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  1. Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supra, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Tore Supra is a tokamak implemented on the site of CEN Cadarache by the EURATOM-CEA Association. The machine technology integrates all problems related to the fabrication and the operation of large cyrogenic superconducting coils and of the associated cryogenic system. Tore Supra will provide a significant experience to prepare the next generation of machines for controlled design. Tore Supra has been designed to implement a lage physics program that takes advantage of the capability of operation with plasma pulses in excess of 30 seconds. Operation started in April, with a toroidal field of 2 teslas. Discharges of 500 kA with a 3 second current flat top were obtained after a few days. Machine parameters will be raised to their nominal values ( B -- 4.5 Teslas and Ip -- 1.7 MA) during summer

  2. Tore Supra: technical description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report is aimed, after a brief recall of physics and technologic perspectives of Tore Supra, at giving a detailed description of the basic machine; details of each component are defined. Volume 1 is specifically concerned with the general aspects of Tore Supra and the toroidal field system [fr

  3. Tore Supra: technical description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Cryogenic system of Tore Supra is described with its principal functions and operation modes. Data control and acquisition with on line data processing is presented. Radiation dose and induced radioactivity evaluation is studied. Cooling system is detailed together with characteristics of facilities and circuits to cool. Then machine assembly and buildings are presented [fr

  4. Snake studies on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofani, P.; Desgranges, C.; Garbet, X.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Snakes have been achieved after pellet injection in Tore Supra during ohmic as well as ICRH discharges as it has already been observed in other machines. On Tore Supra, high speed H 2 pellets were injected into D 2 plasmas under the specified experimental conditions, the matter is deposited in the centre and snakes are produced in 50% of the cases, but they are created on a second much more internal q=1 surface leading probably to a non monotonic current profile. The properties of the snake, induced current modification and the important role of the bootstrap current in the snake formation are described. (K.A.) 5 refs.; 7 figs

  5. Tore supra first wall conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, E.; Achard, M.H.; Grosman, A.; Monier, P.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures and the results obtained concerning impurity and isotopic control in Tore Supra tokamak are summarized. The conditioning of the vessel, mainly achieved by glow discharges, is described. The impurity control of the discharge was monitored with a VUV-X spectrometer. The in situ blasting degassing procedure applied is explained. In the sequence of the conditioning process, the hydrogen and the helium glow discharges and the carbonization method are discussed. The He glow discharges allowed to limit the H content of the He plasma shot below 20%

  6. Disruption mitigation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Sourd, F.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Eriksson, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    During disruptions, the plasma energy is lost on the first wall within 1 ms, forces up to hundred tons are applied to the structures and kA of electrons are accelerated up to 50 MeV (runaway electrons). Already sources of concern in present day tokamaks, extrapolation to ITER shows the necessity of mitigation procedures, to avoid serious damages to in-vessel components. Massive gas injection was proposed, and encouraging tests have been done on Textor and DIII-D. Similar experiments where performed on Tore Supra, with the goal to validate their effect on runaway electrons, observed during the majority of disruptions. 0.1 mole of helium was injected within 5 ms in ohmic plasmas, up to 1.2 MA, either stable, or in a pre-disruptive phase (argon puffing). Beneficial effects where obtained: reduction of the current fall rate and eddy currents, total disappearance of runaway electrons and easy recovery for the next pulse, without noticeable helium pollution of following plasmas. Analysis of the 4 ms period between injection and disruption indicates that to reach these goals, one need to inject enough helium to keep it only partially ionised. It correspond to 0.1 g for Tore Supra, and extrapolate to hundred's of grams for ITER. (author)

  7. Disruption mitigation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Sourd, F.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Eriksson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    During disruptions, the plasma energy is lost on the first wall within 1 ms, forces up to hundred tons are applied to the structures and kA of electrons are accelerated up to 50 MeV (runaway electrons). Already sources of concern in present day tokamaks, extrapolation to ITER shows the necessity of mitigation procedures, to avoid serious damages to in-vessel components. Massive gas injection was proposed, and encouraging tests have been done on Textor and DIII-D. Similar experiments where performed on Tore Supra, with the goal to validate their effect on runaway electrons, observed during the majority of disruptions. 0.1 mole of helium was injected within 5 ms in ohmic plasmas, up to 1.2 MA, either stable, or in a pre-disruptive phase (argon puffing). Beneficial effects where obtained: reduction of the current fall rate and eddy currents, total disappearance of runaway electrons and easy recovery for the next pulse, without noticeable helium pollution of following plasmas. Analysis of the 4 ms period between injection and disruption indicates that to reach these goals, one need to inject enough helium to keep it only partially ionised. It corresponds to 0.1 g for Tore Supra, and extrapolate to hundreds of grams for ITER. (authors)

  8. Particle control studies on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.

    1987-01-01

    The report consists of viewgraphs. The goal of the particle control program at Tore Supra is to study plasma performance with strong pellet fueling and corresponding particle exhaust in a limiter tokamak

  9. Pellet injection requirements for TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferranderie, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main parameters of TORE SUPRA are outlined and pellet injection requirements to meet plasma density goals are discussed. Topics considered include plasma buildup, plasma refueling and penetration depth

  10. Fast imaging system on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraud, A.; Salasca, S.; Verger, J. M.; Alarcon, T.; Agarici, G.; Bremond, S.; Chenevois, J. P.; Geynet, M.; Migozzi, J. B.; Reux, C.

    2009-01-01

    A new endoscope aiming at transferring the image of a poloidal section of the Tore Supra plasma to a fast camera able to record frames at a speed up to 4800 frames per second at full resolution, or much faster for a limited number of pixel, has been installed on Tore Supra. First movies showing the light emission associated to fast phenomena such as plasma start up, disruptions or gas and pellet injections have been produced.

  11. Particles pumping in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnel, P.; Chappuis, P.; Lipa, M.

    1989-01-01

    TORE SUPRA and its peripheral equipments are provided with routine clean high vacuum by turbomolecular pumping. During plasma discharges large quantity of very hot gases activating at plasma edge and plasma density in scrape off layer has to be controlled before they strike violently solid wall provoking increase in impurities content and make density up to disruptive level. A Magnetic Ergodic Divertor made of six winding structures - MED - six Vertical Pumped Limiters - VPL - and one Horizontal Pumped Limiter - HPL - are set in the vacuum chamber in order to cope with plasma-wall interactions and neutral gas recycling. Each apparatus is equipped at front side with thermal shield respectively made of polycristallin and pyrolitic graphite bolted on stainless steel support for MED and HPL whereas for VPL it is made of CFC Aerolor 05 brazed on hardened copper. The total heat removal capacity of these plasma facing components is 12 MW. Design of particles collection openings and ducts conductance allow 10% of capture efficiency, that means for TORE SUPRA a flux of 3 x 10 21 particles/second has to be sorbed by water cooled titanium getter pumps, settled at rear side. All those facilities were put into plasma operation at the beginning of 1989 for a short time. Preliminary observations go along with theoretical predictions, that actions in scrappe-off layer may provoke effects in bulk plasma. Very first results drawn out, show that particle collection and heat removal were effective by MED, VPL and HPL and that plasma behaviour was not disturbed by their presence and actions but instead tendency to improvement was observed

  12. 3PL, 4PL and insourcing logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vivaldini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistics services have evolved and changed over time, especially in the hiring of them according to the concepts of 3PL (third party logistics, 4PL (fourth party logistics or insourcing logistics. 3PL service is a consolidated business, 4PL is an option for outsourcing logistics and has already been adopted by some organizations, and insourcing logistics suggests the return of these activities being internalized by companies, which is still a relatively unexplored subject in logistics literature. Analyzing these themes in the literature, this study updates the view on them and proposes a conceptual framework that classifies the different models of logistics services, showing the different options that can be adopted to help the company decide how to run their logistics services.

  13. Edge plasma diagnostics on Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Junji

    1991-01-01

    From 1988 to 1991, the international scientific research 'Diagnosis of peripheral plasma in Tore Supra tokamak' was carried out as a three-year plan receiving the support of the scientific research expense of the Ministry of Education. This is to apply the method of measuring electron density distribution by neutral lithium beam probe spectroscopy to the measurement of the electron density distribution in the peripheral plasma in Tore Supra Tokamak in France. Among many tokamaks in operation doing respective characteristics researches, the Tore Supra generates the toroidal magnetic field by using superconducting coils, and aims at the long time discharge for 30 sec. for the time being, and for 300 sec. in future. In the plasma generators for long time discharge like this, the technology of particle control is a large problem. For this purpose, a divertor was added to the Tore Supra. In order to advance the research on particle control, it is necessary to examine the behavior of plasma in the peripheral part in detail. The measurement of peripheral plasma in tokamaks, beam probe spectroscopy, the Tore Supra tokamak, the progress of the joint research, the problems in the joint research and the perspective of hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Ciel, a new breath for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, P.

    1998-01-01

    In view of preparing next generation of tokamaks, a new goal has been given to Tore Supra, initially designed for 30 second operation. In order to fulfill this target, with the ultimate aim of injecting in the plasma 25 MW for 1000 s shots: all existing components (including the 6 ergodic divertor modules) present inside the inner vessel of Tore Supra will be removed by the end of 1999, they will be replaced in 2000 by a set of up to date technology components, designed to withstand an overall power of 25 MW for shots up to 1000 s constituting the so-called 'CIEL' project (French acronym for 'Composants Internes Et Limiteur'). It is planned to stop present Tore Supra's operation in autumn 1999, and start again with CIEL environment at the end of 2000. Full capacity (pumping and cooling) will be available in 2002. (author)

  15. Nuclear fusion TORE SUPRA, a new stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, M.; Laurent, L.

    1995-01-01

    Since almost forty years, the scientists try and neutralize in a pacific aim thermonuclear fusion energy and therefore they use the magnetic confinement of hot plasmas.In France, since 1960 the achieved studies permitted in 1988 to bring into service the TORE SUPRA TOKAMAK, which used, for the first time a superconducting magnet to generate the confinement magnetic field. TORE SUPRA, which didn't still explore its maximal potentialities, will be one of the apparatuses which will be used as basis of the international project ITER development. 5 figs

  16. Remote experiment participation on Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, J.-M.; Larsen, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The DRFC has traditionally had a very large external collaboration involvement. In particular, 15% of the DRFC work is directed towards the JET programme. As a consequence substantial telecommunications facilities have been installed [F.E.D. 60/3 (2002) 449; F.E.D. 60/3 (2002) 459]. A specific station for remote communication has been set up in the Tore-Supra control room, closely coupled to a collaborating team at INRS Que., Canada. This paper describes our pilot experience with the Canadian participation, which gives details of the communication and data sharing tools used to fully work on Tore-Supra

  17. Matching of Tore Supra ICRH antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladurelle, L.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Lombard, G.

    1994-01-01

    An automatic matching method is described for Tore Supra ICRH antennas based on impedance variations seen at their feed points. Error signals derived from directional voltage and phase measurements in the feeder allow to control the matching capacitors values for optimal power transmission. (author) 5 refs.; 9 figs

  18. Steady-State Operation in Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, G. T.; Tore Supra, Equipe

    1999-11-01

    The Tore Supra superconducting tokamak is devoted to steady-state operation. The CIEL (French acronym for internal component and limiter) project( LIPA, M., et al., Proc. of the 17th IEEE/NPSS Symp. on Fus. Engineering, San Diego, USA, 1997.) consists of a complete upgrade of the inner chamber of Tore Supra, planned to be installed during the year 2000. This project will allow physics scenarios with up to 24 MW of radio frequency heating and current drive (typically 8 - 10 MW of ICRF, 10 - 12 MW of LHCD and 2 MW of ECRF) in stationary plasmas up to 1000 s, with active particle control. This paper presents an overview of the experiments planned to explore the properties, such as the confinement and MHD stability, of various heating and current drive scenarios for long duration discharges. The expected performance for the CIEL phase is also reported.

  19. Fusion profile measurement on Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Gilles, P.; Joyer, P.

    1990-01-01

    The new diagnostic set on Tore-Supra to observe charged fusion particles is described. The detector is a multiple strip chips and equivalent to 16 small detectors placed close to one another. For given toroidal and poloidal fields, the knowledge of the pitch angle allows to calculate the particle trajectories. The proton flux on the detector is the highest for the most central trajectory. The detector efficiency, resolution and first experimental results are discussed

  20. TORE SUPRA vacuum vessel and shield manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blateyron, J.; Lepez, R.

    1984-01-01

    TORE SUPRA vacuum vessel and vacuum chamber shield manufacturing in progress at Jeumont-Schneider consists of three main phases: - Detail engineering and manufacturing fixture construction; - Prototype section manufacturing and process preparation; - Construction of the 6 production modules. The welding techniques adopted, call for three special automatic processes: TIG, MIG and PLASMA welding which guarantee mechanical strength, vacuum tightness and absence of distortion. Production of the modules began July 1984. (author)

  1. Long pulse operation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Garbet, P.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers a series of transparencies dedicated to the long pulse operation on Tore-Supra. The structure of the document is described as follows: the first part is an introduction recalling fusion basis and presenting the different physical and technological phenomenon time scales. The second part is dedicated to the production of long pulses through non-inductive drive and some experimental scenarios illustrate it. The final part is devoted to physics issues like particle retention

  2. Electron cyclotron emission measurement in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.

    1991-06-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from Tore-Supra is measured with Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Calibration methods, essential for this diagnostic, are developed allowing the determination of electron temperature in the plasma. In particular the feasibility of Fabry-Perot interferometer calibration by an original method is demonstrated. A simulation code is developed for modelling non-thermal electron population in these discharges using measurements in non-inductive current generation regime [fr

  3. TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  4. The acquisition system for Tore Supra 1000 s discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, B.; How, J.

    2000-01-01

    Long duration discharges are planned for Tore Supra in the near future. A study has been made to detect and correct all the possible limitations of the data acquisition system. Results and analysis of a few 1000 s 'dry-run' test pulses are presented in this paper as well as the solutions foreseen for Tore Supra

  5. The TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating RF probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at ORNL. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal RF magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal RF magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/sec) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 cm to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data shows parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  6. Pump limiter studies in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Bonnel, P.; Bruneau, J.L.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Pegourie, B.; Rodriguez, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the Tore Supra pump limiter program is to study particle exhaust with a pump limiter system in long-pulse discharges with continuous pellet fueling and strong auxiliary heating. The pump limiter system consists of six vertical modules, located at the bottom of the machine, and one horizontal module at the outer midplane. The instrumentation of the limiter included pressure gauges, a residual gas analyser Langmuir probes, a spectrometer and water calorimeters. Initial results in low-density discharges, with the outboard limiter only, showed a modest effect on the plasma density, while large exhaust fluxes were measured in the pump limiter, without any external fueling

  7. Plasma Edge Control in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Foster, C.; Haste, G.; Horton, L.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Chatelier, M.; Capes, H.; Michelis, C. De; Fall, T.; Geraud, A.; Grisolia, C.; Guilhem, D.; Hutter, T.

    1990-01-01

    TORE SUPRA is a large superconducting tokamak designed for sustaining long inductive pulses (t∼ 30 s). In particular, all the first wall components have been designed for steady-state heat and particle exhaust, particle injection, and additional heating. In addition to these technological assets, a strict control of the plasma-wall interactions is required. This has been done at low power: experiments with ohmic heating have been mainly devoted to the pump limiter, ergodic divertor and pellet injection experiments. Some specific problems arising in large tokamaks are encountered; the pump limiter and the ergodic divertor yield the expected effects on the plasma edge. The effects on the bulk are discussed

  8. One minute pulse operation in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Houtte, D.

    1992-01-01

    Long pulse operation is the main focus of the research program on the high field superconducting Tore Supra tokamak. During the past two years, most of subsystems (Lower Hybrid Current Drive, Ion Cyclotron Radiofrequency Heating, Pellet Injector, Inner Wall, Pump Limiters) have been tested separately and time constants of associated phenomena have been investigated. In 1992, combined experiments have allowed to perform a 1MA-1mn long flat top current plasma discharge. The present paper concentrates on the main characteristics of this long pulse high energy discharge

  9. Runaway electrons dynamics and confinement in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Geraud, A.; Joyer, P.; Martin, G.; Rax, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The lack of energy of runaway electrons, confined in Tore Supra tokamak, is studied. Ohmic discharges, obtained with helium gas, exhibit a small amount of runaway electrons on both hard X-ray monitors and neutron sensors. The observations show an important lack of energy for runaway electrons confined in Tore Supra. It is assumed to be dued to a small pitch-angle scattering (a few degrees), and many candidates for this are compared: the strongest known one collisions seems not to be enough by an order of magnitude. Density and magnetic scans on Tore Supra are needed to discriminate between enhanced collisional scattering processes and purely magnetic phenomena

  10. Ripple losses during ICRF heating in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Bergeaud, V.; Chantant, M.; Martin, G.; Nguyen, F.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.C.; Delpeche, L.; Surle, F.

    2004-01-01

    The toroidal field coils in Tore Supra are supra-conducting, and their number is restricted to 18. As a result, the ripple is fairly large, about 7% at the plasma boundary. Tore Supra has consequently been equipped with dedicated ripple loss diagnostics, which has allowed ripple loss studies. This paper reports on the measurements made with these diagnostics and provides an analysis of the experimental results, comparing them with theoretical expectations whenever possible. Furthermore, the main heating source accelerating ions in Tore Supra is ion cyclotron resonance range of frequency (ICRF) heating, and the paper provides new information on the ripple losses of ICRF accelerated ions. (author)

  11. Snake studies on TORE-SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofani, P.; Desgranges, C.; Garbet, X.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Snakes have been achieved after pellet injection in TORE-SUPRA during ohmic as well as ICRH discharges as it has already been observed in other machines. They are usually localized on a region around the q=1 surface, and correspond mainly to a perturbation of the density profile. The formation of the snake depends on the penetration depth L p of the pellet: the maximum of ablation must be well inside the q=1 surface, this condition is necessary but not sufficient to produce snakes. For example on TORE-SUPRA high speed H 2 pellets (1500 m/s and approximately 10 21 atoms) were injected into D 2 plasmas with following parameters: I p =1.4 MA, B Φ =3 T, T e =1.7 KeV, e >=2-3 10 19 m -3 , a=0.78 m, R=2.4 m, and q a =3.3. In such experimental conditions, the matter is deposited in the centre and snakes are produced in 50% of the cases, but they are created on a second much more internal q=1 surface leading probably to a non monotonic current profile. The first two paragraphs describe the properties of the snake and the induced current modification. The latter paragraph discusses the important role of the bootstrap current in the snake formation. (author) 5 refs., 7 figs

  12. Radiant heat exchange measurements for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatain, D.; Disdier, F.; Gauthier, A.; Raffin, M.; Renaud, M.

    1984-03-01

    In order to minimize the energy consumption of the low temperature cryogenic system connected to the superconducting magnet of TORE-SUPRA, heat exchange from thermal radiation between the vacuum vessels and the thermal shields has been studied. Accordingly large scale cold and hot walls of T.S. have been simulated in a model with reduced dimensions. In this model, the experiment consists in the measurement of the thermal radiated power between two concentric cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel under vacuum conditions. The temperature of the external cylinder was kept constant at 80 K. The internal cylinder was bakeable up to 250 0 C. Various surface treatments were applied on the two cylinders (mechanical polishing and metal deposition of Al, Ag, Ni) [fr

  13. First pump limiter experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Bruneau, J.L.; Chappuis, P.; Gil, C.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Vallet, J.C.; Van Houtte, D.; Watkins, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal load and the particle pumping effects on the outboard pump limiters (OPL), in Tore Supra are analyzed. The investigations are performed for the plasma either in contact with the OPL/ONPL (outboard non pumped limiters) alone or with the OPL and the vertical limiters together. Calorimetric measurements provide estimates of the time-integrated balance of the energy flow at the plasma edge. Radiated and charge exchange energy losses are deduced from the inner vessel calorimetry (R=242cm, a=94cm). Conductive/convective losses on the OPL and vertical (top and bottom) limiters are independently measured, as well as the integrated energy flow on the ergodic divertors. The calorimetric results, the bolometric measurements of the radiated power and the Ohmic power estimates, are indicated. The central line density from interferometric measurement for the two successive shots, with the ONPL and with the OPL, are given

  14. Global energy confinement in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.T.; Bizarro, J.P.; Genile, B. de; Hutter, Th.; Laurent, L.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Tonon, G.; Houtte, D. van

    1992-01-01

    The global energy confinement behaviour of mixed Ohmic/Lower Hybrid driven Tore Supra plasmas has been analysed at various densities. In contradiction with L-mode ITER scaling law, this analysis indicates that the global energy confinement time depends strongly on the plasma density and the isotopic dependence seems not to be observed. The thermal electron energy content of steady-state discharges is in good agreement with the offset linear Rebut-Lallia scaling law. During current ramp experiments, the global energy confinement time was found to depend on the internal self-inductance (li). Improved confinement has been obtained for a steady-state 0.8 MA plasma where the plasma current profile is peaked by LH waves (li ∼1.8). In this case, the global confinement time is found to be about 40% higher than the value predicted by the Rebut-Lallia scaling law. (author) 3 refs., 6 figs

  15. Gas puff modulation experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de; Devynck, P.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Garbet, X.; Gil, C.; Harris, G.; Laviron, C.; Martin, G.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments with a modulation of the gas puff have been done in Tore Supra with the aim to investigate the transport of particles and heat. The target plasma is ohmically heated, sawtoothing with frequencies between 12 and 20 Hz, deuterium for both the plasma and the injection, and with various densities, rising in a series of shots. Both the diffusion coefficient and the pinch velocity for the particle transport were determined using an harmonic modulation. The method gives reasonable results, even for small perturbations, and the obtained values are able to reproduce the stationary values. The heat flow carried by electrons also shows a modulation. The part of the modulation which is not caused by the density can in principle be used to discriminate diffusive and convective terms in the heat flux. An ion temperature profile calculated with empirically determined value of heat diffusivity reproduces the slow evolution of the total kinetic energy. 6 figs., 7 refs

  16. First ECRH modulation experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Artaud, J. F.; Bouquey, F.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The modulation of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is a powerful tool to investigate the crucial problem of heat transport in tokamaks. This method consists in producing perturbations in the electron temperature by means of highly localised electron heating. By studying the propagation of the heat pulse associated with such perturbations, it is possible to determine both the heat transport coefficient and, as a by-product, the ECRH power deposition. In this work, three methods have been used for electron transport analysis: i) the well-known FFT method; ii) an analytical method, consisting in the simulation of the temperature modulation by an analytical solution of the heat transport equation in cylindrical geometry; iii) the power balance method with the profile analysis. The three methods are applied to the analysis of recent experiments performed on Tore Supra, and their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. (authors)

  17. Thomson scattering upgrade on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, F., E-mail: fabrice.leroux@cea.f [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Manenc, L.; Moreau, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic supplies the electron temperature and density of Tore Supra plasmas from the spectrum analysis of scattered light of a very short laser pulse. A new spectrometer has been realized to improve the signal to noise ratio. In order to obtain an efficient noise reduction, a real time calculation is necessary. The current analogue integration of the signal is inadequate. A fast digitalization must be used with a sampling rate of 1 GSamples/s, a bandwidth of 150 MHz and a 12 bits dynamic range. In a first step, fast analogue data acquisition boards for 4 channels were added in 2009 to the VME acquisition system in place. A MATACQ (Matrix for acquisition) board was chosen for sampling analogue data up to 2 GSamples/s over 4 channels with a large bandwidth of 300 MHz and a 14 bits dynamic range. This solution offers a low cost acquisition system that is not available in any other commercial board with this dynamic range. The first results will be obtained on calibration period with a light emitted diode before the summer 2009. This article will present the new data acquisition system and the coming first results.

  18. First pump limiter experiments in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Klepper, C.C.; Bruneau, J.L.; Chappuis, P.; Gil, C.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Vallet, J.C.; Van Houtte, D.; Watkins, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of TORE SUPRA at full power (25MW, 30s) has led to the design of a full set of actively pumped carbon limiters to remove at least 8MW and to partially control the particle balance. An interim version is now installed, composed of 5 vertical and one horizontal outboard (OPL) pump limiters, semi-inertially water cooled. The latter is a result of a collaboration between the US DOE and the Association EUR-CEA, it is fully instrumented and therefore can serve as a reference for the final design. Ohmic discharges (1.85T, 740kA, 8.5s) in helium have been used to test the thermal load on and the particle exhaust efficiency of the OPL. In these experiments the plasma is formed on the inner wall (R = 232 cm, a = 76 cm) and subsequently displaced (6 cm) outward, early on the current plateau, to lean on the OPL (R = 238 cm, a = 75 cm). In addition to the limiters above, a non-pumped outboard (ONLP) limiter of identical shape to the OPL served to produce similar discharges for better comparison and determination of particle control. A comparison is made hereafter of the thermal load and particle pumping effects on the OPL when the plasma is in contact either with the OPL/ONPL alone or with the OPL and the vertical limiters together. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Visible Imaging Diagnostic on Tore-Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dachicourt, R.; Monier Garbet, P.; Beaute, A.; Habib-Naiim, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA Cadarache (France); Marandet, Y. [PIIM, CNRS-Universite de Provence, Marseille (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Research for thermonuclear fusion aims at energy production using fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium nuclei. To this end, a deuterium/tritium mixture has to be heated to a very high temperature (about 100 millions degrees). Chemical and physical sputtering erodes the plasma facing components (PFC), leading to an impurity influx to the plasma. Estimating this erosion source is important both for the PFC lifetime and the quality of the confinement. In fact, impurities reaching the plasma core radiate energy and dilute the fuel. In this contribution, we describe an erosion diagnostic operated on the Tore Supra tokamak, consisting in the combination of visible spectroscopy and filtered imaging over a full TPL (Toroidal Pumped Limiter) sector. Quantitative measurements of spectral lines brightness on four spectrometer chords monitoring the TPL top are used to process the corresponding filtered images, namely to remove background emission or unwanted lines. The particle influx from the TPL's vicinity is obtained from photon fluxes measurements [1], which require absolute calibration in intensity of the system. Filtered images provide the spatial pattern of erosion, from which the total eroded carbon flux is reconstructed. The variation of the particle influx with the input power is studied by analyzing a dedicated experimental campaign. References: [1] Behringer K. et al. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 31, No. 14, pp. 2059 to 2099, 1989. (authors)

  20. Water leak localization and recovery in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Samaille, F.; Chantant, M.; Hatchressian, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    For almost 20 years at Tore Supra, plasma facing components (PFCs) are actively cooled by a pressurized water primary loop. Tore Supra can be considered as ITER relevant on this particular aspect. During plasma operation, it happened, that unexpected localized power deposits damaged a PFC leading to more or less large water leaks in the vacuum vessel. The improvement of the procedure to localize the leaky circuits, the investigation of technical solutions for minimizing the amount of water from steam condensation in the vacuum vessel and the optimisation of the quality of the draining and the drying of Tore Supra cooling loop circuits are the result of the experience gained during several years by the analysis of the water leak from plasma facing components (PFCs) and their consequences. Different new specific systems designed and installed during this year to fulfil these objectives are described in this paper

  1. Tore-Supra: a Tokamak with superconducting toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1987-07-01

    Tore Supra is a tokamak under construction on the site of Cen Cadarache by the Euratom-CEA Association. The machine technology integrates all problems related to the fabrication and the operation of large superconducting coils and of the associated cryogenic system. Tore Supra will provide a significant experience to prepare the next generation of machines for plasma physics and controlled fusion. Tore Supra is specially designed to implement a large physics program. The superconducting coils make possible the study of plasma confinement in long pulses (more than 60s), the impurities and the stability, and the efficiency of additional heating sources (neutral particle beams and radio frequency heating). The opportunity is taken to recall the particular features and requirements of the superconducting coils of the large future tokamaks in order to point out the problems that have to be faced by any new material (superconducting or not)

  2. Manufacture and mechanical test of a TORE SUPRA model coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.; Hamelin, J.; Libeyre, P.; Mayaux, G.; Meuris, C.; Parain, J.; Torossian, A.

    1980-09-01

    Inside the qualifying test programme, supporting the Tore Supra Design, a reduced scale model of a Bsub(T) coil was fabricated by a large industrial firm. This model coil is provided with the same features as those retained for the complete magnet. Tests of this model coil have been carried out in such a way that most of stresses which will arise in Tore Supra windings are simulated; simultaneously its cryogenic supply is fully representative of the system retained for the complete machine. Operation of the model coil has been found highly stable; under the conditions of applied field and forces a coil transition could be triggered, by an electrical heater located inside the coil, only when the temperature of the superfluid helium bath was close to Tsub(lambda). Thus, design and manufacturing techniques have been qualified satisfactorily to proceed to the next step: fabrication of the superconducting Bsub(T) coils of Tore Supra

  3. New developments on Tore Supra data acquisition units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, F.; Caulier, G.; Ducobu, L.; Goniche, M.; Antar, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Tore Supra data acquisition system (DAS) was designed in the early eighties and has considerably evolved since then. Three generations of data acquisition units still coexist. As cost and maintenance of different operating systems is expensive, it was decided to explore an alternative solution based on an open source operating system (OS) with a disk-less system for the fourth generation. In 2010, Linux distributions for VME bus and PCI bus systems have been evaluated and compared to Lynx OS TM real time OS. The results obtained allowed to choose a version of Linux for VME and PC platform for DAS on Tore Supra. In 2011, the Tore Supra DAS dedicated software was ported on a Linux disk-less PCI platform. The new generation was successfully tested during real plasma experiments on one diagnostic, called DCEDRE. (authors)

  4. Heat Loads On Tore Supra ICRF Launchers Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, S.; Colas, L.; Chantant, M.; Beaumont, B.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Moreau, P.; Mitteau, R.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the heat loads on Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency launchers plasma facing components is a crucial task both for operating present tokamaks and for designing ITER ICRF launchers as these loads may limit the RF power coupling capability. Tore Supra facility is particularly well suited to take this issue. Parametric studies have been performed which enables to get an overall detailed picture of the different heat loads on several areas, pointing to different mechanisms at the origin of the heat power fluxes. Lessons are drawned both with regards to Tore Supra possible operational limits and to ITER ICRF launcher design

  5. Ohmic discharges in Tore Supra - Marfes and detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Tore Supra plasma characteristics are given. The observed discharges are either leaning on the graphite inner first wall or limited by movable pump limiters located outboard and at the bottom of the vacuum chamber. The particular plasma conditions which lead to marfes and detached plasmas in ohmically heated He and D2 discharges limited by the inner wall are investigated. The results show that the ratio of radiated power to ohmic power increase linearly with M.g. As M.g rises, attached plasma, marfe and detached plasma are sequentially observed. Detached plasma with an effective radius as small as. 7 times the limiter radius was observed on Tore Supra

  6. Oracle PL/SQL Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This book is the definitive reference on PL/SQL, considered throughout the database community to be the best Oracle programming book available. Like its predecessors, this fifth edition of Oracle PL/SQL Programming covers language fundamentals, advanced coding techniques, and best practices for using Oracle's powerful procedural language. Thoroughly updated for Oracle Database 11g Release 2, this edition reveals new PL/SQL features and provides extensive code samples, ranging from simple examples to complex and complete applications, in the book and on the companion website. This indispensab

  7. First results of the ECE measurements on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcin, M.; Javon, C.; Laurent, L.; Masset, R.; Rodriguez, L.; Talvard, M.

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Tore Supra experiments in april 1988, the ECE diagnostic has been partially operated. The main elements of the diagnostic have been tested and first results have been obtained with a Michelson interferometer and a vertical array of antennae. According to the latter arrangement, the first inverted emissivity profiles are presented

  8. Heat loads on Tore Supra ICRF Launchers Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, S.; Colas, L.; Beaumont, B.; Chantant, M.; Goniche, M.; Mitteau, R.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the heat loads on Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) launchers plasma-facing components is a crucial task both for operating present tokamaks and for designing ITER ICRF launchers as these loads may limit the RF power coupling capability. Tore Supra facility is particularly well suited to take this issue. Parametric studies have been performed which enables to get an overall detailed picture of the different heat loads on several areas, pointing to different mechanisms at the origin of the heat power fluxes. It is found that the most critical items for Tore-Supra operation are localized heat loads on the Faraday screen top left corner and vertical edges. Warming up close to maximum temperature limit originally set for protection of the plasma-facing components is found of high power pulses, but no erosion was observed after detailed inspection of the launcher in Tore-Supra vessel. Yet, the associated heat loads could be limiting for Tore-Supra operation in the future, and some dedicated work is under progress to improve the understanding of these power fluxes, pointing out the importance of getting a better knowledge of particle flows in the scrape of layer

  9. Simulation of core turbulence measurement in Tore Supra ohmic regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquin, S.; Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Sabot, R.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Tore Supra team,

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a simulation of reflectometry measurement in Tore Supra ohmic discharges, for which the experimental observations as well as gyrokinetic non-linear computations predict a modification of turbulence spectrum between the linear (LOC) and the saturated ohmic confinement (SOC)

  10. Runaway electrons dynamics and confinement in TORE-SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Geraud, A.; Joyer, P.; Martin, G.; Rax, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Ohmic discharges in TORE-SUPRA are sufficiently long (∼ 6 s) for runaway electrons (R.E.) to reach a steady energy state: their energy limit is determined by the balance between parallel electric field acceleration (20 MeV/V.s in TORE-SUPRA) and radiation losses due to the curvature of the trajectories. When R.E. energy is supposed to be only parallel, this provides estimate of order of 70 MeV (value usually called 'synchrotron limit') reached in less than 2 seconds. Experimental observations on TORE-SUPRA of photoneutron emission together with residual induced radioactivity in the first wall components tend to prove that the actual value is much lower than 70 MeV (i.e. 15-35 MeV). Earlier observations in ORMAK, PLT and TFR already showed R.E. energy a slightly less than expected from standard loop voltage acceleration calculations. Explanations given for this lack of energy (as skin-effect lowering the electric field during the ramp-up phase or balance between continuous creation and losses) seems not to hold on TORE-SUPRA and therefore another mechanism must be considered to explain the R.E. energy limitation. 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. Tore supra: towards the 'long time' fusion. Press journey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the interest in the fusion for the development of energy sources, the document presents the fusion from the solar reaction to the nuclear fusion in laboratory. Then it discusses the great challenges of this technology and the Tore Supra installation. The last part is devoted to ITER and DEMO projects. (A.L.B.)

  12. TORE SUPRA 300 W - 1.75 K refrigerator report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gistau, G.M.; Bonneton, M.; Mart, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The TORE SUPRA refrigerator is now installed and the acceptance tests have been completed. All equipment has performed above design levels. The liquid ring pumps and cold centrifugal compressors have run for more than 1000 hours. Commissioning and acceptance tests, including cooldown, variable heat load, unscheduled shutdown, power outage and automatic restart, and a 400-hour shakedown run, are described and evaluated

  13. Lower hybrid current drive in Tore Supra and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Gormezano, C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments in TORE SUPRA and JET are reported. Large multijunction launchers have allowed the coupling of 5MW to the plasma for several seconds with a maximum of 3.8 kW/cm 2 . Measurements of the scattering matrices of the antennae show good agreement with theory. The current drive efficiency in TORE SUPRA is about 0.2 x 10 20 Am -2 /W with LH power alone and reaches 0.4 x 10 20 Am -2 /W in JET thanks to a high volume-averaged electron temperature (1.9 keV) and also to a synergy between Lower Hybrid and Fast Magnetosonic Waves. At n e = 1.5 x 10 19 m -3 in TORE SUPRA, sawteeth are suppressed and m = 1MHD oscillations the frequency of which clearly depends on the amount of LH power are observed on soft X-rays, and also on non-thermal ECE. In Jet ICRH produced sawtooth free periods are extended by the application of LHCD and current profile broadening has been clearly observed consistent with off-axis fast electron populations. LH power modulation experiments performed in TORE SUPRA at n e = 4 x 10 19 m -3 show a delayed central electron heating despite the off-axis creation of suprathermal electrons, thus ruling out the possibility of a direct heating through central wave absorption. A possible explanation in terms of anomalous fast electron transport and classical slowing down would yield a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 m 2 /s for the fast electrons. Finally, successful pellet fuelling of a partially LH driven plasma was obtained in TORE SUPRA, 28 successive pellets allowing the density to rise to n e = 4 x 10 19 m -3 . This could be achieved by switching the LH power off for 90 ms before each pellet injection, i.e. without modifying significantly the current density profile

  14. The plasma facing components of the Tore Supra ICRF antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, B.; Agarici, G.; Gauthier, E.; Kuus, H.; Schlosser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two generations of Faraday shields for the Tore Supra ICRH antennas interacting with the edge plasma are presented. The last one, using a film of boron carbide as protective material performs well, proving the relevance of this technique for in vessel equipment submitted to low power fluxes. The different lateral protections used on Tore Supra are submitted to high power fluxes. Finite element calculations allow to assess their performances. One type, using Boron Carbide, can be used to measure the local heat flux. The estimation of this flux confirm the specificity of the edge/RF interaction, which is more than one order of magnitude above the exponential decay observed in ohmic plasmas. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig

  15. Experience from Tore Supra acquisition system and evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, B.; Buravand, Y.; Chatelier, E.; Leroux, F.

    2004-01-01

    The Tore Supra tokamak has been upgraded to explore long duration plasma discharges up to 1000s. Since summer 2001, the acquisition system operates in continuous mode apart of the data processing which is still done after the pulse. In the first part, we explore a few solutions to process continuously the data during the pulse, based on parallel processing on a Linux farm and then on a CONDOR system. The second part is devoted to the Web service exposing the Tore Supra operation. In the last part, the VME acquisition system has been redesigned to keep up with the high data rates required by a few diagnostics. The workflow is now distributed among a few computers. At the end, we give the current status of the realisation and the future planning

  16. Transport and turbulence in TORE SUPRA ohmic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Laviron, C.; Devynck, P.; Saha, S.K.; Capes, H.; Chen, X.P.; Coulon, J.P.; Gil, C.; Harris, G.; Hutter, T.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the energy confinement behaviour in ohmic tokamak discharges are not yet understood. It is well known that the confinement time increases with the average density and saturates above a critical value of the density, but several explanations exist for this saturation. The present study is an analysis of a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra with I p =1.6 MA, B=4 T, R=2.35 m and a=0.78 m, where the average density was increased from 0.9 to 4.2 10 19 m -3 . For these plasma parameters, the energy confinement time given by magnetic measurements saturates for e > ≥ 2.5 10 19 m -3 . It is emphasized here that the onset of ionic turbulence is unlikely in Tore Supra. This conclusion relies on a transport analysis and turbulence measurements by CO 2 laser scattering, whose results are presented in this paper

  17. MHD activity triggered by monster sawtooth crashes on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maget, P; Artaud, J-F; Eriksson, L-G; Huysmans, G; Lazaros, A; Moreau, P; Ottaviani, M; Segui, J-L; Zwingmann, W

    2005-01-01

    The crash of monster sawteeth in Tore Supra ion cyclotron resonance heated plasmas is observed to trigger long-lived magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) activity, dominated by a (m = 3, n = 2) magnetic perturbation at the edge. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the triggering of neoclassical tearing modes, although in Tore Supra the MHD activity decays and eventually vanishes. It can be explained by the linear destabilization of the (3, 2) mode as the current sheet developed in the non-linear stage of the internal kink relaxation gets closer to q = 3/2. However, the lifetime of the (3, 2) island is longer than the period of linear instability. We find that the neoclassical drive is essential for explaining the observed lifetime and width of the island, although the overall dynamics is controlled by the relaxation of the current profile on a resistive time scale

  18. Oracle PL/SQL programming

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Considered the best Oracle PL/SQL programming guide by the Oracle community, this definitive guide is precisely what you need to make the most of Oracle’s powerful procedural language. The sixth edition describes the features and capabilities of PL/SQL up through Oracle Database 12c Release 1. Hundreds of thousands of PL/SQL developers have benefited from this book over the last twenty years; this edition continues that tradition. With extensive code examples and a lively sense of humor, this book explains language fundamentals, explores advanced coding techniques, and offers best practices to help you solve real-world problems. * Get PL/SQL programs up and running quickly, with clear instructions for executing, tracing, testing, debugging, and managing code * Understand new 12.1 features, including the ACCESSIBLE_BY clause, WITH FUNCTION and UDF pragma, BEQUEATH CURRENT_USER for views, and new conditional compilation directives * Take advantage of extensive code samples, from easy-to-follow examples to reu...

  19. First results of correlation electron cyclotron emission on Tore Supra

    OpenAIRE

    Udintsev, V. S.; Goniche, M.; Ségul, J.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Molina, D.; Turco, F.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Maget, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of electron temperature fluctuations by means of correlation electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics aid in understanding the nature of the turbulent transport infusion plasmas. On Tore Supra tokamak, a 32-channel heterodyne ECE radiometer has been upgraded to include two channels for temperature fluctuation measurements. The central frequency of the yttrium iron garnet filter on each channel is remotely monitored by a driver, allowing one to shift the observation volume in...

  20. The Tore Supra HeII cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The tokamak TORE SUPRA built by the association EURATOM-CEA is routinely operated with a toroidal magnet made of Niobium Titanium cooled at 1.8 K by pressurized HeII. The paper will remind the reasons for such a choice and will describe the corresponding technical solutions. After several years of operation, the validity of the HeII cooling solution will be discussed on the basis of the actual and long term behaviour

  1. Lower hybrid wave coupling in TORE SUPRA through multijunction launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Bibet, P.; Goniche, M.

    1991-01-01

    The TORE SUPRA Lower Hybrid Current Drive experiments (8MW/3.7GHz) use large phased waveguide arrays (4 rows of 32 waveguides for each of the two 'grills') to couple the waves to the plasma. These launchers are based on the 'Multijunction' principle which allows them to be quite compact but needs to be fully assessed for the design of efficient multi-megawatt antennas in NET/ITER. (author) 5 refs., 6 figs

  2. TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  3. Steady state operation and control experiments on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, F.

    2000-01-01

    The main programme of the Tore Supra tokamak is to investigate the route towards long pulse plasma discharges. Tore Supra is thus equipped with a superconducting toroidal magnet, a full set of actively cooled plasma facing components, and a heating and current drive capability based on high power RF systems connected to actively cooled antennas. After pioneering investigations using the LHCD system alone (2 min and zero loop voltage discharges), recent efforts have concentrated on finding scenarios to couple the two RF heating systems in order to perform high power, long duration discharges. To this aim, 6.5 MW, 25 s as well as 4 MW, 60 s discharges have been successfully achieved. At these high power levels, the plasma-wall interaction becomes a critical issue, and recycling fluxes must be controlled to maintain density and to avoid plasma contamination. All these results contributed to the validation of the upgrade of the Tore Supra first wall components (CIEL project) scheduled for 2000. (author)

  4. ORNL compact loop antenna design for TFTR and Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Bryan, W.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Ray, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The goal supplemental ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of fusion plasma is to deliver power at high efficiencies deep within the plasma. The technology for fast-wave ICRH has reached the point of requiring ''proof-of-performance'' demonstration of specific antenna configurations of specific antenna configurations and their mechanical adequacy for operating in a fusion environment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the compact loop antenna concept based on a resonant double loop (RDL) configuration for use in both Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Tore Supra ICRH programs. A description and a comparison of the technologies developed in the two designs are presented. The electrical circuit and the mechanical philosophy employed are the same for both antennas, but different operating environments result in substantial differences in the design of specific components. The ORNL TFTR antenna is designed to deliver 4 MW over a 2-s pulse, and the ORNL Tore Supra antenna is designed for 4 MW and essentially steady-state conditions. The TFTR design embodies the first operations compact RDL antenna, and the Tore Supra antenna extends the technology to an operational duty cycle consistent with reactor-relevant applications. 7 refs., 5 figs

  5. 3400 m/s deuterium pellet injector for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, J.P.; Geraud, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the Tore Supra high velocity pellet injector which was built in Grenoble and after qualification tests installed on Tore Supra Tokomak where it is used for plasma and ablation studies. By using a two stage light gas gun (TSG) and two cells (φ = 3 mm or 4 mm), unsupported pellets pellets (1 to 3.5 10 21 atoms) made directly in the gun by > [1] have been launched into Tore Supra plasma at speeds between 2400m/s and 3400m/s with a reliability of 80%. These higher pellets velocities (> 2500 m/s) [2] are obtained by the optimization of a TSG and the search for the cryogenic conditions of freezing deuterium with good mechanical properties. In particular, the impurities concentration in deuterium during the condensation process has been studied. Several tens pellets have been injected into ohmically and ICR heated plasma and during LH current drive experiments with a good reliability in the range of 3000m/s. These experiments allowed us to extend significantly the ablation data base. Central penetrations can be reached even for high temperatures plasma (3-5 keV) and very peaked density profiles have been obtained in ohmically and ICR heated plasmas A transient improved confinement regime is then observed, which presents some features similar to the PEP regime obtained on JET. (orig.)

  6. Excitation of beta Alfven eigenmodes in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, C; Garbet, X; Sabot, R; Goniche, M; Maget, P; Basiuk, V; Decker, J; Elbeze, D; Huysmans, G T A; Macor, A; Segui, J-L; Schneider, M; Eriksson, L-G

    2009-01-01

    Modes oscillating at the acoustic frequency and identified as beta Alfven eigenmodes (BAEs) have been observed in Tore-Supra under ion cyclotron resonant heating. In this paper, the linear excitation threshold of these modes, thought to be driven by suprathermal ions, is calculated and compared with Tore-Supra observations. Similar studies of the linear excitation threshold of energetic particles driven modes were carried out previously for toroidal Alfven eigenmodes or fishbones. In the case of BAEs, the main point is to understand whether the energetic particle drive is able to exceed ion Landau damping, which is expected to be important in the acoustic frequency range. For this, the BAE dispersion relation is computed and simplified in order to derive a tractable excitation criterion suitable for comparison with experiments. The observation of BAEs in Tore-Supra is found to be in agreement with the calculated criterion and confirms the possibility to trigger these modes in the presence of ion Landau damping. Moreover, the conducted analysis clearly puts forward the role of the global tunable parameters which play a role in the BAE excitation (the magnetic field, the density etc), as well as the role of some plasma profiles. In particular, the outcome of a modification of the shear or of the heating localization is found to be non-negligible and it is discussed in the paper.

  7. Lower hybrid current drive in Tore Supra and jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.; Gormezano, C.

    1991-07-01

    Recent Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments in TORE SUPRA and JET are reported. Large multijunction launchers have allowed the coupling of 5 MW to the plasma for several seconds with a maximum of 3.8 kW/cm 2 . Measurements of the scattering matrices of the antennae show good agreement with theory. The current drive efficiency in TORE SUPRA is about 0.2 x 10 20 Am -2 /W with LH power alone and reaches 0.4 x 10 20 Am -2 /W in JET thanks to a high volume-averaged electron temperature (1.9 keV) and also to a synergy between Lower Hybrid and Fast Magnetosonic Waves. At average n e = 1.5 x 10 19 m -3 in TORE SUPRA, sawteeth are suppressed and m = 1 MHD oscillations the frequency of which clearly depends on the amount of LH power are observed on soft X-rays, and also on non-thermal ECE. In JET ICRH produced sawtooth-free periods are extended by the application of LHCD (2.9 s. with 4 MW ICRH) and current profile broadening has been clearly observed consistent with off-axis fast electron populations. LH power modulation experiments performed in TORE SUPRA at average n e = 4 x 10 19 m -3 show a delayed central electron heating despite the off-axis creation of suprathermal electrons, thus ruling out the possibility of a direct heating through central wave absorption. A possible explanation in terms of anomalous fast electron transport and classical slowing down would yield a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 m 2 /s for the fast electrons. Other interpretations such as an anomalous heat pinch or a central confinement enhancement cannot be excluded. Finally, successful pellet fuelling of a partially LH driven plasma was obtained in TORE SUPRA, 28 successive pellets allowing the density to rise to average n e = 4 x 10 19 m -3 . This could be achieved by switching the LH power off for 90 ms before each pellet injection, i.e. without modifying significantly the current density profile

  8. A step towards controlled fusion reactors: Tore Supra tokamak with superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1988-01-01

    Tore Supra technology has to solve all the problems related to the development and the installaion of superconducting coils and associated cryogenic devices. Tore Supra will allow to get a significative experience to prepare next machines. Specifications and needs of tokamaks concerning the superconducting coils of future machines are recalled [fr

  9. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2007-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular pocket guide provides quick-reference information that will help you use Oracle's PL/SQL language, including the newest Oracle Database 11g features. A companion to Steven Feuerstein and Bill Pribyl's bestselling Oracle PL/SQL Programming, this concise guide boils down the most vital PL/SQL information into an accessible summary

  10. Eddy current calculations for the tore supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.; Dupas, L.; Leloup, C.; Thooris, B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the calculation of the eddy currents in the structures of a Tokamak, which can be assimilated to thin conductors, so that the three-dimensional problem can be reduced mathematically to a two-dimensional one, the variables being two orthogonal coordinates of the considered surface. A variational formulation of the problem in terms of the electric vector potential is then given and a finite element method has been used, which enables to treat the complicated geometry of the toroidal field magnet, the mechanical structures and the vacuum vessels of Tore Supra

  11. Full steady state LH scenarios in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Lower Hybrid discharge have been realised in Tore Supra using feed-back control of the primary circuit voltage such that the loop voltage was maintained exactly to zero near the plasma surface. This new scenario allows the plasma current to float and quickly reach an equilibrium value determined by the current drive efficiency and Lower Hybrid power. Recent experimental results show that, with the new constant flux scenario the coupled plasma and primary currents reach a steady state in less than 10 s which is a good agreement with theoretical expectations. A complete analysis of this scenario is presented. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs

  12. The design of the helium refrigerator for TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gistau, G.M.; Claudet, G.

    1984-01-01

    The special cryogenic requirements of TORE SUPRA have called for novel solutions. Pumping the 1,75 K (13 mb) helium bath is achieved by the use of a pair of centrifugal pumps operating at very low temperature, backed up by liquid rings pumps at room temperature. Four oil-lubricated screw compressors mounted in series-parallel form the main cycle helium compression set. The Joule-Thomson expansion valve is replaced by a mechanical expansion engine working with a bi-phase exhaust. The control of the refrigeration system is entirely automatic

  13. The Tore Supra Lower Hybrid Test Bed : improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, L.; Achard, J.; Beaumont, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within the CIMES project framework in Tore Supra, a klystron TH2103C (3.7 GHz) is under development at THALES ELECTRON DEVICES. It differs from the previous klystrons used in Tore Supra generator mainly in that it has no modulating anode, the RF output power will reach 700 kW CW, by raising the High Voltage value to 76 kV and a beam current up to 23 A. The Tore Supra test bed is a dedicated facility used for high power tests on RF components or on RF transmitters. It has been improved to integrate the TH2103C klystron and a specific 100 kV solide state switch which control the beam current. Since April 2005, the integration of the first tube (without modulating anode) and the 100 kV switch has been completed in the Test Bed and has allowed the modifications and tests of the interfaces and security system for the devices. Improvements were also made on the cooling loop flow to dissipate a power of 1750 kW CW. With these devices, the RF power routinely available in the Lower Hybrid Test Bed is 400 kW CW. With the development of the TH2103C, detailed studies and tests on RF components which will be used up to 750 kW CW on match load or 700 kW on VSWR = 1.4, are necessary to evaluate their performances and thermal behaviour. The test a crucial component, the recombiner, which adds the RF powers coming from the two RF outputs of the TH2103C and inject the resulted power into one WR284 waveguide to a test load or to the plasma, was completed. Two tests have been performed : a thermal study with 400 kW during 1000 s, and RF pulsed tests on short cuts to increase the value of the electric field inside the component. The experiments and calculations (ANSYS and HFSS codes) validate the use of this device with the TH2103C. A module made with two different Beryllium Oxide RF windows, has been under test. The losses on each window are measured by calorimetric measurements and evaluated by computation with HFSS and ANSYS code. The results are compared. In this paper, the

  14. Temperature oscillating regimes in Tore Supra diagnosed by MHD activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maget, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Giruzzi, G.; Udintsev, V.S.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Segui, J.-L.; Goniche, M.; Moreau, Ph.; Sabot, R.; Garbet, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes what we can learn on the regimes of spontaneous electron temperature oscillations discovered in Tore Supra from the analysis of MHD activity. Since the first observations of this oscillating behaviour of plasma equilibrium, and its interpretation as a predator-prey system involving lower hybrid waves power deposition and electron confinement, analysis of MHD modes has confirmed the reality of safety factor profile oscillations. This points towards the importance of rational values of the safety factor in the transition to transport barriers in reversed magnetic shear plasmas

  15. Pellet injection and confinement in the tore supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maget, P.

    1998-01-01

    Pellet injection in the centre of tokamak plasmas can lead to an improved confinement regime called PEP (Pellet Enhanced Performance). The present work is dedicated to the mechanisms involved in the PEP regimes obtained in the tokamak Tore Supra. A neoclassical approach of transport shows that it is the anomalous transport, due to plasma turbulence, that causes the enhanced confinement. A linear model describing electrostatic instabilities has been developed in order to study the roles of density profile and current profile during the PEP, in the limit of large growth rates. The effect of radial shear in flows is taken into account by removing the ExB shear flow rate from the linear growth rate, as suggested by non-linear numerical simulations of turbulence. A local transport coefficient is estimated from the knowledge of the linear growth rate and the mode width. We find that the peaked density profile in PEP regime lowers the diffusion coefficient, and that the velocity shear amplifies this effect. The evolution of the current profile is also stabilizing, but this parameter is not known with sufficient accuracy, so that its role in Tore Supra PEP experiments remains uncertain. (author)

  16. Global analysis of ICRF wave coupling on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goniche, M.; Bremond, S.; Colas, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Tore Supra tokamak is equipped with a multi-megawatt ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) system for heating and current drive. The coupling of the fast wave to the plasma, characterized by the distributed coupling resistance along the radiating straps, is a crucial issue in order to launch large RF powers. Many factors can have an effect on ICRF wave coupling. Quantitative prediction from theoretical modelling requires the knowledge of the local inhomogeneous plasma density profile in front of the antenna for running sophisticated antenna codes. In this work, we have rather followed a 'global' approach, based on Tore Supra experimental results, for the parametric study of the coupling resistance. From a large data base covering seven experimental campaigns (∼2250 shots), a scaling law of the coupling resistance including the main parameters of the plasma and of the antenna configuration is established. This approach is found to be reliable for the analysis of coupling in the different scenarios: He/D 2 gas filling, gas/pellets for plasma fuelling, plasma leaning on inner wall/low field side limiter, limiter/ergodic divertor configuration, minority heating/direct electron heating. From one scenario to another, a significant variation of the coefficients of the scaling law is found. The study of these variations allows to get some insight on the main physical mechanisms which influence the ICRF wave coupling in a tokamak operation, such as the wall conditioning and recycling conditions, RF sheaths or frequency. (author)

  17. Calibration procedures of the Tore-Supra infrared endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, C.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Reichle, R.; Firdaouss, M.; Lipa, M.; Chantant, M.; Gardarein, J. L.; Saille, A.; Loarer, T.

    2018-01-01

    Five endoscopes equipped with infrared cameras working in the medium infrared range (3-5 μm) are installed on the controlled thermonuclear fusion research device Tore-Supra. These endoscopes aim at monitoring the plasma facing components surface temperature to prevent their overheating. Signals delivered by infrared cameras through endoscopes are analysed and used on the one hand through a real time feedback control loop acting on the heating systems of the plasma to decrease plasma facing components surface temperatures when necessary, on the other hand for physics studies such as determination of the incoming heat flux . To ensure these two roles a very accurate knowledge of the absolute surface temperatures is mandatory. Consequently the infrared endoscopes must be calibrated through a very careful procedure. This means determining their transmission coefficients which is a delicate operation. Methods to calibrate infrared endoscopes during the shutdown period of the Tore-Supra machine will be presented. As they do not allow determining the possible transmittances evolution during operation an in-situ method is presented. It permits the validation of the calibration performed in laboratory as well as the monitoring of their evolution during machine operation. This is possible by the use of the endoscope shutter and a dedicated plasma scenario developed to heat it. Possible improvements of this method are briefly evoked.

  18. Plasma rotation study in Tore Supra radio frequency heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouli, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Toroidal flows are found to improve the performance of the magnetic confinement devices with increase of the plasma stability and confinement. In ITER or future reactors, the torque from NBI should be less important than in present-day tokamaks. Consequently, it is of interest to study other intrinsic mechanisms that can give rise to plasma rotation in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Intriguing observations of plasmas rotation have been made in radio frequency (RF) heated plasmas with little or no external momentum injection. Toroidal rotation in both the direction of the plasma current (co-current) and in the opposite direction (counter-current) has been observed depending on the heating schemes and plasma performance. In Tore Supra, most observations in L-mode plasmas have been in the counter-current direction. However, in this thesis, we show that in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), the core toroidal rotation increment is in co- or counter-current direction depending on the plasma current amplitude. At low plasma current the rotation change is in the co-current direction while at high plasma current, the change is in the counter-current direction. In both low and high plasma current cases, rotation increments are found to increase linearly with the injected LH power. Several mechanisms in competition which can induce co- or counter-current rotation in Tore Supra LHCD plasmas are investigated and typical order of magnitude are discussed in this thesis. (author) [fr

  19. Net erosion measurements on plasma facing components of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Chappuis, P.; Corre, Y.; Gauthier, E.; Grosman, A.; Pascal, J.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Erosion of the plasma facing components is a crucial point of investigation in long pulse operation of future fusion devices. Therefore erosion measurements have been undertaken in the Tore Supra tokamak. After each experimental campaign, different plasma facing components have been monitored in situ by non-destructive means, in order to evaluate their net erosion following a long plasma exposure. This paper presents the results obtained over three experimental campaigns on the Tore Supra ergodic divertor B 4 C-coated neutralisers and CFC Langmuir probes. The erosion on the Langmuir probes after one year of plasma exposure can reach 100 μm, leading to an effective erosion coefficient of around 5x10 -3 to 10 -2 , in reasonable agreement with values found on other tokamaks. The erosion of the ergodic divertor neutraliser plates is lower (10 μm). This is coherent with the attenuated particle flux due to a lower incidence angle, and might also be due to some surface temperature effect, since the neutralisers are actively cooled while the Langmuir probes are not. Moreover, the profile along the neutraliser shows net erosion in zones wetted by the plasma and net redeposition in shadowed zones

  20. Particle retention during long discharges in Tore Supra and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loarer, T.; Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Gunn, J.; Joffrin, E.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Pegourie, B.; Thomas, P.; Lomas, P.; Ongena, J.

    2003-01-01

    The particle balances and the associated particle retentions for the long discharge experiments performed in Tore-Supra and for the L and H mode discharges carried out in JET are reported in this paper. From the reported experiments, the same particle retention behaviors are observed in Tore-Supra and JET in spite of the differences between the plasma geometry and the confinement mode (respectively limiter L-mode and divertor H-mode). A particle retention up to 70-80% of Γ(puff) for the larger gas injection has been obtained in JET. The particle retention behavior observed with the gas puff appears to be strongly dominant in the particle retention process. Indeed, no influence has been noticed from the active pumping, the saturation of the recycling area (0.4 D/C), the precedent discharges history (in terms of total 'particles retained' in the vessel) and even from the disruptions (conditioning). Also, the outgassing between discharges becomes negligible in terms of particle recovering when Γ(puff) and/or the discharge duration are increased. Finally, neither the edge localized modes (ELMs type-I or III) nor the disruptions modify the reported behaviour. For ITER, the particle retention is strictly limited and from the presented results it seems that strong gas injection should be avoided. (A.C.)

  1. Pellet injection and confinement in the tore supra tokamak; Injection de glacons et confinement dans le tokamak tore supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maget, P

    1998-09-23

    Pellet injection in the centre of tokamak plasmas can lead to an improved confinement regime called PEP (Pellet Enhanced Performance). The present work is dedicated to the mechanisms involved in the PEP regimes obtained in the tokamak Tore Supra. A neoclassical approach of transport shows that it is the anomalous transport, due to plasma turbulence, that causes the enhanced confinement. A linear model describing electrostatic instabilities has been developed in order to study the roles of density profile and current profile during the PEP, in the limit of large growth rates. The effect ofradial shear in flows is taken into account by removing the ExB shear flow rate from the linear growth rate, as suggested by non-linear numerical simulations of turbulence. A local transport coefficient is estimated from the knowledge of the linear growth rate and the mode width. We find that the peaked density profile in PEP regime lowers the diffusion coefficient, and that the velocity shear amplifies this effect. The evolution of the current profile is also stabilizing, but this parameter is not known with sufficient accuracy, so that its role in Tore Supra PEP experiments remains uncertain. (author)

  2. Study of plasma-wall interactions in Tore-supra; Etude des phenomenes d'interaction plasma/paroi dans Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, R

    2000-01-01

    In tokamaks the interaction between wall and plasma generates impurities that affect the thermonuclear fusion. This thesis is divided into 2 parts. The first part describes the physico-chemical processes that are involved in chemical erosion, the second part deals with the study of the wear of Tore-supra's walls due to chemical erosion. Chapter 1 presents the wall-plasma interaction and reviews the different processes between plasma and carbon that occur in Tore-supra. Chapter 2 considers the various crystallographic and electronic structures of the carbon that interferes with Tore-supra plasma, the evolution of these structures during irradiation and their temperature dependence are studied. Chapter 3 presents a crystallo-chemical study of graphite samples that have undergone different surface treatments: ionic bombardment, annealing and air exposure. This experimental study has been performed by using energy-loss spectroscopy. It is shown that air exposure modifies the crystallo-chemical structure of surfaces, so it is necessary to prevent air from contaminating wall samples from Tore-supra. Chapter 4 presents a parametric study of chemical erosion rate of plasma facing components (LPM) of Tore-supra. A relation such as Y{sub cd4}{alpha}{gamma}{sup -0.1} gives a good agreement for chemical erosion rate between measurements and the numerical values of the simulation. (A.C.)

  3. Calibration of Fabry-Perot interferometers for electron cyclotron emission measurements on the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.; Talvard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The electron temperature is routinely measured on TORE SUPRA using Fabry-Perot cavities. These have been calibrated using a technique involving coherent addition and Fourier analysis of a chopped black-body source. Comparison with conventional techniques is reported

  4. Integration of advanced feedback control techniques on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, O.; Basiuk, V.; Bucalossi, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tore Supra tokamak plays an important role in development and optimisation of steady-state scenarios. Its real-time feedback control system is a key instrument to improve plasma performances. For this reason, new feedback control schemes have been recently put into operation and others are being developed. This work deals with the implementation in Tore Supra of these advanced algorithms, reports the technical details and shows the first positive results that have been achieved. For instance, encouraging results have been obtained in the field of profiles control. Controls of the full width at half maximum of the suprathermal electrons local emission profile at very low loop voltage and of the maximum of the thermal Larmor radius, normalised to the characteristic length of the electron temperature gradient, have been attained. While the first quantity can be directly associated to the current profile, the second one characterises the pressure profile. A new feedback control algorithm, employed to maximise a given quantity by means of a '' Search Optimisation '' technique, has been effectively tested too: the hard X-ray width has been maximised with simultaneous use of lower hybrid heating power and wave parallel index as actuators. These and other promising results, whose detailed description will be given in the article, have been obtained thanks to the real-time availability of several diagnostic systems. Using a shared memory network as communication layer, they send their measurements to a central computing unit that, in its turn, dispatches the necessary requirements to the actuators. A key issue is the possibility to integrate these controls in such a way as to cope with different requests at the same time. As an example, simultaneous control of the plasma current by means of the lower hybrid heating power, of the loop voltage by means of the poloidal field system and of the hard X-ray width through the lower hybrid heating phase shift has been successfully

  5. Tore Supra: technical aspects and early results after one year of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravier, R.

    1989-01-01

    After one year operation (1988 to 1989), technical aspects of component systems and equipment of Tore Supra are summarized. Particular attention is given to the operation with: supraconducting toroidal field coil system, cryogenic system, poloidal field system, in vessel equipment, first wall conditioning, pump limiter. The ergodic divertor experiments and the current drive experiment are reported. The plasma heating methods adopted in Tore Supra are presented

  6. Edge plasma control: Particle channeling in Tore Supra pump limiter and ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Samain, A.; Grosman, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Improved pumping efficiency can be achieved on Tore Supra by channeling process for particles, i.e. channeling of neutrals in the throat of pump limiters and channeling of plasma towards neutralizer plates in the ergodic divertor. The plugging length for the pump limiter throat is computed and numerical evidence of plasma flux channeling between the conductor bars of the ergodic divertor is presented. The effect of the Tore Supra ergodic divertor on edge plasma state and edge plasma transport is discussed. (orig.)

  7. 300 W - 1.75 K TORE SUPRA refrigerator cold centrifugal compressors report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gistau, G.M.; Pecoud, Y.; Ravex, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The centrifugal helium compressors for the TORE SUPRA tokamak refrigerator were designed and manufactured by L'Air Liquide and tested at nominal conditions on a custom test rig. The refrigerator is now installed and all acceptance tests have been completed. Other tests were carried out off design conditions with the machines installed in the TORE SUPRA refrigerator. The results of these tests, including compression ratio, efficiency, and heat losses, are discussed

  8. Current density profile inside q=1 on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffrin, E.; Desgranges, C.; Sabot, R.; Dubois, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Tore Supra polarimeter used to measure the poloidal field distribution is described. The current density profiles are computed in two different ways using the interferometric and polarimetric data in conjunction with the magnetic data and the location of the inversion radius determined by the soft X-ray camera. The current density inside the q=1 surface is investigated for normal and monster sawteeth. Its variation are also measured by the polarimeter and compared with that predicted by the current diffusion equation assuming complete reconnection. Finally, the safety factor profile is compared with that obtained with the striation data of the pellet ablation. The results of the evolution of the q profile during sawteeth are in good agreement with those obtained in other devices. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs

  9. Brazing of the Tore Supra actively cooled Phase III Limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.; Walker, C.A.; Lutz, T.J.; Hosking, F.M.; McGrath, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    The head of the water-cooled Tore Supra Phase 3 Limiter is a bank of 14 round OFHC copper tubes, curved to fit the plasma radius, onto which several hundred pyrolytic graphite (PG) tiles and a lesser number of carbon fiber composite tiles are brazed. The small allowable tolerances for fitting the tiles to the tubes and mating of compound curvatures made the brazing and fabrication extremely challenging. The paper describes the fabrication process with emphasis on the procedure for brazing. In the fixturing for vacuum furnace brazing, the tiles were each independently clamped to the tube with an elaborate set of window frame clamps. Braze quality was evaluated with transient heating tests. Some rebrazing was necessary

  10. Current diffusion and flux consumption in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Houtte, D.; Talvard, M.; Agostini, E.; Gil, C.; Hoang, G.T.; Lecoustey, P.; Parlange, F.; Rodriguez, L.; Vallet, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    TORE SUPRA has been designed to study long pulse plasmas (t > 30 s) at high plasma current (Ip < 2 MA) associated with high additional power (20 MW). Current diffusion studies are essentially based on the analysis of the plasma discharge paths. The current diffusion rate during the current rise phase is analysed with a numerical code using plasma resistivity profiles from Te profiles measured by the ECE diagnostic. Owing to the fact that the quantity of magnetic flux available in a tokamak is limited, perfect knowledge is required of the various components of the flux consumed in order to minimize consumption and to be able to define a suitable transformer size for future high current tokamak projects

  11. Temperature gradient driven electron transport in NSTX and Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Wong, H.V.; Morrison, P.J.; Wurm, A.; Kim, J.H.; Perez, J.C.; Pratt, J.; Hoang, G.T.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Ball, R.

    2005-01-01

    Electron thermal fluxes are derived from the power balance for Tore Supra (TS) and NSTX discharges with centrally deposited fast wave electron heating. Measurements of the electron temperature and density profiles, combined with ray tracing computations of the power absorption profiles, allow detailed interpretation of the thermal flux versus temperature gradient. Evidence supporting the occurrence of electron temperature gradient turbulent transport in the two confinement devices is found. With control of the magnetic rotational transform profile and the heating power, internal transport barriers are created in TS and NSTX discharges. These partial transport barriers are argued to be a universal feature of transport equations in the presence of invariant tori that are intrinsic to non-monotonic rotational transforms in dynamical systems

  12. An advanced plasma control system for Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnands, T.; Martin, G.

    1996-01-01

    First results on plasma control with the new plasma control system of Tore Supra are presented. The system has been especially designed for long pulse operation: plasmas are controlled on reference signals, which can be varied in real time by using diagnostic measurements. On line determination of the global plasma equilibrium has enabled new operation scenarios in which both the power from the poloidal field generators and the total Lower Hybrid (LH) power are used to control the plasma. Experiments with feedback control of the safety factor on the plasma boundary, control of the LH driven current, control of the flux on the plasma boundary and control of the internal inductance are discussed. (author). 12 refs.

  13. Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, A.; Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S.

    2001-11-01

    The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)

  14. Eddy current calculations for the Tore Supra toroidal field magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.

    1983-01-01

    An outline is given of the calculation of the eddy currents in the magnetic structures of a Tokamak, which can be assimilated to thin conductors, so that the three-dimensional problem can be reduced mathematically to a two-dimensional one, the variables being two orthogonal coordinates of the considered surface. A finite element method has been used in order to treat the complicated geometry of the set of the 18 toroidal field coil casings and mechanical structures of Tore Supra. This eddy current code has been coupled with an axisymmetric equilibrium code in order to simulate typical phases of a Tokamak discharge (plasma current rise, additional heating, disruption, cleaning discharge) and the losses in the toroidal field magnet have thus been calculated. (author)

  15. Replacement of the instrumentation and control system of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1995-02-01

    The control system of the Tore-Supra is a wide and complex system that cannot be interrupted while running without significant consequences on the operating of the machine. Replacing the current system cannot be achieved in a global way without immobilisation and high costs. Therefore partial changes have been decided on. This work presents the detailed analysis of the arrangements and the operating of the system that will be replaced: the pro's and con's that have appeared through experience are related. The possibilities that the new apparatus offers are also examined. A method of step by step replacements had to be set up in order to assess the means, funds, term of achievement, performance and quality of the overall project. (TEC). 15 refs., 29 figs

  16. Overview of recent results from the Tore Supra ECE diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.; Liu, W.D.; Giruzzi, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Tore Supra ECE diagnostic system consists of a set of 3 Michelson and 12 Fabry-Perot interferometers, which is now fully operational. We present results obtained with the 3 Michelson during LHCD experiments first. It is shown how the sensitivity of the diagnostic to rather high v (perpendicular) prevents detection of v (parallel) anisotropies. On the other hand, measurements during the Ohmic phase reveal some unexpected anisotropy which can be attributed to superthermal electrons related to the bootstrap current. The 12 Fabry-Perot have been operated using high acquisition sampling rates during pellet injection experiments. A shudder preceding the pellet itself is clearly evidenced just before an internal disruption occurs. During sawtooth activity, such measurements are also used to study the dynamics of the m=1, n=1 instability on the q=1 surface itself

  17. ITER-like PAM launcher for tore supra's LHCD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo, J.H.; Bibet, Ph.; Missirlian, M.; Achard, J.; Beaumont, B.; Bertrand, B.; Chantant, M.; Chappuis, Ph.; Doceul, L.; Durocher, A.; Gargiulo, L.; Saille, A.; Samaille, F.; Villedieu, E.

    2004-01-01

    A new launcher based upon the PAM concept (Passive-Active Multijunction) already proposed for ITER has been developed and is currently under realisation at Tore Supra. It was designed for an injection power capability of 2.7 MW CW at 3.7 GHz, a power density of 25 MW/m 2 , to radiate a power spectrum peaked at N || = 1.7 with a maximum power directivity near the electron cut-off density and with very good coupling properties on a wide range of electron densities. In this paper an overall description of the antenna as well as the foreseen manufacturing and assembling processes are given, followed by the results from studies and optimizations of its RF components, and by a stress analysis of its thermomechanical behaviour. (authors)

  18. New fast switches for the Tore Supra ohmic heating circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, K.; Bruneth, J.; Cara, P.; Louart, A.; Santagiustina, A.; Emelyanova, I.; Filippov, F.; Mikailov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Tore-Supra ohmic heating circuit is equipped with four fast make switches and one fast opening switch. After many years of operation, it became necessary to substitute this equipment by modern components with similar ratings. An extensive research has been undertaken to find fast switches able to withstand more than 2500 operations per year without maintenance, at a make current of 54 kA, a voltage of 12 kV and with a closing time of less than 15 ms. At the end of the investigation, it was decided to replace the old components by fast mechanical switches proposed by the Efremov Institute and based on a prototype developed for ITER. This paper presents the technical requirements and the characteristics of the switches and describes the operational experience gained with these components during operating campaigns of 2002 and 2003. (authors)

  19. Scrape-off layer flows in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Loarer, T.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Moreau, P.; Nanobashvili, I.; Rimini, F.; Duran, I.; Fuchs, V.; Panek, R.; Stockel, J.; Adamek, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Hron, M.; Sarkissian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Near-sonic parallel flows are systematically observed in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the limiter tokamak Tore Supra, as in many X-point divertor tokamaks. The poloidal variation of the Mach number of the parallel flow has been measured by moving the contact point of a small circular plasma onto limiters at different poloidal angles. The resulting variations of flow are consistent with the existence of a poloidally nonuniform core-to-SOL out-flux concentrated near the outboard midplane. Strong variations of the SOL width up to a factor of 10 suggest that this localized out-flux is due to enhanced radial transport. The plasma that gets ejected into the SOL can expand radially to the wall if magnetic field lines have long connection lengths and pass unobstructed across the outboard midplane. (authors)

  20. Pneumatic injector of deuterium macroparticles for TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyar, I.V.; Umov, A.P.; Lukin, A.Ya.; Skoblikov, S.V.; Reznichenko, P.V.; Krasil'nikov, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel-solid-deuterium pellets into the plasma of the TORE-SUPRA tokamak in a steady-state mode is described. The deuterium pellet injection with an unlimited duration is ensured by a screw extruder in which gaseous deuterium is frozen and squeezed outwards in the form of a rod with a rectangular cross section. A cutter installed on the injector's barrel cuts a cylinder with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 1.0-3.5 mm out from this rod. The movement of the cutter is controlled by a pulsed electromagnetic drive at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. In the injector's barrel, a compressed gas accelerates a deuterium pellet to a velocity of 100-650 m/s [ru

  1. Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, A. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S. [Nancy-1 Univ., 54 (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    2001-11-01

    The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)

  2. An advanced plasma control system for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnands, T.; Martin, G.

    1996-01-01

    First results on plasma control with the new plasma control system of Tore Supra are presented. The system has been especially designed for long pulse operation: plasmas are controlled on reference signals, which can be varied in real time by using diagnostic measurements. On line determination of the global plasma equilibrium has enabled new operation scenarios in which both the power from the poloidal field generators and the total Lower Hybrid (LH) power are used to control the plasma. Experiments with feedback control of the safety factor on the plasma boundary, control of the LH driven current, control of the flux on the plasma boundary and control of the internal inductance are discussed. (author)

  3. Statistical study of density fluctuations in the tore supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devynck, P.; Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Laviron, C.

    1998-03-01

    It is believed that the radial anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by plasma turbulence. Using infra-red laser scattering technique on the Tore Supra tokamak, statistical properties of the density fluctuations are studied as a function of the scales in ohmic as well as additional heating regimes using the lower hybrid or the ion cyclotron frequencies. The probability distributions are compared to a Gaussian in order to estimate the role of intermittency which is found to be negligible. The temporal behaviour of the three-dimensional spectrum is thoroughly discussed; its multifractal character is reflected in the singularity spectrum. The autocorrelation coefficient as well as their long-time incoherence and statistical independence. We also put forward the existence of fluctuations transfer between two distinct but close wavenumbers. A rather clearer image is thus obtained about the way energy is transferred through the turbulent scales. (author)

  4. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length λ q (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length λ q in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  5. Parametric dependences of impurity transport in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Th.

    2007-09-01

    During this Ph.D. work, a full setup of tools for an experimental investigation of impurity transport has been developed on the Tore Supra tokamak. It includes a laser blow-off system for metallic impurity injections and developments for ITC (Impurity Transport Code), a transport code which allows the extraction of the experimental impurity transport coefficients (diffusion and convection velocity). This tool has been used to perform and analyse several experiments, to evidence parametric dependences of impurity transport. In a first experiment, a confinement time law for nickel in Tore Supra has been obtained as a function of collisionality ν * and normalized Larmor radius ρ * . Then the impurity charge Z role has been investigated in various conditions: ohmic regime with or without sawteeth, and sawtooth less L-mode with LH power. No Z effect is observed, consistently with theoretical predictions, whether neoclassical (NCLASS) or for turbulent transport with both non linear gyro-fluid (TRB) and quasilinear gyrokinetic (QuaLiKiz) simulations. An exception is found for LH heated plasmas where the confinement time seems to decrease for the heaviest impurities. This is not explained by any model available. The observed transport is close to neoclassical between sawtooth relaxations, in the centre (r q-1 ) of ohmic plasmas, turbulent outside. Without sawteeth, it is turbulent in the whole plasma, for ohmic or L mode discharges. The profile shape of the diffusion coefficient is here qualitatively different, with a stronger and deeper transition between the low diffusion central region and a more turbulent peripheral region for LH heated plasmas. (author)

  6. Replacement of the instrumentation and control system of Tore Supra; Remplacement du systeme de controle commande de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P

    1995-02-01

    The control system of the Tore-Supra is a wide and complex system that cannot be interrupted while running without significant consequences on the operating of the machine. Replacing the current system cannot be achieved in a global way without immobilisation and high costs. Therefore partial changes have been decided on. This work presents the detailed analysis of the arrangements and the operating of the system that will be replaced: the pro`s and con`s that have appeared through experience are related. The possibilities that the new apparatus offers are also examined. A method of step by step replacements had to be set up in order to assess the means, funds, term of achievement, performance and quality of the overall project. (TEC). 15 refs., 29 figs.

  7. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak; Etude des depots de chaleur dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-15

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length lambda{sub q} (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length lambda{sub q} in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  8. Tore supra: towards the 'long time' fusion. Press journey; Tore Supra: vers la fusion 'longue duree'. Voyage de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    After a recall of the interest in the fusion for the development of energy sources, the document presents the fusion from the solar reaction to the nuclear fusion in laboratory. Then it discusses the great challenges of this technology and the Tore Supra installation. The last part is devoted to ITER and DEMO projects. (A.L.B.)

  9. Water Leak Localisation and Recovery in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Samaille, F.; Chantant, M.; Hatchressian, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    For almost 20 years, Tore Supra (TS) Tokamak uses water as a coolant for its plasma facing and in-vessels components. It can be considered as ITER relevant on this particular aspect. During plasma operation in TS, the water inlet temperature and outlet pressure are 120 o C and 2.4 MPa respectively, while baking is performed at 200 o C and 2 Mpa. It happened, that unexpected localized power deposits damaged in-vessels components leading to more or less large water leaks. In order to protect the vacuum vessel from over-pressurisation in case of large water leaks and to avoid the release of eventual activated materials, a pressure suppression system, composed of two rupture disks and a relief pipe header, has been designed. In the event of smaller leaks, the issue for Tore Supra operations is to apply methods capable of detecting and localising leaking water cooling circuits inside the vacuum vessel within an acceptable time. For this purpose, drainage and drying systems have been designed and manufactured to evacuate completely the water in the components and vacuum vessel, facilitating, in that way, leak testing procedure of the components. A new system allows the localization of the leaky circuit remotely by using the cooling loops monitoring system. The sub-circuits can be selected, isolated and de pressurized by the operator. Simultaneously the vacuum is monitored in the vessel and analyzed with a mass spectrometer. The water resulting from the steam condensation in the cold parts of the vacuum vessel is pumped by a new specific vacuum system in the lower parts of the machine and stored in tanks to avoid dissipation of activated products in the environment. Filters are implemented on the outlets lines of the pumps. The in-vessels components fed by the upper part of the cooling loop are connected in parallel and the water inlets and outlets are located on top of the machine, so some difficulties were encountered to drain-off completely this components. Presently

  10. Java graphical user interface for the supervision of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utzel, Nadine; Guillerminet, Bernard; Leluyer, Mireille; Moulin, Daniele

    2002-01-01

    The graphical user interface (GUI) for the supervision of Tore Supra is intended to supervise the start-up and the shut-down of the installation, to control general state (state of all diagnostics, state of the system and network) and to follow the pulse sequence. Implementation of a new multi-platform, modular GUI for Tore Supra is in progress. This provides not only a simpler, more structured view for the non-specialist user, but also is open-ended and adaptable to a wide variety of uses. The actual implementation of a GUI is a question of user-ergonomics. Hence, a user-directed study in 2000 produced a specification for the interface. The information is treated with a hierarchical order. At the top level, only the global state of the supervised elements appears, i.e. the general state of every diagnostics, the pulse sequence, the safety systems. If a problem occurs, the operator has access to the lower level detailed state of the concerned element, simply with a double-click. An event log also helps the operator to analyse the chronology of the alarms arising during the pulse. Although the GUI is mainly used in the control room on X terminals under Unix, it should also be accessible via a portable PC for the purpose of maintenance, or directly from any office to see how the physics program is progressing. The choice of Java, multi-platform object programming language was thus adopted with access via any web browser. The modularity of the GUI is made possible by a distributed architecture (remote method invocation) between the graphic client and different servers: one for the diagnostics and the sequence, one for the system and the network and one for the configuration database. All the components interact with each other in a very simple and standard way. This distributed architecture allows the progressive set up of the new interface. The first step, being produced for mid-2001 is the GUI for the supervision of diagnostics. This prototype will help us to

  11. Java graphical user interface for the supervision of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzel, Nadine E-mail: nutzel@cea.fr; Guillerminet, Bernard; Leluyer, Mireille; Moulin, Daniele

    2002-06-01

    The graphical user interface (GUI) for the supervision of Tore Supra is intended to supervise the start-up and the shut-down of the installation, to control general state (state of all diagnostics, state of the system and network) and to follow the pulse sequence. Implementation of a new multi-platform, modular GUI for Tore Supra is in progress. This provides not only a simpler, more structured view for the non-specialist user, but also is open-ended and adaptable to a wide variety of uses. The actual implementation of a GUI is a question of user-ergonomics. Hence, a user-directed study in 2000 produced a specification for the interface. The information is treated with a hierarchical order. At the top level, only the global state of the supervised elements appears, i.e. the general state of every diagnostics, the pulse sequence, the safety systems. If a problem occurs, the operator has access to the lower level detailed state of the concerned element, simply with a double-click. An event log also helps the operator to analyse the chronology of the alarms arising during the pulse. Although the GUI is mainly used in the control room on X terminals under Unix, it should also be accessible via a portable PC for the purpose of maintenance, or directly from any office to see how the physics program is progressing. The choice of Java, multi-platform object programming language was thus adopted with access via any web browser. The modularity of the GUI is made possible by a distributed architecture (remote method invocation) between the graphic client and different servers: one for the diagnostics and the sequence, one for the system and the network and one for the configuration database. All the components interact with each other in a very simple and standard way. This distributed architecture allows the progressive set up of the new interface. The first step, being produced for mid-2001 is the GUI for the supervision of diagnostics. This prototype will help us to

  12. Towards high-power long-pulse operation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Tore Supra tokamak was given the main mission to investigate the route towards long pulse plasma discharges. This includes the problem of heat exhaust and particle control (via the development of high-performance plasma facing components), and in parallel the physics of fully non inductive discharges and its optimization with respect to the confinement. Tore Supra is thus equipped with a superconducting toroidal magnet (maximum magnetic field on axis 4.5T), a full set of actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), and a heating and current drive capability based on high power RIF systems connected to actively cooled antennas. The encouraging results already obtained, as well as recent progress in PFC, allowed us to envisage a significant improvement in the heat exhaust capability of Tore Supra. The so-called CIEL-project consists in a complete upgrade of the inner chamber of Tore Supra, planned to be installed during the year 2000. The present paper deals with the experimental and modeling activity linked to the preparation of the long-pulse high-power discharges using the present Tore Supra equipment: heating and current drive scenarios, power coupling, confinement and transport studies, discharge control... An overview of the results obtained in that field is presented, as well as the progress required in the coming years, and the expected performance, for the CIEL phase, in terms of current drive and confinement. (author)

  13. Towards operations on Tore Supra of an ITER relevant inspection robot and associated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, L.; Cordier, J.J.; Friconneau, J.P.; Grisolia, C.; Palmer, J.D.; Perrot, Y.; Samaille, F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the project is to demonstrate on Tore Supra the reliability of a multi-purpose in-vessel remote handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier. The robot prototype is fully representative of the deployment carrier system that could be required on ITER. The demonstration on Tore Supra will help in the understanding of operation issues that could occur in the tokamak vacuum vessel equipped of actively cooled components. The viewing process that is currently under development will allow close inspection of the Tore Supra plasma facing components that are representative of the ITER divertor targets in terms of confined environment and identification of possible tiles failure of CFC carbon tiles. One of the other potential inspection processes that is foreseen to be tested using the AIA carrier in Tore Supra is the laser ablation system of the CFC armour. It could be fully relevant for the ITER wall detritiation issues. Such process can be simulated on Tore Supra through the deuterium inventory under long-time plasma discharges. The in situ leakage localisation of a damaged plasma facing component is also one of the major ITER maintenance challenges that could use remote handling inspection tools

  14. Towards operations on Tore Supra of an ITER relevant inspection robot and associated processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, L. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)], E-mail: laurent.gargiulo@cea.fr; Cordier, J.J. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Friconneau, J.P. [CEA-LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Grisolia, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Palmer, J.D. [EFDA CSU, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Perrot, Y. [CEA-LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, BP6 F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Samaille, F. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2007-10-15

    The aim of the project is to demonstrate on Tore Supra the reliability of a multi-purpose in-vessel remote handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier. The robot prototype is fully representative of the deployment carrier system that could be required on ITER. The demonstration on Tore Supra will help in the understanding of operation issues that could occur in the tokamak vacuum vessel equipped of actively cooled components. The viewing process that is currently under development will allow close inspection of the Tore Supra plasma facing components that are representative of the ITER divertor targets in terms of confined environment and identification of possible tiles failure of CFC carbon tiles. One of the other potential inspection processes that is foreseen to be tested using the AIA carrier in Tore Supra is the laser ablation system of the CFC armour. It could be fully relevant for the ITER wall detritiation issues. Such process can be simulated on Tore Supra through the deuterium inventory under long-time plasma discharges. The in situ leakage localisation of a damaged plasma facing component is also one of the major ITER maintenance challenges that could use remote handling inspection tools.

  15. Design of new antenna for LHCD on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibet, Ph.; Berger-By, B.; Goniche, M.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G.; Nguyen, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of driving the Tore Supra, the estimation of the system was performed, and a mode converter has been developed, and the poloidal junction between the oversized waveguide at the output of the mode converter and three ports has been studied. The module is composed of a raised cosine taper connected to the mode converter, a poloidal junction with one main oversized waveguide and three output waveguides, an E plane linear taper and E plane multi-junctions. For computing the taper and the mode converter, the telegraphist equation which is derived from Maxwell equations was solved by Unger method. To avoid numerical divergence, the different components were divided into many parts depending on the number of propagating modes. The poloidal junction and the multi-junctions have been studied by considering two specific modes. These were for considering the theoretical models for defining the taper and the mode converter and for the poloidal junction and the multi-junctions. The numerical results of the raised cosine taper, the mode converter, the poloidal junction and the multi-junctions are reported. After the experimental checkup on the low level mock-up, a module will be realized for the high power test. (K.I.)

  16. Snake-like phenomena in Tore Supra following pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecquet, A.L.; Cristofani, P.; Mattioli, M.; Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Joffrin, E.; Sabot, R.

    1996-01-01

    Snakes are observed in Tore-Supra, after injection of high velocity solid hydrogen or deuterium pellets ablated inside the q=1 surface. They are detected, immediately after the ablation, as oscillations on the line integrated densities of the central interferometer channels. The corresponding oscillations on the soft X-ray signals detach from the noise about 70 ms later. Snakes survive sawtooth crashes, but are nevertheless affected by them. Variations, during the about 500 ms long lifetime, of the snake radius τ s , of the rotation frequency and of the rotation direction are discussed, stressing the effects of the sawtooth crashes. In many snakes τ s /τ q =1 is of the order of 0.5. Since the snake has a m=1, n=1 helicity, this points out the existence of a flat or inverted safety factor profile, confirmed by calculation of the current profile using Spitzer's resistivity. Combined simulations of the snake oscillations on both interferometer and soft X-ray signals have indicated that, starting about 80 ms after the snake formation, the impurity (carbon) density inside the snake is much larger than outside it. Since a change of regime seems to appear about 80 ms after the snake formation on the soft X-ray, it seems plausible that impurity (carbon) accumulation takes place at this time. A stability criterion taking into account both impurity and bootstrap effects is presented, the result agrees with the model proposed by Wesson. (authors)

  17. Turbulence and energy confinement in TORE SUPRA ohmic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Laviron, C.; Devynck, P.; Saha, S.K.; Capes, H.; Chen, X.P.; Coulon, J.P.; Gil, C.; Harris, G.; Hutter, T.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1992-06-01

    Results on confinement and turbulence from a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra are discussed. The attention is focused on the saturation of the energy confinement time and it is emphasized that this saturation could be explained by a saturation of the electron heat diffusivity. Ion behaviour is indeed governed by dilution and equipartition effects. Although the ion heat transport is never neoclassical, there is no enhanced degradation at the saturation. This behaviour is confirmed by turbulence measurements given by CO 2 laser coherent scattering. The density fluctuations level follows the electron heat diffusivity variations with the average density. Waves propagating in the ion diamagnetic direction are always present in turbulence frequency spectra. Thus, the saturation cannot be explained by the onset of an ion turbulence. The existence of an ion turbulence at the edge at all densities cannot be excluded. However, this ion feature in scattering spectra could be explained by a Doppler shift associated to an inversion point of the radial electric field at the edge

  18. Plasma decontamination during ergodic divertor experiments in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Garbet, P.; DeMichelis, C.; Fall, T.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Goniche, M.; Grosman, A.; Hess, W.; Mattioli, M.

    1991-01-01

    In Tore Supra an ergodic divertor (ED) has been integrated in the machine design and successfully operated, as already reported. This paper analyses the decontamination effect resulting from the creation of an ergodic boundary zone. Two plasma geometrical configurations (outboard and inboard) are studied, the plasma being limited respectively either, on the low field side (lfs), by an outboard limiter (3 to 5 cm ahead of the ED modules) or, on the high field side (hfs), by the graphite inner wall. Strong decontamination effects have already been reported for the first configuration by observing line emission of the intrinsic (carbon and oxygen) and purposely injected (nitrogen) impurities. When limited by the inner wall, the plasma is several centimeters farther from the ED modules than in the lfs configuration. The magnetic perturbation is then greatly reduced, and much smaller decontamination effects should be expected. In this paper, the hfs configuration data is compared with that from the lfs configuration. Preliminary experiments combining lower hybrid current drive and ED operation in the hfs configuration are also reported. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  19. Long discharge particle balance and fuel retention in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegourie, B.; Brosset, C.; Delchambre, E.; Loarer, T.; Tsitrone, E.; Bucalossi, J.; Gunn, J.; Reichle, R.; Khodja, H.; Lafon, C.; Parent, P.

    2003-01-01

    In the new CIEL configuration of Tore-Supra, all the plasma facing components are actively cooled. The surface of the wall covered with carbon is about 15 m 2 (2-4 m 2 of which in close interaction with the plasma). This configuration allowed to maintain steady-state plasma conditions during up to 4 min 25 s. In these experiments, the required gas injection for maintaining the prescribed density remains constant during the whole discharge. The exhausted flux is also constant and equal to 40-50% of the injected flux. Therefore, 50-60% of the injected particles remain trapped in the vessel, the total retention being proportional to the plasma duration. Since the gas recovered between shots or by conditioning techniques is far from balancing the injected gas, huge quantities of deuterium remain indefinitely trapped in the wall, which appears as an infinite reservoir. This reservoir is believed to be dominated by co-deposited layers, as observed in several places of the vessel. The thickest deposits (up to 800 μm) are observed on the leading edge of the neutralizers of the exhaust system. They display a column-like shape (typical growth rate ∼ 20 nm/s) and have a graphite-like structure. Their deuterium content is modest. Conversely, when coming from regions protected from the direct plasma flux, the deposits show a smoother shape and their deuterium content is typically an order of magnitude larger. (authors)

  20. Multichannel and multicolor infrared thermography in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.; Pocheau, C.; Balorin, C.; Delchambre, E.; Desgrange, C.; Guilhem, D.; Messina, P.; Roche, H.

    2004-01-01

    An imaging spectrometer using a sapphire prism as dispersing element has been conceived at Tore Supra for the spectral range of 1 - 4 μm. It measures simultaneously at various wavelengths the temperature on distributed high heat-flux elements under plasma impact with 36 optical fibres, 4 of which are ZrF 4 fibres. It employs an InSb focal plane array detector (256*320 pixels) behind a silicon filter and a ZnS window yielding a dynamic range of 200 to 1500 deg C with 20 ms temporal resolution. The fibre transmission and the spatial variation of gain and background of the camera are calibrated using a light source with integrating sphere. With a black body source one determines the non linearity of the average gain and controls its stability during operation. The spectral dispersion of about 30 nm/pixel is determined with interference filters and controlled with a spectral lamp. The measurements at various wavelengths allow to determine the temperature distribution in the held of view. (author)

  1. Lower hybrid wave coupling in Tore Supra through multijunction launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Bibet, P.; Goniche, M.; Bergerby, G.; Bizarro, J.P.; Capitain, J.J.; Hoang, G.T.; Magne, R.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Rax, J.M.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G.

    1991-01-01

    The TORE SUPRA Lower Hybrid Current Drive experiments (8 MW/ 3.7GHz) use large phased waveguide arrays (4 rows of 32 waveguides for each of the two grills) to couple the waves to the plasma. These launchers are based on the Multijunction principle which allows them to be quite compact but needs to be fully assessed for the design of efficient multi-megawatt antennas in NET/ITER. Extensive coupling measurements have been performed to study the Radio-Frequency characteristics of the plasma loaded multijunction antennas. The experimental data have been related to the output of the linear coupling theory which, in its advanced stage, takes into account the specific features of the compact launchers. The measurements, scattering matrices and power reflection coefficients, are in perfect agreement with the theoretical simulations performed with the measured edge plasma density. Our analysis leads to the determination of the n parallel radiated spectra. We demonstrate that the n parallel flexibility is obtained in a large range of edge plasma densities (or antenna positions) while preserving an optimum behaviour of the antenna. Finally, the Multijunction launcher has proved to be able to transmit high RF powers since power densities up to 45MW/m 2 have been reached with good linear coupling characteristics and spectrum control

  2. Power deposition to the facing components in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Chatelier, M.; Chappuis, P.; Koski, J.; Watkins, J.

    1990-01-01

    The modifications of the power scrape-off length, λ q and power deposition are studied for various configurations in ohmic Tore-Supra plasmas. The plasma is either touching the horizontal limiter alone, the full set of six pump limiters or the inner bumper limiter. All configurations are with and without the ergodic divertor system energized. From a comparison of the infrared images of the limiter we derived that the λ q for power deposition was slightly less than 9±1 mm in ohmic plasmas which is in agreement with the predicted design value of 10 mm. Using the six limiters, instead of one, does not modify λ q significantly, but leads to small asymmetries. The power is shared by all the limiters and the maximum surface temperature on the horizontal limiter decreases. These λ q values have been independently determined by calorimetric measurements on the integrated energy deposition on the horizontal limiter and other internal structures 5 cm into the scrape-off layer. These values agree with the infrared measurements in the two cases. In the presence of the ergodic divertor we observe a broadening of the scrape-off layer, the e-folding length for power deposition reaching 2.5 cm. Large asymmetries in the power deposition can be seen on the front face of the limiter, leading to the formation of hot spots at the leading edges. (orig.)

  3. Particle exhaust studies in Tore Supra with a pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, C.C.; Haste, G.R.; Horton, L.D.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.; Bonnel, P.; Bruneau, J.L.; Chatelier, M.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Pegourie, B.; Rodriguez, L.; Watkins, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the Tore Supra pump limiter program is to study particle exhaust with a pump limiter system in long-pulse discharges with continuous pellet fueling and strong auxiliary heating. The pump limiter system consists of six vertical modules, located at the bottom of the machine, and one horizontal module at the outer midplane. The results presented here were obtained with the horizontal module only. This module was equipped with two titanium pumps with a total pumping speed of 100000 L/s. The instrumentation of the limiter included pressure gauges, a residual gas analyzer, Langmuir probes, a spectrometer viewing the neutralizer plate for H α and impurity measurements, and water calorimeters. All diagnostics have been commissioned and are operational. Initial results were obtained in low-density discharges, with no gas puffing during the shot. While only a modest effect on the plasma density was observed, large exhaust fluxes were measured in the pump limiter. The most likely source of this gas was outgassing of the graphite walls. Straightforward particle balance between the plasma efflux and the pump limiter exhaust, as applied in previous pump limiter experiments, did not apply. The core plasma and the edge plasma seemed to be largely decoupled and a multi-layer model is being developed to explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  4. Power deposition to the facing components in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Chatelier, M.; Chappuis, P.

    1990-01-01

    The modification of power scrape-off-length, λq, and power deposition are studied during various configurations in ohmic TORE-SUPRA plasmas. The plasma is either leaning on the horizontal limiter alone, on the full set of 6 pump limiters or on the inner bumper limiter, all configurations with and without the ergodic divertor system energised. From comparison of the infrared images of the limiter we derived that the λq for power deposition was slightly less than 9 mm (±1 mm) in ohmic plasma which is in agreement with the predicted design value of 10 mm. Inserting the 6 limiters, instead of 1, does not modify significantly λq, but lead to small asymmetries. The power is shared by all the limiters and the maximum surface temperature on the horizontal limiter decreased. These λq values have been independently determined by calorimetric measurements done on the integrated energy deposition on the horizontal limiter and other internal structures 5 cm into the scrape-off layer. These values agree with the infrared measurements in the two cases. In the presence of the ergodic divertor we observe a broadening of the scrape off layer, the e-folding length for power deposition reaching 2.5 cm. Large asymmetries on power deposition can be seen on the front face of the limiter leading to the formation of hot spots at the leading edges

  5. Test of a model coil of TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.; Hamelin, J.; Libeyre, P.; Mayaux, C.; Meuris, C.; Parain, J.; Torossian, A.

    1980-10-01

    Inside the qualifying test programme, supporting the 'Tore Supra' Tokamak design, a reduced scale model of coil was fabricated by an industrial firm and fully tested. This model coil is provided with the same features as those retained for the complete magnet and is built according to the same design; in particular the Nb-Ti mixed matrix monolithic conductor is cooled by a pressurized superfluid helium bath, supplied from a model of the envisaged complete cryogenic system. Three main objectives have been assigned to this test: operation of the cryogenic system, stability of the superconductor winding under high mechanical stresses, mainly shear, and simulation of coil quench conditions. For this purpose, the model coil (outside bore 0.8 m) is located inside a 4 T magnet, an hydraulic jack applies a 1 MN force along a coil diameter. Operation of the model coil has been found highly stable, under the conditions of applied field and forces, a coil transition can be induced by an electrical heater only when the superfluid bath temperature is close to Tlambda. The 1.8 K cryogenic system provides a useful calorimetric measure of total losses induced inside the winding; its operation has been quite simple and reliable, permitting a sure extrapolation to a much larger size

  6. Implementation of FCI heating system to the control system of Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisniewski, S.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents the implementation of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system (FCI) to the instrumentation and control system of the Tore-Supra tokamak. The new plasma heating system involves 3 antennas delivering 12 MW that are required to maintain fusion reactions. This paper is divided into 8 chapters: 1) thermonuclear fusion and Tore-Supra tokamak; 2) hardware system around Tore-Supra, in this chapter the control system and the data acquisition and processing systems are presented; 3) functional analysis, this analysis defines the different needs concerning timing and pilot-controlling, a preliminary proposition of hardware equipment is made; 4) operating modes of FCI; 5) communication within the control system network; 6) communication with the supervisory system of the power stations; 7) management of data exchange with SMX generators; and 8) control of the rate of stationary waves during the injection of power into the plasma

  7. Cherenkov-type diamond detectors for measurements of fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R.; Lotte, Ph.; Gunn, J.; Pascal, J-Y.; Colledani, G.; Basiuk, V.; Goniche, M.; Lipa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a schematic design and tests of a system applicable for measurements of fast electron pulses emitted from high-temperature plasma generated inside magnetic confinement fusion machines, and particularly in the TORE-SUPRA facility. The diagnostic system based on the registration of the Cherenkov radiation induced by fast electrons within selected solid radiators is considered, and electron low-energy thresholds for different radiators are given. There are some estimates of high thermal loads, which might be deposited by intense electron beams upon parts of the diagnostic equipment within the TORE-SUPRA device. There are some proposed measures to overcome this difficulty by the selection of appropriate absorption filters and Cherenkov radiators, and particularly by the application of a fast-moving reciprocating probe. The paper describes the measuring system, its tests, as well as some results of the preliminary measurements of fast electrons within TORE-SUPRA facility.

  8. Cherenkov-type diamond detectors for measurements of fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), Otwock-Swierk 05-400 (Poland); Lotte, Ph.; Gunn, J.; Pascal, J-Y.; Colledani, G.; Basiuk, V.; Goniche, M.; Lipa, M. [CEA, IRFM, St Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2010-01-15

    The paper presents a schematic design and tests of a system applicable for measurements of fast electron pulses emitted from high-temperature plasma generated inside magnetic confinement fusion machines, and particularly in the TORE-SUPRA facility. The diagnostic system based on the registration of the Cherenkov radiation induced by fast electrons within selected solid radiators is considered, and electron low-energy thresholds for different radiators are given. There are some estimates of high thermal loads, which might be deposited by intense electron beams upon parts of the diagnostic equipment within the TORE-SUPRA device. There are some proposed measures to overcome this difficulty by the selection of appropriate absorption filters and Cherenkov radiators, and particularly by the application of a fast-moving reciprocating probe. The paper describes the measuring system, its tests, as well as some results of the preliminary measurements of fast electrons within TORE-SUPRA facility.

  9. Major progress on tore supra toward steady state operation of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoutic, Y.

    2003-01-01

    During winter 2000-2001, a major upgrade of the internal components of Tore Supra has been completed that increased the heat extraction capability to 25 MW in steady state. Operating Tore Supra in this new configuration has produced a wealth of new results. The highlights of the 2002 long duration discharges campaign are: 4 minutes 25 seconds long discharges with an integrated energy of 0.75 GJ, which is three time higher than the old Tore Supra world record; recharge of the primary transformer by Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) for about 1 minute; 4 minutes long LHCD pulses; 1 minute long Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) pulse (0.11 GJ of ICRH injected energy). Beyond the quantitative step, significant qualitative progress in the steady state nature of the discharge has been accomplished: contrary to the situation in the old Tore Supra configuration, the plasma density is perfectly controlled by active pumping over the overall shot duration. The duration of Tore Supra discharges is sufficient to allow the complete diffusion of the resistive current. Surprising new physics is revealed in such discharges when approaching zero loop voltage. Slow central electron temperature oscillations have been observed in a variety of situations. Such oscillations are not likely to be linked to any MHD instabilities and probably results from an interplay between current profile shape, LHCD power deposition and transport. Analysis of the temperature gradient in the core region shows a very interesting behaviour and the normalised temperature gradient length is compared to the critical thresholds. Finally, the performance of heating and current drive systems and the observations made of the interior of Tore Supra after the long duration discharges campaign are reported. (author)

  10. Towards operations on Tore Supra of an ITER relevant inspection robot and associated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent Gargiulo, L.; Cordier, J.-J.; Samaille, F.; Grisolia, Ch.; Perrot, Y.; Olivier, D.; Friconneau, J.-P.; Palmer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project is to demonstrate on Tore Supra the reliability of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier. This project called AIA (Articulated Inspection Arm) is currently being developed at CEA under a European EFDA work program. The paper describes the detailed design, the manufacturing processes and the results of the first module test campaign in the CEA Tore Supra ME60 facility, at representative vacuum, temperature and nominal loading conditions. The second part of this work that is reported in the paper, concerns the description of the whole integration of the device on the Tore Supra tokamak that is foreseen to be operated on Tore Supra early 2007. The deployer system and the 10 m long storage vacuum vessel are presented. The robot prototype is fully representative of the deployment carrier system that could be required on ITER. The demonstration on Tore Supra will help in the understanding of operation issues that could occur in the tokamak vacuum vessel equipped of actively cooled components. The viewing process that is currently under development is presented in the paper. It will allow close inspection of the Tore Supra Plasma Facing Components that are representative of the ITER divertor targets in terms of confined environment and identification of possible tiles failure of CFC carbon tiles. Such viewing process could be used on ITER during the early stage of operation under a limited radiation level. The AIA technology is also showing promising potential for generic application in alternative systems for ITER. The feasibility study for viewing inspection of the beam line components in the neutral beam test facility is presented. One of the other potential inspection processes that is foreseen to be tested using the AIA carrier in Tore Supra is the laser ablation system of the CFC armour. It could be fully relevant for the ITER wall detritiation issues. Such process can be

  11. Validation of the LH antenna code ALOHA against Tore Supra experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillairet, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Kocan, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Goniche, M.

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons between ALOHA code predictions and experimental measurements of reflection coefficients for the two different Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) antennas (named C2 and C3) in Tore Supra are presented. A large variation of density in front of the antennas was obtained by varying the distance between the plasma and the antennas. Low power ( 2 ) was used in order to avoid non-linear effects on the wave coupling. Results obtained with ALOHA are in good agreement with the experimental measurements for both Tore Supra antennas and show that ALOHA is an efficient LH predictive tool.

  12. Spatially resolved charge exchange flux calculations on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, Y.; Tsitrone, E.; Boerner, P.; Reiter, D.; Beaute, A.; Delchambre, E.; Escarguel, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Genesio, P.; Gunn, J.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.

    2009-01-01

    A spatially resolved calculation of the charge exchange particle and energy fluxes on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is presented, as a first step towards a better understanding and modelling of carbon erosion, migration, as well as deuterium codeposition and bulk diffusion of deuterium in Tore Supra. The results are obtained with the EIRENE code run in a 3D geometry. Physical and chemical erosion maps on the TPL are calculated, and the contribution of neutrals to erosion, especially in the self-shadowed area, is calculated.

  13. Ion Temperature Measurements in the Tore Supra Scrape-Off Layer Using a Retarding Field Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, M.; Gunn, J.P.; Pascal, J.Y.; Gauthier, E.

    2010-01-01

    The retarding field analyzer (RFA) is one of the only widely accepted diagnostics for measuring the ion temperature T i )in the tokamak scrape-off layer. An overview of the outstanding RFA performance over ten years of operation in Tore Supra tokamak is given and the validation of T i measurements is addressed. The RFA measurements in Tore Supra are found to be well reproducible. The ion-to-electron temperature ratio is higher than one at low-to-moderate ion-electron collisionality regime and converges to unity at high collisionality regime. (authors)

  14. Production and control of an edge radiating layer with the ergodic divertor on TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutchy, L.; Vallet, J.C.; Michelis, C. de; Grosman, A.; Hess, W.; Mattioli, M.; Monier-Garbet, P.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently defined on Tore Supra a discharge piloting strategy to prevent disruptions at the density limit, based on the property of the Ergodic Divertor to stabilize MHD activity. This strategy allows plasma studies close to the density limit without disruptions, and has been successfully used on Tore Supra ohmicly heated plasmas. The Ergodic Divertor allows also the stabilization of detached plasmas which appear spontaneously near the density limit. Edge impurities are shown to play a fundamental role in this stabilization. Detached plasmas have been thereby controlled during 10 seconds

  15. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2004-01-01

    While it's good to have a book with all the answers--like your trusty copy of Oracle PL/SQL Programming-- how often do you need all the answers? More likely, you just need a reminder, a quick answer to a problem you're up against. For these times, nothing's handier than the new edition of the Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference by PL/SQL experts Stephen Feuerstein, Bill Pribyl, and Chip Dawes. Newly updated for Oracle10g, this little book is always at the ready for the quick problem solving you need. The 3rd edition of this popular mini-reference boils down the most vital information fr

  16. Study of the chemical sputtering in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambe, A.

    2002-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on the interactions between energetic particles coming from thermonuclear plasma and the inner components of a fusion machine. This interaction induces two major problems: erosion of the wall, and tritium retention. This report treats the erosion of carbon based materials. The first part is devoted to chemical sputtering, that appears to be the principal erosion mechanism, compared to physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation that both can be limited. Chemical sputtering has been studied in situ in the tokamak Tore-Supra for ohmic and lower hybrid (LH) heated discharges, by means of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy. We have shown that it is necessary to take into account both methane and heavier hydrocarbons (C 2 D x and C 3 D y ) in the determination of the chemical sputtering yield. It is found that for the ohmic discharges, the sputtering yield of CD 4 (Y CD4 ) is highly flux (φ) dependent, showing a variation of the form: Y CD4 ∝ φ -0.23 . The experimental study also reveals that an increase of the surface temperature induces an augmentation of Y CD4 . The interpretation and the modelling of the experimental results have been performed with a Monte Carlo code (BBQ. In the second part of this work, we have developed and installed an infrared spectroscopy diagnostic in the 0.8-1.6, μm wavelength range dedicated to the measurement of surface temperature, and the identification of atomic and molecular lines emitted during plasma/wall interactions. In the third part, we present the feasibility study of an in situ tungsten deposition process at low temperature(<80 deg C) in order to suppress the chemical sputtering. This study shows that, with this method call Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD), we are able to coat the whole inner vessel of a tokamak with 1 μm of tungsten. (author)

  17. Progress in ergodic divertor operation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Grosman, A.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Azeroual, A.; Basiuk, V.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Bremond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Capes, H.; Corre, Y.; Costanzo, L.; Michelis, C. de; Devynck, P.; Feron, S.; Friant, C.; Garbet, X.; Giannella, R.; Grisolia, C.; Hess, W.; Hogan, J.; Ladurelle, L.; Laugier, F.; Martin, G.; Mattioli, M.; Meslin, B.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moulin, D.; Nguyen, F.; Pascal, J.Y.; Pecquet, A.L.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Vallet, J.C.; Zabiego, M.

    1999-09-01

    Upgrade of the Tore ergodic divertor has led to significant progress in ergodic divertor physics. The disruptive limit governed by the stochastization of the outer magnetic surfaces is found to occur for a value of the Chirikov parameter reaching 2 on the magnetic surface q = 2 + 3 / 12. This experimentally observed robustness allows one to operate at very low safety factor on the separatrix (q ∼ 2). Numerical analysis of ballooning turbulence in a stochastic layer indicates that the decay of the density fluctuations is in associated with an increase of the fluctuating electric drift velocity. The bottom line is then an enhanced cross-field transport in the vicinity of the target plates. This lowering of confinement appears to be compensated by an intrinsic transport barrier on the electron temperature. The 3-D response of the temperature field is computed with a fluid code. The intrinsic transport barrier at the separatrix, reported experimentally, can be recovered together with small amplitude temperature modulations in the divertor volume. Experimental evidence of the 3 density regimes (linear, high recycling and detachment) is reported. The low critical density values for these transitions indicate that similar parallel physics govern the axisymmetric and ergodic divertor, despite the open configuration of the latter. Measurement and understanding of these density regimes provide a means for feedback control of plasma density and an improvement in ICRH coupling scenarios. Experimental data also indicated that particle control with the vented target plates is effective. Increase of impurity control and radiation efficiency are recalled. Global power balance has been analysed. These results confirm the enhanced radiation capacity of the ergodic divertor. (author)

  18. Steady-state operation of tokamaks: Key physics and technology developments on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquinot, J.

    2005-01-01

    Important technological and physics issues related to long pulse operation required for a reactor are now being addressed in Tore Supra. experimental results in conditions where all the plasma facing components are actively cooled during pulses exceeding six minutes. Important physics issues related to continuous operation are observed in non inductively driven plasmas. (author)

  19. Radio frequency additional heating systems issues for the TORE-SUPRA WEST project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guilhem, D.; Argouarch, A.; Bernard, J.M.; Bouquey, F.; Colas, L.; Delpech, L.; Durodié, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Helvoirt, J.; Hillairet, J.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Magne, R.; Milanesio, D.; Moerel, J.; Mollard, P.; Wittebol, E.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Berger-By, G.; Charabot, N.; Goniche, M.; Jacquot, J.; Lombard, G.; Prou, M.; Traisnel-Corbel, E.; Volpe, R.; Vulliez, K.

    2013-01-01

    This year TORE-SUPRA celebrated its 25 years of operation. During this long time a number of technologies have been developed [1]. First of all it was mandatory to develop reliable superconducting magnets at ∼ - 4 K, with superfluid helium as efficient coolant. For the production of steady state

  20. Lower-hybrid wave coupling and impurity generation in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goniche, M.; Litaudon, X.; Guilhem, D.; Hutter, T.; Beaumont, B.; Froissart, P.; Rey, G.; Saoutic, B.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with the high power coupling of Lower Hybrid (LH) waves in Tore Supra. The effect of the plasma shape is described, together with LH coupling in ion-cyclotron resonance experiments. It appears that plasma modifications can alter the LH coupling. Eventually, the effect of LH power on thermal load and impurity generation is presented. (TEC). 3 refs., 3 figs

  1. First lower hybrid current drive experiments at 3.7 GHz in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonon, G.; Goniche, M.; Moreau, D.

    1989-01-01

    The results of electromagnetic waves injection in the Tore Supra plasma, at a frequency of 3.7 GHz, are reported. The process is applied for current generation and plasma heating, through Landau damping on the electron population. The experimental set-up is described. The lower hybrid current drive experiments in Tore Supra are carried out under the following conditions: major and minor radii of the plasma are respectively 2.37 m and 0.77 m and the toroidal magnetic field is 1.8 Teslas. A multijunction-grill composed of 128 waveguides is applied. Up to 1.25 MW of rf power is injected in Tore Supra, after less than 30 plasma shots. The results lead to the conclusion that the coupling, not yet optimized, is good enough for safe klystron operation with no circulator. The measured value RIp P RF -1 (δV L /V L ) obtained on Tore Supra (Bt = 1.8 T) is closed to one observed on PETULA-B (Bt = 2.75 T) at the same frequency and density

  2. Connexion topology and sol physics induced by the ergodic divertor in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, F.; Ghendrih, P.; Samain, A.

    1990-01-01

    The diffuse connexion induced by the ergodic divertor in Tore Supra leads to heat load patterns on the plasma facing components. The topology of those patterns is analysed using field line tracing and analytical derivation of effective heat transport coefficients. Control of the heat load via the magnetic configuration is investigated

  3. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra back bone of the EURATOM-CEA programme for the next ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The decision to grant priority operation status to the French Tokamak Tore Supra will make it possible to start on the construction of this large machine and to bring together at the Cadarache Nuclear Study Centre all the facilities of the CEA for their research on fusion by magnetic confinement. The work is scheduled to begin in 1982 and to last until 1985. The financing is indicated and Tore Supra is briefly described [fr

  4. Mocking in Oracle PL/SQL

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Testing is not very popular in database development, so there are none common approaches how to test software written in database. Surprisingly one of the oldest DB still lacks of appropriate testing approach for its PL/SQL programs. SQLDeveloper's built-in test "framework" is far from excellence, especially it does not cover mocking which is inherent part of testing for any bigger system being developed. This talk will briefly introduce Edition-Based Redefinition by Oracle to be used for mocking.

  5. Upgraded ECE radiometer on the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segui, J.L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M.; Maget, P.; Udintsev, V.S.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.

    2004-01-01

    An upgraded 32-channel heterodyne radiometer, 1 GHz spaced, is used on the Tore-Supra tokamak to measure the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the ordinary mode (O1) and 94-126.5 GHz for the extraordinary mode (X2). From now radial resolution is essentially limited by ECE relativistic effects related to electron temperature and density, not by the channels frequency spacing. For example, this leads to precise electron temperature mapping during magneto hydrodynamic activities (MHD). In the equatorial plane, we use a dual polarisation Gaussian optics lens antenna. It has low spreading and a perpendicular line-of-sight that gives ECE measurements very low refraction and Doppler effects. Assuming that the plasma is a black body and there is no overlap between ECE harmonics, one can deduce the electron temperature profile by using the first harmonic ordinary mode (O1) or the second harmonic extraordinary mode (X2). The principle radio frequency emitter (RF) has its frequencies down shifted into intermediary frequencies (IF) that span from 2 to 18 GHz in the single side band mode (SSB). It is amplified by low noise IF amplifiers before forming channels. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94-110 GHz. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 GHz) in order to perform electron temperature measurements during electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the tokamak vacuum vessel by using a 600 deg C black body hot source, a double coherent digital signal averaging (trigger, turn and clock) on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper, and a simulated tokamak window. The use of differential electronics and strong electromagnetic shielding improves also the calibration precision. The fast and slow data acquisition systems are free of aliasing

  6. Upgraded ECE radiometer on the Tore Supra Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segui, J.L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M.; Maget, P.; Udintsev, V.S. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Antar, G.Y. [Center for Energy Research, UCSD, La Jolla CA (United States); Kraemer-Flecken, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik

    2004-07-01

    An upgraded 32-channel heterodyne radiometer, 1 GHz spaced, is used on the Tore-Supra tokamak to measure the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the ordinary mode (O1) and 94-126.5 GHz for the extraordinary mode (X2). From now radial resolution is essentially limited by ECE relativistic effects related to electron temperature and density, not by the channels frequency spacing. For example, this leads to precise electron temperature mapping during magneto hydrodynamic activities (MHD). In the equatorial plane, we use a dual polarisation Gaussian optics lens antenna. It has low spreading and a perpendicular line-of-sight that gives ECE measurements very low refraction and Doppler effects. Assuming that the plasma is a black body and there is no overlap between ECE harmonics, one can deduce the electron temperature profile by using the first harmonic ordinary mode (O1) or the second harmonic extraordinary mode (X2). The principle radio frequency emitter (RF) has its frequencies down shifted into intermediary frequencies (IF) that span from 2 to 18 GHz in the single side band mode (SSB). It is amplified by low noise IF amplifiers before forming channels. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94-110 GHz. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 GHz) in order to perform electron temperature measurements during electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the tokamak vacuum vessel by using a 600 deg C black body hot source, a double coherent digital signal averaging (trigger, turn and clock) on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper, and a simulated tokamak window. The use of differential electronics and strong electromagnetic shielding improves also the calibration precision. The fast and slow data acquisition systems are free of aliasing

  7. Analyses of metallic first mirror samples after long term plasma exposure in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Schunke, B.; Gil, Ch.; Bucalossi, J.; Voitsenya, V.S.; Konovalov, V.; Vukolov, K.; Balden, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Oelhafen, P.; Litnovsky, A.; Wienhold, P.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic mirrors are foreseen in ITER diagnostic systems as optical elements directly viewing the plasma radiation. In the frame of an EFDA contract, metallic mirror samples have been exposed for long pulse plasma discharges in Tore Supra (TS) in order to investigate surface modifications caused by erosion and re-deposition processes. Three different materials have been selected: mono-crystalline molybdenum (mc-Mo), polycrystalline stainless steel (SS) and copper (Cu). The mc-Mo samples showed after TS exposure almost no surface roughness modifications and the lowest net-erosion. A slight reflectivity reduction, most pronounced in the near UV, is attributed to light absorption in a thin carbon deposit. Cu mirrors showed by far the highest surface roughness, erosion and diffusive reflectivity. Comparative laboratory glow discharge experiments with virgin reference samples and numerical simulations of erosion/deposition confirm the dominant contribution of conditioning procedures to erosion of mirrors exposed (without shutter protection) in Tore Supra

  8. Carbon source from the toroidal pumped limiter during long discharge operation in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, E.; Brosset, C.; Lowry, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Chappuis, P.; Corre, Y.; Desgranges, C.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Mitteau, R.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Thomas, P.; Tsitrone, E.; Hogan, J.; Roubin, P.; Martin, C.; Arnas, C.

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of deuterium retention mechanisms requires the knowledge of carbon sources in Tore-Supra. The main source of carbon in the vacuum vessel during long discharges is the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL). This work is devoted to the experimental characterisation of the carbon source from the TPL surface during long discharges using a visible spectroscopy diagnostic. Moreover, we present an attempt to perform a carbon balance over a typical campaign and we discuss it with regards to the deuterium in-vessel inventory deduced from particle balance and the deuterium content of the deposited layers. The study shows that only a third of the estimated deuterium trapped in the vessel is trapped in the carbon deposits. Thus, in the present state of our knowledge and characterisation of the permanent retention, one has to search for mechanisms other than co-deposition to explain the deuterium retention in Tore Supra. (A.C.)

  9. Conceptual design of a high heat flux toroidal pumped limiter for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doceul, L.; Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, Ph.; Chatelier, M.; Cocat, J.P.; Deck, C.; Faisse, F.; Grosman, A.; Mitteau, R.; Tonon, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of the Tore-Supra upgrade, where it is planned to inject up to 25 MW during a time up to 1000 s, a complete toroidal pumped limiter covered of CFC (Carbon Fiber Composite) tiles is being designed. The design is based on the important experience gained from the operation on Tore Supra of actively cooled plasma facing components and pumped limiters. This toroidal limiter covers 7.5 m 2 of the bottom part of the inner vessel and is composed of 576 elementary components. Each element is built from dispersion strengthened copper (DSCu) protected by brazed CFC flat tiles and cooled by pressurised water at 150 deg C. This limiter is designed to sustain 15 MW of convective power. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. First results of the Tore Supra ITER like ICRF antenna prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulliez, K.; Bosia, G.; Bremond, S.; Agarici, G.; Beaumont, B.; Lombard, G.; Millon, L.; Mollard, P.; Volpe, D.

    2005-01-01

    The project of an ITER-like (IL) ion cyclotron (IC) prototype antenna was initiated in mid 2002 in Cadarache, to assess the operational characteristics of the IL scheme in a Tore Supra (TS)-sized array. The prototype was developed by modifying an existing Tore Supra resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. This strategy, chosen to reduce cost and manufacturing time, allowed the completion of the array construction at the end of 2003. The array was installed on TS in January 2004, at the beginning of the new experimental campaign. After a few comments on the design, the paper reports results on low-power characterisation, high-power commissioning and preliminary tests on TS plasmas, prior to the array dis-assembly for inspection

  11. Experience gained from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) is one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW/m 2 of nominal convected heat flux. Technical information is drawn from the whole development up to the industrialisation and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non-destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about half of the injected gas during long discharges

  12. From eroded material to dust: An experimental evaluation of the mobilised dust production in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisolia, C.; Rosanvallon, S.; Loarte, A.; Sharpe, P.; Arnas, C.

    2009-01-01

    In a fusion reactor like ITER, in-vessel materials are subjected to interactions with the plasma. One of the main consequences of these plasma-material interactions is the creation of co-deposited layers especially with Beryllium and Carbon based materials. Due to internal stresses, part of these layers can crack leading to micro particle creation. The purpose of the following paper is to review the tokamak operation processes that lead to the erosion of the bulk material and then to layer creation. The proportion of these layers that are converted into micro particles will be evaluated in the case of Tore Supra experiments. For Tore Supra, this conversion factor (Cd) is close to 7-8% comparable to the current ITER retained value of 10%. In the second part of the papers, diagnostics which can be used to constraint the Cd value are proposed.

  13. Management of water leaks on Tore Supra actively cooled fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchressian, J.C.; Gargiulo, L.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B.

    2005-01-01

    Up to now, Tore Supra is the only fusion device fully equipped with actively cooled Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). In case of abnormal events during a plasma discharge, the PFCs could be submitted to a transient high power density (run away electrons) or to a continuous phenomena as local thermal flux induced by trapped suprathermal electrons or ions). It could lead to a degradation of the PFC integrity and in the worst case to a water leak occurrence. Such water leak has important consequence on the tokamak operation that concerns PFCs themselves, monitoring equipment located in the vacuum vessel or connected to the ports as RF antennas, diagnostics or pumping systems. Following successive water leak events (the most important water leak, that occurred in September 2002, is described in the paper), a large feedback experience has been gained on Tore supra since more than 15 years that could be useful to actively cooled next devices as W7X and ITER. (authors)

  14. A long-period analog integrator for magnetic measurements in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prou, M.; Barth, E.; Couturier, P.; Ouvrier-Buffet, P.

    1998-01-01

    A new analog integrator, called 'Integrateur 2000', has been developed for precise integration over long periods for the magnetic signals of Tore Supra with the aim of 1000 s discharges for the CIEL project. This new integrator is already in routine use for the present pulse lengths of up to 200 s in T-S, and tests have been carried out up to 1000 s with less than 2 mV of drift. (author)

  15. Improved confinement with ion cyclotron hydrogen minority heating on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.T.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Aniel, T.; Bourdelle, C.; Eriksson, L.G.; Garbet, X.; Grisolia, C.; Platz, P.; Budny, R.V.

    1999-02-01

    Tore Supra experiments are presently devoted to study the high density and high radiation regimes with radio frequency heating. Recent results of ion cyclotron minority heating have been obtained with an improved L-mode confinement, close to ELMy H-mode, at relatively high density (up to 80% of Greenwald limit). Such a regime is very promising as possible scenario in a next step tokamak. (authors)

  16. ICRF plasma production in Tore Supra: analysis of antenna coupling and plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Lyssoivan, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of RF plasma production frequency range ω. 2ω ci has been undertaken on Tore Supra taking into account antenna coupling predictions of theory and the TEXTOR-94 database. Two scenarios for RF discharges have been tested (fixed frequency of the RF generator): operation with pure toroidal magnetic field, at standard and lower B T and operation in the magnetic configuration with a small vertical (B V ) field superimposed on B T (B V T ). (authors)

  17. TORE-SUPRA: design of thermal radiation shield at 80 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.; Cordier, J.J.; Deschamps, P.; Gauthier, A.; Perin, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    The TORE-SUPRA superconducting toroidal magnet operating at liquid helium temperature, must be protected against thermal radiation from the vessels. For this purpose, stainless steel heat shields, cooled at 80 K, are positioned between coil casings at 4.5 K and the vessels, and constitute a double stiff toroid which completely surrounds the magnet. Mockups have been manufactured to study their design and operating problems. Calculations have also been made to analyse the mechanical behaviour of these shields

  18. MHD limits in non-inductive tokamak plasmas: simulations and comparison to experiments on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maget, P.; Huysmans, G.; Ottaviani, M.; Garbet, X.; Moreau, Ph.; Segui, J.-L.; Luetjens, H.

    2008-01-01

    Non-inductive tokamak discharges with a flat or hollow current profile are prone to the triggering of large tearing modes when the minimum of the safety factor is just below a low order rational. This issue is of particular importance for discussing the optimal safety factor for MHD modes avoidance in Steady-State reactor plasmas. Different non-linear regimes of such magnetic configurations in Tore Supra are studied using the full MHD code XTOR. Numerical simulations show that the non-linear stage of the Double-Tearing Mode (DTM) is governed by the full reconnection model, but a single tearing mode in a low magnetic shear configuration can have a similar impact on the confinement. The different regimes observed experimentally are recovered in the simulations: a small amplitude (2,1) DTM for close resonant surfaces as seen in Tore Supra, a sawtooth-like behaviour of the (2,1) Double-Tearing Mode as first seen in TFTR, or a large amplitude (2,1) tearing mode that severely degrades the energy confinement, as reported in Tore Supra, JET or DIII-D. Situations where q min ≅1.5 with a stable n = 1 mode, as seen in Tore Supra longest discharges, seem to put specific constraints on the MHD model that is used. Indeed, curvature stabilisation without transport terms as could explain linear stability, but such effect vanishes in presence of heat transport. Electron diamagnetic rotation effect is investigated as a possible mechanism for n = 1 mode stabilization.

  19. The ground fault detection system for the Tore Supra toroidal pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, K.; Cara, P.; Fejoz, P.; Hourtoule, J.; Loarer, T.; Pomaro, N.; Santagiustina, A.; Spuig, P.; Villecroze, F.

    2003-01-01

    The toroidal pump limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is electrically insulated from the vacuum-vessel, to allow its polarization at a voltage of up to 1 kV. In order to monitor continuously the integrity of the TPL electrical insulation, an electronic diagnostic system called TPL ground fault detection system (GFDS) has been developed. The paper will report on the design and the operation experience of the GFD system and on the evolution of the TPL grounding

  20. Studies of suprathermal electron loss in the magnetic ripple of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Lipa, M.; Martin, G.; Chantant, M.; Guilhem, D.; Imbeaux, F.; Mitteau, R.; Peysson, Y.; Surle, F.

    2000-01-01

    A new prototype of protection against fast electron trapped in the magnetic ripple was installed on Tore-Supra in 1998. It was designed to support the high flux of fast electron generated by lower hybrid in the CIEL project (up to 6 MW/m 2 ) during steady state experiments. So it is actively cooled and allows a direct measurement of the energy lost in the ripple. (author)

  1. Reversed magnetic shear operation with ICRF minority heating on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.T.; Antar, G.; Aniel, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports a scenario recently investigated in Tore Supra for high density and high plasma current (Ip) operation, which allows to use the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) minority heating only for the internal transport barrier (ITB) formation. The main aim is to perform a hollow current density profile by minimizing the edge resistive skin depth during the rapid Ip ramp-up, i-e efficient freezing of the resistive current diffusion

  2. On the role of ion heating in ICRF-heated discharges in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.G.; Hoang, G.; Bergeaud, V.

    2000-09-01

    The effect of bulk ion heating in Tore Supra has been investigated by studying discharges with varying concentrations of minority ions during ICRF hydrogen minority heating in Deuterium/ 4 He plasmas. As expected, the level of bulk ion heating is found to increase with the minority concentration. Higher levels of ion heating are shown to be accompanied by two significant effects: an improved energy confinement and a strong influence on the plasma rotation. (author)

  3. Experiment and Modelling of Itb Phenomena with Eccd on Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, F.; Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J.-F.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Maget, P.; Mazon, D.; Segui, J.-L.

    2009-04-01

    An extensive database of Tore Supra discharges with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) has been analysed. A tight correlation has been found, which links the central value of q and the creation of an ITB, while no correspondence with magnetic shear or qmin values can be inferred. In the case of incomplete transition to ITB (O-regime), modelling in presence of ECCD confirms the experimental observations about triggering/stopping and amplifying the oscillations.

  4. The response of the Tore Supra edge plasma to supersonic pulsed gas injection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Radomír; Gunn, J. P.; Bucalossi, J.; Ďuran, Ivan; Geraud, A.; Hron, Martin; Loarer, T.; Pégourié, B.; Stöckel, Jan; Tsitrone, E.

    337-339, č. 16 (2005), s. 530-534 ISSN 0022-3115. [Plasma Surface Interactions /16./. Portland, 24.5.2005-28.5.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/03/P062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Edge plasma * Gas injection and fuelling * probes * Plasma flow * Tore Supra Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  5. Design and manufacture of the large poloidal coils for TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmels, C.; Leloup, C.; Rijnoudt, E.; Ane, J.M.; Chassain, P.; Giaccheto, A.

    1984-01-01

    After a short summary of the main features of the TORE SUPRA long pulse Tokamak poloidal field system, the manufacture process of the six larger coils is described. The hollow conductor copper cross section is almost equal to the water channel one so that the coils can withstand more than 30 s pulses at full power. The main difficulties arise from the exceptional size of these one piece coils which are up to 9 meters in diameter. (author)

  6. Plínio Marcos: uma biografia

    OpenAIRE

    Contiero, Lucinéia [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    Esta é uma biografia de Plínio Marcos, dramaturgo santista nascido em 1935. Tem um pouco de biografia intelectual, um pouco de biografia crítica. Mas é sobretudo a vida de um homem de teatro. O trabalho se abre com uma discussão teórica, em face da qual procuro situar essa abordagem de uma vida. Como toda biografia, prevaleceu aqui o interesse pela disposição cronológica dos fatos, com paradas para tratar de certos aspectos importantes, a vida de jornalista, a peças de maior sucesso. No prime...

  7. Articulated inspection arm for ITER, a demonstration in the Tore Supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, J.J.; Gargiulo, L.; Grisolia, C.; Samaille, F. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Friconneau, J.P.; Perrot, Y. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, 92 (France); Palmer, J.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr.2, Garching (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this program is to demonstrate for ITER the feasibility of an in-vessel remote handling inspection using a long reach, limited payload carrier (1 to 10 kg) for penetration of the ITER chamber through the openings. This device is dedicated to close inspection of the Plasma Facing Components (PFC). An articulated demonstrator called articulated inspection arm (AIA) has been manufactured. A feasibility study of a full AIA operation in Tore Supra was performed, taking into account ITER reference requirements. A scale one demonstration of the AIA under ITER relevant condition is feasible on Tore Supra and would give significant improvement in research results for ITER remote Handling equipment. The test of the AIA demonstrator behaviour is foreseen in 2005 in real Tokamak conditions. The paper presents the full robot concept, the results of the first test campaign, the AIA new design and its integration on Tore Supra. Several potential uses of the AIA for the in vessel components inspection are being studied such as PFC visual inspection, water loop leak testing, laser ablation for wall detritiation and carbon dust and flakes removal are foreseen as utilities to be placed at the AIA head. These various systems are described in the paper.

  8. Articulated inspection arm for ITER, a demonstration in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, J.J.; Gargiulo, L.; Grisolia, C.; Samaille, F.; Palmer, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this program is to demonstrate for ITER the feasibility of an in-vessel remote handling inspection using a long reach, limited payload carrier (1 to 10 kg) for penetration of the ITER chamber through the openings. This device is dedicated to close inspection of the Plasma Facing Components (PFC). An articulated demonstrator called articulated inspection arm (AIA) has been manufactured. A feasibility study of a full AIA operation in Tore Supra was performed, taking into account ITER reference requirements. A scale one demonstration of the AIA under ITER relevant condition is feasible on Tore Supra and would give significant improvement in research results for ITER remote Handling equipment. The test of the AIA demonstrator behaviour is foreseen in 2005 in real Tokamak conditions. The paper presents the full robot concept, the results of the first test campaign, the AIA new design and its integration on Tore Supra. Several potential uses of the AIA for the in vessel components inspection are being studied such as PFC visual inspection, water loop leak testing, laser ablation for wall detritiation and carbon dust and flakes removal are foreseen as utilities to be placed at the AIA head. These various systems are described in the paper

  9. The Tore Supra control, computer system : six years of operation and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeaux, J.Y.; Badie, O.; Chatelier, E.; Hennion, F.; Lebourg, P.; Leveque, P.; Hernandez, M.; Moulin, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Tore Supra control computer system has been providing a good operation of the Tore Supra machine for six years. It controls all of the sub-systems, the continuous ones as well as the sequential ones, and the automatic operation is very efficient. The control system has been programmed by the users themselves thanks to its user-friendly qualities, in order to keep the full control and knowledge of the automatisms. Nevertheless, some improvements are now necessary. Their main principles are : to choose ergonomic and powerful tools, industrial standards, and to keep the users's participation. The whole control system will be upgraded : the automatism level as well as the display level and the communication networks. The operator's driving job is analysed as supervisory and diagnostic tasks which have an effect on the Tore Supra machine efficiency. So a very powerful driving software has been chosen and linked with an expert system, which is to be designed and implemented with the aim to give an immediate accurate and global understanding of the process and situations, in particular in case of trouble. The method is based on an artificial intelligence approach, and it exploits both the process' informations and automatisms' steps, to determine the process state, next possible states and diagnosis of the process troubles. (orig.)

  10. Numerical modelling of pump limiter biasing on TEXTOR-94 and Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhauser, H.; Claassen, H.A.; Mank, G.; Zagorski, R.; Loarer, T.; Gunn, J.; Boucher, C.

    2002-01-01

    The two-dimensional multifluid code TECXY has been used to model the biasing (with respect to the first wall) of the toroidal belt limiter ALT-II on the tokamak TEXTOR-94 and of the new toroidal pump limiter being installed on Tore Supra tokamak in the framework of the CIEL project. It is well known that the edge flow pattern can be influenced by the poloidal electric drifts from imposing radial electric fields. The modelling with TECXY introduces imprinted bias currents in the scrape-off layer (SOL) for the case of negative (limiter) biasing, and imprinted bias potentials for the case of positive biasing. This allowed us to simulate sufficiently well the experimental I-V characteristics for either biasing of ALT-II and also reproduced the essential features and trends of the observed plasma profiles in the SOL of TEXTOR-94. For negative biasing a moderate improvement of the pumping exhaust efficiency can be achieved in the case of TEXTOR. For Tore Supra, however, only a negligible improvement of the limiter performance with biasing can be predicted, which is explained by the relatively weak drift flows in Tore Supra. (author)

  11. Engineering studies for the installation of an axi-symmetric metallic divertor in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doceul, L.; Portafaix, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Saille, A.; Bertrand, B.; Lipa, M.; Missirlian, M.; Jiolat, G.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B.

    2011-01-01

    Tore Supra (TS) has been designed to operate using technologies that allow long plasma operation (a few minutes), by means of superconducting magnets and actively-cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs). Actively cooled tungsten PFC will be used in the baffle area of the first ITER divertor. In order to validate such a technology fully (industrial manufacturing, operation with long plasma duration), the implementation of a tungsten axi-symmetric divertor in the tokamak Tore Supra has been studied . With this second major upgrade, Tore Supra should be able to address the problematic of long plasma discharges with a metallic divertor. The proposed divertor is made up of two stainless steel casings containing a copper coil winding located at the top and bottom area of the vacuum vessel. These casings are firmly maintained by connection beams and protected by PFC. This paper describes the mechanical design of this major component and its integration in TS, the associated electromagnetic and thermomechanical analysis, the manufacturing issues and finally the integration of ITER representative PFCs.

  12. The data acquisition and interlock system for Tore Supra infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Caulier, G.; Ducobu, L.; Guilhem, D.; Jouve, M.; Roche, H.

    2003-01-01

    The data acquisition for the infrared measurement system on Tore-Supra is a key element in ensuring the supervision of the new actively-cooled plasma facing components of the CIEL project. It will allow us to follow the thermal evolution of components of Tore-Supra, in particular the toroidal pumped limiter (LPT) (360 deg.-15 m long) and the five additional heating launchers. When fully installed, the infrared measurement system will be composed of 12 digital 16-bit infrared cameras. They cover a 100-1200 deg.C temperature range and each picture has a definition of 320x240 pixels with a 20 ms time resolution. The objectives of the data acquisition system is real-time recording and analysis of each view element for further post-pulse analysis in order to understand the physics phenomenon and ensure the supervision of the plasma facing components and also to be part of the global feedback control system of Tore Supra

  13. Opportunist combination of electronic technologies for real time calculations in the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuti, A.; Gil, C.; Pastor, P.; Spuig, P.; Vincent, B.; Volpe, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Tore Supra tokamak real-time plasma control is based on measurements coming from various diagnostics. The complexity of all the events that occur during plasma is at the origin of measurements disturbances which have to be corrected in real time in order to ensure an optimal control. The signal correction does not just mean processing but requires complex algorithms. Electronics does not only need to process and adapt electrical signals, but it has to include corrections by mathematical calculation. The FPGA (field-programmable gate array) technology, with the help of basic adapted electronics, allows integrating the entire real time calculation and digital data transmission on the network. FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) coupled with in-house motherboard, which is used both as the interface with Tore Supra specific systems and as the support for other signals processing options, is the perfect answer to this request. The FMC includes a FPGA, memory, Ethernet port and multiple I/O for interfacing with the motherboard and Tore Supra signals. The algorithms are developed in VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language), parallel process management that promotes faster calculation than a common μC (Micro-controller) in one clock pulse. The flexibility, the low cost and the implementation speed allow fitting a large number of various applications in fields where no 'off-theshelf' component can be found. And more specifically, in research and experimentation, algorithms can be continuously improved or modified for new requirements. (authors)

  14. Podnikatelský plán

    OpenAIRE

    Seidlová, Anežka

    2014-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je vytvořit podnikatelský plán na zřízení a provoz dámského fitness centra ve Vsetíně. Práce se zaměřuje na problematiku spojenou s nedostatečným množstvím nabízených služeb pro ženy v daném místě. Při zpracování této práce budou využity SWOT a SLEP analýzy. V závěru práce posoudím, zda je tento podnikatelský plán realizovatelný. The aim of this thesis is to create a business plan for the establishment and operation of women's fitness center in Vsetin. The work ...

  15. de las artes plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Castro Bonilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las innovaciones que se producen día con día en los campos científico, tecnológico, ambiental, social, entre otros, afectan de manera significativa la educación y en consecuencia la labor que desempeñan los docentes. En este marco se le reconoce a la educación su función de orientar e impulsar políticas que respondan a las necesidades e intereses de quienes conforman el contexto social. El presente artículo pretende que quien imparte lecciones en el área de las Artes Plásticas comprenda que, como facilitador de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, debe fundamentar su práctica docente en referentes teóricos que les permitan a sus estudiantes trascender su análisis teórico y crítico, y llegar a propuestas concretas, realizables y transferibles a otros contextos. No debe nunca considerarse dueño absoluto de la verdad y del conocimiento. Debe eso sí tomar en consideración, de acuerdo con su formación y experiencia en esta área, referentes teóricos como el constructivismo, el holismo, la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples, la aplicación de la pedagogía, la psicología, la epistemología y la didáctica, que entrelazados con los contenidos propios del área de las Artes Plásticas, le permitan organizar un trabajo de aula reflexivo, que ofrezca la posibilidad de generar aprendizajes importantes. Por consiguiente, le corresponde al profesor de Artes Plásticas estudiar e investigar en forma rigurosa los fundamentos mencionados, así como practicar de manera constante técnicas artísticas variadas, pues le facilitan al estudiante el desarrollo de sus habilidades para aprender, para asimilar información eficiente y oportuna, para tomar decisiones, solucionar problemas e incrementar su creatividad

  16. Implementation of FCI heating system to the control system of Tore-Supra; Integration du systeme de chauffage FCI au sein du reseau de controle commande du Tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, S

    2001-11-01

    This report presents the implementation of the ion cyclotron resonance heating system (FCI) to the instrumentation and control system of the Tore-Supra tokamak. The new plasma heating system involves 3 antennas delivering 12 MW that are required to maintain fusion reactions. This paper is divided into 8 chapters: 1) thermonuclear fusion and Tore-Supra tokamak; 2) hardware system around Tore-Supra, in this chapter the control system and the data acquisition and processing systems are presented; 3) functional analysis, this analysis defines the different needs concerning timing and pilot-controlling, a preliminary proposition of hardware equipment is made; 4) operating modes of FCI; 5) communication within the control system network; 6) communication with the supervisory system of the power stations; 7) management of data exchange with SMX generators; and 8) control of the rate of stationary waves during the injection of power into the plasma.

  17. Podnikatelský plán

    OpenAIRE

    Štefančík, Jozef

    2007-01-01

    Práce se zabývá podstatnými skutečnostmi, které mají vliv na založení internetového obchodu se skate doplňky v ČR. Zmiňuje legislativní, technologické, marktetingové, finanční a jiné aspekty. Praktická část používá zjištěné poznatky k navržení podoby hypotetického internetového obchodu se skate doplňky Skate stuff, s.r.o. a je tak podnikatelským plánem pro potřeby případného začínajícího podnikatele.

  18. Plasma density control with ergodic divertor on Tore Supra; Controle de la densite du plasma en presence du divertor ergodique dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin, B

    1998-04-30

    Plasma density control on the tokamak Tore Supra is important for the optimization of every experimental scenario dealing with the improvement of plasma performances. Specific conditions are required both in the plasma bulk and at the edge. Within the framework of the present study, a magnetic configuration is used in the e plasma edge of Tore Supra: the ergodic divertor configuration. A magnetic perturbation which is resonant with the permanent field destroys the plasma confinement locally, opening the field lines onto the material components. They aim of the study is the characterization of the edge density in every relevant scenario for Tore Supra. The first part of this work is dedicated to density and temperature measurements by a series of fixed Langmuir probes located at the very edge of the plasma. Thanks to them, density regimes have been put in evidence during experiments where the volume averaged density , an usual control parameter of the plasma, was varied. The analysis of heat and particle transport through the plasma edge region explains the mechanisms leading to those regimes. The essential factor in our analysis is the dependence of the electron conductivity and ionization depth on temperature. While heat conduction governs the heat transport, the edge density varies linearly according to . Below a critical temperature, reached when the ion flux amplification at constant power density is large enough, a parallel temperature gradient appears leading to a density gradient in the opposite direction in order to maintain the pressure constant along the field lines. A high recycling regime is obtained and the edge density varies like {sup 3}. The pressure conservation is no more satisfied during the detachment of the plasma, which is characterized by a high neutral density at low temperatures leading to a ion momentum loss by friction against the neutrals. The edge density drops in those conditions. These regimes are similar

  19. Soil burial method for plastic degradation performed by Pseudomonas PL-01, Bacillus PL-01, and indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovitri, Maya; Nafi'ah, Risyatun; Antika, Titi Rindi; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, N. D.; Zulaikha, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lately, plastic bag is becoming the most important pollutant for environment since it is difficult to be naturally degraded due to it consists of long hydrocarbon polymer chains. Our previous study indicated that our pure isolate Pseudomonas PL-01 and Bacillus PL-01 could degrade about 10% plastic bag. This present study was aimed to find out whether Pseudomonas PL01 and Bacillus PL01 put a positive effect to indigenous bacteria from marginal area in doing plastic degradation with a soil burial method. Beach sand was used as a representative marginal area, and mangrove sediment was used as a comparison. Plastics were submerged into unsterile beach sand with 10% of Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 containing liquid minimal salt medium (MSM) separately, while other plastics were submerged into unsterile mangrove sediments. After 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, their biofilm formation on their plastic surfaces and plastic degradation were measured. Results indicated that those 2 isolates put positive influent on biofilm formation and plastic degradation for indigenous beach sand bacteria. Bacillus PL-01 put higher influent than Pseudomonas PL-01. Plastic transparent was preferable degraded than black and white plastic bag `kresek'. But anyhow, indigenous mangrove soil bacteria showed the best performance in biofilm formation and plastic degradation, even without Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 addition. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis complemented the results; there were attenuated peaks with decreasing peaks transmittances. This FTIR peaks indicated chemical functional group changes happened among the plastic compounds after 16 weeks incubation time.

  20. First plasma experiments in Tore Supra with a new generation of high heat flux limiters for RF antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarici, G.; Beaumont, B.; Bibet, Ph.; Bremond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Colas, L.; Durocher, A.; Gargiulo, L.; Ladurelle, L.; Lombard, G.; Martin, G.; Mollard, P.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1997 and 1998 Tore Supra shutdown, a first set of new antenna guard limiters was installed on one of the three ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas of Tore Supra. This limiter, which was one of the main technological studies of the 1998 campaign, was widely experimented in real plasma conditions, thus allowing the validation in situ, for the first time, of the technology of active metal casting (AMC) for plasma facing components. The huge improvement in the thermal response of the new limiter generation, compared to the old one, is shown on plasma pulses made identical in terms of antenna position and injected RF power profile. By using the infrared cameras installed inside Tore Supra and viewing the antennas front, the power density fluxes received by the carbon fibre composite (CFC) surface of the limiter were evaluated by correlation with the heat load tests made on the electrons beam facility of CEA/Framatome

  1. Infrared reflection properties and modelling of in situ reflection measurements on plasma-facing materials in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R; Desgranges, C; Faisse, F; Pocheau, C; Lasserre, J-P; Oelhoffen, F; Eupherte, L; Todeschini, M

    2009-01-01

    Tore Supra has-like ITER-reflecting internal surfaces, which can perturb the machine protection systems based on infrared (IR) thermography. To ameliorate this situation, we have measured and modelled in the 3-5 μm wavelength range the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of wall material samples from Tore Supra and conducted in situ reflection measurements and simulated them with the CEA COSMOS code. BRDF results are presented for B 4 C and carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles. The hemispherical integrated reflection ranges from 0.12 for the B 4 C sample to 0.39 for a CFC tile from the limiter erosion zone. In situ measurements of the IR reflection of a blackbody source off an ICRH and an LHCD antenna of Tore Supra are well reproduced by the simulation.

  2. Infrared reflection properties and modelling of in situ reflection measurements on plasma-facing materials in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, R; Desgranges, C; Faisse, F; Pocheau, C [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lasserre, J-P; Oelhoffen, F; Eupherte, L; Todeschini, M [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33114 Le Barp (France)

    2009-12-15

    Tore Supra has-like ITER-reflecting internal surfaces, which can perturb the machine protection systems based on infrared (IR) thermography. To ameliorate this situation, we have measured and modelled in the 3-5 {mu}m wavelength range the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of wall material samples from Tore Supra and conducted in situ reflection measurements and simulated them with the CEA COSMOS code. BRDF results are presented for B{sub 4}C and carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles. The hemispherical integrated reflection ranges from 0.12 for the B{sub 4}C sample to 0.39 for a CFC tile from the limiter erosion zone. In situ measurements of the IR reflection of a blackbody source off an ICRH and an LHCD antenna of Tore Supra are well reproduced by the simulation.

  3. Towards long pulse high performance discharges in Tore Supra: experimental knowledge and technological developments for heat exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document deals with fusion heat exhaust experiments in Tore Supra tokamak. The purpose of the Tore Supra tokamak is to achieve and control long pulse powerful discharges. High input power is required to generate the non inductive current, approximately 25 MW . The conception and realisation of a Plasma Facing Component (PFC) scheme able to deal with this large amount of power is the main issue. A description of the water loop used for power removal and of the calorimetric system to determine the overall heat exhaust balance is provided. The infra-red measurements used during plasma operation are also described, together with several heat exhaust devices. The behaviour of ion cyclotron and lower hybrid wave launchers is addressed. Eventually, some information is provided on technological developments of PFC in Tore Supra. (TEC). 61 refs., 34 figs

  4. Design And Ground Testing For The Expert PL4/PL5 'Natural And Roughness Induced Transition'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutti, Davie; Chazot, Olivier; Donelli, Raffaele; de Rosa, Donato

    2011-05-01

    Unpredicted boundary layer transition can impact dramatically the stability of the vehicle, its aerodynamic coefficients and reduce the efficiency of the thermal protection system. In this frame, ESA started the EXPERT (European eXPErimental Reentry Testbed) program to pro- vide and perform in-flight experiments in order to obtain aerothermodynamic data for the validation of numerical models and of ground-to-flight extrapolation methodologies. Considering the boundary layer transition investigation, the EXPERT vehicle is equipped with two specific payloads, PL4 and PL5, concerning respectively the study of the natural and roughness induced transition. The paper is a survey on the design process of these two in-flight experiments and it covers the major analyses and findings encountered during the development of the payloads. A large amount of transition criteria have been investigated and used to estimate either the dangerousness of the height of the distributed roughness, arising due to nose erosion, or the effectiveness of height of the isolated roughness element forcing the boundary layer transition. Supporting the PL4 design, linear stability computations and CFD analyses have been performed by CIRA on the EXPERT flight vehicle to determine the amplification factor of the boundary layer instabilities at different point of the re-entry trajectory. Ground test experiments regarding the PL5 are carried on in the Mach 6 VKI H3 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel with a Reynolds numbers ranging from 18E6/m to 26E6/m. Infrared measurements (Stanton number) and flow visualization are used on a 1/16 scaled model of the EXPERT vehicle and a flat plate to validate the Potter and Whitfield criterion as a suitable methodology for ground-to-flight extrapolation and the payload design.

  5. Study of the electron heat transport in Tore-Supra tokamak; Etude du transport de la chaleur electronique dans le Tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harauchamps, E

    2004-07-01

    This work presents analytical solutions to the electron heat transport equation involving a damping term and a convection term in a cylindrical geometry. These solutions, processed by Matlab, allow the determination of the evolution of the radial profile of electron temperature in tokamaks during heating. The modulated injection of waves around the electron cyclotron frequency is an efficient tool to study heat transport experimentally in tokamaks. The comparison of these analytical solutions with experimental results from Tore-Supra during 2 discharges (30550 and 31165) shows the presence of a sudden change for the diffusion and damping coefficients. The hypothesis of the presence of a pinch spread all along the plasma might explain the shape of the experimental temperature profiles. These analytical solutions could be used to determine the time evolution of plasma density as well or of any parameter whose evolution is governed by a diffusion-convection equation. (A.C.)

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of the hybrid wave coupling in Tore Supra and Jet by multijunction antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.

    1990-06-01

    The hybrid or slow electron plasma waves propagation and coupling are investigated in a toroidal magnetic confinement configuration such as found in Tokamaks. The main characteristics of the antenna, formed of several waveguides displaced in the toroidal direction, are studied. The equations of the hybrid waves linear propagation are solved for a plane geometrical configuration and in an inhomogeneous plasma. The optimization of the hybrid wave couplers of Tore Supra and Jet is carried out by means of the SWAN code. The results of the experiments performed on Tore Supra are analyzed. The investigation shows that the wave coupling depends on the edge plasma properties [fr

  7. A new protection system against high voltage vacuum breakdowns developed for the Tore Supra neutral beam injector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.; Jequier, F.; Pamela, J.

    1988-01-01

    A passive protection system against high voltage vacuum breakdowns has been developed. This system is based on the principle of oscillatory discharges in an RLC circuit coupled with the use of a diode. It allows the interruption of a vacuum breakdown in a few milliseconds. This study has been made for protecting some parts of the neutral beam injectors of the Tore Supra Tokamak experiment, but its field of application should be quite large. The conception of the whole high voltage electrical circuit developed for the Tore Supra injector prototype experiments is also presented

  8. Note: Measurements of fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA tokamak by means of modified Cherenkov-type diamond detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Jakubowski, M. J.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 7 Andrzeja Soltana Str., 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Lotte, Ph.; Goniche, M.; Gunn, J.; Colledani, G.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Basiuk, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-01-15

    The Note reports on experimental studies of ripple born fast electrons within the TORE-SUPRA facility, which were performed by means of a modified measuring head equipped with diamond detectors designed especially for recording the electron-induced Cherenkov radiation. There are presented signals produced by fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA machine, which were recorded during two experimental campaigns performed in 2010. Shapes of these electron-induced signals are considerably different from those observed during the first measurements carried out by the prototype Cherenkov probe in 2008. An explanation of the observed differences is given.

  9. Note: Measurements of fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA tokamak by means of modified Cherenkov-type diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Jakubowski, M. J.; Malinowski, K.; Mirowski, R.; Lotte, Ph.; Goniche, M.; Gunn, J.; Colledani, G.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Basiuk, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Note reports on experimental studies of ripple born fast electrons within the TORE-SUPRA facility, which were performed by means of a modified measuring head equipped with diamond detectors designed especially for recording the electron-induced Cherenkov radiation. There are presented signals produced by fast electrons in the TORE-SUPRA machine, which were recorded during two experimental campaigns performed in 2010. Shapes of these electron-induced signals are considerably different from those observed during the first measurements carried out by the prototype Cherenkov probe in 2008. An explanation of the observed differences is given.

  10. Plástica mitral Mitral repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo M Braile

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 101 pacientes submetidos a plástica da valva mitral em seis anos, com seguimento de 100%. Entre eles, 36 eram do sexo masculino e 65 do sexo feminino, com idade variando de dois a 62 anos (M = 28 ± 16,4. Desses, 57 (56,4% foram submetidos apenas a abordagem valvar mitral. Os demais foram submetidos a procedimentos associados, como plástica tricúspide (9,9%, revascularização do miocárdio (4,0%, entre outros. Não foi registrado óbito imediato. O índice de mortalidade tardia foi de 2% (AVC hemorrágico após cinco anos e septicemia, no primeiro ano. As complicações não fatais foram representadas pela endocardite evidenciada em dois pacientes (2%, sendo tratados e curados, e um paciente com reestenose mitral pós-plástica por reagudização da doença reumática. O estudo atuarial revelou um índice de 79,0 ± 17,7% de sobrevida, um total de 76,3 ± 17,8% de pacientes livres de complicações, 80,0 ± 17,9% de reoperações, 100,0% livres de tromboembolismo. Os resultados ecodoplercardiográficos registraram que 89% dos pacientes evoluíram com ausência de insuficiência. Dos 11% restantes, 7,4% apresentram insuficiência mitral discreta, 2,4% moderada e 2% importante. De acordo com a classificação da NYHA, os pacientes das classes III (83,8% e IV (16,2% passaram para as classes I (33,3%, II (60,6%, III (4,1% e IV (2%. Os autores concluem que o anel de pericárdio flexível conforma-se perfeitamente com o anel valvar, não produz hemólise e se endoteliza completamente a médio prazo.A hundred-and-one patients were studied in six years, with 100% of follow-up. Among them, 36 were male and 65 female, with an age range of two to 62 years (mean 28 ± 16.4%. Fifty seven of them (56.4% underwent just a mitral surgery, the others and other associated procedures, as tricuspid plastic (9.9%, coronary artery revascularization (4.0%, among others. Hospital mortality was not registered. The late mortality rate was 2% for AVC

  11. Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, A.; Garibaldi, P.

    2005-01-01

    A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm 2 within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m 2 ) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m 2 ), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

  12. Tore-Supra infrared thermography system, a real steady-state diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Bondil, J.L.; Bertrand, B.; Desgranges, C.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tore-Supra Tokamak (I p = 1.5 MA, B t = 4 T) has been constructed with a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) for high-performance long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increases continuously during the discharge until radiation cooling equals the incoming heat flux. Such an environment is found in the JET Tokamak [JET Team, IAEA-CN-60/A1-3, Seville, 1994] and on TRIAM [M. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, S. Kawasaki, A. Iyomasa, S.V. Kulkarni, M. Hasegawa, E. Jotaki, H. Zushi, K. Nakamura, K. Hanada, S. Itoh, Static and dynamic properties of wall recycling in TRIAM-1M, J. Nucl. Mater. 313-316 (2003) 519-523] [Y. Kamada, et al., Nucl. Fusion 3 (1999) 1845]. In Tore-Supra, the surface temperature of the actively cooled plasma facing components reach steady state within a second. We present here the Tore-Supra thermographic system, made of seven endoscope bodies equipped so far with eight infrared (IR) cameras. It has to be noted that this diagnostic is the first diagnostic to be actively cooled, as required for steady state. The main purpose of such a diagnostic is to prevent the plasma to damage the actively cooled plasma facing components (ACPFCs), which consist of the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL), 7 m 2 , and of five radio-frequency antennae, 1.5 m 2 each

  13. Operation of an ITER relevant inspection robot on Tore Supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Laurent [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: laurent.gargiulo@cea.fr; Bayetti, Pascal; Bruno, Vincent; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Hernandez, Caroline; Houry, Michael [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Keller, Delphine [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Martins, Jean-Pierre [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Measson, Yvan; Perrot, Yann [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Samaille, Frank [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2009-06-15

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. CEA has developed a multipurpose carrier able to realize deployments in the plasma vessel without breaking the Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) and temperature conditioning. A 6 years R and D programme was jointly conducted by CEA-LIST Interactive Robotics Unit and the Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM) in order to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of an in-vessel inspection robot relevant to ITER requirements. The Articulated Inspection Arm robot (AIA) is an 8-m long multilink carrier with a payload up to 10 kg operable between plasma under tokamak conditioning environment; its geometry allows a complete close inspection of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of the Tore Supra vessel. Different tools are being developed by CEA to be plugged at the front head of the carrier. The diagnostic presently in operation consists in a viewing system offering accurate visual inspection of PFCs. Leak detection of first wall based on helium sniffing and laser compact system for carbon co-deposited layers characterizations or treatments are also considered for demonstration. In April 2008, the AIA robot equipped with its vision diagnostic has realized a complete deployment into Tore Supra and the first closed inspection of the vessel under UHV conditions. During the upcoming experimental campaign, the same operation will be performed under relevant conditions (10{sup -6} Pa and 120 deg. C) after a conditioning phase at 200 deg. C to avoid outgassing pollution of the chamber. This paper describes the different steps of the project development, robot capabilities with the present operations conducted on Tore Supra and future requirements for making the robot a tool for tokamak routine operation.

  14. Ion temperature measurements in the scrape-off layer of the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, M.

    2009-10-01

    The thesis describes measurements of the scrape-off layer (SOL) ion temperature T i with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) in the limiter tokamak Tore Supra. Considerable emphasis is placed on study of the instrumental effects of RFAs and their influence on T i measurements. In general, the influence of instrumental effects on T i measurements is found to be relatively small. The instrumental study is followed by systematic measurements of T i (as well as other parameters) in the Tore Supra SOL. This includes the scaling of SOL temperatures and electron density with the main plasma parameters (such as the plasma density, toroidal magnetic field, working gas, and the radiated power fraction). Except at very high densities or in detached plasmas, SOL T i is found to be higher than T e by up to a factor of 7. While SOL T i is found to vary by almost two orders of magnitude, following the variation of the core temperatures, SOL T e changes only little and seems to be decoupled from the core plasma. The first continuous T i /T e profile from the edge of the confined plasma into the SOL is constructed using data from different tokamaks. It is shown that T i /T e > 1 in the SOL but also in the confined plasma, and increases with radius. The first evidence of poloidal asymmetry of the radial ion and electron energy transport in the SOL is reported. Implications for ITER start-up phase are discussed. Correlation of the asymmetries of SOL T i and T e measured from both directions along the magnetic field lines with changes of the parallel Mach number is studied. SOL T i was measured for the first time in Tore Supra by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and compared to RFA data. A factor of 4 higher T i measured by CXRS is a subject of further analysis. (A.C.)

  15. Observation of the m = 1 mode by microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Segui, J.L.; Pecquet, A.L.; Gil, C.

    1991-06-01

    Microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak exhibit low-frequency oscillations of the transmitted power, associated to the presence of a saturated m = 1, n = 1 mode, as observed by soft X-ray diagnostics. It is shown that these oscillations are related to refraction effects, and specifically to modulations of the electron density profile due to a rotating magnetic island. An analytical solution of the ray equations in the presence of a rotating density perturbation is found, explaining the frequency spectrum of the oscillations

  16. Depletion of hydrogenoid atoms from the carbonized layer in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Bardon, J.

    1992-01-01

    The wall production of deuterium and hydrogen during an helium glow discharge of 1.6x10 5 s has been studied after 100 deuterium plasma shots in Tore Supra. After a transient, the desorption followed a t -1 time behaviour for the deuterium a t -1/2 behaviour for the hydrogen. The results are discussed in terms of ion-induced release for the deuterium and a diffusion-limited mechanism for the hydrogen. The values obtained for the different parameters are in good agreement with the relevant data of the literature. (orig.)

  17. Power deposition profile during lower hybrid current drive in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecquet, A.L.; Moreau, D.; Fall, T.; Lasalle, J.; Lecoustey, P.; Mattioli, M.; Peysson, Y.; Auge, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Talvard, M.; Hubbard, A.; Moret, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments have been performed in Tore Supra in various density regimes. The total power coupled to the plasma reached 4MW and a strong electron heating has been observed. To investigate the power deposition mechanism on the electrons, r.f power modulation experiments have been performed. These experiments allow us to estimate the power deposition profiles on both thermal and non-thermal electrons and also to study their respective time responses. From these studies it is possible to deduce a thermal heating scenario which agrees with the experimental results

  18. Quench and safety tests on a toroidal field coil of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Cure, C.; Duchateau, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of the safety analysis of the magnet, three quenches have been initiated in one of the TF coils in the Saclay test facility. While transporting a given current, the coil is insulated from the refrigerator: the temperatures of the helium and of the coil increase slowly on account of thermal losses. At the current sharing temperature a quench rapidly propagates and the protection system makes the coil discharge in the dump resistor. At three levels of current, electrical, thermal and hydraulic measurements have been performed. All these results are taken into account for the safety design of TORE SUPRA

  19. Particle pinch with fully noninductive lower hybrid current drive in Tore Supra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, G T; Bourdelle, C; Pégourié, B; Schunke, B; Artaud, J F; Bucalossi, J; Clairet, F; Fenzi-Bonizec, C; Garbet, X; Gil, C; Guirlet, R; Imbeaux, F; Lasalle, J; Loarer, T; Lowry, C; Travère, J M; Tsitrone, E

    2003-04-18

    Recently, plasmas exceeding 4 min have been obtained with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in Tore Supra. These LHCD plasmas extend for over 80 times the resistive current diffusion time with zero loop voltage. Under such unique conditions the neoclassical particle pinch driven by the toroidal electric field vanishes. Nevertheless, the density profile remains peaked for more than 4 min. For the first time, the existence of an inward particle pinch in steady-state plasma without toroidal electric field, much larger than the value predicted by the collisional neoclassical theory, is experimentally demonstrated.

  20. In service experience feed back of the tore supra actively cooled inner first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, P.; Chatelier, M.; Cordier, J.J.; Deschamps, P.; Garampon, L.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.

    1994-01-01

    Over 12000 plasma shots (some of them up to 8 MW of additional power and same as long as 60 s) have been achieved in TORE SUPRA (TS) with a significant number of them limited by thr inner first wall. This actively water cooled wall is covered with brazed graphite tiles. High power - high energy experiments have shown that a reliability of the graphite tile/heat sink joint and an accurate alignment of the wall are needed. This paper summarizes the experience gained with this component and developments in progress in order to improve the performance of such a inner first wall. (authors). 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  1. In service experience feed back of the tore supra actively cooled inner first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, J; Chappuis, P; Chatelier, M; Cordier, J J; Deschamps, P; Garampon, L; Guilhem, D; Lipa, M; Mitteau, R

    1994-12-31

    Over 12000 plasma shots (some of them up to 8 MW of additional power and same as long as 60 s) have been achieved in TORE SUPRA (TS) with a significant number of them limited by thr inner first wall. This actively water cooled wall is covered with brazed graphite tiles. High power - high energy experiments have shown that a reliability of the graphite tile/heat sink joint and an accurate alignment of the wall are needed. This paper summarizes the experience gained with this component and developments in progress in order to improve the performance of such a inner first wall. (authors). 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance heating assisted plasma startup in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucalossi, J.; Hertout, P.; Lennholm, M.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bouquey, F.; Darbos, C.; Traisnel, E.

    2009-04-01

    ECRH assisted plasma startup at fundamental resonance is investigated in Tore Supra in view of ITER operation. ECRH pre-ionisation is found to be very efficient allowing plasma initiation in a wide range of pre-fill pressure compared to ohmic startup. Reliable assisted startup has been achieved at the ITER reference toroidal electric field (0.3 V/m) with 160 kW of ECRH. Resonance location scan indicates that the plasma is initiated at the resonance location and that the plasma current channel position had to be real-time controlled since the very beginning of the discharge to obtain robust plasma startup. (authors)

  3. Synergy between electron cyclotron and lower hybrid current drive on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J.F.; Dumont, R.J.; Imbeaux, F.; Bibet, P.; Berger-By, G.; Bouquey, F.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Ekedahl, A.; Hoang, G.T.; Lennholm, M.; Maget, P.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.

    2005-01-01

    Improvement (up to a factor ∼ 4) of the electron cyclotron (EC) current drive efficiency in plasmas sustained by lower hybrid (LH) current drive has been demonstrated in stationary conditions on the Tore Supra tokamak. This was made possible by feedback controlled discharges at zero loop voltage, constant plasma current and density. This effect, predicted by kinetic theory, results from a favorable interplay of the velocity space diffusions induced by the two waves: the EC wave pulling low-energy electrons out of the Maxwellian bulk, and the LH wave driving them to high parallel velocities. (author)

  4. An H minority heating regime in Tore Supra showing improved L mode confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.T.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Aniel, T.

    2000-01-01

    Tore Supra experiments are at present devoted to the study of high density regimes with radiofrequency heating. Recently, an improved L mode confinement regime has been observed in plasmas heated by ion cyclotron hydrogen minority heating, at relatively high densities up to 80% of the Greenwald limit. The quality of energy confinement is as good as that of ELMy H mode. The main physical mechanism of this regime has not been clearly identified. However, some features very similar to those of previous improved confinement modes using neutral beam heating in other tokamaks have been observed. (author)

  5. Ion temperature profiles along a hydrogen diagnostic beam in a TORE SUPRA tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romannikov, A.; Petrov, Yu.; Platts, P.; Khess, V.; Khutter, T.; Farzhon, Zh.; Moro, F.

    2002-01-01

    By means of corpuscular diagnostics one studies temperature of ions along a diagnostic hydrogen beam. Paper presents comparison of temperature of plasma (deuterium) basic ions measures by means of the active corpuscular diagnostics with temperature of C + carbon ions along a beam. One studies behavior peculiarities of T i ion temperature profiles for TORE-SUPRA different modes, such as: formation of plane and even hollow T i profiles for ohmic modes, variation of T i profiles under operation of an ergodic diverter, difference of temperature of basic ions measured by means of the active corpuscular diagnostics from C +5 temperature. Paper offers clear explanation of these peculiarities [ru

  6. Collection and Characterization of Particulate from the Tore Supra Tokamak (Dec. 1999 Vent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, John Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Particulate generated during the operation of a fusion device contributes to the radiological source term associated with accident scenarios in the device. Understanding the mechanisms generating the particulate and correctly describing its physical and chemical behavior is essential for safety analyses of future fusion devices. Knowledge of these mechanisms is gained by collecting and characterizing particulate matter from operating fusion facilities. Tokamak dust, the particulate matter generated during the operation of a tokamak fusion device, was collected from Tore Supra in December 1999, during the initial phase of the scheduled shutdown for installation of advanced plasma facing components. Tore Supra, located at CEA Cadarache, France, is presently the third largest operating tokamak with the capability of long-pulse operation. Eighteen super-conducting coils produce the 4.5 T magnetic field inside a vessel 2.4 m in major radius and 1.2 m in minor radius. Limiter and divertor regimes of operation are possible. In the divertor regime, the circular magnetic configuration is ergodized by six outboard resonant divertor modules that are covered with 12 m2 of carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles. In addition, some field lines are diverted to actively cooled neutralizing plates made of CuCrZr bars covered with B4C. In the limiter regime, the plasma leans on the actively cooled inboard first wall or on a set of inertially cooled pumped limiters. The first wall area of 12 m2 is covered with both polycrystalline graphite tiles (83%) and CFC tiles (17%). The single outboard limiter is constructed of pyrolitic graphite, and the four toroidally symmetric bottom limiters are constructed of CFC. Figure 1.1 displays the relative location of plasma facing components within the plasma chamber of Tore Supra. In this report, we present in Section 2 the methods used to collect and analyze this dust and describe the selection of sampling locations. Section 3 includes a discussion

  7. Near infrared thermography by CCD cameras and application to first wall components of Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, F.

    1996-01-01

    In the Tokamak TORE-SUPRA, the plasma facing components absorbs and evacuate (active cooling) high power fluxes (up to 10 MW/m 2 ). Their thermal behavior study is essential for the success of controlled thermonuclear fusion line. The first part is devoted to the study of power deposition on the TORE-SUPRA actively cooled limiters. A model of power deposition on one of the limiters is developed. It Takes into account the magnetic topology and a description of the plasma edge. The model is validated with experimental calorimetric data obtained during a series of shots. This will allow to compare the surface temperature measurements with the predicted ones. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop a new surface temperature measurement system. It works in the near infrared range (890 nm) and is designed to complete the existing thermographic diagnostic of TORE-SUPRA. By using the radiation laws (for a blackbody and the plasma) ant the laboratory calibration one can estimate the surface temperature of the observed object. We evaluate the performances and limits of such a device in the harsh conditions encountered in a Tokamak environment. On the one hand, in a quasi ideal situation, this analysis shows that the range of measurement is 600 deg. C to 2500 deg. C. On the other hand, when one takes into account of the plasma radiation (with an averaged central plasma density of 6.10 19 m -3 ), we find that the minimum surface temperature rise to 900 deg. C. In the near future, according to the development of IR-CCD cameras working in the near infrared range up to 2 micrometers, we will be able to keep the good spatial resolution with an improved lower limit for the temperature down to 150 deg. C. The last section deals with a number of computer tools to process the images obtained from experiments on TORE-SUPRA. A pattern recognition application was especially developed to detect a complex plasma iso-intensity structure. (author)

  8. Near infrared thermography by CCD cameras and application to first wall components of Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, F.

    1996-01-01

    In the Tokamak TORE-SUPRA, the plasma facing components absorbs and evacuate (active cooling) high power fluxes (up to 10 MW/m 2 ). Their thermal behavior study is essential for the success of controlled thermonuclear fusion line. The first part is devoted to the study of power deposition on the TORE-SUPRA actively cooled limiters. A model of power deposition on one of the limiters is developed. It takes into account the magnetic topology and a description of the plasma edge. The model is validated with experimental calorimetric data obtained during a series of shots. This will allow to compare the surface temperature measurements with the predicted ones. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop a new temperature measurement system. It works in the near infrared range (890 nm) and is designed to complete the existing thermographic diagnostic of TORE-SUPRA. By using the radiation laws (for a blackbody and the plasma) and the laboratory calibration one can estimate the surface temperature of the observed object. We evaluate the performances and limits of such a device in the harsh conditions encountered in a Tokamak environment. On the one hand, in a quasi ideal situation, this analysis shows that the range of measurements is 600 deg. C to 2500 deg. C. On the other hand, when one takes into account of the plasma radiation (with an averaged central plasma density of 6.10 19 m -3 ), we find that the minimum surface temperature rise to 900 deg. C instead of 700 deg. C. In the near future, according to the development of IR-CCD cameras working in the near infrared range up to 2 micrometers, we will be able to keep the good spatial resolution with an improved lower limit for the temperature down to 150 deg. C. The last section deals with a number of computer tools to process the images obtained from experiments on TORE-SUPRA. A pattern recognition application was especially developed to detect a complex plasma iso-intensity structure. (author)

  9. Mechanical stress analysis for the poloidal field coils of TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ane, J.M.; Perin, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Hoop stresses, up to 100 MPa, in the poloidal field coils of TORE SUPRA have to be reacted back to the main body of the coil where a conductor ends or is twisted for an interturn or an interlayer transition. The load is taken by shear stress through the insulation. Carefully designed configurations, based on 1D, 2D and 3D analysis results, limit the shear stress levels to 15 MPa. A fatigue test of a conductor termination has shown that the experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated stresses

  10. Experiments on FW-IBW mode conversion heating combined with LHCD on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Imbeaux, F.; Nguyen, F.; Peysson, Y.; Monakhov, I.; Petrov, Y.; Petrov, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Recent RF heating and current drive investigations revealed a growing interest in a scheme based on mode conversion (MC) of externally excited fast waves (FW) to ion Bernstein waves (IBW). Suitability of MC scheme for on/off axis electron heating has already been reported on Tore Supra. New results, which were obtained during MC experiments combined with Low Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) are presented in this paper. Application of new experimental tools and numerical techniques provided better insight into the problem of MC power deposition. an outcome of active search for synergistic LHCD-IBW current drive effects is also reported

  11. de artes plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Castro Bonilla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto que a continuación presento, surge de una investigación en la que participan docentes que imparten lecciones en instituciones del sistema educativo y se preocupan por renovar sus prácticas pedagógicas con el propósito de que sus estudiantes ¬-niños y adolescentes-apliquen los aprendizajes mediante nuevas formas de expresión artística. En el artículo se menciona la metodología que aplica esa investigación, la cual se organiza mediante “fases” que facilitan espacios reflexivos que permiten valorar el trabajo docente mediante el enfoque cualitativo que promueve la investigación-acción en el aula. También se hace referencia a la fundamentación de una práctica pedagógica que le permite al profesor y a sus estudiantes, la posibilidad de asignar nuevos significados al trabajo que se realiza dentro y fuera del contexto escolar. Finalmente, se ofrecen algunas propuestas metodológicas que se dirigen de manera especial a quienes imparten lecciones de artes plásticas en la educación secundaria, aunque se pueden adecuar a otras poblaciones estudiantiles, mediante la planificación de proyectos que tiendan a mejorar las experiencias artísticas de quienes participan en los procesos de aprendizaje. Se espera que el texto facilite la organización de investigaciones que favorezcan la innovación en el aula.

  12. Edge density profile measurements by X-mode reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Chareau, J.M.; Paume, M.; Sabot, R.

    2000-10-01

    A broadband reflectometer operating in the frequency range 50-75 GHz has been developed on Tore Supra to measure electron density profiles at the edge. The system uses extraordinary mode polarization and performs routine measurements in 20 μs with a heterodyne detection to ensure a high dynamic range sensitivity. It allows separate phase and amplitude information of the signal. The density profiles are fully automatically calculated from the raw phase. The initialization is done with an automatic detection of the first cut-off from the amplitude of the reflected signal with accuracy up to ±0.5 cm. The profiles are now part of the public database of Tore Supra (TS) and can provide details of density structures better than the centimeter range. High reliability of the measurements for various plasma conditions make this diagnostic an ideal tool to study specific edge plasma physics with given examples on detached plasma behaviour and RF antenna-plasma coupling processes. It also is shown how the presence of suprathermal electrons may perturb the measurements. (authors)

  13. Profile measurements of localized fast electrons and ions in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Roubin, J.P.; Becoulet, A.; Carrasco, J.; Martin, G.; Moreau, D.; Saoutic, B.

    1992-01-01

    The strong toroidal and poloidal anisotropy of the heat flux to the first wall of Tore Supra during additional heating has been related to suprathermal particle losses induced by the TF ripple. In this paper we describe a new system of electric collectors designed to diagnose these localized particles and we analyse measurements performed during LHCD, ICRH and NBI heating. The interaction of fast particles created by additional heating with the TF ripple perturbation in Tore Supra has been analyzed by a direct measurement of the localized particles. The good confinement region has been identified thanks to a peak in the measured current profiles and is in agreement with theory. During LHCD and ICRH, the global losses are weak but strongly anisotropic leading to hot spots at the wall. During ICRH, an ejection of fast ions by the sawteeth towards peripheral zones where they get lost in the ripple has been seen. This is a possible scenario of α particle losses in a reactor

  14. Thermal electron transport in regimes with low and negative magnetic shear in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, I.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Aniel, T.; Becoulet, A.; Erba, M.; Joffrin, E.; Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Peysson, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic shear effect on thermal electron transport is studied in a large variety of non-inductive plasmas in Tore Supra. An improved confinement in the region of low and negative shear was observed and quantified with an exponential dependence on the magnetic shear (Litaudon, et al., Fusion Energy 1996 (Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Montreal, 1996), Vol. 1, IAEA, Vienna (1997) 669). This is interpreted as a consequence of a decoupling of the global modes (Romanelli and Zonca, Phys. Fluids B 5 (1993) 4081) that are thought to be responsible for anomalous transport. This dependence is proposed in order to complete the Bohm-like L mode local electron thermal diffusivity so as to describe the transition from Bohm-like to gyroBohm transport in the plasma core. The good agreement between the predictive simulations of the different Tore Supra regimes (hot core lower hybrid enhanced performance, reversed shear plasmas and combined lower hybrid current drive and fast wave electron heating) and experimental data provides a basis for extrapolation of this magnetic shear dependence in the local transport coefficients to future machines. As an example, a scenario for non-inductive current profile optimization and control in ITER is presented. (author)

  15. Real time determination and control of the plasma localisation and internal inductance in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Laurent, F. E-mail: stlauren@drfc.cad.cea.fr; Martin, G

    2001-10-01

    The study of long-duration high-power discharges need an efficient real time control of the plasma parameters, especially the plasma position when RF heating systems are used. On Tore Supra, recent improvements have been carried out (i) for the poloidal interpolation and the radial extrapolation of the magnetic measurements, (ii) for a better feedback matrix converting the radial errors of the plasma position to voltage values for the poloidal generators, and (iii) for a very fast solution to find the plasma parameters from the knowledge of its surface. The plasma edge localisation is now controlled with a precision better than 1 cm and controlled within a few millimetres uncertainty for several tenths of seconds. Moreover, for advanced tokamak scenarios, a precise real time determination of safety factor, poloidal beta, internal inductance, Shafranov shift as well as the online computation of the electron density and current density profiles are now available on Tore Supra. These quantities compare well with results from batch calculations using an equilibrium code. To fulfil the new requirements of plasma control for the CIEL project, a local control of the plasma edge position and curvature is planned for the near future.

  16. Experimental demonstration of synergy between electron cyclotron and lower hybrid current drive on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.F.; Giruzzi, G.; Dumont, R.J.; Imbeaux, F.; Bibet, P.; Bouquey, F.; Clary, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Hoang, G.T.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Non-inductive current drive (CD) has two main applications in tokamaks: sustainment of a substantial fraction of the toroidal plasma current necessary for the plasma confinement and control of the plasma stability and transport properties by appropriate shaping of the current density profile. For the first kind of applications, lower hybrid (LH) waves are known to provide the highest efficiency (defined as the ratio of the driven current to the injected wave power), although with limited control capability. Conversely, electron cyclotron (EC) waves drive highly localized currents, and are therefore particularly suited for control purposes, but their CD efficiency is much lower than that of LH waves (typically, an order of magnitude in present day experiments). Various calculations have demonstrated an interesting property: the current driven by the simultaneous use of the two waves, I(LH+EC), can be significantly larger than the sum I(LH)+I(EC) of the currents separately driven by the two waves in the same plasma conditions. This property, called synergy effect. The peculiar experimental conditions attainable on the Tore Supra tokamak have allowed the first experimental demonstration of the synergy between EC and LH current drive. The significant improvement of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in the presence of low hybrid current drive (LHCD), predicted by kinetic theory and confirmed by stationary experiments on Tore Supra, opens up the possibility of using ECCD as an efficient current profile control tool in LHCD plasmas

  17. Study of plasma turbulence by ultrafast sweeping reflectometry on the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a fusion reactor is closely related to the turbulence present in the plasma. The latter is responsible for anomalous transport of heat and particles that degrades the confinement. The measure and characterization of turbulence in tokamak plasma is therefore essential to the understanding and control of this phenomenon. Among the available diagnostics, the sweeping reflectometer installed on Tore Supra allows to access the plasma density fluctuations from the edge to the centre of the plasma discharge with a fine spatial (mm) and temporal resolution (μs), that is of the order of the characteristic turbulence scales.This thesis consisted in the characterization of plasma turbulence in Tore Supra by ultrafast sweeping reflectometry measurements. Correlation analyses are used to quantify the spatial and temporal scales of turbulence as well as their radial velocity. In the first part, the characterization of turbulence properties from the reconstructed plasma density profiles is discussed, in particular through a comparative study with Langmuir probe data. Then, a parametric study is presented, highlighting the effect of collisionality on turbulence, an interpretation of which is proposed in terms of the stabilization of trapped electron turbulence in the confined plasma. Finally, it is shown how additional heating at ion cyclotron frequency produces a significant though local modification of the turbulence in the plasma near the walls, resulting in a strong increase of the structure velocity and a decrease of the correlation time. The supposed effect of rectified potentials generated by the antenna is investigated via numerical simulations. (author) [fr

  18. Predictive simulations of radio frequency heated plasmas of Tore Supra using the Multi-Mode model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, Irina; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.; Pankin, Alexei

    2002-01-01

    Multichannel integrated predictive simulations using the Multi-Mode transport model are carried out for radio frequency heated Tore Supra tokamak discharges in which helium is the primary ion component. Lower hybrid heated discharges in which the total current is driven noninductively [X. Litaudon et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 677 (2001)] and a discharge with ion cyclotron radio frequency heating of the hydrogen minority ions [G. T. Hoang et al., Nucl. Fusion 38, 117 (1998)] are simulated. The simulations of these discharges represent the first test of the Multi-Mode model in helium plasmas with dominant electron heating. Also for the first time, the particle transport in Tore Supra discharges is computed and the density profiles are predicted self-consistently with other transport channels. It is found in these simulations that the anomalous transport driven by trapped electron mode turbulence is dominant compared to the transport driven by the ion temperature gradient turbulence. The feature of the Multi-Mode model to calculate the impurity transport self-consistently with other transport channels is used in this study to predict the influence of carbon impurity influx on the discharge evolution

  19. Interaction of ICRF power and edge plasma in Tore Supra ergodic divertor configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, F.; Grosman, A.; Basiuk, V.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Ladurelle, L.; Meslin, B.

    2000-01-01

    The coupling of ICRF power to plasma is a crucial problem in Tore Supra for high power and long pulse operations and depends greatly on the edge parameters, in particular on the edge density. Conversely, the behaviour of the bulk plasma is related to the edge conditions and the injection of RF power also induces major modifications on the edge plasma. Moreover, the Ergodic Divertor (ED) of Tore Supra imposes a complex configuration at the edge due to the presence of the magnetic perturbation. Several diagnostics are available to study the interaction of ICRF power with the edge plasma: Langmuir probes on the ED modules, infra red (IR) cameras, charge exchange neutral analysers. In minority heating scheme, the edge density is very sensitive to any perturbation in the high recycling regime which is always found in the ED configuration for relevant plasma parameters. Partially detached regimes, with or without inhomogeneities of density and temperature induced by the flux tubes of the laminar layer, are obtained for high resistance coupling values. The coupling is then not very robust and feedback control or antenna automatic matching techniques are developed. In fast wave electron heating scheme with ED, various fast wave absorption mechanisms (minority heating, Mode Conversion, Alfven resonance) are present at the plasma edge due to the large size of the plasma. The ICRF coupling is difficult due to the low fast wave direct electron damping, even with high hydrogen minority scheme. An increase of the injected ICRF power could improve this situation

  20. Coupling properties and edge plasma interaction characteristics of the new Tore Supra lower hybrid antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibet, Ph.; Fuchs, V.; Mailloux, J.

    1999-01-01

    A significant part of the non-inductive in Tore Supra will be driven by a new launcher, to be installed in September 1999. The antenna phase 2 is made of 6 rows with 48 active waveguides and 9 passive ones in each. Passive waveguides are inserted at every 6. active one. This grill has been designed in the frame of the CIEL project. It will inject 4 MW at 3.7 GHz at a safe power density of 25 MW/m 2 for a pulse length of 1000 s. The radiated spectrum peaks at N // = 2.03 with a possible variation of ± 0.35 and a FWHM of 0.35. In order to prepare for operation with this grill, the coupling properties and the power directivity of the radiated spectra have been studied as a function of: the electron density and electron density gradient ; the feeding phase shift between the 8 antenna modules; the geometry of the antenna. Furthermore, the interaction of plasma edge electrons with the antenna is analysed and a comparison with the previous Tore Supra antenna is made. This is done for a range of plasma parameters and feeding phase. (authors)

  1. Pioneering superconducting magnets in large tokamaks: evaluation after 16 years of operating experience in tore supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Gravil, B.; Tena, E.; Henry, D.; Journeaux, J.Y.; Libeyre, P.

    2004-01-01

    The toroidal field (TF) system of Tore Supra (TS) is superconducting. After 16 years of operation it is possible to give an overview of the experience gained on a large superconducting system integrated in a large Tokamak. Quantitative data will be given, about the TF system for the cryogenic system and for the magnet system as well, concerning the number of plasmas shots and the availability of the machine. The origin and the number of breakdowns or incidents will be described, with emphasis on cryogenics, to document repairs and changes on the system components. Concerning the behaviour during operation, the Fast Safety Discharges (FSD) in operation are of particular interest for the Tokamak operation, as they interrupt it on a significant time of the order of one hour. This aspect is particularly documented. The approach followed to decrease the number of these FSD will be reported and explained. The Tore Supra Tokamak was the first important meeting between Superconductivity and Plasma Physics on a large scale. Overall, despite the differences in design and size, the accumulated experience over 16 years of operation is a useful tool to prepare the manufacturing and the operation of the ITER magnets. (authors)

  2. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.

    2004-01-01

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) has been an essential stage towards long powerful tokamak operations for Tore-Supra, it lasted about 10 years. This paper deals with the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) that is able to sustain up to 10 MW/m 2 of nominal heat flux. This device is based on hardened copper alloy heat sink structures covered by a carbon fiber composite armour, it resulted in the manufacturing of 600 elementary components, called finger elements, to achieve the 7.6 m 2 TPL. This assembly has been operating in Tore-Supra since spring 2002. Some difficulties occurred during the manufacturing phase, the valuable industrial experience is summarized in the section 2. The permanent monitoring of PFC surface temperature all along the discharge is performed by a set of 6 actively cooled infrared endoscopes. The heat flux monitoring and control issue but also the progress made in our understanding of the deuterium retention in long discharges are described in the section 3. (A.C.)

  3. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosman, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) has been an essential stage towards long powerful tokamak operations for Tore-Supra, it lasted about 10 years. This paper deals with the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) that is able to sustain up to 10 MW/m{sup 2} of nominal heat flux. This device is based on hardened copper alloy heat sink structures covered by a carbon fiber composite armour, it resulted in the manufacturing of 600 elementary components, called finger elements, to achieve the 7.6 m{sup 2} TPL. This assembly has been operating in Tore-Supra since spring 2002. Some difficulties occurred during the manufacturing phase, the valuable industrial experience is summarized in the section 2. The permanent monitoring of PFC surface temperature all along the discharge is performed by a set of 6 actively cooled infrared endoscopes. The heat flux monitoring and control issue but also the progress made in our understanding of the deuterium retention in long discharges are described in the section 3. (A.C.)

  4. Pioneering superconducting magnets in large tokamaks: Evaluation after 16 years of operating experience in tore supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libeyre, P.; Duchateau, J.L.; Gravil, B.; Tena, E.; Henry, D.; Journeaux, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The toroidal field (TF) system of TORE SUPRA (TS) is superconducting. After 16 years of operation it is possible to give an overview of the experience gained on a large superconducting system integrated in a large Tokamak. Quantitative data will be given, about the TF system for the cryogenic system and for the magnet system as well, concerning the number of plasmas shots and the availability of the machine. The origin and the number of breakdowns or incidents will be described, with emphasis on cryogenics and associated repairs and changes on the system components along the time. As concerns the behaviour during operation, the fast safety discharges (FSD) in operation are of particular interest for the Tokamak operation, as they interrupt it for a significant time of the order of 1 h. This aspect is particularly documented. The approach followed to decrease the number of these FSD will be reported and explained. The TORE SUPRA Tokamak was the first important application of superconductivity in plasma physics on a large scale. Overall, despite the differences in design and size, the accumulated experience over 16 years of operation is a useful tool to prepare the manufacture and the operation of the ITER magnets

  5. Routine average effective charge calculation using visible Bremsstrahlung emission and comparison with the impurity transport code of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirlet, R.; Mattioli, M.; DeMichelis, C.; Hess, W.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Effective charge measurements and calculations are presented for the Tore Supra, using visible Bremsstrahlung diagnostics. The measurements, are presented together with a reliability test of the results are discussed, by means of an impurity transport code simulating all available experimental data (XUV line spectroscopy, soft X-ray emission and Bremsstrahlung). (author) 5 refs.; 10 figs

  6. Feasibility study of carbon particles injection by laser ablation to calibrate spectroscopic erosion measurements in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiim Habib, M.; Mercadier, L.; Marandet, Y.; Delaporte, Ph.; Hernandez, C.; Grisolia, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.

    2011-01-01

    To check if spectroscopic measurements can be used for erosion determination, we propose to inject in the line of sight of the diagnostic, during plasma operation, a known carbon particle source, produced by laser ablation. A first assessment of this technique will be presented in the context of the Tore Supra tokamak.

  7. Espacio plástico y significación

    OpenAIRE

    González Ochoa, César

    2010-01-01

    El concepto central de este trabajo es el espacio plástico. La noción familiar es la de artes plásticas, entendidas como aquellas que representan conceptos, emociones o situaciones por medio de formas y volúmenes; es decir, a través de elementos que se perciben por los sentidos. Cada época produce sus propios modos de representar el espacio, que no es una simple reproducción sino una producción; el espacio producido de esta manera es el espacio plástico, resultado de las conductas humanas de ...

  8. The control of plasma density profile in Tore Supra. Comparison of different fueling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commaux, N.

    2007-09-01

    The behaviour of a reactor-class plasma when fuelled using the existing techniques (gas puffing, supersonic molecular beam injection and pellet injection) is still very difficult to foresee. The present work has been initiated on Tore Supra in order to extrapolate the consequences of the different fuelling systems on ITER. Two main topics have been studied: the comparison of the plasma behaviour when fuelled using the different techniques at high Greenwald density fractions and the study of the homogenization following a pellet injection (main fuelling technique for ITER burning plasmas). The experiments at high Greenwald density fractions performed on Tore Supra showed that the plasma behaviour is very dependent on the fuelling method. The plasma energy confinement is following the scaling laws determined at low density when fuelled using pellet injection. which is better than for gas puffing and SMBI. both inducing a significant confinement loss. This behaviour is nor related to a transport modification: the ratio between effective diffusion and convection is similar to the pellet case. The difference between these shots is related only to the position of the matter source (at the edge for gas and close to the center for pellets). The study concerning the homogenization phenomena following a pellet injection aims mainly to study the ∇B-drift effect that expels the mater deposited by a pellet toward the low field side. A new phenomenon. which appears to be particularly important for the ∇B-drift during low field side injections. was then discovered: the influence of magnetic surfaces with an integer-valued safety factor (q). When the mater drifting toward low field side crosses an integer q surface. it experiences an important braking effect which stops the drift motion. It implies that the pellet material is mainly deposited on the last integer q surface crossed by the pellet during its injection. This study allows also to determine that the

  9. Fast-wave ICRF minority-regime heating experiments on the Tore Supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarici, G; Beaumont, B; Becoulet, A; Kuus, H; Saoutic, B; Martin, G [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Shepard, T D; Haste, G R; Baity, F W [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Evans, T E [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (US)

    1992-12-31

    Up to 4 MW of rf power at 57 MHz has been coupled to Ohmic target plasmas during the first ICRF heating experiments on Tore Supra. A total of 12 MW of rf power will ultimately be available from six tetrode amplifiers and will be coupled to the plasmas using three ORNL/CEA-designed resonant double-loop antennas. During these first experiments, two antennas were used, with one or two energized at a time. The antenna loading with plasma was observed to be well over an order of magnitude greater than that without plasma. In addition, one kilo-electron-volt of electron heating, significant minority nonthermal ions, and significant increases in diamagnetic stored energy were observed. A comparison of in-phase and out-of-phase antenna operation showed the same increase in stored energy, less radiated power, and a larger drop in loop voltage for out-of-phase operation. Confinement scaling agrees with the ITER scaling law.

  10. Study of the electron heat transport in Tore-Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harauchamps, E.

    2004-01-01

    This work presents analytical solutions to the electron heat transport equation involving a damping term and a convection term in a cylindrical geometry. These solutions, processed by Matlab, allow the determination of the evolution of the radial profile of electron temperature in tokamaks during heating. The modulated injection of waves around the electron cyclotron frequency is an efficient tool to study heat transport experimentally in tokamaks. The comparison of these analytical solutions with experimental results from Tore-Supra during 2 discharges (30550 and 31165) shows the presence of a sudden change for the diffusion and damping coefficients. The hypothesis of the presence of a pinch spread all along the plasma might explain the shape of the experimental temperature profiles. These analytical solutions could be used to determine the time evolution of plasma density as well or of any parameter whose evolution is governed by a diffusion-convection equation. (A.C.)

  11. The Tore Supra control, computer system: six years of operation and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeaux, J.Y.; Badie, O.; Chatelier, E.; Hennion, F.; Lebourg, P.; Leveque, P.; Hernandez, M.; Moulin, D.

    1994-01-01

    Some necessary improvements of the Tore Supra control computer system are discussed. Their main principles are: to choose ergonomic and powerful tools, industrial standards, and to keep the users's participation. The whole control system will be upgraded: the automatism level as well as the display level and the communication networks. A very powerful driving software has been chosen and linked with an expert system, which is to be designed and implemented with the aim to give an immediate accurate and global understanding of the process and situations, in particular in case of trouble. The method is based on an artificial intelligence approach, and it exploits both the process' informations and automatism' steps, to determine the process state, next possible states and diagnosis of the process troubles. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  12. Bi-fluid and neoclassical effect on a Double-Tearing mode in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maget, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.maget@cea.fr; Garbet, Xavier; Février, Olivier; Ségui, Jean-Luc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lütjens, Hinrich; Luciani, Jean-François [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS (France)

    2014-06-15

    Tearing modes associated to hollow current profiles are prone to grow in moderate performance plasmas and often constrain the realization of non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, where long pulse duration is performed using Lower Hybrid waves for providing most of the plasma current. The prediction of MHD boundaries in such scenarios is complicated by the importance of diamagnetic effects, combined with curvature stabilization, which determine the stability of these modes. We show that diamagnetic effects, as well as neoclassical forces, are playing a key role in the linear and nonlinear regimes of Double-Tearing Modes on q = 5/3 and q = 2 in these experimental conditions. Detailed comparison with experimental measurements, combined with a scaling in plasma resistivity, give constraints about the experimental equilibrium. Resistive-Interchange Modes destabilized by diamagnetic rotation could also play a role in degrading the energy confinement in the negative magnetic shear region.

  13. Effects induced by ICRF waves on various confinement schemes in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoutic, B.

    1995-01-01

    The 1993-94 experimental campaign has seen a significant increase of the application of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequency on Tore Supra. Ion cyclotron resonant heating has been applied to plasmas with strongly radiating layers, pellet-enhanced performance and lower hybrid enhanced performance. Initial experiments on direct coupling of the fast magnetosonic wave to the electrons have demonstrated coupling up to 5 MW to the plasma and have demonstrated an efficient electron heating in these discharges. A significant bootstrap current fraction is observed. This heating scheme leads to a stationary improvement in energy confinement, with implications for the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. Finally, preliminary experiments on antenna phasing have shown clear evidence of fast wave current drive. (author) 25 refs.; 9 figs

  14. Scrape-off profiles and effects of limiter pumping in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.

    1986-11-01

    A one dimensional plasma scrape-off model was used to simulate Tore Supra discharges which are limited by various combinations of the pumped and inner limiters. Scrape-off profiles of the electron density and temperature, ion temperature, and neutral density are given. For each case, various fractions of the ion flux to the neutralizers were assumed to be pumped. Modifications of the scrap-off profiles caused by pumping are predicted. Pumping efficiencies are calculated including the effects of flux amplification caused by recycling. The pumping efficiency is estimated to be 8% for low-power discharges formed on the outer pumped limiter, 7.5% for intermediate-power discharges formed on the seven-module pumped-limiter system, and 5% for full-power discharges formed on both the inner limiter and the pumped-limiter system. The maximum particle removal rate is estimated to be 150 Tl/s

  15. Runaway electron damage to the Tore Supra Phase III outboard pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.; Lutz, T.; Walsh, D.; Martin, G.; Chatelier, M.; Loarer, T.; Guilhem, D.

    1996-01-01

    Operation of the Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL) in Tore Supra in 1994 was terminated prematurely when runaway electrons during the current decay following a disruption pierced leading edge tube on the electron side and caused a water leak. The location, about 20 mm outside the last closed flux surface during normal operation, and the infrared (IR) images of the limiter indicate that the runaways moved in large outward steps, i.e. tens of millimeters, in one toroidal revolution. For plasma (runaway) currents in the range of 155 to 250 kA, the drift orbits open to the outside. Basic trajectory computations suggest that such motion is possible under the conditions present for this experiment. Activation measurements made on sections of the tube to indicate the area of local damage are presented here. An understanding of this event may provide important guidance regarding the potential damage from runaways in future tokamaks

  16. Test model of the fast thyristor circuit breaker, for TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareyt, B.; Leloup, C.; Rijnoudt, E.

    1984-01-01

    The tokamak TORE SUPRA, permits, owing to the toroidal superconducting coils and to the poloidal field system performances, long discharges (30 s and more), for a plasma current of typically 2 MA. The poloidal field system uses the magnetic energy initially stored, for the ignition and the fast rise of the plasma current, by forcing the primary current to flow through a resistor after breaking the main rectifier current by a fast thyristor circuit breaker. In order to test the technical capabilities of such a breaker system made of fast thyristors, in series and in parallel, after a single thyristor test model T1 the series arrangement was studied on a 24 thyristor test model T2 and the parallel arrangement problems, led the manufacturer CGEE Alsthom, to build a new test model T3. (author)

  17. Measurements of RF-induced sol modifications in Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubic, Martin; Gunn, James P.; Colas, Laurent; Heuraux, Stephane; Faudot, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Since spring 2011, one of the three ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas in the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak is equipped with a new type of Faraday screen (FS). Results from Radio Frequency (RF) simulations of the new Faraday screen suggest the innovative structure with cantilevered bars and 'shark tooth' openings significantly changes the current flow pattern on the front of the antenna which in turn reduces the RF potential and RF electrical field in particular parallel to the magnetic field lines which contributes to generating RF sheaths. Effects of the new FS operation on RF-induced scrape-off layer (SOL) modifications are studied for different plasma and antenna configurations - scans of strap power ratio imbalance, phasing, injected power and SOL density. (authors)

  18. Real time plasma feedback control: An overview of Tore-Supra achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Bucalossi, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Kazarian, F.; Moulin, D.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    2001-01-01

    Stable and reliable fusion plasma operation requires increasingly advanced control systems. This is especially true for steady-state operation in advanced modes, when several parameters are to be simultaneously optimised: e.g. the current profile, which has been related to the formation of internal transport barrier, and the density, which plays a crucial role both in the fusion power and in the plasma wall interactions. At a more technological level, good management of the power entering and leaving the plasma is required, by efficient additional heating coupling, and with a full control of radiation and convection losses and distribution to the first wall elements. For these goals, several feed-back mechanisms have been developed with success on Tore-Supra, in the past four years. Most of them are based on software, implemented in a set of micro-computers connected through a VME network. (author)

  19. Determination of q during sawtooth from inverse evolution of BAEs in Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, C. H. S.; Sabot, R.; Garbet, X.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Ahn, J.-H.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the value of the safety factor (q) in the core during sawtooth cycles is still an open issue. A new method to measure q in Tore Supra plasma core is presented here. It relies on the analysis of the time evolution of a set of MHD modes detected after the sawtooth crashes. These modes are in the frequency range of previously observed Beta-induced Alfvén Eigenmodes, but with a frequency declining in time. The mode frequency analysis shows that the q profile is reversed when we have ICRH, after the sawtooth crash. In high current discharges (I_p>1.15 MA), the q-profile remains reversed for a longer time compared with lower plasma current discharges. Non-linear 3D MHD simulations of sawteeth performed with the XTOR-2F code (Lütjens and Luciani 2010 J. Comput. Phys. 229 8130-43) exhibit features that are similar to these observations.

  20. Mechanical design and manufacture of magnetic ergodic divertor for the TORE SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Aymar, R.; Deschamps, P.; Hertout, P.; Portafaix, C.; Samain, A.

    1989-01-01

    A configuration of six equally spaced ergodic divertors has been chosen to control the plasma impurities in the TORE SUPRA tokamak since the control of these impurities is essential to the long pulse duration envisioned for the machine. Each of the six indentical modules is composed of (8) conductor bars arranged in a poloidal direction forming a resonant helical winding. The proximity of the conductors to the plasma requires that each copper assembly be water cooled, enclosed in a stainless steel casing and protected by pure graphite tiles attaches to the inner surface of the casing. Particles which drift between the coil bars are neutralized on actively water cooled neutralizer plates and then pumped out by titanium getter pumps which are located on each toroidal end of a divertor modul. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Multiscale study of the porosity of carbon deposits collected in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Richou, M.; Saikaily, W.; Pegourie, B.; Brosset, C.; Roubin, P.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon deposits collected in Tore Supra, on the neutralisers and on the toroidal pump limiter, are analysed by adsorption isotherm measurements and electron microscopy. Both techniques are suitable to study the porosity in a multiscale range and allow the characterisation of the volume and the structure of the pore network. The neutraliser deposits show an oval shape structure and a high specific surface area. This area corresponds to microporosity, i.e. pores with a typical size lower than 2 nm, (∼11%), mesoporosity (∼5%) and macroporosity, i.e. pores with a typical size more than 50 nm. Surprisingly, transmission electron microscopy performed on thin foils cut from an oval reveals a regular network of parallel slit-shaped mesopores (size ∼ 10 nm) and macropores (size ∼ 100 nm), with a well-defined orientation with respect to the oval axis

  2. The 3 MW ECRH/ECCD transmission and launching system on TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennholm, M.; Agarici, G.; Berger-By, G.; Bosia, P.; Bouquey, F.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Jung, M.; Magne, R.; Roux, D.; Petit, T.; Segui, J.L.; Zou, X.L.

    2003-01-01

    The ECRH experiment on TORE SUPRA is designed to inject up to 3 MW of power at 118 GHz using an antenna consisting of six fixed spherical mirrors and three mobile steering mirrors. The position of the mobile mirrors can be varied in real time using two stepper motors for each mobile mirror. In addition to controlling the injection angle, the position of the mobile mirrors also affects the polarisation of the injected wave. Accurate formulae to compute, in real time, the stepper motor positions required to obtain the desired beam injection angles have been derived. Formulae to determine the effect on the wave polarisation, of the actual mobile mirror positions have also been determined. These formulae have been verified by precise laser measurements and by comparison of power deposition calculations and experimental results. (authors)

  3. Thermal and non-thermal particle interaction with the LHCD launchers in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Balorin, C.; Basiuk, V.; Bibet, Ph.; Chantant, M.; Colas, L.; Delpech, L.; Desgranges, C.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Joffrin, E.; Kazarian, F.; Lowry, C.; Moreau, Ph.; Petrzilka, V.; Portafaix, C.; Prou, M.; Roche, H.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) launchers and the plasma has been studied during long pulse, high power operation in the Tore Supra tokamak. The main diagnostics used for characterising the plasma-launcher interaction are calorimetry of the energy extracted by the launchers and infrared (IR) imaging of the launchers and their side limiters. The calorimetry has allowed to identify three different heat sources on the LHCD launchers, namely the RF losses in the waveguides, a fraction (∼0.8%) of the total injected energy and, finally, fast ion losses during ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), accounting for ∼1% of the injected ICRH energy. The interaction by fast ions is identified by infrared imaging of the LHCD launchers as a localised hotspot on the ion drift side, below or at the mid-plane

  4. Surface modification and hydrogen isotope retention in CFC during plasma irradiation in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begrambekov, L.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Delchambre, E.; Gunn, J.P.; Grisolia, C.; Lipa, M.; Loarer, T.; Mitteau, R.; Moner-Garbet, P.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Shigin, P.; Titov, N.; Tsitrone, E.; Vergazov, S.; Zakharov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The uniform layer with thickness at least 50-100 μm was found on the CFC tiles from the inboard midplane after more than four years of tokamak operation. The upper part of the uniform layer was amorphous, but at the depth of ∼5 μm a structure consisting of micro-size regions with aromatic chains located parallel to the surface was found. Gradual transition from uniform layer to underlying CFC structure was observed. The reciprocating material probe was used for installation of CFC samples in the Tore Supra deuterium plasma. The thermal desorptional spectra of these samples are compared with the spectra of the samples irradiated in the laboratory stand and with the spectra of hydrogenated carbon film. The peculiarities of hydrogen isotope trapping under plasma irradiation and at the atmosphere are presented and discussed

  5. Effects of ionizing scrape-off layers on local recycling in Tore Supra pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, L.W.; Hogan, J.T.; Klepper, C.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.; Chatelier, M.; Loarer, T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of ohmic discharges with active pumping in the Tore Supra outboard pump limiter has been analyzed with the DEGAS neutrals transport code and an analysis scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma model. Pumping speed and plenum pressure measurements indicated 5--10 torr-L/s throughput with only modest effects on density (dN core /dt + source rate from ionization and dissociation of wall-desorbed molecules is seen to peak very near the radial position of the limiter throat. Consequently, a strong recycling vortex is created in the region of the limiter, with the ion flux amplified by factors of ∼2 at the outer limiter surfaces and >3 within the limiter throat. The calculations indicate that less than 30% of the pump throughput is due to first-generation ions from the core efflux, with the balance from local recycling in the strongly ionizing scrape-off layer

  6. Effect of limiter recycling on measured poloidal impurity emission profiles in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.; DeMichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Becoulet, M.; Bush, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Guirlet, R.; Hess, W.; Mattioli, M.; Vallet, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Poloidal impurity emission profiles measured with the Tore Supra grazing incidence duochromator exhibit a complex spatial structure during ergodic divertor operation with an outboard poloidal guard limiter. As previous measurements with inboard-wall limited plasmas have shown that these profiles give important information about the ergodic field structure, so the contribution of local neon recycling from the limiter-induced plume has been modeled. This permits a discrimination of edge and core transport effects. The BBQ 3D scrape-off layer code calculates the asymmetric contribution to the emission and MIST 1D simulation gives the symmetric part. A systematic increase is observed in the decay rate of neon emission after injection as the ergodic divertor strength is increased. The calculations permit identification of the limiter plume contribution to the profile structure, and, with this identification, the effect of the divertor to enhance impurity efflux can be seen from the decay data

  7. Interplay between edge and outer core fluctuations in the tokamak Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Capes, H.; Devynck, P.; Laviron, C.; Truc, A.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the tokamak Tore Supra, when a poloidally and toroidally localized limiter, called a modular limiter, is introduced into the lower part of the scrape-off layer, density fluctuations located in the vicinity of this limiter present a specific feature with the appearance of a new spectral pattern in the associated frequency spectrum. This leads to a strong up-down asymmetry observed in both the plasma edge and the plasma outer core, with a maximum level of turbulence at the bottom of the plasma. The observed asymmetry characteristics show that magnetic connection lengths play a critical role here and that the limiter configuration has some effect on the outer core turbulence. (author)

  8. Determination of ion temperatures from Zeeman broadened spectral lines in the edge of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepper, C.C.; Isler, R.C.; Tobin, S.J.; Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Fusion Energy Div.; Hess, W.R. [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la Fusion Controlee, St-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache

    1994-09-01

    The authors have examined a {sup 3}P {yields} {sup 3}S multiplet of C III in Tore Supra in order to assess the possibility of determining the ion temperatures from transitions where the Zeeman effect cannot be neglected compared to the Doppler broadening. The preliminary studies lead them to believe that with good quality data the temperatures can be determined within about 20% in the 20--30 eV range and within about 50% in the neighborhood of 5 eV by fitting the entire multiplet rather than a semi-isolated feature, even though certain parameters important for the analysis, such as polarization effects of the optics, are not well characterized. In order to quantify these conclusions more precisely, future work will concentrate on developing numerical fitting routines and on examining the validity of the assumption that the distribution function for low ionization stages is Maxwellian.

  9. Determination of ion temperatures from Zeeman broadened spectral lines in the edge of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, C.C.; Isler, R.C.; Tobin, S.J.; Hogan, J.T.; Hess, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have examined a 3 P → 3 S multiplet of C III in Tore Supra in order to assess the possibility of determining the ion temperatures from transitions where the Zeeman effect cannot be neglected compared to the Doppler broadening. The preliminary studies lead them to believe that with good quality data the temperatures can be determined within about 20% in the 20--30 eV range and within about 50% in the neighborhood of 5 eV by fitting the entire multiplet rather than a semi-isolated feature, even though certain parameters important for the analysis, such as polarization effects of the optics, are not well characterized. In order to quantify these conclusions more precisely, future work will concentrate on developing numerical fitting routines and on examining the validity of the assumption that the distribution function for low ionization stages is Maxwellian

  10. Tomography of the fast electron Bremsstrahlung emission during lower hybrid current drive on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peysson, Y.; Imbeaux, F. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-04-01

    A new tomography dedicated to detailed studies of the fast electron Bremsstrahlung emission in the hard X-ray (HXR) energy range between 20 and 200 keV during lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments on the TORE SUPRA tokamak [Equipe TORE SUPRA, in Proceedings of the 15. Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Seville (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995), 1, AIEA-CN-60 / A1-5, p. 105] is presented. Radiation detection is performed by cadmium telluride(CdTe) semiconductors, which have most of the desirable features for a powerful diagnosing of magnetically confined hot plasmas - compact size, high X-ray stopping efficiency, fast timing characteristics, good energy resolution, no sensitivity to magnetic field, reasonable susceptibility to performance degradation from neutron/{gamma}-induced damages. This instrument is made of two independent cameras viewing a poloidal cross-section of the plasma, with respectively 21 and 38 detectors. A coarse spectrometry - 8 energy channels - is carried out for each chord, with an energy resolution of 20 keV. The spatial resolution in the core of the plasma is 4-5 cm, while the time sampling may be lowered down to of 2-4 ms. Powerful inversion techniques based on maximum entropy or regularization algorithms take fully advantage of the large number of line-integrated measurements for very robust estimates of the local HXR profiles as a function of time and photon energy. A detailed account of main characteristics and performances of the diagnostic is reported as well as preliminary results on LH current drive experiments. (authors)

  11. High heat flux testing impact on the Tore Supra toroidal pumped limiter achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Cordier, J.J.; Mitteau, R.; Durocher, A.; Grosman, A.

    2003-01-01

    The toroidal pumped limiter of Tore Supra is made of 576 elementary high heat flux (HHF) cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) and designed to sustain 10 MW/m 2 in steady state. One of the main technical difficulties is to ensure a high quality of the bond between the carbon fiber composite armor tile and the water-cooled heat sink due to the high thermal stresses that develop at the bond during operation. Consequently, a HHF facility able to reproduce in service operation of PFCs is required all along the development and manufacturing route. In Europe, the FE200 facility (electron beam, 200 kW, France) operating since 1991, was extensively used for such a development. A first testing campaign in 1995 was devoted to the qualification of this bond: AMC technology from Plansee GmbH was selected. Afterwards, a second campaign on scale-one elements (1996) allowed an optimization of the element design and series production to be launched. During the mass production, a non-destructive control process - cheaper and faster than HHF testing - based on infrared characterization was routinely operated on 100% of the manufactured elements. Strong variability of the bond quality was observed and a repair process allowing the replacement of deficient tiles was developed. In 2000 and 2001, 2 campaigns of HHF testing were launched to correlate the non-destructive measurements and to optimize and validate the repair process. This was done, in two steps, with success. This yielded moreover interesting information for qualifying both tests across each other and also to analyze the fatigue evolution of the bond. The qualification and the achievement of the Tore Supra limiter has greatly been made possible by such HHF tests, which appears as essential before and during PFC manufacturing. (authors)

  12. Feedback control of the lower hybrid power deposition profile on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, O; Mazon, D; Laborde, L; Turco, F

    2007-01-01

    The Tore Supra facility is well suited to study ITER relevant topics such as the real-time control of plasma current and the sustaining of steady-state discharges. This work describes a tool that was recently developed and implemented on Tore Supra to control in real time, by means of the direct knowledge of the suprathermal electron local emission profile, the width of the lower hybrid power deposition profile. This quantity can be considered to some extent equivalent to the width of the plasma current density profile in case of fully non-inductive discharges. This system takes advantage of an accurate hard x-ray diagnostics, of an efficient lower hybrid additional heating and of a reliable real-time communication network. The successful experiments carried out to test the system employed, as actuators, the parallel refractive index n // and the total power P LH . The control of the suprathermal electron local emission profile through n // was also integrated with the feedback control of the total plasma current I P with P LH and of the loop voltage V loop with the central solenoid flux. These results demonstrate that the system is robust, reliable and able to counterbalance destabilizing events. This tool can be effectively used in the future in fully non-inductive discharges to improve the MHD stability and to maintain internal transport barriers or lower hybrid enhanced performance modes. The real-time control of the lower hybrid power deposition profile could also be used in conjunction with the electron-cyclotron radiofrequency heating for synergy studies

  13. Tomography of the fast electron Bremsstrahlung emission during lower hybrid current drive on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y.; Imbeaux, F.

    1999-04-01

    A new tomography dedicated to detailed studies of the fast electron Bremsstrahlung emission in the hard X-ray (HXR) energy range between 20 and 200 keV during lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments on the TORE SUPRA tokamak [Equipe TORE SUPRA, in Proceedings of the 15. Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Seville (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995), 1, AIEA-CN-60 / A1-5, p. 105] is presented. Radiation detection is performed by cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductors, which have most of the desirable features for a powerful diagnosing of magnetically confined hot plasmas - compact size, high X-ray stopping efficiency, fast timing characteristics, good energy resolution, no sensitivity to magnetic field, reasonable susceptibility to performance degradation from neutron/γ-induced damages. This instrument is made of two independent cameras viewing a poloidal cross-section of the plasma, with respectively 21 and 38 detectors. A coarse spectrometry - 8 energy channels - is carried out for each chord, with an energy resolution of 20 keV. The spatial resolution in the core of the plasma is 4-5 cm, while the time sampling may be lowered down to of 2-4 ms. Powerful inversion techniques based on maximum entropy or regularization algorithms take fully advantage of the large number of line-integrated measurements for very robust estimates of the local HXR profiles as a function of time and photon energy. A detailed account of main characteristics and performances of the diagnostic is reported as well as preliminary results on LH current drive experiments. (authors)

  14. Study of heat transfer and particle transport in Tore Supra and HL-2A tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis reports on experimental studies of heat and particles transport performed on 2 large tokamaks: Tore Supra (based at CEA/Cadarache, France) and HL-2A (based at the Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, China). The modulated source is the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) for the heat pinch and density pump-out studies, while the non-local transport experiments use the Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) as source of modulation. The emphasis is put on the inward heat pinch. In the off-axis ECRH modulation experiments on Tore Supra with low frequency (1 Hz), strong heat inward transport has been observed, in particular for low density. Two transport models have been applied in order to analyze the experimental behavior. The first one is the linear pinch model (LPM) and the second one is an empirical model based on micro-instabilities theory, named Critical Gradient Model (CGM). Good agreement has been found for all harmonics between the experimental data and the simulation using LPM. On the other hand, good agreement has not been achieved using CGM. The density pump-out with large particles and energy losses during ECRH is commonly observed in tokamaks. A new dynamic approach using the modulation technique has been used in HL-2A for analyzing the transient phase of the density pump-out. A correlation between the turbulence increase and the density pump-out has been found. The non-local transport phenomenon, characterized by a fast transient process compared to the normal diffusive response to the perturbation is observed. Both phenomena, i.e., pump-out and non-locality, show as simultaneous variation of density and temperature. This can be an inspiration for the usage of a transport matrix which considers the density and temperature evolution together. Simulations with a simple transport matrix, with non-diagonal terms coupling temperature and density qualitatively reproduce the non-local and pump-out effects qualitatively

  15. Deuterium inventory in Tore Supra: reconciling particle balance and post-mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B.; Gauthier, E.; Bouvet, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Carpentier, S.; Corre, Y.; Delchambre, E.; Dittmar, T.; Douai, D.; Ekedahl, A.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Gunn, J.; Hong, S.H.; Desgranges, L.; Escarguel, A.; Jacob, W.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel retention, a crucial issue for next step devices, is assessed in present-day tokamaks using two methods: particle balance performed during shots and post-mortem analysis carried out during shutdowns between experimental campaigns. Post-mortem analysis generally gives lower estimates of fuel retention than integrated particle balance. In order to understand the discrepancy between these two methods, a dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in Tore Supra to load the vessel walls with deuterium (D) and monitor the trapped D inventory through particle balance. The campaign was followed by an extensive post-mortem analysis phase of the Tore Supra limiter. This paper presents the status of the analysis phase, including the assessment of the D content in the castellated tile structure of the limiter. Indeed, using combined surface analysis techniques, it was possible to derive the relative contributions of different zones of interest on the limiter (erosion, thick deposits, thin deposits), showing that the post-mortem inventory is mainly due to codeposition (90% of the total), in particular due to gap deposits. However, deuterium was also evidenced deep into the material in erosion zones (10% of the total). At the present stage of the analysis, 50% of the inventory deduced from particle balance has been found through post-mortem analysis, a significant progress with respect to previous studies (factor 8-10 discrepancy). This shows that post-mortem analysis can be consistent with particle balance provided specific procedures are implemented (dedicated campaign followed by extensive post-mortem analysis). Both techniques are needed for a reliable assessment of fuel retention in tokamaks, giving complementary information on how much and where fuel is retained in the vessel walls.

  16. Energy measurement of fast ions trapped in the toroidal field ripple of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Hutter, T.; Martin, G.; Pecquet, A.L.; Saoutic, B.

    1993-09-01

    During additional heating in Tore Supra (ICRF or NBI) fast ion losses due to the toroidal field ripple were clearly measured by a set of graphite probes. This diagnostic collects the flow of fast ions entering a vertical port and usually shows a maximum flux for ions originating from the vicinity of surface δ * = 0. During the monster sawteeth regime, achieved with ICRF, a remarkable phenomenon was observed: the ejection of fast ions, not correlated with any measured MHD activity. The radial distribution of these ions is quite different from that usually observed exhibiting a peak located in the central section of the plasma. In order to measure the energy distribution of these ions, from 80 keV (energy of the neutral beam injected in Tore Supra) up to 1 MeV (expected during ICRF), a new diagnostic is under construction. The principle of the diagnostic is to discriminate the ions in energy using their Larmor radius (p = 1.3 cm for 100 keV → p = 3.6 cm for 700 keV, B = 4T). The detector is made of a hollow graphite cylinder with a small entrance slot, located in a vertical port on the ion drift side. An array of six metallic collectors placed inside the graphite cylinder intercepts the ions. The current on each collector was estimated at 10 → 100 nA, during ICRF heating. The energy resolution of this diagnostic is expected to be about 20 keV for the lowest energy range and 100 keV for the highest. This type of ruggedized detector might be extrapolated for the measurements of alpha particle losses in future DT experiments. It should also be suitable for the studies of stochastic ripple diffusion. (authors). 3 refs., 9 figs

  17. Transport in the plasma edge specific connection to the wall in the Tore Supra ergodic divertor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; DeMichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Vallet, J.C.; Capes, H.; Chatelier, M.; Geraud, A.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Guilhem, D.; Harris, G.; Hess, W.; Nguyen, F.; Poutchy, L.; Samain, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ergodic divertor experiments in TORE SUPRA can be analysed along two main lines. The first one refers to the change of the heat and particle transport in the ergodized zone. This is especially true for the electron heat transport which is enhanced in the edge layer. But other distinctive features give evidence of the importance of the parallel connexion length between the plasma edge and the wall. The field lines, which are stochastic in the major part of the perturbed layer (10-15 cm) are such that, in the outermost layer (3 cm), the connexion topology is regular. This has obvious effects on the particle and power deposition, but also on the plasma parameters, and consequently influences the particle recycling and impurity shielding processes. The TORE SUPRA ergodic divertor experiments are reviewed in this framework

  18. Scientific feedback from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) are one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m -2 of nominal convected heat flux. A technical feedback is given from the whole development up to the industrialization and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about the injected gas during long discharges. (authors)

  19. Scientific feedback from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C

    2004-07-01

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) are one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m{sup -2} of nominal convected heat flux. A technical feedback is given from the whole development up to the industrialization and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about the injected gas during long discharges. (authors)

  20. Study on the materials for mirrors and back mirror reflectors of thermonuclear reactors and their testing in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunke, B.; Voytsenya, V.; Gil, C.; Lipa, M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma diagnostics using visible or ultra-violet or infra-red radiations require mirrors to probe the plasma. These mirrors have to sustain very hostile environment and despite that must maintain good optical properties. Mirror samples made of 3 different metals: copper, stainless steel and molybdenum have been designed and installed in Tore Supra tokamak and will be exposed to plasmas till mid 2004. This project will allow fusion engineers to assess the impact of plasma ion bombardment on mirror reflectivity. Optical properties and parameters concerning the surface state of the samples have been measured before the installation in Tore Supra and are presented in the paper. Simulations with a Monte-Carlo code predict the particle flux and spectra near the samples. A specific back mirror reflector has been designed to probe mirror reflectivity changes. (A.C.)

  1. Multi scale study of carbon deposits collected in Tore-Supra and TEXTOR tokamaks; Etude multi echelle des depots carbones collectes dans les tokamaks Tore Supra et TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richou, M

    2007-06-15

    Tokamaks are devices aimed at studying magnetic fusion. They operate with high temperature plasmas containing hydrogen, deuterium or tritium. One of the major issue is to control the plasma-wall interaction. The plasma facing components are most often in carbon. The major drawback of carbon is the existence of carbon deposits and dust, due to erosion. Dust is potentially reactive in case of an accidental opening of the device. These deposits also contain H, D or T and induce major safety problems when tritium is used, which will be the case in ITER. Therefore, the understanding of the deposit formation and structure has become a main issue for fusion researches. To clarify the role of the deposits in the retention phenomenon, we have done different complementary characterizations for deposits collected on similar places (neutralizers) in tokamaks Tore Supra (France) and TEXTOR (Germany). Accessible microporous volume and pore size distribution of deposits has been determined with the analysis of nitrogen and methane adsorption isotherms using the BET, Dubinin-Radushkevich and {alpha}{sub s} methods and the Density Functional Theory (DFT). To understand growth mechanisms, we have studied the deposit structure and morphology. We have shown using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman micro-spectrometry that these deposits are non amorphous and disordered. We have also shown the presence of nano-particles (diameter between 4 and 70 nm) which are similar to carbon blacks: nano-particle growth occurs in homogeneous phase in the edge plasma. We have emphasised a dual growth process: a homogenous and a heterogeneous one. (author)

  2. Experimental study of the topological aspect of the ergodic divertor in Tore-supra tokamak; Etude experimentale des aspects topologiques du divertor ergodique de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costanzo, L

    2001-10-01

    The control of power deposition onto plasma facing components in tokamaks is a determining factor for future thermonuclear fusion reactors. Plasma surface interaction can be performed using limiters or divertors. The ergodic divertor installed on Tore Supra is an atypical example of a magnetic divertor. It consists in applying a magnetic perturbation which establishes a particular topology of the plasma in contact with the wall (edge plasma). We carried out dedicated experiments in order to study parallel heat flux which strike the divertor neutralizers. This quantitative and qualitative analysis of heat flux as a function of experimental conditions allows to determine the profiles of power deposition along the neutralizers. The influence of plasma electron density, additional heating, impurities and injected gas was established. An experimental study of the sheath heat transmission factor {gamma} was carried out by correlating measurements made with Langmuir probes and infrared imaging. This study gave rise to a major conclusion: for ohmic discharges with deuterium injection and most of the time with helium, it was experimentally confirmed that {gamma}=7 in agreement with classical sheath theory. However, an increase of this factor with additional power has been shown. Detached plasma, which is an attractive regime in order to reduce the power deposition, requires an optimized control. A new measurement of the detachment onset has been developed. It is based on the variation of heat flux onto the plates derived from infrared measurements. A detachment cartography with the determination of a new 2D 'IR' Degree of Detachment was carried out allowing to locate the zone where the detachment starts. We can apply this concept both to other tokamaks such as JET and ITER. A comparison between the axisymmetric divertor and the ergodic divertor is also presented concerning the power deposition in the two configurations. Low heat flux with the ergodic divertor is a

  3. Evidence for a poloidally localized enhancement of radial transport in the scrape-off layer of the Tore Supra tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Boucher, C.; Dionne, M.; Ďuran, Ivan; Fuchs, Vladimír; Loarer, T.; Nanobashvili, I.; Pánek, Radomír; Pascal, J.-Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Stöckel, Jan; Van Rompuy, T.; Zagórski, R.; Adámek, Jiří; Bucalossi, J.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Hron, Martin; Lebrun, G.; Moreau, P.; Rimini, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Van Oost, G.

    363-365, - (2007), s. 484-490 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/17th./. Hefei, 22.05.2006-26.05. 2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/03/P062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Cross-field transport * Edge plasma * Plasma flow * Tore Supra Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2007

  4. Measurements of scrape-off layer ion-to-electron temperature ratio in Tore Supra ohmic plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočan, M.; Gunn, J. P.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Bonhomme, G.; Devynck, P.; Ďuran, Ivan; Gauthier, E.; Ghendrih, P.; Marandet, Y.; Pegourie, B.; Vallet, J.-C.

    390-391, - (2009), s. 1074-1077 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/18th./. Toledo, 26.05.2008-30.05. 2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Ion temperature * Electron temperature * Edge plasma * Tore Supra Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2009

  5. Stochastic field line structures appearing in field line tracing calculations for a helical magnetic limiter on TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.; Steffen, B.; Blenski, T.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.

    1985-05-01

    The influence on the structure of the magnetic field of a tokamak produced by small helical currents flowing near the plasma in TORE SUPRA was investigated numerically by drawing Poincare plots. The current in the helical conductors, the pitch of the windings, the rotational transform and the plasma pressure have been varied. The topology of the magnetic field line structure is discussed in some detail and simple examples are given for illustration. (orig.)

  6. Deuterium Inventory in Tore Supra (DITS): 2nd post-mortem analysis campaign and fuel retention in the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, T.; Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Cadez, I.; Pelicon, P.; Gauthier, E.; Languille, P.; Likonen, J.; Litnovsky, A.; Markelj, S.; Martin, C.; Mayer, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pardanaud, C.; Philipps, V.; Roth, J.; Roubin, P.; Vavpetic, P.

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated study on fuel retention has been launched in Tore Supra, which includes a D wall-loading campaign and the dismantling of the main limiter (Deuterium Inventory in Tore Supra, DITS project). This paper presents new results from a second post-mortem analysis campaign on 40 tiles with special emphasis on the D retention in the gaps. SIMS analysis reveals that only 1/3 of the thickness of deposits in the plasma shadowed zones are due to the DITS wall-loading campaign. As pre-DITS deposits contain less D than DITS deposits, the contribution of DITS to the D inventory is about 30-50%. The new estimate for the total amount of D retained in the Tore Supra limiter is 1.7 x 10 24 atoms, close to the previous estimate, with the gap surfaces contributing about 33%. NRA measurements show a stepped decrease of D along the gap with strong asymmetries between different gap orientations.

  7. EDITORIAL: Plágio e ineditismo dos artigos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castro Amoras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL: Plágio e ineditismo dos artigos A partir deste ano de 2016, a revista Estação Científica (UNIFAP passou a adotar, como instrumento auxiliar da seleção dos artigos que serão publicados, a checagem de plágio nos conteúdos dos trabalhos que recebemos. Consta no site da revista a informação de que todos os trabalhos passarão por verificação de plágio, e desta forma alerta-se que sejam apresentados à Estação Científica (UNIFAP apenas os trabalhos que tenham autenticidade de autoria.

  8. Marketingový plán pro BT SERVIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bilíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce je sestavení marketingového plánu pro společnost BT servis, která plánuje otevřít novou pobočku v Jihomoravském kraji. V první části jsou představena teoretická východiska, která se vztahují ke zkoumané problematice. Následuje analýza současného stavu podniku a jeho okolí. Získané informace jsou vyhodnoceny a poté je sestaven marketingový plán na období jednoho roku. The scope of this diploma thesis is the creation of a marketing strategy for the BT servis company...

  9. Education's "Three Mile Island": PL 94-142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay

    1981-01-01

    PL 94-142 is viewed as educationally and psychologically destructive to disabled students. It is also described as financially devastating to local school districts since it mandates that: (1) Cost cannot be considered a factor in developing educational programs for handicapped children; and (2) The most money be spent on children least likely to…

  10. Amenazas toxicológicas del plástico

    Science.gov (United States)

    El plástico representa el 80 de la basura marina que se origina de desperdicios terrestres. La presencia de estos desechos pásticos tiene un impacto negativo en el medioambiente, el turismo, la industria de la pesca y la navegación.

  11. Experimental study of turbulence on Tore Supra by plasma micro-waves interaction; Etude experimentale de la turbulence sur Tore Supra par interaction plasma micro-ondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, L

    1996-09-23

    Internal small-scale magnetic turbulence is a serious candidate to explain the anomalous heat transport in tokamaks. This turbulence is badly known in the gradient region of large machines. In this work internal magnetic fluctuations are measured on Tore Supra with an original diagnostic : Cross Polarization Scattering (CPS). This experimental tool relies on the Eigenmode change of a probing polarised microwave beam scattered by magnetic fluctuations, close to a cut-off layer for the incident wave. In this work, the diagnostic is first qualified to assess its sensitivity to magnetic fluctuations, and the spatial localisation for its measurements. The magnetic fluctuation behaviour is then analysed over a wide range of plasma current, density and additional power, and interpreted with a simple 1-D scattering model. A scan of the plasma density or magnetic field is used to move the CPS measurement location from r/a = 0.3 to r/a = 0.75. A fluctuation radial profile is obtained by two means. In L-mode discharges, the relation between magnetic fluctuations, temperature profiles and local heat diffusivities is investigated. With all measurements, it is also possible to look for a local parameter correlated to the turbulence in a large domain of plasma conditions. The fluctuation-induced local heat diffusivity expected from the measured fluctuations is estimated using the non-collisional quasi-linear formula: X{sup mag}{sub e} = {pi}qRV{sub te}({delta}B / B){sup 2}. Both the absolute values and the parametric dependence of calculated X{sup mag}{sub e} are close to the electron thermal diffusivities Xe determined by transport analysis. In particular, a threshold is evidenced in the dependence of fluctuation-induced heat fluxes on local {nabla}T{sub e}, which is analogous to the critical gradient for measured heat fluxes. The experimental setup is also sensitive to the Thomson scattering of the probing wave by density fluctuations. Its measurements are analysed as the

  12. Study of the chemical sputtering in Tore-Supra; Etude de l'erosion chimique dans le tokamak Tore-Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambe, A

    2002-06-28

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on the interactions between energetic particles coming from thermonuclear plasma and the inner components of a fusion machine. This interaction induces two major problems: erosion of the wall, and tritium retention. This report treats the erosion of carbon based materials. The first part is devoted to chemical sputtering, that appears to be the principal erosion mechanism, compared to physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation that both can be limited. Chemical sputtering has been studied in situ in the tokamak Tore-Supra for ohmic and lower hybrid (LH) heated discharges, by means of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy. We have shown that it is necessary to take into account both methane and heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}D{sub x} and C{sub 3}D{sub y}) in the determination of the chemical sputtering yield. It is found that for the ohmic discharges, the sputtering yield of CD{sub 4} (Y{sub CD4}) is highly flux ({phi}) dependent, showing a variation of the form: Y{sub CD4} {proportional_to} {phi}{sup -0.23}. The experimental study also reveals that an increase of the surface temperature induces an augmentation of Y{sub CD4}. The interpretation and the modelling of the experimental results have been performed with a Monte Carlo code (BBQ. In the second part of this work, we have developed and installed an infrared spectroscopy diagnostic in the 0.8-1.6, {mu}m wavelength range dedicated to the measurement of surface temperature, and the identification of atomic and molecular lines emitted during plasma/wall interactions. In the third part, we present the feasibility study of an in situ tungsten deposition process at low temperature(<80 deg C) in order to suppress the chemical sputtering. This study shows that, with this method call Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD), we are able to coat the whole inner vessel of a tokamak with 1 {mu}m of tungsten. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the growth of carbonaceous deposit in steady state Tore Supra using infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R.; Guilhem, D.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.C.; Roche, H.; Buravand, Y.; Chantant, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Grosman, A.; Chappuis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion devices with carbon as the main armour material are experiencing a growth in carbonaceous deposits at the surface of the plasma facing components. Tore Supra presents such deposits, and has specific features which influence their growth: long pulse operation and cooled walls. Deposits have a low thermal transfer to the cooled structure so that they appear as hot areas with the infrared imaging system looking at the elements surface temperature during plasma discharges. A 'degree of (carbon) deposit' on the toroidal pumped limiter is estimated by establishing the ratio between the apparent power on the limiter derived from the infrared measure and the actual one, deduced from a power balance analysis between the injected and the radiated power. This criterion is used to monitor the evolution of the deposit average thermal resistance. Successive shots have a similar 'degree of deposit', showing that the evaluation makes sense. Two years of data have been compiled (2003 and 2004), representing 3000 discharges (13 h of plasma, including 30 discharges longer than one minute). A three-fold increase in the 'degree of deposit' over six months is evidenced, following a limiter clean-up early in 2003. A comparison with calorimetric data produces a similar result, albeit less pronounced. Large steps in the degree of deposit are sometimes observed, usually correlated with identified events such as disruption, vessel opening, conditioning or plasma parameters change. It indicates that the deposit thermal resistance can change rapidly, although a systematic correlation with the above mentioned events could not be established

  14. Scanning electron microscopy characterisation of carbon deposited layers in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchambre, E.; Brosset, C.; Reichle, R.; Devynck, P.; Guirlet, R.; Tsitrone, E.; Saikali, W.; Dominici, C.; Charai, A.

    2003-01-01

    For long discharges in Tore-Supra, an infra-red safety system has been installed to survey surface temperature of the target plates located below the toroidal pump limiter. A shift in temperature is attributed to the growth of a carbon layer at the surface of the neutralizer and has been estimated to a temperature increase of 400 Celsius degrees between virgin and layered surfaces. For temperature safety analysis, target plates have been cleaned and carbon layers were sampled for scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) study. SEM micrographs have allowed to measure the deposited layer thickness and to study the specific fractal and stratified structure. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis has permitted to distinguish carbon layers corresponding to boronization and then to deduce an average growth rate of about 20 nm/s. The growth rate is not constant and is likely to depend on plasma operation parameters. These analyses completed by time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have shown a beneficial effect of the boronization on metallic contamination of the plasma, confirming the in situ optical spectroscopic measurements. These analyses have also shown an increase of hydrogen storage in carbon layer due to boronization. Although the measurements performed on deposited layer are very local, the results reflect the history of the 2002 campaign. (A.C.)

  15. Assessing braze quality in the actively cooled Tore Supra phase III outboard pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hygren, R.; Lutz, T.; Miller, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the assessment of quality of brazing of pyrolytic graphite (PG) armor brazed to copper tubes in Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). The limiter head is a bank of 14 water-cooled copper tubes with several hundred brazed PG tiles. Braze quality was first assessed through pre-service qualification testing of individual copper/tiles assemblies. The quality of brazes was evaluated using (non-destructive) transient heating (open-quotes hot waterclose quotes) tests performed in the high temperature, high pressure flow loop at Sandia's Plasma Materials Test Facility. The surface temperatures of tiles were monitored with an infra-red (IR) camera as water at 120 degrees C water at about 2.07 MPa (300 psi) passed through a tube assembly initially at 30 degrees C. For tiles with braze voids or cracks, the surface temperatures lagged behind those of adjacent well bonded tiles. Temperature lags were correlated with flaw sizes observed during repairs using a detailed 2-D heat transfer analyses. open-quotes Badclose quotes tiles, i.e., temperature lags of 10-20 degrees C depending upon tile's size, were easy to detect and, when removed, revealed braze voids of roughly 50% of the joint area. 11 of the 14 tubes were rebrazed after bad tiles were detected and removed. Three tubes were re-brazed twice

  16. Improvement of density control by feedback on Langmuir probe signals in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Costanzo, L.; Grisolia, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grosman, A.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moulin, D.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1999-12-01

    Real time control of deuterium or helium gas injection by feedback on Langmuir probe signals is implemented in Tore Supra ergodic divertor discharges. The feedback schemes are based on the robust experimental observation that the density limit coincides with edge temperature T e ∼ 10 eV. Three control algorithms are used: (1) proportional feedback on the central line-averaged density with real-time attenuation of the system gain and security cut-off of the gas injection if the edge temperature becomes too low; (2) proportional feedback on the central line-averaged density with security cut-off controlled by the degree of detachment (DoD); (3) proportional feedback on edge temperature with security cut-off on the DoD. The DoD is defined for deuterium discharges, but not for helium since those do not detach. All three feedback modes permit operation close to the density limit and have been successfully applied for plasma currents 0.4 p p =1.4 MA with up to 4 MW of ICRH power. (author)

  17. Tore Linné Eriksen og de store utviklingsspørsmålene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Nordhaug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of Tore Linné Eriksen’s works within development studies/development research. In a recent introduction to development studies from 2013, he presented development research as a cross-disciplinary social science approach that addresses the grand problems of mankind. Eriksen’s own research into these grand problems has concentrated on the causes of national and international inequality and poverty. In 1974 he supported the view of the “underdevelopment school”: “Underdevelopment” in Africa and Latin America was the outcome of the inclusion of those continents in a capitalist world economy dominated by Europe. Recent works by Eriksen on the origins of the “great divergence” between Western Europe and economically advanced non-European countries (2010 and on inequality and poverty in the current world (2012 are far more complex and empirically nuanced. Still, in a recent discussion of globalization and global capitalism (2013 he reverts to some of the earlier ”underdevelopment arguments” from 1974. The article concludes that there is a tension within Eriksen’s works on the role of capitalism in development and underdevelopment. In his programmatic writings, global capitalism is seen as the main cause of inequality and poverty. In his more empirically grounded works, global capitalism is viewed rather as an important part of the bigger picture of inequality and poverty. 

  18. Kinetic Monte-Carlo modeling of hydrogen retention and re-emission from Tore Supra deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, A.; Schneider, R.; Warrier, M.; Roubin, P.; Martin, C.; Richou, M.

    2009-01-01

    A multi-scale model has been developed to study the reactive-diffusive transport of hydrogen in porous graphite [A. Rai, R. Schneider, M. Warrier, J. Nucl. Mater. (submitted for publication). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2007.08.013.]. The deposits found on the leading edge of the neutralizer of Tore Supra are multi-scale in nature, consisting of micropores with typical size lower than 2 nm (∼11%), mesopores (∼5%) and macropores with a typical size more than 50 nm [C. Martin, M. Richou, W. Sakaily, B. Pegourie, C. Brosset, P. Roubin, J. Nucl. Mater. 363-365 (2007) 1251]. Kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) has been used to study the hydrogen transport at meso-scales. Recombination rate and the diffusion coefficient calculated at the meso-scale was used as an input to scale up and analyze the hydrogen transport at macro-scale. A combination of KMC and MCD (Monte-Carlo diffusion) method was used at macro-scales. Flux dependence of hydrogen recycling has been studied. The retention and re-emission analysis of the model has been extended to study the chemical erosion process based on the Kueppers-Hopf cycle [M. Wittmann, J. Kueppers, J. Nucl. Mater. 227 (1996) 186].

  19. Dynamic Monte-Carlo modeling of hydrogen retention and chemical erosion from Tore Supra deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, A.; Schneider, R.; Warrier, M.; Roubin, P.; Martin, C.

    2009-01-01

    A multi-scale model has been developed to study the hydrogen retention [A. Rai, R. Schneider, M. Warrier, J. Nucl. Mater. 374 (2008) 304] and chemical erosion of porous graphite. To model the chemical erosion process due to thermal hydrogen ions, Kueppers cycle [J. Kueppers, Surf. Sci. Rep. 22 (1995) 249; M. Wittmann, J. Kueppers, J. Nucl. Mater. 227 (1996) 186] has been introduced. The model is applied to study hydrogen transport in deposits collected from the leading edge of neutralizers of Tore Supra. The effect of internal structure on chemical erosion is studied. The MD study [E. Salonen et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 290-293 (2001) 144] shows that the experimentally observed decrease of erosion yield at higher fluxes is due to the decrease of carbon collision cross-section at a surface due to shielding by hydrogen atom already present on the surface. Inspired by this study, a simple multi-scale model is developed to describe the flux dependence of chemical erosion. The idea is to use the local chemistry effect from the Kueppers model to calculate the hydrocarbon molecule formation process and then to find the release probability of the produced hydrocarbon based on the purely geometrical constraints. The model represents quite well the trends in experimental data.

  20. Power exhaust and edge control in steady state tore supra plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R.; Guilhem, D.; Vallet, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Tore Supra is operated since 2001 with a toroidal limiter designed to remove continuously a heat power of 15 MW at a maximum (ITER relevant) heat flux density of 10 MW/m 2 . The limiter is located in the bottom of the vacuum vessel and is actively cooled by a pressurised water loop. For an injection of 6 MW of additional power, the limiter extracts 3.6 MW and the surface temperature stabilises typically at 400 deg C in 5 seconds during discharges lasting up to 260 seconds. The maximum heat flux density reach 3 MW/m 2 which is still modest compared to the design value, but nevertheless enables a comparison to the modelling. Heat flux and deposition pattern are in very good accordance with design simulations. Additional heat load concentrations specific to radio-frequency heating superimpose to the convection heat load at levels that are commensurable with the elements thermal capability. Insights on the tiles behaviour are given. Operation with such a large size high heat flux component sets an renewed emphasis on issues such as feed back systems, active security, cooling parameters and in situ assessment of the elements. These issues are dealt with in this paper. (author)

  1. Power deposition to the pump limiters in Tore-Supra with ohmic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Chatelier, M.; Chappuis Fleury, I.; Klepper, C.

    1990-01-01

    The modification of power scrape-off-length, λq, and power deposition are studied both with the horizontal limiter alone and with the full set of 7 pump limiters for 1MW ohmic plasmas in TORE-SUPRA. By making spatially resolved infrared surface temperature measurements during the plasma discharge, the magnitude and distribution of the energy flux can be derived. For comparison, the surface temperature of the horizontal pump limiter is calculated with a finite element code using a 3D description of the field lines, an exponential scrape-off-layer, and the pump limiter geometry. From comparison of the infrared images of the limiter we derived that the λq for power deposition was slightly less than 9 mm (±1mm) which is in agreement with the predicted design value of 10 mm. For an 8 seconds discharge, the maximum surface temperature on the horizontal limiter is 450 0 C. Inserting the 7 limiters does not modify λq (which becomes 10 mm). The power is shared by all the limiters and the maximum surface temperature on the horizontal limiter decreased to 320 0 C. These λq values have been independently measured by the integrated energy deposition on the horizontal limiter and other internal structures 5 cm into the scrape-off layer. These values agree with the infrared measurements in the two cases

  2. Probing neutral density at the plasma edge of Tore Supra with CX excited impurity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, W.R.; Mattioli, M.; Guirlet, R.

    1993-01-01

    In Tokamak plasma physics renewed interest in visible spectroscopy has grown for two reasons. The use of fiber optics allows observation of local sources of both impurities and of hydrogen by observing radiation of low ionization states. Moreover, charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) with either auxiliary or heating neutral beams is a standard technique to determine the ion temperature and impurity density profiles. After a short description of the experimental setup and the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra (TS), two discharges in which space-resolved observations of the CVI (8-7) line clearly show the presence of CX-related effects. A well isolated spectral line at 5304.6 A is discussed. Tentative identification as CIII (1s 2 2s, 7-5) is suggested. The conclusion shows the usefulness of the reported results for probing neutral density at the plasma edge by detecting CX excited impurity ions and that highly ionized C 6+ ions exist in the MARFE regions. To the best of our knowledge, only very low ionization C and O ions (such as CIII or OIV) have been previously reported in these regions

  3. Coupling between particle and heat transport during power modulation experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J.F.; Bouquey, F.; Bremond, S.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Eury, S.P.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Power modulations are a powerful tool often used to investigate heat transport processes in tokamaks. In some situations, this could also be an interesting method for the investigation of the particle transport due to the anomalous pinch. Low frequency (∼ 1 Hz) power modulation experiments, using both electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), have been performed in the Tore Supra tokamak. Strong coupling has been observed between the temperature and density modulations during the low frequency ECRH and ICRH modulation experiments. It has been shown that mechanisms as outgassing, Ware pinch effect, curvature driven pinch are not likely to be responsible for this density modulation. Because of its dependence on temperature or temperature gradient, the thermodiffusion is a serious candidate to be the driving source for this density modulation. This analysis shows that low frequency power modulation experiments have a great potential for the investigation of the anomalous particle pinch in tokamaks. Future plans will include the use of more precise density profile measurements using X-mode reflectometry

  4. 2-D mapping of ICRF-induced SOL perturbations in Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, L.; Gunn, J.P.; Nanobashvili, I.; Petrzilka, V.; Goniche, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Heuraux, S.; Joffrin, E.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Balorin, C.; Lowry, C.; Basiuk, V.

    2007-01-01

    ICRF-induced SOL modifications are mapped for the first time in 2-D around Tore Supra ICRF antennas using reciprocating Langmuir probes. When probe heads are magnetically connected to powered antennas, radical modifications of floating potentials V float , effective temperatures T eff and ion saturation currents are observed. V float perturbations are located radially near antenna limiters, with a typical extension 2 cm. Poloidally they are locally minimal near the equatorial plane, and maximal near antenna box corners. Two possible interpretations for increased T eff are proposed: localised electron heating and RF loop voltage induced along probe circuit. Both interpretations rely on the generation of parallel RF fields by parallel RF currents on the antenna structure. The topology of such currents could explain the 2-D structure of T eff maps. Both interpretations also imply a positive DC biasing of the antenna environment. Differential biasing of nearby flux tubes drives DC E x B 0 convection that could explain 2-D density patterns

  5. Closed Loop Sawtooth Period Control Using Variable Eccd Injection Angles on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennholm, M.; Eriksson, L.G.; Turco, F.; Bouquey, F.; Darbos, C.; Dumont, R.; Giruzzi, G.; Jung, M.; Lambert, R.; Magne, R.; Molina, D.; Moreau, P.; Rimini, F.; Segui, J.L.; Song, S.; Traisnel, E.

    2009-01-01

    Closed loop control of the period of fast ion stabilized sawtooth has been demonstrated for the first time on Tore Supra by varying the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) injection angles in real time. Fast ions generated by up to 4 MW of central ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) increased the sawtooth period from the ohmic value of 25 ms to 60 to 100 ms. This sawtooth period was reduced to 30 ms by the addition of only 300 kW of ECCD. In ICRH heated shots where the normalized minor radius of the ECCD absorption location was swept from 0.4 to 0.05 in 4 s, the sawtooth period showed an abrupt change from 70 to 30 ms when the ECCD deposition normalized minor radius reached ∼ 0.2. This short period was then maintained until the absorption location moved well inside the sawtooth inversion radius at which point it abruptly returned to 70 ins. A closed loop controller was implemented that allowed the sawtooth period to be switched in real time between short and long sawteeth with a response time of the order of 1 s. (authors)

  6. Spectral broadening measurement of the lower hybrid waves during long pulse operation in Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-By, G.; Decampy, J.; Antar, G. Y.; Goniche, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Delpech, L.; Leroux, F.; Tore Supra Team

    2014-02-01

    On many tokamaks (C-Mod, EAST, FTU, JET, HT-7, TS), a decrease in current drive efficiency of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves is observed in high electron density plasmas. The cause of this behaviour is believed to be: Parametric Instabilities (PI) and Scattering from Density Fluctuations (SDF). For the ITER LH system, our knowledge must be improved to avoid such effects and to maintain the LH current drive efficiency at high density. The ITPA IOS group coordinates this effort [1] and all experimental data are essential to validate the numerical codes in progress. Usually the broadening of the LH wave frequency spectrum is measured by a probe located in the plasma edge. For this study, the frequency spectrum of a reflected power signal from the LH antenna was used. In addition, the spectrum measurements are compared with the density fluctuations observed on RF probes located at the antenna mouth. Several plasma currents (0.6 to 1.4 MA) and densities up to 5.2 × 1019 m-3 have been realised on Tore Supra (TS) long pulses and with high injected RF power, up to 5.4 MW-30s. This allowed using a spectrum analyser to make several measurements during the plasma pulse. The side lobe amplitude, shifted by 20-30MHz with respect to the main peak, grows with increasing density. Furthermore, for an increase of plasma current at the same density, the spectra broaden and become asymmetric. Some parametric dependencies are shown in this paper.

  7. New managing system of a large amount of images on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buravand, Y.; Ducobu, L.; Guilhem, D.; Roche, H.; Signoret, J.; Travere, J.M.; Utzel, N.

    2004-01-01

    After a major replacement of all internal components (terminated in 2002), Tore Supra has restarted operation with a new set of actively cooled components. The safety of these components relies on infrared (IR) thermography. Up to twelve IR cameras will be used to survey nearly all the high flux target zones which are essentially the 360 deg C toroidal pump limiter and the 5 power injection HF antennas. The high data rate produced by each camera ( ∼ 8 Mbytes/sec.) led us to implement a multi stages system: during experimentations, images are stored where they are acquired then, each night they are compressed using a lossy standard image compression algorithm (JPEG) and stored on a specialized IR data server. Between shots, acquisition systems act as servers and physicists can read data using a dedicated analysis software. For post-analysis purposes, all compressed images are read from the IR data server using the same analysis software or for in-depth analysis, physicists can use the Matlab interface we have developed. (authors)

  8. Plasma biasing by fast particles generation in front of CASTOR and TORE SUPRA tokamak LH grills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.; Jakubka, K.; Klima, R.

    1999-01-01

    Computation results are presented concerning the electron acceleration by the LH wave alone, which are necessary for determining the value of the effective ponderomotive potential W. One set of selected parameters is representative for large tokamaks like Tore Supra and JET; the other set is representative for the small CASTOR tokamak. To estimate the value of W, the test-particle model was used for describing the electron acceleration. Then, by using the two-fluid model, profiles of U and Ε z are presented. Further, by using the corresponding value of W in the Particle-in-Cell model for the simulations of the plasma vortex in front of the LH grill, the effects are explored of the electrostatic fields Ε r , Ε θ and Ε z , on the following processes: 1. particle acceleration in front of LH grills by rf waves - it is demonstrated that in addition to electron acceleration, the charge-separation electrostatic field Ε z also accelerates ions to energies of several keV; 2. effects of plasma sources on the flow of particles from the narrow layer in front of the LH grill mouth - here it is shown that ionization alone is not sufficient for creating the experimentally observed plasma densities in front of LH grills

  9. Experience feedback from high heat flux component manufacturing for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A.; Huber, T.; Garin, P.; Schedler, B.; Agarici, G.

    2001-01-01

    Tore Supra is involved in flat tile carbon armoured plasma facing components (PFCs) since 1985. In 1997, a third generation of components, based on the original concept developed with Plansee Company, called active metal casting (AMC[reg]), has been launched. Since 1998, 660 elementary components for the toroidal pump limiter (TPL) are in production. The route of the manufacture is rather complex and many controls were requested all along the fabrication to insure a high reliability of the elements. One of the main controls is the final infrared (IR) test allowing to determine the quality of the bonding between the carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles and the heat sink made of copper-chromium-zirconium alloy (CuCrZr). Although results for the first batch of elements were as expected (less than 5% rejected at the final test), unexpected defects appeared with the followings batches. Investigations on the fabrication processes underlined the importance of having a better heat treatment of the pieces in copper alloy (CuCrZr), however this was not sufficient to completely explain the observed defects

  10. Power exhaust and edge control in steady state Tore Supra plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R.

    2002-01-01

    Tore Supra is operated since 2001 with a flat limiter which is designed for 10 MW/m 2 . The limiter is located in the bottom of the vacuum vessel. It was only partial in 2001, but it is now fully toroidal without poloidal leading edges. Part of the experimental campaign of 2001 was devoted to the physical as well as technological qualification of the limiter. For 4 MW injected, the limiter extracted 2.5 MW and heat flux densities reached 2.5 MW/m 2 . It is still modest compared to the design value, but nonetheless enables a comparison to the modelling as surface temperature increased locally to 400 deg C. Thermal steady state is reached in 5-8 seconds. The values of heat flux and the deposition pattern are in very good accordance with design simulations. The heat flux pattern is a combination of parallel and perpendicular flow components which are roughly of equal magnitude. Insights on the heat flux deposition pattern as well as on the tiles behaviour are given. Operation with such a large size high heat flux component sets renewed emphasis on issues such as feed back systems, active security, cooling parameter and in situ assessment of the elements. They are dealt with in the paper. (author)

  11. Lower hybrid wave coupling in Tore Supra through multi junction launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Berger By, G.; Bibet, P.; Bizarro, J.P.; Capitain, J.J.; Carrasco, J.; Goniche, M.; Hoang, G.T.; Kupfer, K.; Magne, R.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Rax, J.M.; Rey, G.; Rigaud, D.; Tonon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The TORE SUPRA Lower Hybrid Current Drive experiments (8 MW/3.7GHz) use large phased waveguide arrays, to couple the waves to the plasma. These launchers are based on the multi junction principle. Extensive coupling measurements have been performed in order to study the Radio-Frequency (RF) characteristics of the plasma loaded antennae and are reported. Measurements of the plasma scattering coefficients of the antennae show good agreement with those obtained from the linear coupling theory (SWAN code). Global reflection coefficients of a few percents have been measured in a large range of edge plasma densities or antenna positions, and up to a maximum injected RF power density of 45MW/m 2 . When the plasma is pushed against the inner wall of the chamber, the reflection coefficient was found to remain low up to distances of the order of 10 cm. The coupling measurements allow us to deduce the experimental power spectra radiated by the antennae when all their modules are fed simultaneously with variable phases. An assessment of the multi junction launcher as a viable antenna for high power transmission with good coupling characteristics and spectrum control is thus made

  12. Cross-field dynamics of the homogenization of the pellet deposited material in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Pégourié, B.; Clairet, F.; Géraud, A.; Gil, C.; Hacquin, S.; Köchl, F.

    2013-01-01

    For investigating the damping effect of low-order rational surfaces on the drift of pellet deposited plasmoids, a safety factor (q) profile scan experiment was performed in Tore Supra, on a series of discharges with identical temperature and density profiles. Fast time-resolved density measurements show that the position of the deposition peak does not move smoothly during the ablation/homogenization phase but changes step by step, each step being located close to an integer or half-integer q value. This behaviour is well reproduced by time-dependent simulations with the pellet ablation/deposition code HPI2, which takes into account the braking of the plasmoid drift by external currents flowing along field lines in the background plasma. The key feature of this damping mechanism is a modulation as a function of the local safety factor, the braking being more effective in the vicinity of simple rational q values. The overall agreement between measurements and code predictions for a significant range of edge safety factors is fully consistent with the fact that the limitation of the plasmoid polarization by parallel currents is the dominant damping process of the ∇B-induced drift in tokamaks. (paper)

  13. Evaluation of the growth of carbonaceous deposit in steady state Tore Supra using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteau, R.; Guilhem, D.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J. C.; Roche, H.; Buravand, Y.; Chantant, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Grosman, A.; Chappuis, P.

    2006-03-01

    Fusion devices with carbon as the main armour material are experiencing a growth in carbonaceous deposits at the surface of the plasma facing components. Tore Supra presents such deposits, and has specific features which influence their growth: long pulse operation and cooled walls. Deposits have a low thermal transfer to the cooled structure so that they appear as hot areas with the infrared imaging system looking at the elements surface temperature during plasma discharges. A 'degree of (carbon) deposit' on the toroidal pumped limiter is estimated by establishing the ratio between the apparent power on the limiter derived from the infrared measure and the actual one, deduced from a power balance analysis between the injected and the radiated power. This criterion is used to monitor the evolution of the deposit average thermal resistance. Successive shots have a similar 'degree of deposit', showing that the evaluation makes sense. Two years of data have been compiled (2003 and 2004), representing 3000 discharges (13 h of plasma, including 30 discharges longer than one minute). A three-fold increase in the 'degree of deposit' over six months is evidenced, following a limiter clean-up early in 2003. A comparison with calorimetric data produces a similar result, albeit less pronounced. Large steps in the degree of deposit are sometimes observed, usually correlated with identified events such as disruption, vessel opening, conditioning or plasma parameters change. It indicates that the deposit thermal resistance can change rapidly, although a systematic correlation with the above mentioned events could not be established.

  14. Study and impact of fast electrons diagnosed by electron cyclotron radiation on Tore-Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, P.

    1999-12-01

    This thesis aims at characterizing the dynamics of fast electrons generated by the Landau absorption of the hybrid wave and studying their effects on electron cyclotron radiation. The different processes involved in the propagation and resonant absorption of the hybrid wave in plasmas are described. A method such as ray-tracing allows the characterization of the dynamics of heating but this method relies on the hypothesis of geometrical optics. Whenever absorption rate is low as it is in Tore-Supra, the hybrid wave undergoes a series of successive reflections on the edge of the plasma before being completely absorbed. These reflections generate an electromagnetic chaos in which geometrical optics hypothesis are no longer valid. A statistical treatment of the Fokker-Planck equation allows the calculation of the mean distribution function of electrons in the plasma submitted to hybrid wave. The electron cyclotron radiation is then deduced and by assuming that plasma behaves like a black body, a theoretical radiative temperature is calculated. The confrontation of this theoretical temperature profile with experimental values allows the validation of this modeling and the estimation of the effects of fast electrons on temperature measurements. (A.C.)

  15. Deuterium in-vessel retention characterisation through the use of particle balance on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucalossi, J.; Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B.; Tsitrone, E.; Dufour, E.; Eckedahl, A.; Geraud, A.; Goniche, M.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Vallet, J.C.; Vartanian, S.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel retention inside plasma facing components will be a crucial issue not only in fusion reactors of the future, but also in ITER. The estimation of the fraction of the fuel which remains trapped inside the vessel is quite a difficult task. Particle balance analysis provides information for the whole vacuum chamber as a function of time and can be use to monitor the tritium in-vessel retention in real-time. On Tore Supra with a careful choice and position of pressure sensors, proper calibration procedures, the accuracy of the balance is around 10%. Particle balance analysis have been performed on many long pulse discharges and deuterium in-vessel retention has been found to be a constant around 5 x 10 20 D/s after several minutes of plasma. The evolution of the retention rate with plasma parameters indicates that deuterium bulk implantation and diffusion could dominate codeposition with carbon atoms. Particle balance is a powerful tool that should be implemented in ITER

  16. Coupling between particle and heat transport during power modulation experiments in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J.F.; Bouquey, F.; Bremond, S.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Eury, S.P.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L

    2004-07-01

    Power modulations are a powerful tool often used to investigate heat transport processes in tokamaks. In some situations, this could also be an interesting method for the investigation of the particle transport due to the anomalous pinch. Low frequency ({approx} 1 Hz) power modulation experiments, using both electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), have been performed in the Tore Supra tokamak. Strong coupling has been observed between the temperature and density modulations during the low frequency ECRH and ICRH modulation experiments. It has been shown that mechanisms as outgassing, Ware pinch effect, curvature driven pinch are not likely to be responsible for this density modulation. Because of its dependence on temperature or temperature gradient, the thermodiffusion is a serious candidate to be the driving source for this density modulation. This analysis shows that low frequency power modulation experiments have a great potential for the investigation of the anomalous particle pinch in tokamaks. Future plans will include the use of more precise density profile measurements using X-mode reflectometry.

  17. Plasma-surface interactions with ICRF antennas and lower hybrid grills in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.H.; Hutter, T.; Hogan, J.T.; Basiuk, V.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Bremond, S.; Carter, M.D.; Goniche, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Guilhem, D.; Haste, G.R.; Hoffman, D.J.; Litaudon, X.; Nguyen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The edge plasma interactions of the actively cooled radio-frequency heating launchers in Tore Supra ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antennas and lower-hybrid (LH) grills are studied using infrared video imaging. On the two-strap ICRF antennas, operated in fast-wave electron heating or current drive mode, hot spots with temperatures of 500-900 C are observed by the end of 2 s power pulses of 2 MW per antenna. The steady-state temperature distribution is determined principally by the relative phase of the two antenna straps: dipole (heating) phasing results in significantly less antenna heating than does 90 (current drive) phasing. Transient heat fluxes of 1-20 MW/m 2 are measured on the lateral protection bumpers at ICRF turn-on; these fluxes are primarily a function of plasma and radio frequency (rf) control. The remarkable feature of the lower hybrid edge interaction is the production of beams of heat flux in front of the grills; these beams propagate along the helical magnetic field lines and can deliver fluxes of 5-10 MW/m 2 over areas of several cm 2 to plasma-facing components. Both the ICRF and LH phenomena appear to result from the acceleration of particles by the near fields of the launchers. Modeling of the heat flux deposition on components and its relation to sputtering processes is presented. (orig.)

  18. Particle exhaust of helium plasmas with actively cooled outboard pump limiter on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Loarer, T.; Chatelier, M.; Guilhem, D.; Lutz, T.; Nygren, R.E.; Mahdavi, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The superconducting tokamak Tore Supra was designed for long-pulse (30-s) high input power operation. Here observations on the particle-handling characteristics of the actively cooled modular outboard pump limiter (OPL) are presented for helium discharges. The important experimental result was that a modest pumping speed (1 m 3 /s) of the OPL turbomolecular pump (TMP) provided background helium exhaust. This result came about due to a well-conditioned vessel wall with helium discharges that caused no wall outgasing. The particle accountability in these helium discharges was excellent, and the well-conditioned wall did not play a significant role in the particle balance. The helium density control, 25% density drop with OPL exhaust efficiency of ∼1%, was possible with TMP although this may not be the case with reactive gases such as deuterium. The observed quadratic increase of the OPL neutral pressure with helium density was consistent with an improvement of the particle control with increasing plasma density

  19. Assessing braze quality in the actively cooled Tore Supra Phase III outboard pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.L.; Miller, J.D.; McGrath, R.; Dale, G.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of brazing of pyrolytic graphite armor brazed to copper tubes in Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter was assessed through pre-service qualification testing of individual copper/tile assemblies. The evaluation used non-destructive, hot water transient heating tests performed in the high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop at Sandia's Plasma Materials Test Facility. Surface temperatures of tiles were monitored with an infrared camera as water at 120 degrees C at about 2.07 MPa (300 psi) passed through a tube assembly initially at 30 degrees C. For tiles with braze voids or cracks, the surface temperatures tagged behind those of adjacent well-bonded tiles. Temperature tags were correlated with flaw sizes observed during repairs based upon a detailed 2-D heat transfer analyses. open-quotes Badclose quotes tiles, i.e., temperature tags of 10-20 degrees C depending upon tile's size, were easy to detect and, when removed, revealed braze voids of roughly 50% of the joint area. Eleven of the 14 tubes were rebrazed after bad tiles were detected and removed. Three tubes were rebrazed twice

  20. Effects of ionizing scrape-off layers on local recycling in Tore Supra pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Loarer, T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of ohmic discharges with active pumping in the Tore Supra outboard pump limiter has been analyzed with the DEGAS neutrals transport code and an analytic scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma model. Pumping speed and plenum pressure measurements indicated 5-10 torr.L/s throughput with only modest effects on density. A model is developed in which large exhaust fluxes, with little attendant effect on core plasma density, are explained in terms of SOL ionization of recycled and wall-desorbed neutrals. Particle balance with active pumping and constant line density requires that the wall return flux exceed the incident flux by approximately the pump throughput in the absence of external fueling. The radial profile of the H + source rate from ionization and dissociation of wall-desorbed molecules is seen to peak very near the radial position of the limiter throat. Consequently, a strong recycling vortex is created in the region of the limiter, with the ion flux amplified by factors of 2 at the outer limiter surfaces and > 3 within the limiter throat. The calculations indicate that less than 30% of the pump throughput is due to first-generation ions from the core efflux, with the balance from local recycling in the strongly ionizing SOL

  1. X mode reflectometry for edge density profile measurements on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Chareau, J.M.; Paume, M.; Sabot, R.

    1999-01-01

    X mode heterodyne reflectometry associated with fast sweep capabilities demonstrates very precise measurement on Tore Supra and a high sensitivity (∼10 17 m -3 ) to density variations. Very good agreement with Thomson scattering measurement is observed. Fluctuations of the radial positions of the profile are no more than ± 0.5 cm. However, edge magnetic field ripple can be a concern since it is not easy to stand precisely for the wave trajectory into the plasma and for the toroidal position of the cutoff layer; nevertheless if the error can be estimated to be less than than 3 cm in the position of the whole profile, addition work is needed combining 3-D ray tracing and different antenna systems. Additional LH heating generates an ECE noise in the same frequency range of the reflectometer and is detected. This emission throughout the plasma is fortunately stopped by the upper X mode cutoff and is also reabsorbed by the electron cyclotron resonance. But at the very edge, due to a misalignment of the antenna to the plasma magnetic field and the low optical thickness of the plasma, the first cutoff frequency, i.e. the profile initialization, may be determined less precisely. (authors)

  2. Infrared surface temperature measurements for long pulse operation, and real time feedback control in Tore-Supra, an actively cooled Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhem, D.; Adjeroud, B.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Bertrand, B.; Bondil, J.L.; Desgranges, C.; Gauthier, E.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Moulin, D.; Pocheau, C.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.; Vallet, S

    2004-07-01

    Tore-Supra has a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components for high performances long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma-facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increase continuously (T proportional to {radical}(t)) during the discharge until radiation cooling is equal to the incoming heat flux (T > 1800 K). Such an environment is found in most today Tokamaks. In the present paper we report the recent results of Tore-Supra, especially the design of the new generation of infrared endoscopes to measure the surface temperature of the plasma facing components. The Tore-Supra infrared thermography system is composed of 7 infrared endoscopes, this system is described in details in the paper, the new JET infrared thermography system is presented and some insights of the ITER set of visible/infrared endoscope is given. (authors)

  3. Infrared surface temperature measurements for long pulse operation, and real time feedback control in Tore-Supra, an actively cooled Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Adjeroud, B.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Bertrand, B.; Bondil, J.L.; Desgranges, C.; Gauthier, E.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Moulin, D.; Pocheau, C.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.; Vallet, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tore-Supra has a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components for high performances long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma-facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increase continuously (T proportional to √(t)) during the discharge until radiation cooling is equal to the incoming heat flux (T > 1800 K). Such an environment is found in most today Tokamaks. In the present paper we report the recent results of Tore-Supra, especially the design of the new generation of infrared endoscopes to measure the surface temperature of the plasma facing components. The Tore-Supra infrared thermography system is composed of 7 infrared endoscopes, this system is described in details in the paper, the new JET infrared thermography system is presented and some insights of the ITER set of visible/infrared endoscope is given. (authors)

  4. PL-1 program system for generalized Patterson superpositions. [PL1GEN, SYMPL1, and ALSPL1, in PL/1 for IBM 360/65 computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, C.R.; Babich, M.W.; Jacobson, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new system of three programs written in PL/1 can calculate symmetry and Patterson superposition maps for triclinic, monoclinic, and orthorhombic space groups as well as any space group reducible to one of these three. These programs are based on a system of FORTRAN programs developed at Ames Laboratory, but are more general and have expanded utility, especially with regard to large unit cells. The program PLIGEN calculates a direct access data set, SYMPL1 calculates a direct access symmetry map, and ALSPL1 calculates a superposition map using one or multiple superpositions. A detailed description of the use of these programs including symbolic program listings is included. 2 tables.

  5. Near infrared thermography by CCD cameras and application to first wall components of Tore Supra tokamak; Thermographie proche infrarouge par cameras CCD et application aux composants de premiere paroi du tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, F.

    1996-06-07

    In the Tokamak TORE-SUPRA, the plasma facing components absorbs and evacuate (active cooling) high power fluxes (up to 10 MW/m{sup 2}). Their thermal behavior study is essential for the success of controlled thermonuclear fusion line. The first part is devoted to the study of power deposition on the TORE-SUPRA actively cooled limiters. A model of power deposition on one of the limiters is developed. It takes into account the magnetic topology and a description of the plasma edge. The model is validated with experimental calorimetric data obtained during a series of shots. This will allow to compare the surface temperature measurements with the predicted ones. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop a new temperature measurement system. It works in the near infrared range (890 nm) and is designed to complete the existing thermographic diagnostic of TORE-SUPRA. By using the radiation laws (for a blackbody and the plasma) and the laboratory calibration one can estimate the surface temperature of the observed object. We evaluate the performances and limits of such a device in the harsh conditions encountered in a Tokamak environment. On the one hand, in a quasi ideal situation, this analysis shows that the range of measurements is 600 deg. C to 2500 deg. C. On the other hand, when one takes into account of the plasma radiation (with an averaged central plasma density of 6.10{sup 19} m{sup -3}), we find that the minimum surface temperature rise to 900 deg. C instead of 700 deg. C. In the near future, according to the development of IR-CCD cameras working in the near infrared range up to 2 micrometers, we will be able to keep the good spatial resolution with an improved lower limit for the temperature down to 150 deg. C. The last section deals with a number of computer tools to process the images obtained from experiments on TORE-SUPRA. A pattern recognition application was developed to detect a complex plasma iso-intensity structure. 87 refs.

  6. Experimental characterization and modelling of non-linear coupling of the lower hybrid current drive power on Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynas, M.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve steady-state operation on future fusion devices, in particular on ITER, the coupling of the lower hybrid wave must be optimized on a wide range of edge conditions. However, under some specific conditions, deleterious effects on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) coupling are sometimes observed on Tore Supra. In this way, dedicated LHCD experiments have been performed using the LHCD system of Tore Supra, composed of two different conceptual designs of launcher: the fully active multi-junction (FAM) and the new passive active multi-junction (PAM) antennas. A non-linear interaction between the electron density and the electric field has been characterized in a thin plasma layer in front of the two LHCD antennas. The resulting dependence of the power reflection coefficient (RC) with the LHCD power is not predicted by the standard linear theory of the LH wave coupling. A theoretical model is suggested to describe the non-linear wave-plasma interaction induced by the ponderomotive effect and implemented in a new full wave LHCD code, PICCOLO-2D (ponderomotive effect in a coupling code of lower hybrid wave-2D). The code self-consistently treats the wave propagation in the antenna vicinity and its interaction with the local edge plasma density. The simulation reproduces very well the occurrence of a non-linear behaviour in the coupling observed in the LHCD experiments. The important differences and trends between the FAM and the PAM antennas, especially a larger increase in RC for the FAM, are also reproduced by the PICCOLO-2D simulation. The working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling is therefore validated through this comprehensive modelling for the first time on the FAM and PAM antennas on Tore Supra.

  7. Experimental characterization and modelling of non-linear coupling of the lower hybrid current drive power on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preynas, M.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve steady-state operation on future fusion devices, in particular on ITER, the coupling of the lower hybrid wave must be optimized on a wide range of edge conditions. However, under some specific conditions, deleterious effects on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) coupling are sometimes observed on Tore Supra. In this way, dedicated LHCD experiments have been performed using the LHCD system of Tore Supra, composed of two different conceptual designs of launcher: the fully active multi-junction (FAM) and the new passive active multi-junction (PAM) antennas. A non-linear interaction between the electron density and the electric field has been characterized in a thin plasma layer in front of the two LHCD antennas. The resulting dependence of the power reflection coefficient (RC) with the LHCD power is not predicted by the standard linear theory of the LH wave coupling. A theoretical model is suggested to describe the non-linear wave–plasma interaction induced by the ponderomotive effect and implemented in a new full wave LHCD code, PICCOLO-2D (ponderomotive effect in a coupling code of lower hybrid wave-2D). The code self-consistently treats the wave propagation in the antenna vicinity and its interaction with the local edge plasma density. The simulation reproduces very well the occurrence of a non-linear behaviour in the coupling observed in the LHCD experiments. The important differences and trends between the FAM and the PAM antennas, especially a larger increase in RC for the FAM, are also reproduced by the PICCOLO-2D simulation. The working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling is therefore validated through this comprehensive modelling for the first time on the FAM and PAM antennas on Tore Supra. (paper)

  8. Fabrication and PL of Al-doped gallium nitride nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shaomin

    2006-01-01

    Mass Al-doped GaN nanowires with an average diameter of about 50 nm and lengths up to several millimeters are fabricated by a CVD approach. The as-fabricated products have a single crystal phase and grow along the direction. The growth of Al-doped GaN nanowires is suggested for quasi-vapor-solid mechanism (QVSM). In particular, for as large-scale GaN nanowires, a novel strong ultraviolet PL spectrum (from 3.3 to 3.7 eV) appears with a doping Al where the Al-doped GaN nanowires are found to be responsible for the different characteristics; the PL mechanism is explained in detail

  9. International P/L Insurance Output, Input, and Productivity Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Mary A. Weiss

    1991-01-01

    This research provides (bilateral) divisia and multilateral divisia indexes of output, input, and productivity for the property-liability (P-L) insurance industry for the following countries: United States, West Germany, Switzerland, France, and Japan. The time period studied is 1975 to 1987. The results indicate that considerable diversity exists among different countries, with Japan showing the weakest productivity growth. The United States and West Germany are associated overall with high ...

  10. Dziennikarze obywatelscy czy sprzedawcy rozrywki? Rzecz o Demotywatorach.pl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Barczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Web site called Demotywatory.pl was established in 2008. It is a response to popular in the USA Motivators. Nowadays thousands of Internet users visit this Web site every day. Currently we have to redefine the basic categories: the text, the sender, the recipient. „Demot” is a specific message (interesting picture and intelligent buzzword Anyone can become a virtual publicist and say about important issues. This article tries to answer on the title question.

  11. Precision and resolution on Tore-Supra ECE electron temperature profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segui, J.L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M.

    2003-01-01

    A 16-channel heterodyne radiometer, 2 GHz spaced, is used on Tore-Supra to measure the electron cyclotron emission in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the O mode and 94 -126 GHz for the X mode. In the equatorial plane, a dual polarisation Gaussian optics lens antenna, with a perpendicular line of sight (with respect to the magnetic field), gives ECE measurements with very low refraction and Doppler effects. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This improves time stability calibration and gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94 -110 GHz RF band for polarisation studies. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 GHz) in order to perform temperature measurements during ECRH plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the vacuum vessel by using a 600 deg. C black body, a digital signal averaging on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper placed directly in front of it, and a simulation window without Fabry-Perot effects. The calibration precision leads to ECE temperature profiles which are very consistent with Thomson scattering measurements and guarantees a good stability of the ECE profiles for small changes on the magnetic field (absolute precision ± 6%, relative precision between channels ± 3%). Post-pulse data processing takes routinely into account the total magnetic field (B vacuum with ripple, B para , B dia , B pol , all with analytical formulations), the radial relativistic shift (analytical formulation is used), the refraction, not described in this paper, (cut-off detection with safety margin to avoid strong refraction), the nonthermal ECE spectra, not described in this paper, during LHCD (using an electron density threshold criterion). These previous analytical formulations are compatible with real time processing. Relativistic radial broadening simulations show that it is useful to fulfill 32 channels (1 GHz spaced). (authors)

  12. Precision and resolution on Tore-Supra ECE electron temperature profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segui, J.L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M. [Association EURATOM -CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    A 16-channel heterodyne radiometer, 2 GHz spaced, is used on Tore-Supra to measure the electron cyclotron emission in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the O mode and 94 -126 GHz for the X mode. In the equatorial plane, a dual polarisation Gaussian optics lens antenna, with a perpendicular line of sight (with respect to the magnetic field), gives ECE measurements with very low refraction and Doppler effects. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This improves time stability calibration and gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94 -110 GHz RF band for polarisation studies. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 GHz) in order to perform temperature measurements during ECRH plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the vacuum vessel by using a 600 deg. C black body, a digital signal averaging on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper placed directly in front of it, and a simulation window without Fabry-Perot effects. The calibration precision leads to ECE temperature profiles which are very consistent with Thomson scattering measurements and guarantees a good stability of the ECE profiles for small changes on the magnetic field (absolute precision {+-} 6%, relative precision between channels {+-} 3%). Post-pulse data processing takes routinely into account the total magnetic field (B{sub vacuum} with ripple, B{sub para}, B{sub dia}, B{sub pol}, all with analytical formulations), the radial relativistic shift (analytical formulation is used), the refraction, not described in this paper, (cut-off detection with safety margin to avoid strong refraction), the nonthermal ECE spectra, not described in this paper, during LHCD (using an electron density threshold criterion). These previous analytical formulations are compatible with real time processing. Relativistic radial broadening simulations show that it is useful to fulfill 32 channels (1 GHz

  13. Particle exhaust with vented structures: application to the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeroual, A.

    2000-01-01

    In a thermonuclear reactor, one must continuously fuel the discharge and extract the ashes resulting from fusion reactions. To avoid the risk of discharge poisoning, α-particle concentration is limited to ∼ 10 %. To allow for steady-state conditions requires then to extract ≥2 % of the helium out flux. In Tore Supra, the ergodic divertor is the main component managing the heat and particle fluxes at the edge. Its principle consists in generating a resonant perturbation able to destroy magnetic surfaces at the plasma periphery. In this region, the field lines are open and connected at both ends to neutralizers which are wetted by the major part of the heat and particle fluxes and are the structures through which a part of the plasma out flux is pumped for maintaining the discharge in steady-state conditions. This work describes the neutral recirculation around the ergodic divertor and is based on a data base of 56 discharges. One discuss the two processes allowing for particle exhaust: the ballistic collection of ions and that of neutrals backscattered by atomic reactions. These two processes are modelled accounting for a realistic description of the divertor geometry. A comparison between simulations and experiments is presented for measurements characterising the three main actors of plasma-wall interaction: the edge plasma, the D α light emission and the neutral pressure in the divertor plenum. Last, one question how such a system can be extrapolated to next step machines, for which one must account for technical constraints linked to the presence of the shield protecting the coils from the high neutron flux. (author)

  14. Plasma enhanced RF power deposition on ICRF antennas in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, R.H.; Harris, J.H.; Carter, M.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Hogan, J.T.; Ryan, P.M.; Beaumont, B.; Bremond, S.; Hutter, T.

    1997-01-01

    The dual-strap Tore Supra ICRF antennas have been very successful in coupling high power fluxes > 16 MW/m2 to the plasma. In many cases it has been found that the power is limited not by the voltages and currents that can be sustained on antenna components, but rather by localized increases in antenna surface temperatures which are correlated with increased impurity levels. Hot spots have been observed using an IR imaging system with peak temperatures as high as 1,100 C after 2 s, and as little as 1.5 MW power coupled from a single launcher. The maximum temperature observed is highly dependent on antenna phasing, and is lowest with dipole (π) phasing of the relative antenna currents. Both toroidal and poloidal asymmetries in hot spot distribution have been observed, and interestingly, the toroidal asymmetry has been found to vary when the phase is changed from +π/2 to -π/2. Significant differences in the temperature profiles have been seen on the two types of Faraday shield in use, which appears to be related to the fact that one type has a recessed center septum between straps while the other does not. In some cases, the peak temperature has been observed to increase as the antenna/plasma gap is increased, while the peak remains in the same location. This behavior suggests that voltages generated by currents flowing in the Faraday shield structure itself may play a role in generating potentials responsible for the hot spots, in addition to rf fields in the plasma. In this paper data on antenna surface heating and loading data as a function of plasma density, antenna/plasma gap, and phasing will be presented. Calculations from the RANT3D electromagnetic code together with bench measurements of electric fields near the antenna surface will also be shown

  15. Plasma-surface interactions with ICRF antennas and lower hybrid grills in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutter, T. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The edge plasma interactions of the actively cooled radio-frequency heating launchers in Tore Supra- ion-cyclotron range-of-frequencies (ICRF) antennas and lower-hybrid (LH) grills-are studied using infrared video imaging. On the two-strap ICRF antennas, operated in fast-wave electron heating or current drive mode, hot spots with temperatures of 500-900{degrees} C are observed by the end of 2-s power pulses of 2 MW per antenna. The distribution and maximum values of temperature are determined principally by the relative phase of the two antenna straps: dipole (heating) phasing results in significantly less antenna heating than does 90` (current drive) phasing. Transient heat fluxes of 1-20 MW/m{sup 2} are measured on the lateral protection bumpers at ICRF turn-on; these fluxes are primarily a function of plasma and radio frequency (rf) control, and are not simply correlated with the strap phasing or the final surface temperature distributions. The remarkable feature of the lower hybrid edge interaction is the production of beams of heat flux in front of the grills; these beams propagate along the helical magnetic field lines and can deliver fluxes of 5-10 MW/m{sup 2} over areas of several cm{sup 2} to plasma-facing components such as the grill or antenna lateral bumpers. Both the ICRF and LH phenomena appear to result from the acceleration of particles by the near fields of the launchers. Modeling of the heat flux deposition on components and its relation to sputtering processes is presented, and possibilities for controlling these interactions are discussed.

  16. Spectral broadening measurement of the lower hybrid waves during long pulse operation in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger-By, G.; Decampy, J.; Goniche, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Delpech, L.; Leroux, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Antar, G. Y. [American University of Beirut, Riad el-Solh, Beirut 1107-2020 (Lebanon); Collaboration: Tore Supra Team

    2014-02-12

    On many tokamaks (C-Mod, EAST, FTU, JET, HT-7, TS), a decrease in current drive efficiency of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves is observed in high electron density plasmas. The cause of this behaviour is believed to be: Parametric Instabilities (PI) and Scattering from Density Fluctuations (SDF). For the ITER LH system, our knowledge must be improved to avoid such effects and to maintain the LH current drive efficiency at high density. The ITPA IOS group coordinates this effort [1] and all experimental data are essential to validate the numerical codes in progress. Usually the broadening of the LH wave frequency spectrum is measured by a probe located in the plasma edge. For this study, the frequency spectrum of a reflected power signal from the LH antenna was used. In addition, the spectrum measurements are compared with the density fluctuations observed on RF probes located at the antenna mouth. Several plasma currents (0.6 to 1.4 MA) and densities up to 5.2 × 10{sup 19} m−3 have been realised on Tore Supra (TS) long pulses and with high injected RF power, up to 5.4 MW-30s. This allowed using a spectrum analyser to make several measurements during the plasma pulse. The side lobe amplitude, shifted by 20-30MHz with respect to the main peak, grows with increasing density. Furthermore, for an increase of plasma current at the same density, the spectra broaden and become asymmetric. Some parametric dependencies are shown in this paper.

  17. Identification and real time control of current profile in Tore-supra: algorithms and simulation; Identification et controle en temps reel du profil de courant dans Tore Supra: algorithmes et simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houy, P

    1999-10-15

    The aim of this work is to propose a real-time control of the current profile in order to achieve reproducible operating modes with improved energetic confinement in tokamaks. The determination of the profile is based on measurements given by interferometry and polarimetry diagnostics. Different ways to evaluate and improve the accuracy of these measurements are exposed. The position and the shape of a plasma are controlled by the poloidal system that forces them to cope with standard values. Gas or neutral ions or ice pellet or extra power injection are technical means used to control other plasma parameters. These controls are performed by servo-controlled loops. The poloidal system of Tore-supra is presented. The main obstacle to a reliable determination of the current profile is the fact that slightly different Faraday angles lead to very different profiles. The direct identification method that is exposed in this work, gives the profile that minimizes the square of the margin between measured and computed values. The different algorithms proposed to control current profiles on Tore-supra have been validated by using a plasma simulation. The code Cronos that solves the resistive diffusion equation of current has been used. (A.C.)

  18. Rationale for utilizing 3PL in supply chain management: A shippers' economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Tezuka

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we first propose a conceptual framework for evaluating 3PL (third-party logistics) utilization in SCM (supply chain management), in which it is assumed that shippers may enjoy advantages derived from four contributory sources of 3PL specialization: scale, know-how, searching ability, and IT skills. It is also supposed that shippers may particularly benefit from 3PL when facing uncertain business environments. We also apply principal–agent relationships to shippers and 3PL provid...

  19. Shielding study of a fusion machine. Elaboration of a global shielding calculation scheme for the Tokamak tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, C.M'B.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis presents a global shielding calculation scheme for neutron and gamma rays arising from the Tokamak TORE SUPRA fusion device, in which a deuterium plasma is used. To study the shield parameters we have elabored a important chaining of neutron and gamma transport codes, TRIPOLI, ANISN, MERCURE 4, allowing to evaluate the radial and skyshine components of the dose rate behind the concrete shield. The study of thermonuclear neutron activation is fundamental to define a tokamak exploitation strategy. For this, two formalisme have been developed. They are based on a modelization of the activation reaction rates according to TRIPOLI, ANISN, and MERCURE 4 codes capabilities. The first one calculates, in one dimensional geometry, the desactivation gamma dose rate inside the vacuum chamber. The second one is a tridimensional model which determines the spatial variation of the gamma dose rate in the machine room. The problem of the existence of runaway electrons and associated secondaries radiations, bremsstrahlung gamma rays particularly, is approched. The results which are presented have contributed to define the parameters of the concrete shield and a strategy for TORE SUPRA Tokamak exploitation [fr

  20. Resuspension of carbon dust collected in Tore Supra and exposed to turbulent airflow: Controlled experiments and comparison with model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peillon, S., E-mail: samuel.peillon@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Roynette, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Grisolia, C. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gensdarmes, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Mobilization of dust is a key issue for the safety assessment of fusion reactors. • Carbon dust has been collected on the plasma facing components of Tore Supra. • Samples exhibit bimodal particle size distributions. • Samples have been exposed to turbulent airflows for dust resuspension studies. • A comparison with the so-called Rock’n roll resuspension model is proposed. - Abstract: This work presents the results of experiments conducted with carbon microparticles collected in the tokamak Tore Supra in order to characterize their resuspension behaviour from a stainless-steel substrate when exposed to turbulent airflow. Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel with controlled velocity profiles and monitored environmental conditions. A consequent amount of dust has been collected in the vessel of the tokamak and a bimodal particle size distribution of samples is first demonstrated. Comparison with resuspension of alumina powders with equivalent particle size distributions under turbulent airflow is also discussed. Results for both carbon and alumina microparticles are then compared to a theoretical resuspension model. Data reveal that exposing multilayer deposits with bimodal particle size distributions to low-speed flows (i.e. 3–10 m/s) induces a significant reduction of the mobilized fractions compared to what was predicted by the model. In addition, results helped to highlight some limitations in the model to physically describe changes in the adhesive strength that can occur with a polydisperse deposit.

  1. Naukaoklimacie.pl: Between Science Blog and Mythbuster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, S. P.; Popkiewicz, M.; Kardaś, A.; Bielewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    "Naukaoklimacie" is a Polish fellow of a well known portal SkepticalScience.com. The name is a quibble. This cluster of two Polish words can be translated into English as "Climate Science" or "Science about Climate". Naukaoklimacie.pl and the associate Facebook page is an ongoing, over two years old project, aimed at providing Polish-speaking community fundamentals of climate science. Itgives insight into the recent climate science achievements, rebutts climate misinformation and busts climate myths. During two years of activity we published over 250 texts, our Facebook page has over 4k fans and results in 4-12 thousands post reach week-to-week, the mainpage articles are quoted in press and used as reading texts for students. Unlike in many countries, in Poland there is a real problem in finding a trustworthy information on climate change and science behind it. Neither universities, nor governmental agencies present climate science to Polish society. Naukaoklimacie.pl fills this gap in an unique way. Editorial group of the portal consists of two atmospheric scientists, a physicist and the professional journalist and is supported by a scientific council, consisting of 14 active scientists specializing in various aspects of climate, atmosphere, biodiversity, atmospheric chemistry e.t.c.. All the texts published in the webpage are consulted with scientists - specialists in the subject of the text, usually from the scientific council, sometimes by the external specialists. All the texts provide links to the original scientific publications. Naukaoklimacie.pl is not only an internet activity. We meet people on Festivals of Science, Science Open Days. We exist also in the mainstream media the editors and the scientific councils were interviewed by press and TV.

  2. Cálculo de engranajes plásticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Moya Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos tiempos los materiales plásticos han tenido una proliferación en todos los campos de la Industria Mecánica, debido esencialmente a su bajo costo y a las mejoras de las propiedades mecánicas que se han ido logrando. En el caso particular de las transmisiones por engranajes existe una gran cantidad de estos materiales que pueden ser usados y de hecho se utilizan para la fabricación de ruedas dentadas de características muy disímiles. En la literatura científica existe muy poca información disponible sobre las fallas de engranajes plásticos, métodos de cálculo a resistencia y posibles materiales a emplear con sus respectivas propiedades mecánicas. Inclusive este tema no se aborda en los currículos de estudio tradicionales en Ibero-América. Queda mucho por discutir aun acerca del empleo de las correcciones del dentado en estas ruedas dentadas plásticas. En el presente trabajo se hace un análisis de los materiales, características, estudio de las fallas principales, métodos de cálculo y ejemplos de aplicación de los engranajes plásticos.Recently the use of plastic materials has been growing up due to their low cost and the improvements achieved on their mechanical properties. In the particular case of gear transmissions there are great quantities of polymers that can be used for gears. Plastic gears are powerful means of cutting drive cost, weight, noise, and wear. Plastic gears also open new opportunities for smaller and more efficient transmissions. Scientific literature about plastic gears failures, designing methods and materials is insufficient. Most engineering reference books are desicated to steel gears but there are remarkably silent about plastic gears. Design methods for plastic gears and gear trains must be modernized, because much of the information available is derived from research in metal gears. Main failures of plastic gears, calculation methods and the use of modification profiles among other

  3. The control of plasma density profile in Tore Supra. Comparison of different fueling techniques; Controle du profil de densite dans le plasma de Tore Supra. Comparaison de differentes methodes d'alimentation en particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commaux, N

    2007-09-15

    The behaviour of a reactor-class plasma when fuelled using the existing techniques (gas puffing, supersonic molecular beam injection and pellet injection) is still very difficult to foresee. The present work has been initiated on Tore Supra in order to extrapolate the consequences of the different fuelling systems on ITER. Two main topics have been studied: the comparison of the plasma behaviour when fuelled using the different techniques at high Greenwald density fractions and the study of the homogenization following a pellet injection (main fuelling technique for ITER burning plasmas). The experiments at high Greenwald density fractions performed on Tore Supra showed that the plasma behaviour is very dependent on the fuelling method. The plasma energy confinement is following the scaling laws determined at low density when fuelled using pellet injection. which is better than for gas puffing and SMBI. both inducing a significant confinement loss. This behaviour is nor related to a transport modification: the ratio between effective diffusion and convection is similar to the pellet case. The difference between these shots is related only to the position of the matter source (at the edge for gas and close to the center for pellets). The study concerning the homogenization phenomena following a pellet injection aims mainly to study the {nabla}B-drift effect that expels the mater deposited by a pellet toward the low field side. A new phenomenon. which appears to be particularly important for the {nabla}B-drift during low field side injections. was then discovered: the influence of magnetic surfaces with an integer-valued safety factor (q). When the mater drifting toward low field side crosses an integer q surface. it experiences an important braking effect which stops the drift motion. It implies that the pellet material is mainly deposited on the last integer q surface crossed by the pellet during its injection. This study allows also to determine that the {nabla

  4. Product Lines for Service Oriented Applications - PL for SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice H. ter Beek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PL for SOA proposes, formally, a software engineering methodology, development techniques and support tools for the provision of service product lines. We propose rigorous modeling techniques for the specification and verification of formal notations and languages for service computing with inclinations of variability. Through these cutting-edge technologies, increased levels of flexibility and adaptivity can be achieved. This will involve developing semantics of variability over behavioural models of services. Such tools will assist organizations to plan, optimize and control the quality of software service provision, both at design and at run time by making it possible to develop flexible and cost-effective software systems that support high levels of reuse. We tackle this challenge from two levels. We use feature modeling from product line engineering and, from a services point of view, the orchestration language Orc. We introduce the Smart Grid as the service product line to apply the techniques to.

  5. Aqueous corrosion in static capsule tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuit of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: manfred.lipa@cea.fr; Blanchet, J.; Feron, D. [CEA/DEN/SCCME, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Cellier, F. [AREVA ANP, Centre Technique, 71380 Saint Marcel (France)

    2008-12-15

    Tore supra (TS) in vessel components represent a unique combination of metals in the hydraulic circuit. Different materials, e.g. stainless steel, copper alloys, nickel, etc., were joined together by fusion welding, brazing and friction. Since the operation and baking temperature of all in vessel components has been defined to be set at 230 deg. C/40 bars a special water chemistry of the cooling water loop was suggested in order to prevent eventual water leaks due to corrosion at relative high temperatures and pressures in tubes, bellows, coils and coolant plant ancillary equipments. Following experiences with water chemistry in Pressurised Water Reactors, an all volatile chemical treatment (AVT) has been defined for the cooling water quality of TS. Since then, a simplified static (no fluid circulation) corrosion test program at relatively high temperature and pressure has been performed using capsule-type samples made of above mentioned multi-metal assemblies.

  6. High heat flux components in fusion devices: from nowadays experience in Tore Supra towards the ITER challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Marbach, G.; Mitteau, R.; Schlosser, J.

    2003-01-01

    A pioneering activity has been developed by CEA and the European industry in the field of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components in Tore Supra operation, which is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m -2 of nominal convected heat flux. This success is the result of a long lead development and industrialization program (about 10 years) marked out with a number of technical and managerial challenges that were taken up and has allowed us to build up an unique experience feedback database. This is illustrated in this paper with the specific example of the development of high heat flux CFC-on-CuCrZr (carbon-carbon fibre composite on hardened copper alloy CuCrZr) component from design phase to tokamak operation. (authors)

  7. Detection of geodesic acoustic mode oscillations, using multiple signal classification analysis of Doppler backscattering signal on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first observation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) on Tore Supra plasmas. Using the Doppler backscattering system, the oscillations of the plasma flow velocity, localized between r/a = 0.85 and r/a = 0.95, and with a frequency, typically around 10 kHz, have been observed at the plasma edge in numerous discharges. When the additional heating power is varied, the frequency is found to scale with C s /R. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm is employed to access the temporal evolution of the perpendicular velocity of density fluctuations. The method is presented in some detail, and is validated and compared against standard methods, such as the conventional fast Fourier transform method, using a synthetic signal. It stands out as a powerful data analysis method to follow the Doppler frequency with a high temporal resolution, which is important in order to extract the dynamics of GAMs. (paper)

  8. Characterization of the up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations induced by a lower modular limiter in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzi, C.; Devynck, P.; Garbet, X.; Antar, G.; Capes, H.; Laviron, C.; Truc, A.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.

    1999-01-01

    In magnetic fusion devices, the effect of plasma facing components on plasma turbulence is a key issue for several reasons. Firstly, the edge turbulence controls the power deposition on plasma facing components. Secondly, the possible influence of the edge parameters on the core fluctuations is a central question, since the core turbulent transport is responsible for the confinement degradation. It is in practice difficult to determine whether the plasma core influences the edge, or the opposite. We show here that spatial edge asymmetries of density fluctuations, and particularly up-down asymmetries, provide a powerful tool to investigate this problem. In TORE SUPRA, previous scaling analyses with various plasma parameters have emphasized that a very clear effect on the asymmetry level appears when the plasma leans on the lower modular limiter located close to the measurement chord. We present here recent measurement results concerning that specific case. They tend to show that the limiter configuration has some effect on the core turbulence. (authors)

  9. Flux consumption, current ramp-up and current diffusion in Tore Supra non-inductive Lower Hybrid scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarian, F.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Peysson, Y.; Allibert, J.P.; Ane, J.M.; Bremond, S.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of the Lower Hybrid (LH) experiments performed on Tore Supra is to provide large flux savings for long pulse operation while controlling the plasma current density profile. This goal will be best achieved by applying LH wave directly during the current ramp-up phase. Experiments have been performed where a large fraction of the current is driven non-inductively during the ramp-up phase. A theoretical flux consumption scaling is presented and compared to experimental data. The time evolutions of the current density profiles are analysed with a new current diffusion code (CRONOS). In view to achieve fully non-inductive current drive discharges in a fast, systematic and reproducible way, experiments where the primary voltage is imposed have been carried out. In a complementary approach, an appropriate transformer flux feedback scheme has been also studied. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs

  10. High heat flux components in fusion devices: from nowadays experience in Tore Supra towards the ITER challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Marbach, G.; Mitteau, R.; Schlosser, J

    2003-07-01

    A pioneering activity has been developed by CEA and the European industry in the field of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components in Tore Supra operation, which is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m{sup -2} of nominal convected heat flux. This success is the result of a long lead development and industrialization program (about 10 years) marked out with a number of technical and managerial challenges that were taken up and has allowed us to build up an unique experience feedback database. This is illustrated in this paper with the specific example of the development of high heat flux CFC-on-CuCrZr (carbon-carbon fibre composite on hardened copper alloy CuCrZr) component from design phase to tokamak operation. (authors)

  11. Evident anomalous inward particle pinch in full non-inductive plasmas driven by lower hybrid waves on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.T.; Bourdelle, C.; Pegourie, B.; Artaud, J.F.; Bucalossi, J.; Clairet, F.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C.; Garbet, X.; Gil, C.; Guirlet, R.; Imbeaux, F.; Lasalle, J.; Loarer, T.; Lowry, C.; Schunke, B.; Travere, J.M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2003-01-01

    These slides present some characteristics concerning peaked density profile observed in Tore-Supra. It appears that density profile remains peaked for more than 3 minutes in fully LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) discharges. The absence of toroidal electric field and the fact that the ware pinch has vanished across the entire plasma show that toroidal electric field and ware pinch are not the cause of the peaked profile. It is shown that peaked profile is linked to transport properties and can only be explained by a particle pinch velocity 2 orders of magnitude above the neoclassical pinch. It is also shown that the radial profile is in agreement with Isitchenko's formula. (A.C.)

  12. Particle flux and temperature dependence of carbon impurity production from an inertially-cooled limiter in tore supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMichelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Guilhem, D.

    1998-01-01

    A visible endoscope system and an infrared camera system have been used to study the flux of carbon from an inertially-cooled graphite limiter in Tore Supra. From the variation in the carbon flux with plasma parameters new data have been obtained describing the dependence of radiation enhanced sublimation (RES) and chemical sputtering on incident ion flux. Other characteristics of RES under plasma operation conditions have also been studied. The dependence of RES on incident deuterium particle flux density is found to be in reasonable agreement with the expected particle flux scaling over a range of particle fluxes varying by a factor ∼ 25, extending the present scaling to higher flux density values. Chemical sputtering has been observed, but only in regions of the limiter with low incident deuterium fluxes. Values inferred for the chemical sputtering yield are similar to those measured with a temperature controlled test limiter in Textor. (author)

  13. Role of wall implantation of charge exchange neutrals in the deuterium retention for Tore Supra long discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Reiter, D.; Loarer, T.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Begrambekov, L.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Gunn, J.; Hogan, J.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Ghendrih, P.; Reichle, R.; Roubin, P.

    2005-01-01

    In Tore Supra long pulses, particle balance gives evidence that a constant fraction of the injected gas (typically 50%) is retained in the wall for the duration of the shot, showing no sign of wall saturation after more than 6 min of discharge. During the discharge, the retention rate first decreases (phase 1), then remains constant throughout the pulse (phase 2). Phase 1 could be interpreted as implantation of particles combined with a constant codeposition rate, while phase 2 could correspond to codeposition alone, once the implanted surfaces are saturated with deuterium. This paper presents a possible contribution of charge exchange neutrals to the implantation process, based on modelling results with the Eirene neutral transport code. A complex pattern of particle implantation is evidenced, with saturation time constants ranging from less than one to several hundreds seconds, compatible with the experimental behaviour during phase 1

  14. Isotope exchange experiments on TEXTOR and TORE SUPRA using Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning and Glow Discharge Conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauters, T.; Douai, D.; Lyssoivan, A.; Philipps, V.; Bremond, S.; Freisinger, M.; Kreter, A.; Lombard, G.; Marchuk, O.; Mollard, P.; Paul, M.K.; Pegourie, B.; Reimer, H.; Sergienko, G.; Tsitrone, E.; Vervier, M.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Wuenderlich, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Van Oost, G.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reports on isotope exchange studies with both Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) and Glow Discharge Conditioning (GDC) in TEXTOR and TORE SUPRA. The discharges have been carried out in H 2 , D 2 (ICWC and GDC) and He/H 2 mixtures (ICWC). The higher reionization probability in ICWC compared to GDC, following from the 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher electron density, leads to a lower pumping efficiency of wall desorbed species. GDC has in this analysis (5-10) times higher removal rates of wall desorbed species than ICWC, although the wall release rate is 10 times higher in ICWC. Also the measured high retention during ICWC can be understood as an effect of the high reionization probability. The use of short RF pulses (∼1 s) followed by a larger pumping time significantly improves the ratio of implanted over recovered particles, without severely lowering the total amount of removed particles.

  15. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG, Wuya; YAN, Wei

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics (4PL), this paper elaborates the concept, background and development plight of agricultural products logistics, advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics, etc. and explores issues of information, efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics, draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost, and ...

  16. Rationale for utilizing 3PL in supply chain management: A shippers' economic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Tezuka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first propose a conceptual framework for evaluating 3PL (third-party logistics utilization in SCM (supply chain management, in which it is assumed that shippers may enjoy advantages derived from four contributory sources of 3PL specialization: scale, know-how, searching ability, and IT skills. It is also supposed that shippers may particularly benefit from 3PL when facing uncertain business environments. We also apply principal–agent relationships to shippers and 3PL providers. Further, we see enhancing “agency efficiency” as important to obtaining the benefits of 3PL utilization. We also look at the role of 3PL provider selection, the “hold-up” problem under incomplete contracts, and asset ownership. After that we briefly discuss the utilization of 3PL and environmental concerns. These are the main points that we consider related to 3PL utilization. The main contribution of this study is to identify discussion points from models and theories, such as contract theory, that relate to the utilization of 3PL in SCM.

  17. Perfecting of shielding calculation technique against the gamma rays arising from a Tokamak with the TFR experience. Application to the conceptual design Tokamak TORE 2 SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, Cheikh M'Backe.

    1980-09-01

    The conception of the necessary shielding around a conceptual design Tokamak requires to execute an estimated calculation of the doses due to the different radiation sources arising from the machine: the thermonuclear neutron source and the gamma ray source emitted during the interaction of the runaway electrons with the diaphragm. In this study, we propose a theorical method to calculate this gamma source. We tackle also the shielding problem of the conceptual design Tokamak: TORE 2 SUPRA [fr

  18. Role of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pl. PDC) in chloroplast metabolism of spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Siebert, D.; Homeyer, U.; Schultz, G.

    1986-01-01

    Labeling experiments of chloroplasts in the light ( 14 CO 2 , 2- 14 C-pyruvate etc.) revealed that pl. PDC is predominantly involved in the synthesis of branched chain amino acids and pl. isoprenoids (carotenes, PQ, α-T). In this context, pl. phosphoglycerate mutase as missing link in the C 3 → C 2 metabolism of chloroplasts was identified by latency experiments. This indicates a direct pathway from Calvin cycle to pl. PDC. Using protoplasts, maximal rates in pl. PDC metabolism were obtained. On the other hand, mitochondrial PDC in protoplasts is mainly involved in fatty acid synthesis by known mechanism. Additionally, cytosolic-ER-isoprenoids were formed (e.g. sterols). When 14 CO 2 was simultaneously applied with unlabeled acetate to protoplasts in the light an isotopic dilution of fatty acids were found but not of pl. isoprenoids. This may indicate an partially channeling of pl. PDC and mevalonate pathway for pl. isoprenoid synthesis. Inhibitory studies with DCMU point in the same direction

  19. Inhibition of Stromal PlGF Suppresses the Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and vascularization of prostate cancer is dependent on interactions between cancer cells and supporting stromal cells. The primary stromal cell type found in prostate tumors is the carcinoma-associated fibroblast, which produces placental growth factor (PlGF. PlGF is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family of angiogenic molecules and PlGF mRNA levels increase after androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. In this study, we show that PlGF has a direct dose-dependent proliferative effect on human PC-3 prostate cancer cells in vitro and fibroblast-derived PlGF increases PC-3 proliferation in co-culture. In xenograft tumor models, intratumoral administration of murine PlGF siRNA reduced stromal-derived PlGF expression, reduced tumor burden and decreased the number of Ki-67 positive proliferating cells associated with reduced vascular density. These data show that targeting stromal PlGF expression may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. An Alternative to the 3PL: Using Asymmetric Item Characteristic Curves to Address Guessing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sora; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2018-01-01

    Both the statistical and interpretational shortcomings of the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model in accommodating guessing effects on multiple-choice items are well documented. We consider the use of a residual heteroscedasticity (RH) model as an alternative, and compare its performance to the 3PL with real test data sets and through simulation…

  1. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a surrogate marker in preeclamptic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Patrícia Gonçalves; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira; da Cruz, Lívia Pieroni Barroso; Pereira, Jacqueline Braga; Martins, Breno Oliveira de Barcelos; Rezende, Cezar Alencar de Lima

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate plasma levels of angiogenic factors and their association with preeclampsia. Twenty-three women with preeclampsia and nine normotensive pregnant women from the Maternity of Hospital das Clínicas of Belo Horizonte/MG-Brazil were assessed by National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Creteria (NHBPEPWG). The plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Placental growth factor (PlGF) were determined by ELISA assay. Plasma concentration of PlGF was 12-fold lower in preeclampsia versus non preeclampsia pregnancies. An inverse correlation was observed between PlGF plasma levels and mean arterial pressure (MAP); a decrease in 1pg/mL of PlGF resulted in 6.18 mm Hg increase in MAP. These results indicate that PlGF is related to MAP in pregnant women.

  2. Molecular characterization of the pL40 protein in Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Lai, Wei-Qiang; Hu, Bao-Yu; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Qin, Jin-Hong; Guo, Xiao-Kui

    2009-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic leptospires. The identification of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) conserved among pathogenic leptospires, which are exposed on the leptospiral surface and expressed during mammalian infection, has become a major focus of leptospirosis research. pL40, a 40 kDa protein coded by the LA3744 gene in Leptospira interrogans, was found to be unique to Leptospira. Triton X-114 fractionation and flow cytometry analyses indicate that pL40 is a component of the leptospiral outer membrane. The conservation of pL40 among Leptospira strains prevalent in China was confirmed by both Western blotting and PCR screening. Furthermore, the pL40 antigen could be recognized by sera from guinea pigs and mice infected with low-passage L. interrogans. These findings indicate that pL40 may serve as a useful serodiagnostic antigen and vaccine candidate for L. interrogans.

  3. Soft x-ray tomography for real-time applications: present status at Tore Supra and possible future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, D; Vezinet, D; Pacella, D; Moreau, D; Gabelieri, L; Romano, A; Malard, P; Mlynar, J; Masset, R; Lotte, P

    2012-06-01

    This paper is focused on the soft x-ray (SXR) tomography system setup at Tore Supra (DTOMOX) and the recent developments made to automatically get precise information about plasma features from inverted data. The first part describes the main aspects of the tomographic inversion optimization process. Several observations are made using this new tool and a set of shape factors is defined to help characterizing the emissivity field in a real-time perspective. The second part presents a detailed off-line analysis comparing the positions of the magnetic axis obtained from a magnetic equilibrium solver, and the maximum of the reconstructed emissivity field for ohmic and heated pulses. A systematic discrepancy of about 5 cm is found in both cases and it is shown that this discrepancy increases during sawtooth crashes. Finally, evidence of radially localized tungsten accumulation with an in-out asymmetry during a lower hybrid current drive pulse is provided to illustrate the DTOMOX capabilities for a precise observation of local phenomena.

  4. Electric Fields near RF Heating and Current Drive Antennas in Tore Supra Measured with Dynamic Stark Effect Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, C. C.; Martin, E. H.; Isler, R. C.; Colas, L.; Hillairet, J.; Marandet, Y.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Martin, V.; Hillis, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Saoutic, B.

    2011-10-01

    Computational models of the interaction between RF waves and the scrape-off layer plasma near ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid current drive launch antennas are continuously improving. These models mainly predict the RF electric fields produced in the SOL and, therefore, the best measurement for verification of these models would be a direct measurement of these electric fields. Both types of launch antennas are used on Tore Supra and are designed for high power (up to 4MW/antenna) and long pulse (> > 25s) operation. Direct, non-intrusive measurement of the RF electric fields in the vicinity of these structures is achieved by fitting spectral profiles of deuterium Balmer-alpha and Balmer-beta to a model that includes the dynamic, external-field Stark effect, as well as Zeeman splitting and Doppler broadening mechanisms. The measurements are compared to the mentioned, near-field region, RF antenna models. *Work supported in part by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  5. Behaviour of intrinsic carbon and laser blow-off injected nickel in Tore Supra during ergodic divertor activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, M.; De Michelis, C.; Monier-Garbet, P.

    1995-01-01

    The behaviour of intrinsic carbon (the dominating impurity) and laser blow-off injected nickel has been studied in Tore Supra during ergodic divertor (ED) activation. The carbon content is reduced in the plasma core as a result of the screening effect of the ergodic layer, which is due to increased transport in the layer, to increased recycling flux and to a modified impurity source term. Simulations of the C VI and C V intensity ratios require in the ergodic edge both an increased diffusion and a large (in the 10 16 -10 17 m -3 range) neutral hydrogen isotope density. The nickel burst is not 'screened' and penetrates into the core plasma. The confinement time τ P of the injected elements is always increased when the ED is activated, but there is no modification of the core plasma transport (diffusion coefficients, convection velocities, central reduced transport region extension). To simulate the increased central τ p values, a peripheral transport barrier has to be introduced. Satisfactory nickel brightness simulations can be obtained by modifying the inward convection velocity and/or the diffusion coefficient. If the barrier is taken to be purely diffusive, satisfactory carbon line ratios can be recovered, but the simulated injected impurity confinement time τ p is too short. For a satisfactory nickel brightness simulation it is necessary to add to the barrier some inward convection, pushing also the intrinsic carbon ions inwards, but this hinders correct line ratio evaluations. (author). 31 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab

  6. Energy measurement of fast ions trapped in the toroidal magnetic field ripple of Tore Supra during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Grisolia, C.; Hutter, T.; Mayaux, G.; Martin, G.; Saoutic, B.; Vartanian, S.

    1995-01-01

    Direct losses of ions trapped in the toroidal field ripple of Tore Supra using two techniques were made. The first (DRIPPLE I) correlates the ion loss current measured by an electric probe with the ion loss power measured by a calorimeter. As the calorimeter integrates over all particle energies and time, it yields only the averaged lost ion energy. The second technique (DRIPPLE II), still under development, is a Faraday cup positioned and filtered so as to select ions by their Larmor radius. The currents measured are small (1-100 nA), and improvements in instrumentation are needed to take full advantage of the data, but the preliminary results are still useful. During ICRH (hydrogen minority regime, resonance on axis) a direct correlation between the lost ion mean energy and the density of hydrogen was seen. The energy increased when the hydrogen minority density decreased. Moreover, the line averaged density and the lower hybrid heating (LH) had also an effect on fast ion losses. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs

  7. Absolute spectral characterization of silicon barrier diode: Application to soft X-ray fusion diagnostics at Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezinet, D.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental protocol for absolute calibration of photo-detectors. Spectral characterization is achieved by a methodology that unlike the usual line emissions-based method, hinges on the Bremsstrahlung radiation of a Soft X-Ray (SXR) tube only. Although the proposed methodology can be applied virtually to any detector, the application presented in this paper is based on Tore Supra's SXR diagnostics, which uses Silicon Surface Barrier Diodes. The spectral response of these n-p junctions had previously been estimated on a purely empirical basis. This time, a series of second-order effects, like the spatial distribution of the source radiated power or multi-channel analyser non linearity, are taken into account to achieve accurate measurements. Consequently, a parameterised physical model is fitted to experimental results and the existence of an unexpected dead layer (at least 5 μm thick) is evidenced. This contribution also echoes a more general on-going effort in favour of long-term quality of passive radiation measurements on Tokamaks

  8. Q-profile evolution and improved core electron confinement in the full current drive operation on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Peysson, Y.; Aniel, T.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Lasalle, J.; Lotte, Ph.; Schunke, B.; Segui, J.; Tresset, G.; Zabiego, M.

    2000-12-01

    The formation of a core region with improved electron confinement is reported in the recent full current drive operation of Tore Supra where the plasma current is sustained with the Lower Hybrid, LH, wave. Current profile evolution and thermal electron transport coefficients are directly assessed using the data of the new fast electron Bremsstrahlung tomography that provides the most accurate determination of the LH current and power deposition profiles. The spontaneous rise of the core electron temperature observed a few seconds after the application of the LH power is ascribed to a bifurcation towards a state of reduced electron transport. The role of the magnetic shear is invoked to partly stabilize the anomalous electron turbulence. The electron temperature transition occurs when the q-profile evolves towards a non-inductive state with a non-monotonic shape i.e. when the magnetic shear is reduced close to zero in the plasma core. The improved core confinement phase is often terminated by a sudden MHD activity when the minimum q approaches two. (authors)

  9. High Power ICRH scenarios in Tore-Supra: a potential route towards improved core confinement at high density?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimini, F.G.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C.; Hoang, G.T.; Bourdelle, C.; Clairet, F.; Elbeze, D.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Schunke, P.; Tsitrone, E. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Hennequin, P.; Honore, C. [CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, LPTP, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2005-07-01

    As shown by many tokamak experiments, including Tore-Supra, an operational scenario based on tailoring the current profile via a combination of electron heating and fast plasma current ramp is particularly attractive for producing conditions favourable to internal transport barriers (ITBs) development. As we have reported in this paper, however, this is not a foolproof method for producing ITBs. In our case, reversed or flat shear conditions were indeed created, but only transiently and in a very narrow region in the plasma centre, {rho} < 0.3, and the KINEZERO code micro-stability analysis does not indicate that any significant stabilization of ITG (ion temperature gradient) or ETG (electron temperature gradient) modes is taking place. We have used the Cronos transport code to predict how we could redesign the experiment to maximize the probability to obtain more favourable conditions for triggering and sustaining high performance ITBs. Our modelling is done assuming that recycling can be moderated and edge density can be kept lower than in the actual experiments. In this case, with a substantial increase in LHCD power, from 2.5 MW to 8 MW, we could approach conditions of flat current profile over a wide region, extending to half radius, with a significant fraction of the total current, {approx} 70%, being non-inductively driven. The predictive Cronos transport model, which includes local reduction of transport according to magnetic shear, yields a long-lasting wide electron ITB located close to mid-radius.

  10. Steady-state heat and particle removal with the actively cooled Phase III outboard pump limiter in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.; Koski, J.; Lutz, T.; McGrath; Miller, J.; Watkins, J.; Guilhem, D.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.; Loarer, T.

    1995-01-01

    Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL) is a modular actively-cooled mid-plane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation. During its initial operation in 1993, the OPL successfully removed about 1 MW of power during ohmicly heated shots of up to 10 s duration and reached (steady state) thermal equilibrium. The particle pumping of the Phase III OPL was found to be about 50% greater than the Phase II OPL which had a radial distance between the last closed flux surface and the entrance of the pumping throat of 3.5 cm compared with only 2.5 cm for the Phase III OPL. This paper gives examples of power distribution over the limiter from IR measurements of surface temperature and from extensively calorimetry (34 thermocouples and 10 flow meters) and compares the distributions with values predicted by a 3D model (HF3D) with a detailed magnetic configuration (e.g., includes field ripple). ((orig.))

  11. Current profile control and magnetohydrodynamic stability in Tore Supra discharges with edge-plasma control by the ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.; Friant, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Becoulet, M.; Bucalossi, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1999-01-01

    Although ergodic divertors are primarily designed to control particle and heat fluxes at the plasma edge, they also happen to affect the MHD stability of tokamak discharges. On Tore Supra, the ergodic divertor has long been known to stabilize the m/n=2/1 tearing mode induced, for instance, by edge radiation and detachment processes, thus allowing safe high-current and high-density operations. More recently, though, in discharges where ergodic divertor operations were optimised relative to the control of the edge-plasma (i.e., with large divertor perturbation), a detrimental increase in the disruptiveness has been observed. The action that the ergodic divertor has on the MHD activity is interpreted in terms of a redistribution of the current profile. The latter results from a large increase in the edge resistivity, primarily induced by the degradation of the electron energy confinement in the ergodic layer. The possibility that a transport barrier develops in the vicinity of the separatrix strongly affects the considered modelling. (authors)

  12. Contributions to the design and to the fabrication of the magnet of the toroidal field of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a collection of published papers in French and in English about the design and the qualification of the magnet of the toroidal field of Tore Supra. The development test programme, the controls during conductor manufacturing and the acceptance tests have shown to be the bases for achieving a very low level of rejection for the whole production. A systematic study of the performances correlated to the fabrication conditions has provided valuable informations for the optimization of the manufacturing processes of superconductors. The tests of single coils have enabled the commissioning of a monitoring and protection system specially adapted for this magnet of 18 coils cooled in a superfluid helium bath. After the accident caused by an arcing in one coil of the Torus, and the replacement of the faulty coil, the monitoring and safety discharge system have been adapted. The current in the magnet has been increased up to 1 455 A for 9.3 T on the conductors (nominal values 1 400 A and 9 T). During the last three years (1989-1991) only one transition to normal state has been observed in one coil strongly irradiated after a severe plasma disruption. In these conditions the protection system acted very well and as expected

  13. Soft x-ray tomography for real-time applications: present status at Tore Supra and possible future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon, D.; Vezinet, D.; Moreau, D.; Malard, P.; Masset, R.; Lotte, P.; Pacella, D.; Gabelieri, L.; Romano, A.; Mlynar, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the soft x-ray (SXR) tomography system setup at Tore Supra (DTOMOX) and the recent developments made to automatically get precise information about plasma features from inverted data. The first part describes the main aspects of the tomographic inversion optimization process. Several observations are made using this new tool and a set of shape factors is defined to help characterizing the emissivity field in a real-time perspective. The second part presents a detailed off-line analysis comparing the positions of the magnetic axis obtained from a magnetic equilibrium solver, and the maximum of the reconstructed emissivity field for ohmic and heated pulses. A systematic discrepancy of about 5 cm is found in both cases and it is shown that this discrepancy increases during sawtooth crashes. Finally, evidence of radially localized tungsten accumulation with an in–out asymmetry during a lower hybrid current drive pulse is provided to illustrate the DTOMOX capabilities for a precise observation of local phenomena.

  14. Implementation of a design and configuration management platform for fusion components on the Tore Supra WEST Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoît, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice-2.benoit@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Allegretti, Ludovic [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, Marie-Hélène [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Bucalossi, Jérôme; Doceul, Louis; Faïsse, Frederic; Firdaouss, Medhi; Geynet, Michel; Houtte, Didier van; Larroque, Sébastien; Magaud, Philippe; Maini, Patrick; Missirlian, Marc; Parrat, Hélène [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Robert, Julien [SOFYNE, F-69800 Saint Priest (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •A design and configuration management platform is under development for managing fusion components lifecycle at CEA. •Design platform ensures an efficient sharing of the data and provides connections between the different software and databases involved in fusion components design. •Design platform rollout on WEST project is ongoing as part of change control and configuration management implementation. -- Abstract: This paper presents the technical solutions and methodologies that are used and under development for managing the design lifecycle of the WEST project (W – for tungsten – Environment in Steady-state Tokamak, upgrade of Tore Supra's with actively cooled tungsten plasma facing components) fusion components and explains the interfaces that are implemented or in construction to connect together the different tools like documents management system, CAD modeler, or simulation codes around the data management backbone. It describes the methodologies used on the WEST project to optimize the design process by managing the engineering data workflow and ensuring the consistency between the different 3D representations for design or analysis as well as the specification or interfaces documents. Finally it explains how this platform contributes to reach the project targets in terms of performance, cost and schedule.

  15. Evidence for a poloidally localized enhancement of radial transport in the scrape-off layer of the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Boucher, C.; Dionne, M.; Duran, I.; Fuchs, V.; Loarer, T.; Nanobashvili, I.; Panek, R.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Stoeckel, J.; Rompuy, T. van; Zagorski, R.; Adamek, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Hron, M.; Lebrun, G.; Moreau, P.; Rimini, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Oost, G. van

    2007-01-01

    Near-sonic parallel flows are systematically observed in the far scrape-off layer (SOL) of the limiter tokamak Tore Supra, as in many L-mode X-point divertor tokamak plasmas. The poloidal variation of the parallel flow has been measured by moving the contact point of a small circular plasma onto limiters at different poloidal angles. The resulting variations of flow are consistent with the existence of a poloidally localized enhancement of radial transport concentrated in a 30 deg. sector near the outboard midplane. If the plasma contact point is placed on the inboard limiters, then the SOL expands to fill all the space between the plasma and the outboard limiters, with density decay lengths between 10 and 20 cm. On the other hand, if the contact point lies on the outboard limiters, the localized plasma outflux is scraped off and the SOL is very thin with decay lengths around 2-3 cm. The outboard radial transport would have to be about two orders of magnitude stronger than inboard to explain these results

  16. Dynamical study of the radial structure of the fluctuations measured by a reciprocating Langmuir probe in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devynck, P.; Antar, G.; Wang, G.; Garbet, X.; Gunn, J.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The fluctuations in the Scrape Off Layer (S.O.L.) of Tore Supra are studied with a movable Langmuir probe biased to ion saturation current. The probe system consists of three probes separated poloidally (0.68 cm between two nearby probes). The probe has no magnetic connection to the mid plane limiter on which the plasma is leaning, but the radial profile of the ion saturation current fluctuations displays a dip at the limiter position. At the same location the ion saturation current displays a dip at the limiter position. At the same location the ion saturation current displays an inflexion point. A correlation analysis technique is developed to study the radial behaviour of the fluctuations. It reveals that this dip is associated with a reduction of the poloidal velocity of the fluctuations with no sign reversal. In the dip the mean poloidal correlation length of the fluctuations is also reduced. These observations are consistent with a reduction of the fluctuations by a shear of the radial electric field created at the limiter surface. The autocorrelation time is also calculated. It increases slightly in the dip and is found to be sensitive to both the convection time and lifetime of the turbulent structures, because these quantities are of the same order. (authors)

  17. Implementation of a design and configuration management platform for fusion components on the Tore Supra WEST Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoît, Fabrice; Allegretti, Ludovic; Aumeunier, Marie-Hélène; Bucalossi, Jérôme; Doceul, Louis; Faïsse, Frederic; Firdaouss, Medhi; Geynet, Michel; Houtte, Didier van; Larroque, Sébastien; Magaud, Philippe; Maini, Patrick; Missirlian, Marc; Parrat, Hélène; Robert, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A design and configuration management platform is under development for managing fusion components lifecycle at CEA. •Design platform ensures an efficient sharing of the data and provides connections between the different software and databases involved in fusion components design. •Design platform rollout on WEST project is ongoing as part of change control and configuration management implementation. -- Abstract: This paper presents the technical solutions and methodologies that are used and under development for managing the design lifecycle of the WEST project (W – for tungsten – Environment in Steady-state Tokamak, upgrade of Tore Supra's with actively cooled tungsten plasma facing components) fusion components and explains the interfaces that are implemented or in construction to connect together the different tools like documents management system, CAD modeler, or simulation codes around the data management backbone. It describes the methodologies used on the WEST project to optimize the design process by managing the engineering data workflow and ensuring the consistency between the different 3D representations for design or analysis as well as the specification or interfaces documents. Finally it explains how this platform contributes to reach the project targets in terms of performance, cost and schedule

  18. Historia natural de los plátanos y las bananas

    OpenAIRE

    López Sáez, José Antonio; Pérez Soto, Josué

    2011-01-01

    Los plátanos y las bananas que se cultivan en muchos países de clima tropical proceden de dos especies silvestres del género Musa que habitan en el Sureste Asiático: el plátano malayo y el plátano macho. A partir de ellas se han obtenido más de un millar de híbridos, razas o cultivares de agradable sabor y alto valor nutritivo. Otras plataneras se han utilizado como plantas ornamentales, proporcionan fibra o tintes naturales, materiales de construcción e incluso remedios en medicina tradicion...

  19. Ladrillos elaborados con plástico reciclado (PET), para mampostería no portante

    OpenAIRE

    Angumba Aguilar, Pedro Javier

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se investigó el uso de plástico reciclado para la fabricación de ladrillos para construcción de mampostería no portante. En primer lugar se realiza la caracterización de los residuos sólidos que se generan en la ciudad de Cuenca, donde el 22,7% del total recolectado es material plástico, que se desechan libremente sin un tratamiento previo. De la misma manera se investigan las características del plástico, Polientilen Tereftalato (PET) para descartar efectos nocivos al...

  20. Determination of electromagnetic modes in oversized corrugated waveguides on the electron cyclotron resonance heating installation at the tokamak Tore Supra; Determination de modes electromagnetiques de guides d'ondes corrugues surdimensionnes sur l'installation de chauffage des electrons de tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, L

    2001-03-09

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in the Tore Supra tokamak constitutes an important step in the research aimed at obtaining thermonuclear fusion reactions. Electron heating is achieved by transmitting an electromagnetic wave from the oscillators (gyrotrons) to the plasma via the fundamental mode, propagating in oversized corrugated waveguides. Maximizing the proportion of the gyrotron power coupled to the fundamental waveguide mode is essential for the good functioning of the transmission line and for maximizing the effect on the plasma. This thesis gives all necessary tools for finding the proportion of the fundamental mode and all other modes present in passive components and at the output of the gyrotron as installed in the Tore Supra ECRH plant. This characterisation is based on obtaining amplitude and phase diagrams of the electric field on a plane transverse to the propagation axis. The most difficult part of obtaining these diagrams is measuring the phase which, despite the very short wavelength, is measured directly at low power levels. At high power levels the phase is numerically reconstructed from amplitude measurements for gyrotron characterisation. A complete theoretical study of the phase reconstruction code is given including its validation with theoretical diagrams. This study allows the realisation of a modal characterisation unit electromagnetic for measurement of radiated beams and usable in each part of the ECRH installation. At the end, the complete modal characterisation is given at low level for a mode converter and also at high level for the first series gyrotron installed at TORE SUPRA. (author)

  1. Investigation of lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    Marine phospholipids (PL) have received much attention recently due to their numerous advantages. One of these advantages is their better resistance towards oxidation as compared to fish oil. In addition to the antioxidative properties of α-tocopherol and phospholipids, the better oxidative...... stability of marine PL might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles formed between oxidised lipids with amine groups from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or residues amino acids that are present in marine PL. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the presence of amine group...... of amino acids (leucine, methionine and lysine) from 2 authentic standards (PC and PE) and 2 purified marine PL (LC and MPL) through sonication method. Emulsions were incubated at 60 ºC for 0, 2, 4 and 6 days. Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through measurement of i) Strecker aldehydes...

  2. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D.

    2012-01-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  3. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain); Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  4. PlGF gene knockdown in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Hassan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Rezaeikanavi, Mozhgan; Samiei, Shahram; Khalooghi, Keynoush

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the knockdown of placental growth factor (PlGF) gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and its effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenic potential of RPE cells. Human RPE cells were isolated by dispase I solution and cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). A small interfering RNA (siRNA) corresponding to PlGF mRNA and a scrambled siRNA (scRNA) were introduced into the cells. Cell proliferation and cell death were examined by ELISA. PlGF mRNA and protein were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The levels of gene expression for human retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65 kDa (RPE65), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and tyrosinase were examined by real-time PCR. The angiogenic activity of RPE cell-derived conditioned media was assayed by a tube formation assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At a final siRNA concentration of 20 pmol/ml, the transfection efficiency was about 80%. The amount of PlGF transcripts was reduced to 10% after 36 h of incubation, and the amount of PlGF protein in culture supernatant was significantly decreased. Suppression of PlGF gene had no effect on RPE cell proliferation and survival, and there were no notable changes in the transcript levels of RPE65, CRALBP or tyrosinase for the cultures treated by siRNA cognate to PlGF. Vascular tube formation was efficiently reduced in HUVECs. Our findings present PlGF as a key modulator of angiogenic potential in RPE cells of the human retina.

  5. Integration of differential equations by the pseudo-linear (PL) approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, Riccardo A.

    1998-01-01

    A new method of integrating differential equations was originated with the technique of approximately calculating the integrals called the pseudo-linear (PL) procedure: this method is A-stable. This article contains the following examples: 1st order ordinary differential equations (ODEs), 2nd order linear ODEs, stiff system of ODEs (neutron kinetics), one-dimensional parabolic (diffusion) partial differential equations. In this latter case, this PL method coincides with the Crank-Nicholson method

  6. Resistive evolution of current profile in tokamaks, application to the optimization of Tore-supra plasma discharges; Evolution resistive du profil de courant dans les Tokamaks, application a l'optimisation des decharges de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeon, R

    1999-03-01

    In Tokamak plasma physics, current profile shaping has now become a key issue to improve the confinement properties of the plasma discharge. The objective of this work is to study the processes governing the current diffusion when non-inductive current are playing a major role in the discharge. Ultimately, this study aims to identify the key parameters to control the plasma current density profile with external current drive heating systems such as Lower Hybrid Current drive (LHCD) or self generated current drive such as the bootstrap current. Principles of non inductive current drive and heating systems are introduced as well as bootstrap current mechanisms. Then we present the experimental study of plasma parallel electric conductivity to validate existing models. Using these results, the poloidal magnetic field flux diffusion is modelled, using toroidal co-ordinates in order to give an accurate description of the current density profiles evolution. The initial and boundary conditions required for numerical resolution of the diffusion equation are also presented. Finally, we conclude this work with the simulations of two discharges: one with Fast Wave Electron Heating and the second using Lower Hybrid Current Drive. These simulations have multiples aims: validity test of our numerical tool and to show some limits of cylindrical models. Test of electric conductivity and bootstrap current models. To identify the key parameters involved in the current diffusion processes of a high performance plasma discharge on Tore Supra. Such simulations are crucial to determine the amount of non-inductive current required to control and sustain long plasma discharges in steady state. (author)

  7. M.H.D. activity associated with the q=1 surface in the Tore-Supra tokamak; Activite M.H.D. associee a la surface q=1 dans le tokamak Tore-Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristofani, P.

    1996-02-12

    In order to increase the temperature, density and confinement time of the plasma energy inside tokamak devices, several heating and fuel injection techniques have been used. However, the increase of the energy content of the central part of the plasma leads to instabilities in the confinement magnetic structure which can degrade the confinement properties and the temperature performances. Inside the plasma, the ``q=1`` surface plays an important role in the confinement process. The aim of this thesis is to study the experimental physics related to this surface with the analysis of the ``saw-tooth`` periodical internal relaxations and of the ``snake`` structure. The first chapter gives a general introduction about thermonuclear fusion and a description of the plasma and of its equilibrium. Chapter 2 is devoted to the description of the soft X-ray tomography, the diagnostic technique used in this work. In chapter 3, a theoretical presentation of plasma stability and a comparison with experimental results obtained in the Tore-Supra tokamak are given. The observations of saw-tooth instabilities are presented with the principal theoretical models which are used to explain this phenomenon. The snake density instability localized in the central part of the plasma is described in chapter 4 with an attempt of interpretation. The equation of the size evolution of a magnetic island was modified to test different models which can explain the snake stability. One model is based on the modification of the bootstrap current induced by the presence of the snake, and on the local modification of the current induced by the accumulation of impurities inside the snake. (J.S.). 107 refs.

  8. Particle exhaust with vented structures: application to the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra; Pompage des particules dans les tokamaks au moyen d'une structure a events: le divertor ergodique de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeroual, A

    2000-04-04

    In a thermonuclear reactor, one must continuously fuel the discharge and extract the ashes resulting from fusion reactions. To avoid the risk of discharge poisoning, {alpha}-particle concentration is limited to {approx} 10 %. To allow for steady-state conditions requires then to extract {>=}2 % of the helium out flux. In Tore Supra, the ergodic divertor is the main component managing the heat and particle fluxes at the edge. Its principle consists in generating a resonant perturbation able to destroy magnetic surfaces at the plasma periphery. In this region, the field lines are open and connected at both ends to neutralizers which are wetted by the major part of the heat and particle fluxes and are the structures through which a part of the plasma out flux is pumped for maintaining the discharge in steady-state conditions. This work describes the neutral recirculation around the ergodic divertor and is based on a data base of 56 discharges. One discuss the two processes allowing for particle exhaust: the ballistic collection of ions and that of neutrals backscattered by atomic reactions. These two processes are modelled accounting for a realistic description of the divertor geometry. A comparison between simulations and experiments is presented for measurements characterising the three main actors of plasma-wall interaction: the edge plasma, the D{sub {alpha}} light emission and the neutral pressure in the divertor plenum. Last, one question how such a system can be extrapolated to next step machines, for which one must account for technical constraints linked to the presence of the shield protecting the coils from the high neutron flux. (author)

  9. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  10. [Use of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia : a monocentric retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeurgt, L; Chantraine, F; De Marchin, J; Minon, J-M; Nisolle, M

    2017-09-01

    Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic factor released in higher amounts in preeclampsia and implicated in endothelial dysfunction. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is used in the prediction of preeclampsia. An sFlt-1/PlGF ratio inferior to 38 predicts the short-term absence of preeclampsia. A ratio ? 85 (early-onset PE) or ? 110 (late-onset of PE) could diagnose preeclampsia. In this study, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio has been measured in 183 patients. Sixty-seven preeclampsia have been diagnosed preeclamptic at delivery. The median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was 100.3. The median ratio among women with preeclampsia (N=67) versus no preeclampsia (N=116) was 212.7 versus 35.4. In accordance with this analysis, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ? 38 has a sensibility of 95,5 % and a specificity of 73.3 %. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 67.4 % and 96.6 %, respectively. These results suggest that sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is helpful in the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  11. Aclimatização e crescimento de plântulas de mirtileiro 'climax' micropropagadas em função do substrato e da cobertura plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Pelizza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a aclimatização e o crescimento de plântulas micropropagadas de mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei cv. Climax, em função do substrato e da cobertura plástica, durante os meses de abril a dezembro de 2008. Foram utilizados três substratos (casca de arroz carbonizada + Húmus Fértil®, Plantmax® + vermiculita e solo + serragem jovem de Pínus e dois sistemas de cobertura (com e sem cobertura plástica sobre as plântulas. As plântulas, acondicionadas em sacos plásticos com os respectivos substratos e sistemas de cobertura, permaneceram em casa de vegetação com temperatura controlada, por 30 dias. Após, permaneceram por 60 dias sem controle ambiental e, em seguida, foram transferidas para telado. A partir de 30 dias, foram avaliados a percentagem de sobrevivência e o incremento de altura das plântulas. Ao término do experimento, foi avaliada a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz das plântulas. A percentagem de sobrevivência das plântulas de mirtileiro em substrato Plantmax® + vermiculita é igual quando utilizada ou não a cobertura plástica. O uso da cobertura plástica não foi eficiente para incrementar a altura média das plântulas nos substratos Plantmax® + vermiculita e solo + serragem jovem. A maior massa seca de parte aérea foi obtida com o uso de Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica sobre as plântulas. Plantmax® + vermiculita com e sem cobertura plástica proporcionam maior massa seca radicular que os demais substratos e respectivos sistemas de cobertura, porém Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica é superior a Plantmax® + vermiculita com cobertura plástica. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que o melhor substrato e sistema de cobertura para a aclimatização e o crescimento de plântulas de mirtileiro 'Climax' são Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica.

  12. M.H.D. activity associated with the q=1 surface in the Tore-Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofani, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to increase the temperature, density and confinement time of the plasma energy inside tokamak devices, several heating and fuel injection techniques have been used. However, the increase of the energy content of the central part of the plasma leads to instabilities in the confinement magnetic structure which can degrade the confinement properties and the temperature performances. Inside the plasma, the ''q=1'' surface plays an important role in the confinement process. The aim of this thesis is to study the experimental physics related to this surface with the analysis of the ''saw-tooth'' periodical internal relaxations and of the ''snake'' structure. The first chapter gives a general introduction about thermonuclear fusion and a description of the plasma and of its equilibrium. Chapter 2 is devoted to the description of the soft X-ray tomography, the diagnostic technique used in this work. In chapter 3, a theoretical presentation of plasma stability and a comparison with experimental results obtained in the Tore-Supra tokamak are given. The observations of saw-tooth instabilities are presented with the principal theoretical models which are used to explain this phenomenon. The snake density instability localized in the central part of the plasma is described in chapter 4 with an attempt of interpretation. The equation of the size evolution of a magnetic island was modified to test different models which can explain the snake stability. One model is based on the modification of the bootstrap current induced by the presence of the snake, and on the local modification of the current induced by the accumulation of impurities inside the snake. (J.S.)

  13. A new treatment of the heat transport equation with a transport barrier and applications to ECRH experiments in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, A.G.; Bouquey, F.; Clary, J.; Darbos, C.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Clemencon, A. [MIT, Electrochemical Energy Laboratory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Guivarch, C. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    2004-07-01

    An exact analytical solution of the electron heat diffusion equation in a cylinder has been found with a step-like diffusion coefficient, plus a monomial increase in the radial direction and a constant damping term. This model is sufficiently general to describe heat diffusion in the presence of a critical gradient threshold or a transport barrier, superimposed to the usual trend of increasing heat diffusivity from the plasma core to the edge. This type of representation allows us to see some well-known properties of heat transport phenomena in a different light. For instance, it has been shown that the contributions of the Eigenmodes to the time dependent solution grow at speeds that depend on the Eigenmode order i.e. at the beginning of the heating phase all the Eigenmodes are equally involved, whereas at the end only the lower order ones are left. This implies, e.g., that high frequency modulation experiments provide a characterization of transport phenomena that is intrinsically different with respect to power balance analysis of a stationary phase. It is particularly useful to analyse power switch on/off events and whenever high frequency modulations are not technically feasible. Low-frequency (1-2 Hz) ECRH modulation experiments have been performed on Tore Supra. A large jump (a factor of 8) in the heat diffusivity has been clearly identified at the ECRH power deposition layer. The amplitude and phase of several harmonics of the Fourier transform of the modulated temperature, as well as the time evolution of the modulated temperature have been reproduced by the analytical solution. The jump is found to be much weaker at lower ECRH power (one gyrotron)

  14. Evolution of the bonding defect reported on the tiles of the toroidal pumped limiter of the Tore Supra tokamak with infrared analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Laizhong; Gauthier, Eric; Corre, Yann; Loarer, Thierry; Missirlian, Marc; Martin, Vincent; Moncada, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The bonding of plasma-facing component (PFC) tiles and their possible defects need to be monitored to evaluate the safety during long pulse plasma operations and prevent critical failure, which is very important for ITER and next-step fusion devices. The defect evolutions of two toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) tiles are investigated by analysing the infrared images obtained during Tore Supra experiments from 2006 to 2010 (about 10 000 plasma discharges). The evolution of the defect is characterized by the surface temperature reached in stationary discharge conditions. The comparison of the defect tiles with neighbouring tiles (with no defect) and the evolutions are carried out through the thermal time constants of the tiles. The results show that the two tiles are slowly deteriorating during plasma operation and no plateau of the deterioration is observed in the considered period. By comparing the defect evolutions with the modelling results calculated by CAST3M, the current state of the defect tiles is identified. The defects are significant (about 30% of the tile length or area) and need to be followed and monitored further in the next experimental campaigns of Tore Supra.

  15. Real time control of fully non-inductive operation in Tore Supra leading to 6 minutes, 1 giga-joule plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Houtte, D.; Martin, G.; Becoulet, A.; Saoutic, B.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental programme of Tore Supra (a = 0.72 m, R = 2.4 m, I p T < 4.5 T) has been devoted in 2003 to study simultaneously heat removal capability and particle exhaust in steady-state fully non-inductive current drive discharges. This required both advanced technology integration and steady-state real time plasma control. In particular, an improvement of the plasma position within a few millimetre range, and new real time cross controls between radio frequency (RF) power and various actuators built around a shared memory network, have allowed Tore Supra to access a powerful steady-state regime with an improved safety level for the actively cooled plasma facing components. Feedback controlled fully non-inductive plasma discharges have been sustained in a steady-state regime up to 6 minutes with a new world record of injected-extracted energy exceeding 1 GJ. Advanced tools, experimental results and brief physics analysis of these discharges are presented and discussed. (authors)

  16. Real time control of fully non-inductive operation in Tore Supra leading to 6 minutes, 1 giga-joule plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houtte, D.; Martin, G.; Becoulet, A.; Saoutic, B

    2004-07-01

    The experimental programme of Tore Supra (a = 0.72 m, R = 2.4 m, I{sub p} < 1.7 MA, B{sub T} < 4.5 T) has been devoted in 2003 to study simultaneously heat removal capability and particle exhaust in steady-state fully non-inductive current drive discharges. This required both advanced technology integration and steady-state real time plasma control. In particular, an improvement of the plasma position within a few millimetre range, and new real time cross controls between radio frequency (RF) power and various actuators built around a shared memory network, have allowed Tore Supra to access a powerful steady-state regime with an improved safety level for the actively cooled plasma facing components. Feedback controlled fully non-inductive plasma discharges have been sustained in a steady-state regime up to 6 minutes with a new world record of injected-extracted energy exceeding 1 GJ. Advanced tools, experimental results and brief physics analysis of these discharges are presented and discussed. (authors)

  17. Calculation of heat fluxes induced by radio frequency heating on the actively cooled protections of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid (LH) antennas in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritz, G., E-mail: Guillaume.ritz@gmail.com [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Corre, Y., E-mail: Yann.corre@cea.fr [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Rault, M.; Missirlian, M. [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Portafaix, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martinez, A.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.; Guilhem, D.; Salami, M.; Loarer, T. [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The heat flux generated by radiofrequency (RF) heating was calculated using Tore Supra's heating antennas. ► The highest heat flux value, generated by ions accelerated in RF-rectified sheath potentials, was 5 MW/m{sup 2}. ► The heat flux on the limiters of antennas was in the same order of magnitude as that on the toroidal pumping limiter. -- Abstract: Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are recognized as important auxiliary heating and current drive methods for present and next step fusion devices. However, these radio frequency (RF) systems generate a heat flux up to several MW/m{sup 2} on the RF antennas during plasma operation. This paper focuses on the determination of the heat flux deposited on the lateral protections of the RF antennas in Tore Supra. The heat flux was calculated by finite element method (FEM) using a model of the lateral protection. The FEM calculation was based on surface temperature measurements using infrared cameras monitoring the RF antennas. The heat flux related to the acceleration of electrons in front of the LHCD grills (LHCD active) and to the acceleration of ions in RF-rectified sheath potentials (ICRH active) were calculated. Complementary results on the heat flux related to fast ions (ICRH active with a relatively low magnetic field) are also reported in this paper.

  18. Leak tightness tests on actively cooled plasma facing components: Lessons learned from Tore Supra experience and perspectives for the new fusion machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantant, M., E-mail: michel.chantant@cea.fr; Lambert, R.; Gargiulo, L.; Hatchressian, J.-C.; Guilhem, D.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Test procedures for the qualification of the tightness of actively cooled plasma facing components were defined. • The test is performed after the component manufacturing and before its set-up in the vacuum vessel. • It allows improving the fusion machine availability. • The lessons of tests over 20 years at Tore Supra are presented. - Abstract: The fusion machines under development or construction (ITER, W7X) use several hundreds of actively cooled plasma facing components (ACPFC). They are submitted to leak tightness requirements in order to get an appropriate vacuum level in the vessel to create the plasma. During the ACPFC manufacturing and before their installation in the machine, their leak tightness performance must be measured to check that they fulfill the vacuum requirements. A relevant procedure is needed which allows to segregate potential defects. It must also be optimized in terms of test duration and costs. Tore Supra, as an actively cooled Tokamak, experienced several leaks on ACPFCs during the commissioning and during the operation of the machine. A test procedure was then defined and several test facilities were set-up. Since 1990 the tightness of all the new ACPFCs is systematically tested before their installation in Tore Supra. During the qualification test, the component is set up in a vacuum test tank, and its cooling circuits are pressurized with helium. It is submitted to 3 temperature cycles from room temperature up to the baking temperature level in Tore Supra (200 °C) and two pressurization tests are performed (6 MPa at room temperature and 4 MPa at 200 °C) at each stage. At the end of the last cycle when the ACPFC is at room temperature and pressurized with helium at 6 MPa, the measured leak rate must be lower than 5 × 10{sup −11} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, the pressure in the test tank being <5 × 10{sup −5} Pa. A large experience has been gained on ACPFCs with carbon parts on stainless steel and Cu

  19. Non-inductive plasmas studies by injection of electron cyclotron waves in the Tore Supra tokamak; Etudes des plasmas non-inductifs par injection d'ondes a la frequence cyclotronique electronique dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turco, F

    2008-06-15

    In this work we addressed the issue of the phenomena typical of the non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, probed by means of localised perturbations of the current density profile, performed by electron cyclotron (EC) waves. In order to correctly utilize the current density profile, reconstructed by means of the CRONOS code we performed a sensitivity study on the code results. Concerning the MHD regimes we have shown that a dynamic evolution of the safety factor q which tends to shrink its profile appears to be the cause of the triggering of such regimes. From the operational point of view, deposing the EC current, generated in the same direction of the plasma current, outside the q{sub min} position results hazardous because it causes a rise in q{sub 0} and consequently the shrinking of the q profile which triggers the MHD regimes. On the contrary, the EC counter-current scans show that a very central deposition ({rho}(ECCD) < 0.1) lead almost certainly to an MHD regime, while a more external countercurrent generation has generally the quality of creating internal transport barriers (ITBs). The phenomenon of non-linear temperature oscillations (the O-regime) has also been addressed, to provide an analytical description as well as from the experimental point of view, concerning the triggering and canceling of the oscillating phases. By constructing a non-linear predator-prey system with noise, solved on two regions of space coupled by a diffusion term, we could reproduce the experimental temperature oscillations: this study allowed us to confirm that the oscillatory phenomenon is the manifestation of a Lotka-Volterra like coupling between j and T{sub e}. The experimental analysis led to the identification of the mechanism at the origin of the triggering and canceling of the O-regime in presence of a perturbation in a specific shape of magnetic shear perturbation. These results have been reproduced by the simulations preformed with the integrated

  20. Pemodelan Enterprise Architecture Sistem Informasi Akademik SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang Dengan Framework Zachman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alfonsa Chintia Dea Prananingrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang belum dapat memanfaatkan teknologi komputer secara optimal karena masih menggunakan cara manual dalam pengelolaan berbagai macam data akademik sehingga memberikan masalah seperti lambatnya dalam pembuatan laporan yang menyulitkan kepala sekolah dalam pengambilan keputusan. Oleh sebab itu, SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang membutuhkan Sistem Informasi Akademik untuk memberikan kemudahan dalam mengelola berbagai macam data akademik secara terintegrasi serta memberikan layanan yang lebih baik kepada siswanya. Sebuah model architecture enterprise Sistem Informasi Akademik dibutuhkan agar meminimalisir kegagalan ketika menerapkan sistem tersebut sekaligus dapat berjalan sesuai kebutuhan di SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang. Metode analisis dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Framework Zachman yang memberikan pondasi dalam membantu menyediakan struktur dasar organisasi sehingga dapat mendukung perancangan dan pengembangan sistem informasi suatu organisasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa blueprint (cetak biru pemodelan Sistem Informasi Akademik. Kata kunci— sistem informasi akademik, architecture enterprise, framework zachman, bluprint

  1. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F 2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  2. External quality control of Pléiades orthoimagery – Part II: Geometric testing and validation of a Pléiades-1B orthoproduct covering Maussane test site

    OpenAIRE

    GRAZZINI Jacopo; AASTRAND Paer

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current report is to provide with a final statement on the geometric capabilities of Pléiades sensors through the Quality Control (QC) of Pléiades-1B orthocorrected imagery following the recent validation of Pléiades-1A. Namely, the validation process aims at measuring the influence of different factors on the geometric accuracy of Pléiades-1B orthoimagery. For that purpose, a light benchmarking is implemented as: • a single far-from-nadir image datasetis evaluated using 2 ...

  3. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...... considered to be at risk for fetal growth retardation with retrospective analysis. Serum hPL was measured by radioimmunoassay and fetal weight estimated by ultrasound every 3 weeks during the last trimester. hPL values were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) and linear regression analysis of the h......PL MoM values was carried out for each pregnancy to find the slope of the line (hPL-slope); at least 3 serum hPL values were required. The estimated fetal weight and weight-for-age at birth was expressed in Z-scores. The individual intrauterine growth velocity was calculated by regression analysis...

  4. Marketingo strategija plėtojant lauko vaizdo reklamos verslą

    OpenAIRE

    Jucytė, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Baigiamajame magistro darbe „Marketingo strategija plėtojant lauko vaizdo reklamos verslą“ išskiriama lauko vaizdo reklamos verslo problema, jos plėtojimo aktualijos. Nagrinėjama marketingo strategijos sąvoka. Išanalizavus ir susiteminus literatūrą marketingo strategijos planavimo, formulavimo ir įgyvendinimo klausimu, pateiktas teorinis marketingo strategijos modelis, tinkantis lauko vaizdo reklamos verslui. Išorinės reklamos rinkoje aplinka nuolat kinta, aštrėja įmonių konkurencinė kova, to...

  5. Semiscale power loss experiment S-PL-3 with primary feed and bleed plant recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.R.; Streit, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to verify the accuracy of the RELAP5 model of the S-PL-3 experiment (part of the Semiscale loss-of-offsite-power test series) by comparing the RELAP5 model with actual data obtained during the experiment. Included are a description of the experiment, an analysis of preliminary results, and the comparison of posttest RELAP5 calculations with experiment data. RELAP5 modeling of the S-PL-3 transient produced qualitative agreement with experiment data

  6. Complement activation cascade triggered by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes: The challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Hashemi, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both experimental animals and man. These reactions are classified as pseudoallergy and may be associated with cardiopulmonary disturbance and other related symptoms of anaphylaxis. Recent studies suggest that complement activation may be a contributing......, but not a rate limiting factor, in eliciting hypersensitivity reactions to such nanomedicines in sensitive individuals. This is rather surprising since PEGylated structures are generally assumed to suppress protein adsorption and blood opsonization events including complement. Here, we examine the molecular...... basis of complement activation by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes and discuss the challenges ahead....

  7. Religinio turizmo plėtros galimybės Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje

    OpenAIRE

    Macijauskaitė, Indrė

    2010-01-01

    Darbo objektas – Religinis turizmas Lietuvoje. Probleminis (tiriamasis) klausimas: Kokios religinio turizmo plėtros galimybės Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje? Tyrimo tikslas: Ištirti religinio turizmo plėtros galimybes Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje. Rašant darbą buvo išsikelti keturi uždaviniai, kad išanalizuoti religinio turizmo sampratų kaitą ir religinio turizmo vietą Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje buvo atlikta mokslinė ir statistinių duomenų analizė. Išanalizuotos religinio turizmo galimybės Liet...

  8. Title VI in '76: Review of Projects Funded Under P.L. 91-230 Title VI-B, Education of the Handicapped Act, as Amended by P.L. 93-380 and P.L. 94-142. Fiscal Year 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    Summarized are 89 projects which served exceptional students in all 67 Florida school districts and were funded during the 1975-76 school year under P.L. 91-230 Title VI B (Education of the Handicapped Act) as ammended by P.L. 93-380 and P.L. 94-142. Projects are divided into the following major areas; Florida Learning Resources System,…

  9. Antimicrobial potential of triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Kujundžić Žužana; Dimić Gordana R.; Markov Siniša L.; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Pejin Jelena D.; Marković Milica N.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the testing of antimicrobial activity of triticale stillage obtained after lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. It was found that fermented triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation exhibited an inhibitory effect towards tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis,...

  10. Parent and child acceptability and staff evaluation of K-SADS-PL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Merete Juul; Thomsen, Per Hove; Bilenberg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Standardised diagnostic interviews are used increasingly in child and adolescent psychiatry; yet little is known about the attitudes towards such interviews among parents, children and staff members. In this study, we have aimed to assess (1) the K-SADS-PL's acceptability to parents and children (2...

  11. Establecimiento de plántulas in vitro de clones de ajo peruano (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy López Quintero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el establecimiento in vitro de dos clones de ajo peruano mediante el uso de procesos estandarizados de desinfección e introducción in vitro de meristemos de ajo de clones nacionales. Se validó el uso de hipocloritode calcio (1 g.L-1 e hipoclorito de sodio (0.1% como desinfectantes, permitiendo la eliminación total de los microorganismos presentes en los explantes yuna viabilidad del 66.3 y 64.5% en los clones P-007A y P-007B. El establecimiento in vitro de las plántulas se realizó en medio de cultivo MS con 0,5 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalen acético (ANA y 0,64 mg.L-1 de 2-Isopentil adenina(2ip, donde el clon P-007A desarrollo plántulas de 15mm con 2.52 hojas, mientras en el clon P-007B las plántulas tenían 13.6mm con 2.16 hojas. Las plántulas establecidas de ajo de los clones peruanos lograron los parámetros de desarrollo indicados para la etapa de establecimiento de la especie.

  12. Modification indices for the 2-pl and the nominal response model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that various violations of the 2-PL model and the nominal response model can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or the equivalent efficient score test. The tests presented here focus on violation of local stochastic independence and insufficient capture of the

  13. Los plásticos en la construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arredondo, Francisco

    1959-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableAunque la industria de los plásticos no nació hasta el siglo XIX, puede decirse que los romanos utilizaron dichos materiales, pues hoy noticias del uso de la caseína para fijar pigmentos en los papiros.

  14. Accuracy comparison of Pléiades satellite ortho-images using GPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivan Henrico

    imagery to achieve a certain level of geometric accuracy are in literature well .... The Pléiades primary product can be described as the processing ..... This article studied the influence of two types of GCP collection methods on the accuracy of.

  15. Considerações Sobre a Reciclagem de Embalagens Plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forlin Flávio J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda considerações atualizadas sobre a reciclagem de embalagens plásticas com foco no setor de alimentos. No contexto mundial é avaliado o crescente volume de utilização de embalagens plásticas na preservação de alimentos e levantados os componentes sanitários, mercadológicos, sócio-econômicos e ambientais associados. São avaliadas como potenciais vias de reciclagem a transformação mecânica de embalagens plásticas em novos materiais ou produtos, a recuperação de resinas, a transformação térmica, a reutilização de embalagens e a degradação ambiental. O contexto brasileiro mostra potenciais características de viabilidade sócio-econômica e empresarial para a reciclagem de embalagens plásticas, exigindo, todavia, maior conjunção de ações governamentais, empresariais e de pesquisa no setor.

  16. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro et Concept

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Un nouveau cours pratique sur les environnements Premium et Quantum de Schneider est proposé aux automaticiens concepteurs ou installateurs, et aux techniciens de bureau d'études, pour découvrir l'outil de programmation Unity. La prochaine session aura lieu du 24 au 28 janvier 2005. Le cours est ouvert aux personnes capables de développer sous PL7-Pro ou Concept. Objectifs : Maîtriser les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; programmer en Unity-Pro sur Base Premium et Quantum. Programme : Environnement Quantum et Coupleur Profibus (1 journée) : configuration d'un automate sous Unity Pro et d'un coupleur Profibus DP. Conversion à Unity sur base Quantum et Premium (3,5 jours) : l'offre globale Unity, evolution par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; conversion d'application depuis PL7 Pro ; outils de mise au point ; manipulation des variables structurées ; utilisation des fonctions ; gestion des DF...

  17. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2012-01-31

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF ( approximately 2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage ( approximately 25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these

  18. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF (∼2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage (∼25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these proteins are

  19. Manufacturing process and tests of a Lower Hybrid Passive-Active Multijunction launcher for long pulse experiments on Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Samaille, F.; Bertrand, B.; Lipa, M.; Achard, J.; Agarici, G.; Argouarch, A.; Armitano, A.; Belo, J.H.; Bej, Z.; Berger-By, G.; Bouquey, F.; Brun, C.; Chantant, M.; Corbel, E.; Delmas, E.; Delpech, L.; Doceul, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Faisse, F.

    2011-01-01

    A new concept of multijunction-type antenna has been developed, the Passive-Active Multijunction, which improves the cooling of the waveguides and the damping of the neutron energy (for ITER) compared to Full Active Multijunction. Due to the complexity of the structures, prototypes of the mode converters and of the Passive-Active-Multijunction launcher were fabricated and tested, in order to validate the different manufacturing processes and the manufacturer's capability to face this challenging project. This paper describes the manufacturing process, the tests of the various prototypes and the construction of the final Passive-Active-Multijunction launcher, which entered into operation in October 2009. It has been commissioned and is fully operational on the Tore-Supra tokamak, since design objectives were reached in March 2010: 2.75 MW - 78 s, power density of 25 MW/m 2 in active waveguides, steady-state apparent surface temperatures <350 deg. C; 10 cm long distance coupling.

  20. MHD stability of (2,1) tearing mode: an issue for the preforming phase of Tore Supra non-inductive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maget, P.; Luetjens, H.; Huysmans, G.; Moreau, Ph.; Schunke, B.; Segui, J.-L.; Garbet, X.; Joffrin, E.; Luciani, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The early phase of a tokamak plasma discharge can have a dramatic impact on the main heating phase. This has been a persistent problem for the development of the steady state, fully non-inductive scenario using lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) on Tore Supra. The present paper reports on recent experimental and numerical investigations showing that a tearing mode coupled to the internal kink grows on q = 2 in the ohmic phase when the total current is too low, due to the weakening of field line curvature stabilization. Then, the application of LHCD drives the island to a larger size and undermines the development of the non-inductive phase. Decreasing the edge safety factor or increasing the Lundquist number S is found to be beneficial in both the linear and non-linear MHD analyses. The experimental database, which allows covering the edge safety factor dependence, supports this interpretation

  1. Design, fabrication and testing of an improved high heat flux element, experience feedback on steady state plasma facing components in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, P.; Chatelier, M.; Durocher, A.; Guilheim, D.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Tonon, G.; Tsitrone, E.

    1998-01-01

    Actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC) have been developed and used in Tore Supra since 1985. One of the main technological problem is due to the expansion mismatch between graphite armour and metallic heat sink material. A first technology used graphite tiles with or without a reinforcement and a compliant layer, brazed with titanium copper-silver (TiCuAg) alloy. The next technology used carbon fiber material (CFC) tiles with a 2 mm pure copper compliant layer, since the good mechanical strength of the CFC allowed the reinforcement layer to be suppressed. No destructive inspection during the manufacturing procedure was found to be essential to insure a good reliability of the elements. (orig.)

  2. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipa, M.; Blanchet, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cellier, F. [Framatome, Centre Technique, 71 - Saint Marcel (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tore supra (TS) has used from the beginning of operation in 1989 actively cooled plasma facing components. Since the operation and baking temperature of all in vessel components has been defined to be up to 230 deg. C at 40 bars, a special water chemistry of the cooling water plant was suggested in order to avoid eventual water leaks due to corrosion (general corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion, etc.) at relative high temperatures and pressures in tubes, pipes, bellows, water boxes, coils, etc. From the beginning of TS operation, in vessel components (e.g. wall protection panels, limiters, ergodic divertor coils, neutralisers and diagnostics) represented a unique combination of metals in the hydraulic circuit mainly such as stainless steel, Inconel, CuCrZr, Nickel and Copper. These different materials were joined together by welding (St to St, Inconel to Inconel, CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to St-St via a Ni sleeve adapter), brazing (St-St to Cu and Cu-LSTP), friction (CuCrZr and Cu to St-St), explosion (CuCrZr to St-St) and memory metal junction (Cryo-fit to Cu - only test sample). Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralized water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/ 7.0 (25 deg. C/ 200 deg. C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 deg. C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal

  3. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipa, M.; Blanchet, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tore supra (TS) has used from the beginning of operation in 1989 actively cooled plasma facing components. Since the operation and baking temperature of all in vessel components has been defined to be up to 230 deg. C at 40 bars, a special water chemistry of the cooling water plant was suggested in order to avoid eventual water leaks due to corrosion (general corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion, etc.) at relative high temperatures and pressures in tubes, pipes, bellows, water boxes, coils, etc. From the beginning of TS operation, in vessel components (e.g. wall protection panels, limiters, ergodic divertor coils, neutralisers and diagnostics) represented a unique combination of metals in the hydraulic circuit mainly such as stainless steel, Inconel, CuCrZr, Nickel and Copper. These different materials were joined together by welding (St to St, Inconel to Inconel, CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to St-St via a Ni sleeve adapter), brazing (St-St to Cu and Cu-LSTP), friction (CuCrZr and Cu to St-St), explosion (CuCrZr to St-St) and memory metal junction (Cryo-fit to Cu - only test sample). Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralized water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/ 7.0 (25 deg. C/ 200 deg. C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 deg. C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal

  4. Three-photon excited PL spectroscopy and photo-generated Frenkel defects in wide-bandgap layered CdI2 semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    We performed a three-photon excitation nonlinear photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in single crystals of wide-bandgap semiconductors (WBSs). The crystal temperature (T L )-dependent PL emission intensity (I PL ) excited with different excitation power density (P) was measured. The PL emissions showed characteristics I PL with their maxima at around 520 nm. The I PL might be due to the presence of the photo-generated Frenkel defects (FDs) in WBSs. A detailed analysis of the PL spectra showed a third-order power law dependence of the maximum I PL on P for all the crystal temperature T L . The I PL was found to increase with decreasing T L . The results demonstrated the existence of the self-trapped excitons resulting from the presence of the FDs in the crystals.

  5. Three-photon excited PL spectroscopy and photo-generated Frenkel defects in wide-bandgap layered CdI{sub 2} semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Qeensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-12-14

    We performed a three-photon excitation nonlinear photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in single crystals of wide-bandgap semiconductors (WBSs). The crystal temperature (T{sub L})-dependent PL emission intensity (I{sub PL}) excited with different excitation power density (P) was measured. The PL emissions showed characteristics I{sub PL} with their maxima at around 520 nm. The I{sub PL} might be due to the presence of the photo-generated Frenkel defects (FDs) in WBSs. A detailed analysis of the PL spectra showed a third-order power law dependence of the maximum I{sub PL} on P for all the crystal temperature T{sub L}. The I{sub PL} was found to increase with decreasing T{sub L}. The results demonstrated the existence of the self-trapped excitons resulting from the presence of the FDs in the crystals.

  6. sFlt-1 and PlGF kinetics during and after pregnancy in women with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Langeza; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Geensen, Roos; Kaya, Aslihan; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Duvekot, Johannes J; Verdonk, Koen; Steegers, Eric A P; Russcher, Henk; Danser, Jan A H; Visser, Willy

    2017-06-10

    To assess the evolution of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in women with suspected or with confirmed preeclampsia and to investigate the changes in sFlt-1 and PlGF levels in preeclamptic women after delivery. In this exploratory tertiary referral university centre study, using the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assay, sFlt-1 and PlGF were determined in two groups of patients. In the first group of 46 patients with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia, sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured at least twice during their pregnancy. Women had singleton pregnancies and a median pregnancy duration of 26 weeks (range 18 - 40 weeks). In the second group, sFlt-1 and PlGF of 26 preeclamptic patients were determined before and after delivery. The median gestational age at inclusion was 29 weeks (16 - 37) and the median days between antepartum measurement and delivery was 2 days (1 - 7). In the first group, 90% of patients with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ≤38 at baseline (n = 30), ruling out PE, the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio remained stable for up to 100 days. In 16 patients with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio >38 and in 10% of those with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio <38 at baseline the ratio increased further. In the second group, after delivery, sFlt-1 dropped to <1% of its pre-delivery values with a half-life of 1.4 ± 0.3 days, while PlGF dropped to ≈ 30% of its pre-delivery values with a half-life of 3.7 ± 4.3 days. Based on this small cohort, up to 10% of women admitted with suspected or confirmed PE presenting with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ≤38 display a rise of this sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in subsequent weeks, implying that repeated determination of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is required to reject this condition definitively. Furthermore, the rapid and pronounced decline of sFlt-1 values after delivery in patients with PE/HELLP suggests that sFlt-1, in contrast with PlGF, is almost entirely placenta-derived. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. PL/SQL and Bind Variable: the two ways to increase the efficiency of Network Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern data analysis applications are driven by the Network databases. They are pushing traditional database and data warehousing technologies beyond their limits due to their massively increasing data volumes and demands for low latency. There are three major challenges in working with network databases: interoperability due to heterogeneous data repositories, proactively due to autonomy of data sources and high efficiency to meet the application demand. This paper provides the two ways to meet the third challenge of network databases. This goal can be achieved by network database administrator with the usage of PL/SQL blocks and bind variable. The paper will explain the effect of PL/SQL block and bind variable on Network database efficiency to meet the modern data analysis application demand.

  8. PL-MOD: a computer code for modular fault tree analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, J.; Wolf, L.

    1978-01-01

    The computer code PL-MOD has been developed to implement the modular methodology to fault tree analysis. In the modular approach, fault tree structures are characterized by recursively relating the top tree event to all basic event inputs through a set of equations, each defining an independent modular event for the tree. The advantages of tree modularization lie in that it is a more compact representation than the minimal cut-set description and in that it is well suited for fault tree quantification because of its recursive form. In its present version, PL-MOD modularizes fault trees and evaluates top and intermediate event failure probabilities, as well as basic component and modular event importance measures, in a very efficient way. Thus, its execution time for the modularization and quantification of a PWR High Pressure Injection System reduced fault tree was 25 times faster than that necessary to generate its equivalent minimal cut-set description using the computer code MOCUS

  9. Comparison of two methods for extraction of volatiles from marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic headspace (DHS) thermal desorption principle using Tenax GR tube, as well as the solid phase micro‐extraction (SPME) tool with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 50/30 µm CAR/PDMS SPME fiber, both coupled to GC/MS were implemented for the isolation and identification of both lipid...... and Strecker derived volatiles in marine phospholipids (PL) emulsions. Comparison of volatile extraction efficiency was made between the methods. For marine PL emulsions with a highly complex composition of volatiles headspace, a fiber saturation problem was encountered when using CAR/PDMS‐SPME for volatiles...... analysis. However, the CAR/PDMS‐SPME technique was efficient for lipid oxidation analysis in emulsions of less complex headspace. The SPME method extracted volatiles of lower molecular weights more efficient than the DHS method. On the other hand, DHS Tenax GR appeared to be more efficient in extracting...

  10. El valor patriotismo, a\ttravés de obras plásticas cubanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Montero Leyva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La\tinvestigación aborda una temática de gran vigencia y actualidad para la finalidad de la educación cubana: el fortalecimiento del valor patriotismo a través de obras plásticas cubanas en los estudiantes de la Secundaria Básica. Se proponen actividades de apreciación artística estructuradas teniendo en cuenta cada unas de las variantes a trabajar, donde aborda la vida y obra de los artistas de la plástica cubanos, así como un cuestionario para la realización de la apreciación. Se brindan orientaciones metodológicas, y además se puede establecer la relación intermateria con las demás asignaturas del grado: Español. Historia de Cuba, Historia Antigua y Medieval.

  11. Las Artes Plásticas como medio articulador del currículo escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Fernández-Zamora

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 2 de noviembre de 2006 • Aprobado 30 de noviembre de 2006   Este ensayo se basa en la experiencia realizada por una maestra, en la cual integra el currículum, correlacionando las disciplinas de la matemática, ciencias, estudios sociales y español a través de los elementos del lenguaje plástico. La experiencia se desarrolló en una escuela rural costarricense.

  12. Comparative PL study of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by APMOCVD and CBD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr, E-mail: volkh@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositza; Karlsson, Fredrik; Syed, Abdul S.; Holtz, Per-Olof [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Nigussa Urgessa, Zelalem [Department of Physics, P.O Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Samuel Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI 5117 (South Africa); Reinhardt Botha, Johannes [Department of Physics, P.O Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The photoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCV) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are investigated by means of temperature dependent micro-PL. It was found that the low temperature PL spectra are driven by neutral donor bound exciton emission D{sup 0}X, peaked at 3.359 and 3.363 eV for APMOCVD and CBD ZnO nanorods, respectively. The temperature increase causes a red energy shift of the peaks and enhancement of the free excitonic emission (FX). The FX was found to dominate after 150 K for both samples. It was observed that while APMOCVD ZnO nanorods possess a constant low signal of visible deep level emission with temperature, the ZnO nanorods grown by CBD revealed the thermal activation of deep level emission (DLE) after 130 K. The resulting room temperature DLE was a wide band located at 420-550 nm. The PL properties of individual ZnO nanorods can be of importance for their forthcoming application in future optoelectronics and photonics.

  13. Comparative PL study of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by APMOCVD and CBD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Yakimova, Rositza; Karlsson, Fredrik; Syed, Abdul S.; Holtz, Per-Olof; Nigussa Urgessa, Zelalem; Samuel Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi; Reinhardt Botha, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCV) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are investigated by means of temperature dependent micro-PL. It was found that the low temperature PL spectra are driven by neutral donor bound exciton emission D 0 X, peaked at 3.359 and 3.363 eV for APMOCVD and CBD ZnO nanorods, respectively. The temperature increase causes a red energy shift of the peaks and enhancement of the free excitonic emission (FX). The FX was found to dominate after 150 K for both samples. It was observed that while APMOCVD ZnO nanorods possess a constant low signal of visible deep level emission with temperature, the ZnO nanorods grown by CBD revealed the thermal activation of deep level emission (DLE) after 130 K. The resulting room temperature DLE was a wide band located at 420–550 nm. The PL properties of individual ZnO nanorods can be of importance for their forthcoming application in future optoelectronics and photonics.

  14. A Study on the Pricing Model for 3PL of Inventory Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a new research area, logistics finance solves the contradiction between banks and SMEs (small and medium enterprises about financing; it is beneficial to financial market and logistics market development too. As a service innovation, it unites the interests of bank, 3PL (third-party logistics providers, and SMEs and integrates material, finance, and information. Logistics finance has been developed in recent years in China, but the research is not enough on 3PL enterprises. On the background of that, the paper makes a research in the field of logistics finance with different pricing methods, based on the perspective of third-party logistics enterprises. This paper proposes a pricing model of inventory financing that can maximize the cash flow of 3PL enterprise, when the default rate of the small- and medium-sized enterprise is affected by the pledge price. And then this paper studies the model of inventory financing that can maximize the cash flow of enterprise under the condition of the existence of cash discount rate. The core factors affecting the loan-to-value ratio were established through analysis of mathematical model. We also consider the loan-to-value ratio of cash discount rate in the model. Results show that in the pledge of the known function and cash discount the price change can be calculated to meet enterprise cash flow lending rates and get biggest loan-to-value ratio.

  15. PL-PatchSurfer: a novel molecular local surface-based method for exploring protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Monroe, Lyman; Bures, Mark G; Kihara, Daisuke

    2014-08-27

    Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer). PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD). We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  16. Remix, Pastiche, Plágio: autorias da nova geração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Demo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A querela em torno do plágio parece estar se acalmando um pouco, ainda que o problema permaneça sumamente grave. Não significa que vamos engolir o plágio, mas que precisamos entender razões de sua proliferação e visões diferenciadas de autoria (BLUM, 2009. Dentro da visão puritana (moderna, plágio é nada mais que fraude criminosa, porque se apropria de direitos alheios. Dentro, porém, da visão mais não linear (pós-moderna, além de ser difícil delimitar o que seria plágio iniludivelmente, pode-se perceber que originalidade, em certo sentido, não existe: as ideias são sempre dinâmicas compartilhadas cultural e linguisticamente (WEINBERGER, 2007. O jeito pessoal de reconstruir as ideias talvez seja único, mas não todas as ideias. Se formos excessivamente rigorosos, toda conversa é plágio, inclusive obras científicas. Na célebre alusão de Newton, sua produção matemática representou avanço decisivo no mundo científico, mas a partir de outros autores (usava a expressão: apoiado nos ombros de antecessores. É problema certamente que muitos estudantes, usando a internet, copiem friamente trechos inteiros como se fossem seus ou mesmo "comprem" uma dissertação. Ocorre também que a nova geração apresenta traços de identidade bastante diferentes, em especial com respeito à vida acadêmica e seus códigos de conduta: estudar é importante, mas é apenas um pedaço na vida e, sob pressões extremas, plagiar também é "opção". Neste texto busco analisar preliminarmente metamorfoses da autoria na nova geração.

  17. An Introduction to the DA-T Gibbs Sampler for the Two-Parameter Logistic (2PL Model and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Maris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The DA-T Gibbs sampler is proposed by Maris and Maris (2002 as a Bayesian estimation method for a wide variety of Item Response Theory (IRT models. The present paper provides an expository account of the DAT Gibbs sampler for the 2PL model. However, the scope is not limited to the 2PL model. It is demonstrated how the DA-T Gibbs sampler for the 2PL may be used to build, quite easily, Gibbs samplers for other IRT models. Furthermore, the paper contains a novel, intuitive derivation of the Gibbs sampler and could be read for a graduate course on sampling.

  18. Experience in the design, implementation and use of PL-11, a programming language for the PDP-11

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, R D

    1976-01-01

    PL-11 is a programming language for the PDP-11 family of computers designed and implemented as part of the OMEGA Project at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research). Its purpose is to provide an effective tool for both physicists and systems programmers to use in building real time data acquisition systems that are online to high-energy physics experiments. It is a fairly typical member of the PL-class of programming languages which are based on the initial design of PL360. (44 refs).

  19. Caracterización de plásmidos de Acinetobacter spp. de origen hospitalario y ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Salto, Ileana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Los plásmidos pueden ser considerados como un ensamble de distintos módulos funcionales característicos que le confieren su identidad (Thomas, 2000). Los plásmidos pueden contener en su secuencia genes de proteínas con funciones plenamente plasmídicas (replicación, movilización y mantenimiento), como así también módulos accesorios que le confieren al microorganismo huésped alguna función beneficiosa para competir por un nicho ecológico. Estos plásmidos, cumplen una función particular y necesa...

  20. Análisis de Perfil de Textura en Plátanos Pelipita, Hartón y Topocho

    OpenAIRE

    Granados, Clemente; Acevedo, Diofanor; Cabeza, Adis; Lozano, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la textura del plátano Pelipita (Musa ABB) crudo y cocido en comparación con plátanos crudos y cocidos Hartón verde (Musa AAB) y Topocho (Musa ABB del subgrupo Silver Bluggoe) mediante un análisis de perfil de textura. El estudio de la textura como propiedad física del alimento es de suma importancia para determinar la aceptabilidad del mismo. A muestras de plátanos Pelipita de la variedad Musa ABB se les aplicó un análisis del perfil de textura a tiemp...

  1. The Leu33/Pro polymorphism (PlA1/PlA2) of the glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) receptor is not related to myocardial infarction in the ECTIM Study. Etude Cas-Temoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S M; Poirier, O; Marques-Vidal, P; Evans, A; Arveiler, D; Luc, G; Emmerich, J; Cambien, F

    1997-06-01

    The GPIIb/IIIa receptor complex may contribute to acute coronary syndromes by mediating platelet aggregation. The Leu33/Pro polymorphism (PlA1/PlA2) of the GPIIIa has recently been shown to be associated with CHD in a small case-control study. We have investigated this polymorphism in a large multicenter study of patients with myocardial infarction and controls and found no difference in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies between cases and controls.

  2. Registration of Aerial Image with Airborne LiDAR Data Based on Plücker Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Registration of aerial image with airborne LiDAR data is a key to feature extraction. A registration model based on Plücker line is proposed. The relative position and attitude relationship between the conjugate lines in LiDAR and image is determined based on Plücker linear equation, which describes line transformation in space, then coplanarity condition equation is established. Finally, coordinate transformation between image point and corresponding LiDAR point is achieved by the spiral movement of Plücker lines in the image. The registration model of Plücker linear coplanarity condition equation is simple, and jointly describes the rotation and translation to avoid coupling error between them, so the accuracy is approved. This research provides technical support for high-quality earth spatial information acquisition.

  3. Offer a novel method for size appraise of NiO nanoparticles by PL analysis: Synthesis by sonochemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyid Javad Musevi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we will discuss the optical properties of NiO nanoparticles that we have investigated recently by photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. In particular, we will show the blue-shifts of PL, originating from the electron–hole recombination of the self-trapped exciton (STE, observed in smaller-sized NiO nanoparticles. To explain the size effect in relating to the STE PL shift, a question has been raised on whether it is appropriate to apply him quantum confinement (QC theory usually used for the Mott-Winner type excitons in semiconductors to wide band-gap material, such as silica. Variations in several parameters and their effects on the structural (crystal size and morphology properties of nanoparticles were investigated. Characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal stability (TGA and DTA, solid state UV and solid state florescent (PL.

  4. Pl(17) is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Long, Y M; Jan, C C; Ma, G J; Gulya, T J

    2015-04-01

    Pl 17, a novel downy mildew resistance gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in sunflowers, was genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.). Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in the USA. To determine the chromosomal location of this resistance, 186 F 2:3 families derived from a cross of HA 458 with HA 234 were phenotyped for their resistance to race 734 of P. halstedii. The segregation ratio of the population supported that the resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene, Pl 17. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primers were used to identify molecular markers linked to Pl 17. Bulked segregant analysis using 849 SSR markers located Pl 17 to linkage group (LG) 4, which is the first DM gene discovered in this linkage group. An F2 population of 186 individuals was screened with polymorphic SSR and SNP primers from LG4. Two flanking markers, SNP SFW04052 and SSR ORS963, delineated Pl 17 in an interval of 3.0 cM. The markers linked to Pl 17 were validated in a BC3 population. A search for the physical location of flanking markers in sunflower genome sequences revealed that the Pl 17 region had a recombination frequency of 0.59 Mb/cM, which was a fourfold higher recombination rate relative to the genomic average. This region can be considered amenable to molecular manipulation for further map-based cloning of Pl 17.

  5. PlA polymorphism and platelet reactivity following clopidogrel loading dose in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernardo, Esther; Alfonso, Fernando; Sabaté, Manel; Fernández, Cristina; Stranieri, Chiara; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Macaya, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The PlA polymorphism (Leu33Pro) of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIIa gene has been suggested to play an important role in coronary thrombosis. In vitro studies have shown differences for this polymorphism in platelet sensitivity towards antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and abciximab), suggesting a pharmacogenetic modulation. The aim of the study was to assess the modulatory effect of the PlA polymorphism on clopidogrel-induced antiplatelet effects in 38 patients undergoing coronary stent implantation receiving a 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose. Platelet reactivity was assessed as GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression in platelets stimulated with 2 micromol/l adenosine diphosphate using whole blood flow cytometry. The distribution of the homozygous PlA1/A1 and heterozygous PlA1/A2 genotypes were 74 and 26%, respectively. PlA2 carriers had a higher degree of GPIIb/IIIa activation (P = 0.05) and P-selectin expression (P = 0.02) during the overall study time course and a lower antiplatelet effect to a 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose up to 24 h following intervention (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the Pl polymorphism of the GPIIIa gene modulates platelet reactivity towards clopidogrel front loading in patients undergoing coronary stenting. This suggests the need for individualized antithrombotic regimens to optimally inhibit platelet reactivity. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

  6. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  7. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus PlARG introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S.; Bachlava, E.; Dußle, C. M.; Tang, S.; Gao, W.; Saski, C.; Knapp, S. J.; Schön, C.-C.; Hahn, V.

    2010-01-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus PlARG originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped PlARG on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F2 individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with PlARG as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOSsel × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F2 individuals that does not segregate for PlARG. A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with PlARG. Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the PlARG region on LG 1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1416-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700574

  8. Estimativa do vigor das sementes e das plântulas de Bixa orellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leopoldo Ferreira

    Full Text Available RESUMO A multiplicação de espécies como as da planta de urucum tem limitações em função do conhecimento limitado das características morfológicas e fisiológicas das sementes e das plântulas e da restrição de métodos para determinar a qualidade dessas sementes. Nessa pesquisa, o objetivo foi estudar a adequação do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para estimar o vigor das sementes de urucum (Bixa orellana L., relacionando os resultados desse teste com a formação das plântulas e as diferenças de genótipo dos acessos genéticos. As sementes de urucum, representadas por quatro acessos genéticos, e por três lotes, foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, primeira contagem da germinação, classificação do vigor das plântulas e emergência das plântulas (total e índice de velocidade. No teste de envelhecimento acelerado foram avaliados a temperatura, de 41 ºC, e os períodos, de 48; 72 e 96 horas, de exposição das sementes às umidades relativas de 100% (água e de 76% (solução saturada de NaCl. A solução saturada reduz a quantidade de água absorvida pelas sementes de urucum, expostas às condições do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, reduzindo a deterioração das sementes, favorecendo a uniformidade dos resultados e a redução da proliferação de fungos, comuns na germinação das sementes de urucum. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado, com água ou solução salina, por 72 horas ou 96 horas, é eficiente para classificar as sementes de urucum quanto à qualidade. Assim, as variações dos teores de água das sementes de urucum devem ser entre 23;6 e 28;9% (72 horas e 29;7 e 32;9% (96 horas para a utilização da água e entre 7,3 e 9,5% para a utilização da solução salina de NaCl.

  9. Estudio de la fractura de materiales compuestos por una matriz de plástico

    OpenAIRE

    Maspoch, M. Ll. (Maria Lluïsa)

    1992-01-01

    Se estudia el comportamiento a fractura de materiales, compuestos por una matriz de plástico en la que se ha dispersado una segunda fase en forma de partículas elastoméricas. Como matriz se han utilizado dos materiales diferentes: una resina de poliéster insaturada y poliestireno. Se estudia la morfología de los materiales compuestos preparados, se determinan los parámetros de fractura y otras propiedades mecánicas, se realiza el estudio fractográfico y finalmente se analizan los resultados e...

  10. El Datamart en una empresa industrial del sector plástico

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado Flores, Rubén Roberto; Mellado Flores, Rubén Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Pensamos que una empresa que quiera ser competitiva en los actuales momentos debe adoptar los conceptos de la administración digital y en lo relacionado al Front-offíce establecer sistemas del tipo CRM, Administración de las Relaciones con los Clientes. Parte central de éstos sistemas son los Datamart. En el presente trabajo queremos demostrar que con el uso de la Tecnología de la Información podemos obtener ventaja competitiva, para lo cuál planteamos el uso del Datamart. Primero pl...

  11. Astronomia.pl: Ideas for the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, K.; Pomierny, J.

    2008-06-01

    Astronomia.pl is an internet portal for Polish-speaking people. As a website, most of our activities in IYA2009 will focus on the internet and other electronic media. We will prepare a content-rich website, in cooperation with the Polish committee for IYA2009. We present some extended suggestions for ideas proposed by the IAU, like postage stamps or mobile phone wallpapers, ring tones and themes and some original propositions like naming a small Solar System body for each country, a computer game, a stadium as a solar clock, a media event with thousands of amateur astronomers in one place and a network of cities.

  12. Cirugía plástica periodontal, una realidad asistencial: reporte de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia,Godoy; Guerrero,Virginia; Lozano,Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad, la periodoncia no solo se encarga de resolver los procesos infecciosos que afectan al periodonto, sino que también es responsable de la preservación de la función, del confort y de la estética de los tejidos periodontales. Es por eso que hoy en día las técnicas de cirugía plástica periodontal son una herramienta esencial para la resolución de defectos mucogingivales en donde el tejido conectivo subepitelial, debido a su biología, se ha convertido en la mejor alternativa para...

  13. Arte de recreo: La experiencia plástica como medio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Romero, María

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto propone defender un arte colectivo que funcione en su plenitud con la colaboración del público. Hace uso del factor procesual y relacional para acercarlo a las personas que no tienen noción del arte contemporáneo. Propone hacer partícipe al espectador de la creación plástica y otorgar más importancia a la experiencia que adquieran que a su resultado final. Tenemos la intención de reencantar el arte a través de la atracción, la estética y el juego. Buscamos influir...

  14. Análisis plástico y Ensayos de Losas multidireccionales de HRFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maturana, A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of multidirectional steel fibers reinforced concrete slabs (SFRC. The study is based on a real building application using SFRC flag slabs. For the evaluation of the slabs bearing capacity, plastic calculations are performed both at section and structure levels. The section analysis uses the perfect plastic stress-strain diagram, with reference to the values of the strength characteristics of SFRC based on previous jobs that used similar fibers and dosages. In the structure analysis the plastic yield lines method has been used. This method relates the section last bearing moment and the plastic collapse load. The experimental campaign has consisted of the testing of six 2 m. diameter circular shaped slabs prototypes, and has allowed to verify the reference resistance used in the calculations.En este trabajo se realiza un estudio teórico- experimental de losas multidireccionales de hormigón reforzado con fibras de acero (HRFA. El estudio se enmarca en una aplicación de un edificio real usando HRFA en los forjados. Para la evaluación de la capacidad resistente de las losas, se realizan cálculos plásticos, tanto a nivel de sección como de estructura. A nivel de sección se emplea el diagrama tensión-deformación plástico perfecto, tomando como referencia los valores de las características resistentes del HRFA aportados en trabajos anteriores que emplearon fibras y dosificaciones similares. A nivel de estructura se emplea el método plástico de las líneas de rotura, que relaciona el momento último de la sección la carga de colapso plástico. La campaña experimental, consiste en ensayar seis prototipos en forma de loseta circular de 2 m de diámetro, verificando el valor de la resistencia de referencia empleada en los cálculos.

  15. Imagen, artista y enfermedad en la creación plástica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez García, Nieves

    2013-01-01

    NOTA 520 8 La Tesis Doctoral, titulada “Imagen, artista y enfermedad en la creación plástica“, tiene como objetivo investigar y establecer la relación entre el arte, - como proceso creativo- y la enfermedad, entendida esta como un factor importante e, incluso, decisivo en la propia configuración de la imagen y de la personalidad del artista. Como punto de partida, se procede a analizar diacrónicamente y con profundidad el concepto de “la leyenda del artista” y la consideración social de la...

  16. VEGFR1-mediated pericyte ablation links VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Renhai; Xue, Yuan; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    . Moreover, blockade of VEGFR1 but not VEGFR2 significantly restores pericyte saturation in mature retinal vessels. Our findings link VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy, reveal the molecular mechanisms of VEGFR1 ligand-mediated retinopathy, and define VEGFR1 as an important target......, and adenoviral vectors ablates pericytes from the mature retinal vasculature through the VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-mediated signaling pathway, leading to increased vascular leakage. In contrast, we demonstrate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is primarily expressed in nonvascular photoreceptors and ganglion cells...

  17. Técnicas experimentais para tomateiro tipo salada sob estufas plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Sidinei José; Storck,Lindolfo; Heldwein,Arno Bernardo; Feijó,Sandra; Ros,César Augusto da

    1998-01-01

    Realizou-se um ensaio em branco com a cultura do tomateiro, cv. Monte Carlo, sob ambiente modificado por estufa plástica de 24 x 12m. Foram realizadas 11 colheitas dos frutos, sendo determinado o peso total. A unidade básica de colheita foi composta pelo agrupamento de três plantas na fila. O espaçamento entre as plantas na fila foi de 0,3m e 1,0m entre filas, resultando em 10 filas com 24 unidades básicas cada uma. Concluiu-se que o delineamento experimental mais adequado é o inteiramente ca...

  18. Role of the current density profile on drift wave stability in internal transport barrier reversed magnetic shear experiments at JET and Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C; Hoang, G T; Eriksson, L-G; Garbet, X; Litaudon, X; Tresset, G [EURATOM-CEA Association, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2003-03-01

    The role of the current density profile on drift wave stability is investigated using a linear electrostatic gyro-kinetic code. The growth rates are shown to have a linear dependence on the normalized temperature gradients above a certain threshold. A parametric study of the threshold shows a dramatic stabilizing effect of negative magnetic shear, especially for large scale instabilities. A set of handy formulae fitting the threshold as a function of the magnetic shear and the safety factor is proposed. Analysis of reversed magnetic shear discharges with internal transport barrier (ITB) in JET shows that ion ITBs can be triggered by the negative magnetic shear in the core of the plasma. Subsequently, the increase of the ExB shearing rate allows for the expansion of the ITB, despite the increase of the linear growth rates due to the temperature gradient peaking. In the case of the electron ITB obtained in the Tore Supra LHEP mode, the central increase of the confinement is associated with the stabilization of large scale trapped electron modes by the negative magnetic shear effect, whereas the steep electron temperature gradient destabilizes the small scale electron temperature gradient modes, which prevent the electron heat transport to reach neoclassical levels.

  19. 2D and 3D modeling of wave propagation in cold magnetized plasma near the Tore Supra ICRH antenna relying on the perfecly matched layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J; Colas, L; Clairet, F; Goniche, M; Hillairet, J; Lombard, G; Heuraux, S; Milanesio, D

    2013-01-01

    A novel method to simulate ion cyclotron wave coupling in the edge of a tokamak plasma with the finite element technique is presented. It is applied in the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics. Its main features include the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique to emulate radiating boundary conditions beyond a critical cutoff layer for the fast wave (FW), full-wave propagation across the inhomogeneous cold peripheral plasma and a detailed description of the wave launcher geometry. The PML technique, while widely used in numerical simulations of wave propagation, has scarcely been used for magnetized plasmas, due to specificities of this gyrotropic material. A versatile PML formulation, valid for full dielectric tensors, is summarized and interpreted as wave propagation in an artificial medium. The behavior of this technique has been checked for plane waves on homogeneous plasmas. Wave reflection has been quantified and compared to analytical predictions. An incompatibility issue for adapting the PML for forward (FW) and backward (slow wave (SW)) propagating waves simultaneously has been evidenced. In a tokamak plasma, this critical issue is overcome by taking advantage of the inhomogeneous density profile to reflect the SW before it reaches the PML. The simulated coupling properties of a Tore Supra ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna have been compared to experimental values in a situation of good single-pass absorption. The necessary antenna elements to include in the geometry to recover the coupling properties obtained experimentally are also discussed. (paper)

  20. Estudo do crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cereus jamacaru DC em diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlucia Silva Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Cereus jamacaru DC, em substratos a base de fibra de coco e casca de arroz carbonizada. Os tratamentos utilizados foram dispostos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado constituídos por cinco substratos a base de fibra de coco (FC e casca de arroz carbonizado (CAC, misturados com diferentes proporções volumétricas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos substratos 100% FC (T1, 100% CAC (T2, 75%FC+25%CAC (T3, 50%FC+50%CAC (T4, e 25%FC+75%CAC (T5. Cada tratamento foi composto por 14 repetições com 2 plantas por tratamento. Caixas de plástico transparente foram utilizados como recipientes. Aos 125 dias após o transplantio, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis das plântulas: comprimento, número, massa fresco e massa seco de raiz; massa fresco e massa seco da parte aérea; comprimento da parte aérea. Nas condições do experimento, conclui-se que o substrato composto somente por fibra de coco apresentou melhores resultados em todas as variáveis analisadas.

  1. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI en mipymes - Agrocadena del plátano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Darío Arango Serna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge como resultado de una investigación en el tema de Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI en la cadena productiva de deshidratados de plátano, compuesta por una planta deshidratadora (proveedor y una granja porcina (cliente, incorporando el costo de transporte del producto como parámetro integral de los costos de inventarios, con el fin de examinar las prácticas de gestión de inventarios antes y después de la implementación de VMI. Se muestra inicialmente la contextualización de la cadena en el ámbito del sector y la agroindustria del plátano en Colombia. Posteriormente, se desarrolla el modelo de coordinación de inventarios, tomando como referencia el modelo propuesto por Yao, et al. [1], el cual se fundamenta en el modelo de lote económico de pedido (EOQ. Se realiza la modelación matemática en los escenarios sin VMI y con VMI, incorporando el costo de transporte del producto al costo total del manejo de inventarios. Los resultados muestran que la adopción de VMI genera ahorros para la cadena integrada y como el costo de transporte resulta ser un elemento individual relevante en la estructura de costos logísticos de la cadena estudiada.

  2. Popular sayings that address time and PLE/PL2 teaching/learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúsia Torres-dos-Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of fixed expressions contributes to a significant demand of L2/SL teaching, the lexicon acquisition. The binomial language/culture gained a clear shape in the context of L2/SL teaching, so as to require the teacher to reflect constantly on the topics that outline the linguistic and cultural identity of the target language. Based on the assumption that time and culture are inseparable, the PFL/PL2 (Portuguese as a Foreign/ Second Language teacher has to be prepared to address the Brazilian concept of time. Relying on the notion of time language (HALL, 1996, this study seeks to identify aspects of the Brazilian temporal language. As fixed expressions have different types, it is often difficult to maintain theoretical boundaries among them. Considering Silva's definition of proverb (1999:14-15, some Brazilian popular sayings concerning time were selected. It was found that popular wisdom has at least two types of expressions that refer to time: those related to the concepts of clock time and the ones linked to the concepts of event time (LEVINE, 1997. It is intended therefore that this study may assist the PFL/PL2 teacher in addressing this issue.

  3. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Annonce de nouveau cours pour l'environnement d'automatisme Schneider Un nouveau cours sur les environnements d'automatisme Premium et Quantum de Schneider est maintenant offert dans le cadre de l'Enseignement technique du CERN, afin de découvrir le nouvel outil de programmation Unity. Cette formation, mise en place par le GUAPI (Groupe des utilisateurs d'automates programmables industriels du CERN), sera essentiellement technique et pratique, destinée aux automaticiens concepteurs, metteurs en oeuvre, installateurs, intégrateurs et techniciens de bureau d'études. Ce cours est ouvert aux personnes étant déjà capables de développer une application PL7-Pro sur TSX Premium, ou ayant suivi le stage AP571. Objectifs : Maîtriser rapidement les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7-Pro; programmer en PLC TSX Premium sous Unity, et notamment connaître l'ensemble des l...

  4. PL-PatchSurfer: A Novel Molecular Local Surface-Based Method for Exploring Protein-Ligand Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer. PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD. We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  5. Biometria e morfologia da semente e plântula de oiticica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Oliveira Diniz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A carência de trabalhos sobre plantas nativas da Caatinga nordestina é perceptível, sobretudo, no que se refere aos estudos de suas sementes. Dentre as referidas espécies, destaca-se por seus múltiplos usos, a oiticica (Licania rigida Benth. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar e descrever a biometria e morfologia da semente e plântula de oiticica. O trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análises de Sementes do Departamento de Fitotecnia/UFC. Foram realizadas, nas sementes, medições individuais de comprimento, largura e espessura e a determinação morfológica de suas partes internas e externas, além da caracterização da plântula com suas respectivas estruturas. A semente de oiticica é eurispérmica, apresenta comprimento de 3,1 a 5,0 cm, largura de 1,3 a 1,7 cm e espessura de 1,2 a 1,7 cm. O embrião é grande de formato linear, com cotilédones carnosos de cor branca amarelada, dobrados e apresentam nervuras e o eixo hipocótilo-radícula curto. Germinação inicia-se aos 15 dias, sendo hipógea criptocotiledonar. A plântula possui nas faces dos primórdios foliares, uma camada esbranquiçada com aspecto cotonoso.Biometry and morphology of seed and seedling of oiticicaAbstract: Lack of works in native plants of caatinga northeastern is obvious, especially, relating to study of seeds. Among these species, stands out for its multiple uses, the oiticica (Licania rigida Benth. The objective of present experiment was to determinate the biometry and morphology the seed and seedling of Licania rigida. The essay was conducted at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Phytotechny Department/UFC. Used were what measurement referent this length, width end thickness as well as detailed description internal end external of seed. Results showed that the seeds are euryspermycs, has length 3.1 to 5.0 cm, width 1.3 to 1.7 cm and thickness 1.2 to 1.7 cm. The embryo is large linear format, with fleshy cotyledons yellowed, folded

  6. Photoluminescent (PL) or electroluminescent (EL) quantum dots for display, lighting, and photomedicine (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yajie

    2017-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have gone through a long journey before finding their ways into the display field. This talk will briefly touch on the history before trying to answer several key questions related to QDs applications in display: What are QDs? How are they made? What properties do they have and Why? How can these properties be used to improve color and efficiency of display, in either photoluminescence (PL) or electroluminescence (EL) mode? And what are the remaining challenges for QDs wide adoption in display industry? Lastly, some most recent progresses in our UCF lab at both PL and EL fronts will be highlighted. For PL, a cadmium-free perovskite-polymer composite films with exceptionally narrow emission green peaks (FWHM 20 nm) and good water and thermal stability will be reported. Together with red quantum dots or PFS/KSF phosphors as down-converters for blue LEDs, a white-light source with 95% Rec. 2020 color gamut was demonstrated [1]. For EL, red quantum dot light emitting devices (QLEDs) with record luminance of 165,000 Cd/m2 has been obtained at a current density of 1000 mA/cm2 with a low driving voltage of 5.8 V and CIE coordinates of (0.69, 0.31). [2] The potential of using these QLEDs for light sources for integrated sensing platform [3] or high efficiency, high color quality hybrid white OLED [4] will be discussed. [1] Y. N. Wang, J. He, H. Chen, J. S. Chen, R. D. Zhu, P. Ma, A. Towers, Y. Lin, A. J. Gesquiere, S. T. Wu, Y. J. Dong. Ultrastable, Highly Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Perovskite - Polymer Composite Films, Advanced Materials, accepted, (2016). [2] Y. J. Dong, J.M. Caruge, Z. Q. Zhou, C. Hamilton, Z. Popovic, J. Ho, M. Stevenson, G. Liu, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, and J. Steckel Ultra-bright, Highly Efficient, Low Roll-off Inverted Quantum-Dot Light Emitting Devices (QLEDs). SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46, 270-273 (2015). [3] J. He, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. J. Dong, Integrated Sensing Platform Based on Quantum

  7. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  8. PlGF repairs myocardial ischemia through mechanisms of angiogenesis, cardioprotection and recruitment of myo-angiogenic competent marrow progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Despite preclinical success in regenerating and revascularizing the infarcted heart using angiogenic growth factors or bone marrow (BM cells, recent clinical trials have revealed less benefit from these therapies than expected.We explored the therapeutic potential of myocardial gene therapy of placental growth factor (PlGF, a VEGF-related angiogenic growth factor, with progenitor-mobilizing activity.Myocardial PlGF gene therapy improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction, by inducing cardiac repair and reparative myoangiogenesis, via upregulation of paracrine anti-apoptotic and angiogenic factors. In addition, PlGF therapy stimulated Sca-1(+/Lin(- (SL BM progenitor proliferation, enhanced their mobilization into peripheral blood, and promoted their recruitment into the peri-infarct borders. Moreover, PlGF enhanced endothelial progenitor colony formation of BM-derived SL cells, and induced a phenotypic switch of BM-SL cells, recruited in the infarct, to the endothelial, smooth muscle and cardiomyocyte lineage.Such pleiotropic effects of PlGF on cardiac repair and regeneration offer novel opportunities in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujundžić Žužana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the testing of antimicrobial activity of triticale stillage obtained after lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. It was found that fermented triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation exhibited an inhibitory effect towards tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The triticale stillage without addition of CaCO3 before fermentation showed a stronger antimicrobial effect in comparison with the triticale stillage with added CaCO3. Triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation did not show any antifungal effect on the growth of tested moulds (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, and Fusarium subglutinans. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31017

  10. Cirugía plástica básica para el no especialista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández

    2015-10-01

    • Quemaduras. Primeros auxilios. Por calor. Por electricidad. Por ácidos o álcalis., etc.          Las técnicas están descritas en un lenguaje accesible al no especialista y están profusamente ilustradas en colores.         La edición fue realizada por impresión médica.         El Prof. Coiffman es también el director del tratado “Coiffman. Cirugía Plástica, Reconstructiva y Estética”, que, en su tercera edición, consta de ocho tomos. Esta obra es el texto de estudio de la especialidad en iberolatinoamérica y tiene 170 coautores internacionales. Fue editada por la Editorial Amolca.

  11. Effects of austenitization temperature on the microstructure of 15BCr30 and PL22 boron steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Suski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies boron precipitation and segregation at austenitic grain boundaries for low carbon boron steels types: PL22 and 15BCr30. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of martensite/bainite, size and nucleation sites of austenitic grains and precipitates sizes. Three austenitization temperatures were studied (870, 1050 and 1200 °C. The highest martensite percentage occurred for 1050 °C. Iron-borocarbides were detected at grain boundaries for all tested temperatures. At 870 °C the coarse iron-borocarbides are due to non-solubility and coalescence. The highest martensite percentage at 1050 °C is caused by the discrete precipitation of iron-borocarbides at austenitic grains boundaries. The discrete precipitation was due to the low non-equilibrium segregation of boron at grain boundaries. The low non-equilibrium segregation and the small grain size at 1050 °C reduce the total boron concentration at grain boundaries.

  12. Bolsas de plástico y lazos sociales. Notas de campo sobre reciclaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Montero Mórtola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La protección del medio ambiente no sólo consiste en grandes campañas mediáticas y políticas. Existe una ciudadanía silenciosa que ha empezado a modificar actitudes, rescatar viejas costumbres y adaptarlas a distintos espacios de este mundo globalizado (domésticos, informales.... Un cambio cultural donde la reutilización de objetos desechados, a través de actividades artesanales y educativas, sirve para poner en marcha una serie de vínculos y lazos sociales. Estudiando el reciclaje de bolsas de plástico, la antropología puede restituir esos curiosos procesos organizativos, prácticas sociales sólo visibles a partir de un trabajo de campo continuado.

  13. Estrategias para el desarrollo empresarial: Asociatividad en el sector plástico venezolano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Cervilla de Olivieri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de una iniciativa de colaboración puesta en marcha por un conjunto de empresas del sector plástico venezolano, este trabajo pretende ilustrar los beneficios que otorga la participación en redes empresariales e identificar los retos para su consolidación, a fin de proponer recomendaciones para el diseño de estrategias de desarrollo empresarial. La investigación se realizó siguiendo una metodología cualitativa, con base en el enfoque del estudio de caso. Se discuten los marcos conceptuales pertinentes y se presenta el caso de la Corporación de Plásticos Mirandino (CORPLAMI, consorcio de empresas fabricantes de empaques flexibles que inició actividades en 1999, describiéndose su evolución y analizando las barreras superadas para la conformación del grupo así como las amenazas a su sostenibilidad. El caso presentado está basado en la conformación de una red horizontal, donde las empresas cooperan en algunas actividades pero compiten entre sí en un mismo mercado, esperando obtener beneficios individuales de la acción conjunta. Esta experiencia muestra que el camino a seguir para la conformación de redes de empresas pasa por la definición y la ejecución de una estrategia empresaria instrumentada a través de acciones que persiguen los objetivos de mejora en la productividad y en la competitividad.

  14. Meio século de artes plásticas em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida de Juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante as recentes décadas, as artes plásticas em Cuba desenvolveram diversas tendências como a abstração, o fotorrealismo, o neoexpressionismo, o conceitualismo etc., enquanto algumas temáticas e alguns caracteres cuja base remete às culturas afro-cubanas são mantidos. Às manifestações com antecedentes nacionais se agregará, como manifestação orgânica, o design gráfico, que vem se constituindo numa escola de particularidades próprias. Na atualidade proliferam as instalações e as performances, muitas vezes com caráter interdisciplinar, como no caso da video art.Durante las recientes décadas, las artes plásticas en Cuba han desarrollado diversas tendencias como la abstracción, el fotorrealismo, el neoexpresionismo, el conceptualismo, etc., mientras mantienen algunas temáticas y caracteres cuya base se remite a las culturas afrocubanas. A las manifestaciones con antecedentes nacionales se añadirá, como manifestación orgánica, el diseño gráfico que se ha constituido en una escuela de caracteres propios. En la actualidad proliferan las instalaciones y los performances, a menudo con carácter interdisciplinario, así como el video art.During recent decades, several trends have emerged in the Cuban visual arts, e.g., abstraction, photorealism, neoexpressionism and conceptualism, among others, without losing sight of certain themes and characters based on Afro-Cuban cultures. To the manifestations of a national heritage should be added, as an organic expression, graphic design, which is becoming a school with unique features. Today, we have a proliferation of performances and installations, often of interdisciplinary nature, as is the case of video art.

  15. Efectos del control del picudo negro (Cosmopolites sordidus en el plátano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Armendáriz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprobar el efecto en el plátano de las capturas masivas de adultos con feromonas y de la aplicación de hongos entomopatógenos sobre Cosmopolites sordidus. La investigación se realizó en el Carmen, Manabí, Ecuador, de diciembre 2013 a octubre 2014 en una parcela de nueva plantación de plátano Barraganete y se valoró el efecto de la eliminación de restos vegetales de las parcelas. El diseño experimental fue al azar con tres repeticiones. En laboratorio se comprobó la infectividad de la cepa de Beauveria bassiana sobre adultos del picudo negro y del picudo café (Metamasius hemipterus (92,80 y 100% en M. hemipterus frente a 46,70 y 16,20% en C. sordidus. Las capturas de adultos fueron continuas a lo largo del ensayo, con una media de 0,37 adultos/trampa/día. Los datos agronómicos indicaron una diferencia positiva y significativa (análisis de la varianza de los tratamientos frente al control en el perímetro del pseudotallo (F de 4,982 y en el peso de los racimos entre las parcelas limpias con feromonas y con hongos limpias frente al control (F= 3,994. Al comparar los tratamientos el peso del racimo y la longitud de los dedos fueron significativamente mayores en las parcelas de feromonas frente a las de hongos (F = 4,508. Las capturas de adultos con feromonas no estuvieron condicionadas por la limpieza de las parcelas, aunque esta sí incidió en la altura de las plantas (F= 4,245.

  16. Plágio e publicação científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Gemal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a palavra ética tem estado em evidência no país, usualmente referida a sua ausência. Neste cenário, no qual sobram palavras e faltam atitudes, refletir, debater e concretizar ações sobre este tema na publicação científica tornam-se imprescindíveis. O acesso aberto e a democratização do conhecimento e, principalmente, da informa-ção, têm permitido atualmente uma possibilidade fabulosa de avanços na formação de pesquisadores e cidadãos.Neste contexto, a cultura do plágio tem maiores condições de se disseminar e de se tornar socialmente aceita. Isto faz com que instituições e editores de revistas científicas sejam colocados em situações que exigem atitudes imediatas e coerentes com os princípios éti-cos do campo da ciência. Em uma rápida busca no Google do termo “plágio em publicação científica”, encontramos cerca de 400 mil resultados, o que evidencia os danos e riscos que dizem respeito a todos nós: editores, pesquisadores, alunos, gestores de instituições de pesquisa — corresponsáveis pela acuidade da informação — e leitores.

  17. Variación genética en plántulas de Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Martínez Hernández

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa en plántulas de 7 meses de edad pertenecientes a 42 familias de polinización libre de tres especies de Eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. resinifera, y E. rudis. El ensayo se estableció en condiciones de vivero con germoplasma colectado en plantaciones establecidas en la cuenca del Valle de México. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de variación significativa (P≤0.05 entre especies y entre familias dentro de especies para las variables altura, diámetro, número de hojas y número de ramas, aunque no en el área foliar. A nivel de especies se encontraron diferencias significativas en todas las variables relacionadas con la acumulación y distribución de biomasa, excepto en el peso seco de las hojas. También se encontró una variación significativa (P≤0.01 a nivel de familias dentro de especies en el peso seco del tallo, el peso seco de hojas y la biomasa aérea mientras que el peso seco de las ramas y la biomasa de raíz no presentaron una variación significativa entre las familias. El componente de variación de familias dentro de especies aportó del 2 al 12 % de la variación fenotípica total, mientras que las especies contribuyeron sólo del 0.5 a 7.5 de esta variación. El mayor porcentaje de variación se presentó dentro de parcelas, con valores de 80 a 90 % del total en todas las variables de crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa de las plántulas.

  18. TkPl_SU: An Open-source Perl Script Builder for Seismic Unix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    TkPl_SU (beta) is a graphical user interface (GUI) to select parameters for Seismic Unix (SU) modules. Seismic Unix (Stockwell, 1999) is a widely distributed free software package for processing seismic reflection and signal processing. Perl/Tk is a mature, well-documented and free object-oriented graphical user interface for Perl. In a classroom environment, shell scripting of SU modules engages students and helps focus on the theoretical limitations and strengths of signal processing. However, complex interactive processing stages, e.g., selection of optimal stacking velocities, killing bad data traces, or spectral analysis requires advanced flows beyond the scope of introductory classes. In a research setting, special functionality from other free seismic processing software such as SioSeis (UCSD-NSF) can be incorporated readily via an object-oriented style to programming. An object oriented approach is a first step toward efficient extensible programming of multi-step processes, and a simple GUI simplifies parameter selection and decision making. Currently, in TkPl_SU, Perl 5 packages wrap 19 of the most common SU modules that are used in teaching undergraduate and first-year graduate student classes (e.g., filtering, display, velocity analysis and stacking). Perl packages (classes) can advantageously add new functionality around each module and clarify parameter names for easier usage. For example, through the use of methods, packages can isolate the user from repetitive control structures, as well as replace the names of abbreviated parameters with self-describing names. Moose, an extension of the Perl 5 object system, greatly facilitates an object-oriented style. Perl wrappers are self-documenting via Perl programming document markup language.

  19. High energy discharge through deuterium in a metal-lined torus; Decharges a forte intensite dans le deuterium dans un tore a parois metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoletti, J; Breton, C; Charon, J; Hubert, P; Jourdan, P; Vendryes, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The discharge chamber is an aluminium torus, measuring 80 cm (about 2'8'') large medium diameter and 8 cm (about 3'5'') small diameter. The torus contains a double disruption, formed by two isolating mantles, to prevent short-circuiting of the discharge by the metallic partitions. Openings have been provided for the purpose of studying the characteristics of the discharge by means of electro or magnetic sounding apparatus (double sounding type). A constant longitudinal field (maximum value of the order of 5000 gauss) can be established. One can also realize pre-ionization from the chamber gas by means of an H.F. generator (27 MHz). The energy for the generating of the discharge is drawn from a 31 condenser battery, forming a total of 62 {mu}F, 50 kV. The studies already accomplished, and those we anticipate chiefly bear upon the following points: 1) the starting off and intensity of current in the discharge as regards the following parameters: a) intensity and electric field, b) initial pressure of filling, c) intensity of the longitudinal magnetic field, d) pre-ionization, e) length of the isolating disruptions; 2) cinematographic study of the section of discharge in the course of time; 3) spectrographic study of the discharge; 4) research of electrons accelerated during the discharge; 5) research of electronic density, electronic temperature, and of longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields in the discharge as regards distance, at the center of column of the discharge and as regards time; 6) the use of micro-waves for the study of the characteristics of the discharge. (author)Fren. [French] La chambre a decharge est un tore en aluminium de 80 cm de grand diametre moyen et de 8 cm de petit diametre. Le tore comporte deux coupures formees par deux manchons isolants afin d'eviter un court-circuit de la decharge par les parois metalliques. Des orifices sont prevus pour etudier les caracteristiques de la decharge au moyen de sondes electriques (type double

  20. Industria del plástico en el noreste de México y Texas, 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Corrales C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se compara el peso específico de la industria del plástico entreTexas y el noreste de México; ambas regiones son fabricantes de plástico, e interactúan a través de un comercio intenso, que las hace dependientes. También se comparan las tendencias de su producción, capacidades tecnológicas y localización geográfica para abastecer el mercado, entre otros aspectos. El crecimiento de esta industria le permitirá a México agregar valor a su petróleo. Las importaciones crecientes de resinas, junto con su participación escasa como proveedor de la industriamaquiladora de exportación generan la expectativa de un amplio mercado para el plástico; para lograrlo, necesita impulsar la petroquímica.

  1. Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kędzia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet The paper offers a critical evaluation of the power and usefulness of an automatic prompt system based on the extended Relaxation Labelling algorithm in the process of (manual mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet. To this end the results of manual mapping – that is inter-lingual relations between plWN and PWN synsets – are juxtaposed with the automatic prompts that were generated for the source language synsets to be mapped. We check the number and type of inter-lingual relations introduced on the basis of automatic prompts and the distance of the respective prompt synsets from the actual target language synsets.

  2. Evaluation of intra-articular injection of autologous platelet lysate (PL) in horses with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrnenopoulou, Panagiota; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Karayannopoulou, Maria; Savvas, Ioannis; Koliakos, Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Regenerative medicine has become one of the most promising therapies of equine osteoarthritis. Platelet lysate (PL) is rich in bioactive proteins and growth factors that play a crucial role in tissue healing. To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articularly injected autologous PL in equine athletes with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Fifteen warmblood geldings aged 8-19 years with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups; 10 horses received intra-articular injections of PL and 5 of normal saline (controls). Before treatment, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in basal plasma and prepared PL were estimated. Each joint was injected twice within a three-week period. Lameness was evaluated using the American Association of Equine Practitioners grading system, before treatment and 10 days after each intra-articular injection. Horses were examined fortnightly for one year. Radiographic examination was performed six months post-treatment. The generalized estimating equation test was used for statistical analysis. Acceptable levels of PDGF were detected in PLs (mean ± SD: 258.0 ± 52.3 pg/ml). The majority of horses (9/10) responded positively to PL treatment presenting lower lameness grades (p < 0.0005) compared to controls 10 days after the second injection, and returned to normal athletic activity. Radiographs revealed no changes in osteoarthritis lesions six months after treatment. One year post-injections, however, all horses relapsed to their initial degree of lameness. Intra-articularly injected autologous PL is an efficient method for temporarily managing osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in athletic horses.

  3. Síntesis y biodegradación de polihidroxialcanoatos: plásticos de origen microbiano

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA, Yolanda; MEZA CONTRERAS, Juan Carlos; GONZÁLEZ REYNOSO, Orfil; CÓRDOVA LÓPEZ, Jesús Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Los polihidroxialcanoatos (PHA) son biopoliésteres sintetizados intracelularmente por algunos microorganismos como reserva de carbono y energía que, una vez extraídos de la célula, presentan propiedades físicas similares a plásticos derivados del petróleo. A partir de la década de 1980 han sido estudiados intensivamente y actualmente siguen siendo un tema de investigación importante, sobre todo como sustitutos de los plásticos de origen petroquímico, ya que los PHA son completamente biodegrad...

  4. Analysis of density fluctuations in the Tore Supra tokamak. Up-down asymmetries and limiter effect on plasma turbulence; Etude des fluctuations de density dans les plasmas du tokamak Tore Supra. Asymetries haut-bas et effet du limiteur sur la turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenzi, Ch

    1999-10-29

    In magnetic fusion devices, the optimisation of the power deposition profile on plasma facing components crucially depends on the heat diffusivity across the magnetic field fines, which is determined by the plasma edge turbulence. In this regard, spatial asymmetries of plasma edge turbulence are of great interest. In this work, we interest in up-down asymmetries of density fluctuations which are usually observed in Tore Supra, using a coherent light scattering experiment. It is shown that these asymmetries are correlated to the plasma edge geometrical configuration (plasma facing components, limiters). In fact, the plasma-limiter interaction induces locally in the plasma edge and the SOL (r/a > 0.9) an additional turbulence with short correlation length along the magnetic field fines, which spreads in the plasma core (0.9 {>=} r/a {>=} 0.5). The resultant up-down asymmetry weakly depends on density, increases with the edge safety factor, and inverts when the plasma current direction is reversed. Such up-down asymmetry observations bring strong impact on edge turbulence and transport models, which usually predict a ballooning of the turbulence in the high-field side but not an up-down asymmetry. A possible model is proposed here, based on the Kelvin Helmholtz instability. (author)

  5. Study of the non inductive current generation in Tore Supra and application to the operational scenario of a continuous tokamak; Etude de la generation de courant non inductive dans Tore Supra et application aux scenarios operationnels d`un tokamak continu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.

    1996-07-05

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive in tokamak plasmas allows to obtain continuous operations, which constitute a necessary step towards a definition of a thermonuclear fusion reactor. The objectives of this work is to define and study fully non inductive steady-state scenarios on Tore Supra. The current diffusion equation is solved to determined precisely the inductive and non inductive current density profiles and their influence on thee time evolution of a discharge. Then, a new operation mode is studied theoretically and experimentally. In this scenario, the transformer primary circuit voltage is controlled in such a way that the flux consumption vanishes. It allows to achieve full steady-state discharges in a fast and reproducible manner. A theoretical flux consumption scaling law during plasma current ramp-up assisted by Lower-Hybrid waves is presented and validated by experimental data, in view to minimized this consumption. The influence of a non monotonic current profile on the confinement and the transport of energy in the plasma is also clearly illustrated by experiments. (author). 138 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Kinetic energy dependence of carrier diffusion in a GaAs epilayer studied by wavelength selective PL imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Providence High School, Charlotte, NC 28270 (United States); Su, L.Q.; Kon, J. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Gfroerer, T. [Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Zhang, Y., E-mail: yong.zhang@uncc.edu [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging has been shown to be an efficient technique for investigating carrier diffusion in semiconductors. In the past, the measurement was typically carried out by measuring at one wavelength (e.g., at the band gap) or simply the whole emission band. At room temperature in a semiconductor like GaAs, the band-to-band PL emission may occur in a spectral range over 200 meV, vastly exceeding the average thermal energy of about 26 meV. To investigate the potential dependence of the carrier diffusion on the carrier kinetic energy, we performed wavelength selective PL imaging on a GaAs double hetero-structure in a spectral range from about 70 meV above to 50 meV below the bandgap, extracting the carrier diffusion lengths at different PL wavelengths by fitting the imaging data to a theoretical model. The results clearly show that the locally generated carriers of different kinetic energies mostly diffuse together, maintaining the same thermal distribution throughout the diffusion process. Potential effects related to carrier density, self-absorption, lateral wave-guiding, and local heating are also discussed.

  7. SIA "Baltegle" naudas plūsmas analīze un vadīšana

    OpenAIRE

    Jegorova, Valērija

    2011-01-01

    Vairākiem Latvijas uzņēmumiem ir aktuālas stabilizēšanas problēmas, kuras ietekmēja naudas plūsmas neefektīva vadīšana. Diplomdarba mērķis ir novērtēt SIA „Baltegle” naudas plūsmu un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās optimizācijai. Pirmajā diplomdarba nodaļā apskatīta naudas plūsmas būtība, otrajā nodaļā - naudas plūsmas pārskata sagatavošanas īpatnības, trešajā nodaļā - analīzes un vadīšanas aspekti. Ceturtajā nodaļā pētīta SIA „Baltegle” saimnieciskā darbība. Piektajā nodaļā veikta uzņēmuma...

  8. Modification of ChPL (chitosan protein–lipid nanoparticles for in vitro release of rifampicin (RIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poopak Farnia

    2015-01-01

    Results and conclusions: The average size of RIF ChPL-NPs was about 50–250nm. The release of RIF from the dialysis bag started after 30 min which was 2400ng/ml; after 16 h the release of RIF was 15,000ng/ml; and at 40 h the concentration reached to 19,600ng/ml. Therefore, these results showed a slow release of RIF from ChPL-NPs. Basically, the intensity of the surface charges in nanoparticle is important as it determines their interaction with bioactive compound. In RIF ChPL-NPs, lipid had negative charges, whereas chitosan and gelatin had positive charges. The electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged ions would ultimately cause an effective system drug delivery. RIF ChPL-NPs is not only suitable for intravenous administration, but it can be used as an inhalation aerosol, because this nanoparticle has a capacity to adhere to mucosal surfaces and transiently open the tight junction.

  9. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Foley, M E; Cai, X W; Gulya, T J

    2016-04-01

    A novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), was introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower and genetically mapped to linkage group 2 of the sunflower genome. The new germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. Sunflower downy mildew (DM) is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl 18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflower was mapped to linkage group (LG) 2 of the sunflower genome using bulked segregant analysis with 869 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Phenotyping 142 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of HA 89 and H. argophyllus confirmed the single gene inheritance of resistance. Since no other Pl gene has been mapped to LG2, this gene was novel and designated as Pl (18). SSR markers CRT214 and ORS203 flanked Pl(18) at a genetic distance of 1.1 and 0.4 cM, respectively. Forty-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the Pl(18) region were surveyed for saturation mapping of the region. Six co-segregating SNP markers were 1.2 cM distal to Pl(18), and another four co-segregating SNP markers were 0.9 cM proximal to Pl(18). The new BC2F4-derived germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. This new line is highly resistant to all Plasmopara halstedii races identified in the USA providing breeders with an effective new source of resistance against downy mildew in sunflower. The molecular markers that were developed will be especially useful in marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of Pl resistance genes because of their close proximity to the gene and the availability of high-throughput SNP detection assays.

  10. The cross-pathway control system regulates production of the secondary metabolite toxin, sirodesmin PL, in the ascomycete, Leptosphaeria maculans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Ellen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirodesmin PL is a secondary metabolite toxin made by the ascomycetous plant pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans. The sirodesmin biosynthetic genes are clustered in the genome. The key genes are a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, sirP, and a pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ. Little is known about regulation of sirodesmin production. Results Genes involved in regulation of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans have been identified. Two hundred random insertional T-DNA mutants were screened with an antibacterial assay for ones producing low levels of sirodesmin PL. Three such mutants were isolated and each transcribed sirZ at very low levels. One of the affected genes had high sequence similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus cpcA, which regulates the cross-pathway control system in response to amino acid availability. This gene was silenced in L. maculans and the resultant mutant characterised. When amino acid starvation was artificially-induced by addition of 3-aminotriazole for 5 h, transcript levels of sirP and sirZ did not change in the wild type. In contrast, levels of sirP and sirZ transcripts increased in the silenced cpcA mutant. After prolonged amino acid starvation the silenced cpcA mutant produced much higher amounts of sirodesmin PL than the wild type. Conclusions Production of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans is regulated by the cross pathway control gene, cpcA, either directly or indirectly via the pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ.

  11. MediPlEx - a tool to combine in silico & experimental gene expression profiles of the model legume Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutz Leonhard J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are in general used to gain a first insight into gene activities from a species of interest. Subsequently, and typically based on a combination of EST and genome sequences, microarray-based expression analyses are performed for a variety of conditions. In some cases, a multitude of EST and microarray experiments are conducted for one species, covering different tissues, cell states, and cell types. Under these circumstances, the challenge arises to combine results derived from the different expression profiling strategies, with the goal to uncover novel information on the basis of the integrated datasets. Findings Using our new analysis tool, MediPlEx (MEDIcago truncatula multiPLe EXpression analysis, expression data from EST experiments, oligonucleotide microarrays and Affymetrix GeneChips® can be combined and analyzed, leading to a novel approach to integrated transcriptome analysis. We have validated our tool via the identification of a set of well-characterized AM-specific and AM-induced marker genes, identified by MediPlEx on the basis of in silico and experimental gene expression profiles from roots colonized with AM fungi. Conclusions MediPlEx offers an integrated analysis pipeline for different sets of expression data generated for the model legume Medicago truncatula. As expected, in silico and experimental gene expression data that cover the same biological condition correlate well. The collection of differentially expressed genes identified via MediPlEx provides a starting point for functional studies in plant mutants. MediPlEx can freely be used at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/mediplex.

  12. Plástica da valva mitral em portadores de febre reumática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. A. Pomerantzeff

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os resultados tardios da plástica da valva mitral em pacientes reumáticos. Casuística e Métodos: Durante o período de março de 1980 a dezembro de 1997, 201 pacientes portadores de insuficiência mitral secundária a febre reumática foram submetidos à plástica da valva mitral, no Instituto do Coração do HCFMUSP. A idade média foi de 26,9 ± 15,4 anos e 59,7% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. Outros diagnósticos estavam presentes em 67,7% dos pacientes, sendo o mais freqüente a insuficiência tricúspide (31,3%. As técnicas de plástica da valva mitral foram: anel de Carpentier em 75 (37,3%, anuloplastia com tira posterior de pericárdio bovino em 68 (33,8%, anuloplastia posterior segmentar em 16 (7,9%, ressecção quadrangular da cúspide posterior com plicatura do anel correspondente em 11 (5,5%, ressecção de segmento da cúspide anterior em 6 (3%, anuloplastia tipo De Vega em 6 (3%, Kay em 5 (2,5%, Reed em 4 (2% e outras em 10 pacientes. Técnicas associadas de plástica foram empregadas em 94 (46,8% pacientes, sendo a mais freqüente o encurtamento de cordas (48 pacientes - 23,9%. Cirurgias associadas foram realizadas em 113 pacientes (56,2%. As curvas actuariais de Kaplan-Meier foram comparadas através de análise de regressão linear. Resultados: A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 4 (2,0% pacientes, e as causas de mortalidade foram a falência de múltiplos órgãos em 2 (50% pacientes e o baixo débito cardíaco em 2 (50%. No pós-operatório tardio, 83,9% dos pacientes se encontravam em classe funcional I (NYHA. A sobrevida actuarial foi de 93,9 ± 1,9% em 125 meses. Vinte e três pacientes foram reoperados no pós-operatório tardio, com um intervalo médio de 35,7 meses. A sobrevida livre de reoperação foi 43,3 ± 13,7% em 125 meses. Analisando-se separadamente os pacientes segundo a faixa etária, no grupo menor de 16 anos (Grupo 1 a sobrevida actuarial foi de 91,3 ± 3,8%, contra uma sobrevida de

  13. The photoluminescence/excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu-implanted GaN

    KAUST Repository

    O'Donnell, Kevin Peter

    2011-05-01

    Several distinct luminescent centres form in GaN samples doped with Eu. One centre, Eu2, recently identified as the isolated, substitutional Eu impurity, EuGa, is dominant in ion-implanted samples annealed under very high pressures (1 GPa) of N2. According to structural determinations, such samples exhibit an essentially complete removal of lattice damage caused by the implantation process. A second centre, Eu1, probably comprising EuGa in association with an intrinsic lattice defect, produces a more complex emission spectrum. In addition there are several unidentified features in the 5D0 to 7F2 spectral region near 620 nm. We can readily distinguish Eu1 and Eu2 by their excitation spectra, in particular through their different sensitivities to above-gap and below-gap excitation. The present study extends recent work on photoluminescence/ excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu1 and Eu2 to arrive at an understanding of these mechanisms in terms of residual optically active defect concentrations. We also report further on the \\'host-independent\\' excitation mechanism that is active in the case of a prominent minority centre. The relevance of this work to the operation of the red GaN:Eu light-emitting diode is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. sativa L. por caracteres bioquímicos en semillas y plántulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Galussi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las semillas de los cultivares de alfalfa son morfológicamente similares, por ello, el análisis de proteínas en semillas y plántulas podría resultar adecuado para diferenciar los cultivares. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar cultivares de alfalfa, provenientes de dos cosechas, a nivel de proteínas de las semillas a través de SDS PAGE y A PAGE, y en estado de protrusión y cotiledonar por el análisis de la isoenzima Alcohol Deshidrogenasa (ADH. El tamaño muestral adecuado para electroforesis fue de 0,5g de semillas en 5,00ml de buffer de extracción y el volumen de siembra apropiado fue de 10μl. En ambos métodos, SDS PAGE y A PAGE, se logró el fraccionamiento proteico, aunque no fue posible la diferenciación entre cultivares; las escasas diferencias halladas no fueron repetibles en muestras de diferentes años de cosecha. El sistema ADH manifestó diferencias entre cultivares, lográndose mayor diferenciación en el estado de protrusión.

  15. User's guide for GSMP, a General System Modeling Program. [In PL/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J. M.

    1979-10-01

    GSMP is designed for use by systems analysis teams. Given compiled subroutines that model the behavior of components plus instructions as to how they are to be interconnected, this program links them together to model a complete system. GSMP offers a fast response to management requests for reconfigurations of old systems and even initial configurations of new systems. Standard system-analytic services are provided: parameter sweeps, graphics, free-form input and formatted output, file storage and recovery, user-tested error diagnostics, component model and integration checkout and debugging facilities, sensitivity analysis, and a multimethod optimizer with nonlinear constraint handling capability. Steady-state or cyclic time-dependence is simulated directly, initial-value problems only indirectly. The code is written in PL/I, but interfaces well with FORTRAN component models. Over the last five years GSMP has been used to model theta-pinch, tokamak, and heavy-ion fusion power plants, open- and closed-cycle magneto-hydrodynamic power plants, and total community energy systems.

  16. The photoluminescence/excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu-implanted GaN

    KAUST Repository

    O'Donnell, Kevin Peter; Roqan, Iman S.; Wang, Ke; Lorenz, Katharina; Alves, Eduardo Jorge; Boćkowski, Michał X.

    2011-01-01

    Several distinct luminescent centres form in GaN samples doped with Eu. One centre, Eu2, recently identified as the isolated, substitutional Eu impurity, EuGa, is dominant in ion-implanted samples annealed under very high pressures (1 GPa) of N2. According to structural determinations, such samples exhibit an essentially complete removal of lattice damage caused by the implantation process. A second centre, Eu1, probably comprising EuGa in association with an intrinsic lattice defect, produces a more complex emission spectrum. In addition there are several unidentified features in the 5D0 to 7F2 spectral region near 620 nm. We can readily distinguish Eu1 and Eu2 by their excitation spectra, in particular through their different sensitivities to above-gap and below-gap excitation. The present study extends recent work on photoluminescence/ excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu1 and Eu2 to arrive at an understanding of these mechanisms in terms of residual optically active defect concentrations. We also report further on the 'host-independent' excitation mechanism that is active in the case of a prominent minority centre. The relevance of this work to the operation of the red GaN:Eu light-emitting diode is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Piattella, Oliver; Rodrigues, Davi; Velten, Hermano; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The series of texts composing this book is based on the lectures presented during the II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology, held in Pedra Azul (Espírito Santo, Brazil) between 9 and 14 March 2014. This II JBPCosmo has been entirely devoted to the problem of understanding theoretical and observational aspects of Cosmic Background Radiation (CMB). The CMB is one of the most important phenomena in Physics and a fundamental probe of our Universe when it was only 400,000 years old. It is an extraordinary laboratory where we can learn from particle physics to cosmology; its discovery in 1965 has been a landmark event in the history of physics. The observations of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation through the satellites COBE, WMAP and Planck provided a huge amount of data which are being analyzed in order to discover important information regarding the composition of our universe and the process of structure formation.

  18. ROTULAGEM DE TRANSGÊNICOS NO BRASIL: O RETROCESSO DO PL N° 4.181/08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brunetti Suzuki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tramita no Senado Federal o Projeto de Lei n° 4.148/08, do Deputado Luiz Carlos Heinz, que pretende alterar o sistema de rotulagem de transgênicos no Brasil. Atualmente, a Lei de Biossegurança, que abriga questões alimentares e ambientais junto com o princípio da informação que rege o Direito do Consumidor, determina que qualquer produto com mais de 1% (um por cento de transgênico em sua composição apresente as respectivas informações em seu rótulo. Se aprovado o Projeto, a rotulagem demandará, antes, estudo que detecte a incidência e a proporção de organismos geneticamente modificados, bem como retirará das embalagens o símbolo característico dos transgênicos. Este artigo apresenta as questões que envolvem os alimentos transgênicos no Brasil, bem como o tratamento legal referente à rotulagem, segurança alimentar e meio ambiente, para, ao final, demonstrar o retrocesso jurídico e funcional que reside no PL n° 4.148/08.

  19. El plátano verde en la matriz productiva de la zona 8 de Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén D. Paz Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador con la Constitución de 2008 sentó las bases para la matriz productiva como nuevo modelo de desarrollo en el Ecuador, y con ello se creó todo un andamiaje de instituciones, reglamentos y créditos de largo plazo que apunten a desarrollar armónicamente las empresas ya existentes y a crear nuevos emprendimientos con el fin de aprovechar la materia prima existente en el país. La creación de las zonas de desarrollo por la SENPLADES fue fundamental para organizar por número de habitantes cada una de ellas. La zona 8 conformada por Guayaquil, Durán y Samborondón, es una de las de mayor dinamismo comercial. El Proyecto IC-ULVR 13-19 presenta una investigación exploratoria sobre los derivados del plátano verde en la matriz productiva, para cuyo fin se aplicó una observación guiada a autoservicios de la zona y una encuesta online para conocer los gustos y preferencias de los consumidores.

  20. The Intersection between the Gloria Transform Fault and the Tore-Madeira Rise in the NE Atlantic: New Tectonic Insights from Analog Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, F. M.; Tomas, R.; Duarte, J. C.; Schellart, W. P.; Terrinha, P.

    2014-12-01

    The intersection between the Gloria Fault (GF) and the Tore-Madeira rise (TMR) in NE Atlantic marks a transition from a discrete to a diffuse nature along a critical segment of the Eurasia/Africa plate boundary. To the West of such intersection, approximately since the Azores triple junction, this plate boundary is mostly characterized by a set of closely aligned and continuous strike-slip faults that make up the narrow active dextral transcurrent system of the GF (with high magnitude M>7 historical earthquakes). While intersecting the TMR the closely E-W trending trace of the GF system is slightly deflected (changing to WNW-ESE), and splays into several fault branches that often coincide with aligned (TMR related?) active volcanic plugs. The segment of the plate boundary between the TMR and the Gorringe Bank (further to the East) corresponds to a more complex (less discrete) tectonic configuration, within which the tectonic connection between the Gloria Fault and another major dextral transcurrent system (the so called SWIM system) occurs. This SWIM fault system has been described to extend even further to the East (almost until the Straits of Gibraltar) across the Gulf of Cadiz domain. In this domain the relative movement between the Eurasian and the African plates is thought to be accommodated through a diffuse manner, involving large scale strain partition between a dextral transcurrent fault-system (the SWIM system), and a set of active west-directed én-échelon major thrusts extending to the North along the SW Iberian margin. We present new analog modeling results, in which we employed different experimental settings to address (namely) the following main questions (as a first step to gain new insight on the tectonic evolution of the TRM-GF critical intersection area): Could the observed morphotectonic configuration of such intersection be simply caused by a bathymetric anomaly determined by a postulated thickened oceanic crust, or is it more compatible with

  1. Diseño de espacios pedagógicos en el área de artes visuales para la Escuela de Artes Plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Álvaro; Vega Aguilar, María Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    Diseñar espacios adecuados para la enseñanza y desarrollo de las artes visuales para el edificio de la Escuela de Artes Plásticas. Universidad de Costa Rica UCR::Docencia::Artes y Letras::Facultad de Bellas Artes::Escuela de Artes Plásticas

  2. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio as a predictor for poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt-1/placental growth factor (PlGF ratio has been studied extensively as a predictive marker for pre-eclampsia. However, its usefulness for predicting neonatal outcomes remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the association of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio with pregnancy outcomes, neonatal morbidities and short-term postnatal growth patterns in pregnant women and their babies. Methods: sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured in women with fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR or pre-eclampsia during gestational age (GA of 16–36 weeks. These women were classified into high- and low-ratio groups with a sFlt-1/PlGF cut-off ratio of 85. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 25 pregnant women were recruited. Thirteen of them had a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio over 85 and twelve had a ratio of less than 85. The median duration from elevation of sFlt-1/PlGF to delivery was 4.5 weeks. Women in the high SFlt-1/PlGF ratio group had higher rates of intrauterine fetal demise (2/13 vs. 0/12 and early termination (1/13 vs. 0/12. The surviving offspring in this group had a higher incidence of preterm birth (GA: 31.4 ± 2.9 weeks vs. 37.3 ± 1.3 weeks, p < 0.001, lower birth weight (1142 ± 472 g vs. 2311 ± 236 g, p < 0.001, higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (6/10 vs. 0/12, p = 0.002 and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (4/10 vs. 0/12, p = 0.01. However, the percentile of body weight, height and head circumference at 28 days of age, 56 days of age and the corrected age of 6 months were comparable between groups. Conclusions: High sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in pregnant women is associated with poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Therefore, the monitoring of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in pregnant women with fetal IUGR and timely management for placenta-associated diseases are

  3. La Transfiguración de Rafael : un mito plástico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Viñuales

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La carga mitológica de una obra de arte plástico (pintura especialmente se limita a la reproducción de un mito o leyenda mítica fijada anteriormente en lenguaje oral o como muciio escrito o literario. El artista reproduce el mito conocido según los cánones de la época y con el estilo personal que le caracterice, pero no «inventa», ni descubre ni «cuenta» un mito nuevo. Rafael en su obra «La transfiguración» creemos que es una excepción a esta regla presentándonos una mítica que no existía antes en las dos leyendas milagrosas bíblicas que narra el cuadro.The mythological charge in a work of plastic art, is límited to the reproduction of a myth or a mythical legend which has been previously fixed on oral language or bay far written or literary. The artist reproduces the known myth according  to the canon of the time and with the personal style which is characterísed by, but he doesn't invent, neither discovers  nor tells anew myth. In Rafael's work "The transfiguration»  we think that is an exception to this rule, it presents a myth which didn't exist before in the two Biblical miraculous legends that the painting tells.

  4. Trauma Related Guilt Inventory - psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation (TRGI-PL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    AIM : Although various aspects of guilt are frequent problems of patients suffering from PTSD, they have been included into the diagnostic criteria for PTSD just in the present version DSM-5. Kubany proposed a cognitive conceptualization of guilt in PTSD followed by development of the Trauma Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI). The aim of the paper is to present psychometric properties of the Polish version of the inventory - the TRGI-PL. A Polish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory was applied to a sample of 280 motor vehicle (MVA) participants (147 females, 133 males of age from 18 to 80 (M=34,93, SD=13,71) within 1-24 months after a MVA (M=10,18, SD=6,23). Validation of the Polish version was done by analyzing the internal structure of the instrument and comparing the emotional and cognitive aspects of guilt assessed by the TRGI with PTSD symptoms, post-traumatic cognitions and responsibility for MVA and subjective agreement with the judgment. The model with four latent factors: Distress, Hindsight-Bias/Responsibility, Wrongdoing and Insufficient Justification scales showed acceptable fit (Satorra-Bentler chi2=518,62, df=203, pguilt, obtained in the studies on original TRGI version. Reliability coefficients are similar to original version. Correlations with other PTSD measures showed satisfactory convergent and discriminative validity. The Polish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory is a reliable and valid tool for assessing guilt as a multidimensional phenomenon, comprising emotional and several cognitive characteristics, in trauma survivors.

  5. Teorizações dos docentes sobre a avaliação em Artes Plásticas Teorizaciones de los docentes sobre la evaluación en artes plásticas Teachers theories on art evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Maria Ortiz dos Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste texto é apresentar em síntese a tese "Teorizações dos docentes sobre a avaliação em Artes Plásticas", que busca indagar e compreender o pensamento do professor de Artes Plásticas na avaliação dos alunos da 5ª série do Ensino Fundamental no Brasil. Este estudo enquadra-se em um enfoque qualitativo não experimental de tipo exploratório. Através das entrevistas com os professores, a declaração do docente considerada "uma ação mediada pela palavra", buscou-se as teorias implícitas a fim de tornarem-se explícitos os marcos de referência do professor de Artes Plásticas e compreender como ele percebe, pensa, teoriza e compreende sobre a avaliação nas Artes Plásticas. O interesse do investigador foi desafiar um campo pouco revisto, que é o campo da Psicologia, da Arte e da Didática, buscando um ponto onde se encontram o psicológico, o didático e o artístico. As escolas públicas municipais do Rio de Janeiro foram o lugar de trabalho. Das declarações obtidas nesta investigação, chega-se a determinados resultados: os dados trazem evidências de que na escola a atividade de avaliar nas Artes Plásticas consiste na atribuição de um juízo de valor a uma realidade observada; no processo de avaliação nas Artes Plásticas busca-se uma ação reflexiva, "o avaliar" dentro da proposta da avaliação diagnóstica e formativa; o conhecimento do professor pode ser considerado um conhecimento leigo e também como teorias pedagógicas pessoais (teorias implícitas, estas nem sempre percebidas pelos professores, porém fazem parte de um papel importante na organização do conhecimento do professor.El propósito de este texto es el de presentar en síntesis la investigación "Teorizaciones de los docentes sobre la evaluación en Artes Plásticas", que busca indagar y comprender el pensamiento del docente de Artes Plásticas en la evaluación de los alumnos del segundo ciclo de la enseñanza básica (5ª s

  6. Design de joias a partir de aspectos plásticos da dança conteporânea

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Paula Calegari; Carlos Gustavo Hoelzel

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo consiste em mostrar de maneira objetiva e clara as etapas de desenvolvimento do projeto de uma coleção de joias a partir de aspectos plásticos da dança contemporânea. Para alcançar esse objetivo, foram realizadas pesquisas em torno do design de joias e a dança contemporânea, sendo utilizada como referência no processo criativo durante a projetação das peças. Desenvolveram-se alternativas de solução através de desenhos e traços de composição de referenciais plásticos da dança onde ...

  7. Definition, translation and application of user-oriented languages as extensions of PL/1 in the CAD-systems REGENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderle, G.

    1975-09-01

    The integrated CAD-system REGENT serves for modular development of programs for different application areas, for management of data storage and data transfer and easy and safe application of programs by means of user-oriented languages. Programs, data and language for an application area form a REGENT-subsystem. The problem language system of REGENT, PLS (Problem Language System), provides facilities for the development of a problem oriented language for every subsystem as extensions of the base language PL/1. In this paper the translation of problem oriented languages by a precompiler into PL/1 and the definition of language extensions and datastructures for subsystems are described. Development and application of the language for a fluiddynamic-subsystem is shown. (orig.) [de

  8. PL and EL characterizations of ZnO:Eu3+, Li+ films derived by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Daoqi; Zhang Junying; Yang Chun; Wang Tianmin

    2008-01-01

    ZnO:Eu 3+ , Li + films prepared by the dip-coating method were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL). When the ZnO:Eu 3+ , Li + films were excited using UV light with energy corresponding to the band-to-band excitation of the host matrix, the PL spectra showed emissions from both ZnO and Eu 3+ ions, while their EL spectra showed emissions only from Eu 3+ ions, and no emission from ZnO could be detected. It is found that the EL emission intensity B is dependent on the applied voltage, B=B o exp(-bV -1/2 ). With increasing frequency, the EL intensity dramatically increases at lower frequencies ( 1000 Hz)

  9. Caracterização de frutos, sementes, plântulas e germinação de Jeniparana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gustavia augusta L., conhecida popularmente como jeniparana, é uma espécie arbórea neotropical, que ocorre nas florestas Atlântica e Amazônica. Considerando-se a abundância dessa espécie na floresta Atlântica e a fragilidade e fragmentação desse ecossistema, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, caracterizar seus frutos, sementes, germinação e plântulas, acrescentando informações para subsidiar estudos sobre sua conservação e utilização. Os frutos maduros foram coletados em fragmentos de floresta Atlântica, no município de Paulista, PE. Em seguida, foram realizadas análises morfológicas e biométricas dos frutos, sementes e plântulas da espécie. O fruto de G. augusta é um pixídio globoso, anfissarcídio, pentalocular, indeiscente. A semente é exalbuminosa, estenospérmica, trisseriada, bitegumentada e a massa de cem sementes desse lote foi de 47,95 g. A germinação da espécie é do tipo hipógea, com o tegumento aderido aos cotilédones na fase inicial do crescimento da plântula, que tem início a partir do quinto dia após a semeadura, em condições de laboratório. O tempo médio e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG foram de 14 dias e 0,87, respectivamente. A plântula com 40 dias apresenta todas as estruturas, sendo classificada no tipo morfofuncional fanerohipógeo-armazenador (PHR.

  10. Especies de dryophthorinae (coleoptera: curculionidae) asociadas a plátano y banano (musa spp.) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    RUBIO-GOMEZ, JOSE; SEPULVEDA-CANO, PAULA

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN

    Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824), Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758), Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838), Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum...

  11. Desenvolvimento de plântulas de limoeiro 'cravo' relacionado a posição de semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Robles Walter Geremias

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um ensaio em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de relacionar a posição da semente e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de limoeiro `Cravo'. Foram semeadas nas três prováveis posições que a semente tomaria ao ser lançada ao solo ou substrato: 1 deitada; 2 ápice para cima e 3 ápice para baixo. Este experimento foi realizado em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 128 células, utilizando-se como substrato a mistura de vermiculita expandida e material orgânico vegetal. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições e 40 sementes por parcela (1 semente/célula. Aos 75 dias após à semeadura, observou-se maior quantidade de plântulas com raízes normais quando colocadas as sementes nas posições deitada e ápice para baixo. A posição ápice para cima apresentou maior quantidade de plântulas com raízes tortas e enoveladas. O comprimento do sistema radicular foi aproximadamente o dobro da parte aérea, independente da posição da semente, ocorrendo o inverso em relação à massa da matéria seca.

  12. Virtual Ligand Screening Using PL-PatchSurfer2, a Molecular Surface-Based Protein-Ligand Docking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2018-01-01

    Virtual screening is a computational technique for predicting a potent binding compound for a receptor protein from a ligand library. It has been a widely used in the drug discovery field to reduce the efforts of medicinal chemists to find hit compounds by experiments.Here, we introduce our novel structure-based virtual screening program, PL-PatchSurfer, which uses molecular surface representation with the three-dimensional Zernike descriptors, which is an effective mathematical representation for identifying physicochemical complementarities between local surfaces of a target protein and a ligand. The advantage of the surface-patch description is its tolerance on a receptor and compound structure variation. PL-PatchSurfer2 achieves higher accuracy on apo form and computationally modeled receptor structures than conventional structure-based virtual screening programs. Thus, PL-PatchSurfer2 opens up an opportunity for targets that do not have their crystal structures. The program is provided as a stand-alone program at http://kiharalab.org/plps2 . We also provide files for two ligand libraries, ChEMBL and ZINC Drug-like.

  13. Deformación plástica de compuestos mullita/óxido de itrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez de Arellano López, A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2 based composites have excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The same characteristics that give mullite good resistance to plastic deformation also make its sintering difficult. Yttria is one of the most commonly used additives to reduce sintering temperatures in mullite. Additionally vitreous silicates (Y2Si2O7 could improve ductility. In this work we have used mullite samples with various amounts of Y2O3 (0, 5 and 9 wt.%. Details of processing and characterization of these composites have been the subject of a previous publication. We have compared the ductility of these composites by means of compressive deformation tests at elevated temperatures. Creep tests were performed at temperatures between 1300 and 1400ºC, in air, in a stress range of 0.69 to 34.5 MPa.

    Los compuestos a partir de mullita (3Al2O3.2SiO2 presentan unas magníficas propiedades mecánicas y térmicas. Las mismas características que hacen de la mullita resistente a la deformación plástica, dificultan su densificación. El óxido de itrio es uno de los aditivos más utilizados para reducir la temperatura de sinterización de la mullita. Adicionalmente la presencia de silicatos vítreos (en este caso Y2Si2O7 incrementan la ductilidad. En esta investigación se han usado muestras de mullita con diversas cantidades de Y2O3 (0%, 5% y 9% en peso. Los detalles sobre el procesado y caracterización de los compuestos han sido objeto de una publicación previa. Se ha estudiado comparativamente la ductilidad de estos materiales mediante experimentos de deformación en compresión a alta temperatura. Los ensayos se han desarrollado entre 1300 y 1400ºC, en atmósfera de aire, cubriendo un rango de tensiones de compresión entre 0.69 y 34.4 MPa.

  14. Paenibacillus larvae chitin-degrading protein PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor in American Foulbrood of honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Garcia-Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of the globally occurring epizootic American Foulbrood (AFB of honey bees, causes intestinal infections in honey bee larvae which develop into systemic infections inevitably leading to larval death. Massive brood mortality might eventually lead to collapse of the entire colony. Molecular mechanisms of host-microbe interactions in this system and of differences in virulence between P. larvae genotypes are poorly understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium is a key step in pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Here, we present the isolation and identification of PlCBP49, a modular, chitin-degrading protein of P. larvae and demonstrate that this enzyme is crucial for the degradation of the larval peritrophic matrix during infection. PlCBP49 contains a module belonging to the auxiliary activity 10 (AA10, formerly CBM33 family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs which are able to degrade recalcitrant polysaccharides. Using chitin-affinity purified PlCBP49, we provide evidence that PlCBP49 degrades chitin via a metal ion-dependent, oxidative mechanism, as already described for members of the AA10 family. Using P. larvae mutants lacking PlCBP49 expression, we analyzed in vivo biological functions of PlCBP49. In the absence of PlCBP49 expression, peritrophic matrix degradation was markedly reduced and P. larvae virulence was nearly abolished. This indicated that PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor for the species P. larvae. The identification of the functional role of PlCBP49 in AFB pathogenesis broadens our understanding of this important family of chitin-binding and -degrading proteins, especially in those bacteria that can also act as entomopathogens.

  15. Particularidades del cálculo de engranajes plásticos. // Particularities of plastic gear calculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Moya Rodríguez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos tiempos los materiales plásticos han tenido una proliferación en todos los campos de la Industria Mecánica,debido esencialmente a su bajo costo y a las mejoras de las propiedades mecánicas que se han ido logrando. En el casoparticular de las transmisiones por engranajes existe una gran cantidad de estos materiales que pueden ser usados y dehecho se utilizan para la fabricación de ruedas dentadas de características muy disímiles. En la literatura científica existemuy poca información disponible sobre las fallas de engranajes plásticos, métodos de calculo a resistencia y posiblesmateriales a emplear con sus respectivas propiedades mecánicas. Inclusive este tema no se aborda en los currículos deestudio tradicionales en Ibero-América. Queda mucho por discutir aun acerca del empleo de las correcciones del dentado enestas ruedas dentadas plásticas. En el presente trabajo se hace un análisis de los materiales, características, estudio de lasfallas principales, métodos de calculo y ejemplos de aplicación de los engranajes plásticos.Palabras claves: Plásticos, engranes, perfil dentado.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract.Recently the use of plastic materials has been growing up due to their low cost and the improvements achieved on theirmechanical properties. In the particular case of gear transmissions there are great quantities of polymers that can be usedfor gears. Plastic gears are powerful means of cutting drive cost, weight, noise, and wear. Plastic gears also open newopportunities for smaller and more efficient transmissions. There is few information in Scientific literature about plasticgears failures, designing methods and materials. Most engineering reference books are desicated to steel gears but there areremarkably silent about plastic gears. Design methods for plastic gears and gear trains must be modernized, because muchof the information available is derived

  16. Improving seismic crustal models in the Corinth Gulf, Greece and estimating source depth using PL-waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vackář, Jiří; Zahradník, Jiří

    2013-04-01

    A recent shallow earthquake in the Corinth Gulf, Greece (Mw 5.3, January 18, 2010; Sokos et al., Tectonophysics 2012) generated unusual long-period waves (periods > 5 seconds), well recorded at several near-regional stations between the P - and S-wave arrival. The 5-second period, being significantly longer than the source duration, indicates a structural effect. The wave is similar to PL-wave or Pnl-wave, but with shorter periods and observed in much closer distances (ranging from 30 to 200 km). For theoretical description of the observed wave, structural model is required. No existing regional crustal model generates that wave, so we need to find another model, better in terms of the PL-wave existence and strength. We find such models by full waveform inversion using the subset of stations with strong PL-wave. The Discrete Wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981; Coutant 1989) is used for forward problem and the Neighborhood Algorithm (Sambridge, 1999) for stochastic search (more details in poster by V. Plicka and J. Zahradník). We obtain a suite of models well fitting synthetic seismograms and use some of these models to evaluate dependence of the studied waves on receiver distance and azimuth as well as dependence on source depth. We compare real and synthetic dispersion curves (derived from synthetic seismograms) as an independent validation of found model and discuss limitations of using dispersion curves for these cases. We also relocated the event in the new model. Then we calculate the wavefield by two other methods: modal summation and ray theory to better understand the nature of the PL-wave. Finally, we discuss agreement of found models with published crustal models in the region. The full waveform inversion for structural parameters seems to be powerful tool for improving seismic source modeling in cases we do not have accurate structure model of studied area. We also show that the PL-wave strength has a potential to precise the earthquake depth

  17. Recent results on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent results regarding heating, confinement, current drive and profile modifications, heat and particle exhaust are reported. Improved core confinement is obtained after pellet injection (PEP) or Lower Hybrid current drive (LHEP) and may be linked with small - or reversed - central magnetic shear. Conversely, by increasing the magnetic shear in the gradient region, both LHCD and fast wave electron heating (FWEH) have produced improved global confinement was carried by the bootstrap current. Fast wave current drive has been observed at the level of 80 kA in a 0.4 MA discharge. In the ergodic divertor configuration, stable radiative layers were obtained with neon injection. At least 80% of a total of 7 MW injected power were radiated without confinement degradation or impurity accumulation. Finally, the heat exhaust capability of the various actively cooled plasma facing components is briefly described. (author) 14 refs.; 13 figs

  18. Tool on tore / Lylian Meister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Valik põneva disainida toole, mida saab osta Eesti disainisalongidest. Toolide disainerid: Gio Ponti, Jean Prouve, Maarten van Severen, Verner Panton, Philippe Starck, Charles ja Ray Eames, Konstantin Grcic, Michael Thonet

  19. Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad en la empresa de maduración y venta de Plátanos, Plátanos Mochilo, S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Cantó, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo de fin de máster consiste en aplicar todos los conocimientos obtenidos a lo largo de este máster en la implantación de un sistema de calidad, según las directrices de la Norma ISO 9001. Para ello, y con ayuda de la empresa donde he realizado las prácticas de empresa, se ha planteado una empresa dedicada al sector hortofrutícola, concretamente a la maduración y comercialización de plátanos. Gracias a todos los compañeros de esta empresa, he podido conocer de pri...

  20. Analysis of the structure and operation of the level F PL/1 compiler: problems raised by the coupling of programmes written in different languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambou Sek, Jiri

    1974-01-01

    As the PL/1 programming language allows the treatment of a large range of commercial and scientific problems, it also raises specific problems for the development of a compiler on the one hand, and for the implementation of a management system within an installation comprising software written in different programming languages. The author reports the analysis of the level F PL/1 compiler developed by IBM, discusses issues related to the management of a PL/1 software within the framework of the OS/360 operating system. He reports the study of the linking conditions between PL/1 and the main existing programming languages under OS/360. He presents an interface system which allows a common exploitation of software written in different programming languages. He describes the syntax of the DECLARE statement, and its analysis by the interface system. The last part reports the generation of different data description vectors which are necessary for argument transmission [fr