Sample records for svo agvsub 2osub

  1. MW-assisted synthesis of SVO for ICD primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninati, Sabina; Fantuzzi, Matteo; Mastragostino, Marina; Soavi, Francesca [UCI, Scienze Chimiche, Radiochimiche e Metallurgiche, Universita di Bologna, Via San Donato 15, 40127 Bologna (Italy)


    An Ag{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 11} (SVO) cathode material prepared by microwave (MW)-assisted solid-state synthesis (MW-SVO) was developed for lithium primary batteries for implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs). This paper presents the results of physical-chemical and electrochemical characterizations of MW-SVO as well as those of SVO prepared by conventional thermal route (T-SVO). A specific effect of MWs which accelerates the synthesis reaction and contributes to yield a material of different morphology and degree of crystallinity compared with those of T-SVO was observed. The results of pulsed electrochemical tests carried out at 37{sup o}C in operative conditions of ICDs on Li/MW-SVO batteries with cathode mass loading sized for practical use are also reported. These tests demonstrated that MW-SVO can be used for high performing lithium primary battery delivering in few seconds the specific energy values required by ICD application. (author)

  2. Greater Left Inferior Frontal Activation for SVO than VOS During Sentence Comprehension in Kaqchikel

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    Masatoshi Koizumi


    Full Text Available Cortical activations during the processing of sentences with different word orders in Kaqchikel were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Kaqchikel is an endangered Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. The word order in this language is relatively flexible. We observed higher cortical activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus for sentences with the subject-verb-object (SVO word order, as compared to sentences with the verb-object-subject (VOS word order, suggesting that VOS is easier to process than SVO. This supports the traditional interpretation in Mayan linguistics that the syntactically simplest word order of transitive sentences is VOS in Kaqchikel, as in many other Mayan languages. More importantly, the results revealed that the subject-before-object word order preference in sentence comprehension, observed in a number of previous studies on other languages, might not reflect a universal aspect of human languages; rather, processing preference may be language-specific to some extent, reflecting syntactic differences in individual languages.

  3. Jc and a.c. losses of Bi2223 Multifilamentary tapes with SVO barriers; Fuiramento kan ni SVO baria wo motsu Bi2223 tashin tepu no Jc to koryu sonshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, T.; Maeda, H.; Sato, M. [Kitama Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Zhang, P. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Chen, W. [Tohoku Univ., Miyagi (Japan). Institute for Materials Research


    For application of Bi-2223 wire, decrease of AC losses is important. For this, Bi-2223 multifilamentary tape where Sr{sub 6}V{sub 2}O{sub 1}1(SVO) powders arranged between filaments of high temperature superconductor was fabricated and the AC loss was evaluated. Slurry of blended SVO with polymer was produced. Wire where inside surface and outside surface of pipe was coated with this showed high Jc. But wire where both side of Ag pipe was coated with this showed low Jc. This is caused by disconnection of wires. (NEDO)

  4. Comparative study of macroscopic spray parameters and fuel atomization behaviour of SVO (Jatropha, its biodiesel and blends

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    Agarwal Avinash K.


    Full Text Available The combustion and emission characteristics of vegetable oils and derivatives are quite different from mineral diesel due to their relatively high viscosity, density and vaporisation characteristics. These properties affect the fuel spray and the interaction of the spray with air in the combustion chamber therefore it is important to analyze the spray characteristics e.g. spray tip penetration, spray cone angle, spray area and fuel atomization. Optical techniques for spray visualization and image processing are very efficient to analyse the comparative spray parameters for these fuels. Present research investigates the effect of chamber pressure on spray characteristics of Jatropha SVO (J100/ blends (J5, J20, and Jatropha biodiesel (JB100/ blends (JB5, JB20 vis-a-vis baseline data of mineral diesel. Experiments were performed for all these fuels/ blends injected in a constant volume spray visualisation chamber (cold chamber at four different chamber pressure (1, 4, 7 and 9 bar respectively. It was found that J100 and JB100 have the highest spray tip penetration, cone angle and the spray area followed by J20, J5, mineral diesel and JB20, JB5, mineral diesel respectively however J20, J5 and JB20, JB5 have better atomization characteristics as compared to J100 and JB100 respectively. Cone angle was higher for biodiesel blends as compared to SVO blends at atmospheric pressure however as the chamber pressure was increased to 9 bars, it became almost equal for both fuel types. Spray parameters are found to be excellent for mineral diesel followed by Jatropha biodiesel and Jatropha oil. It was found that atomization of fuel becomes superior with increasing chamber pressure.

  5. The density and cloud point of diesel oil mixtures with the straight vegetable oils (SVO): Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolle, Abolle; Loukou, Kouakou; Henri, Planche [Unite de Chimie et Procedes de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, 32 boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)


    The densities and cloud points of six vegetable oils mixed in variable proportions to diesel oils (commercial vehicle fuels) are measured. Simple correlations are reported between these properties and the fatty acids vegetable oil composition. A simple modelling summarises experimental data informations. (author)

  6. The PediaSat continuous central SvO2 monitoring system does not reliably indicate state or course of central venous oxygenation. (United States)

    Baulig, Werner; Béttex, Dominique; Bürki, Christoph; Schmitz, Achim; Spielmann, Nelly; Woitzek, Katja; Weiss, Markus


    The present study compares the accuracy of a new continuous venous oxygenation monitoring system (PediaSat Oximetry Catheter) with laboratory blood oximetry in paediatric surgical patients. Children and adolescents undergoing cardiac, orthopaedic or craniofacial surgery with major blood loss were included. A 4.5 Fr two-lumen or 5.5 Fr three-lumen central venous oximetry catheter (SPediaSatcvO2) was inserted preoperatively into the superior vena cava. After in-vivo calibration of the PediaSat system, repeated blood samples were obtained from the distal port of the venous catheter and oximetrically analysed for haemoglobin and central venous oxygen saturation (SCO-OXcvO2). Central venous oxygen saturation values measured by the PediaSat (SPediaSatcvO2) were compared with co-oximetry (SCO-OXcvO2) values from the simultaneously taken blood samples by Bland-Altman and simple regression analyses. Overall, 142 data pairs from 27 patients, aged from 0.6 to 19.0 years (median 5.3 years) were analysed. SPediaSatcvO2 and SCO-OXcvO2 values ranged from 57 to 98% and from 57.1 to 95.8%, respectively. Correlation between SPediaSatcvO2 and SCO-OXcvO2 was poor with r equal to 0.28 (P < 0.0001). SPediaSatcvO2 overestimated SCO-OXcvO2 (mean bias +2.6%), but limits of agreement (+/-2 SD of bias) were unacceptably high (-14.4/+19.6%). Sensitivity and specificity of SPediaSatcvO2 to indicate a fall or rise of SCO-OXcvO2 between two subsequent measurements were only 0.42 and 0.24, respectively. In paediatric and adolescent patients undergoing major surgery, the PediaSat system did not reliably reflect SCO-OXcvO2 values and cannot replace repeated invasive ScvO2 assessments in the clinically relevant range of ScvO2.

  7. Air Remedial Investigation. Version 3.1. Volume 1 (United States)


    Table 4.1-4. Event 1 -Nontarget SYOCs. ElSVO*l Phenant hreneI ~Tr met hylpentadecanone Eicosane Tetramet hyiheptadecane El SVO*3 Benzoic acid...acid Eicosane 3 E3SVO*2 Acetophenone Phenanthrene Tetramethylhexadecane Analiphatic hydrocarbon3 Analiphatic hydrocarbon (probably) (C 2 1 H44 ) E3SVO.3...Trimethylpentadecanone Nonadecane Hexadecanoic acid 3 Eicosane Source: ESE, 1988. I I I I I 4-25 C-IMA-1I9fln•.40.26 815/88 I Table 4.1-6 shows the

  8. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Isopropanol Using Visible-Light Active Silver Vanadates/SBA-15 Composite

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    Ting-Chung Pan


    Full Text Available An environmentally friendly visible-light-driven photocatalyst, silver vanadates/SBA-15, was prepared through an incipient wetness impregnation procedure with silver vanadates (SVO synthesized under a hydrothermal condition without a high-temperature calcination. The addition of mesoporous SBA-15 improves the formation of nanocrystalline silver vanadates. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS confirms the presence of Brønsted and Lewis acids on the SVO/SBA-15 composites. The results of photoluminescence spectra indicated that the electron-hole recombination rate have been effectively inhibited when SVO was loaded with mesoporous SBA-15. All the composites loaded with various amount of SVO inherit the higher adsorption capacity and larger mineralization yield than those of P-25 (commercial TiO2 and pure SVO. The sample loaded with 51% of SVO (51SVO/SBA-15 with mixed phases of Ag4V2O7 and α-Ag3VO4 exhibits the best photocatalytic activity. A favorable crystalline phase combined with high intensities of Brønsted and Lewis acids is considered the main cause of the enhanced adsorption capacity and outstanding photoactivity of the SVO/SBA-15 composites.

  9. No agreement of mixed venous and central venous saturation in sepsis, independent of sepsis origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van Ingen, Jan; Boerma, E. Christiaan; Holman, Nicole D.; Groen, Henk; Koopmans, Matty; Spronk, Peter E.; Kuiper, Michael A.


    Controversy remains regarding the relationship between central venous saturation (ScvO(2)) and mixed venous saturation (SvO(2)) and their use and interchangeability in patients with sepsis or septic shock. We tested the hypothesis that ScvO(2) does not reliably predict SvO(2) in sepsis. Additionally

  10. Severe sepsis and septic shock [author's reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angus, Derek C.; van der Poll, Tom


    To the Editor: We would like to address two potentially confusing issues concerning venous oxygen saturation (Svo(2)) as presented in Table 1 of the review by Angus and van der Poll (Aug. 29 issue).(1) First, Table 1 suggests that Svo(2) is raised in sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock.

  11. The relationship between mixed venous and hepatic venous O2 saturation in patients with septic shock. (United States)

    Meier-Hellmann, A; Hannemann, L; Specht, M; Schaffartzik, W; Spies, C; Reinhart, K


    It was the purpose of this study to measure the relationship between hepatic venous O2 saturation (ShvO2) and mixed venous O2 saturation (SvO2) in septic patients (n = 21) following treatment with various catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, dopexamine). At baseline mean SvO2 was 74 +/- 5% while mean ShvO2 was 59 +/- 12%. Alpha-mimetic substances such as epinephrine and norepinephrine reduced ShvO2 and increased the difference between SvO2 and ShvO2.Beta2-mimetic and dopaminergic substances (dopexamine, dopamine) did not change the difference between SvO2 and ShvO2. These results show that SvO2 does not necessarily reflect all changes of ShvO2. Monitoring ShvO2 may be helpful in managing septic shock by adding information on adequacy of O2 supply/consumption ratio in the crucial splanchnic region.

  12. Reduced deep regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping. (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Liu, Saifeng; Fan, Linlin; Liu, Lei; Li, Jinping; Zuo, Chao; Qian, Tianyi; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang


    Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) is an important indicator of brain function. There was debate about lower cerebral oxygen metabolism in hemodialysis patients and there were no reports about the changes of deep regional cerebral SvO2 in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we aim to explore the deep regional cerebral SvO2 from straight sinus using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the correlation with clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing. 52 hemodialysis patients and 54 age-and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. QSM reconstructed from original phase data of 3.0 T susceptibility-weighted imaging was used to measure the susceptibility of straight sinus. The susceptibility was used to calculate the deep regional cerebral SvO2 and compare with healthy individuals. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between deep regional cerebral SvO2, clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing. The deep regional cerebral SvO2 of hemodialysis patients (72.5 ± 3.7%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (76.0 ± 2.1%) (P deep regional cerebral SvO2 in patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of hemodialysis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (P deep regional cerebral SvO2 did not correlate with MMSE scores (P = 0.630). In summary, the decreased deep regional cerebral SvO2 occurred in hemodialysis patients and dialysis duration, parathyroid hormone, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell may be clinical risk factors.

  13. Central venous oxygen saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass predicts 3-year survival (United States)

    Svenmarker, Staffan; Häggmark, Sören; Östman, Margareta; Holmgren, Anders; Näslund, Ulf


    OBJECTIVES Long-term survival after cardiac surgery is determined by a number of different risk factors. Central venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) measures the balance between oxygen delivery and demand. SvO2 levels in the intensive care situation are reported to be associated with patient outcome. The present report explores the connection between SvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and survival after cardiac surgery. METHODS Retrospective analysis of one thousand consecutive cardiac surgical patients was undertaken. SvO2 during CPB was monitored online. Registry data combining specific risk factors with SvO2 were selected for Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis to examine the influence on 30-day and 3-year survivals. RESULTS Nine-hundred and thirty-two patient records were eligible for analysis. SvO2 below 75% during CPB was associated with significantly shorter 30-day and 3-year survivals. Based on Kaplan–Meier statistics, the survival rate decreased by 3.1% (98.1–95.0), P = 0.011 and 6.1% (92.7–86.6), P = 0.003, respectively. The influence of SvO2 on 3-year survival remained statistically significant after controlling for a series of risk factors in the Cox regression analysis. Patients with SvO2 <75% carried a 2-fold (odds ratio 2.1) increased relative risk of shortened 3-year survival (P = 0.003). Other risk factors statistically significantly associated with 3-year survival were age, gender, duration of CPB, blood temperature, hypertension, haematocrit and type of surgical procedure. CONCLUSIONS We report decreased 30-day and 3-year survival expectancy for patients experiencing SvO2 lower than 75% during CPB. PMID:23065747

  14. The viscosity of diesel oil and mixtures with straight vegetable oils: Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolle, Abolle; Kouakou, Loukou; Planche, Henri [Unite de Chimie et Procedes de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, 32 Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)


    The feed back experience of using straight vegetable oil (SVO) as a fuel in the existing diesel engines evidences the need for fitting several physical properties, among them the fuel viscosity. An empirical modelling is proposed in order to interpolate viscosity to any kind of diesel oil/SVO blend. This model is fitted on an experimental viscosity database on blends, varying the SVO mass proportion in the blend, the blend temperature between cloud point and 353 K, and including six vegetable oils varying the fatty acids composition. Extrusion rheology was also checked by varying the pressure drop. Measurements show that blends behave Newtonian. (author)

  15. Hemodynamic effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment immediately after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O-Yurvati, Albert H; Carnes, Michael S; Clearfield, Michael B; Stoll, Scott T; McConathy, Walter J


    ...). Treatment subjects (n=10) undergoing CABG surgery were recruited for postoperative OMT. The primary assessment compared, pre-OMT versus post-OMT, measurements of thoracic impedance, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and cardiac index...

  16. The rate of fall of arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation in obstructive sleep apnea. (United States)

    Fletcher, E C; Costarangos, C; Miller, T


    During breath holding, correlations have been demonstrated between the rate of fall of arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (dSaO2/dt) and the following: thoracic gas volume at apnea onset, resting oxygen consumption, preapneic arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) and obesity. A key factor influencing dSaO2/dt is mixed venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SvO2) as recently demonstrated in an animal model of obstructive apnea. The purpose of the present study was to see if dSaO2/dt was related to SvO2 during sleep in a group of subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and varying levels of SvO2. Eight OSA subjects were studied during sleep with indwelling arterial and central venous catheters. Continuous SaO2 was measured by ear oximetry while continuous SvO2 was measured through the fiberoptic bundle of a Shaw Opticath catheter. Thirty percent or more of all obstructive apneas were scored for duration, preapneic SaO2, SvO2 and dSaO2/dt. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between dSaO2/dt and other measured variables. The dSaO2/dt showed a consistent negative correlation with preapneic SvO2 and was not related to duration. Mean dSaO2/dt during sleep correlated to some degree with the degree of gas exchange (Qva/Qt) abnormality prior to sleep. It is concluded that in humans, SvO2 plays a substantial role in determining dSaO2/dt. Potentially, the presence of gas exchange abnormalities (eg, found in intrinsic lung disease) causing hypoxemia and low SvO2 may steepen dSaO2/dt, lowering the nadir level of apneic desaturation for the same duration of apnea found in a patient with more normal gas exchange.

  17. Comparison of actual oxygen delivery kinetics to those predicted by mathematical modeling following stage 1 palliation just prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. (United States)

    Yuki, Koichi; DiNardo, James A


    Optimizing systemic oxygen delivery (DO2) and hemodynamics in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a clinical challenge. Mathematical modeling of the HLHS circulation has been used to determine the relationship between oxygen kinetic parameters and DO2 and to determine how DO2 might be optimized. The model demonstrates that neither arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) nor mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) alone accurately predicts DO2. Oxygen delivery kinetics predicted by previously described mathematical modeling were compared with actual patients' hemodynamic data. We sought to determine which patient derived parameters correlated best with DO2. Patients with HLHS who underwent cardiac catheterization prior to surgery to create a superior cavopulmonary anastomosis from 2007 to 2011 were identified. Hemodynamic data obtained were compared with the data derived from the mathematical model. Correlations between SaO2, SvO2, SaO2-SvO2, SaO2/(SaO2-SvO2), pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio (Qp/Qs), and DO2 were evaluated using both linear and nonlinear analyses, and R(2) was calculated. Patients' data fit most aspects of the mathematical model. DO2 had the best correlation with SaO2/(SaO2-SvO2; R(2) = 0.8755) followed by SaO2 -SvO2 (R(2) = 0.8063), while SaO2 or SvO2 alone did not demonstrate a significant correlation as predicated by the mathematical model (R(2) = 0.09564 and 0.4831, respectively). SaO2/(SaO2 -SvO2) would be useful clinically to track changes in DO2 that occur with changes in patient condition or with interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Saturação venosa central e mista de oxigênio no choque séptico: existe diferença clinicamente relevante? Central and mixed venous oxygen saturation in septic shock: is there a clinically relevant difference?

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    Flavia Ribeiro Machado


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A medida da saturação venosa central de oxigênio (SvcO2 tem sido proposta como alternativa a saturação venosa mista (SvO2, com grau de concordância variável nos dados atualmente disponíveis. Esse estudo objetivou avaliar as possíveis diferenças entre a SvO2 e a SvcO2 ou saturação venosa atrial de oxigênio (SvaO2, com ênfase na interferência do débito cardíaco, e o impacto delas no manejo clínico do paciente séptico. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo observacional em pacientes com choque séptico monitorizados com cateter de artéria pulmonar. Foi obtido sangue simultaneamente para determinação da SvcO2, SvO2 e SvaO2. Realizado testes de correlação linear (significativos se pINTRODUCTION: Central venous oxygen saturation (SvcO2 has been proposed as an alternative for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2, with a variable level of acceptance according to available data. This study aimed to evaluate possible differences between SvO2 and SvcO2 or atrial venous saturation (SvaO2, with emphasis on the role of cardiac output and their impact on clinical management of the septic patient. METHODS: This is an observational, prospective study of patients with septic shock monitored by pulmonary artery catheter. Blood was obtained simultaneously for SvcO2, SvO2 and SvaO2 determination. Linear correlation (significant if p<0.05 and agreement analysis (Bland-Altman were performed with samples and subgroups according to cardiac output. Moreover, agreement about clinical management based on these samples was evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty one measurements from 23 patients were obtained, median age of 65.0 (49.0-75.0 years and mean APACHE II of 27.7±6.3. Mean values of SvO2, SvcO2 and SvaO2 were 72.20±8.26%, 74.61±7.60% and 74.64±8.47%. Linear correlation test showed a weak correlation between SvO2 and SvcO2 (r=0.61, p<0.0001 and also between SvO2 and SvaO2 (r=0.70, p<0.0001. Agreements between SvcO2/SvO2 and SvaO2/SvO2 were -2.40

  19. Continuous cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation monitoring. (United States)

    Cariou, A; Monchi, M; Dhainaut, J F


    Continuous assessment of cardiac output and SVO2 in the critically ill may be helpful in both the monitoring variations in the patient's cardiovascular state and in determining the efficacy of therapy. Commercially available continuous cardiac output (CCO) monitoring systems are based on the pulsed warm thermodilution technique. In vitro validation studies have demonstrated that this method provides higher accuracy and greater resistance to thermal noise than standard bolus thermodilution techniques. Numerous clinical studies comparing bolus with continuous thermodilution techniques have shown this technique similarly accurate to track each other and to have negligible bias between them. The comparison between continuous thermal and other cardiac output methods also demonstrates good precision of the continuous thermal technique. Accuracy of continuous oximetry monitoring using reflectance oximetry via fiberoptics has been assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Most of the studies testing agreement between continuous SVO2 measurements and pulmonary arterial blood samples measured by standard oximetry have shown good correlation. Continuous SVO2 monitoring is often used in the management of critically ill patients. The most recently designed pulmonary artery catheters are now able to simultaneously measure either SVO2 and CCO or SVO2 and right ventricular ejection fraction. This ability to view simultaneous trends of SVO2 and right ventricular performance parameters will probably allow the clinician to graphically see the impact of volume loading or inotropic therapy over time, as well as the influence of multiple factors, including right ventricular dysfunction, on SVO2. However, the cost-effectiveness of new pulmonary artery catheters application remains still questionable because no established utility or therapeutic guidelines are available.

  20. Electrode for a lithium cell (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL


    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  1. Streptococcal vertebral osteomyelitis: multiple faces of the same disease. (United States)

    Murillo, O; Roset, A; Sobrino, B; Lora-Tamayo, J; Verdaguer, R; Jiménez-Mejias, E; Nolla, J M; Colmenero, J de D; Ariza, J


    The role of Streptococcus species as an aetiological microorganism of vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is considered to be of little relevance. We aimed to describe a large number of cases of streptococcal vertebral osteomyelitis (SVO), to analyze the clinical features associated with different Streptococcus species, and to compare them with a cohort of patients with VO caused by Staphylococcus aureus. An incidence study and a retrospective, multicenter, observational clinical study of cases of SVO (1991-2011) were performed. Statistical comparison of SVO by different species and between them and staphylococcal VO was carried out. Over the whole period there was an increasing incidence in the number of VOs and SVOs per year (p Diseases.

  2. Does Social Value Orientation Theory Apply to Social Relations?

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    Patricia Danielle Lewis


    Full Text Available This research asks whether Social Value Orientations (SVOs apply to the social relations of exchange networks. SVO literature identifies three types of orientation to rational action, determined by how actors value outcomes to self and other. Only the individualist is the self-interested, rational actor previously seen in exchange networks. The prosocial actor seeks to maximize joint outcomes and equality whereas the competitor seeks to maximize differences between self and other. The competitor and individualist are frequently collapsed into a proself type. Whereas SVO research has focused on games and social dilemmas, this research places prosocials and proselfs in equal, weak, and strong power exchange structures. We show that, if SVO applies, the behaviors of proself and prosocial will be very different. Experimental results demonstrate, however, that prosocials’ actions in exchanges are indistinguishable from activities of proselfs.

  3. Correlation of brain tissue oxygen tension with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy and mixed venous oxygen saturation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. (United States)

    Tyree, Kreangkai; Tyree, Melissa; DiGeronimo, Robert


    The aim of this prospective, animal study was to compare brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) with cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO(2)) during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) in a porcine model. This was accomplished using twelve immature piglets with surgically implanted catheters placed in the superficial cerebral cortex to measure brain PbtO(2) and microdialysis metabolites. The NIRS sensor was placed overlying the forehead to measure cerebral regional saturation index (rSO(2)i) while SVO(2) was measured directly from the ECMO circuit. Animals were placed on VA ECMO followed by an initial period of stabilization, after which they were subjected to graded hypoxia and recovery. Our results revealed that rSO(2)i and SVO(2) correlated only marginally with PbtO(2) (R(2)=0.32 and R(2)=0.26, respectively) while the correlation between rSO(2)i and SVO( 2) was significantly stronger (R(2)=0.59). Cerebral metabolites and rSO(2)i were significantly altered during attenuation of PbtO( 2), p<0.05). A subset of animals, following exposure to hypoxia, experienced markedly delayed recovery of both rSO(2)i and PbtO( 2) despite rapid normalization of SVO(2). Upon further analysis, these animals had significantly lower blood pressure (p=0.001), lower serum pH (p=0.01), and higher serum lactate (p=0.02). Additionally, in this subgroup, rSO(2)i correlated better with PbtO(2) (R(2)=0.76). These findings suggest that, in our ECMO model, rSO(2)i and SVO( 2) correlate reasonably well with each other, but not necessarily with brain PbtO(2) and that NIRS-derived rSO(2)i may more accurately reflect cerebral tissue hypoxia in sicker animals.

  4. Avaliação da implantação dos Serviços de Verificação de Óbito em Pernambuco, 2012: estudo de casos múltiplos

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    Barbara Araújo Silva de Azevedo

    Full Text Available Resumo OBJETIVO: avaliar a implantação dos Serviços de Verificação de Óbito (SVO no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2012. MÉTODOS: pesquisa avaliativa de análise de implantação; elaborou-se modelo lógico e matriz de julgamento; utilizaram-se dados primários (observação direta e entrevistas e secundários; a avaliação do grau de implantação foi baseada em indicadores de estrutura e processo, relacionados aos resultados e confrontados com o modelo lógico. RESULTADOS: os SVO de Recife e Caruaru alcançaram 89,0% e 82,0% dos valores esperados, respectivamente, e foram considerados como 'Parcialmente Implantado Avançado', de forma coerente com os indicadores de resultado aferidos; os componentes Coleta de Informação e Diagnóstico Nosológico/Etiológico obtiveram grau 'Implantado' nos SVO/Recife e SVO/Caruaru; o componente Ensino e Pesquisa obteve o grau 'Implantado' somente no SVO/Recife. CONCLUSÃO: houve semelhança no grau de implantação nos dois serviços; o maior grau de implantação do componente Ensino e Pesquisa no SVO/Recife revela a importância da cooperação técnico-acadêmica.

  5. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  6. Mixed venous oxygen saturation monitoring revisited: thoughts for critical care nursing practice. (United States)

    Christensen, Martin


    Less invasive methods of determining cardiac output are now readily available. Using indicator dilution technique, for example has made it easier to continuously measure cardiac output because it uses the existing intra-arterial line. Therefore gone is the need for a pulmonary artery floatation catheter and with it the ability to measure left atrial and left ventricular work indices as well the ability to monitor and measure a mixed venous saturation (SvO(2)). The aim of this paper is to put forward the notion that SvO(2) provides valuable information about oxygen consumption and venous reserve; important measures in the critically ill to ensure oxygen supply meets cellular demand. In an attempt to portray this, a simplified example of the septic patient is offered to highlight the changing pathophysiological sequelae of the inflammatory process and its importance for monitoring SvO(2). SvO(2) monitoring, it could be argued, provides the gold standard for assessing arterial and venous oxygen indices in the critically ill. For the bedside ICU nurse the plethora of information inherent in SvO(2) monitoring could provide them with important data that will assist in averting potential problems with oxygen delivery and consumption. However, it has been suggested that central venous saturation (ScvO(2)) might be an attractive alternative to SvO(2) because of its less invasiveness and ease of obtaining a sample for analysis. There are problems with this approach and these are to do with where the catheter tip is sited and the nature of the venous admixture at this site. Studies have shown that ScvO(2) is less accurate than SvO(2) and should not be used as a sole guiding variable for decision-making. These studies have demonstrated that there is an unacceptably wide range in variance between ScvO(2) and SvO(2) and this is dependent on the presenting disease, in some cases SvO(2) will be significantly lower than ScvO(2). Whilst newer technologies have been developed to

  7. A method to calculate arterial and venous saturation from near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menssen, J.J.M.; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Hopman, J.C.W.; Liem, D.; Korte, C.L. de


    For adequate development and functioning of the neonatal brain, sufficient oxygen (O2) should be available. With a fast sampling (f(s) > 50 Hz) continuous wave NIRS device, arterial (SaO2) and venous (SvO2) saturation can be measured using the physiological fluctuations in the oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb)

  8. Fault Detection and Isolation and Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines Using Set-Valued Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casau, Pedro; Rosa, Paulo Andre Nobre; Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba


    Research on wind turbine Operations & Maintenance (O&M) procedures is critical to the expansion of Wind Energy Conversion systems (WEC). In order to reduce O&M costs and increase the lifespan of the turbine, we study the application of Set-Valued Observers (SVO) to the problem of Fault Detection...

  9. Asyntactic Thematic Role Assignment by Mandarin Aphasics: A Test of the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis and the Double Dependency Hypothesis (United States)

    Su, Yi-ching.; Lee, Shu-er; Chung, Yuh-mei


    This study examines the comprehension patterns of various sentence types by Mandarin-speaking aphasic patients and evaluates the validity of the predictions from the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) and the Double Dependency Hypothesis (DDH). Like English, the canonical word order in Mandarin is SVO, but the two languages differ in that the head…

  10. Learning a Novel Pattern through Balanced and Skewed Input (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel


    This study compared the effectiveness of balanced and skewed input at facilitating the acquisition of the transitive construction in Esperanto, characterized by the accusative suffix "-n" and variable word order (SVO, OVS). Thai university students (N = 98) listened to 24 sentences under skewed (one noun with high token frequency) or…

  11. Improved production from grazf,rug cattle when given protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tein supplemented heifers had an ADG of 500 g during the winter and were at a suitable live weight for mating at 15 ... het 'n ADG van 500 g gedurende die winter gehad en het op 15 maande 'n geskikte lewende massa gehad om ... digestibility and l,SVo N (Cohen, 1978). However, with the onset of frosts, fogs, heavy dew ...

  12. The coupled cluster singles, doubles, and a hybrid treatment of connected triples based on the split virtual orbitals (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Kou, Zhuangfei; Xu, Enhua; Li, Shuhua


    We have proposed a simple strategy for splitting the virtual orbitals with a large basis set into two subgroups (active and inactive) by taking a smaller basis set as an auxiliary basis set. With the split virtual orbitals (SVOs), triple or higher excitations can be partitioned into active and inactive subgroups (according to the number of active virtual orbitals involved), which can be treated with different electron correlation methods. In this work, the coupled cluster (CC) singles, doubles, and a hybrid treatment of connected triples based on the SVO [denoted as SVO-CCSD(T)-h], has been implemented. The present approach has been applied to study the bond breaking potential energy surfaces in three molecules (HF, F2, and N2), and the equilibrium properties in a number of open-shell diatomic molecules. For all systems under study, the SVO-CCSD(T)-h method based on the unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) reference is an excellent approximation to the corresponding CCSDT (CC singles, doubles, and triples), and much better than the UHF-based CCSD(T) (CC singles, doubles, and perturbative triples). On the other hand, the SVO-CCSD(T)-h method based on the restricted HF (RHF) reference can also provide considerable improvement over the RHF-based CCSD(T).

  13. Personality and Behavior in Social Dilemmas: Testing the Situational Strength Hypothesis and the Role of Hypothetical Versus Real Incentives. (United States)

    Lozano, José H


    Previous research aimed at testing the situational strength hypothesis suffers from serious limitations regarding the conceptualization of strength. In order to overcome these limitations, the present study attempts to test the situational strength hypothesis based on the operationalization of strength as reinforcement contingencies. One dispositional factor of proven effect on cooperative behavior, social value orientation (SVO), was used as a predictor of behavior in four social dilemmas with varying degree of situational strength. The moderating role of incentive condition (hypothetical vs. real) on the relationship between SVO and behavior was also tested. One hundred undergraduates were presented with the four social dilemmas and the Social Value Orientation Scale. One-half of the sample played the social dilemmas using real incentives, whereas the other half used hypothetical incentives. Results supported the situational strength hypothesis in that no behavioral variability and no effect of SVO on behavior were found in the strongest situation. However, situational strength did not moderate the effect of SVO on behavior in situations where behavior showed variability. No moderating effect was found for incentive condition either. The implications of these results for personality theory and assessment are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Lao Serial Verb Constructions and Their Event Representations (United States)

    Cole, Douglas James


    This dissertation is an investigation of serial verb constructions in Lao (Tai-Kadai, SVO) and the events that they encode. Serial verb constructions (SVCs), structures where multiple verbs appear in a single clause, raise several important questions for syntactic theory. One issue is how the verbs are related; proposals involving coordination…

  15. Prosodic focus marking in Chinese four- and eight-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Anqi; Chen, A.


    This study investigates how Mandarin Chinese speaking children use prosody to distinguish focus from non-focus, and focus types differing in size of constituent and contrastivity. SVO sentences were elicited from four- and eight-year-olds in a game setting. Sentence-medial verbs were acoustically

  16. Relationship between mixed venous oxygen saturation and regional cerebral oxygenation in awake, spontaneously breathing cardiac surgery patients. (United States)

    Schön, J; Heringlake, M; Berger, K-U; Volker Groesdonk, H; Sedemund-Adib, B; Paarmann, H


    In search of a non-invasive method for estimation of the oxygen balance this prospective study evaluates the relationship between regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) and mixed venous oxygen saturation in awake, spontaneously breathing patients after cardiac surgery. After approval by the local ethical committee and written informed consent, 26 consecutive patients after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. On intensive care unit (ICU), several hours after extubation, patients were connected to the INVOS 5100 cerebral monitor. Blood samples for determination of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) were drawn successively and rScO2 was documented. Patients were studied twice, breathing room air for the first measurement cycle, and breathing 4L/min supplemental oxygen by face mask, achieving a transcutaneous oxygen saturation above 98%, for a second measurement. Hemodynamic variables, hemoglobin and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) remained stable between the two measurement cycles. Without oxygen, SvO2 and rScO2 showed a bias of -2.0%, limits of agreement (LOA) of -15.0 to 10.9% and a percentage error (PE) of 20.3%. SvO2 and ScvO2 showed a bias of -3.9%, LOA of -13.9 to 6.2% and PE 15.7%. With oxygen, the bias between SvO2 and rScO2 was -2.5%, LOA -14.2 to 9.2%, PE 17.2%. Between SvO2 and ScvO2 the bias was -4.1%, LOA -10.2 to 2.1%, PE 9.0%. The rScO2 measured by near infrared spectroscopy was sufficiently representing mixed venous oxygen saturation in awake, hemodynamically stable, spontaneously breathing patients after cardiac surgery. The agreement was comparable to the agreement between SvO2 and ScvO2 with smaller differences in the lower ranges of SvO2.

  17. Continuous distending pressure effects on variables contributing to oxygenation in healthy and ARDS model pigs during HFOV (United States)

    Laviola, Marianna; Hajny, Ondrej; Roubik, Karel


    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an alternative mode of mechanical ventilation. HFOV has been shown to provide adequate ventilation and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and may represent an effective lung-protective ventilation in patients where conventional ventilation is failing. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of continuous distending pressure (CDP) on variables that contribute to the oxygenation in healthy and ARDS lung model pigs. Methods. In order to simulate a lung disease, lung injury was induced by lavage with normal saline with detergent in three pigs. HFOV ventilation was applied before and after the lung lavage. CDP was stepwise increased by 2 cmH2O, until the maximum CDP (before the lung lavage 32 cmH2O and after the lung lavage 42 cmH2O) and then it was stepwise decreased by 2 cmH2O to the initial value. In this paper we analyzed the following parameters acquired during our experiments: partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), cardiac output (CO) and mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (SvO2). In order to find how both PaO2 and CO affected SvO2 during the increase of CDP before and after lavage, a nonlinear regression fitting of the response in SvO2 on the predictors (PaO2 and CO) was implemented. Results. Before the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 remained constant, CO strongly decreased and SvO2 slightly decreased. After the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 strongly increased, CO decreased and SvO2 increased. So, development of SvO2 followed the PaO2 and CO trends. Changes in PaO2 and CO occur at decisive CDP step and it was much higher after the lung lavage compared to the healthy lungs. The implemented nonlinear model gives a good goodness of fitting in all three pigs. The values of PaO2 and CO estimated coefficients changed at the same decisive step of CDP identified by the trends. Also the algorithm identified a CDP step much higher after the lung lavage

  18. Mixed venous versus central venous oxygen saturation in patients undergoing on pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaer Ahmad


    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the validity of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO 2 as a numerical substitution of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 in adult patients undergoing normothermic on pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Materials and Methods: Prospective clinical observational study was done at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty four adult patients scheduled for coronary artery surgery were included. Patients were monitored by a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC as a part of our routine intraoperative monitoring. SvO 2 and ScvO 2 were simultaneously measured 15 minutes (T1 and 30 minutes (T2 after induction of anesthesia, 15 and 30 minutes after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (T3 and T4, and 15 and 30 minutes after admission to intensive care unit (T5 and T6. Results: ScvO 2 showed higher reading than SvO 2 all through our study. Our results showed perfect positive statistically significant correlation between SvO 2 and ScvO 2 at all data points. Individual mean of difference (MOD between both the readings at study time showed MOD of 1.34 and 1.44 at T1 and T2 simultaneously. This MOD was statistically insignificant, but after on pump beating normothermic bypass was initiated; MOD was 5.2 and 4.4 at T3 and T4 with high statistical significance. In ICU, MOD continues to have high statistical significance, MOD was 6.3 at T5 and at T6 it was 4.6. Conclusions: In on pump beating CABG patients; ScvO 2 and SvO 2 are not interchangeable numerically. ScvO 2 is useful in the meaning of trend; our data suggest that ScvO 2 is equivalent to SvO 2 , only in the course of clinical decisions as long as absolute values are not required.

  19. Processing, characterization, and bactericidal activity of undoped and silver-doped vanadium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousley, M.E.; Wren, A.W.; Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14803 (United States); Mellott, N.P., E-mail: [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14803 (United States)


    Vanadium oxide (V) and silver-doped vanadium oxide (Ag-V) powders were prepared via sol-gel processing. Structural evolution and bactericidal activity was examined as a function of temperature ranging from 250, 350, 450 and 550 Degree-Sign C. Powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Results from all techniques showed vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is the predominant phase regardless of heat treatment temperature or the addition of silver (Ag). XRD analysis suggests Ag is present as AgCl in samples heat treated to 250, 350, and 450 Degree-Sign C and as AgV{sub 6}O{sub 15} at 550 Degree-Sign C. Bactericidal activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli using the agar disk diffusion method considering both Ag-V and undoped, V powders. While the addition of Ag significantly increased bactericidal properties, the specific Ag valency, or crystal structure and morphology formed at higher temperatures, had little effect on functionality. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadium and silver-doped vanadium oxide powders were prepared via sol-gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powders were characterized using advanced, complementary structural techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bactericidal activity was evaluated against E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both vanadium and silver doped vanadium oxide show bactericidal activity.

  20. Receptor-Carrier Based Models for Antigen-Antibody Interactions (United States)


    antigen bearing cell and then looks for other antigens. The 4 Cell-Mediated Immune Response T-lymphocyte memory T-cell 00 antigeno cttxcTilhpeT-elsprso 0...f+s(Ksa)SVo, O (17) f=0 s=O n n-f AbO = a + Ksal + I I (s)dfs(Kfl)f+S(Ksa)sVoc f=0 s=O (18) n n-f LO = I + KsaA + I Z: (f+s)df,s(Kfl)f+S(Ksa)SVo, o f...conservation equation can be described in similar terms AbO = a + J(n)Vo,o + W(n) V 2 0 ,0 (33) J(n) and W(n) are defined as n/24 J(n) = I (ixi + (n-i)xn-i)S(i

  1. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Borlaug 411, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States); Lazarus, William [Department of Applied Economics, 231 Classroom Office Building, 1994 Buford Avenue, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States)


    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L{sup -1} of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L{sup -1} and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L{sup -1} depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L{sup -1} and from 0.14 to 0.33 L{sup -1}, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L{sup -1} for soybean and 0.44 L{sup -1} for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Extending Tactical Fleet Communications Through VoIP (United States)


    Router Network SPIT Spam-over-Internet- Telephony SRTP Secure Real-time Transport Protocol SVoIP Secure Voice Over IP TCP Transmission Control...that encodes and decodes (digital to analog or analog to digital) a signal for efficient transmission . In VoIP terminology the term codec describes the...designed for this purpose [47]. It takes an analog audio signal on a voice interface port and converts it to RTP audio packets for digital transmission

  3. Wheat-straw as roughage component in finishing diets of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    non-degradeable protein, 337o neutral detergent ftbre, lSVo acid detergent fibne, 0,87o caJcium and 0,37o phosphorus) so that lucerne hay (LFI) was substituted by inoeasing levels of wheat-suaw (WS), lupins and fish-meal. The LH content of the diets decreased from 42 to }Vo, while the WS, lupin and fish-meal contents ...

  4. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages. (United States)

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward


    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Continous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation in children and infants. (United States)

    Vidmar, Ivan


    Maintenance of adequate tissue oxygenation is an important task in intensive care units. There are many variables which are measured for this purpose. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) monitoring has some advantages over the mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) monitoring in children and infants as there is no need to insert a pulmonary catheter. The clinical usefulness seems promising.

  6. Germanic Verb Particle Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten


    This paper has two closely related goals. The more "global" one is to present an overview of the variation conceming verb particles across the Germanic languages (see e.g. den Dikken 1995; Haiden 2005; Mclntyre 2007 and many others), and the more "local" one is to use some of this variation data ...... to argue for Yiddish being an SOV-language like German and Dutch rather than an SVO-language like English and the Scandinavian languages....

  7. VOS sentences in European Portuguese: p-movement and intonational structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Romani Fernandes Svartman


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the syntactic and intonational structures associated with VOS sentences (sentences in verb-object-subject order in European Portuguese (henceforth EP, with the hypothesis that prosody (reflected in intonational structure can encode the syntactic structure associated with EP neutral sentences (sentences SVO – in subject-verb-object order and the syntactic structure associated with EP VOS sentences in different ways. This hypothesis is based on the experimental results presented in Frota (1994, which reveal that the intonational contour associated with special syntactic structures of EP is affected locally (or even whole in relation to the neutral contour. For the investigation of that hypothesis, the intonational and syntactic structures associated with EP SVO neutral sentences and with EP VOS sentences are comparatively analyzed. For the syntactic analysis of the latter type of sentences, syntactic and prosodic arguments are brought in favor of the derivation proposed by Fernandes (2007, by p-movement (Zubizarreta, 1998 of the object. Regarding the analysis of the intonational structure of EP VOS sentences, based on the results of Fernandes (2007, the initial hypothesis of this study is confirmed, since that the intonational structure associated with EP VOS sentences is different from the intonational structure associated with SVO neutral sentences of the same variety of Portuguese. Unlike the intonational structure of SVO neutral sentences, in the intonational structure of EP VOS sentences there are more pitch accents and also a specific pitch accent (L*+H associated with the object moved from the right edge of the sentence, according to the syntactic derivation proposed in this paper.

  8. Vitrectomy for primary symptomatic vitreous opacities: an evidence-based review (United States)

    Ivanova, T; Jalil, A; Antoniou, Y; Bishop, P N; Vallejo-Garcia, J L; Patton, N


    Floaters are a common ocular condition which form as a consequence of aging changes in the vitreous. Although in most patients the symptoms are minimal, they can cause significant impairment in vision-related quality of life in a small population of patients. Recently there has been an increase in awareness of the visual disability caused by floaters, and the evidence-base for treatment of this condition using small-gauge vitrectomy has increased. In this review, we define the term ‘floaters' as symptomatic vitreous opacities (SVO). We suggest a classification dependent on the presence or absence of posterior vitreous detachment and discuss their pathogenesis and natural history. We review their impact on patients' quality of life related to visual function. We review the psychological factors that may have a role in some patients who appear to be affected by SVO to the extent that they pursue all options including surgery with all its attendant risks. We summarise the available evidence-base of treatment options available for SVO with special emphasis on the safety and efficacy of vitrectomy for this condition. PMID:26939559

  9. Quantitative analysis of hemoglobin oxygenation state of rat head by time-resolved photometry using picosecond laser pulse at 1064 nm (United States)

    Nomura, Yasutomo; Tamura, Mamoru


    By the use of the picosecond laser pulse of near-infrared light at 1064 nm, the temporal profile of the transmitted light through the anesthetized rat head has been investigated. The light intensity at a certain time after the input pulse was exponentially attenuated by hemoglobin in the blood, although the transmitted pulse broadened markedly due to scattering of the cerebral tissue. The optical pathlength which is required for the quantitation of the absolute absorbance change, was directly determined by the measurement of time of flight of light pulses, as the product of v and t where v is the velocity of light in water (0.23 mm/ps) and t, time in picosecond. The temporal profiles of transmitted light through the rat head were measured with changing the oxygen concentration in the inspired gas and cerebral venous oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SvO2) were obtained quantitatively in the various conditions. The SvO2 values obtained from the time of flight measurement agreed with those of gas analysis of blood withdrawn from the internal jugular vein. Thus, the picosecond laser pulse technique is essential to quantify SvO2.

  10. Central venous oxygen saturation monitoring: role in adult donor care? (United States)

    Powner, David J; Doshi, Pratik B


    Monitoring oxygen saturation of blood drawn from a catheter placed within the superior vena cava (Scvo2) has recently been promoted as a substitute for evaluating oxygen saturation of mixed venous blood drawn from the pulmonary artery (Svo2). The Svo2 reflects the balance between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption throughout the body and, among critically ill patients, may be helpful for assessing resuscitation, cardiac function, or oxygen homeostasis end points. Use of Scvo2 instead has been promoted because of its easier access and recent use during resuscitation of patients with severe infections. Although data from healthy subjects and critically ill patients are available, no study has been done among organ donors to evaluate customary values for either Scvo2 or Svo2 or how well the values correspond. After loss of oxygen consumption in the brain following brain death, the customary values for these variables may be different from values in other groups of patients. Therefore, until donor-specific normative values for these important parameters are identified, we do not recommend that Scvo2 be used to evaluate the balance between donor oxygen consumption and delivery or as a variable to guide treatment.

  11. An Investigation of Viscosities, Calorific Values and Densities of Binary Biofuel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Mat Sharzali


    Full Text Available Straight vegetable oil (SVO biofuel is a promising alternative to petroleum diesel fuel primarily due to its comparable physical properties to that of petroleum diesel fuel. However, the relatively higher viscosity of SVO limits its direct application in diesel engine. To resolve this issue, binary biofuel blends was introduced in this study to reduce the viscosity of SVO. In this work, a novel biofuel namely Melaleuca Cajuputi oil (MCO was used and blended with refined palm oil (RPO. A total of four blends with the mixing ratios of 20%, 40%, 50% and 60% of MCO were prepared. Various key properties of dynamic viscosity, calorific value and density of the blends were measured and benchmarked against the biodiesel standards based on ASTM D6751. It was found that viscosity and density of the blends decreased with the increase of MCO fraction. Meanwhile, the calorific value of the blends increased linearly as the MCO fraction increased. The blend of 40RPO60MCO was found to have comparable key properties of viscosity, calorific value and density to those of petroleum diesel fuel and ASTM D6751 standard.

  12. Monitoring of optimal oxygen Transport by the transcutaneous oxygen tension method in the pig. (United States)

    Haldén, E


    The validity of the transcutaneous oxygen tension (PaO2) method as opposed to measurement of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO2), for monitoring optimal oxygen transport, was studied in six mechanically ventilated pigs with an oleic acid lung injury. With stepwise increments in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) from zero to 20 cmH2O maximum oxygen flux was found at a PEEP of 8 cmH2O and named "optimal PEEP". With increasing PEEP, cardiac output (CO) was maintained up to a PEEP of 8 cmH2O, when it began to decline, while venous admixture decreased at all respiratory settings up to a PEEP of 16, when it was about one-fourth of the value (38.7%) at a PEEP of zero. PaO2 increased with rising PEEP and reached a steady level at a PEEP of 16 cmH2O. PtCO2 and SVO2 parallelled each other and rose steeply up to a PEEP of 8 cmH2O. They showed a further slight increase up to a PEEP of 12 and after that a tendency to decrease. It is concluded that PtCO2 and SVO2 both seem to distinguish the optimal PEEP and give more adequate information than does PaO2. The PtCO2 method has the advantage of being non-invasive.

  13. Mixed venous oxygenation, exercise, body posture, and v/q ratio in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Minh, V D; Chun, D; Dolan, G F; Lee, H M; Vasquez, P


    Mixed venous oxygenation (partial pressure, PVO2; saturation, SVO2) and its impact on pulmonary function at rest in the supine position (SUP), at rest in the standing position (STAND), and during maximal treadmill exercise (Emax), were studied in 41 stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, using arterial and right heart (Swan-Ganz) catheterization. The patients represented a broad spectrum of disease severity (VC, 3.1 +/- 0.9 L; FEF 25-75, 1.0 +/- 0.7 L). It was found that: (a) venous oxygenation was uniform among different patients in the supine position at rest (PVO2, 33.8 +/- 2.4 mmHg' SVO2, 76.2 +/- 3.6%), regardless of the heterogeneity in airway obstruction, as previously reported by others; (b) venous oxygenation was also uniform in STAND (PVO2, 29.5 +/- 2.5 mmHg; SVO2, 58 +/- 3.9%) and treadmill Emax (PVO2, 22.4 +/- 3.3 mmHg; SVO2, 34.4 +/- 6%), an observation not previously reported; (c) the orthostatic mixed venous desaturation at rest was pronounced, and was nearly as great as that from STAND to Emax; (d) the potential effect of mixed venous desaturation on alveolar O2 partial pressure (PAO2) and end-capillary O2 saturation (SCO2) was not obvious from SUP to STAND, and from STAND to Emax conditions, being masked by an appropriate increase in overall V/Q ratio; (e) because of constant SCO2 and low interindividual variations of SVO2, there was a high correlation of arterial saturation (SaO2) to venous admixture (Qva/Qt, sum of true shunt and shuntlike components) for each of the conditions studied. Hence, because of high correlation of the equations relating SaO2 to Qva/Qt (r greater than 0.9), these relationships might be used for noninvasive prediction of Qva/Qt from SaO2 in patients with COPD.

  14. Social value orientation modulates the FRN and P300 in the chicken game. (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Kuhlman, D Michael; Roberts, Kathryn; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Simons, Robert F


    Social dilemmas pervade daily life, business, and politics. The manners in which these dilemmas are resolved depend in part on the personal characteristics of those involved. One such characteristic is Social Value Orientation (SVO), a trait-like predisposition to maximize cooperative (Pro-Social) or non-cooperative (Pro-Self) outcomes in social relationships. The present study investigated the role of SVO in modulating neural responses to outcomes in a type of social dilemma known as the Chicken Game. The Chicken Game models real-world situations involving two parties independently making a decision between cooperation and aggression. The EEG of Pro-Socials and Pro-Selfs was recorded while playing Chicken with a computer Opponent. Two ERP components were extracted: Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and the P300. Despite no behavioral differences in decision (i.e., cooperation, aggression), FRN results indicate that Pro-Socials experienced unreciprocated cooperation as the least desired outcome. Further, P300 results show a main effect for the Opponent's choice, such that the Opponent's cooperation was more salient than aggression. Additionally, an interaction between the Participant's and Opponent's choice showed that the effect for the Opponent's choice only occurred when the Participant chose cooperation. None of the results for P300 were moderated by SVO. For both ERP components, Pro-Selfs showed no differential responding to Chicken outcomes. In addition, FRN magnitude on trial n predicted choice on trial n+1 for Pro-Socials, but not for Pro-Selfs. P300 magnitude on trial n showed no relationship to choice on trial n+1. Results indicate that individual differences in SVO modulate FRN responses to Chicken outcomes, and that these neural reactions may have utility in predicting subsequent behaviors. For P300, there is no evidence of SVO modulation. Our general pattern of FRN responsiveness in Pro-Socials, but not in Pro-Selfs, is related to similar findings in f

  15. Proof of concept non-invasive estimation of peripheral venous oxygen saturation. (United States)

    Khan, Musabbir; Pretty, Chris G; Amies, Alexander C; Balmer, Joel; Banna, Houda E; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Geoffrey Chase, J


    Pulse oximeters continuously monitor arterial oxygen saturation. Continuous monitoring of venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) would enable real-time assessment of tissue oxygen extraction (O2E) and perfusion changes leading to improved diagnosis of clinical conditions, such as sepsis. This study presents the proof of concept of a novel pulse oximeter method that utilises the compliance difference between arteries and veins to induce artificial respiration-like modulations to the peripheral vasculature. These modulations make the venous blood pulsatile, which are then detected by a pulse oximeter sensor. The resulting photoplethysmograph (PPG) signals from the pulse oximeter are processed and analysed to develop a calibration model to estimate regional venous oxygen saturation (SpvO2), in parallel to arterial oxygen saturation estimation (SpaO2). A clinical study with healthy adult volunteers (n = 8) was conducted to assess peripheral SvO2 using this pulse oximeter method. A range of physiologically realistic SvO2 values were induced using arm lift and vascular occlusion tests. Gold standard, arterial and venous blood gas measurements were used as reference measurements. Modulation ratios related to arterial and venous systems were determined using a frequency domain analysis of the PPG signals. A strong, linear correlation (r 2  = 0.95) was found between estimated venous modulation ratio (RVen) and measured SvO2, providing a calibration curve relating measured RVen to venous oxygen saturation. There is a significant difference in gradient between the SpvO2 estimation model (SpvO2 = 111 - 40.6*R) and the empirical SpaO2 estimation model (SpaO2 = 110 - 25*R), which yields the expected arterial-venous differences. Median venous and arterial oxygen saturation accuracies of paired measurements between pulse oximeter estimated and gold standard measurements were 0.29 and 0.65%, respectively, showing good accuracy of the pulse oximeter system. The main outcome of

  16. The oxytocin receptor (OXTR contributes to prosocial fund allocations in the dictator game and the social value orientations task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Israel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic games observe social decision making in the laboratory that involves real money payoffs. Previously we have shown that allocation of funds in the Dictator Game (DG, a paradigm that illustrates costly altruistic behavior, is partially determined by promoter-region repeat region variants in the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor gene (AVPR1a. In the current investigation, the gene encoding the related oxytocin receptor (OXTR was tested for association with the DG and a related paradigm, the Social Values Orientation (SVO task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Association (101 male and 102 female students using a robust-family based test between 15 single tagging SNPs (htSNPs across the OXTR was demonstrated with both the DG and SVO. Three htSNPs across the gene region showed significant association with both of the two games. The most significant association was observed with rs1042778 (p = 0.001. Haplotype analysis also showed significant associations for both DG and SVO. Following permutation test adjustment, significance was observed for 2-5 locus haplotypes (p<0.05. A second sample of 98 female subjects was subsequently and independently recruited to play the dictator game and was genotyped for the three significant SNPs found in the first sample. The rs1042778 SNP was shown to be significant for the second sample as well (p = 0.004, Fisher's exact test. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration that genetic polymorphisms for the OXTR are associated with human prosocial decision making converges with a large body of animal research showing that oxytocin is an important social hormone across vertebrates including Homo sapiens. Individual differences in prosocial behavior have been shown by twin studies to have a substantial genetic basis and the current investigation demonstrates that common variants in the oxytocin receptor gene, an important element of mammalian social circuitry, underlie such individual differences.

  17. Structural and transport evolution in the Li{sub x}Ag{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 11} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvage, F.; Poeppelmeier, K.R. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Research Center, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Bodenez, V.; Morcrette, M.; Tarascon, J.-M. [LRCS, UMR CNRS 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue St.-Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex (France); Vezin, H. [LCOM, CNRS UMR 8009, Bat. C4, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)


    We investigated the effect of inserting lithium into Ag{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 11} ({epsilon}-SVO) on the structure, electronic properties and redox committed by combining in situ XRD measurements, ESR spectroscopy and 4 probes DC conductivity coupled with thermopower measurements. The electrochemical discharge occurs in three consecutive steps above 2 V (vs. Li{sup +}/Li). The first one, between 0 < x < {proportional_to}0.7 in Li{sub x}-SVO, has been ascribed to the V{sup 5+} reduction through a solid solution mechanism. This reduction competes with a Li{sup +}/Ag{sup +} displacement reaction which leads to a structural collapse owing to the ionic radii mismatch between the withdrawn Ag{sup +} and the inserted Li{sup +}. The silver reduction progresses continuously with two different slopes along two composition-potential plateaus at 2.81 V and 2.55 V. Finally, the reduction continues until we obtain an amorphous structure with V{sup 4+} and a {epsilon} of V{sup 3+}. Although, the silver re-enters the structure during the subsequent recharge, the original structure is not recovered. The reduction of silver forming silver metal nano-clusters acts to increase the electronic conductivity from 3.8 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} to 1.4 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. In complement to this study, we also report on a low temperature hydro-(solvo)-thermal approach using HF{sub (aq)} as a mineralizer, which enables the synthesis of nano-sized {epsilon}-SVO particles that exhibit superior electrochemical performances compared to conventional particles synthesized by solid-state reaction. (author)

  18. Hemodynamic effect of hydralazine in advanced, stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with cor pulmonale. Immediate and short-term evaluation at rest and during exercise. (United States)

    Lupi-Herrera, E; Seoane, M; Verdejo, J


    Hydralazine was administered to eight patients (mean age, 69 +/- 2 years) who had stable, advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure, 31 +/- 3 mm Hg), and cor pulmonale. All of the patients were studied at rest and during exercise. After intravenous administration of hydralazine at rest, there were statistically significant increases in pulmonary arterial pressure (p less than 0.05), cardiac index (p less than 0.005), arterial oxygen saturation (p less than 0.01), and mixed venous saturation (SvO2) (p less than 0.005). Pulmonary vascular resistance did not change, and systemic resistance decreased (p less than 0.005). During exercise, pulmonary arterial pressure increased in all patients, and this increase was not blunted by hydralazine; however, cardiac index (p less than 0.005), arterial oxygen pressure (p less than 0.005), and SvO2 (p less than 0.001) increased further during exercise. The increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was significantly blunted by hydralazine (p less than 0.005). Therapy with the drug was continued orally in seven patients because one patient showed a deleterious response in pulmonary hemodynamics. After seven days of oral hydralazine, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were not statistically different from control. There were statistically significant increases in cardiac index (p less than 0.005) and SvO2 (p less than 0.05), systemic resistance decreased (p less than 0.01). The same condition was found during exercise; however, only two patients showed pulmonary gas exchange and pulmonary hemodynamic benefit at rest and during exercise with hydralazine therapy. Our results suggest that it is unlikely that vasodilator therapy with hydralazine will be useful in patients with advanced stable COPD and cor pulmonale who seem to have fixed pulmonary vascular disease.

  19. Modifications of tissular oxygenation and systemic hemodynamics after the correction of hypocapnia induced by mechanical ventilation. (United States)

    Boix, J H; Marin, J; Enrique, E; Monferrer, J; Bataller, A; Servera, E


    The modifications of systemic hemodynamics, oxygen transport and tissular oxygenation in mechanically-ventilated critical ARF (acute respiratory failure) patients, after the correction of its hypocapnia by addition of dead space (VD) are determined. The prospective and randomized study was carried out in a multidisciplinary ICU. Fifteen ARF patients were studied within the first 48 hours of evolution. All the patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Three stages were delimited: I) 30 min after the beginning of anesthesia; II) 30 min after adding 30 cm of VD; III) 30 min after replacing the previous VD with a VD of 60 cm. Similar steady states had been reached when the measurements were taken. Ventilation parameters and FiO2 were kept stable. In stage I the patients presented a pure respiratory alkalosis and, with respect to hemodynamics, a hyperdynamic situation. In stage II the acid-base balance was normalized with a continuation of the hyperdynamic situation and an increase in mixed venous oxygen tension and saturation (PvO2 and SvO2) (p < 0.001). Stage III was characterized by a pure hypercapnic acidosis and an increase in capillary wedge pressure (CWP) (p < 0.05), right atrial pressure (RAP) (p < 0.001) and cardiac output (Qt) (p < 0.001); simultaneously, the systemic vascular resistances (SVR) decreased (p < 0.01), the PvO2, SvO2 and oxygen delivery (DO2) increased (p < 0.001); oxygen utilization coefficient (OUC) decreased (p < 0.01). The results suggest that the variations in PvO2 and SvO2 are a direct consequence of the modifications in blood flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Validation of a New NIRS Method for Measuring Muscle Oxygenation During Rhythmic Handgrip Exercise (United States)

    Hagan, R. Donald; Soller, Babs R.; Soyemi, Olusola; Landry, Michelle; Shear, Michael; Wu, Jacqueline


    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is commonly used to measure muscle oxygenation during exercise and recovery. Current NIRS algorithms do not account for variation in water content and optical pathlength during exercise. The current effort attempts to validate a newly developed NIRS algorithm during rhythmic handgrip exercise and recovery. Six female subjects, aver age 28 +/- 6 yrs, participated in the study. A venous catheter was placed in the retrograde direction in the antecubital space. A NIRS sensor with 30 mm source-detector separation was placed on the flexor digitorum profundus. Subjects performed two 5-min bouts of rhythmic handgrip exercise (2 s contraction/1 s relaxation) at 15% and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Venous blood was sampled before each bout, during the last minute of exercise, and after 5 minutes of recovery. Venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) was measured with a I-stat CG-4+ cartridge. Spectra were collected between 700-900 nm. A modified Beer's Law formula was used to calculate the absolute concentration of oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and water, as well as effective pathlength for each spectrum. Muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) was calculated from the HbO2 and Hb results. The correlation between SvO2 and SmO2 was determined. Optical pathlength and water varied significantly during each exercise bout, with pathlength increasing approximately 20% and water increasing about 2%. R2 between blood and muscle SO2 was found to be 0.74, the figure shows the relationship over SvO2 values between 22% and 82%. The NIRS measurement was, on average, 6% lower than the blood measurement. It was concluded that pathlength changes during exercise because muscle contraction causes variation in optical scattering. Water concentration also changes, but only slightly. A new NIRS algorithm which accounts for exercise-induced variation in water and pathlength provided an accurate assessment of muscle oxygen saturation before, during and after

  1. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  2. Olga Guðrún Árnadóttir: Á rauðum sokkum: Baráttukonur segja frá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyða Margrét Pétursdóttir


    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Bókin er skyldueign... þeirra sem enn eiga eftir að öðlast vitund og nýtt líf sem svo margar rauðsokkur öðluðust með þrotlausri vinnu, áræðni, kjarki, húmor og einstökum baráttuvilja.

  3. New and Interesting Cyanophytes from the Kowie river system in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa) II.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, CGM


    Full Text Available of the Natural History Museum, Vienna). 1964. VIII, 736 pages. Clothbound. DM150.? (3 37.50) Thh is the first and only enisring flora of the area concerned. It i~ intended for the student as well as for any per son inserested in the botany of Iraq and adjacent...: E. Y. DAWSON, C. Aci.svo and N. FoLnvIK, The Seaweeds of Peru. 1964. VU!, 112 pages, 81 plates. DM 60.? (3 15.?) Heft 14: S. L. vnz Lnwmon~r, Miocene Non-Marhie Diatoms from the Yaldms Region, South Central Washington. 1964. IV, 80 pages, 56...

  4. Bernsteinov algoritam za vertikalnu 3NF normalizaciju sintezom


    Varga, Matija


    Ovim radom se prikazuje korištenje Bernsteinovog algoritma za vertikalnu 3NF normalizaciju sintezom. Cilj ovog rada je ponuditi algoritam za normalizaciju baze podataka te prikazati skup koraka koji vode na svođenje redundantnosti na najmanju moguću mjeru u cilju povećanja učinkovitosti rada s bazom podataka te navesti testove i algoritme za ispitivanje i dokazivanje reverzibilnosti (tj. dokazivanje da tijekom normalizacije nije došlo do gubitka informacije). U radu su prikazani primjeri kroz...

  5. Order of the major constituents in sign languages: implications for all language (United States)

    Napoli, Donna Jo; Sutton-Spence, Rachel


    A survey of reports of sign order from 42 sign languages leads to a handful of generalizations. Two accounts emerge, one amodal and the other modal. We argue that universal pressures are at work with respect to some generalizations, but that pressure from the visual modality is at work with respect to others. Together, these pressures conspire to make all sign languages order their major constituents SOV or SVO. This study leads us to the conclusion that the order of S with regard to verb phrase (VP) may be driven by sensorimotor system concerns that feed universal grammar. PMID:24860523

  6. Evolução de variáveis hemodinâmicas e perfusionais durante o choque séptico experimental tratado com ressuscitação volêmica guiada por metas Hemodynamic and perfusion variables during experimental septic shock treated with goal-directed fluid resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Park


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apesar da ressuscitação volêmica guiada por saturação venosa central de oxigênio (SvcO2 ser considerada atualmente padrão ouro no tratamento da sepse, poucos estudos caracterizaram o perfil evolutivo de variáveis hemodinâmicas e perfusionais durante esta abordagem terapêutica. Este estudo teve por objetivo descrever evolutivamente estes parâmetros durante o choque séptico experimental sem ressuscitação e após 12 horas de ressuscitação guiada por metas. MÉTODOS: Treze porcos (35-45 kg anestesiados foram submetidos a peritonite por inoculação fecal (0,75g/kg. Após desenvolverem hipotensão persistente, ambos os grupos receberam antibióticos e foram randomizados em dois grupos: controle (n=7, com suporte hemodinâmico otimizado para pressão venosa central entre 8-12mmHg, diurese acima de 0,5ml/kg/h e pressão arterial média maior que 65mmHg; e SvO2 (n=6, com os objetivos acima e SvO2 acima de 65%. As intervenções incluíram ringer lactato e noradrenalina nos 2 grupos e dobutamina no grupo SvO2. Os animais foram tratados durante doze horas ou óbito. RESULTADOS: A sepse não tratada associou-se a uma significante redução da SvO2, PvO2, débito cardíaco e pressão venosa central e aumento da diferença arterio-venosa da saturação de oxigênio e veno-arterial de CO2. Após ressuscitação, esses parâmetros foram corrigidos em ambos os grupos. A ressuscitação guiada por metas associou-se a um melhor perfil hemodinâmico caracterizado por maiores SvO2, débito cardíaco e pressão venosa central. CONCLUSÕES: A sepse não ressuscitada apresenta um perfil hemodinâmico sugestivo de hipovolemia, com piora perfusional e hemodinâmica revertida após ressuscitação volêmica. A ressuscitação guiada por metas associa-se a uma significante melhora dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e perfusionaisOBJECTIVES: Although fluid resuscitation guided by central venous oxygen saturation (SvcO2 is currently considered the

  7. Glazbeno daroviti učenici na primarnom stupnju školovanja


    Svalina, Vesna; Matijević, Milan


    Temi darovitosti u literaturi se prilazi na različite načine. Velik broj autora ističe važnost identificiranja darovitosti kod djece i potrebe da se takvoj djeci osigura obrazovanje koje će im omogućiti kvalitetno napredovanje te maksimalan razvoj njihovih sposobnosti. Kad je riječ o glazbenoj darovitosti možemo govoriti o mogućnosti razvoja dječjih glazbenih sposobnosti u općeobrazovnoj ili u glazbenoj školi. Učitelji primarnog obrazovanja prvi će uočiti izražene glazbene sposobnosti kod svo...

  8. Order of the major constituents in sign languages: implications for all language. (United States)

    Napoli, Donna Jo; Sutton-Spence, Rachel


    A survey of reports of sign order from 42 sign languages leads to a handful of generalizations. Two accounts emerge, one amodal and the other modal. We argue that universal pressures are at work with respect to some generalizations, but that pressure from the visual modality is at work with respect to others. Together, these pressures conspire to make all sign languages order their major constituents SOV or SVO. This study leads us to the conclusion that the order of S with regard to verb phrase (VP) may be driven by sensorimotor system concerns that feed universal grammar.

  9. Prilog poznavanju povijesti franjevačke ljekarne u Varaždinu


    Ratančić, Bernarda; Milošević, Vladanka


    Hrvatski restauratorski zavod provodi konzervatorsko-restauratorska istraživanja u prostoru zgrade nekadašnjeg nemoćišta franjevačkog samostana u Varaždinu, no obzirom na to da je prostor još uvijek u uporabi, istraživanja su otežana i provode se parcijalno. Cilj ovoga rada je prezentirati do sada postignute rezultate te izdvojiti problemska pitanja čija bi se rješenja trebala pronaći nastavkom istraživanja. Buduća su istraživanja važna radi prezentacije i valorizacije relativno nepoznate svo...

  10. Central venous oxygenation: when physiology explains apparent discrepancies. (United States)

    Squara, Pierre


    Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) >70% or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) >65% is recommended for both septic and non-septic patients. Although it is the task of experts to suggest clear and simple guidelines, there is a risk of reducing critical care to these simple recommendations. This article reviews the basic physiological and pathological features as well as the metrological issues that provide clear evidence that SvO2 and ScvO2 are adaptative variables with large inter-patient variability. This variability is exemplified in a modeled population of 1,000 standard ICU patients and in a real population of 100 patients including 15,860 measurements. In these populations, it can be seen how optimizing one to three of the four S(c)vO2 components homogenized the patients and yields a clear dependency with the fourth one. This explains the discordant results observed in large studies where cardiac output was increased up to predetermined S(c)vO2 thresholds following arterial oxygen hemoglobin saturation, total body oxygen consumption needs and hemoglobin optimization. Although a systematic S(c)vO2 goal-oriented protocol can be statistically profitable before ICU admission, appropriate intensive care mandates determination of the best compromise between S(c)vO2 and its four components, taking into account the specific constraints of each individual patient.

  11. VOSA: A VO SED Analyzer (United States)

    Rodrigo, C.; Bayo, A.; Solano, E.


    VOSA (VO Sed Analyzer, is a public web-tool developed by the Spanish Virtual Observatory ( and designed to help users to (1) build Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) combining private photometric measurements with data available in VO services, (2) obtain relevant properties of these objects (distance, extinction, etc) from VO catalogs, (3) analyze them comparing observed photometry with synthetic photometry from different collections of theoretical models or observational templates, using different techniques (chi-square minimization, Bayesian analysis) to estimate physical parameters of the observed objects (teff, logg, metallicity, stellar radius/distance ratio, infrared excess, etc), and use these results to (4) estimate masses and ages via interpolation of collections of isochrones and evolutionary tracks from the VO. In particular, VOSA offers the advantage of deriving physical parameters using all the available photometric information instead of a restricted subset of colors. The results can be downloaded in different formats or sent to other VO tools using SAMP. We have upgraded VOSA to provide access to Gaia photometry and give a homogeneous estimation of the physical parameters of thousands of objects at a time. This upgrade has required the implementation of a new computation paradigm, including a distributed environment, the capability of submitting and processing jobs in an asynchronous way, the use of parallelized computing to speed up processes (˜ ten times faster) and a new design of the web interface.

  12. Building surgical capacity in low-resource countries: a qualitative analysis of task shifting from surgeon volunteers' perspectives. (United States)

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Corlew, Scott D; Heisler, Michele E; Pannucci, Christopher J; Chung, Kevin C


    Surgical volunteer organizations (SVOs) focus considerable resources on addressing the backlog of cases in low-resource countries. This model of service may perpetuate dependency. Efforts should focus on models that establish independence in providing surgical care. Independence could be achieved through surgical capacity building. However, there has been scant discussion in literature on SVO involvement in surgical capacity building. Using qualitative methods, we evaluated the perspectives of surgeons with extensive volunteer experience in low-resource countries. We collected data through in-depth interviews that centered on SVOs using task shifting as a tool for surgical capacity building. Some of the key themes from our analysis include the ethical ramifications of task shifting, the challenges of addressing technical and clinical education in capacity building for low-resource settings, and the allocation of limited volunteer resources toward surgical capacity building. These themes will be the foundation of subsequent studies that will focus on other stakeholders in surgical capacity building including host communities and SVO administrators.

  13. Social value orientation: theoretical and measurement issues in the study of social preferences. (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan O; Ackermann, Kurt A


    What motivates people when they make decisions and how those motivations are potentially entangled with concerns for others are central topics for the social, cognitive, and behavioral sciences. According to the postulate of narrow self-interest, decision makers have the goal of maximizing personal payoffs and are wholly indifferent to the consequences for others. The postulate of narrow self-interest-which has been influential in economics, psychology, and sociology-is precise and powerful but is often simply wrong. Its inadequacy is well known and efforts have been made to develop reliable and valid measurement methods to quantify the more nuanced social preferences that people really have. In this paper, we report on the emergence and development of the predominant conceptualization of social preferences in psychology: social value orientation (SVO). Second, we discuss the relationship between measurement and theory development of the SVO construct. We then provide an overview of the literature regarding measurement methods that have been used to assess individual variations in social preferences. We conclude with a comparative evaluation of the various measures and provide suggestions regarding the measures' constructive use in building psychologically realistic theories of people's social preferences.

  14. Head-up tilt rapidly compromises hemodynamics in healthy anesthetized swine. (United States)

    Mlcek, M; Belohlavek, J; Huptych, M; Boucek, T; Belza, T; Lacko, S; Krupickova, P; Hrachovina, M; Popkova, M; Neuzil, P; Kittnar, O


    The aims were to explore the effect of head-up tilt (HUT) to 30 and 60 degrees on hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in anesthetized healthy swine. The data serve as a reference for a study of resuscitation efficacy at HUT such as during transport. Nine healthy swine (49+/-4 kg) were anesthetized and multiple sensors including myocardial pressure-volume loops catheter, carotid flow probe, blood pressure catheters, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) tissue oximetry and mixed venous oximetry (SVO2) catheter were introduced and parameters continuously recorded. Experimental protocol consisted of baseline in supine position (15 min), 30 degrees HUT (15 min), recovery at supine position (15 min) and 60 degrees HUT (5 min). Vacuum mattress was used for body fixation during tilts. We found that 30 and 60 degrees inclination led to significant immediate reduction in hemodynamic and oximetry parameters. Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) decreased from 98 at baseline to 53 and 39, respectively. Carotid blood flow dropped to 47 % and 22 % of baseline values, end diastolic volume to 49 % and 53 % and stroke volume to 47 % and 45 % of baseline. SVO2 and tissue oximetry decreased by 17 and 21 percentage points. The values are means. In conclusions, within minutes, both 30 and 60 degrees head-up tilting is poorly tolerated in anesthetized swine. Significant differences among individual animals exist.

  15. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa


    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  16. El sesgo negativista y su repercusión en la conducta social: la influencia de las emociones en el comportamiento cooperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Amaya-Durán


    Full Text Available El presente estudio pretende aportar información sobre la pertinencia de instrumentos para estudiar la influencia de las conductas emocionales en el comportamiento cooperativo; asimismo se logró analizar la asociación entre la Escala de Orientación de Valores Sociales (slider measure of social values [SVO] (Murphy, Ackermann & Handgraaf, 2011 y el desempeño en el juego del dilema del prisionero, y estudiar la capacidad de dos estímulos audiovisuales para inducir una conducta emocional valorada como negativa o positiva. El método utilizado se basó primero en determinar el grado de dependencia entre las medidas SVO y dilema del prisionero, que se definió mediante el estadístico x2 de Pearson, y segundo, en evaluar la capacidad de los estímulos audiovisuales para inducir una conducta emocional. Se utilizó un diseño pre-post, el Self-assessment Manikin (Bradley & Lang, 1994 y un reporte verbal escrito de estado de ánimo. Se contó con la participación voluntaria de 48 estudiantes universitarios de diferentes facultades. Los resultados no fueron significativamente concluyentes respecto a la asociación entre las medidas de conducta cooperativa y la orientación a valores sociales, aunque los videos utilizados como inductores de conducta emocional lograron evocar efectivamente los resultados esperados.

  17. Moderating Effects of Social Value Orientation on the Effect of Social Influence in Prosocial Decisions. (United States)

    Wei, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhiying; Zheng, Yong


    Prosocial behaviors are susceptible to individuals' preferences regarding payoffs and social context. In the present study, we combined individual differences with social influence and attempted to discover the effect of social value orientation (SVO) and social influence on prosocial behavior in a trust game and a dictator game. Prosocial behavior in the trust game could be motivated by strategic considerations whereas individuals' decisions in the dictator game could be associated with their social preference. In the trust game, prosocials were less likely than proselfs to conform to the behavior of other group members when the majority of group members distrusted the trustee. In the dictator game, the results of the three-way ANOVA indicated that, irrespective of the type of offer, in contrast to proselfs, prosocials were influenced more by others' generous choices than their selfish choices, even if the selfish choices were beneficial to themselves. The overall results demonstrated that the effect of social influence appears to depend on individuals' SVO: that is, prosocials tend to conform to prosocial rather than proself behaviors.

  18. LSD Acutely Impairs Fear Recognition and Enhances Emotional Empathy and Sociality. (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and has been evaluated as an adjunct to psychotherapy to treat anxiety in patients with life-threatening illness. LSD is well-known to induce perceptual alterations, but unknown is whether LSD alters emotional processing in ways that can support psychotherapy. We investigated the acute effects of LSD on emotional processing using the Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). The effects of LSD on social behavior were tested using the Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. Two similar placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, crossover studies were conducted using 100 μg LSD in 24 subjects and 200 μg LSD in 16 subjects. All of the subjects were healthy and mostly hallucinogen-naive 25- to 65-year-old volunteers (20 men, 20 women). LSD produced feelings of happiness, trust, closeness to others, enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy on the MET, and impaired the recognition of sad and fearful faces on the FERT. LSD enhanced the participants' desire to be with other people and increased their prosocial behavior on the SVO test. These effects of LSD on emotion processing and sociality may be useful for LSD-assisted psychotherapy.

  19. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization. (United States)

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian


    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St Lawrence, Keith


    Preterm infants are highly susceptible to ischemic brain injury; consequently, continuous bedside monitoring to detect ischemia before irreversible damage occurs would improve patient outcome. In addition to monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF), assessing the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) would be beneficial considering that metabolic thresholds can be used to evaluate tissue viability. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that changes in absolute CMRO2 could be measured by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) with time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TR-NIRS). Absolute CBF was determined using bolus-tracking TR-NIRS to calibrate the DCS measurements. Cerebral venous blood oxygenation (SvO2) was determined by multiwavelength TR-NIRS measurements, the accuracy of which was assessed by directly measuring the oxygenation of sagittal sinus blood. In eight newborn piglets, CMRO2 was manipulated by varying the anesthetics and by injecting sodium cyanide. No significant differences were found between the two sets of SvO2 measurements obtained by TR-NIRS or sagittal sinus blood samples and the corresponding CMRO2 measurements. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean CMRO2 difference of 0.0268 ± 0.8340 mLO2/100 g/min between the two techniques over a range from 0.3 to 4 mL O2/100 g/min.

  1. La reflexión metalingüística de los alumnos de 4º de ESO, 2º de Bachillerato y 3º de Grado en Estudios Hispánicos que implica la alteración del orden oracional / The metalinguistic reflection of students in 4th grade Secondary School, 2nd of Bachillerato and 3rd year Degree in Hispanic Studies that involve the change of the sentence order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Badía Iborra


    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo presenta los datos de una investigación en la que se pretende estudiar cómo los alumnos de 4º de ESO, 2º de Bachillerato y 3º de Grado en Estudios Hispánicos realizan reflexiones metalingüísticas al verse obligados a explicar las diferencias de significado pragmático que implica la alteración del orden oracional (SVO en español. Todos estos datos son extraídos a través de una prueba escrita realizada a dos parejas de alumnos de cada curso, un cuestionario en el que deben responder a una serie de preguntas sobre diez pares de enunciados. Posteriormente, se les realiza una entrevista semiestructurada. Abstract: This article shows research results showing how students of 4th year Secondary, 2nd year Bachillerato and 3rd year Hispanic Studies students carry out metalinguistics reflections when they have to explain the pragmatic differences in meaning due to the sentence order (SVO change in Spanish. All these results are extracted through a written test performed by two pairs of students in each level, a questionaire where they have to answer different questions about ten pairs of statements. Later, a semi-structurated interview is performed to students.

  2. Hemodynamic effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment immediately after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (United States)

    O-Yurvati, Albert H; Carnes, Michael S; Clearfield, Michael B; Stoll, Scott T; McConathy, Walter J


    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a common procedure for patients with coronary artery disease. The physiologic effects of postoperative osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) following CABG have not been documented previously. To determine the effects of OMT on cardiac hemodynamics post-CABG surgery. Pilot prospective clinical study (N=29). Treatment subjects (n=10) undergoing CABG surgery were recruited for postoperative OMT. The primary assessment compared, pre-OMT versus post-OMT, measurements of thoracic impedance, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and cardiac index. Records of control subjects (n=19) who underwent CABG surgery--but who did not receive OMT--were assessed for SvO2 and cardiac index at 1 hour and 2 hours postsurgery. Immediately following CABG surgery (treatment occurred while subjects were completely anesthetized. A post-OMT increase in thoracic impedance (P cardiac index (P cardiac index (P cardiac function and perfusion indicated that OMT had a beneficial effect on the recovery of patients after CABG surgery. The authors conclude that OMT has immediate, beneficial hemodynamic effects after CABG surgery when administered while the patient is sedated and pharmacologically paralyzed.

  3. Correlação entre gasometria atrial direita e índice cardíaco no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca Correlation between right atrial venous blood gasometry and cardiac index in cardiac surgery postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jackson Duarte


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a confiabilidade em se correlacionar o índice cardíaco com os dados fornecidos pela gasometria do sangue venoso atrial direito em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca, durante o período pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: A partir das amostras de sangue arterial e venoso do átrio direito, colhidas no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca, foram determinados os parâmetros de oxigênio do sangue venoso do átrio direito. Estes parâmetros foram então comparados com o índice cardíaco determinado pela termodiluição. RESULTADOS: Houve boa correlação entre a saturação de oxigênio do sangue venoso do átrio direito (SvO2, diferença artério-venosa do conteúdo de oxigênio do sangue colhido no átrio direito e o índice cardíaco aferido pela termodiluição, com boa sensibilidade e especificidade e alto valor preditivo positivo e negativo. A pressão do sangue do átrio direito (PvO2 apresentou baixa sensibilidade na estimativa de baixo débito cardíaco. CONCLUSÃO: No pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca, a SvO2e a diferença artério-venosa do conteúdo de oxigênio (C(avO2 apresentaram-se como parâmetros confiáveis correlacionados a baixo débito cardíaco. A PvO2 foi pouco sensível no diagnóstico de baixo débito no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca.OBJECTIVE: To determine, even during postoperative period, the confiability of the cardiac index correlate with the data data given by a central atrial venous blood gasometry in patients who underwent cardiac surgery. METHODS: From the sample of arterial and venous blood of right atrium gathered in postoperative of cardiac surgery, it was determinated the hemoglobin concentration and the gasometric study through what was observed of the venous oxygen saturation (SvO2 and the partial pressure of oxygen from venous blood gathered in right atrium (PvO2, add to the calculation of artery-venous difference of the oxygen content - radial artery / right atrium (C

  4. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manya Jyotishi


    Full Text Available Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the “pragmatics-origins” argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a “grammatical-origins” argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., “What did the horse tickle?”, “What hugged the bird?”, “Where is the horse/bird?”. Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later

  5. Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela S.; Rossi, Fabrício E.; Cholewa, Jason M.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.


    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO2max) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO2max). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L−1, p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses. PMID:28469751

  6. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. (United States)

    Jyotishi, Manya; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia


    Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD) show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL) paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the "pragmatics-origins" argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a "grammatical-origins" argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order) and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., "What did the horse tickle?", "What hugged the bird?", "Where is the horse/bird?"). Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later performance on wh-question comprehension

  7. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Jyotishi, Manya; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia


    Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD) show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL) paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the “pragmatics-origins” argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a “grammatical-origins” argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order) and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., “What did the horse tickle?”, “What hugged the bird?”, “Where is the horse/bird?”). Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later performance on wh

  8. Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription. (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela S; Rossi, Fabrício E; Cholewa, Jason M; Campos, Eduardo Z; Panissa, Valéria L G; Lira, Fábio S


    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO 2max ) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO 2max ). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L -1 , p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p < 0.001). Both exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p < 0.005), but higher values were observed in the High-Intensity exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, over the same distance, Moderate-Intensity and High-Intensity exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO 2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses.

  9. An Anonymous Access Authentication Scheme Based on Proxy Ring Signature for CPS-WMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhan Gao


    Full Text Available Access security and privacy have become a bottleneck for the popularization of future Cyber-Physical System (CPS networks. Furthermore, users’ need for privacy-preserved access during movement procedure is more urgent. To address the anonymous access authentication issue for CPS Wireless Mesh Network (CPS-WMN, a novel anonymous access authentication scheme based on proxy ring signature is proposed. A hierarchical authentication architecture is presented first. The scheme is then achieved from the aspect of intergroup and intragroup anonymous mutual authentication through proxy ring signature mechanism and certificateless signature mechanism, respectively. We present a formal security proof of the proposed protocol with SVO logic. The simulation and performance analysis demonstrate that the proposed scheme owns higher efficiency and adaptability than the typical one.

  10. Venous saturation and blood flow behavior during laser-induced photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin (United States)

    Mamilov, S. A.; Yesman, S. S.; Asimov, M. M.; Gisbrecht, A. I.


    The value of relative oxyhemoglobin concentration (saturation) in arterial (SаO2) and venous blood (SvO2) plays a significant role in the oxygen exchange in tissue and is used as criterion of delivery of oxygen adequate to the needs of tissue cells. Reduction of the volume of blood flows as well as reduction of oxygen concentration in arterial blood causes hypoxia - deficit of oxygen in tissue. One of the main mechanisms of elimination of hypoxia is based on compensation of the oxygen deficit by increasing the oxygen extraction from arterial blood, which leads to reduction of oxygen in the venous blood 1. In this report two optical techniques for measurement of venous blood saturation are presented. The first one is based on the pulseoximetry with artificial mechanical modulation of the tissue volume and the second one on the spectrophotometry of human respiratory rhythm. Good correlation between the results obtained with both techniques is observed.

  11. Teaching astronomy and astrophysics at the Valencian International University (VIU): Application and use of Virtual Observatory tools (United States)

    Diago, P. D.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Solano, E.


    The Astronomy and Astrophysics Master, running at the Valencian International University (VIU, since march 2010, is a clear example of how development of infor- mation and communication technologies (ICTs) and new e-learning methods are changing the traditional distance learning. In the context of the European Space for Higher Edu- cation (ESHE) we present how the Virtual Observatory (VO) tools can be an important part in the Astronomy and Astrophysics teaching. The described tasks has been carried out during the last three courses. These tasks are representative of the state of the art in Astrophysics research. We attach a description and a learning results list of each one of the presented tasks. The tasks can be downloaded at the Spanish VO website:

  12. A proposal of electrical power supply to Brazilian Amazon remote communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Ana Rosa; Bezerra, Ubiratan Holanda; de Lima Tostes, Maria Emilia; Duarte, Andre Montenegro [Institute of Technology, Federal University of Para (UFPA), Av. Augusto Correa, n.01, Campus Universitario do Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); da Rocha Filho, Geraldo Narciso [Exact and Natural Sciences Institute, Federal University of Para (UFPA), Av. Augusto Correa, n.01, Campus Universitario do Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)


    This paper focuses on supplying electrical power for remote communities of the Brazilian Amazon using regional biomass, specifically palm oil biomass, as a primary energy source. The use of Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as fuel, is indicated for isolated communities, where the hydro plants or the installation of transmissions line are impracticable. The use of vegetable oils produced in the communities, is a solution when an adequate infrastructure to extracting the oil is available. Brazil is able to use an enormous diversity of vegetable oils, due to a great variety of plants, and the favorable climatic conditions. Technical, economic, environmental and social aspects are analyzed in order to provide a basis for electrical power supply viability in these communities. A case study is presented focused on a typical Brazilian Amazon community located in the State of Para in order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed viability strategy. (author)

  13. A set-valued approach to FDI an FTC of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casau, Pedro; Rosa, Paulo; Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba


    A complete methodology to design robust Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) filters and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) schemes for Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems is proposed, with particular focus on its applicability to wind turbines. The paper takes advantage of the recent advances in model...... falsification using Set-Valued Observers (SVOs) that led to the development of FDI methods for uncertain linear time-varying systems, with promising results in terms of the time required to diagnose faults. An integration of such SVO-based FDI methods with robust control synthesis is described, in order...... to deploy new FTC algorithms that are able to stabilize the plant under faulty environments. The FDI and FTC algorithms are assessed by resorting to a publicly available wind turbine benchmark model, using Monte-Carlo simulation runs....

  14. A set-valued approach to FDI and FTC: Theory and implementation issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Paulo Andre Nobre; Casau, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos


    A complete methodology to design robust Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) filters and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) schemes for Linear Time-Varying (LTV) systems is proposed. The paper takes advantage of the recent advances in model invalidation using Set-Valued Observers (SVOs) that led...... to the development of FDI methods for uncertain linear time-varying systems, with promising results in terms of the time required to diagnose faults. An integration of such SVO-based FDI methods with robust control synthesis is described, in order to deploy new FTC algorithms that are able to stabilize the plant...... under faulty environments. The FDI algorithm is assessed within a wind turbine benchmark model, using Monte-Carlo simulation runs....

  15. Muscle metabolism from near infrared spectroscopy during rhythmic handgrip in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Pott, F; Madsen, P


    The rate of metabolism in forearm flexor muscles (MO2) was derived from near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS-O2) during ischaemia at rest rhythmic handgrip at 15% and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI), and recovery in seven subjects. The MO2 was compared...... with forearm oxygen uptake (VO2) [flow x (oxygen saturation in arnterial blood-oxygen saturation in venous blood, SaO2 - SvO2)], and with the 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy-determined ratio of inorganic phosphate to phosphocreatine (P(I):PCr). During ischaemia at rest, the fall in NIRS-O2 was more....... To conclude, NIRS-O2 of forearm flexor muscles closely reflected the exercise intensity and the metabolic rate determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy but not that rate derived from flow and the arterio-venous oxygen difference....

  16. Levosimendan in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Fang, M; Cao, H; Wang, Z


    Cardiac shock is the leading cause of death in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate whether levosimendan, compared to any type of control, is associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and China National Knowledge Information databases were searched for pertinent studies published up until 1 May 2016. Randomized and non-randomized clinical trials comparing levosimendan to standard therapy or placebo, in adult patients with cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction, and reporting at least one outcome of interest were included. The primary outcome was mortality, whereas secondary outcomes were length of ICU stay, SOFA score, cardiac index (CI), cardiac power index (CPI), ejection fraction (EF), end-systolic volume (ESV), mean blood pressure (MBP), pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using fixed and random effects models. Thirteen studies comprising a total of 648 patients were included in the analysis. There was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality with levosimendan compared to the controls (RR=0.82 [0.65-1.01], P for effect=0.07, I2=0%). In the levosimendan group PAP and ESV were significantly reduced, while CI, CPI, EF, MBP and SvO2 were significantly increased. No differences in SOFA score, ICU days, PAOP or GFR were noted. Levosimendan can improve hemodynamic parameters and cardiac function when compared with a control group, with no evidence of benefit in terms of survival. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. [Fluid balance and acute kidney injury in septic shock]. (United States)

    Martínez-García, Jesús Javier; León-Sicairos, Nidia Maribel; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; García-Arellano, Bianca Azucena

    In patients with septic shock, excessive fluid administration can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fluid balance, acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with septic shock. A study of cases and controls was conducted in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. The fluid balance in the first 72h and the presence of acute kidney injury was compared in patients diagnosed with septic shock who died against patients who survived the same condition. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Forty-five cases and forty-five controls were included in the analysis. Mortality was associated with Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM III) ≥ 26 points (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.8-18.7; p=0.000), Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) ≥ 24 points (OR 11.0, 95% CI 4.1-29.4; p=0.000), creatinine ≥ 0.65mg/dl (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.2-13.9; p=0.000), lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/l (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.9; p=0.033), SvO2 9% in 72h (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.6-11.7; p=0.003), acute kidney injury (OR 5.7, 95% CI: 2.2-15.1; p=0.000). In the multivariate model, the values of PRISM ≥26 and PELOD ≥24 points were significant. In patients who died due to septic shock, the multivariate model showed an association with PRISM ≥26 and PELOD ≥24 and a trend toward association with SvO2 9%. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. External beam radiotherapy for head and neck cancers is associated with increased variability in retinal vascular oxygenation.

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    Daniel S Higginson

    Full Text Available Radiation retinopathy is a possible post-treatment complication of radiation therapy. The pathophysiologic mechanism is hypothesized to be microvascular in origin, but evidence is limited. In an effort to study retinal oxygenation in these patients, we herein evaluate the repeatability and variability of retinal oximetry measurements in subjects who had previously received radiation and make comparisons to a cohort of unirradiated subjects.Using retinal oximetry, a non-invasive imaging modality, we performed in vivo measurements of arteriole (SaO2 and venule SO2 (SvO2 in subjects (n = 9, 18 retinas who had received incidental radiation to their retinas (≥ 45 Gy to one retina and in healthy subjects (n = 20, 40 retinas. A total of 1367 SO2 observations on 593 vessels in 29 persons were analyzed to assess three sources of variance in vessel SO2: 1 variance in repeated measurements of the same vessel ("repeatability", 2 variance in different vessels within the same subject ("within-subject variability", and 3 variance between subjects ("between-subject variability".Retinal oximetry measurements were highly repeatable in both irradiated patients and unirradiated subjects. The within-subject variability of SvO2 and SaO2 measurements constituted the highest component of variance in both groups and was significantly higher in venules vs. arterioles (relative effect size 1.8, p<0.001 and in irradiated subjects vs. unirradiated subjects (relative effect size 1.6, p<0.001.Retinal oximetry is a highly repeatable technology and can be reliably used to study vascular oxygenation in irradiated subjects. Different vessels within the same subject exhibit a high degree of variability, suggesting that pooled analyses of multiple vessels are most likely to be informative of regional retinal oxygenation. Finally, irradiated subjects exhibited significantly higher within-subject variability in SO2 measurements, suggesting that radiation may cause regional

  19. Baltų kalbų žodžių tvarkos raida tipologijos požiūriu

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    Vytautas Ambrazas


    Full Text Available THE DEVELOPMENT OF WORD ORDER IN BALTIC FROM A TYPOLO­GICAL VIEWPOINTSummaryThe inherited word order type DH, in which dependent is placed before head, has been preserved up till now in most Lithuanian and Latvian word order patterns, e.g.: GenN, AdjN, DemN, AdvV, AdvAdj, AdvAdv1. Historical analysis reveals the former prevalence of DH order both in the distribution of main sentence components (SOV and in the comparative clauses (StComp. On the other hand, a tendency to place head before dependent manifests itself in the expansion of the SVO sentence pattern and of comparative clauses with a postposed standard (CompSt during the recent history of Lithuanian and Latvian.The early stage of HD order development in Baltic is represented by prepositional constructions. They are based on ancient clauses with preverbs, which modified the meaning of nouns and verbs and had the status of dependent components. Preverbs preceding verbs maintained their dependent status; they turned into verbal prefixes later. But preverbs preceding nouns changed their relation and became heads of prepositional constructions, i.e. prepositions governing cases.Reanalysis of preposed preverbs as prepositions caused a deviation from the prevailing word order type and paved the way to the use of HD patterns in other constructions. Contacts with Slavic languages stimulated this change. A relative chronology of expansion of some HD patterns in Baltic can be presented in the following sequence: Prep - CompSt - (SVO.

  20. Different fasting periods in tiletamine-zolezepam-anethetized cats: Glycemia, recovery, blood-gas and cardiorrespiratory parameters

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    A.P. Gering


    Full Text Available The effects of different fasting periods on glycemia levels and on cardiorrespiratory parameters in tiletamine-zolazepam-anesthetized cats were evaluated. Twenty one animals were randomly assigned to three groups: 8 hours (G8, 12 hours (G12 or 18 hours (G18 of the preoperative fasting. The tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg was administered intravenously. The heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (fR, rectal temperature (T R, glycemia (G, laboratorial glycemia (Glab, venous oxygen partial pressure (PvO2, venous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PvCO2, venous hemoglobin saturation (SvO2, pH, base deficit (BD, bicarbonate concentration (HCO3- and haematocrit were evaluated at 90 minutes after the last meal (T0, immediately before anesthesia (T1 and at ten (T2 and thirty (T3 minutes after tiletamine-zolezepam administration. The time between the administration of anesthetic and the cat's trial to elevate head (Th and the interval between drug administration and aniamal's quadrupedal position (Tqp were recorded. No differences among groups were recorded for glycemia, HR, PvO2, SvO2, pH, BD, HCO3-, Ht and Tqp. In G12 from T2, glycemia increased and from T1 PvCO2 decreased. At T1, PvO2 increased in all groups. In G8 and G12, from T1, DB and HCO3- decreased. In G12 and G18, from T2, Ht decreased. In G12, the Th mean was higher than G8. In conclusion, in tiletamine-zolazepam-anesthetized cats, the different preoperative fasting did not influence glycemia, blood-gas and cardiorrespiratory parameters. Additionally, there was no relationship between glycemia and anesthesia recovery.

  1. The influence of carbon content on the corrosion of MgO-C refractory material caused by acid and alkaline ladle slag: Vpliv vsebnosti ogljika na korozijo ognjevzdržnega materiala MgO-C v kisli in bazični pečni žlindri:


    Adolf, Zdeněk; Husar, Ivo; Suchánek, Petr


    The paper describes an investigation of the influence of increasing carbon content on the corrosion of MgO-C refractory material by molten slag. The refractory material contained mass fraction of 98 % MgO, approximately 2 % Fesub{2}Osub{3}, and graded quantities from 3 % to 18 % C. The corrosion was investigated in melts of reduction ladle slags at a temperature of 1600 compositumC in laboratory conditions. A sample of refractory material with dimensions of 10 x 10 x 100 mm was submerged into...

  2. Evrópuvæðing Íslands

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    Eiríkur Bergmann


    Full Text Available Ísland er eina ríki Norðurlanda sem aldrei hefur sótt um aðild að Evrópusambandinu og telst þeirra tregast í taumi í Evrópusamvinnunni. Eigi að síður hefur Evrópusamruninn haft afgerandi áhrif á þróun íslensks þjóðfélags í gegnum aðildina að Evrópska efnahagssvæðinu (EES. Fyrst og fremst með almennri frelsisvæðingu atvinnulífsins sem losað var undan oki margvíslegra hafta, en einnig með stórauknu samstarfi við Evrópuþjóðir á ýmsum sviðum, svo sem í viðskiptum, vísindum, menntun og á menningarsviðinu. Áhrif Evrópusamvinnunnar teygja sig núorðið til flestra sviða þjóðfélagsins og hafa leitt til grundvallarbreytingar á íslenskri þjóðfélagsgerð, til að mynda hvað varðar umhverfisvernd, matvælaeftirlit og vinnuréttarmál svo dæmi séu tekin af nokkrum ólíkum sviðum. Að auki tekur Ísland nú fullan þátt í Schengen-landamærasamstarfi ESB og Dyflinar-samkomulaginu svokallaða með sérstöku samkomulagi sem gert var við Ísland og Noreg. Það gefur því augaleið að ein frumforsenda þess að skilja þróun íslensks samfélags undanfarin ár felst í að rannsaka og skoða hvernig Evrópuvæðingin hefur haft áhrif hér á landi. Þetta hefur því miður verið vanrækt mjög, en svo virðist sem þraskennt stappið um hugsanlega Evrópusambandsaðild hafi í raun komið í veg fyrir að áhrif Evrópuvæðingarinnar á íslenskt samfélag hafi verið rannsökuð með kerfisbundnum hætti. Þess í stað hafa sumir stjórnmálamenn frekar viljað draga upp þá mynd af stöðu okkar í Evrópusamrunann sem hentar þeirra eigin afstöðu til ESB-aðildar.

  3. Improving the validity of peripheral venous blood gas analysis as an estimate of arterial blood gas by correcting the venous values with SvO₂. (United States)

    Lemoël, Fabien; Govciyan, Sandra; El Omri, Mouna; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Levraut, Jacques


    Peripheral venous blood gas (pVBG) analysis in replacement of arterial blood gas (ABG) is limited by the unpredictable differences between arterial and venous values, especially for PCO2 and pH (ΔPCO2 and ΔpH). We hypothesized that, using the theoretical relationship linking SvO2 and blood flow, we could diminish the effect of local circulatory conditions on ΔPCO2 and ΔpH and thereby increase pVBG validity. This was a prospective cross-sectional study performed in emergency patients requiring a blood gas analysis in which ABG and pVBG were performed simultaneously. The data of 50 randomly selected patients (model group) were used for developing two equations to correct PvCO2 and pHv according to the peripheral SvO2 (SpvO2) level. The formulas derived were PvCO2cor = PvCO2 - 0.30 × (75 - SpvO2), and pHvcor = pHv + 0.001 × (75 - SpvO2). The validity of the corrected values was then tested on the remaining population (validation group). There were 281 patients included in the study, mainly for dyspnea. ΔPCO2 and ΔpH were strongly correlated with SpvO2 (r(2) = 0.62 and r(2) = 0.53, respectively, p 45 mm Hg (AUC ROC = 0.96 ± 0.01 vs. 0.89 ± 0.02, p 7.45 (AUC = 0.91 ± 0.02 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, p < 0.001). The variability of ΔPCO2 and ΔpH is significantly lowered when the venous values are corrected according to the SpvO2 value, and pVBG is therefore more accurate and valid for detecting an arterial abnormality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Digoxin as a rescue drug in intra aortic balloon pump and inotrope dependent patients. (United States)

    Naqvi, Shahab; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Siddiqi, Rashad; Hussain, Syed Aqeel


    In absence of cardiac transplant program in our country, when patients with poor left ventricular (LV) functions undergo coronary revascularisation surgery, they are on one or more inotropic supports with intra aortic balloon pump (IABP) at the time of weaning off from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Post-operatively, due to the poor LV function, many of these patients become dependent on inotropic supports and IABP and eventually have a poor outcome. We used digoxin in these patients as a rescue drug, where more than one attempts to wean them off IABP and inotropic support had failed. Objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of digoxin as a rescue drug in intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and inotropic support-dependent, post-CABG patients in terms of improvement in their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), serum lactate and mixed venous oxygen saturation. It is a descriptive case series conducted at Department of Cardiac Anesthesia & Intensive Care, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from 1 Nov 2002 to 31 Dec 2007. Thirty post-coronary re-vascularisation patients who were inotrope and IABP dependant and could not be weaned off from supports were given a trial of digoxin to see any improvement in the cardiac functions. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), serum lactate levels and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in the bed side echo were monitored at predigoxin stage and then at three intervals: at serum digoxin level of up to 0.5 nanog/ml; then up to 1.0 nanog/ml and then up to 1.5 nanog/ml. Paired sample t-test was applied and 2-tailed significance was calculated. Significant improvement was seen in the mean SvO2, serum lactate levels and LVEF when patient's serum digoxin level were around 1.5 nanog/dL. Clinically, 20 out of 30 patients (66.67%) improved with digoxin administration and were ultimately weaned off from IABP and inotropic supports. There was no significant


    Zatevahina, M V; Farzutdinov, A F; Rahimov, A A; Makrushin, I M; Kvachantiradze, G Y


    The purpose of the study is to examine the perioperative dynamics of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators: delivery (DO2), consumption (VO2), the coefficient of oxygen uptake (CUO2) and their composition, as well as the dynamics of blood lactate indicators in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) who underwent surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass with high thoracic epidural anaesthesia (HTEA) as the main component of anesthesia. Research was conducted in 30 patients with a critical degree of operational risk, during the correction of post-infarction heart aneurysmn using the V. Dor method in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting. The strategic blood oxygen transport indicators (delivery, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient) showed a statistically significant decrease compared to the physiological norm and to the initial data at two points of the research: the intubation of the trachea and during cardiopulmonary bypass. The system components of oxygen were influenced at problematic stages by the dynamics of SvO2 (increase), AVD (decrease), hemodilution withe fall of the HIb- in the process of JR in the persence of superficial hypothermia. The maintenance of optimal CA in the context of HTEA, combined with a balanced volemic load and a minimized cardiotonic support ensured the stabilisation of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators aithe postperfusion stage and during the immediate postoperative period The article is dedicated to the study of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators and their components during the operation of geometric reconstruc-tion of the left ventricle combined with coronary artery-bypass using cardiopulmonary bypass and with high thoracic epidural anesthesia as the main component of general anaesthesia. The analysis has covered the stagewise delivery dynamics, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient at II stages of the operation and of the immediate postoperative period. The study has ident (fled

  6. Athafnafólk í opinberri stefnumótun á óvissutímum: Hvernig hugmyndin um notendastýrða persónulega aðstoð varð að veruleika á Íslandi


    Sigurgeirsdóttir, Sigurbjörg


    Þessi rannsókn leitast við að útskýra tímamótaákvörðun í þjónustu við fatlað fólk á Íslandi. Opinber stefnumótun hefur löngum einkennst af hægfara breytingum, sem gerast í smáum skrefum. Stundum bregður þó svo við að meiriháttar breytingar verða og stefnumál, sem verið hefur baráttumál hagsmunahópa um margra ára skeið, ná fram að ganga. Dagskrárkenningar leitast við að útskýra meiriháttar stefnubreytingar með því m.a. að beina athyglinni að því hvernig og hvers vegna tiltekin málefni koma til...

  7. In-Flight Water Quality Monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS): Measuring Biocide Concentrations with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE) (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin


    The colorimetric water quality monitoring kit (CWQMK) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) on STS-128/17A and was initially deployed in September 2009. The kit was flown as a station development test objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the acceptability of colorimetric solid phase extraction (CSPE) technology for routine water quality monitoring on the ISS. During the SDTO experiment, water samples from the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA), the U.S. potable water dispenser (PWD), and the Russian system for dispensing ground-supplied water (SVO-ZV) were collected and analyzed with the CWQMK. Samples from the U.S. segment of the ISS were analyzed for molecular iodine, which is the biocide added to water in the WPA. Samples from the SVOZV system were analyzed for ionic silver, the biocide used on the Russian segment of the ISS. In all, thirteen in-flight analysis sessions were completed as part of the SDTO experiment. This paper provides an overview of the experiment and reports the results obtained with the CWQMK. The forward plan for certifying the CWQMK as operational hardware and expanding the capabilities of the kit are also discussed.

  8. Perforation of the Right Ventricle Induced by Pulmonary Artery Catheter at Induction of Anesthesia for the Surgery for Liver Transplantation: A Case Report and Reviewed of Literature (United States)

    Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Apinagés dos Santos, Erick; Adans Wenzinger, Daniel; Alkmim-Teixeira, Gil Cezar; Neto, Gerardo Cristino de M.; Sankarankutty, Ajith Kumar; de Castro e Silva, Orlando; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Basile-Filho, Anibal


    We report a case of a 45-year-old male patient diagnosed with liver cirrhosis by hepatitis C and alcohol, with a Child-Pugh score C and a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 27, and submitted to liver transplantation. The subject underwent insertion of the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) in the right internal jugular vein, with technical difficulty concerning catheter advance. There was sudden hypotension, increase in central venous pressure (CVP), and decrease in SvO2 15 minutes after the PAC had been inserted, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest in pulseless electrical activity (PEA), which was promptly assisted with resuscitation. Pericardiocentesis was performed without success, so the individual was subjected to a subxiphoid pericardial window, which led to output of large amounts of blood as well as PEA reversal to sinus rhythm. Sternotomy was performed; rupture of the apex of the right ventricle (RV) was detected, and suture of the site was accomplished. After hemodynamic stabilization, the patient was transferred to the ICU, where he developed septic shock and, despite adequate therapy, died on the eighteenth day after ICU admission. PMID:20066172

  9. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

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    Bruno eNicenboim


    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  10. AMPER-Argentina: pretonemas en oraciones interrogativas absolutas

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    Jorge Gurlekian


    Full Text Available The present work belongs to project AMPER (Multimedia Atlas of Prosody of the Romanic Space. The dialectal area of study is the Spanish from Buenos Aires. This work analyses absolute interrogative sentences of the SVO-type: a NP (oxytone, paroxytone and proparoxytone heads, a VP (paroxytone head, a Prep. phrase (oxytone, paroxytone and proparoxytone heads. In addition, pretonemes are examined according to the intonation Autosegmental-metrical (AM framework and the phonological phrase (f influence is observed on the phonological representation of pitch accents. The pretoneme results indicate differences and not only one prosodic phrasing which may characterize this modality. The first peaks (P1 which belong to the first f do not show higher tones if compared to the P1 of declarative sentences. An initial frontier tone H% is discarded. These findings confirm a previous study: information regarding the absolute interrogative modality is out of the pretoneme, in the final toneme.

  11. Comparative Study on the Structures of Chinese and Korean Compound Words

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    Zhai Xun


    Full Text Available The goal of the research was to compare the compound words in Chinese, an isolated language, and Korean, an agglutinative language. This research used library research. The researchers found that the main characteristics of the formation of Korean compound words were that the latter element was the central word. The method of word formation decided its lexical category. Moreover, most of the internal relationships of the compound words were connection and modification. While in Chinese, the endocentric compound noun decided the part of speech of the compound word, and could be the proceeding element or the latter element. Furthermore, Chinese contained no complicated morphological changes. It is concluded that Korean is a Subject–Object–Verb (SOV language, where verb elements demonstrate a central feature of the compound verb are always a trailing part. Thus, there is no exocentric compound verb in Korean. By contrast, Chinese is a typical SVO language. When constituting the compound verbs, nouns or adjectives can function as the structural elements. Therefore, there is no permanent position for head words.


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    Jui-Yi Zoey Chung


    Full Text Available This paper presents a syntactic account for the odd distribution of the postverbal modal element, tet, in Sixian Hakka, an SVO language in which a modal auxiliary precedes the main verb. Inspired by the cartographic approach (Cinque 1999, Rizzi 1997, I propose that the modal element tet patterns with regular modals in being syntactically higher than the VP, and the surface form is derived to satisfy the morphonological requirement of tet via either Move (of V-raising or Merge (with the light verb zo ‘do’. Three types of tet sentences show the spectrum of modality across functional projections (Tsai 2010. Furthermore, the present analysis can explain the asymmetries of the three types of tet in the passivization and disposal construals as well as the interaction with certain adverbials. Finally, I compare tet with Cantonese dak (Cheng and Sybesma 2004, to achieve a broader cross-dialectal perspective. This analysis provides a better understanding of the mapping between syntax and semantics.

  13. Venous oxygen saturation. (United States)

    Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank


    Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen saturation is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen saturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects. (United States)

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan


    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.


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    Ting-Chi Wei


    Full Text Available This paper argues that Soh’s (2007 ΣP analysis only partially explains polarity operation in Mandarin VP-ellipsis. With new examples of the use of the particle que ‘however’, a polarity contrast of ye ‘also’, we propose that there are two focus projections in VP-ellipsis. One is the contrastive FocP headed by ye or que higher than TP and the other is the polarity PolP headed by an affirmative polarity focus shi ‘be’ or a covert negative polarity focus lower than TP. Foc interacts with Pol by a way of polarity concord, which is responsible for the polarity symmetry or asymmetry across two conjuncts. We suggest that the polarity concord is achieved via the Agree operation (Chomsky 2000, 2001 in line with Watanabe’s (2004 feature copying analysis of the negative concord. A cross-linguistic investigation of languages of various word orders, including English (SVO, Japanese (SOV, Atayal (VOS, and Bunun (VSO lends support to this focus account.

  16. The curious case of processing unaccusative verbs in aphasia. (United States)

    Sullivan, Natalie; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P


    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia (IWBA) exhibit a delay in lexical activation in S-V-O word order sentences and delayed lexical reactivation in sentences that contain syntactic dependencies. This pattern is in contrast to neurologically unimpaired individuals who immediately evince lexical reactivation at the gap in sentences that contain syntactic dependencies. However, in the case of sentences that contain unaccusative verbs, neurologically unimpaired individuals also exhibit a delay in lexical reactivation. This delay provides a unique opportunity to further examine lexical delays in IWBA. The purpose of the current studies is to investigate the online comprehension of sentences that contain unaccusative verbs in IWBA and in a group of age-matched control (AMC) individuals. Cross-modal picture priming was used to test for priming of a displaced lexical item (direct object noun) immediately after the unaccusative verb (at the gap) during the ongoing auditory stream and at three additional time points downstream from the verb (500 ms, 750 ms, and 1,250 ms). Delayed reactivation of the displaced lexical item downstream from the gap (similar to prior reports of delayed reactivation with younger unimpaired listeners) for both the AMCs and the IWBA was found. These results provide support that IWBA do not evince a delayed time course of lexical reactivation for unaccusative verbs compared to neurologically unimpaired individuals.

  17. Mass transport limitation in implantable defibrillator batteries (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Tam, G.; Scott, E.; Norton, J.; Chen, K.

    Using cells with lithium reference electrodes, the power-limiting behavior in the lithium-SVO cell was shown to be due to a rapid voltage transition at the anode. A novel test cell was developed to explore the influence of current density, bulk LiAsF 6 concentration, separator type and separator proximity to the anode on the time to onset ( τ) of the anode polarization. The results were found to follow a relationship, iτ1/2∝ Cbulk, consistent with the Sand equation. This relationship also predicts that the critical concentration of LiAsF 6, at which onset of the anode polarization occurs, is near the solubility limit of LiAsF 6 in our system (around 3.5-4.0 M). This general phenomenon was found to be quantitatively similar for two dissimilar separator types, and the anode polarization could also be induced in the absence of separator at high concentration and current density. However, it appears that τ decreases with closer proximity of the separator to the anode surface (i.e. cell stack pressure), suggesting that the effect of separator is to inhibit convective transport to and from the Li surface.

  18. Assessing gas exchange in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: diagnostic techniques and prognostic relevance. (United States)

    Gattinoni, Luciano; Carlesso, Eleonora; Cressoni, Massimo


    To provide the most recent insights on the assessment of gas exchange in acute lung injury. Central venous blood may be used as a surrogate of arterial blood to assess carbon dioxide tension and acid-base status. In contrast arterial oxygenation cannot be estimated with confidence from venous blood. However, the use of venous blood associated with pulse oximetry may provide the SvO2 which is useful for monitoring and targeting the resuscitation therapy. Impaired CO2 clearance and increased dead space have been confirmed as useful prognostic indices of structural lung damage and mortality in acute respiratory failure. A simplified technique based on multiple inert gas technique has been described to assess ventilation-perfusion mismatch while a new analysis of pulse oximetry has been suggested to detect lung opening and closing. Finally, new insight has been provided on the relationship between lung anatomy, as detected by computed tomography, oxygenation and CO2 clearance. Although oxygenation assessment is of primary importance during respiratory lung injury, dead space and CO2 retention are more strictly associated with outcome. The association of central venous blood analysis and pulse oximetry may provide more information than arterial blood alone.

  19. Wide-focus subject-verb inversion in Ibero-Romance: A locative account

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    Alice Corr


    Full Text Available This paper explores the hypothesis that wide-focus subject-verb inversion in Ibero-Romance is a type of locative inversion, involving a null locative argument. Ibero-Romance displays fine-grained, systematic variation determined by verbal class and variety, offering evidence that Ibero-Romance neutral word order is SVO, rather than VSO as claimed by some null-subject accounts. It is proposed that ‘locative’ subject-verb inversion is a consequence of grammatically-encoded deictic features correlating with the semantic properties of the verbs involved. The locative element, available unequally across Ibero-Romance, can surface in different positions in the left periphery, yielding the variation encountered. The data indicate that the licensing of these constructions depends neither on the null-subject parameter, since this type of inversion also occurs in non- and partial null-subject varieties, nor on the unaccusative/unergative division, though in both cases a degree of correspondence exists.

  20. Representations of social behaviors of children's with different patterns of attachment to the kindergarten teacher in their drawings

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    Zlatka Cugmas


    Full Text Available In the theoretical part of the paper the author gives answers to the questions, whether a real attachment relationship can exist between a child and a nonmaternal caretaker. If exists, is there a relationship between the child-teacher attachment and the child's socioemotional functioning. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between different types of children's attachment to their kindergarten teachers (secure, anxious and their social behaviors and how children's social behaviors and attachment to the kindergarten teachers represent in their drawings titled Myself in the kindergarten.Twenty-two kindergarten teachers participated in the evaluation of 95 children (50.5 % boys. Children ranged in age from 3 to 6 years. Teachers completed the Questionnaire about children's social behavior - SV-O (LaFreniere, Dumas, Zupančič, Gril & Kavčič, 2001, types of attachment were determined on the basis of the evaluations the teachers gave on the revised version of the AQS (Howes and Smith, 1995 and The evaluation scale of the child's behavior toward pre-school teacher, the CBPT (Cugmas, 2000. The children received the instructions to draw themselves in the kindergarten, their kindergarten teacher, a coeval, and a toy. The results confirmed the hypotheses that the children's relationships with kindergarten teachers characterized by security are related to child competence behaviors and positive adjustment in the kindergarten. Differences in drawing symbols were found to reflect the quality of children's relationships toward their teachers and their social behaviors.

  1. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 gene is a risk factor of large-vessel atherosclerosis stroke.

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    Shérine Abboud


    Full Text Available Genetic variation in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 gene has been recently identified as an important determinant of plasma LDL-cholesterol and severity of coronary heart disease. We studied whether the PCSK9 gene is linked to the risk of ischemic stroke (IS and with the development of intracranial atherosclerosis.The pivotal E670G polymorphism, tagging an important haplotype of the PCSK9 gene, was genotyped in two independent studies. The Belgium Stroke Study included 237 middle aged (45-60 Belgian patients, with small-vessel occlusion (SVO and large-vessel atherosclerosis stroke (LVA, and 326 gender and ethnicity matched controls (>60 yrs without a history of stroke. In multivariate analysis the minor allele (G carriers appeared as a significant predictor of LVA (OR = 3.52, 95% CI 1.25-9.85; p = 0.017. In a Finnish crossectional population based consecutive autopsy series of 604 males and females (mean age 62.5 years, G-allele carriers tended to have more severe allele copy number-dependent (p = 0.095 atherosclerosis in the circle of Willis and in its branches.Our findings in this unique combination of clinical and autopsy data, provide evidence that PCSK9 gene associates with the risk of LVA stroke subtype, and suggest that the risk is mediated by the severity of intracranial atherosclerosis.

  2. The influence of information status on pronoun resolution in Mandarin Chinese: Evidence from ERPs

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    Xiaodong eXu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to shed light on the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pronoun resolution processes by the information status of the antecedent. Information status was manipulated by using a structurally-based constraint (e.g., order of mention as well as a pragmatically-based constraint (i.e., topichood. We found that the pronouns referring to topic entities (the initial NP in SOV structure in Experiment 1 and OSV structure in Experiment 2 elicited attenuated P600 responses compared to the pronouns referring to non-topic entities (the initial NP in SVO structure or the second NP in OSV structure in both experiments when potential interference from structural constraints was controlled. The linear structural constraint, namely the order of mention, had no clear influence on the P600 effect when the syntactic structural constraint was held constant (i.e., when both entities were syntactic subjects, regardless of whether one (Experiment 1 or two (Experiment 2 animate antecedents were present. These findings suggest that pragmatically encoded features such as topichood and givenness can be processed separately from structural constraints such as order of mention to promote the salient status of a referent and thereby facilitate pronoun interpretation.

  3. Comportamento hemodinâmico e metabólico do choque hemorrágico: estudo experimental no cão Comportamiento hemodinámico y metabólico del choque hemorrágico: estudio experimental en el can Hemorrhagic shock hemodynamic and metabolic behavior: experimental study in dogs

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    José Fernando Amaral Meletti


    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Diversos modelos experimentais têm sido utilizados para ilustrar as alterações hemodinâmicas e metabólicas que ocorrem durante o choque hemorrágico. O objetivo da pesquisa é o de observar os comportamentos hemodinâmicos e metabólicos que acontecem em um modelo seqüencial e progressivo de choque hemorrágico no cão, verificando quais índices alteram-se mais precocemente. MÉTODO: O estudo foi realizado em 13 cães sob anestesia venosa total com pentobarbital sódico, em normoventilação e previamente esplenectomizados. Os animais não foram hidratados e a velocidade do sangramento foi ditada pela pressão arterial em que o animal se encontrava. Os atributos estudados foram divididos em hemodinâmicos (freqüência cardíaca - FC, pressão arterial média - PAM, índice de resistência vascular sistêmica - IRVS, índice sistólico - IS, índice cardíaco - IC, índice de choque - I.choque, índice de trabalho sistólico do ventrículo esquerdo - ITSVE, pressão capilar pulmonar - PCP, pressão venosa central - PVC e metabólicos (saturação venosa mista - SvO2, pressão venosa de oxigênio - PvO2, transporte de oxigênio - DO2, consumo de oxigênio - VO2, extração de oxigênio - TEO2, lactato sérico. A coleta de dados e os atributos foram estudados em 6 momentos distintos, sendo M1, o momento controle e os outros momentos correspondentes a decréscimos gradativos de 10% da volemia calculada para cada animal. RESULTADOS: A hemorragia determinou diminuição significativa da FC somente em M6; queda da PAM, IC, IS e ITSVE a cada momento estudado; discreta alteração da PVC e PCP em cada momento; diminuição da PvO2 e da SvO2 nos momentos estudados; redução do DO2, estabilização do VO2 e elevação da TEO2 nos momentos; o índice de choque apresentou elevação até M3, diminuição em M4 e nova elevação até M6; o IRVS elevou-se até M6, ficou inalterado em M5 e apresentou diminui

  4. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Novović Miloš


    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  5. Word Order, Grammatical Function, and Referential Form: On the Patterns of Anaphoric Reference in Finnish

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    Elsi Kaiser


    Full Text Available Research on reference resolution has shown that there exists a connection between the form of a referring expression and the accessibility/salience of its referent. More specifically, the most salient referents – i.e. those currently at the center of attention and most prominent at that point in the discourse – are referred to with the most reduced referring expressions. This raises the question: What kinds of factors influence a referent’s salience, i.e. make it a good candidate to be referred to with a reduced anaphoric expression? This paper focuses on two factors which have been claimed to influence referent salience: (1 grammatical/syntactic role and (2 word order. These issues are addressed from the perspective of Finnish, a highly inflected, flexible word order language which has canonical SVO order and two kinds of third person anaphors: the gender-neutral pronoun hän ‘s/he’ and the demonstrative tämä ‘this.’ In this paper, I present the results of three psycholinguistic experiments investigating the referential properties of these two anaphors, and show that hän and tämä differ in their referential properties and are sensitive to different kinds of factors. The results indicate that instead of trying to define the referential properties of these forms according to a unified notion of salience, we should investigate how different factors may be relevant for different referential expressions. The implications that these findings have for our view of how referential systems work are also discussed.

  6. Social mindfulness: skill and will to navigate the social world. (United States)

    Van Doesum, Niels J; Van Lange, Dion A W; Van Lange, Paul A M


    Although one may not always see it, social life often involves choices that make people act in ways that are mindful of others or not. We adopt an interdependence theoretical approach to the novel concept of social mindfulness, which we conceptualize in terms of other-regarding choices involving both skill (to see it, e.g., theory of mind, perspective taking) and will (to do it, e.g., empathic concern, prosocial orientation) to act mindfully toward another person's control over outcomes. We operationalized social mindfulness in a new social decision-making paradigm that focuses on leaving or limiting choice options for others that we tested across 7 studies. Studies 1a through 1c showed that people with other-oriented mindsets left interdependent others more choice than people with self-oriented and/or unspecified mindsets. Studies 2a and 2b revealed that people developed more favorable judgments of a socially mindful than of a socially unmindful person. Study 3 revealed that unknown others with trustworthy (vs. untrustworthy) faces were met with more social mindfulness. Study 4 revealed that social mindfulness could be traced in personality by being positively related to Honesty-Humility and Agreeableness (HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised) as well as to Empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and a prosocial value orientation (SVO). Together, these studies contribute to explaining how social mindfulness can help people to navigate the social world by aiming to maximize other people's control over their situational outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring during Mechnical Ventilation

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    Dean Hess


    Full Text Available Monitoring is a continuous, or nearly continuous, evaluation of the physiological function of a patient in real time to guide management decisions, including when to make therapeutic interventions and assessment of those interventions. Pulse oximeters pass two wavelengths of light through a pulsating vascular bed and determine oxygen saturation. The accuracy of pulse oximetry is about ±4%. Capnography measures carbon dioxide at the airway and displays a waveform called the capnogram. End-tidal PCO2 represents alveolar PCO2 and is determined by the ventilation-perfusion quotient. Use of end-tidal PCO2 as an indication of arterial PCO2 is often deceiving and incorrect in critically ill patients. Because there is normally very little carbon dioxide in the stomach, a useful application of capnography is the detection of esophageal intubation. Intra-arterial blood gas systems are available, but the clinical impact and cost effectiveness of these is unclear. Mixed venous oxygenation (PvO2 or SvO2 is a global indicator of tissue oxygenation and is affected by arterial oxygen content, oxygen consumption and cardiac output. Indirect calorimetry is the calculation of energy expenditure and respiratory quotient by the measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. A variety of mechanics can be determined in mechanically ventilated patients including resistance, compliance, auto-peak end-expiratory pressure (PEEP and work of breathing. The static pressure-volume curve can be used to identify lower and upper infection points, which can be used to determine the appropriate PEEP setting and to avoid alveolar overdistension. Although some forms of monitoring have become a standard of care during mechanical ventilation (eg, pulse oximetry, there is little evidence that use of any monitor affects patient outcome.

  8. [Management of cardiogenic shock: Results from a survey in France and Belgium]. (United States)

    Champion, S; Deye, N


    Physician survey on cardiogenic shock management; recommendations for the management of patients with cardiogenic shock are based mostly on experts' opinion. Overall 1585 emails were sent to "senior" intensive care physicians from France and Belgium from September 2014 to march 2015. Response rate was 10% (157 respondents). Agreement was assessed based on RAND/UCLA methodology. Continuous monitoring of cardiac output, vascular filling, noninvasive ventilation were deemed appropriate. The use of systematic diuretics and dopamine seemed inappropriate. There was a strong agreement to use dobutamine as inotropic drug in first intention. The use of noradrenaline and adrenaline was considered appropriate. There was a strong agreement to use mechanical circulatory support, in particular extracorporeal life support, in refractory cardiogenic shock. Only 25% of responders felt that there are criteria of refractory cardiogenic shock. Concerning the objectives of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure, 95% of the responses were in the range between 70 to 100, 30 to 50, and 55 to 65mmHg, respectively. The target of SvO2 was between 55% and 75%, and cardiac index between 1.5 and 3L/min/m2 for 95% of responders. There was a strong agreement to maintain hemoglobin between 7 and 9.9g/dL. Based on our physician survey, we found an agreement in vascular filling and early enteral nutrition. Dobutamine and noradrenaline should be the preferred drugs, but not dopamine. Mechanical circulatory support (preferably with extracorporeal support) should be restricted to refractory cardiogenic shock. Those responses differed slightly from experts' opinion, available in terms of recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Dobutamine in Patients With Septic Shock: A Meta-Regression Analysis. (United States)

    Nadeem, Rashid; Sockanathan, Shivani; Singh, Mukesh; Hussain, Tamseela; Kent, Patrick; AbuAlreesh, Sarah


    Septic shock frequently requires vasopressor agents. Conflicting evidence exists for use of inotropes in patients with septic shock. Data from English studies on human adult septic shock patients were collected. A total of 83 studies were reviewed, while 11 studies with 21 data sets including 239 patients were pooled for meta-regression analysis. For VO2, pooled difference in means (PDM) was 0.274. For cardiac index (CI), PDM was 0.783. For delivery of oxygen, PDM was -0.890. For heart rate, PDM was -0.714. For left ventricle stroke work index, PDM was 0.375. For mean arterial pressure, PDM was -0.204. For mean pulmonary artery pressure, PDM was 0.085. For O2 extraction, PDM was 0.647. For PaCO2, PDM was -0.053. For PaO2, PDM was 0.282. For pulmonary artery occlusive pressure, PDM was 0.270. For pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PDM was 0.300. For PVO2, PDM was -0.492. For right atrial pressure, PDM was 0.246. For SaO2, PDM was 0.604. For stroke volume index, PDM was 0.446. For SvO2, PDM was -0.816. For systemic vascular resistance, PDM was -0.600. For systemic vascular resistance index, PDM was 0.319. Meta-regression analysis was performed for VO2, DO2, CI, and O2 extraction. Age was found to be significant confounding factor for CI, DO2, and O2 extraction. APACHE score was not found to be a significant confounding factor for any of the parameters. Dobutamine seems to have a positive effect on cardiovascular parameters in patients with septic shock. Prospective studies with larger samples are required to further validate this observation.


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    Full Text Available Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska, M.A. in special education and rehabilitation sciences, defended her doctoral thesis on 9 of March 2014 at the Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Philosophy, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”- Skopje in front of the commission composed of: Prof. Zora Jachova, PhD; Prof. Jasmina Kovachevikj, PhD; Prof. Ljudmil Spasov, PhD; Prof. Goran Ajdinski, PhD; Prof. Daniela Dimitrova Radojicikj, PhD. The Macedonian Sign Language is a natural language, used by the community of Deaf in the Republic of Macedonia. This doctoral paper aimed towards the analyses of the characteristics of the Macedonian Sign Language: its phonology, morphology and syntax as well as towards the comparison of the Macedonian and the American Sign Language. William Stokoe was the first one who in the 1960’s started the research of the American Sign Language. He set the base of the linguistic research in sign languages. The analysis of the signs in the Macedonian Sign Language was made according Stokoe’s parameters: location, hand shape and movement. Lexicostatistics showed that MSL and ASL belong to a different language family. Beside this fact, they share some iconic signs, whose presence can be attributed to the phenomena of lexical borrowings. Phonologically, in ASL and MSL, if we make a change of one of Stokoe’s categories, the meaning of the word changes as well. Non-manual signs which are grammatical markers in sign languages are identical in ASL and MSL. The production of compounds and the production of plural forms are identical in both sign languages. The inflection of verbs is also identical. The research showed that the most common order of words in ASL and MSL is the SVO order (subject-verb-object, while the SOV and OVS order can seldom be met. Questions and negative sentences are produced identically in ASL and MSL.

  11. Effects of low ambient temperature on hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics in a porcine hemorrhagic shock model

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    Xue-feng ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of low ambient temperature on hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics in a porcine hemorrhagic shock model. Methods  Thirty-two healthy adult Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into four groups (8 each: control (group C, shock under room temperature (22℃, group R, shock under low ambient temperature (–10℃, group L and shock under normal body temperature (keep pulmonary arterial temperature ranged from 38.5 to 39.5℃, group N. The hemorrhagic shock model was reproduced by venous bleeding (40% of total blood volume, and the core temperature (pulmonary arterial temperature and rectal temperature, heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP, pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP, central venous pressure (CVP, cardiac output (CO, hemoglobin (Hb, saturation of mixed venous blood (SvO2 and blood gas analysis were recorded before reproduction of shock and at different time points after hemorrhagic shock. The whole body oxygen delivery index (DO2I, oxygen uptake index (VO2I, and oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER were calculated. Results  Four pigs died in group N during the experiment, meanwhile, no pig died in other groups. The core temperature in group C, R and L decreased significantly compared with group N (P<0.05, and the core temperature in group L was significantly lower than that in groups C and R from 120 minutes after shock. No difference was found in hemodynamics, oxygen dynamics and prognosis between group R and group L. The HR and VO2I in group N were significantly higher than those in group L and group R, while there was no difference in other indices between the 3 groups. Conclusion  The hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics indices don't worsen in hemorrhagic shock pigs under low ambient temperature, possibly resulting from induced hypothermia caused by anesthesia.

  12. Influência da temperatura corporal de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus submetidas à anestesia com cetamina Influence of body temperature on rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus anesthetized with ketamine

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    Adriano B. Carregaro


    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar a influência da temperatura corporal nos parâmetros fisiológicos e nos períodos de indução e recuperação anestésicos de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus anestesiadas com cetamina. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à hipotermia (HIPO (The aim of the study was to verify the influence of the body temperature under physiological values and latency and recovery times on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were previously submitted to hypothermia (HYPO (<22°C and normothermia (30°C (NORMO and then, anesthetized with 80 mg/kg IM of ketamine. Latency and recovery times were evaluated by head tonus, muscular tonus and righting reflex. Heart rate (HR, time of apnea and body temperature were measured before and 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ketamine administration. Blood gases parameters were measured before, 30 and 60 minutes. It was not observed difference on latency time in both groups. The recovery time was higher on HYPO (5,5 hours compared to NORMO (3,5 hours. HR was higher on NORMO compared to HYPO. Time of apnea was the same pattern on both groups. Compared to basal levels, time of apnea was shorter between 5 to 30 min on both groups. Respiratory acidosis was observed only at 0 min in NORMO. SvO2 was higher after 30 min, the same as with PvO2 in both groups. PvCO2 reduced after 30 min in both groups. It was evident that body temperature exerts intense influence on the recovery time on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine.

  13. Anestesia para peritonectomia com quimioterapia intraperitoneal hipertérmica transoperatória: relato de caso Anestesia para peritonectomía con quimioterapia intraperitoneal hipertérmica transoperatória: relato de caso Anesthesia for peritonectomy with hyperthermic intraoperative peritoneal chemotherapy: case report

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    Giorgio Pretto


    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O pseudomixoma peritoneal é uma condição rara, relacionada com neoplasias epiteliais de apêndice e ovário. O tratamento de escolha é a citorredução cirúrgica, peritonectomia e quimioterapia intra-abdominal hipertérmica transoperatória (QIAHT. Cabe ao anestesiologista a manutenção de normovolemia, normotermia, manejo da dor pós-operatória e do estado de coagulação. O objetivo foi descrever um caso de peritonectomia com QIAHT. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 37 anos, ASA I, apendicectomia há 3 meses, com laudo anatomopatológico de cistoadenoma mucinoso. Após revisão da peça, evidenciou-se pseudomixoma peritoneal, com indicação de peritonectomia com QIAHT. Instalou-se cateter peridural (T11-T12, dose-teste e morfina. Procedeu-se à indução anestésica com remifentanil 0,4 µ, propofol e rocurônio, além de intubação orotraqueal em sequência rápida. A manutenção foi realizada com remifentanil, sevoflurano e rocurônio, conforme o TOF. Ropivacaína 50 mg e fentanil 100 µg em 10 mL foram administrados via cateter peridural 10 minutos antes da incisão. Durante toda a cirurgia, PVC, SpO2, FeCO2, temperatura, frequência cardíaca, PAM e diurese mantiveram-se em valores estáveis dentro da normalidade, inclusive no período da QIAHT. Redução no hematócrito e SvO2, alargamento do TAP e plaquetopenia foram corrigidos com a administração de hemocomponentes. Após 13 horas de cirurgia, a paciente foi admitida na UTI em ventilação controlada. Foi extubada no 1º dia de pós-operatório, recebendo alta hospitalar no 17º dia de internamento. CONCLUSÕES: A citorredução cirúrgica e a peritonectomia com QIAHT surgiram na década de 1990, com diversos estudos revelando aumento significativo da sobrevida. Pela complexidade do procedimento e grande porte cirúrgico, é fundamental a vigilância do anestesiologista para a manutenção dos parâmetros cl

  14. Efeitos hemodinâmicos e metabólicos imediatos determinados pelas soluções de cloreto de sódio a 7,5% e de sua associação ao dextran 70 a 6% na reanimação do choque hemorrágico: estudo experimental em cães Efectos hemodinámicos y metabólicos inmediatos determinados por las soluciones de cloruro de sodio a 7,5% y de su asociación con dextran 70 a 6% en la reanimación del choque hemorrágico: estudio experimental en perros Immediate hemodynamic and metabolic effects of 7.5% sodium chloride and its association with 6% dextran 70 in hemorragic shock resuscitation: an experimental study in dogs

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    José Fernando Amaral Meletti


    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O dextran associado à solução hipertônica de cloreto sódio a 7,5% apresenta efeitos hemodinâmicos benéficos no controle prolongado da reanimação no choque hemorrágico. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se a associação do dextran à solução de cloreto de sódio a 7,5% apresentaria vantagens na avaliação imediata dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e metabólicos na reanimação em modelo de choque hemorrágico controlado em cães. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 16 cães submetidos à hemorragia controlada até que a pressão arterial média atingisse 40 mmHg e permanecesse assim por até 30 minutos. Estes foram divididos em G1, com administração de NaCI a 7,5%, e G2, com administração NaCI a 7,5% combinada com dextran 70 a 6%, no volume de 4, durante três minutos. Foram avaliados os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e metabólicos. Consideraram-se quatro momentos: M1 - 10 minutos após o preparo cirúrgico, M2 - obtido na metade da fase de choque, M3 - obtido dois minutos após o final da administração das soluções, M4 - 30 minutos após o início da reanimação. RESULTADOS: Após a reanimação, não houve diferença significativa dos valores da FC, PAM, PCP e IRVS. O G2 apresentou valores maiores do IC em M4. Os valores da SvO2 foram menores no G1, final do experimento. A C(a-vO2 foi maior no G1 nos momentos M3 e M4. Os valores do VO2 aumentaram nos dois grupos em M4 e os valores do lactato plasmático aumentaram progressivamente até M3 e diminuíram em M4. Houve aumento dos valores do Na plasmático e redução do hematócrito nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÕES: O G2 mostrou melhor desempenho hemodinâmico principalmente após 30 minutos do início da reanimação. Observou-se, também, maior expansão plasmática e melhor perfusão tecidual na associação do dextran ao NaCl a 7,5%.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El dextran, asociado a la solución hipertónica de cloruro sodio a 7,5% presenta efectos

  15. Josef Svoboda: la luz construida = Josef Svoboda: the light constructed

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    Eugenio Bargueño Gómez


    Full Text Available Resumen Josef Svoboda (1920-2002, fue escenógrafo, arquitecto y director artístico de la Linterna Mágica en Praga. Es difícil encontrar en los últimos cien años un escenógrafo que haya aportado tanto al mundo de la escena por su desbordante capacidad creativa. Siempre estuvo dispuesto a resolver problemas con planteamientos novedosos de diseño introduciendo para ello aportaciones tecno­lógicas del momento. Indagó con imaginación sobre otros elementos escenográficos que no fuesen los clásicos diseños basados en corpóreos arquitectónicos, bastidores, etc., pero que determinaban de igual modo un espacio escénico. Amplió la espacialidad en la escena adjudicando capacidades al sonido y a la luz para conseguir una corporeidad psicológica al servicio de la dramaturgia y la estética. Introdujo en el diseño de sus escenografías imágenes con múltiples perspectivas que se percibían con un solo golpe de vista. También utilizó a los espectadores haciéndoles participes de lo que estaba sucediendo en escena. Creó los sistemas de polivisión y poliecrán, que combinaban el teatro y el ballet. Es responsable de la famosa cortina de luz blanca creada por unos focos diseñados por él y que reciben su nombre. Las proyecciones sobre espejos, técnica difícil de manejar en escena, fue otra de las innovaciones que Svoboda manejó magistralmente en sus escenografías. Palabras clave: Diseño escenográfico, Josef Svoboda, poliecrán, focos Svo­boda, cortina de luz, proyecciones sobre espejo permeable, Laterna Magika. Abstract Josef Svoboda (1920-2002 has been a scenographer, architect and artistic director of the Magic Lantern in Prague. It's difficult to find, in the last 100 years a scenographer that had contributed to the theater with his abundant creative ability. He has always been ready to solve problems with new design's approaches, introducing technological contributions just at that moment. He has investigated with imagination

  16. Statutes of Limitation for Sexual Offenses Against Children: The judges' view Viðhorf dómara til fyrningar sakar í kynferðisbrotum gegn börnum

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    Svala Ísfeld Ólafsdóttir


    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Í greininni er lýst niðurstöðum viðtala við sex íslenska dómara um persónulega afstöðu þeirra til nokkurra þátta varðandi kynferðisbrot gegn börnum og lög og lagaframkvæmd á því sviði. Tilefnið er einkum lög nr. 61/2007, þar sem svo er mælt fyrir að nánar tilgreind alvarleg kynferðisbrot skuli ekki fyrnast. Ein helsta niðurstaðan er sú að a.m.k. fimm af þeim sex dómurum sem tóku þátt í rannsókninni eru sammála breytingunni. Þeir telja að fyrst og fremst beri að horfa til alvarlegra og langvarandi afleiðinga brotanna fyrir brotaþolann og að skipa eigi þessum brotum á bekk með alvarlegustu afbrotum sem þeir hafa fengist við í störfum sínum. Í öðru lagi leggja þeir áherslu á hinar sérstöku aðstæður sem brot þessi eru yfirleitt framin við og það sérkenni þeirra að þau koma oft ekki upp á yfirborðið fyrr en löngu eftir að þau eru framin. Þetta viðhorf er í samræmi við þær meginröksemdir sem settar voru fram til stuðnings breytingunum í aðdraganda þeirra og styður við þær. Í viðtölunum endurspeglast sterk samúð dómaranna með þolendum kynferðisbrota, þótt þeir leggi um leið áherslu á skyldur sínar að halla ekki á rétt sakbornings til réttlátrar málsmeðferðar.

  17. A Sentence Repetition Task for Catalan-Speaking Typically-Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

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    Anna Gavarró


    Full Text Available It is common to find that so-called minority languages enjoy fewer (if any diagnostic tools than the so-called majority languages. This has repercussions for the detection and proper assessment of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI brought up in these languages. With a view to remedy this situation for Catalan, I developed a sentence repetition task to assess grammatical maturity in school-age children; in current practice, Catalan-speaking children are assessed with tests translated from Spanish, with disregard of the fact that the markers of SLI may differ substantially from one language to another, even between closely related languages. The test proposed here is inspired by SASIT [School-Age Sentence Imitation Test – English], designed for English by Marinis et al. (2011; some of the constructions targeted are challenging in a subset of languages, but not others, and are included because they are indeed affected in Catalan SLI; other constructions appear to be disrupted universally. The test involves canonical SVO sentences, sentences with third person accusative clitics (known to be problematic in Catalan SLI, but not in Spanish, passives, wh- interrogatives, subordinate clauses, subject and object relatives and conditionals. The test was administered to thirty typically developing 6- and 7-year-olds (as reported in Gavarró et al., 2012b, and five children diagnosed with SLI (mean age 10;7. The results of the task were scored under two systems: (i identical vs. non-identical repetition and (ii identical, grammatical and ungrammatical repetition, with detail regarding the error type. The results for typically developing and SLI children showed differences between the groups: identical repetition was found in 88.9% of cases for typically developing children but only 48% for SLI children. Ungrammatical productions were higher for the SLI group, and so were grammatical but different repetitions, a trend which was found in every

  18. Dissociating Effects of Scrambling and Topicalization within the Left Frontal and Temporal Language Areas: An fMRI Study in Kaqchikel Maya

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    Shinri Ohta


    Full Text Available Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. In Kaqchikel, the syntactically canonical word order is verb-object-subject (VOS, but at least three non-canonical word orders (i.e., SVO, VSO, and OVS are also grammatically allowed. We used a sentence-picture matching task, in which the participants listened to a short Kaqchikel sentence and judged whether a picture matched the meaning of the sentence. The advantage of applying this experimental paradigm to an understudied language such as Kaqchikel is that it will allow us to validate the universality of linguistic computation in the brain. We found that the conditions with scrambled sentences [+scrambling] elicited significant activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and lateral premotor cortex, both of which have been proposed as grammar centers, indicating the effects of syntactic loads. In contrast, the conditions without topicalization [-topicalization] resulted in significant activation in bilateral Heschl’s gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, demonstrating that the syntactic and phonological processes were clearly dissociated within the language areas. Moreover, the pre-supplementary motor area and left superior/middle temporal gyri were activated under relatively demanding conditions, suggesting their supportive roles in syntactic or semantic processing. To exclude any semantic/phonological effects of the object-subject word orders, we performed direct comparisons while making the factor of

  19. No case for Case in locality: Case does not help interpretation when intervention blocks A-bar chains

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    Naama Friedmann


    Full Text Available We discuss a robust yet at first sight surprising fact: individuals who have problems understanding sentences with object A-bar movement cannot use overt Case marking of the object to interpret these sentences and to associate the DPs with thematic roles. We tested the effect of overt Case marking of the object in typically developing Hebrew-speaking children by comparing their comprehension of 'which 'object questions with and without the object Case marker 'et', and found that there was no difference in comprehension between the two. A similar pattern was found in an adolescent with syntactic SLI. We then tested the comprehension of object topicalized structures in the order OVS, where the only element identifying these sentences as object-first sentences and distinguishing them from simple SVO sentences was the object marker. We tested this in three populations with object A-bar movement problems: individuals with agrammatism, adolescents with syntactic SLI, and orally-trained children with hearing impairment, as well as in analysis of previous data on typically-developing children acquiring Hebrew. All populations failed to understand the sentence, but did not consistently reverse the thematic roles of the two noun phrases. This suggests that they were sensitive to the presence of the Case marker but could not use it for interpretation. We argue that these findings immediately follow from the way intervention and locality are computed, under the featural Relativized Minimality approach. Case is not among the features triggering movement, therefore a Case difference is not taken into account in trying to build a movement chain across an intervener. As a result, the object chain cannot be built across the intervening subject in the relevant cases, and overt Case marking of the object cannot help rescue the structure. Thematic role assignment in complex movement configurations requires the building of movement chains; if chain formation fails

  20. Verb-second word order after German weil ‘because’: Psycholinguistic theory from corpus-linguistic data

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    Gerard Kempen


    Full Text Available In present-day spoken German, subordinate clauses introduced by the connector 'weil '‘because’ occur with two orders of subject, finite verb, and object(s. In addition to 'weil 'clauses with verb-final word order (“VF”; standard in subordinate clauses one often hears 'weil 'clauses with SVO, the standard order of main clauses (“verb-second”, V2. The “'weil'-V2” phenomenon is restricted to sentences where the 'weil 'clause follows the main clause, and is virtually absent from formal (written, edited German, occurring only in extemporaneous speech. Extant accounts of 'weil'-V2 focus on the interpretation of 'weil'-V2 clauses by the hearer, in particular on the type of discourse relation licensed by 'weil'-V2 vs. 'weil'-VF: causal/propositional or inferential/epistemic. Focusing instead on the production of 'weil 'clauses by the speaker, we examine a collection of about 1,000 sentences featuring a causal connector ('weil, da 'or 'denn' after the main clause, all extracted from a corpus of spoken German dialogues and annotated with tags denoting major prosodic and syntactic boundaries, and various types of disfluencies (pauses, hesitations. Based on the observed frequency patterns and on known linguistic properties of the connectors, we propose that 'weil'-V2 is caused by miscoordination between the mechanisms for lexical retrieval and grammatical encoding: Due to its high frequency, the lexical item 'weil 'is often selected prematurely, while the grammatical encoder is still working on the syntactic shape of the 'weil 'clause. 'Weil'-V2 arises when pragmatic and processing factors drive the encoder to discontinue the current sentence, and to plan the clause following 'weil 'in the form of the main clause of an independent, new sentence. Thus, the speaker continues with a V2 clause, seemingly in violation of the VF constraint imposed by the preceding 'weil'. We also explore implications of the model regarding the interpretation of

  1. Repercussões respiratórias e hemodinâmicas do pneumoperitônio na lesão do diafragma: estudo experimental Hemodynamic and respiratory changes caused by CO2 laparoscopy in an experimental model of diaphragmatic injury

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    Sílvia Cristine Soldá


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as alterações hemodinâmicas e respiratórias secundárias à laparoscopia em modelo experimental de lesão diafragmática. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em três grupos com cinco animais cada, assim constituídos: Grupo 1 - Portadores de lesão diafragmática e avaliados sem pneumoperitônio (CLSP; Grupo 2 - Sem lesão diafragmática e avaliados com pneumoperitônio (SLCP; Grupo 3 - Portadores de lesão diafragmática e avaliados com pneumoperitônio (CLCP. Foram avaliadas variáveis gasométricas, hemodinâmicas e respiratórias. RESULTADOS: Houve alterações significantes da pressão média de artéria pulmonar (PAP, pressão de capilar pulmonar (PCP, PAO2, SAO2 e SVO2. CONCLUSÃO: A videolaparoscopia na presença de lesão do diafragma não acarreta alterações do débito cardíaco e pode ser realizada com segurança, desde que a pressão de pneumoperitônio não ultrapasse valores de 15 mmHg.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the hemodynamic and respiratory changes caused by CO2 laparoscopy in an experimental model of diaphragmatic injury. METHODS: Fifteen animals chosen at random were submitted to diaphragmatic injury by means of CO2 laparoscopy. Evaluation consisted of drawing blood samples to analyze blood gases, as well as the hemodynamic and respiratory variables. RESULTS: Alterations occurred in APA, CPP, PAO2, ASO2, VSO2. CONCLUSION: We concluded that videolaparoscopy with pneumoperitoneum pressure under 15mmHg is a safe procedure in patients with diaphragmatic injuries because this pressure level does not cause hemodynamic changes, such as decrease of the cardiac output. [Rev Assoc Med Bras 2007; 53(4: 294-9

  2. Listeners Exploit Syntactic Structure On-Line to Restrict Their Lexical Search to a Subclass of Verbs. (United States)

    Brusini, Perrine; Brun, Mélanie; Brunet, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne


    Many experiments have shown that listeners actively build expectations about up-coming words, rather than simply waiting for information to accumulate. The online construction of a syntactic structure is one of the cues that listeners may use to construct strong expectations about the possible words they will be exposed to. For example, speakers of verb-final languages use pre-verbal arguments to predict on-line the kind of arguments that are likely to occur next (e.g., Kamide, 2008, for a review). Although in SVO languages information about a verb's arguments typically follows the verb, some languages use pre-verbal object pronouns, potentially allowing listeners to build on-line expectations about the nature of the upcoming verb. For instance, if a pre-verbal direct object pronoun is heard, then the following verb has to be able to enter a transitive structure, thus excluding intransitive verbs. To test this, we used French, in which object pronouns have to appear pre-verbally, to investigate whether listeners use this cue to predict the occurrence of a transitive verb. In a word detection task, we measured the number of false alarms to sentences that contained a transitive verb whose first syllable was homophonous to the target monosyllabic verb (e.g., target "dort" /dɔʁ/ to sleep and false alarm verb "dorlote" /dɔʁlɔt/ to cuddle). The crucial comparison involved two sentence types, one without a pre-verbal object clitic, for which an intransitive verb was temporarily a plausible option (e.g., "Il dorlote" / He cuddles) and the other with a pre-verbal object clitic, that made the appearance of an intransitive verb impossible ("Il le dorlote" / He cuddles it). Results showed a lower rate of false alarms for sentences with a pre-verbal object pronoun (3%) compared to locally ambiguous sentences (about 20%). Participants rapidly incorporate information about a verb's argument structure to constrain lexical access to verbs that match the expected


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    I Ketut Yudha


    verb (postverbal position. Based on how the constituents are ordered, Lio language is an SVO and VOS language. Typologically, it is classified into an ergative as well as accusative language. It is classified into an ergative language as the argument of the unmarked transitive verbal P is similarly  treated to the intransitive simple argument depending on how the constituents are ordered. The limitation of Lio language is that P and S can be relativised and modified by the emphatic marker. The only P and S which function as pivots allow the noun which coreferences in both the coordinate and subordinate clauses to disappear.

  4. Human right, disability and family life Mannréttindi, fötlun og fjölskyldulíf. Í tilefni yfirfærslu málefna fatlaðs fólks til sveitarfélaga

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    Hanna Björg Sigurjónsdóttir


    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Samningur Sameinuðu þjóðanna um réttindi fatlaðs fólks var undirritaður af Íslandi í mars 2007, en með undirrituninni skuldbinda íslensk stjórnvöld sig til að gera ekkert sem gengur gegn efni samningsins. Um allan heim er nú litið til þessa samnings sem leiðarljóss í málefnum fatlaðs fólks og þjóðir heims, Ísland þar með talið, eru nú óðum að staðfesta samninginn og aðlaga lagaumhverfi sitt að honum. Eitt af lykilatriðunum við yfirfærslu málefna fatlaðra til sveitarfélaganna er kynning á þessum nýja samningi og mannréttindaáherslum sem þar er að finna, en þekking á innihaldi samningsins er nauðsynleg forsenda þess að jafnrétti og mannréttindi fatlaðs fólks hér á landi verði tryggð. Þessi grein fjallar um einn hóp fatlaðs fólks, foreldra með þroskahömlun, og rétt þeirra til fjölskyldulífs sem dæmi um breyttan skilning á stöðu fatlaðs fólks í samfélaginu og þá þjónustu sem það á rétt á. Rakið er hvernig réttur foreldra til samvista við börn sín hefur þróast á undanförnum áratugum í mannréttindasáttmálum og dómsúrskurðum. Niðurstöður sýna að ef foreldrar með þroskahömlun eiga að njóta þeirrar réttarverndar sem samræmist markmiðum stjórnarskrár íslenska lýðveldisins, mannréttindasáttmála Evrópu um friðhelgi fjölskyldulífs og samnings Sameinuðu þjóðanna um réttindi fatlaðs fólks er ljóst að þörf er á verulegu átaki og viðhorfsbreytingum innan stofnana ríkis og sveitarfélaga, sem hafa með höndum málefni fatlaðs fólks, barnaverndar og félagslegs stuðnings, svo og dómskerfisins alls, til að tryggja að foreldrar með þroskahömlun standi jafnfætis öðrum foreldrum.

  5. Pierre Bourdieu (höfundur; Davíð Kristinsson (ritstjóri, ritar inngang; Björn Þorsteinsson, Egill Arnarson og Gunnar Harðarson (þýðendur: Almenningsálitið er ekki til

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    Ólafur Þ. Harðarson


    Full Text Available Ég hlakkaði til að lesa þetta kver eftir Bourdieu, enda hef ég rannsakað lýðræði, kosningar og almenningsálit í þrjátíu ár og kennt námskeið um efnið. Hafði auk þess heyrt ýmsa tala um þennan Frakka af lotningu, en er lítt eða ekki kunnugur verkum hans, enda skólaður í engilsaxneskri hefð. Ekki hafði ég lengi lesið þegar í hugann kom: Þetta hef ég lesið áður! Hressileg aðkenning að desjavú. Uppúr 1970 las ég tvo franska strúktúralíska marxista nokkuð vel (og var lengi að því, Althusser og Poulantzas. Þá voru þeir í tísku - seinna fór illa fyrir báðum en það skiptir ekki máli hér. Lesturinn á þeim tvímenningum reyndist mér afar gagnlegur. Ég lærði að tyrfinn texti þarf ekki endilega að segja mikið þegar hann hefur verið "afbyggður". Ég lærði að nokkur virðing fyrir staðreyndum getur farið saman við kennilega kreddufestu: Ný-marxistarnir uppúr 1970 sögðu m.a. að það væri að vísu rétt að ýmis svið samfélagsins byggju við tiltekið sjálfstæði (relative autonomy, t.d. pólitíska sviðið og menningarsviðið. Samfélagið væri flóknara en svo að ríkisvaldið væri einbert framkvæmdaráð borgarastéttarinnar. En - og það var stórt en - samt væri það hagkerfið sem réði þegar allt kæmi til alls (determinant in the last instance. Þótt komið væri dálítið á móts við staðreyndir og gögn var áfram trúað á kredduna.

  6. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.


    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  7. Knowledge management in administratitve units of municipals Þekkingarmiðlun í stjórnsýslu sveitarfélaga

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    Hildur Ösp Gylfadóttir


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse knowledge management (KM among the administrative units of Icelandic municipalities, with að special emphasis on knowledge sharing. An online survey was sent to nearly all the personnel of all the Icelandic municipalities’ administration. In total 385 individuals responded to the survey, a response rate of 63.3%. Also, five key employees within the administration of the municipalities were interviewed. The main conclusion indicates that there is no explicit strategy within the administration of Icelandic municipalities that supports knowledge sharing even though many methods of knowledge management are used to a certain degree. Organizational culture supports knowledge sharing in certain ways but without strategic intention. The larger municipalities have implemented more aspects of KM than the smaller ones. Positive correlation was found between incentives of managers to disseminate knowledge and knowledge sharing and between organizational culture and knowledge sharing. The respondents believe that the municipalities could provide better services if knowledge sharing were more systematic.Markmið greinarinnar er að öðlast yfirsýn yfir þekkingarstjórnun í stjórnsýslu íslenskra sveitarfélaga, með sérstakri áherslu á þekkingarmiðlun. Rafræn könnun var lögð fyrir starfsmenn stjórnsýslu sveitarfélaga sem hafa fleiri en 1500 íbúa, að Reykjavík, Mosfellsbæ og Hafnarfirði undanskildum. Alls svöruðu 385 einstaklingar og svarhlutfall því 63,3%. Einnig voru tekin fimm viðtöl við lykilstarfsmenn hjá sveitarfélögum. Helstu niðurstöður eru þær að hjá stjórnsýslu íslenskra sveitarfélaga er ekki skýr stefnumótun sem styður við þekkingarmiðlun þó svo að margar aðferðir þekkingarstjórnunar séu til staðar í einhverjum mæli. Stærri sveitarfélög hafa tekið fleiri þætti þekkingarstjórnunar í notkun en minni sveitarfélög. Vinnustaðamenning styður

  8. A Review of the Current Situation of Gender Diverse Corporate Boards and the Impact of More Diversity Yfirlit um stöðu og áhrif jafnari kynjahlutfalla við stjórnun og í stjórnum fyrirtækja

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    Jón Snorri Snorrason


    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview over the number of women serving on corporate boards both in Iceland and abroad. Women hold only around 20% of boards seats and similar number of women is in top managements. It will analyse the development and find plausible explanations of the present situation and introduce recent research papers in this field and explore the impact of more diversity and on firm performance. Are more gender diverse boards likely to perform better then firms lacking the diversity? Will diversity and increased number of women on boards have positive influence on the number of women in top management positions in the same firms? The evidence in the research papers is inconclusive of the effects of gender diversity on firm performance, but better performing firms tend to have more women on the board. We will see positive relation between corporate and board size and the representation of women the boards but find the inverse relation in Iceland. The requirements by law that a minimum fraction of the firm´s board members to be of a certain gender will call for a dramatic improvement on the current situation. Finally we explore the possibilities in the ways firms will increase the number of women on boards to meet the mandating gender diversity before the deadline set by the regulators.Í þessari yfirlitsgrein er farið yfir stöðu kvenna í stjórnum fyrirtækja, bæði hér á landi og erlendis. Aðeins rúm 20% stjórnarsæta eru skipuð konum og svipað hlutfall er í hópi æðstu stjórnenda. Farið verður yfir þróun þessara mála og reynt að leita skýringa á stöðunni og hvernig hún getur breyst. Kynntar verða helstu rannsóknir sem hafa kannað hver áhrifin eru af fjölgun kvenna í stjórnum fyrirtækja. Ýmsum spurningum er velt upp, svo sem hvort fjölbreyttar stjórnir séu líklegri til að skila meiri rekstrarárangri, hvort stjórnhættir breytist með fjölbreytni og loks hvort fjölgun kvenna í stj

  9. Welfare non-profit organizations and foundations in Iceland Félagasamtök og sjálfseignarstofnanir sem starfa að velferðarmálum á Íslandi

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    Ómar H. Kristmundsson


    þjóðleg flokkunarkerfi til að skilgreina mismunandi hlutverk þeirra, greina fjölda og rekstrarumfang og mismunandi tengsl við hið opinbera. Byggt er á gagnasafni höfunda um áhrif efnahagskreppunnar á rekstarumhverfi þriðja geirans en einnig ritum um starfssögur einstakra félaga og sjálfseignarstofnana. Á grundvelli frumgreiningar á þessum þáttum er staðfest að hlutverk félagasamtaka og sjálfseignarstofnana á Íslandi í velferðarmálum er viðamikið en hefur tekið talsverðum breytingum á 20. öld. Með sama hætti hafa samskipti við hið opinbera breyst. Árið 2009 störfuðu skv. skilgreiningu höfunda 144 félagasamtök og sjálfseignarstofnanir, þar af voru þau fyrrnefndu 85% heildarfjöldans. Tæplega 6 af hverjum 10 voru aðilar sem höfðu að meginmarkmiði að veita opinbera þjónusta, um 2 af hverjum 10 voru með meðlimamiðaða starfsemi svo sem sjálfshjálparhópa og svipað hlutfall voru hagsmuna- og baráttusamtök. Rekstrarumsvif þeirra sem sinna opinberri þjónustu voru lang mest og að sama skapi fjöldi launaðra starfsmanna. Um 2/3 hlutar rekstraraðila voru með einn eða tvo aðaltekjustofna. Algengast var að mikill hluti tekna kæmi úr ríkissjóði. Niðurstöðurnar undirstrika mikilvægi vandaðrar opinberrar tölfræði og rannsókna á starfsemi þriðja geirans á Íslandi.

  10. From soft to hard downsizing methods: Organizational flexibility following the crisis Frá mjúkum yfir í harðar samdráttaraðgerðir á vinnumarkaði: Sveigjanleiki fyrirtækja og stofnana í kjölfar hruns

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    Arney Einarsdóttir


    Full Text Available Private and public organizations have had to adapt to the sudden negative shock to Icelands economy that took place in the fall of 2008. The most common downsizing method used by organizations appears to be layoffs. In a flexible labor market, however, they can be expected to use also other methods such as pay cuts, hiring freeze and prohibiting overtime, to mention only a few. Such methods may even be used in order to distribute the effects of downsizing more evenly among employees and to alleviate the need for dismissal of employees. This paper establishes a conceptual framework by classifying downsizing alternatives into three groups, ranging from mild alternatives with low impact on employees, to severe alternatives. The classification sheds light on the alternatives used following the economic collapse, as well as on the degree of flexibility in the public and private labor markets. The data was collected from HR managers in public and private Icelandic organizations with more than 70 employees. The research spans two time periods: eight months from the collapse and 9-20 months from the collapse. The results indicate strong flexibility in both the private and the public sectors. Although the public sector showed a delayed response to the economic situation, it increasingly and vigorously adopted non-traditional and hard methods as time elapsed from thec ollapse.Fyrirtæki og stofnanir þurfa að laga sig að breyttum aðstæðum þegar þjóðarbúskapurinn verður fyrir skyndilegu áfalli eins og raunin varð á Íslandi haustið 2008. Margt bendir til þess að skipulagsheildir beiti gjarnan uppsögnum starfsmanna til þess að draga saman seglin við slíkar aðstæður. Á sveigjanlegum vinnumarkaði má þó gera ráð fyrir að fyrirtæki beiti einnig ýmsum öðrum samdráttaraðgerðum samtímis uppsögnum, s.s. launalækkunum, yfirvinnubanni og frystingu í ráðningum svo fátt eitt sé upptalið. Slíkum aðgerðum er þá beitt

  11. Renesansna kuća Moise u Cresu - rezultati konzervatorskih istraživanja 2011. godne

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    Tea Sušanj Protić


    kao jedina renesansna stambena građevina u Cresu na kojoj je usvojena i primijenjena zrela renesansna simetrija tlocrta, koja se odražava i na reprezentativno pročelje. Sondiranjem zidnih žbuka razlučena je stratigrafija što je potvrdilo pretpostavku o središnjem salonu koji je u 17. stoljeću bio oslikan a secco na svim zidovima. Istraživanjem reprezentativnog pročelja otkrivena je pozicija renesansnih otvora koja sugerira artikulaciju ritmom dvije monofore – bifora – dvije monofore što su potvrdili i nalazi klesanih unutarnjih špaleta. Raspored koji je u Veneciji uvriježen već u gotičkoj stambenoj arhitekturi, u ovim se krajevima afirmira tek u renesansi, čega je kuća Moise jedini primjer u Cresu. Drugi kat kuće Moise tlocrtno je bio organiziran istovjetno prvom, što upućuje na postojanje dviju raskošnih etaža. Prostorije svođenog prizemlja međusobno nisu komunicirale već su činile zasebne jedinice u neposrednom odnosu s ulicom ili dvorištima, u gospodarskoj funkciji trgovina i skladišta, bez unutarnje vertikalne komunikacije s rezidencijalnim katovima koje je povezivalo unutarnje jednokrako stubište. Građevina je imala dva reprezentativna dvorišta od kojih je zapadno nestalo u sekundarnim dogradnjama, no zabilježeno na povijesnom katastru još 1821. godine. Definirano je prizemnim dvolučnim trijemom nad kojim je bila galerija s balustradom čiji su tragovi otkriveni otvaranjem podnih sondi. U malom istočnom dvorištu očuvani su ostaci renesansnog trijema na vrsno klesanim stupcima, a u podu ispod volte stubišta, pronađen je kružni pravilno zidani otvor zdenca čija je kruna danas pohranjena u prizemlju kuće. Dva reprezentativna dvorišta iznimka su u skučenom gradskom tkivu Cresa, što građevinu smještaja u širi kontekst renesansne stambene arhitekture Jadrana s lokalnom inačicom smještanja zdenca ispod volte stubišta, karakterističnom za pučku arhitekturu srednjovjekovnog Cresa. Usporedbom s ostalim srodnim gra