 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 26 January: 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), together with CERN, will hold the Industrial Exhibition “11th Germany at CERN”. Some 30 German companies will present their latest products/technologies related to the field of particle physics and their services to the scientists and buyers of CERN, establish contacts and find out about future purchasing opportunities. On 25 January, Dr. B. Vierkorn-Rudolph of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and CERN Director-General, Prof. R. D. Heuer, will open the exhibition, followed by a tour of the stands. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, informatics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies, instrumentation and safety. CERN staff wishing to obtain information concerning the programme, the exhibitors and their profiles or to get in contact with exhibitors are r...

  5. Industrial Exhibition “11th Germany at CERN“

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2011-01-01

    Administration Building (Bldg. 60/61) Tuesday 25 January: 11a.m. - 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 26 January: 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), together with CERN, will hold the Industrial Exhibition “11th Germany at CERN”. Some 30 German companies will present their latest products/technologies related to the field of particle physics and their services to the scientists and buyers of CERN, establish contacts and find out about future purchasing opportunities. On 25 January, Dr. B. Vierkorn-Rudolph of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and CERN Director-General, Prof. R. D. Heuer, will open the exhibition, followed by a tour of the stands. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, informatics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies, instrumentation and safety. CERN staff wishing to obtain information concerning the programme, the exhibitors and their profiles or to get in contact with exhibitors are ...

  6. Exhibition | CERN Micro Club | 1-30 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Micro Club (CMC) is organising an exhibition looking back on the origins of the personal computer, also known as the micro-computer, to mark the 60th anniversary of CERN and the club’s own 30th anniversary.   CERN, Building 567, R-021 and R-029 01.09.2014 - 30.09.2014 from 4.00 to 6.00 p.m. The exhibition will be held in the club’s premises (Building 567, rooms R-0121 and R-029) and will be open Mondays to Thursdays from 1 to 30 September 2014. Come and admire, touch and use makes and models that disappeared from the market many years ago, such as Atari, Commodore, Olivetti, DEC, IBM and Apple II and III, all in good working order and installed with applications and games from the period. Club members will be on hand to tell you about these early computers, which had memories of just of a few kilobytes, whereas those of modern computers can reach several gigabytes or even terabytes.

  7. An application of projection imaging systems for museum exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    Museums hold a wide variety of cultural properties and they organize exhibitions for the public. In history museums, a number of interpretive materials are necessary to present a specific historical theme. However, due to limitation of space, the number of displayed materials is severely restricted. There are various types of guidance systems in museums, however, most systems have not yet responded to visitors' needs. Therefore, a useful guidance system is necessary to satisfy their needs and also to enhance their understandings of the exhibitions. In order to create such guidance system, applications of imaging technology can become a solution to overcome these restrictions and meet the requirements. In this research, a visual guidance system using a data projector was examined in the National Museum of Japanese History. In the kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) section, the projector was used to simulate color changes of the materials under different illuminants. The projector also highlighted areas where annotations were featured in the kimono. The validity of using the projector system was confirmed by results from an interview survey. To further develop this visual guidance system, an augmented reality system consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital camera was also examined.

  8. Smokers exhibit biased neural processing of smoking and affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Jentink, Kade G; Drobes, David J; Evans, David E

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the role that implicit processing of drug cues can play in motivating drug use behavior. However, the extent to which drug cue processing biases relate to the processing biases exhibited to other types of evocative stimuli is largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine how the implicit cognitive processing of smoking cues relates to the processing of affective cues using a novel paradigm. Smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 38) completed a picture-viewing task, in which participants were presented with a series of smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images while engaging in a distractor task designed to direct controlled resources away from conscious processing of image content. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained throughout the task for extraction of event-related potentials (ERPs). Smokers exhibited differential processing of smoking cues across 3 different ERP indices compared with nonsmokers. Comparable effects were found for pleasant cues on 2 of these indices. Late cognitive processing of smoking and pleasant cues was associated with nicotine dependence and cigarette use. Results suggest that cognitive biases may extend across classes of stimuli among smokers. This raises important questions about the fundamental meaning of cognitive biases, and suggests the need to consider generalized cognitive biases in theories of drug use behavior and interventions based on cognitive bias modification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1) chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2) both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3) some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  10. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  11. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  12. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-12-01

    Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  13. Thoracolumbar spinal ligaments exhibit negative and transverse pre-strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel J; Von Forell, Gregory A; Alsup, Jeremy; Bowden, Anton E

    2013-07-01

    The present work represents the first reported bi-axial spinal ligament pre-strain data for the thoracic and lumbar spine. Ligament pre-strain (in-situ strain) is known to significantly alter joint biomechanics. However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive data with regards to spinal ligament pre-strain. The current work determined the pre-strain of 71 spinal ligaments (30 anterior longitudinal ligaments, 27 supraspinous ligaments and 14 interspinous ligaments). The interspinous ligament and the anterior longitudinal ligament exhibited bi-axial pre-strain distributions, demonstrating they are not uniaxial structures. The supraspinous ligament frequently exhibited large amounts of negative pre-strain or laxity suggesting it makes no mechanical contribution to spinal stability near the neutral posture. Upon implementing multi-axial pre-strain results into a finite element model of the lumbar spine, large differences in spinal biomechanics were observed. These results demonstrate the necessity of accounting for ligament pre-strain in biomechanical models. In addition, the authors present a unique experimental method for obtaining ligament pre-strain that presents a number of advantages when compared to standard techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated patella water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

    2014-09-01

    Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4±3.5% vs. 10.3±2.1%; P=0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2±4.2% vs. 11.5±2.5%; P=0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2±2.7% vs. 8.4±2.3%; Prunners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever among cattle associated with a state livestock exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A; Kohrs, Paul; Baszler, Timothy; Faux, Cynthia; Sathre, Peter; Wenz, John R; Eldridge, Leonard; Li, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Severe disease and death were identified in cattle exhibited at a state fair that were naturally infected with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2). Most affected cattle had anorexia, signs of depression, diarrhea, fever, and respiratory distress ultimately leading to death. Mean duration of clinical signs prior to death was 6 days (range, 1 to 26 days). Mean number of days between apparent exposure and death was 71 days (range, 46 to 139 days). 19 of 132 cattle cohoused in 1 barn died of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The diagnosis of sheep-associated MCF was confirmed on the basis of results of an OvHV-2-specific PCR assay performed on tissue samples obtained from affected cattle. The disease was associated but not significantly with distance from the center of the barn and was not associated with distance from the center of the sheep pens. Outbreaks of MCF in cattle are unusual, particularly in association with livestock exhibitions. Because the clinical signs may be similar to those of some transboundary diseases, cases of MCF should be reported and investigated. Findings for this outbreak provided evidence to suggest that fair boards and veterinarians should reexamine biosecurity recommendations for livestock exhibitions.

  16. Extended power-law scaling of self-affine signals exhibiting apparent multifractality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnini, Alberto; Neuman, Shlomo P.

    2011-07-01

    Many earth and environmental variables appear to scale as multiplicative (multifractal) processes with spatial or temporal increments possessing Gaussian or heavy-tailed distributions. The behavior, characterized by power-law scaling, is typically limited to intermediate ranges of separation scales (lags) considered, in the case of fully developed turbulence, to be dominated by inertia. It has been established empirically that, in numerous cases (e.g. turbulence, diffusion-limited aggregates, natural images, kinetic surface roughening, fluvial turbulence, sand wave dynamics, Martian topography, river morphometry, gravel-bed mobility, barometric pressure, low-energy cosmic rays, cosmic microwave background radiation, metal-insulator transition, irregularities in human heartbeat time series, turbulence in edge magnetized plasma of fusion devices and turbulent boundary layers of the Earth's magnetosphere), this range of lags can be enlarged significantly, at both ends of the spectrum, via a procedure known as Extended Self-Similarity (ESS). We demonstrate numerically that a similar procedure extends the power-law scaling range over which additive (self-affine) signals exhibit apparent multifractality. We conclude that signals appearing to exhibit either standard or extended (such as those listed) multifractal scaling may potentially represent self-affine processes.

  17. Cysteine proteases from the Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited thrombin and plasmin like activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H V; Riyaz, M; Venkatesh Kumar, R; Dharmappa, K K; Tarannum, Shaista; Siddesha, J M; Rajesh, R; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-10-01

    In the present study we evaluated the presence of cysteine protease from the latex of four plants Asclepias curassavica L., Calotropis gigantea R.Br., Pergularia extensa R.Br. and Cynanchum puciflorum R.Br. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. Cysteine proteases from these plants latex exhibited both thrombin and plasmin like activities. Latex enzyme fraction in a concentration dependent manner induced the formation of clot in citrated blood plasma. Direct incubation of fibrinogen with latex enzyme fraction resulted in the formation of fibrin clot similar to thrombin enzyme. However prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot suggesting plasmin like activity. Latex enzyme fraction preferentially hydrolyzed Aalpha and Bbeta chains of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot. Latex enzyme fraction also hydrolyzed the subunits of fully cross linked fibrin efficiently, the order of hydrolysis was alpha-polymer > alpha-chains > beta-chain and gamma-gamma dimer. Cysteine proteases from all the four Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited similar action on fibrinogen and fibrin. This study scientifically validate the use of plant latex in stop bleeding and wound healing by traditional healers all over the world.

  18. Pollinators show flower colour preferences but flowers with similar colours do not attract similar pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverté, Sara; Retana, Javier; Gómez, José M; Bosch, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Colour is one of the main floral traits used by pollinators to locate flowers. Although pollinators show innate colour preferences, the view that the colour of a flower may be considered an important predictor of its main pollinators is highly controversial because flower choice is highly context-dependent, and initial innate preferences may be overridden by subsequent associative learning. Our objective is to establish whether there is a relationship between flower colour and pollinator composition in natural communities. We measured the flower reflectance spectrum and pollinator composition in four plant communities (85 plant species represented by 109 populations, and 32 305 plant-pollinator interactions in total). Pollinators were divided into six taxonomic groups: bees, ants, wasps, coleopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. We found consistent associations between pollinator groups and certain colours. These associations matched innate preferences experimentally established for several pollinators and predictions of the pollination syndrome theory. However, flowers with similar colours did not attract similar pollinator assemblages. The explanation for this paradoxical result is that most flower species are pollination generalists. We conclude that although pollinator colour preferences seem to condition plant-pollinator interactions, the selective force behind these preferences has not been strong enough to mediate the appearance and maintenance of tight colour-based plant-pollinator associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mice with Deletion of Neuromedin B Receptor Exhibit Decreased Oral Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, G S M; Souza, L L; Bressane, N O S; Maravalhas, R; Wilieman, M; Bento-Bernardes, T; Silva, K R; Mendonca, L S; Oliveira, K J; Pazos-Moura, C C

    2016-12-01

    Neuromedin B (NB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are bombesin-like peptides, found in the gastrointestinal tube and pancreas, among other tissues. Consistent data proposed that GRP stimulates insulin secretion, acting directly in pancreatic cells or in the release of gastrointestinal hormones that are incretins. However, the role of NB remains unclear. We examined the glucose homeostasis in mice with deletion of NB receptor (NBR-KO). Female NBR-KO exhibited similar fasting basal glucose with lower insulinemia (48.4%) and lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (50.5%) than wild type (WT). Additionally, they were more tolerant to oral glucose, demonstrated by a decrease in the area under the glucose curve (18%). In addition, 15 min after an oral glucose load, female and male NBR-KO showed lower insulin serum levels (45.6 and 26.8%, respectively) than WT, even though blood glucose rose to similar levels in both groups. Single injection of NB, one hour before the oral glucose administration, tended to induce higher serum insulin in WT (28.9%, p=0.3), however the same did not occur in NBR-KO. They showed no changes in fasting insulin content in pancreatic islets by immunohistochemistry, however, the fasting serum levels of glucagon-like peptide, a potent incretin, exhibited a strong trend to reduction (40%, p=0.07). Collectively, mice with deletion of NB receptor have lower insulinemia, especially in response to oral glucose, and females also exhibited a better glucose tolerance, suggesting the involvement of NB and its receptor in regulation of insulin secretion induced by incretins, and also, in insulin sensitivity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Engagement In Climate Change Awareness Through Art Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Artists such as myself can influence the public discourse on climate change through compelling imagery transcending data and language. I will speak specifically to how I communicate scientific research to diverse populations by making those issues personal, visceral, and actionable.I began integrating scientific visual data into my aesthetic practice ten years ago by first utilizing archival evidence in the form of repeats, geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps. I continue to develop visual strategies delivering information on an emotional/non-verbal level. In the past 4 years, I have added the most dramatic layer to my creative process: bearing witness. I've been to the three largest ice fields in the world: Greenland, Antarctica and Argentina's Patagonia, observing the unprecedented pace of glacial melt. The emotional significance of actually being there as an artist is immense. Those expeditions impact my practice, leading to exhibitions that open a dialog with an audience not initially interested in science. In the past 5 years my work has appeared in 6 solo and 19 group exhibits all devoted to the environment. I make myself present in universities, museums and galleries to explain what the images are about. I require universities to include a public component: an all-college lecture or panel where the geography/environmental/sociology/geology departments participate with broad student involvement. I believe that such endeavors are worthwhile and can be models for further efforts to educate an unsuspecting audience. Artists can bridge the gap communicating to a public of art appreciators, nonscientists - how easy it is to understand geology and global warming. This social engagement can even inspire and result in attitudinal changes. A viewer's initial emotional response to my large paintings and photographs evolves into comprehension as a dialog about their content is revealed. By sharing my personal story about my