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Sample records for svcv genogroup ia

  1. Susceptibility of Representative Great Lakes Fish Species to the North Carolina Strain of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthai, Traimat; Loch, Thomas P; Standish, Isaac; Faisal, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a notifiable pathogen of the World Organization of Animal Health. Since SVCV was isolated in Lake Ontario in 2007, concern has grown about its spread in the Great Lakes basin and its potential negative impacts on fish species of importance in stock enhancement programs basinwide. The susceptibility of representative fish species from the families Cyprinidae (Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, Spotfin Shiner Cyprinella spiloptera, and Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus), Centrarchidae (Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides), Percidae (Walleye Sander vitreus), Salmonidae (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Esocidae (Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) to SVCV was evaluated by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Morbidity and mortality were recorded, and virus re-isolation, seminested reverse transcription PCR, and histopathological assessments were performed. Using intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were highly susceptible to SVCV (40-70% mortality). All dead or moribund and apparently healthy surviving Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV positive. The SVCV was also detected in challenged but healthy Spotfin Shiners (30%) and Creek Chub (5%). However, noncyprinid species exhibited no morbidity or mortality and were free of SVCV following an observation period of 30 d. In a follow-up experimental challenge, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV challenged at 10 3 and 10 5 PFU/mL by means of waterborne immersion. After immersion, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners exhibited characteristic SVCV disease signs, but mortality was less (30% and 10% mortality, respectively) than that in fish with i.p. injections. The SVCV was detected in all mortalities and a subset of healthy Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners. Necrotic changes were observed in the kidneys, liver, spleen, ovaries, and heart, and other histopathological lesions also

  2. Molecular analysis of spring viraemia of carp virus in China: a fatal aquatic viral disease that might spread in East Asian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Spring viraemia of carp (SVC is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV. To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main

  3. Identification of multipath genes differentially expressed in pathway-targeted microarrays in zebrafish infected and surviving spring viremia carp virus (SVCV suggest preventive drug candidates.

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    Paloma Encinas

    Full Text Available Spring viremia carp virus (SVCV is a rhabdovirus seasonally affecting warm-water cyprinid fish farming causing high impacts in worldwide economy. Because of the lack of effective preventive treatments, the identification of multipath genes involved in SVCV infection might be an alternative to explore the possibilities of using drugs for seasonal prevention of this fish disease. Because the zebrafish (Danio rerio is a cyprinid susceptible to SVCV and their genetics and genome sequence are well advanced, it has been chosen as a model for SVCV infections. We have used newly designed pathway-targeted microarrays 3-4-fold enriched for immune/infection functional-relevant probes by using zebrafish orthologous to human genes from selected pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG. The comparative analysis of differential expression of genes through 20 pathways in 2-day exposed or 30-day survivors of SVCV infection allowed the identification of 16 multipath genes common to more than 6 pathways. In addition, receptors (Toll-like, B-cell, T-cell, RIG1-like as well as viral RNA infection pathways were identified as the most important human-like pathways targeted by SVCV infection. Furthermore, by using bioinformatic tools to compare the promoter sequences corresponding to up and downregulated multipath gene groups, we identified putative common transcription factors which might be controlling such responses in a coordinated manner. Possible drug candidates to be tested in fish, can be identified now through search of data bases among those associated with the human orthologous to the zebrafish multipath genes. With the use of pathway-targeted microarrays, we identified some of the most important genes and transcription factors which might be implicated in viral shutoff and/or host survival responses after SVCV infection. These results could contribute to develop novel drug-based prevention methods and consolidate the zebrafish/SVCV as a

  4. Imoudu, IA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imoudu, IA. Vol 2, No 1 (2015) - Articles Correlates of childhood enuresis in north western Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 2354-4325. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  5. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genogroup A and Norovirus Genogroup II in Bassaseachic Falls National Park Surface Waters in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma Carmen E; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Mendieta-Mendoza, Aurora; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Contreras-Cordero, Juan Francisco; Erosa-de la Vega, Gilberto; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2017-05-05

    In areas lacking potable water treatment, drinking contaminated water may represent a public health threat. In addition to enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites, fecal contamination in water environments is associated with the transmission of enteric viruses and other causal agents of infectious disease. Rotavirus and norovirus are the main enteric viral agents responsible for diarrheic outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to detect seasonal variation of rotavirus and norovirus in the surface water at Bassaseachic Falls National Park during 2013. Rivers and streams within and nearby this park were sampled once in each season during 2013. Viral concentration was carried out by a handmade filtration equipment, using a commercial electropositive membrane coupled with the virus absortion elution technique (VIRADEL©). Detection of rotavirus and norovirus was performed by SYBR Green reverse transcription-real time polymerase chain reaction (SYBR GREEN© RT-qPCR) analyses. Norovirus genogroup II was detected in samples collected in June and October 2013. In the case of rotavirus, genogroup A was detected in March and June. The presence of rotavirus and norovirus was related to viral acute diarrhea in children less than five years of age, who were inhabiting the sampled areas. This may indicates that the contaminated water was potentially a risk factor for regional diarrheic outbreaks.

  6. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genogroup A and Norovirus Genogroup II in Bassaseachic Falls National Park Surface Waters in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma. Carmen E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Mendieta-Mendoza, Aurora; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Contreras-Cordero, Juan Francisco; Erosa-de la Vega, Gilberto; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    In areas lacking potable water treatment, drinking contaminated water may represent a public health threat. In addition to enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites, fecal contamination in water environments is associated with the transmission of enteric viruses and other causal agents of infectious disease. Rotavirus and norovirus are the main enteric viral agents responsible for diarrheic outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to detect seasonal variation of rotavirus and norovirus in the surface water at Bassaseachic Falls National Park during 2013. Rivers and streams within and nearby this park were sampled once in each season during 2013. Viral concentration was carried out by a handmade filtration equipment, using a commercial electropositive membrane coupled with the virus absortion elution technique (VIRADEL©). Detection of rotavirus and norovirus was performed by SYBR Green reverse transcription-real time polymerase chain reaction (SYBR GREEN© RT-qPCR) analyses. Norovirus genogroup II was detected in samples collected in June and October 2013. In the case of rotavirus, genogroup A was detected in March and June. The presence of rotavirus and norovirus was related to viral acute diarrhea in children less than five years of age, who were inhabiting the sampled areas. This may indicates that the contaminated water was potentially a risk factor for regional diarrheic outbreaks. PMID:28475152

  7. High diversity of genogroup I picobirnaviruses in mammals

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    Patrick CY Woo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a molecular epidemiology study using 791 fecal samples collected from different terrestrial and marine mammals in Hong Kong, genogroup I picobirnaviruses (PBVs were positive by RT-PCR targeting the partial RdRp gene in specimens from 5 cattle, 6 monkeys, 17 horses, 9 pigs, 1 rabbit, 1 dog and 12 California sea lions, with 11, 9, 23, 17, 1, 1 and 15 sequence types in the positive specimens from the corresponding animals, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PBV sequences from each kind of animal were widely distributed in the whole tree with high diversity, sharing 47.4 to 89.0% nucleotide identities with other genogroup I PBV strains based on the partial RdRp gene. Nine complete segments 1 (viral loads 1.7×104 to 5.9×106/ml and 15 segments 2 (viral loads 4.1×103 to 1.3×106/ml of otarine PBVs from fecal samples serially collected from California sea lions were sequenced. In the two phylogenetic trees constructed using ORF2 and ORF3 of segment 1, the nine segment 1 sequences were clustered into four distinct clades (C1 to C4. In the tree constructed using RdRp gene of segment 2, the 15 segment 2 sequences were clustered into nine distinct clades (R1 to R9. In four sea lions, PBVs were detected in two different years, with the same segment 1 clade (C3 present in two consecutive years from one sea lion and different clades present in different years from three sea lions. A high diversity of PBVs was observed in a variety of terrestrial and marine mammals. Multiple sequence types with significant differences, representing multiple strains of PBV, were present in the majority of PBV-positive samples from different kinds of animals.

  8. Assessment of a commercial kit collection for diagnosis of the fish viruses: IHNV, IPNV, SVCV and VHSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    A commercial kit collection for the detection of the fish pathogenic viruses, VHSV, IHNV, IPNV, and SVCV, was assessed for its ability to detect isolates in selected panels of the respective viruses. The kit collection, which was based on fluorescence staining of infected cell cultures in tissue ...... culture plates, fulfilled the promised requirements for the IHN kit only. The IPN, the SVC and especially the VHS kit were lacking in either specificity or sensitivity. The findings stress the need for commercial companies to carry out proper validation before market release....

  9. Molecular detection and genetic analysis of Akabane virus genogroup Ib in small ruminants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat

    2017-09-01

    Akabane disease is a viral disease transmitted by biting midges and can cause teratogenic malformations in cattle, sheep and goats. Abortion outbreaks associated with arthrogryposis and cerebellar hypoplasia in two epidemiologically independent flocks were reported in the Mediterranean region of Turkey in 2015. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleocapsid (N) gene sequences showed that the field isolates presented here belong to the genogroup Ib. The akabane virus (AKAV) field isolates analysed in this study displayed 6 new amino acid substitutions in N and non-structural protein chains compared with those of AKAV strains belonging to genogroup Ib. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of the AKAV genogroup Ib in Turkey.

  10. Evolutionary trajectory of the VP1 gene of human enterovirus 71 genogroup B and C viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.G. van der Sanden (Sabine); H.G.A.M. van der Avoort (Harrie); P. Lemey (Philippe); G. Uslu (Gökhan); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1963 to 1986, human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) infections in the Netherlands were successively caused by viruses of subgenogroups B0, B1 and B2. A genogroup shift occurred in 1987, after which viruses of subgenogroups C1 and C2 were detected exclusively. This is in line with HEV71

  11. Murine Noroviruses Comprising a Single Genogroup Exhibit Biological Diversity despite Limited Sequence Divergence▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Thackray, Larissa B.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Chachu, Karen A.; Liu, Bo; Alegre, Eric R.; Henderson, Kenneth S.; Kelley, Scott T.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    Viruses within the genus Norovirus of the family Caliciviridae are the major cause of acute, nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human noroviruses are genetically diverse, with up to 57% divergence in capsid protein sequences, and comprise three genogroups. The significance of such genetic diversity is not yet understood. The discovery of murine norovirus (MNV) and its ability to productively infect cultured murine macrophages and dendritic cells has provided an opportunity to determine t...

  12. Geography and host species shape the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Allison; Breyta, Rachel; Bedford, Trevor; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a negative-sense RNA virus that infects wild and cultured salmonids throughout the Pacific Coastal United States and Canada, from California to Alaska. Although infection of adult fish is usually asymptomatic, juvenile infections can result in high mortality events that impact salmon hatchery programs and commercial aquaculture. We used epidemiological case data and genetic sequence data from a 303 nt portion of the viral glycoprotein gene to study the evolutionary dynamics of U genogroup IHNV in the Pacific Northwestern United States from 1971 to 2013. We identified 114 unique genotypes among 1,219 U genogroup IHNV isolates representing 619 virus detection events. We found evidence for two previously unidentified, broad subgroups within the U genogroup, which we designated ‘UC’ and ‘UP’. Epidemiologic records indicated that UP viruses were detected more frequently in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and in coastal waters of Washington and Oregon, whereas UC viruses were detected primarily in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, which is a large, complex watershed extending throughout much of interior Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. These findings were supported by phylogenetic analysis and by FST. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated that early UC viruses in the Columbia River Basin initially infected sockeye salmon but then emerged via host shifts into Chinook salmon and steelhead trout sometime during the 1980s. We postulate that the development of these subgroups within U genogroup was driven by selection pressure for viral adaptation to Chinook salmon and steelhead trout within the Columbia River Basin.

  13. Viral gastroenteritis associated with genogroup II norovirus among U.S. military personnel in Turkey, 2009.

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    Salwa F Ahmed

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates that multiple NoV genotypes belonging to genogroup II contributed to an acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a US military facility in Turkey that was associated with significant negative operational impact. Norovirus (NoV is an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among military populations. We describe the genotypes of NoV outbreak occurred at a United States military facility in Turkey. Stool samples were collected from 37 out of 97 patients presenting to the clinic on base with acute gastroenteritis and evaluated for bacterial and viral pathogens. NoV genogroup II (GII was identified by RT-PCR in 43% (16/37 stool samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a 260 base pair fragment of the NoV capsid gene from ten stool samples indicated the circulation of multiple and rare genotypes of GII NoV during the outbreak. We detected four GII.8 isolates, three GII.15, two GII.9 and a sole GII.10 NoV. Viral sequences could be grouped into four clusters, three of which have not been previously reported in Turkey. The fact that current NoV outbreak was caused by rare genotypes highlights the importance of norovirus strain typing. While NoV genogroup II is recognized as causative agent of outbreak, circulation of current genotypes has been rarely observed in large number of outbreaks.

  14. Distribution in Tissue and Seasonal Variation of Norovirus Genogroup I and II Ligands in Oysters▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Haifa; Zakhour, Maha; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2010-01-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, filter large volumes of water as part of their feeding activities and are able to accumulate and concentrate different types of pathogens, particularly noroviruses, from fecal human pollution. Based on our previous observation of a specific binding of the Norwalk strain (prototype norovirus genogroup I) to the oyster digestive tract through an A-like carbohydrate structure indistinguishable from human blood group A antigen and on the large diversity between strains in terms of carbohydrate-binding specificities, we evaluated the different ligands implicated in attachment to oysters tissues of strains representative of two main genogroups of human norovirus. The GI.1 and GII.4 strains differed in that the latter recognized a sialic acid-containing ligand, present in all tissues, in addition to the A-like ligand of the digestive tract shared with the GI.1 strain. Furthermore, bioaccumulation experiments using wild-type or mutant GI.1 Viruslike particles showed accumulation in hemocytes largely, but not exclusively, based on interaction with the A-like ligand. Moreover, a seasonal effect on the expression of these ligands was detected, most visibly for the GI.1 strain, with a peak in late winter and spring, a period when GI strains are regularly involved in oyster-related outbreaks. These observations may explain some of the distinct epidemiological features of strains from different genogroups. PMID:20562271

  15. Distribution in tissue and seasonal variation of norovirus genogroup I and II ligands in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Haifa; Zakhour, Maha; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2010-08-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, filter large volumes of water as part of their feeding activities and are able to accumulate and concentrate different types of pathogens, particularly noroviruses, from fecal human pollution. Based on our previous observation of a specific binding of the Norwalk strain (prototype norovirus genogroup I) to the oyster digestive tract through an A-like carbohydrate structure indistinguishable from human blood group A antigen and on the large diversity between strains in terms of carbohydrate-binding specificities, we evaluated the different ligands implicated in attachment to oysters tissues of strains representative of two main genogroups of human norovirus. The GI.1 and GII.4 strains differed in that the latter recognized a sialic acid-containing ligand, present in all tissues, in addition to the A-like ligand of the digestive tract shared with the GI.1 strain. Furthermore, bioaccumulation experiments using wild-type or mutant GI.1 Viruslike particles showed accumulation in hemocytes largely, but not exclusively, based on interaction with the A-like ligand. Moreover, a seasonal effect on the expression of these ligands was detected, most visibly for the GI.1 strain, with a peak in late winter and spring, a period when GI strains are regularly involved in oyster-related outbreaks. These observations may explain some of the distinct epidemiological features of strains from different genogroups.

  16. Genogrouping of vaccine breakdown strains (VBS) of feline calicivirus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, K; Sakai, S; Takahasi, T; Sunaga, F; Murakami, M; Kiuchi, A; Fukuyama, M; Furuhata, K; Hara, M; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    2007-05-01

    Although prevention of feline calcivirus (FCV) infection by vaccination has been attempted, and isolation of FCV, development of the disease, and a few fatal cases in vaccinated cats have been reported. Fifteen FCV strains isolated from cats that had been vaccinated with commercially available FCV vaccines (F9, FCV-255, and FC-7) were genogrouped. Molecular analysis of viral genomes involved the construction of a phylogenetic tree of capsid genes using the NJ method. Cat anti-F9 serum and rabbit anti-FCV-255 serum were used for virus neutralization tests. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of 15 virus isolates and those of the previously published and GenBank-deposited 9 global and 14 Japanese strains showed that 8 (53%) of the 15 virus isolates as well as the vaccine strains F9 and FCV-255 belonged to genogroup I (G(A)I), and 7 (47%) belonged to genogroup II (G(A)II). Of the 8 G(A)I strains, 2 were isolated from cats that had been vaccinated with an F9 strain live vaccine, 5 from cats vaccinated with an FCV-255-derived vaccine, and 1 from a cat vaccinated with an FC-7-derived vaccine. Of the 7 GAll strains, 5 were isolated from cats that had been vaccinated with the F9 strain live vaccine, 1 from a cat vaccinated with the FCV-255-derived vaccine, and 1 from a cat vaccinated with the FC-7-derived vaccine. These results indicate that more vaccine breakdown strains isolated from the cats vaccinated with the F9 strain-derived vaccine belong to G(A)II than to G(A)I, whereas more vaccine breakdown strains isolated from the cats vaccinated with the FCV-255 strain-derived vaccine belong to G(A)I than to G(A)II, and that when the FC-7 strain-derived vaccine is used, the vaccine breakdown strains belong almost equally to G(A)I and G(A)II. Thus, the genogroups of virus isolates varied with the vaccine strain used (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the neutralizing titres of feline anti-F9 serum and rabbit anti-FCV-255 serum against the 15 isolates were

  17. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  18. Development and Application of Quantitative Detection Method for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) Genogroup IVa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Si-Woo; Han, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene sequence of Korean VHSV isolate (Genogroup IVa). The slope and R2 values of the primer set developed in this study were −0.2928 (96% efficiency) and 0.9979, respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by traditional quantifying method (TCID50) showed a similar pattern of kinetic changes in vitro and in vivo. The qRT-PCR method reduced detection time compared to that of TCID50, making it a very useful tool for VHSV diagnosis. PMID:24859343

  19. Development and Application of Quantitative Detection Method for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV Genogroup IVa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Oh Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR method based on the nucleocapsid (N gene sequence of Korean VHSV isolate (Genogroup IVa. The slope and R2 values of the primer set developed in this study were −0.2928 (96% efficiency and 0.9979, respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by traditional quantifying method (TCID50 showed a similar pattern of kinetic changes in vitro and in vivo. The qRT-PCR method reduced detection time compared to that of TCID50, making it a very useful tool for VHSV diagnosis.

  20. Optimizing IA-64 performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S

    2001-01-01

    Examines key features of the Itanium processor architecture and microarchitecture. The Itanium, originally known as the IA-64, is a 64-bit processor designed by Hewlett-Packard and Intel. In addition to the obvious performance gains that 64-bit addressing brings, the Itanium also supports performance-enhancing techniques such as predication, speculation, rotating registers, a wide parallel execution core, high clock speed, fast bus architecture, multiple execution units, and the like. Moreover, the Itanium is designed from the ground up around parallelism and uses a new kind of instruction set based on the Explicit Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) specification, which allows the processing of Windows-based and UNIX- based applications, among other features. Operating-system support for the IA-64 has been announced for 64-bit Windows, HP-UX, varieties of Linux, and AIX 51. The author shows how to achieve optimal code generation by a compiler or generate optimized sequences ofIA-64 assembly code to ensure ...

  1. Phylogenetic patterns of human coxsackievirus B5 arise from population dynamics between two genogroups and reveal evolutionary factors of molecular adaptation and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henquell, Cécile; Mirand, Audrey; Richter, Jan; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Böttiger, Blenda; Diedrich, Sabine; Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena; Christodoulou, Christina; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insights into the tempo and mode of the evolutionary processes that sustain genetic diversity in coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) and into the interplay with virus transmission. We estimated phylodynamic patterns with a large sample of virus strains collected in Europe by Bayesian statistical methods, reconstructed the ancestral states of genealogical nodes, and tested for selection. The genealogies estimated with the structural one-dimensional gene encoding the VP1 protein and nonstructural 3CD locus allowed the precise description of lineages over time and cocirculating virus populations within the two CVB5 clades, genogroups A and B. Strong negative selection shaped the evolution of both loci, but compelling phylogenetic data suggested that immune selection pressure resulted in the emergence of the two genogroups with opposed evolutionary pathways. The genogroups also differed in the temporal occurrence of the amino acid changes. The virus strains of genogroup A were characterized by sequential acquisition of nonsynonymous changes in residues exposed at the virus 5-fold axis. The genogroup B viruses were marked by selection of three changes in a different domain (VP1 C terminus) during its early emergence. These external changes resulted in a selective sweep, which was followed by an evolutionary stasis that is still ongoing after 50 years. The inferred population history of CVB5 showed an alternation of the prevailing genogroup during meningitis epidemics across Europe and is interpreted to be a consequence of partial cross-immunity.

  2. Influence of temperature on viral hemorrhagic septicemia (Genogroup IVa) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P.K.; Purcell, M.K.; Hart, L.M.; Gregg, J.L.; Thompson, R.L.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    An inverse relationship between water temperature and susceptibility of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) to viral hemorrhagic septicemia, genogroup IVa (VHS) was indicated by controlled exposure studies where cumulative mortalities, viral shedding rates, and viral persistence in survivors were greatest at the coolest exposure temperatures. Among groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific herring maintained at 8, 11, and 15 °C, cumulative mortalities after waterborne exposure to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were 78%, 40%, and 13%, respectively. The prevalence of survivors with VHSV-positive tissues 25 d post-exposure was 64%, 16%, and 0% (at 8, 11 and 15 °C, respectively) with viral prevalence typically higher in brain tissues than in kidney/spleen tissue pools at each temperature. Similarly, geometric mean viral titers in brain tissues and kidney/spleen tissue pools decreased at higher temperatures, and kidney/spleen titers were generally 10-fold lower than those in brain tissues at each temperature. This inverse relationship between temperature and VHS severity was likely mediated by an enhanced immune response at the warmer temperatures, where a robust type I interferon response was indicated by rapid and significant upregulation of the herring Mx gene. The effect of relatively small temperature differences on the susceptibility of a natural host to VHS provides insights into conditions that preface periodic VHSV epizootics in wild populations throughout the NE Pacific.

  3. An outbreak of norovirus genogroup II associated with New South Wales oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Tove L; Merritt, Tony D; Zammit, Anthony; McLeod, Catherine; Landinez, Lina M; White, Peter A; Munnoch, Sally A; Durrheim, David N

    2014-03-31

    Currently available antigen tests for norovirus (NoV) have excellent specificity but negative results do not always rule out infection. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a useful method for detecting and genotyping NoV in humans and oysters. An outbreak of NoV associated with oyster consumption in northern New South Wales confirmed the value of real-time RT-PCR where immunochromatography (ICT) tests were negative. Eight cases of gastrointestinal illness in northern NSW, clinically suggestive of NoV infection, were associated with consumption of oysters. A joint environmental investigation was conducted by the New South Wales Food Authority and local council. One human sample was collected and tested for NoV using ICT and real-time RT-PCR. Oyster samples were tested for NoV utilising real-time RT-PCR. The patient with a stool sample had NoV genogroup II (GII) confirmed by real-time RT-PCR after testing negative by ICT. Illness in all cases was consistent with NoV with median incubation and duration of 36 and 50.5 hours respectively. All cases consumed oysters that were harvested from the same area. Three oyster samples from the harvest area were also positive for NoV GII. A nearby leaking sewer line was identified as the likely source of the contamination with hydrological studies confirming its potential to contaminate implicated oyster leases. This investigation confirmed the value of real-time RT-PCR testing of human specimens where ICT tests are negative and clinical illness is suggestive of NoV infection. NoV real-time RT-PCR and epidemiological evidence effectively linked human infection with oyster contamination to motivate a thorough environmental investigation and appropriate action to mitigate further public health risk. copyright@health.gov.au

  4. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS IN IAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Kreft

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We are reviewing and commenting highlights of the research published in Image Analysis and Stereology journal (IAS, volume 35, where 16 original research papers on image analysis, computer vision, modelling, and other approaches were published. We have reported on the precision of curve length estimation in the plane. Further, a focus was on a robust estimation technique for 3D point cloud registration. Next contribution in computer vision was on the accuracy of stereo matching algorithm based on illumination control. An attempt was also made to automatically diagnose prenatal cleft lip with representative key points and identify the type of defect in three-dimensional ultrasonography. Similarly, a new report is presenting estimation of torsion of digital curves in 3D images and next, the nuchal translucency by ultrasound is being analyzed. Also in ophthalmology, image analysis may help physicians to establish a correct diagnosis, which is supported by a new approach to measure tortuosity of retinal vessel. Another report of medical significance analyzed correlation of the shape parameters for characterization of images of corneal endothelium cells. Shape analysis is also an important topic in material science, e.g. in analyzing fine aggregates in concrete. As in concrete, in fiber reinforced composites image analysis may aid in improved quality, where the direction of fibers have decisive impact on properties. Automatic defect detection using a computer vision system improves productivity quality in industrial production, hence we report of a new Haar wavelet-based approach.

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of the Xpert Norovirus Assay for Detection of Norovirus Genogroups I and II in Fecal Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mark D.; Langley, L. Claire; Faron, Matthew L.; Maier, Melanie; Templeton, Kate; Walker, Kimberly; Popowitch, Elena B.; Miller, Melissa B.; Rao, Arundhati; Liebert, Uwe G.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Vinjé, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and outbreaks worldwide. The rapid identification of norovirus has important implications for infection prevention measures and may reduce the need for additional diagnostic testing. The Xpert Norovirus assay recently received FDA clearance for the detection and differentiation of norovirus genogroups I and II (GI and GII), which account for the vast majority of infections. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Xpert Norovirus assay with both fresh, prospectively collected (n = 914) and frozen, archived (n = 489) fecal specimens. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) composite reference method was used as the gold standard for comparison. For both prospective and frozen specimens, the Xpert Norovirus assay showed positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values of 98.3% and 98.1% for GI and of 99.4% and 98.2% for GII, respectively. Norovirus prevalence in the prospective specimens (collected from March to May of 2014) was 9.9% (n = 90), with the majority of positives caused by genogroup II (82%, n = 74). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the Xpert Norovirus assay was 75% for GI-positive specimens, whereas it was 86.5% for GII-positive specimens. The negative predictive values (NPV) for GI and GII were 100% and 99.9%, respectively. PMID:26560532

  6. Progenitors of Supernovae Type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Bours, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Claeys, J.; Mennekens, N.; Ruiter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. The standard scenarios involve thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs approaching the Chandrasekhar mass; either by accretion from a companion or by a merger of two white dwarfs. We investigate the contribution from both channels to the SNIa rate with the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa in order to constrain binary processes such as the mass retention efficiency of WD accretion and common envelope evolution. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of SNIa progenitors and in particular study how assumptions affect the predicted rates.

  7. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Paech, K. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); and others

    2011-12-10

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II {lambda}6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s{sup -1}) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22{sup +10}{sub -6%} of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as -5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II {lambda}6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  8. The first IA-64 microprocessor

    CERN Document Server

    Rusu, S

    2000-01-01

    The first implementation of the IA-64 architecture achieves high performance by using a highly parallel execution core, while maintaining binary compatibility with the IA-32 instruction set. Explicitly parallel instruction computing (EPIC) design maximizes performance through hardware and software synergy. The processor contains 25.4 million transistors and operates at 800 MHz. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18- mu m CMOS process with six metal layers and packaged in a 1012-pad organic land grid array using C4 (flip chip) assembly technology. A core speed back-side bus connects the processor to a 4-MB L3 cache. (6 refs).

  9. Development and evaluation of novel one-step TaqMan realtime RT-PCR assays for the detection and direct genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vega, Everado; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundCurrent detection and genotyping methods of genogroup (G) I and II noroviruses (NoVs) consist of a 2-step approach including detection of viral RNA by TaqMan realtime RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) followed by conventional RT-PCR and sequencing of partial regions of ORF1 or ORF2. ObjectiveTo develop...

  10. Characterization and inhibition of norovirus proteases of genogroups I and II using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kyeong-Ok [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, KS 66506 (United States); Takahashi, Daisuke; Prakash, Om [Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kim, Yunjeong, E-mail: ykim@vet.ksu.edu [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, KS 66506 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Noroviruses are the major cause of food- or water-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. The norovirus protease that cleaves a large viral polyprotein to nonstructural proteins is essential for virus replication and an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Noroviruses show high genetic diversity with at least five genogroups, GI-GV, of which GI and GII are responsible for the majority of norovirus infections in humans. We cloned and expressed proteases of Norwalk virus (GI) and MD145 virus (GII) and characterized the enzymatic activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates. We demonstrated that the GI and GII proteases cleaved the substrates derived from the naturally occurring cleavage site in the open reading frame (ORF) 1 of G1 norovirus with similar efficiency, and that enzymatic activity of both proteases was inhibited by commercial protease inhibitors including chymostatin. The interaction of chymostatin to Norwalk virus protease was validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  11. Genogroup I picobirnavirus in diarrhoeic foals: Can the horse serve as a natural reservoir for human infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Balasubramanian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Picobirnaviruses (PBV are small, non-enveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. In this study a PBV strain, PBV/Horse/India/BG-Eq-3/2010, was identified in the faeces of a 10 month old weaned female foal with diarrhoea in January 2010 from Kolkata, India. Surprisingly, sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of a short stretch of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene revealed close genetic relatedness (> 98% nucleotide identity to a human genogroup I PBV strain (Hu/GPBV1 detected earlier from the same part of India. Our observations together with earlier findings on genetic relatedness between human and animal PBV warrant further studies on zoonotic potential.

  12. ia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Isabel Carricondo Martínez

    Full Text Available La elevada prevalencia de la fibromialgia en la actualidad y sus grandes repercusiones sociales, justifican la constante búsqueda de tratamientos para paliar los síntomas de una enfermedad hasta hoy incurable. Este artículo presenta, por una parte, un breve repaso sobre el concepto de fibromialgia y de la ketamina, como tercera línea de tratamiento, y por otra, la visión desde una perspectiva fenomenológica, de una paciente con fibromialgia, tras someterse a dicho tratamiento, junto con sus vivencias más íntimas y personales desde el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad.

  13. Dark Matter Ignition of Type Ia Supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-10-02

    Recent studies of low redshift type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) indicate that half explode from less than Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, implying ignition must proceed from something besides the canonical criticality of Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia progenitors. We show that 1-100 PeV mass asymmetric dark matter, with imminently detectable nucleon scattering interactions, can accumulate to the point of self-gravitation in a white dwarf and collapse, shedding gravitational potential energy by scattering off nuclei, thereby heating the white dwarf and igniting the flame front that precedes SN Ia. We combine data on SN Ia masses with data on the ages of SN Ia-adjacent stars. This combination reveals a 2.8σ inverse correlation between SN Ia masses and ignition ages, which could result from increased capture of dark matter in 1.4 vs 1.1 solar mass white dwarfs. Future studies of SN Ia in galactic centers will provide additional tests of dark-matter-induced type Ia ignition. Remarkably, both bosonic and fermionic SN Ia-igniting dark matter also resolve the missing pulsar problem by forming black holes in ≳10  Myr old pulsars at the center of the Milky Way.

  14. Gonorréia Gonorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Oliveira Penna

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A gonorréia é uma infecção bacteriana freqüente, causada pela Neisseria gonorrhoeae, um diplococo Gram-negativo de transmissão quase que exclusiva através de contato sexual ou perinatal. Primariamente afeta membranas mucosas do trato genital inferior, e mais raramente, as mucosas do reto, orofaringe e conjuntiva. A infecção genital ascendente na mulher leva a uma complicação séria, a salpingite aguda, uma das principais causas de infertilidade feminina. A partir dos anos 90, deu-se início a um novo tempo no que se refere a descobertas sobre a patogenia da gonorréia e seu agente etiológico. O controle da gonorréia tem sido difícil na maioria das populações, e essa permanece um exemplo da influência que os fatores sociais, comportamentais e demográficos exercem na epidemiologia de uma doença infecciosa. O manejo da gonorréia e de outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis requer tanto o tratamento do paciente e de seu parceiro sexual como medidas de saúde pública para interromper a transmissão da infecção e evitar complicações a longo prazo.Gonorrhea is a common bacterial infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Gram-negative diplococcus that is transmitted almost exclusively by sexual contact or perinatally. It primarily affects the mucous membranes of the lower genital tract and less frequently those of the rectum, oropharynx, and conjunctivae. Ascending genital infection in women leads to the predominant complication, acute salpingitis, one of the most common causes of female infertility in the world. Since the 1990s, a remarkable surge of information ensued regarding the pathogenesis of gonorrhea and its agent. Gonorrohea has proven difficult to control in most populations and remains a prime example of the influence that social, behavioral, and demographic factors can have on the epidemiology of an infectious disease. The management of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections requires both

  15. Detection and differentiation of norovirus genogroups I and II from clinical stool specimens using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Poornima; Espy, M J; Khare, Reeti; Binnicker, M J

    2017-04-01

    A real-time RT-PCR assay was designed to detect and differentiate norovirus genogroups I (GI) and II (GII), with primers and probes targeting the nonstructural polyprotein gene. Stool samples (n = 100) submitted for routine testing by the BioFire FilmArray® GI panel were also tested by the norovirus GI/GII real-time PCR assays. When compared to the FilmArray GI panel, the norovirus real-time PCR assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 77.5% (62/80) and specificity of 95% (19/20). Specimens yielding discordant results (n = 19) were tested at two outside laboratories for adjudication. Following discordant resolution, the adjusted sensitivity and specificity of the norovirus real-time PCR assays were 96.9% (63/65) and 100% (35/35), respectively. These results suggest that the real-time PCR assays are able to accurately detect and differentiate norovirus GI/GII from clinical stool specimens. Furthermore, our report highlights a potential issue with the specificity of the BioFire FilmArray® norovirus assay, which warrants additional investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Polarization Sequence for Type Ia Supernovae?

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xiangcun; Zhang, Jujia; Han, Zhanwen

    2017-01-01

    Early polarization observations on Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) may reveal the geometry of supernova ejecta, and then put constraints on their explosion mechanism and their progenitor model. We performed a literature search of SNe Ia with polarization measurements and determined the polarization and relative equivalent width (REW) of Si II 635.5-nm absorption feature at -5 days after the maximum light. We found that either the distribution of observed polarization degree is bimodal, i.e. the b...

  17. Specificity of DNA vaccines against the U and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; LaPatra, S.E.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes significant mortality in salmonid species. In North America IHNV has three major genogroups designated U, M, and L. Host-specificity of the M and U genogroups of IHNV has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges, with M isolates being more prevalent and more virulent in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and U isolates being more prevalent and highly virulent in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). In this study, efficacy of DNA vaccines containing either M (pM) or U (pU) virus glycoprotein genes was investigated during intra- and cross-genogroup challenges in rainbow trout. In virus challenges at 7 days post-vaccination (early antiviral response), both pM and pU were highly protective against either M or U IHNV. In challenges at 28 days post-vaccination (specific antiviral response), both pM and pU were protective against M IHNV but the homologous pM vaccine was significantly more protective than pU in one of two experiments. At this stage both pM and pU induced comparably high protection against U IHNV challenge. Correlates of protection were also investigated by assessing the expression of the interferon-stimulated gene Mx-1 and the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) following pM or pU DNA vaccination. Mx-1 gene expression, measured at 4 and 7 days post-vaccination as an indicator of the host innate immune response, was found to be significantly higher after pM than pU vaccination in some cases. Neutralizing antibody was produced in response to the two vaccines, but antibody titers did not show consistent correlation with protection. The results show that the rainbow trout innate and adaptive immune responses have some ability to distinguish between the U and M genogroup IHNV, but overall the pM and pU vaccines were protective against both homologous and cross-genogroup challenges.

  18. Intelligent Autonomous Systems 11: IAS-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, H.I.; Groen, F.; Petriu, E.

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the eleventh International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-11) at the University of Ottawa in Canada. As ever, the purpose of the IAS conference is to bring together leading international researchers with an interest in all aspects of the

  19. Inactivation of Human Norovirus Genogroups I and II and Surrogates by Free Chlorine in Postharvest Leafy Green Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, Nathan; Weng, ShihChi; Jacangelo, Joseph G; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-11-15

    Human noroviruses (hNoVs) are a known public health concern associated with the consumption of leafy green vegetables. While a number of studies have investigated pathogen reduction on the surfaces of leafy greens during the postharvest washing process, there remains a paucity of data on the level of treatment needed to inactivate viruses in the wash water, which is critical for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to quantify the susceptibility of hNoV genotype I (GI), hNoV GII, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 to free chlorine in whole leaf, chopped romaine, and shredded iceberg lettuce industrial leafy green wash waters, each sampled three times over a 4-month period. A suite of kinetic inactivation models was fit to the viral reduction data to aid in quantification of concentration-time (CT) values. Results indicate that 3-log 10 infectivity reduction was achieved at CT values of less than 0.2 mg · min/liter for MNV and 2.5 mg · min/liter for MS2 in all wash water types. CT values for 2-log 10 molecular reduction of hNoV GI in whole leaf and chopped romaine wash waters were 1.5 and 0.9 mg · min/liter, respectively. For hNoV GII, CT values were 13.0 and 7.5 mg · min/liter, respectively. In shredded iceberg wash water, 3-log 10 molecular reduction was not observed for any virus over the time course of experiments. These findings demonstrate that noroviruses may exhibit genogroup-dependent resistance to free chlorine and emphasize the importance of distinguishing between genogroups in hNoV persistence studies. IMPORTANCE Postharvest washing of millions of pounds of leafy greens is performed daily in industrial processing facilities with the intention of removing dirt, debris, and pathogenic microorganisms prior to packaging. Modest inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms (less than 2 log 10 ) is known to occur on the surfaces of leafy greens during washing. Therefore, the primary purpose of the sanitizing agent is to

  20. Evaluation of real-time RT-PCR assays for detection and quantification of norovirus genogroups I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprom, Kitwadee; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Diraphat, Pornphan; Kittigul, Leera

    2017-04-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) is a promising molecular method for the detection of noroviruses. In this study, the performance of three TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays was assessed, which were one commercially available real-time RT-PCR kit (assay A: Norovirus Real Time RT-PCR kit) and two in-house real-time RT-PCR assays (assay B: LightCycler RNA Master Hybprobe and assay C: RealTime ready RNA Virus Master). Assays A and B showed higher sensitivity than assay C for norovirus GI, while they all had the same sensitivity (10 3 DNA copies/mL) for GII DNA standard controls. Assay B had the highest efficiency for both genogroups. No cross-reactivity was observed among GI and GII noroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and poliovirus. The detection rates of these assays in GI and GII norovirus-positive fecal samples were not significantly different. However, the mean quantification cycle (Cq) value of assay B for GII was lower than assays A and C with statistical significance (P-value, 0.000). All three real-time RT-PCR assays could detect a variety of noroviruses including GI.2, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.12, GII.17, and GII.21. This study suggests assay B as a suitable assay for the detection and quantification of noroviruses GI and GII due to good analytical sensitivity and higher performance to amplify norovirus on DNA standard controls and clinical samples.

  1. Disruption of gene expression rhythms in mice lacking secretory vesicle proteins IA-2 and IA-2β

    OpenAIRE

    Punia, Sohan; Rumery, Kyle K.; Yu, Elizabeth A.; Christopher M Lambert; Notkins, Abner L.; David R Weaver

    2012-01-01

    Insulinoma-associated protein (IA)-2 and IA-2β are transmembrane proteins involved in neurotransmitter secretion. Mice with targeted disruption of both IA-2 and IA-2β (double-knockout, or DKO mice) have numerous endocrine and physiological disruptions, including disruption of circadian and diurnal rhythms. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of disruption of IA-2 and IA-2β on molecular rhythms in the brain and peripheral oscillators. We used in situ hybridization to assess molec...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Woodbine, IA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  3. Improvements to type Ia supernova models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Clare M.

    Type Ia Supernovae provided the first strong evidence of dark energy and are still an important tool for measuring the accelerated expansion of the universe. However, future improvements will be limited by systematic uncertainties in our use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles. Using Type Ia supernovae for cosmology relies on our ability to standardize their absolute magnitudes, but this relies on imperfect models of supernova spectra time series. This thesis is focused on using data from the Nearby Supernova Factory both to understand current sources of uncertainty in standardizing Type Ia supernovae and to develop techniques that can be used to limit uncertainty in future analyses. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  4. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for

  5. Average Spectral Properties of Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Syed A.; Mould, Jeremy; Wang, Lifan

    2017-12-01

    We construct the average spectra of host galaxies of slower, faster, bluer, and redder Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the SDSS-II supernova survey. The average spectrum of slower declining (broader light curve width or higher stretch) SN Ia hosts shows stronger emission lines compared to the average spectrum of faster declining (narrower light curve width or lower stretch) SN Ia hosts. Using pPXF, we find that hosts of slower declining SNe Ia have metallicities that are, on average, 0.24 dex lower than average metallicities of faster declining SN Ia hosts. Similarly, redder SN Ia hosts have slightly higher metallicities than bluer SN Ia hosts. Lick index analysis of metallic lines and Balmer lines shows that faster declining SN Ia hosts have relatively higher metal content and have relatively older stellar populations compared with slower declining SN Ia hosts. We calculate average {{{H}}}α star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and the specific SFR (sSFR) of host galaxies in these subgroups of SNe Ia. We find that slower declining SN Ia hosts have significantly higher (> 5σ ) sSFR than faster declining SN Ia hosts. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that these two types of hosts originate from different parent distributions. Our results, when compared with the models of Childress et al., indicate that slower declining SNe Ia, being hosted in actively star-forming galaxies, are young (prompt) SNe Ia, originating from similar progenitor age groups.

  6. Self-Assembly of the Recombinant Capsid Protein of a Swine Norovirus into Virus-Like Particles and Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies Cross-Reactive with a Human Strain from Genogroup II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almanza, H.; Cubillos, C.; Angulo, I.; Mateos, F.; Castön, J.R.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Vinje, J.; Bárcena, J.; Mena, I.

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for the majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Recently, NoV strains which are genetically closely related to human genogroup II (GII) NoVs have been detected in fecal specimens from swine. These findings have raised concern about the possible role of

  7. On the Brightness of Supernova Ia

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    Before 1998 the universe expansion was thought to be slowing down. After 1998 the universe expansion is thought to be accelerating up. The key evidence came from the observed brightness of high redshift supernovae Ia in 1998. Astronomers found that the observed brightness of high redshift supernovae Ia is fainter than expected. Astronomers believe this means that the universe expansion is accelerating up. In this paper it is argued that if the ionized gas in the universe space is taken into account, then the brightness of the high redshift supernova Ia should be fainter than expected. The universe expansion does not need to be accelerating up. The exotic form of energy (dark energy) does not need to be introduce

  8. Investigation of a food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis in a school canteen revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V not detected by standard PCR, Sollentuna, Sweden, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergens, Maria-Pia; Nederby Öhd, Joanna; Alm, Erik; Askling, Helena H; Helgesson, Sofia; Insulander, Mona; Lagerqvist, Nina; Svenungsson, Bo; Tihane, Malin; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Follin, Per

    2017-06-01

    A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested that the source of the outbreak was the salad buffet served on 20 April, although no specific food item could be identified. Subsequent electron microscopic examination of stool samples followed by whole genome sequencing revealed a variant of sapovirus genogroup V. The virus was not detected using standard PCR screening. This paper describes the epidemiological outbreak investigation and findings leading to the discovery. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  9. Ideal bandpasses for type Ia supernova cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Tamara M.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Kim, Alex G.

    2005-10-24

    To use type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmologywe need accurate broadband magnitudes. In practice the observed magnitudemay differ from the ideal magnitude-redshift relationship either throughintrinsic inhomogeneities in the type Ia supernova population or throughobservational error. Here we investigate how we can choose filterbandpasses to reduce the error caused by both these effects. We find thatbandpasses with large integral fluxes and sloping wings are best able tominimise several sources of observational error, and are also leastsensitive to intrinsic differences in type Ia supernovae. The mostimportant feature of a complete filter set for type Ia supernovacosmology is that each bandpass be a redshifted copy of the first. Wedesign practical sets of redshifted bandpasses that are matched totypical high resistivity CCD and HgCdTe infra-red detector sensitivities.These are designed to minimise systematic error in well observedsupernovae, final designs for specific missions should also considersignal-to-noise requirements and observing strategy. In addition wecalculate how accurately filters need to be calibrated in order toachieve the required photometric accuracy of future supernova cosmologyexperiments such as the SuperNova-Acceleration-Probe (SNAP), which is onepossible realisation of the Joint Dark-Energy mission (JDEM). We considerthe effect of possible periodic miscalibrations that may arise from theconstruction of an interference filter.

  10. Near-infrared SN Ia Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Arturo; Kirshner, Robert; Mandel, Kaisey; Challis, Peter; Friedman, Andrew; RAISIN Team

    2018-01-01

    Observations of SN Ia in the near infrared (NIR) are a promising way to construct an accurate cosmic expansion history to constrain the properties of dark energy. SN Ia are more nearly standard candles in NIR than in optical bands, while dust absorption is less of a problem at NIR wavelengths. This allows us to investigate the dark energy properties in a way that is less sensitive to systematic errors due to the variations in the intrinsic brightness of SN Ia or the properties of dust in their host galaxies. In this talk, I present preliminary results from our RAISIN 1 (HST GO-13046) and RAISIN 2 (HST GO-14216) programs with the Hubble Space Telescope, where we have constructed a Hubble diagram combining optical + NIR photometric data using a sample of low and high redshift SN Ia. I will discuss our current results, challenges, and the advantage of using optical + NIR data to derive accurate cosmic distances and improve knowledge of the dark energy equation of state. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-156854 and AST-1211196.

  11. Cataclysmic Variables as Supernova Ia Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Kafka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the identification of the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa remains controversial, it is generally accepted that they originate from binary star systems in which at least one component is a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD; those systems are grouped under the wide umbrella of cataclysmic variables. Current theories for SNeIa progenitors hold that, either via Roche lobe overflow of the companion or via a wind, the WD accumulates hydrogen or helium rich material which is then burned to C and O onto the WD’s surface. However, the specifics of this scenario are far from being understood or defined, allowing for a wealth of theories fighting for attention and a dearth of observations to support them. I discuss the latest attempts to identify and study those controversial SNeIa progenitors. I also introduce the most promising progenitor in hand and I present observational diagnostics that can reveal more members of the category.

  12. Penerapan PSAK Adopsi IAS 41 Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanus Ariyanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether the application of PSAK adopted from IAS 41: Agriculture should be applied to State-Owned Enterprises, especially the plantation SOE. So that the SOE financial information produced becomes more useful for decision-making. Furthermore, this study wants to answer what benefits can be obtained from the implementation of this standard on the plantation-based SOE. The main characteristic of IAS is the use of fair value model for biological assets owned by the agriculture-based entity. The use of this model raises a lot of controversy, primarily, associated with relevant quality and reliability of the information it produces. Research used qualitative method with data collection through literature study, survey, interview, and observation. Survey and interview were divided into two major parts, which were: on the compilers of financial statements and the stakeholders. From this study it can be concluded that the PSAK based on IAS 41 have not to be implemented yet in the near future due to IAS 41 will undergo quite significant revision. Currently, the State-Owned Enterprises could use the PSAK plantation SOE that has been issued.

  13. Multidimensional Simulations of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, A. C.; Ricker, P. M.; Dursi, L. J.; Truran, J. W.; Fryxell, B.; Rosner, R.; Timmes, F. X.; Tufo, H. M.; Zingale, M.; Olson, K.; MacNeice, P.

    2001-12-01

    We present results from two- and three-dimensional simulations of Type Ia supernovae carried out from first principles using the adaptive-mesh code FLASH. Considering off-center prompt detonations in Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, we observe temperature and abundance inhomogeneities with a cell-like structure behind the detonation front. We discuss these results in light of the commonly accepted view that prompt detonation models cannot reproduce the abundances of intermediate-mass elements observed in Type Ia supernovae, considering in general the observability of multidimensional structure in carbon detonations under conditions present in a white dwarf. This research has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant no. B341495 to the ASCI Flash Center at the University of Chicago.

  14. Optimization of Molecular Approaches to Genogroup Neisseria meningitidis Carriage Isolates and Implications for Monitoring the Impact of New Serogroup B Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas

    Full Text Available The reservoir for Neisseria meningitidis (Nm is the human oropharynx. Implementation of Nm serogroup C (NmC glycoconjugate vaccines directly reduced NmC carriage. Prophylactic vaccines are now available to prevent disease caused by the five major Nm disease causing serogroups (ABCWY. Nm serogroup B (NmB vaccines are composed of antigens that are conserved across Nm serogroups and therefore have the potential to impact all Nm carriage. To assess the effect of these vaccines on carriage, standardized approaches to identify and group Nm are required. Real-time PCR (rt-PCR capsule grouping assays that were internally controlled to confirm Nm species were developed for eight serogroups associated with carriage (A, B, C, E, W, X, Y and Z. The grouping scheme was validated using diverse bacterial species associated with carriage and then used to evaluate a collection of diverse Nm carriage isolates (n=234. A scheme that also included porA and ctrA probes was able to speciate the isolates, while ctrA also provided insights on the integrity of the polysaccharide loci. Isolates were typed for the Nm vaccine antigen factor H binding protein (fHbp, and were found to represent the known diversity of this antigen. The porA rt-PCR yielded positive results with all 234 of the Nm carriage isolates. Genogrouping assays classified 76.5% (179/234 of these isolates to a group, categorized 53 as nongenogroupable (NGG and two as mixed results. Thirty seven NGG isolates evidenced a disrupted capsular polysaccharide operon judged by a ctrA negative result. Only 28.6% (67/234 of the isolates were serogrouped by slide agglutination (SASG, highlighting the reduced capability of carriage strains to express capsular polysaccharide. These rt-PCR assays provide a comprehensive means to identify and genogroup N. meningitidis in carriage studies used to guide vaccination strategies and to assess the impact of novel fHbp containing vaccines on meningococcal carriage.

  15. La importancia de Ias ideias en el cambio de paradigma: aplicacion a Ias politicas de Servicios Sociales y asistencia social en Espana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelantado, Jose; Perez-Gimenez, Roser

    2010-01-01

    ...? ?Como ha reaccionado Espana a Ia influencia de Ia Union Europea? ?Se pueden establecer diferencias entre Comunidades Autonomas en Ia aplicacion de los discursos?. La hipotesis a contrastar es que desde Ia transicion democratica hasta la actualidad, se ha producido un cambio de paradigma institucional en Ias politicas autonomicas de SS y AS. Dicho cam...

  16. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John D.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, −UAA.001, and −PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  17. [Study on the use of TaqMan Real-time PCR to detect genogroup I and II norovirus in oysters and patients' stool samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Min; Song, Shi-Li; Zhang, Xin-Hui; Li, Rong

    2008-06-01

    To develop a rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic method for quantification and typing of genogroup I and II norovirus in oyster shellfish and stool samples from patients who had eaten them. Specific primers and probe, following large scale norovirus genome consensus analysis were designed and subsequently a TaqMan based Real-time PCR assay to detect both GI and GII were established. This method showed high specificity for norovirus nucleic acid detection, and no cross-reaction among norovirus GI and GII. The limit on detection of NV genomes was 10(2) copies/microl. A total of 90 oysters and 37 stool specimens with diarrhea were tested for norovirus by conventional reverse transcriptional PCR (RT-PCR) assay as well as the TaqMan Real-time PCR, respectively. The norovirus detection rate in oysters by TaqMan PCR was significantly higher than that by conventional RT-PCR, but no differences between the two PCR methods were found when detecting the stool samples. Reliability of the Real-time PCR for norovirus detection was further confirmed by DNA sequencing of the positive samples This TaqMan Real-time PCR assay was proved to be a useful method for quantification and typing for norovirus in routine monitoring of both oyster shellfish and clinical samples. This method is recommended to be an effective diagnostic method for outbreak-associated gastroenteritis due to norovirus.

  18. Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miceli, A.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Chile U., Catolica /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Fermilab /Chile U., Santiago /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Stockholm U. /Hawaii U. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.

    2008-02-13

    We present the first large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe through a multiple-decade effort at Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 ultraviolet spectra obtained by HST/IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows a nearly perfect match of the overall spectral-energy distribution with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host-galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar slit widths, which corresponds to different projected distances. After correcting for the galaxy-light contamination, subtle differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be {approx}0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra give an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum-light SN spectra of {approx}3% in the optical and growing toward the ultraviolet. The difference between the maximum-light low and high-redshift spectra constrain SN evolution between our samples to be < 10% in the rest-frame optical.

  19. Sensitivity studies for supernovae type Ia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thien Tam; Goebel, Kathrin; Reifarth, Rene [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Calder, Alan [SUNY - Department of Physics and Astronomy, New York (United States); Pignatari, Marco [Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Townsley, Dean [The University of Alabama (United States); Travaglio, Claudia [INAF - Astrophysical Observatory, Turin (Italy); Collaboration: NuGrid collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The NuGrid research platform provides a simulation framework to study the nucleosynthesis in multi-dimensional Supernovae Type Ia models. We use a large network of over 5,000 isotopes and more than 60,000 reactions. The nucleosynthesis is investigated in post-processing simulations with temperature and density profiles, initial abundance distributions and a set of reaction rates as input. The sensitivity of the isotopic abundances to α-, proton-, and neutron-capture reaction, their inverse reactions, as well as fusion reactions were investigated. First results have been achieved for different mass coordinates of the exploding star.

  20. The Distant Type Ia Supernova Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R. S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S. E.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lee, J. C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N. A.

    2002-05-28

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample, which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  1. The distant type Ia supernova rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R.S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S.E.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Irwin, M.J.; Kim, A.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Knop, R.A.; Lee, J.C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.

    2002-05-20

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample,which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  2. THE GEOMORPHOSITES OF ROŞIA MONTANĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Adina Jurj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The geomorphosites of Roșia Montană. The volcanic relief of the Roșia Montană mining area is characterised by a significant number of geomorphosites, represented especially by necks and dykes, such as: Cârnic, Orlea, Jig-Văidoaia, Lety etc. Another category of geomorphosites is represented by those with hydrographic features, namely the ponds created for mining purposes since Roman period. We identified a number of 14 geomorphosites; 9 of these are the results of the Neogene volcanic activity, and 5 are the ponds which appeared as an indirect consequence of the volcanic specific of the area. The geomorphosites created by the volcanic activity have also a significant archaeological, historical and cultural value, due to the valuable mining galleries and another evidences of this ancient activity. Among all the geomorphosites of the area, the most important one is Cârnic Massif which has a complex system of underground mining galleries, some of them belonging to Roman period. We consider that capitalization through touristic activities of these landforms is the best utilization in terms of ecological, cultural and economic perspectives.

  3. SNe Ia: Can Chandrasekhar mass explosions reproduce the observed zoo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, E. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 400 W. Brooks, Rm 100, Norman, OK 73072-2061 (United States); Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The question of the nature of the progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is important both for our detailed understanding of stellar evolution and for their use as cosmological probes of the dark energy. Much of the basic features of SNe Ia can be understood directly from the nuclear physics, a fact which Gerry would have appreciated. We present an overview of the current observational and theoretical situation and show that it not incompatible with most SNe Ia being the results of thermonuclear explosions near the Chandrasekhar mass.

  4. Type Ia supernovae: explosions and progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang Eitel

    2011-08-01

    Supernovae are the brightest explosions in the universe. Supernovae in our Galaxy, rare and happening only every few centuries, have probably been observed since the beginnings of mankind. At first they were interpreted as religious omens but in the last half millennium they have increasingly been used to study the cosmos and our place in it. Tycho Brahe deduced from his observations of the famous supernova in 1572, that the stars, in contrast to the widely believe Aristotelian doctrine, were not immutable. More than 400 years after Tycho made his paradigm changing discovery using SN 1572, and some 60 years after supernovae had been identified as distant dying stars, two teams changed the view of the world again using supernovae. The found that the Universe was accelerating in its expansion, a conclusion that could most easily be explained if more than 70% of the Universe was some previously un-identified form of matter now often referred to as `Dark Energy'. Beyond their prominent role as tools to gauge our place in the Universe, supernovae themselves have been studied well over the past 75 years. We now know that there are two main physical causes of these cataclysmic events. One of these channels is the collapse of the core of a massive star. The observationally motivated classes Type II, Type Ib and Type Ic have been attributed to these events. This thesis, however is dedicated to the second group of supernovae, the thermonuclear explosions of degenerate carbon and oxygen rich material and lacking hydrogen - called Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). White dwarf stars are formed at the end of a typical star's life when nuclear burning ceases in the core, the outer envelope is ejected, with the degenerate core typically cooling for eternity. Theory predicts that such stars will self ignite when close to 1.38 Msun (called the Chandrasekhar Mass). Most stars however leave white dwarfs with 0.6 Msun, and no star leaves a remnant as heavy as 1.38 M! sun, which suggests

  5. Structural Basis for Broad Detection of Genogroup II Noroviruses by a Monoclonal Antibody That Binds to a Site Occluded in the Viral Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmana, Grant S.; Taylor, David W.; Smith, Thomas J.; McLellan, Jason S.; Georgiev, Ivelin; Tame, Jeremy R.H.; Park, Sam-Yong; Yamazaki, Makoto; Gondaira, Fumio; Miki, Motohiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Kwong, Peter D. (Yale); (Yokohama); (NIID-Japan); (Yokohama); (National Instititute for Physiological Sciences); (Denka-Seiken Co. LTD); (Donald Danforth Plant and Science Center); (NIAID)

    2012-03-13

    Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically highly divergent. Monoclonal antibodies raised in mice against one kind of norovirus virus-like particle (VLP), however, were found to have broad recognition. In this study, we present the crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) for one of these broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies, 5B18, in complex with the capsid-protruding domain from a genogroup II genotype 10 (GII.10) norovirus at 3.3-{angstrom} resolution and, also, the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the GII.10 VLP at {approx}10-{angstrom} resolution. The GII.10 VLP structure was more similar in overall architecture to the GV.1 murine norovirus virion than to the prototype GI.1 human norovirus VLP, with the GII.10 protruding domain raised {approx}15 {angstrom} off the shell domain and rotated {approx}40{sup o} relative to the GI.1 protruding domain. In the crystal structure, the 5B18 Fab bound to a highly conserved region of the protruding domain. Based on the VLP structure, this region is involved in interactions with other regions of the capsid and is buried in the virus particle. Despite the occluded nature of the recognized epitope in the VLP structure, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding suggested that the 5B18 antibody was able to capture intact VLPs. Together, the results provide evidence that the norovirus particle is capable of extreme conformational flexibility, which may allow for antibody recognition of conserved surfaces that would otherwise be buried on intact particles.

  6. 3IA Conference (3IA’2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Miaoulis, Georgios; Intelligent Computer Graphics 2011

    2012-01-01

    In Computer Graphics, the use of intelligent techniques started more recently than in other research areas. However, during these last two decades, the use of intelligent Computer Graphics techniques is growing up year after year and more and more interesting techniques are presented in this area.   The purpose of this volume is to present current work of the Intelligent Computer Graphics community, a community growing up year after year. This volume is a kind of continuation of the previously published Springer volumes “Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Computer Graphics” (2008), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2009” (2009) and “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2010” (2010).   This volume contains selected extended papers from the last 3IA Conference (3IA’2011), which has been held in Athens (Greece) in May 2011. This year papers are particularly exciting and concern areas like virtual reality, artificial life, data visualization, games, global illumination, point cloud modelling, declarativ...

  7. IAS 41 - Värdering av skog

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Fredric; Thorsson, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Införandet av standarden IAS/IFRS i Sverige är en effekt av den internationalisering som skett de senaste åren. En stor skillnad märks bland de företag som nu måste redovisa tillgångar till verkliga värden istället för som tidigare till historiska värden. Skogskoncernerna ställs inför ett sådant faktum. Effekten blir att en mer rättvisande bild av skogens värde uppkommer. De intervjuade företagen, Bergvik Skog AB, Holmen, SCA, Sveaskog och Öhrlings PricewaterhouseCoopers håller med om att dol...

  8. The Connection between IAS/IFRS and Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the degree of social responsibility arising from the statement of comprehensive income prepared according to IAS/IFRS, to demonstrate whether the values obtained from prospects and from the calculation of the indicators are sufficient to analyze the Company's performance from the perspective of social responsibility and sustainable value or not. In order to achieve the objective of harmonization, the European Union adopted the IAS/IFRS developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part, the financial statements to be prepared according to IAS 1 and IAS 7 and, in particular, the so called statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income for the period are analyzed by underling the function of the same and by presenting some financial performance indicators. Then, the research highlights how these values obtained are not useful to communicate the company's strategy in terms of social responsibility and sustainable value. In the second part the analyses exposes the concept of social balance. According to the social responsibility view the IAS/IFRS financial statements should be accompanied by the social balance. It becomes crucial to complete the set of financial statements stated from IAS 1 with a social balance as well as the same IAS 1 contemplates. For this reason it is possible to say that the connection between IAS/IFRS and social responsibility is weak.

  9. Theoretical uncertainties of the Type Ia supernova rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claeys, J.S.W.; Pols, O.R.; Izzard, R.G.; Vink, J.; Verbunt, F.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is thought that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs). Two main evolutionary channels are proposed for the WD to reach the critical density required for a thermonuclear explosion: the single degenerate (SD) scenario, in which a CO WD accretes from a

  10. Scholarship for Service: IA Tutorials and Workshops for Educators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvine, Cynthia E; Falby, Naomi B

    2005-01-01

    ... of Information Assurance (IA) and computer security. The target audience of the workshops has been 2-year college, 4-year college, and university-level educators who have responsibility for teaching curricula that are, or could be, related to IA issues...

  11. The dense core vesicle protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is required for active avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, G N; Nishimura, T; Schindler, C W; Panlilio, L V; Notkins, A L

    2014-06-06

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild-type (WT) mice showed 60-70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10-15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60-70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Type IA supernovae: Their progenitors and use as cosmological probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Brandon

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are important cosmological probes, but we are uncertain how they explode. There are two progenitor channels for SNe Ia: single and double degenerate white dwarf (WD) systems. In either model, we expect the system to be detectable as a Supersoft X-ray Source (SSS) for a significant amount of time before the explosion. By studying these SSSs, we hope to improve our understanding of SNe Ia. In Chapter 2, we analyze an interesting source (r1-25) in M31. We found that the source exhibited spectral changes to harder X-ray states. r1-25 is the first source of its kind, and we require unique physical models to fit its behavior. We find that existing WD models are inconsistent with the spectra of the source. We explore new black hole and neutron star models, and find that they can model the unusual behavior of r1-25. In Chapter 3, we study three gravitationally lensed SNe from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Based on photometric classification, we found that two SNe (SN CLO12Car and CLN12Did) are likely to be SNe Ia, while the classification of the third is inconclusive. Using multi-color light-curve fits to determine a standardized SN Ia luminosity distance, we infer that SN CLO12Car was ˜ 1.0 +/- 0.2 mag brighter than field SNe Ia at a similar redshift and ascribe this to gravitational lens magnification. Similarly, SN CLN12Did is ˜ 0.2 +/- 0.2 mag brighter than field SNe Ia. From independent CLASH strong+weak lensing maps of the clusters , we derived similar magnifications for the two SNe Ia. The two SNe Ia provide a new test of the cluster lens model predictions: we find that the magnifications based on the SN Ia brightness and those predicted by the lens maps are consistent. Finally, in Chapter 4 we discuss a new light curve fitter for SNe Ia, which we call Multicolor Light Curve Shapes 3 (MLCS3). The project has not been completed, but we discuss some of the features, and the expected improvements from MLCS3

  13. Analysis of SRM model nozzle calibration test data in support of IA12B, IA12C and IA36 space shuttle launch vehicle aerodynamics tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. R., Jr.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Variations of nozzle performance characteristics of the model nozzles used in the Space Shuttle IA12B, IA12C, IA36 power-on launch vehicle test series are shown by comparison between experimental and analytical data. The experimental data are nozzle wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs of the exhaust plume shapes. The exhaust plume shapes were simulated experimentally with cold flow while the analytical data were generated using a method-of-characteristics solution. Exhaust plume boundaries, boundary shockwave locations and nozzle wall pressure measurements calculated analytically agree favorably with the experimental data from the IA12C and IA36 test series. For the IA12B test series condensation was suspected in the exhaust plumes at the higher pressure ratios required to simulate the prototype plume shapes. Nozzle calibration tests for the series were conducted at pressure ratios where condensation either did not occur or if present did not produce a noticeable effect on the plume shapes. However, at the pressure ratios required in the power-on launch vehicle tests condensation probably occurs and could significantly affect the exhaust plume shapes.

  14. The Influence of Host Galaxies in Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Syed A.; Mould, Jeremy; Lidman, Chris; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina; Zhang, Bonnie R.

    2017-10-01

    We use a sample of 1338 spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sourced from Carnegie Supernova Project, Center for Astrophysics Supernova Survey, Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II, and SuperNova Legacy Survey SN samples to examine the relationships between SNe Ia and the galaxies that host them. Our results provide confirmation with improved statistical significance that SNe Ia, after standardization, are on average more luminous in massive hosts (significance >5σ), and decline more rapidly in massive hosts (significance >9σ) and in hosts with low specific star formation rates (significance >8σ). We study the variation of these relationships with redshift and detect no evolution. We split SNe Ia into pairs of subsets that are based on the properties of the hosts and fit cosmological models to each subset. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, we do not find any significant shift in the best-fit cosmological parameters between the subsets. Among different SN Ia subsets, we find that SNe Ia in hosts with high specific star formation rates have the least intrinsic scatter (σ int = 0.08 ± 0.01) in luminosity after standardization.

  15. Adoption of IFRS/IAS impacting the companies

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Baranová

    2008-01-01

    In recent time, there were done marked changes in IAS/IFRS, changes in existing rules. Fifteen standards of IAS have been amended just before the end of 2003 and in course of the first quarter of the year 2004 updating of other standards IAS has been done. The requirement of changes hangs together, among others, also with the recent affairs about the bankruptcies of big companies. In this connection, accelerated and turning changes are proceeding in EU. Since 2005 every EU listed company has ...

  16. Investigation of burning in type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazyrin, S. I.

    2013-04-01

    Type Ia supernovae are important cosmological objects that have played a major role in determining the composition of the Universe. Despite four decades of studies, there is no complete understanding of the explosion mechanism. One of the main problems consists in describing the burning wave propagation through the presupernova, a white dwarf. It is well known from observations that an initially slow flame accelerates and transforms into detonation as it moves. The acceleration mechanism realized in supernovae is not yet known, but it is believed to occur through various instabilities. The Landau-Darrieus instability of a thin deflagration thermonuclear burning front propagating through the presupernova is investigated. Direct numerical simulations of burning by the level-set method are presented. Small perturbations at the front are shown to merge into one large cusp after some time. As a flame with limited sizes moves, this leads only to a slight increase in the velocity, which does not allow it to accelerate to the speed of sound.

  17. Muudetud IFRS 3 ja IAS 27 / Monika Peetson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peetson, Monika, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise Raamatupidamisstandardite Nõukogu poolt välja antud muudetud standarditest IFRS 3 "Äriühendused" ja IAS 27 "Konsolideeritud ja konsolideerimata finantsaruanded" ning nendega kaasnevatest muudatustest

  18. Screening for CDG type Ia in Joubert syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Cser, B.; Karteszi, J.; Huijben, K.M.; Szonyi, L.; Kosztolanyi, G.Y.; Wevers, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The features of Joubert syndrome include hypotonia, ataxia, characteristic neuro-imaging findings, episodic hypoventilation, psychomotor retardation, and abnormal eye movements. Common symptoms in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) type Ia are muscle hypotonia, cerebellar

  19. Autologous peptides constitutively occupy the antigen binding site on Ia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Sette, A; Colon, S M

    1988-01-01

    Low molecular weight material associated with affinity-purified class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of mouse (Ia) had the expected properties of peptides bound to the antigen binding site of Ia. Thus, the low molecular weight material derived from the I-Ad isotype was effici......Low molecular weight material associated with affinity-purified class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of mouse (Ia) had the expected properties of peptides bound to the antigen binding site of Ia. Thus, the low molecular weight material derived from the I-Ad isotype...... peptide-MHC complexes may have broad significance in the biology of T cell responses, including generation of the T cell repertoire, the specificity of mixed lymphocyte responses, and the immune surveillance of self and nonself antigens in peripheral lymphoid tissues....

  20. The Connection between IAS/IFRS and Social Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stefano Amelio

    2016-01-01

      The aim of the paper is to evaluate the degree of social responsibility arising from the statement of comprehensive income prepared according to IAS/IFRS, to demonstrate whether the values obtained...

  1. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE STRONGLY INTERACTING WITH THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Howell, D. Andrew; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Griffith, Christopher V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: jsilverman@astro.as.utexas.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{alpha} emission (with widths of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}) and exhibit large H{alpha}/H{beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of H{alpha} 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag {<=} M{sub R} {<=} -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

  2. Imaging the Chemical Distribution in Type Ia SN Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesen, Robert

    2004-07-01

    We know Type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of CO white dwarfs, but we don't know the specifics of how the nuclear burning process proceeds from the core outward once it starts. The thermonuclear instability is thought to start off as a subsonic, turbulent deflagration or burning wave but then, at some point, may transition into a blast or detonation wave. In such "delayed detonation" models, differences between normal and subluminous Type Ia SNe reflect differences in the amount of burning that has occurred in the pre-detonation phase. More burning helps to pre-expand the WD before passage of the detontation wave, which then results in different final element abundances and internal Fe-rich ejecta structure. Directly imaging the 2-D chemical distribution of ejecta from a Type Ia SN is actually possible in the case of the subluminous Type Ia SN 1885, which occurred on the near-side of M31's central bulge. This 119 year old remnant is visible -- from its core to its outer edge -- via strong optical/UV Ca and Fe line absorptions. Remarkably, the SNR appears to still be in a nearly free expansion phase, meaning that the elemental stratification seen present today accurately reflects SN Ia explosive nucleosynthesis physics. We propose to obtain ACS WFC/HRC images of SN 1885 in order to take advantage of this extraordinary situation: Having a young, nearby Type Ia SN remnant visible in silhouette against a galaxy-size light table. These unique observations will reveal a SN Ia's Ca and Fe ejecta distribution, density structure, sphericity, and ionization state as a function of expansion velocity, thereby confronting various SN Ia models with detailed ejecta stratification and expansion velocity maps.

  3. IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements - A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Muthupandian, K S

    2010-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Committee issued the the International Accounting Standard 27, Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. IAS 27 provides guidance on the preparation and presentation of consolidated financial statements for a group of entities under the control of a parent. The standard also provides guidance on the presentation of investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates in separate financial statements. The objective of IAS 27 is t...

  4. A New Set of Nearby SNe Ia Lightcurves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, N.; Aldering, G.; Blanc, G.; Conley, A.; Dahlen, T.; Deustua, S.; Ellis, R.; Fan, X.; Folatelli, G.; Frye, B.; Garavini, G.; Gates, E.; Goldhaber, G.; Goldman, B.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Kent, S.; Kim, A.; Kim, M.; Knop, R.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Miller, G.; Moniez, M.; Mourao, A.; Newberg, H.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Perdereau, O.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Rich, J.; Richards, G.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project Collaboration

    2001-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powerful cosmological distance indicators and have been used for measuring cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant, H0, and the mass density Ω m and dark energy density Ω Λ of the universe. These measurements rely on empirical correlations between absolute peak luminosities and other observables, like the postmaximum decline rate, and the color at maximum. Since the total number of well observed nearby Hubble flow SNe Ia is still small, these correlations are not yet fully characterized. In the Spring of 1999 the Supernova Cosmology Project undertook a nearby SN Ia search in collaboration with groups around the world. This campaign was aimed at providing an independent set of high quality light curves and spectra, to further study SN Ia properties, and fill the Hubble diagram at low redshift. 37 SNe were discovered, of which 19 were SNe Ia near or before maximum light, in the redshift range z=0.002 -- 0.15. These supernovae were followed-up photometrically and spectroscopically, using 20 different telescopes with apertures from 1-m to 10-m. We present the results of the very successful photometric follow-up. An average of 10 points was collected for each SN Ia in the B, V, R and I bands. In addition, we were able to obtain 5 well measured U-lightcurves. With this dataset, we are studying the correlations between the magnitude at maximum, the decline rate and the color at maximum. These systematic studies play a key role in the cosmological measurements using high redshift SNe Ia.

  5. Recurrent infections and immunological dysfunction in congenital disorder of glycosylation Ia (CDG Ia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, C; Smith, L A; Hammer, D A; Fehrenbach, M; Delisser, H M; Perez, E; Sullivan, K E

    2006-08-01

    Congenital disorder of glycosylation Ia is the most common defect of glycosylation and is due to mutations in phosphomannomutase 2. This leads to aberrant N-linked oligosaccharides. The phenotype of CDG Ia reflects the essential nature of glycosylation and patients typically present with multiple organs affected, with hypotonia, developmental delay, inverted nipples and abnormal fat pads. Later features include retinitis pigmentosa, stroke, cerebellar atrophy and malabsorption. Approximately 20% of patients die in the first year of life and infection is the most common cause of death. Immunological function has not previously been investigated in these patients and the critical role of oligosaccharides on adhesion molecules suggested that haematopoietic cell migration and communication could be disrupted by mutations in phosphomannomutase 2. We characterized the clinical features, performed standard immunological evaluations, and performed specific analyses of neutrophil adhesion molecules on two patients to address this question. Patient neutrophils had diminished chemotaxis but expressed comparable levels of adhesion molecules and rolled on artificial endothelium equivalently to control neutrophils. The most significant feature of the patients' immunological function was poor vaccine responses. These two affected patients were begun on intravenous immunoglobulin with some improvement in their infections.

  6. 78 FR 13015 - Designation for the Sandusky, MI; Davenport, IA; Enid, OK; Keokuk, IA; Marshall, MI; and Omaha...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Sandusky, MI; Davenport, IA... Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: GIPSA is announcing the designation of Detroit..., Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  7. Gene Therapy Vector for the Treatment of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia (GSD-Ia) | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    GSD-Ia is an inherited disorder of metabolism associated with life-threatening hypoglycemia, hepatic malignancy, and renal failure caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-alpha (G6Pase-alpha or G6PC).

  8. Adoption of IFRS/IAS impacting the companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Baranová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent time, there were done marked changes in IAS/IFRS, changes in existing rules. Fifteen standards of IAS have been amended just before the end of 2003 and in course of the first quarter of the year 2004 updating of other standards IAS has been done. The requirement of changes hangs together, among others, also with the recent affairs about the bankruptcies of big companies. In this connection, accelerated and turning changes are proceeding in EU. Since 2005 every EU listed company has to prepare the consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS/IAS. Vast survey on the impacts of IFRS adoption was carried by Mazars in 2005. 25 Czech companies have been also interviewed within the study. These Czech companies have exhibit a strong mastery and readiness for the conversion and transition process. Such a summary is quite unwonted in a number of perspectives. But the aim of the author is not to question the study. In the Czech environment, the specific facts in the field of financial reporting and accounting are given. Following these specifics, the truth is that preparing the financial statements in accordance with IFRS/IAS brings undoubtedly valuation and technical entanglements for which the process is costly.

  9. Type Ia supernovae yielding distances with 3-4% precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Burke, David L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hicken, Malcolm [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Weikang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-26

    The luminosities of Type Ia supernovae (SN), the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and light-curve decline rate. These relationships have been used to calibrate their luminosities to within ~0.14–0.20 mag from broadband optical light curves, yielding individual distances accurate to ~7–10%. Here we identify a subset of SN Ia that erupt in environments having high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, these SN can be calibrated to within ~0.065–0.075 mag, corresponding to ~3–4% in distance — the best yet with SN Ia by a substantial margin. The small scatter suggests that variations in only one or two progenitor properties account for their light-curve-width/color/luminosity relation.

  10. Consolidated Financial Statements – in IAS 27 perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aspects concerning the preparation and publication of the consolidated financial statements have been the subject of the settlement by the Committee for International Accounting Standards (IAS even since 1976 with the publication of IAS 3 “Consolidated financial statements”. Subsequently, the standard has been amended and revised successively, on several occasions. The latest version issued in 2008 includes changes on the accounting of interests that do not control and the loss of control on a subsidiary. The actual version also includes the subsequent amendments resulting from IFRS issued until 31st of December 2010. This paper presents the essential aspects of IAS 27 (the actual version and a practical example of how to elaborate consolidated accounts in accordance with this standard.

  11. Circumstellar material in type Ia supernovae via sodium absorption features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, A; Gal-Yam, A; Simon, J D; Leonard, D C; Quimby, R M; Phillips, M M; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Ivans, I; Marshall, J L; Filippenko, A V; Marcy, G W; Bloom, J S; Patat, F; Foley, R J; Yong, D; Penprase, B E; Beeler, D J; Allende Prieto, C; Stringfellow, G S

    2011-08-12

    Type Ia supernovae are key tools for measuring distances on a cosmic scale. They are generally thought to be the thermonuclear explosion of an accreting white dwarf in a close binary system. The nature of the mass donor is still uncertain. In the single-degenerate model it is a main-sequence star or an evolved star, whereas in the double-degenerate model it is another white dwarf. We show that the velocity structure of absorbing material along the line of sight to 35 type Ia supernovae tends to be blueshifted. These structures are likely signatures of gas outflows from the supernova progenitor systems. Thus, many type Ia supernovae in nearby spiral galaxies may originate in single-degenerate systems.

  12. SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BY THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan); Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hsiao, Eric; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Castellon, Sergio; Roth, Miguel [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Hamuy, Mario; Anderson, Joseph P. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Krzeminski, Wojtek [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Persson, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Ln., Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin, E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); and others

    2013-08-10

    This is the first release of optical spectroscopic data of low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by the Carnegie Supernova Project including 604 previously unpublished spectra of 93 SNe Ia. The observations cover a range of phases from 12 days before to over 150 days after the time of B-band maximum light. With the addition of 228 near-maximum spectra from the literature, we study the diversity among SNe Ia in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, spectroscopic parameters are employed such as expansion velocities from spectral line blueshifts and pseudo-equivalent widths (pW). The values of those parameters at maximum light are obtained for 78 objects, thus providing a characterization of SNe Ia that may help to improve our understanding of the properties of the exploding systems and the thermonuclear flame propagation. Two objects, namely, SNe 2005M and 2006is, stand out from the sample by showing peculiar Si II and S II velocities but otherwise standard velocities for the rest of the ions. We further study the correlations between spectroscopic and photometric parameters such as light-curve decline rate and color. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the pW of Si II absorption features are very good indicators of light-curve decline rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that parameters such as pW2 (Si II 4130) and pW6 (Si II 5972) provide precise calibrations of the peak B-band luminosity with dispersions of Almost-Equal-To 0.15 mag. In the search for a secondary parameter in the calibration of peak luminosity for SNe Ia, we find a Almost-Equal-To 2{sigma}-3{sigma} correlation between B-band Hubble residuals and the velocity at maximum light of S II and Si II lines.

  13. Imaging the Distribution of Iron in a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesen, Robert

    2009-07-01

    We know Type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of CO white dwarfs, but we don't know the specifics of how the nuclear burning proceeds from the core outward to the surface once it starts. Thermonuclear instability in a WD core is thought to start off as a subsonic, turbulent deflagration wave or "burning" wave but then may, at some point, transition into a supernova blast or detonation wave. In such a "delayed detonation" model, differences between normal and subluminous Type Ia SNe reflect differences in the amount of burning that has occurred in the pre-detonation phase. More burning helps to pre-expand the WD before passage of the detontation wave which then lowers the density of the outer layers and, in turn, results in a different element production and internal structure.Directly imaging the 2D chemical distribution of ejecta from a Type Ia SN is actually possible in the case of the subluminous Type Ia SN 1885 which occurred on the near-side of M31's central bulge. The entire 123 year old remnant -- core to outer edge -- is visible via strong near-UV, Ca and Fe line absorptions, and remarkably, is still in near free expansion. This means that elemental stratification seen today is likely to accurately reflect the explosive nucleosynthesis physics.We propose ACS WFC images of SN 1885 to take advantage of this extraordinary situation: Having a young, nearby Type Ia SN remnant visible in silhouette against a galaxy-size light table. The proposed observations will reveal the Fe ejecta distribution, density structure, sphericity, and ionization state as a function of expansion velocity, thereby testing SN Ia explosion models with direct Fe-rich ejecta mapping data.

  14. Critical ingredients of Type Ia supernova radiative-transfer modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Blondin, Stéphane; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2014-07-01

    We explore the physics of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves and spectra using the 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) time-dependent radiative-transfer code CMFGEN. Rather than adjusting ejecta properties to match observations, we select as input one `standard' 1D Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model, and then explore the sensitivity of radiation and gas properties of the ejecta on radiative-transfer modelling assumptions. The correct computation of SN Ia radiation is not exclusively a solution to an `opacity problem', characterized by the treatment of a large number of lines. We demonstrate that the key is to identify and treat important atomic processes consistently. This is not limited to treating line blanketing in non-LTE. We show that including forbidden-line transitions of metals, and in particular Co, is increasingly important for the temperature and ionization of the gas beyond maximum light. Non-thermal ionization and excitation are also critical since they affect the colour evolution and the ΔM15 decline rate of our model. While impacting little the bolometric luminosity, a more complete treatment of decay routes leads to enhanced line blanketing, e.g. associated with 48Ti in the U and B bands. Overall, we find that SN Ia radiation properties are influenced in a complicated way by the atomic data we employ, so that obtaining converged results is a real challenge. Nonetheless, with our fully fledged CMFGEN model, we obtain good agreement with the golden standard Type Ia SN 2005cf in the optical and near-IR, from 5 to 60 d after explosion, suggesting that assuming spherical symmetry is not detrimental to SN Ia radiative-transfer modelling at these times. Multi-D effects no doubt matter, but they are perhaps less important than accurately treating the non-LTE processes that are crucial to obtain reliable temperature and ionization structures.

  15. Polarisation Spectral Synthesis For Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Mattia

    2017-02-01

    Despite their relevance across a broad range of astrophysical research topics, Type Ia supernova explosions are still poorly understood and answers to the questions of when, why and how these events are triggered remain unclear. In this respect, polarisation offers a unique opportunity to discriminate between the variety of possible scenarios. The observational evidence that Type Ia supernovae are associated with rather low polarisation signals (smaller than a few per cent) places strong constraints for models and calls for modest asphericities in the progenitor system and/or explosion mechanism.The goal of this thesis is to assess the validity of contemporary Type Ia supernova explosion models by testing whether their predicted polarisation signatures can account for the small signals usually observed. To this end, we have implemented and tested an innovative Monte Carlo scheme in the radiative transfer code artis. Compared to previous Monte Carlo approaches, this technique produces synthetic observables (light curves, flux and polarisation spectra) with a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise and therefore in the required computing time. This improvement is particularly crucial for our study as we aim to extract very weak polarisation signals, comparable to those detected in Type Ia supernovae. We have also demonstrated the applicability of this method to other classes of supernovae via a preliminary study of the first spectropolarimetry observations of superluminous supernovae.Using this scheme, we have calculated synthetic spectropolarimetry for three multi-dimensional explosion models recently proposed as promising candidates to explain Type Ia supernovae. Our findings highlight the power of spectropolarimetry in testing and discriminating between different scenarios. While all the three models predict light curves and flux spectra that are similar to each others and reproduce those observed in Type Ia supernovae comparably well, polarisation does

  16. The interaction of Type Ia supernovae with their circumstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiotellis, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the study of a specific class of supernovae, named Type Ia (or thermonuclear) supernovae. In particular, we attempt to gain information about their origin through the study of the interaction of these supernovae with circumstellar structures that have been shaped by their

  17. Could there be a hole in type Ia supernovae?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, Lifan

    2004-04-23

    In the favored progenitor scenario, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) arise from a white dwarf accreting material from a non-degenerate companion star. Soon after the white dwarf explodes, the ejected supernova material engulfs the companion star; two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations by Marietta et al. (2001) show that, in the interaction, the companion star carves out a conical hole of opening angle 30-40 degrees in the supernova ejecta. In this paper we use multi-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to explore the observable consequences of an ejecta-hole asymmetry. We calculate the variation of the spectrum, luminosity, and polarization with viewing angle for the aspherical supernova near maximum light. We find that the supernova looks normal from almost all viewing angles except when one looks almost directly down the hole. In the latter case, one sees into the deeper, hotter layers of ejecta. The supernova is relatively brighter and has a peculiar spectrum characterized by more highly ionized species, weaker absorption features, and lower absorption velocities. The spectrum viewed down the hole is comparable to the class of SN 1991T-like supernovae. We consider how the ejecta-hole asymmetry may explain the current spectropolarimetric observations of SNe Ia, and suggest a few observational signatures of the geometry. Finally, we discuss the variety currently seen in observed SNe Ia and how an ejecta-hole asymmetry may fit in as one of several possible sources of diversity.

  18. Assets Impairment Testing: An Analysis of IAS 36 | Oghoghomeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assets Impairment Testing: An Analysis of IAS 36. Tennyson, Oghoghomeh, Fynface N. Akani. Abstract. The primary objective of accounting is to provide information about the economic resources of an enterprise, the claims to those resources, and the effects of transactions, events, and circumstances that change the ...

  19. Diarréia por parasitas Parasites induced diarrheas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida Motta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A diarréia é uma causa importante de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. Os agentes etiológicos mais comuns são os vírus e as bactérias. Este artigo tem o objetivo de analisar a ocorrência de diarréia como manifestação clínica de parasitose. Discute-se quais os protozoários e os helmintos que podem causar diarréia, as bases científicas atuais que explicam os mecanismos fisiopatológicos que desencadeiam a diarréia, bem como os exames complementares e o tratamento adequado para cada parasita implicado.Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The most common etiological agents are viruses and bacteria. This article has the objective of analyzing diarrhea as a clinical symptom of parasitosis. Protozoa and helminthes that may cause diarrhea are discussed, current scientific basis clarifying the pathological and physiological mechanisms causing diarrhea as well as supplementary tests and adequate treatment for each parasite involved are focused.

  20. Estimating Type Ia Supernova Metallicities Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, V. Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe) can be used as standardizable candles because their progenitors, white dwarfs, are a fairly homogenous class of objects. However, intrinsic variability in these events arise from a number of factors, including metallicity. Recent studies have investigated the effects of metallicity on Type Ia SNe observables from both a theoretical approach, by tuning model metallicity to analyze spectral features, and an observational approach, by studying the effect of host metallicity on light curves. In this work, we take a new, data-driven approach to the problem. Inspired by the success of neural networks in the field of image processing, we aim to estimate the metallicities of Type Ia SNe progenitors from their near-maximum spectra using feed-forward neural networks. We first collect a sample of near-maximum Type Ia SNe spectra from the literature to be smoothed and down-sampled. We then estimate the metallicities of the SNe hosts using the B-band magnitudes. We build a multilayer perceptron to generate a model that takes as input the down-sampled spectra and returns a scalar metallicity. Finally, we discuss basic considerations to be taken when working with spectral (as opposed to image) data using neural networks.

  1. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The staff deletes FM Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction, Iowa...

  2. Assets Impairment Testing: An Analysis of IAS 36

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 10(1), Serial No.40, January, 2016: 178-192. ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070--0083 (Online). Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v10i1.14. Assets Impairment Testing: An Analysis of IAS 36. Oghoghomeh, Tennyson, Ph.D. Department of Accounting and Finance.

  3. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and release of the brakes on the last car in the train; and (6) The communicating signal system is... be used to verify the set and release on cars so equipped. However, the observation of the brake... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake test. 238.315 Section 238.315...

  4. Nigerian Veterinary .ieiirriai Vat. iii, i-a {aria}

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Veterinary .ieiirriai Vat. iii, i-a {aria}. iJNiZiERGR/XUUATE V" ViiilW OF THE VETERINARY i'RtMi'iilSSiON;. A STUDY OF AHMAE)U HELLO UNiVESITY, ZARIA - NEGEREA. REM} A®RWEJNME$, BID AND BET .ANQHANG, H. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Medicine. Abniadu Hello University, Zaria on.

  5. IS THERE A HIDDEN HOLE IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Senz, D. [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, UPC, Compte d' Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Badenes, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Serichol, N., E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu, E-mail: carles@astro.tau.ac.il, E-mail: nuria.serichol@upc.edu [Departament de Matematica Aplicada III, Sor Eulalia d' Anzizu, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-20

    In this paper, we report on the bulk features of the hole carved by the companion star in the material ejected during a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion. In particular we are interested in the long-term evolution of the hole as well as in its fingerprint in the geometry of the supernova remnant (SNR) after several centuries of evolution, which is a hot topic in current SN Ia studies. We use an axisymmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamics code to characterize the geometric properties of the SNR resulting from the interaction of this ejected material with the ambient medium. Our aim is to use SNR observations to constrain the single degenerate scenario for SN Ia progenitors. Our simulations show that the hole will remain open during centuries, although its partial or total closure at later times due to hydrodynamic instabilities is not excluded. Close to the edge of the hole, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability grows faster, leading to plumes that approach the edge of the forward shock. We also discuss other geometrical properties of the simulations, like the evolution of the contact discontinuity.

  6. Campaign for Women in Peacebuilding | MBAGWU | IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Although this paper is on women and peace building, but this writer finds it necessary to first review the peace building theories which recognises the feminist approach too. IFE PsychologIA Volume 9 no 3, 2001, pp. 112-117 ...

  7. Molecular analysis of glycogen storage disease type Ia in Iranian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are caused by abnormalities in enzymes that are involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. GSD I, an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, is the most common GSD and has four subtypes. Here, we examined GSD Ia caused by the defective ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA typically get open sores (ulcers) on their feet or hands or infections of the soft tissue of the fingertips (whitlows) that are slow to heal. Because affected ... of these sores, they may not seek immediate treatment. Without treatment, ...

  9. Molecular analysis of glycogen storage disease type Ia in Iranian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHEKARI KHANIANI MAHMOUD1,2

    Abstract. Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are caused by abnormalities in enzymes that are involved in the regulation of gluconeo- genesis and glycogenolysis. GSD I, an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, is the most common GSD and has four sub- types. Here, we examined GSD Ia caused by the defective ...

  10. Autoantibodies to IA-2beta improve diabetes risk assessment in high-risk relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, P; Bonifacio, E; Williams, A J K

    2008-01-01

    . METHODS: Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) and IA-2 (IA2A) were measured in 549 participants at study entry, and IA2A-positive samples tested for IA2betaA. First-phase insulin response (FPIR) and oral glucose tolerance were determined at baseline. RESULTS: Of 212 ICA/IA2A......-positive participants (median age 12.1 years; 57% male), 113 developed diabetes (5 year cumulative risk 56%), and 148 were also GADA-positive and IAA-positive (4Ab-positive). IA2betaA were detected in 137 (65%) ICA/IA2A-positive participants and were associated with an increased 5 year diabetes risk (IA2beta...

  11. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Second Photometry Data Release of Low-redshift Type Ia Supernovae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Phillips, M. M; Boldt, Luis N; Burns, Chris; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Gonzalez, Sergio; Folatelli, Gastón; Morrell, Nidia; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; DePoy, D. L; Hamuy, Mario; Freedman, Wendy L; Madore, Barry F; Marshall, J. L; Persson, Sven E; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Villanueva, Steven; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) was a five-year observational survey conducted at Las Campanas Observatory that obtained, among other things, high-quality light curves of similar to 100 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia...

  12. Structural characteristics of an antigen required for its interaction with Ia and recognition by T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sette, A; Buus, S; Colon, S

    1987-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the residues within an immunogenic peptide that endow it with the capacity to interact with Ia and to be recognized by T cells is presented. Ia interacts with only a few of the peptide residues and overall exhibits a very broad specificity. Some residues appear to interact...... both with Ia and with T cells, leading to a model in which a peptide antigen is 'sandwiched' between Ia and the T-cell receptor....

  13. The core-degenerate scenario for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Zhou, W.-H.; Zuo, Z.-Y.; Li, Y.-B.; Luo, X.; Zhang, J.-J.; Liu, D.-D.; Wu, C.-Y.

    2017-02-01

    The origin of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still uncertain. The core-degenerate (CD) scenario has been proposed as an alternative way for the production of SNe Ia. In this scenario, SNe Ia are formed at the final stage of common-envelope evolution from a merger of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) with the CO core of an asymptotic giant branch companion. However, the birthrates of SNe Ia from this scenario are still not well determined. In this work, we performed a detailed investigation on the CD scenario based on a binary population synthesis approach. The SN Ia delay times from this scenario are basically in the range of 90-2500 Myr, mainly contributing to the observed SNe Ia with short and intermediate delay times, although this scenario can also produce some old SNe Ia. Meanwhile, our work indicates that the Galactic birthrates of SNe Ia from this scenario are not more than 20 per cent of total SNe Ia due to more careful treatment of mass transfer. Although the SN Ia birthrates in this work are lower than those in Ilkov & Soker, the CD scenario cannot be ruled out as a viable mechanism for the formation of SNe Ia. Especially, SNe Ia with circumstellar material from this scenario contribute to 0.7-10 per cent of total SNe Ia, which means that the CD scenario can reproduce the observed birthrates of SNe Ia like PTF 11kx. We also found that SNe Ia happen systemically earlier for a high value of metallicity and their birthrates increase with metallicity.

  14. SN Ia archaeology: Searching for the relics of progenitors past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Tyrone E.; Gilfanov, Marat; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Rest, Armin

    2016-06-01

    Despite the critical role that SNe Ia play in the chemical enrichment of the Universe and their great importance in measuring cosmological distances, we still don't know for certain how they arise. In the canonical form of the ``single-degenerate'' scenario, a white dwarf grows through the nuclear burning of matter accreted at its surface from some companion star. This renders it a hot, luminous object (a supersoft X-ray source or SSS, 10^5-10^6K, 10^{38} erg/s) for up to a million years prior to explosion. Past efforts to directly detect the progenitors of very recent, nearby SNe Ia in archival soft X-ray images have produced only upper limits, and are only constraining assuming progenitors with much higher temperatures than known SSSs. In this talk, I will outline an alternative approach: given that such objects should be strong sources of ionizing radiation, one may instead search the environment surrounding nearby SN Ia remnants for interstellar matter ionized by the progenitor. Such fossil nebulae should extend out to tens of parsecs and linger for roughly the recombination timescale in the ISM, of order 10,000 — 100,000 years. Progress on this front has been hampered by the failure to detect nebulae surrounding most known SSSs using 1m class telescopes in the early 1990s. I will present new benchmark calculations for the emission-line nebulae expected to surround such objects, demonstrating that previous non-detections are entirely consistent with the low ISM densities expected in the vicinity of most SN Ia progenitors (Woods & Gilfanov, 2016). Modern large optical telescopes are now well able to reach the required limiting surface brightness needed to find such faint emission. With this in mind, I will introduce our new narrow-band survey for fossil nebulae surrounding young Magellanic SN Ia remnants and SSSs, already underway using the Magellan Baade telescope (PI: Alejandro Clocchiatti). In addition to opening a new era of SN Ia archaeology, I will show

  15. ON THE RATES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN DWARF AND GIANT HOSTS WITH ROTSE-IIIb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, Robert M. [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yuan Fang [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Akerlof, Carl [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wheeler, J. Craig [Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Warren, Michael S. [Theoretical Division, Mail Stop B227, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present a sample of 23 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that were discovered in the background of galaxy clusters targeted by ROTSE-IIIb and use up to 18 of these to determine the local (z-bar 0.05) volumetric rate. Since our survey is flux limited and thus biased against fainter objects, the pseudo-absolute magnitude distribution (pAMD) of SNe Ia in a given volume is an important concern, especially the relative frequency of high- to low-luminosity SNe Ia. We find that the pAMD derived from the volume-limited Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) sample is incompatible with the distribution of SNe Ia in a volume-limited (z < 0.12) sub-sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II). The LOSS sample requires far more low-luminosity SNe Ia than the SDSS-II can accommodate. Even though LOSS and SDSS-II have sampled different SNe Ia populations, their volumetric rates are surprisingly similar. Using the same model pAMD adopted in the SDSS-II SNe Ia rate calculation and excluding two high-luminosity SNe Ia from our sample, we derive a rate that is marginally higher than previous low-redshift determinations. With our full sample and the LOSS pAMD, our rate is more than double the canonical value. We also find that 5 of our 18 SNe Ia are hosted by very low luminosity (M{sub B} > -16) galaxies, whereas only 1 out of 79 nearby SDSS-II SNe Ia have such faint hosts. It is possible that previous works have undercounted either low-luminosity SNe Ia, SNe Ia in low-luminosity hosts, or peculiar SNe Ia (sometimes explicitly), and the total SNe Ia rate may be higher than the canonical value.

  16. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-12)

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Kwang-Joon; Lee, Jangmyung; Frontiers of Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    2013-01-01

    This carefully edited volume aims at providing readers with the most recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, with its particular emphasis on intelligent autonomous ground, aerial and underwater vehicles as well as service robots for home and healthcare under the context of the aforementioned convergence. “Frontiers of Intelligent Autonomous Systems” includes thoroughly revised and extended papers selected from the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-12), held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. The editors chose 35 papers out of the 202 papers presented at IAS-12 which are organized into three chapters: Chapter 1 is dedicated to autonomous navigation and mobile manipulation, Chapter 2 to unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles and Chapter 3 to service robots for home and healthcare. To help the readers to easily access this volume, each chapter starts with a chapter summary introduced by one of the editors: Chapter 1 by Sukhan Lee, Chapter 2 by Kwang Joon Yoon and...

  17. Publication of the accounting policies in accordance with IAS 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In global economy, accounting policies respectively the notes to financial statements of the enterprise are used as a complement for good quality financial reporting and strategic management. Selected accounting policies aligned with IAS/IFRS, as a key element of the notes complement content of accounting information in financial statements: balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, statement of changes on capital. This paper focuses on: 1. accounting principles and standards as well as origination in accounting policies, 2. choice of accounting policies in the area of long-term assets and inventory, 3. important features of notes to financial statements. In the Republic of Serbia publication of accounting policies must be in accordance with IAS 8. In this paper the autors used following methods of research: an overview relevant literature, the method of analysis, the method of synthesis, the method of induction, method of deduction and mathematical method.

  18. Learning from the scatter in type ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Vallinotto, Alberto; /Fermilab /Chicago U.

    2005-11-01

    Type Ia Supernovae are standard candles so their mean apparent magnitude has been exploited to learn about the redshift-distance relationship. Besides intrinsic scatter in this standard candle, additional scatter is caused by gravitational magnification by large scale structure. Here they probe the dependence of this dispersion on cosmological parameters and show that information about the amplitude of clustering, {sigma}{sub s}, is contained in the scatter. In principle, it will be possible to constrain {sigma}{sub s} to within 5% with observations of 2000 Type Ia Supernovae. They identify three sources of systematic error--evolution of intrinsic scatter, baryon contributions to lensing, and non-Gaussianity of lensing--which will make this measurement difficult.

  19. Prospective Type Ia supernova surveys from Dome A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.; Bonissent, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ealet, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gladney, L.; Kushner, G.; Linder, E.; Stoughton, C.; Wang, L.

    2010-03-10

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over 5 years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of ~;; 1000 z< 0:08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture (>=4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z ~;; 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  20. Prospective Type Ia Supernova Surveys From Dome A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.; /LBL, Berkeley; Bonissent, A.; /Marseille, CPPM; Christiansen, J.L.; /Cal. Poly.; Ealet, A.; /Marseille, CPPM; Faccioli, L.; /UC, Berkeley; Gladney, L.; /Pennsylvania U.; Kushner, G.; /LBL, Berkeley; Linder, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Stoughton, C.; /Fermilab; Wang, L.; /Texas A-M /Purple Mountain Observ.

    2010-02-01

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over five years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of {approx}1000 z < 0.08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture ({approx}>4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z {approx} 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  1. Classification of Gaia17cyr as a Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennefeld, M.

    2017-11-01

    M. Dennefeld (IAP-Paris and UPMC) reports observations of Gaia supernovae candidates with the SAAO 74" telescope equiped with the SpUpNIC spectrograph. Observations during the night of Nov. 23 covered the range 3600-9200 A and the spectral resolution was 5.8 A. Classifications were made with the help of GELATO (Harutyunyan et al. 2008, A & A, 488, 383) Gaia17cyr (=AT2017igq) is classified as a SN Ia, a few days past maximum.

  2. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  3. Detonation in Sub-Chandrasekhar Mass SN Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rainer; Woosley, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    A possible formation channel for type Ia supernovae involves a sub-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf that has accumulated an outer layer of helium from a companion star. It is assumed that a thermonuclear runaway starts in a local region in the (turbulently convecting) helium shell, setting off a detonation which at first only affects the helium. While this helium detonation is not likely to cross the core/shell boundary and light the core directly, it induces compressional waves inside the core. These waves may converge and produce a hot spot that initiates a secondary detonation wave in the core. Only the incineration of the core produces the necessary amounts of the radioactive isotope nickel-56 which are needed for a type Ia SN. I have performed multi-dimensional simulations of this so-called double detonation scenario, showing that core detonation is induced even in circumstances which do not assume symmetries, as would arise if the helium is ignited at multiple points. However, the helium detonation is hard to set off in dwarfs with low-mass helium shells which yield the kind of spectra that are most typical for Ia's.

  4. Signatures of a Companion Star in Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keiichi; Kutsuna, Masamichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-10-01

    Although type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been used as precise cosmological distance indicators, their progenitor systems remain unresolved. One of the key questions is whether there is a nondegenerate companion star at the time of a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf. In this paper, we investigate whether an interaction between the SN ejecta and the companion star may result in observable footprints around the maximum brightness and thereafter, by performing multidimensional radiation transfer simulations based on hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction. We find that such systems result in variations in various observational characteristics due to different viewing directions, and the predicted behaviors (redder and fainter for the companion direction) are the opposite of what were suggested by the previous study. The variations are generally modest and within observed scatters. However, the model predicts trends between some observables different from those observationally derived, so a large sample of SNe Ia with small calibration errors may be used to constrain the existence of such a companion star. The variations in different colors in optical band passes can be mimicked by external extinctions, so such an effect could be a source of scatter in the peak luminosity and derived distance. After the peak, hydrogen-rich materials expelled from the companion will manifest themselves in hydrogen lines, but Hα is extremely difficult to identify. Alternatively, we find that Pβ in postmaximum near-infrared spectra can potentially provide a powerful diagnostic.

  5. IMPROVING COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS USING TWIN TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhouri, H. K.; Boone, K.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fagrelius, P. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Fleury, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Barbary, K. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, 366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Baugh, D.; Chen, J. [Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Buton, C.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y. [Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Childress, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Feindt, U. [Institut fur Physik, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Fouchez, D. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, 163 avenue de Luminy—Case 902—F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Gangler, E. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Collaboration: Nearby Supernova Factory; and others

    2015-12-10

    We introduce a method for identifying “twin” Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and using them to improve distance measurements. This novel approach to SN Ia standardization is made possible by spectrophotometric time series observations from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). We begin with a well-measured set of SNe, find pairs whose spectra match well across the entire optical window, and then test whether this leads to a smaller dispersion in their absolute brightnesses. This analysis is completed in a blinded fashion, ensuring that decisions made in implementing the method do not inadvertently bias the result. We find that pairs of SNe with more closely matched spectra indeed have reduced brightness dispersion. We are able to standardize this initial set of SNfactory SNe to 0.083 ± 0.012 mag, implying a dispersion of 0.072 ± 0.010 mag in the absence of peculiar velocities. We estimate that with larger numbers of comparison SNe, e.g., using the final SNfactory spectrophotometric data set as a reference, this method will be capable of standardizing high-redshift SNe to within 0.06–0.07 mag. These results imply that at least 3/4 of the variance in Hubble residuals in current SN cosmology analyses is due to previously unaccounted-for astrophysical differences among the SNe.

  6. Quark-Novae Ia in the Hubble diagram: implications for dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Koning, Nico; Leahy, Denis; Staff, Jan E.; Cassidy, Daniel T.

    2014-05-01

    The accelerated expansion of the Universe was proposed through the use of Type-Ia supernovae (SNe) as standard candles. The standardization depends on an empirical correlation between the stretch/color and peak luminosity of the light curves. The use of Type-Ia SNe as standard candles rests on the assumption that their properties (and this correlation) do not vary with redshift. We consider the possibility that the majority of Type-Ia SNe are in fact caused by a Quark-Nova detonation in a tight neutron-star-CO-white-dwarf binary system, which forms a Quark-Nova Ia (QN-Ia). The spin-down energy injected by the Quark-Nova remnant (the quark star) contributes to the post-peak light curve and neatly explains the observed correlation between peak luminosity and light curve shape. We demonstrate that the parameters describing QN-Ia are NOT constant in redshift. Simulated QN-Ia light curves provide a test of the stretch/color correlation by comparing the true distance modulus with that determined using SN light curve fitters. We determine a correction between the true and fitted distance moduli, which when applied to Type-Ia SNe in the Hubble diagram recovers the ΩM = 1 cosmology. We conclude that Type-Ia SNe observations do not necessitate the need for an accelerating expansion of the Universe (if the observed SNe Ia are dominated by QNe Ia) and by association the need for dark energy.

  7. Type ia Supernovae Rates and Galaxy Clustering from the CFHT Supernova Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M. L.; Pritchet, C. J.; Sullivan, M.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Neill, J. D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Regnault, N.; Baumont, S.; LeDu, J.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.; Zhang, T.

    2008-04-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (CFHT SNLS) has created a large homogeneous database of intermediate redshift (0.2 z influence of galaxy clustering on the SN Ia rate, over and above the expected effect due to the dependence of SFR on clustering through the morphology-density relation. We identify three cluster SNe Ia, plus three additional possible cluster SNe Ia, and find the SN Ia rate per unit mass in clusters at intermediate redshifts is consistent with the rate per unit mass in field early-type galaxies and the SN Ia cluster rate from low-redshift cluster targeted surveys. We also find the number of SNe Ia in cluster environments to be within a factor of 2 of expectations from the two-component SN Ia rate model.

  8. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. II. Purification and characterization of acid phosphatase Ia2 and Ia3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two acid phosphatases (Ia2, Ia3 have been isolated from Poa pratensis seeds and partially purified. Both enzymes showed maximal activity at pH 4,9. They exhibited high activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate, inorganic pyrophosphate and phenyl phosphate, much less activity towards glucose-6 phosphate, and mononucleotides. Phosphatases a2 and a3 differed in their activity towards ADP. Orthophosphate, fluoride and Zn2+ were effective inhibitors. EDTA, β-mercaptoethanol and Mg2+ activated phophatase a2 but had no effect on phosphatase a3. Zn2+ inhibited the activity of phosphatase a2 noncompetitively, whereas phosphatase a3 showed inhibition of mixed type. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and pronase had no effect on the enzyme activities of both molecular forms.

  9. Tratamento das cefaléias Treatment of headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Dias Gherpelli

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: realizar revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema tratamento da cefaléia na infância e adolescência. Fontes dos dados: revisão bibliográfica através do banco de dados Medline, utilizando os termos: cefaléia, enxaqueca ou migrânea, infância ou adolescência e tratamento, no período de 1966 a 2001, excluindo artigos de revisão e registros de casos. Foram selecionados artigos científicos que relataram estudos sobre a eficácia da terapêutica farmacológica e não farmacológica no tratamento das cefaléias primárias. Síntese dos dados: foram encontrados 104 artigos científicos, sendo selecionados aqueles que relataram estudos do tipo caso-controle, ou droga versus placebo, cegos ou abertos, e que estudassem crianças ou adolescentes. Conclusões: é digna de nota a pobreza de estudos controlados sobre o tema na faixa etária pediátrica, apesar da importância que as cefaléias primárias apresentam na prática clínica. Apenas algumas drogas foram estudadas de forma cientificamente adequada e, mesmo assim, o número de estudos é pequeno. Tanto o tratamento da crise álgica aguda quanto a profilaxia da cefaléia foram abordados.Objective: to perform a bibliographic review about headache treatment in childhood and adolescence. Sources: articles were searched through Medline database using the terms: migraine, or headache, childhood, or adolescence, and treatment, during the period between 1966 and 2001. Review articles and case reports were excluded. Only articles dealing with pharmacological, and non-pharmacological treatment of primary headaches were selected. Summary of the findings: a total of 104 articles were found; only those reporting results of the case-control studies, or drug vs. placebo, either blind, or open, and that included children, or adolescents were selected. Conclusions: only a few controlled studies about the headache treatment were found in the pediatric age group, although primary headaches are

  10. The Multidimensional Structure of Detonations in Type IA Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, John Richelieu

    1996-01-01

    The thermonuclear explosion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf that has accreted mass until it approaches the Chandrasekhar limit is widely accepted to be the correct model for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia). The basic observational characteristics of these models are in general agreement with the observed composition, light curves, and velocities of the ejecta. The mechanism for the explosion, however, is still under debate. Some deflagration models give better agreement with observations, but physical arguments imply that the ignition of a detonation may be unavoidable. Recent numerical models invoking both mechanisms (delayed, or pulsed, detonation models) have yielded promising results. It seems likely that a detonation is at least part of the explosion process for SN Ia. Therefore, understanding detonation propagation in degenerate carbon-oxygen matter is essential. We have constructed a two-dimensional hydrocode with nuclear energy release to study this problem by investigating the multidimensional structure of detonations. Experimental and computational results for detonations in terrestrial fuel-air mixtures show that multidimensional effects are critical to understanding the propagation of real detonations. Multidimensional effects can lead to slower and/or unsteady detonation propagation in simulations of fuel-air mixtures, providing much better agreement with experiments than 1D calculations. We present the first results to show that multidimensional effects are also important for detonations in degenerate carbon -oxygen matter. Perturbations induce transverse waves in the carbon-burning layer, which interact and create pockets of unburned material. This increases the effective size of the induction zone relative to 1D calculations and weakens the detonation. Therefore, the detonation is expected to die at a higher density than predicted by 1D calculations. The presence of these pockets of unburned material also produces a different composition distribution than

  11. As identidades ficcionais de Raul Pompéia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Baptista Sandanello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A fortuna crítica da obra de Raul Pompéia – especialmente, de seu romance O Ateneu – foi marcada por uma forte aproximação entre a vida do escritor e sua ficção. No entanto, pouco se falou a respeito de um aspecto muito curioso desta relação complexa entre vida e arte: o papel subsequente de Pompéia na literatura brasileira não como escritor, mas como personagem. Curiosamente, o romancista integra a trama de obras ficcionais como, por exemplo, Tentação, de Adolfo Caminha, O canudo, de Afonso Schmidt, e Investigação sobre Ariel, de Sílvio Fiorani. Nesse sentido, a partir de uma comparação entre estas obras, será discutida a possível figuração ficcional de Pompéia, assim como a posição particular de sua subjetividade dentro da mecânica narrativa de cada texto. Do primeiro ao último, há, por assim dizer, um progressivo distanciamento do universo ficcional por ele   criado (como o do citado O Ateneu e uma ênfase cada vez    maior em suas crises e inquietações pessoais. The critical reception of Raul Pompéia’s work – especially that of O Ateneu – has strongly identified over the years his biography to his fiction. However, very little was said on a    very peculiar aspect of this complex link between life and art: the subsequent role of Pompéia in Brazilian literature not as a    writer, but as a fictional character. Curiously, the writer integrates the plot of fictional works such as Tentação, by Adolfo Caminha, O canudo, by Afonso Schmidt, and Investigação sobre Ariel, by Sílvio Fiorani. In this regard, from an initial comparison of these texts, this article discusses the fictional figure of Pompéia, as well as the particular standing of his subjectivity in each narrative. So to speak, in these texts there is a gradual detachment of the fictional universe of his own    works (as that of O Ateneu and an increasing emphasis on his personal dramas and crisis.

  12. Boracéia Biological Station: an ornithological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Boracéia Biological Station, near the city of Salesópolis, SP, is located in one of the most well-defined centers of endemism in eastern Brazil - the Serra do Mar Center. While the station was established only in 1954 under the auspices of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, the avifauna of this locality had already attracted the attention of ornithologists by the 1940s, when the first specimens were collected. Here we describe the ornithological history of the Boracéia Biological Station with a review of all the bird species recorded during more than 68 years, including recent transect and mist-netting records. Boracéia's records were found in museums, literature and unpublished reports that totaled 323 bird species when recent data is also considered. Of these, 117 are endemic to the Atlantic forest and 28 are threatened in the state. Although there are a few doubtful records that need to be checked, some species are the only sightings in the state. Boracéia includes a recently discovered species near the station site and is extremely important for the conservation of Atlantic forest birds.A Estação Biológica de Boracéia, localizada em Salesópolis, SP, situa-se na Serra do Mar, importante região biogeográfica e um dos centros de endemismo mais bem definidos do Brasil. Apesar de instituída em 1954, quando passou a pertencer ao Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, a avifauna desta localidade já era objeto de pesquisas desde a década de 1940, época em que foram realizadas as primeiras coletas de aves. Aqui é apresentada pela primeira vez uma revisão de todos os registros avifaunísticos realizados nessa localidade ao longo de mais de 68 anos assim como a adição de novos registros com base em dados coletados recentemente com transectos lineares e redes de neblina. Os registros para Boracéia estiveram representados em museus, na literatura e em dados não publicados que, somados aos registros

  13. The surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Meng, Xiang-Cun; Han, Zhan-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The single-degenerate (SD) model is one of the most popular progenitor models of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), in which the companion star can survive after an SN Ia explosion and show peculiar properties. Therefore, searching for the surviving companion in type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) is a potential method to verify the SD model. In the SN 1604 remnant (Kepler’s SNR), although Chandra X-ray observation suggests that the progenitor is most likely a WD+AGB system, a the surviving companion has not been found. One possible reason is rapid rotation of the white dwarf (WD), causing explosion of the WD to be delayed for a spin-down timescale, and then the companion evolved into a WD before the supernova explosion, so the companion is too dim to be detected. We aim to verify this possible explanation by carrying out binary evolution calculations. In this paper, we use Eggleton’s stellar evolution code to calculate the evolution of binaries consisting of a WD+red giant (RG). We assume that the rapidly rotating WD can continuously increase its mass when its mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar mass limit ({M}{{Ch}}=1.378 {M}⊙ ) until the mass-transfer rate decreases to be lower than a critical value. Eventually, we obtain the final masses of a WD in the range 1.378 M ⊙ to 2.707 M ⊙. We also show that if the spin-down time is less than 106 yr, the companion star will be very bright and easily observed; but if the spin-down time is as long as ˜ 107 yr, the luminosities of the surviving companion would be lower than the detection limit. Our simulation provides guidance in hunting for the surviving companion stars in SNRs, and the fact that no surviving companion has been found in Kepler’s SNR may not be definite evidence disfavoring the SD origin of Kepler’s SN.

  14. Jet triggered Type Ia supernovae in radio-galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Capetti, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a supernova (SN) in the nearby radio-galaxy 3C 78. Observations obtained with the STIS spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope show, at a distance of 0.54 arcsec (300 pc) from the galaxy nucleus, a second bright source, not present in previous images. As this source was fortuitously covered by the spectrograph slit its spectrum was obtained and it is characteristic of a Type Ia SN. This SN is closely aligned with the radio-jet of 3C 78. Analys...

  15. Gravitational Wave Emission from the Single-Degenerate Channel of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falta, David; Fisher, Robert; Khanna, Gaurav

    2011-05-01

    The thermonuclear explosion of a C/O white dwarf as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) generates a kinetic energy comparable to that released by a massive star during a SN II event. Current observations and theoretical models have established that SNe Ia are asymmetric, and therefore—like SNe II—potential sources of gravitational wave (GW) radiation. We perform the first detailed calculations of the GW emission for a SN Ia of any type within the single-degenerate channel. The gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) mechanism predicts a strongly polarized GW burst in the frequency band around 1 Hz. Third-generation spaceborne GW observatories currently in planning may be able to detect this predicted signal from SNe Ia at distances up to 1 Mpc. If observable, GWs may offer a direct probe into the first few seconds of the SNe Ia detonation.

  16. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supernova Cosmology Project; Nugent, Peter E; Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Bronder, J.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R. C.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-03-24

    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  17. Biochemical and immunologic heterogeneity of Ia glycoproteins isolated from a chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letarte, M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto); Falk, J.

    1982-01-01

    Ia glycoproteins have been isolated from human chronic lymphocytic leukemic cells (CLL) by Lens culinaris chromatography and by filtration on ACA-34 Ultrogel. Ia antigenic activity, measured by inhibition of the cellular radioimmunoassay, was separated by gel filtration into 2 fractions, peak I and II. Monoclonal antibodies, produced against peak II glycoproteins, appear to recognize different antigenic determinants of Ia molecules. Monoclonal antibody 18a4 reacted with Ia molecules of peaks I and II, whereas monoclonal antibodies 18c2 and 18d5 reacted almost exclusively with peak II molecules both in the cellular radioimmunoassay and by immunoprecipitation. In addition to antigenic differences, minor variations in the apparent m.w. of the Ia polypeptide chains were observed between peaks I and II. These results indicate the existence of antigenically distinct subsets of Ia molecules that are separated by gel filtration.

  18. Neutrino and gravitational wave signal of a delayed-detonation model of Type Ia supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Herzog, Matthias; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Marquardt, Kai; Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Roepke, Friedrich K.

    2015-01-01

    The progenitor system(s) and the explosion mechanism(s) of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are still under debate. Non-electromagnetic observables, in particular gravitational waves and neutrino emission, of thermonuclear supernovae are a complementary window to light curves and spectra for studying these enigmatic objects. A leading model for SNe Ia is the thermonuclear incineration of a near-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf star in a "delayed-detonation". We calculate a three-dimens...

  19. A novel mutation in a case of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırel, Birgül; Demiral, Meliha; Bozdağ, Özkan; Karaer, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia is characterized by multiple hormone resistance; primarily parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) which involves skeletal and developmental defects. The AHO phenotype alone without hormone resistance is defined as pseudoPHP. A boy was first diagnosed as having both rickets and primary hypothyroidism at 2.5 months of age. His calcium level remained within normal levels after vitamin D treatment, but, elevated PTH and ALP levels and normal-high phosphate levels persisted during his follow-up by age of 2.5 years. He was admitted with hypocalcemic convulsions as well as hyperphosphatemia and elevated PTH levels suggested PTH resistance at 2.5 years of age. He and his mother were obese and had round faces, frontal bossing, small noses, flat nasal bridges, brachydactyly. His mother showed no hormonal resistance. These findings indicated that our patient had PHP type Ia and his mother had pseudoPHP. The same novel heterozygous mutation in the GNAS gene (IVS4+5G > C) was identified in both of patients.

  20. Nucleosynthesis in delayed detonation models of Type IA supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, A. M.

    1991-05-01

    The preliminary results of detailed nucleosynthesis computations are presented for delayed detonation (DD) models of Type Ia supernovae. The main parameters of the models considered are the initial density at the center, the ratio of the deflagration wave velocity and the velocity of sound ahead of the wave, and the density ahead of the deflagration wave at which the transition from a deflagration to a detonation occurs. For thermonuclear models of Type Ia supernovae, the limitations on the deflagration wave velocity near the center, Ddef is less than approximately 0.03 a(s), and on the central density of an exploding white dwarf, rho(c) is less than approximately 2-2.5 10 to the 9th g/cu cm, are obtained. It is suggested that the transition from a deflagration to a detonation in the DD models occurs due to both the turbulence in the vicinity of the flame front and the strong pulsation of the dwarf during the explosion.

  1. Starting Models in FLASH for Calculations of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Caceres, A.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Fryxell, B.; MacNeice, P.; Olson, K.; Plewa, T.; Ricker, P.; Riley, K.; Rosner, R.; Siegel, A.; Timmes, F. X.; Truran, J. W.; Vladimirova, N.; Wiers, G.; Zingale, M.

    2003-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to be the result of a thermonuclear explosion in a white dwarf that is approaching the Chandrasekhar mass limit. The properties of the supernova explosion, including its energy, depends significantly on the way in which the thermonuclear runaway begins. Where in the white dwarf ignition takes place, and how many ignition points there are, are important unsolved questions. We discuss the challenges of modeling Type Ia supernova during the several hours before thermonuclear runaway using the FLASH code. In three-dimensional hydrodynamic codes, the pre-supernova white dwarf can exhibit ``ringing'' at the fundamental frequency of the star that is driven by numerical noise. These solutions manifest themselves as undamped velocity waves (the white dwarf "breathes in and out") that reach peak amplitudes of about 200 km s-1. We show the results of several methods aimed at reducing the amplitude of these undamped waves in FLASH. We also discuss some of our experiments in mapping spherically symmetric models, which suggest large scale convective motions of 50 km s-1 a few hours prior to ignition, onto a three-dimensional mesh. This work was supported in part by the DOE under the ASCI/Alliance program.

  2. The Structure of Carbon Detonation in Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, B.; Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; Dursi, L. J.; Ricker, P.; Olson, K.; Calder, A. C.; Tufo, H.; Truran, J. W.; Rosner, R.; MacNeice, P.

    2000-12-01

    Type Ia Supernova explosions are thought to begin as deflagrations in the center of accreting white dwarfs. Observations suggest that at some point, the burning undergoes a transition from a deflagration to a detonation front. We describe high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the structure of such a detonation. The pre-detonation material is assumed to be pure C12 at a density of 107 g cm-3. A cellular structure develops behind the front, leaving pockets of unburned fuel. The cellular instability is unlikely to have any observational consequences at this density, since the cell size is only a few centimeters. However, as the detonation approaches the surface, the cell size will become comparable to the radius of the star, leaving a nonspherical distribution of reaction products and modifying the spectral signature of the explosion. The calculations were performed on 1000 processors of ASCI Blue Pacific at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the Flash Code developed at the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. They represent by far the largest simulations ever carried out on the detailed structure of burning fronts in Type Ia supernovae. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No. B341495 to the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago under the ASCI Strategic Alliances Program and by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  3. A pharmacological study of the inhibition of ventral group Ia-excited spinal interneurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, D; Curtis, D R; Brand, S J

    1977-08-08

    In cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone a pharmacological investigation was made of the inhibition by volleys in afferent fibres and ventral roots of physiologically identified Ia interneurones in the ventral horn. The recurrent inhibition of Ia interneurones by Renshaw cells, and the "mutual" inhibition between Ia interneurones, were suppressed by electrophoretic strychnine and are presumably mediated by glycine. Short latency and duration inhibitions by impulses in muscle and cutaneous afferents were also suppressed by strychnine. Electrophoretic GABA inhibited the firing of Ia interneurones and the effects of bicuculline methochloride suggested that this amino acid mediates longer latency and duration inhibition produced by afferent impulses of muscle and cutaneous origin.

  4. He-accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs and Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Han, Zhanwen

    2017-12-01

    He accretion on to carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) plays a fundamental role when studying the formation of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Employing the mesa stellar evolution code, we calculated the long-term evolution of He-accreting CO WDs. Previous studies usually supposed that a WD can grow in mass to the Chandrasekhar limit in the stable He burning region and finally produce an SN Ia. However, in this study, we find that off-centre carbon ignition occurs in the stable He burning region if the accretion rate is above a critical value (˜2.05 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1), resulting in accretion-induced collapse rather than an SN Ia. If the accretion rate is below the critical value, explosive carbon ignition will eventually happen in the centre producing an SN Ia. Taking into account the possibility of off-centre carbon ignition, we have re-determined the initial parameter space that produces SNe Ia in the He star donor channel, one of the promising channels to produce SNe Ia in young populations. Since this parameter space is smaller than was found in the previous study of Wang et al. (2009), the SN Ia rates are also correspondingly smaller. We also determined the chemical abundance profile of the He-accreting WDs at the moment of explosive carbon ignition, which can be used as initial input for SN Ia explosion models.

  5. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES AND HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2013-06-20

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory. We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-active galactic nucleus) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low- and high-mass hosts is 0.077 {+-} 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 {<=} log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {<=} 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored interpretation for the origin of the Hubble residual trend with host mass, we illustrate how dust in star-forming galaxies and mean SN Ia progenitor age both evolve along the galaxy mass sequence, thereby presenting equally viable explanations for some or all of the observed SN Ia host bias.

  6. Generalized Chaplygin Gas Models Tested with Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiada, Marek; Godłowski, Włodzimierz; Szydłowski, Marek

    2005-03-01

    The generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), with the equation of state p=-A/ρα, was recently proposed as a candidate for dark energy in the universe. In this paper we confront the GCG with Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data using available samples. Specifically, we have tested the GCG cosmology in three different classes of models with (1) Ωm=0.3 and ΩCh=0.7, (2) Ωm=0.05 and ΩCh=0.95, and (3) Ωm=0 and ΩCh=1, as well as a model without prior assumptions on Ωm. The best-fit models are obtained by minimizing the χ2 function. We supplement our analysis with confidence intervals in the (A0, α)-plane by marginalizing the probability density functions (pdf's) over the remaining parameters assuming uniform priors. We have also derived one-dimensional pdf's for ΩCh obtained from joint marginalization over α and A0. The maximum value of such a pdf provides the most probable value of ΩCh within the full class of GCG models. The general conclusion is that SN Ia data give support to the Chaplygin gas (with α=1). However, a noticeable preference for A0-values close to 1 means that the α dependence becomes insignificant. This is reflected in one-dimensional pdf's for α that turned out to be flat, meaning that the power of the present supernova data to discriminate between various GCG models (differing by α) is weak. Extending our analysis by relaxing the prior assumption of the flatness of the universe leads to the result that even though the best-fit values of Ωk are formally nonzero, they are still close to the flat case. Our results show clearly that in GCG cosmology, distant (i.e., z>1) supernovae should be brighter than in the ΛCDM model. Therefore, one can expect that future supernova experiments (e.g., SNAP) having access to higher redshifts will eventually resolve the issue of whether the dark energy content of the universe could be described as a Chaplygin gas. Moreover, it would be possible to differentiate between models with various values of the

  7. Digestibilidade de nutrientes em dietas de bovinos contendo uréia ou amiréia em substituição ao farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Junior Reinaldo Cunha de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar efeitos da substituição do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia na digestibilidade de nutrientes e alguns parâmetros ruminais em bovinos. Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, com massa média inicial de 420 kg, foram utilizados em um delineamento de quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado. O farelo de soja foi utilizado em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen, e a uréia e amiréia, em uma dieta adequada em proteína degradável no rúmen. O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura foi a única fonte de volumoso (20% da matéria seca. O farelo de soja promoveu menor (P0,05 entre os tratamentos. A digestibilidade da fibra em detergente ácido e fibra em detergente neutro foi superior (P0,05 nos valores de pH, ácidos graxos voláteis total, acetato, propionato, butirato e relação acetato:propionato do fluido ruminal. Observou-se maior (P0,05 entre os tratamentos com uréia e amiréia. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, ajustando a proteína degradável no rúmen na dieta de bovinos de corte, é viável.

  8. Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xiongying; Sardana, Ravinder; Kaplan, Harvey; Altosaar, Illimar

    1998-01-01

    Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and β-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the m...

  9. Theory of Nova Outbursts and Type Ia Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the current theoretical understanding of the light curves of novae. These curves exhibit a homologous nature, dubbed the universal decline law, and when time-normalized, they almost follow a single curve independently of the white dwarf (WD mass or chemical composition of the envelope. The optical and near-infrared light curves of novae are reproduced mainly by free-free emission from their optically thick winds. We can estimate the WD mass from multiwavelength observations because the optical, UV, and soft X-ray light curves evolve differently and we can easily resolve the degeneracy of the optical light curves. Recurrent novae and classical novae are a testbed of type Ia supernova scenarios. In the orbital period versus secondary mass diagram, recurrent novae are located in different regions from classical novae and the positions of recurrent novae are consistent with the single degenerate scenario.

  10. Photometry of High-Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Annastasia

    2018-01-01

    Out of more than 1100 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae, only roughly 10 of them are at z> 1.5. High redshift supernovae are hard to detect but this is made easier by taking advantage of the effects of gravitational lensing, which magnifies objects in the background field of massive galaxy clusters. Supernova Nebra (z= ~1.8), among others, was discovered during observations taken as part of the RELICS survey, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. SN Nebra, which sits behind galaxy cluster Abell 1763, is magnified and therefore appears closer and easier to see than with HST alone. Studying high-redshift supernovae like SN Nebra is an important step towards creating cosmological models that accurately describe the behavior of dark energy in the early Universe. Recent efforts have been focused on improving photometry and the building and fitting of preliminary light curves.

  11. THE IAS/IFRS STANDARDS SYSTEM BETWEEN HARMONIZATION AND DEFORMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mates Dorel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of competition, the globalization and the growth and integration of the capital markets require comparable accounting information based on superior- quality standards, an accounting information to consolidate and not to obstruct the global efficiency of the market .The obligatory adoption of the current IAS/IFRS norms for the creation of the financial statements of the European companies- and especially of the listed ones- are a necessary step for the full integration of the financial markets of EU member state. The 4th and 7th CE directives contributed to the harmonization of the base accounting information of the stock companies, determining a general improvement of the European accounting norms quality, and this due to the greater comparability of the companies account, which eased the activity of the trans-border companies.

  12. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    First Polarimetric Detection of Explosion Asymmetry has Cosmological Implications Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has performed new and very detailed observations of a supernova in a distant galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). They show for the first time that a particular type of supernova, caused by the explosion of a "white dwarf", a dense star with a mass around that of the Sun, is asymmetric during the initial phases of expansion . The significance of this observation is much larger than may seem at a first glance . This particular kind of supernova, designated "Type Ia", plays a very important role in the current attempts to map the Universe. It has for long been assumed that Type Ia supernovae all have the same intrinsic brightness , earning them a nickname as "standard candles". If so, differences in the observed brightness between individual supernovae of this type simply reflect their different distances. This, and the fact that the peak brightness of these supernovae rivals that of their parent galaxy, has allowed to measure distances of even very remote galaxies . Some apparent discrepancies that were recently found have led to the discovery of cosmic acceleration . However, this first clearcut observation of explosion asymmetry in a Type Ia supernova means that the exact brightness of such an object will depend on the angle from which it is seen. Since this angle is unknown for any particular supernova, this obviously introduces an amount of uncertainty into this kind of basic distance measurements in the Universe which must be taken into account in the future. Fortunately, the VLT data also show that if you wait a little - which in observational terms makes it possible to look deeper into the expanding fireball - then it becomes more spherical. Distance determinations of supernovae that are performed at this later stage will therefore be more accurate. PR Photo 24a/03 : Spiral galaxy NGC

  13. IA-Regional-Radio - Social Network for Radio Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziczkowski, Grzegorz; Bougueroua, Lamine; Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna

    This chapter describes the functions of a system proposed for the music hit recommendation from social network data base. This system carries out the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of music reviewers and the possibility for listeners to rate musical hits and recommendations deduced from auditor's profiles in the form of regional Internet radio. First, the system searches and retrieves probable music reviews from the Internet. Subsequently, the system carries out an evaluation and rating of those reviews. From this list of music hits, the system directly allows notation from our application. Finally, the system automatically creates the record list diffused each day depending on the region, the year season, the day hours and the age of listeners. Our system uses linguistics and statistic methods for classifying music opinions and data mining techniques for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent radio adaptive on auditor's age and region - IA-Regional-Radio.

  14. e73.pdf.pdf | 92 | OnlineResources | jgenet | www.ias.ac.in | http ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; jgen; 092; online; http; www.ias.ac.in; jgenet; OnlineResources; 92; e73.pdf.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 ...

  15. 197.pdf | mar2007 | jbiosci | www.ias.ac.in | | http: | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; http: www.ias.ac.in; jbiosci; mar2007; 197.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube · Twitter · Facebook · Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Live streaming of the Symposium on Dialogue: Science, Scientists, and Society starts at ...

  16. Development of fusimotor innervation correlates with group Ia afferents but is independent of neurotrophin-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringstedt, T; Copray, S; Walro, J; Kucera, J

    1998-01-01

    Fusimotor neurons, group Ia afferents and muscle spindles are absent in mutant mice lacking the gene for neurotrophin-3 (NT3). To partition the effect of Ia afferent or spindle absence from that of NT3 deprivation on fusimotor neuron development, we examined the fusimotor system in a mutant mouse

  17. The Role of IA in Reciprocal Reviews within the ISS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contribution to the International Space Station (ISS) goes beyond major station elements and a system integration responsibility, it includes participation in the design and acceptance reviews of its ISS partners. Furthermore, within NASA, an office independent of the Space Station Program is charged with a broad level overview of the design, integration, product assurance, verification and operation of major ISS elements. This office is the Independent Assurance (IA) Office. IA also participates in these ISS international design and acceptance reviews. IA appoints independent disciplined system/specialty analysts to perform mini-assessments on the systems hardware. Where ISS lessons learned can be implemented IA encourages the programs attention to disseminating these lessons to the partners. IA reviews compliance with established requirements (design, safety, performance, functional). IA plays an important role by evaluating the technical data for sufficiency and level of support is adequate from the appropriate internal/external organizations. IA provides independent oversight to influence hardware, software, processes, integration, and operations by advising the Programs of potential design inconsistencies which might negatively impact mission success. Lastly IA provides input as to the readiness of the International Partner (IP) hardware to proceed with the next design phase or acceptance. This paper concludes with insight into the net impact and processes used to improve the success of these design and acceptance reviews.

  18. "Type Ia Supernovae: Tools for Studying Dark Energy" Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, Stan [Lick Observatory, San Jose, CA (United States); Kasen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Final technical report for project "Type Ia Supernovae: Tools for the Study of Dark Energy" awarded jointly to scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz and Berkeley, for computer modeling, theory and data analysis relevant to the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmology.

  19. Are the models for type Ia supernova progenitors consistent with the properties of supernova remnants?,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badenes, C.; Hughes, J.P.; Bravo, E.; Langer, N.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the models for progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae and the properties of the supernova remnants that evolve after the explosion. Most models for Type Ia progenitors in the single-degenerate scenario predict substantial outflows during the presupernova

  20. Photometric observations of the Type Ia SN 2002er in UGC 10743

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pignata, G.; Patat, F.; Benetti, S.; Blinnikov, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kotak, R.; Leibundgut, B.; Mazzali, P.A.; Meikle, P.; Qiu, Y.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Smartt, S.J.; Sorokina, E.; Stritzinger, M.; Stehle, M.; Turatto, M.; Martin-Luis, F.; McBride, N.; Mendez, J.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Narbutis, D.; Street, R.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive light and colour curves for the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2002er are presented as part of the European Supernova Collaboration. We have collected UBVRI photometry from 11 different telescopes covering the phases from 7 d before until 619 d after maximum light. Corrections for the

  1. The First Maximum-light Ultraviolet through Near-infrared Spectrum of a Type Ia Supernova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kromer, Markus; Howie Marion, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first maximum-light ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared (NIR) Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectrum. This spectrum of SN 2011iv was obtained nearly simultaneously by the Hubble Space Telescope at UV/optical wavelengths and the Magellan Baade telescope at NIR wavelengths. These data...

  2. Advanced glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hollander, N. C.; Mulder, Douwe J.; Graaff, R.; Thorpe, S. R.; Baynes, J. W.; Smit, Gerrit; Smit, Andries

    2007-01-01

    Introducton: Despite their unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile, patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) do not develop premature atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that this paradox might be related to a decreased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) resulting from

  3. Linguistic grammar learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners' neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners' DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions.

  4. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearby Supernova Factory; Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gangler, E.; Greskovic, P.; Guy, J.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.

    2014-01-17

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spec- trophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ? 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at ? 1?, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.045 ? 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch param- eters: Steps at> 2? significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light- curve width and color around peak (similar to the∆m15 and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20 to 30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  5. Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals and host-galaxy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Fleury, M.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Feindt, U.; Greskovic, P.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Childress, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-03-20

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at <<1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host mass is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm {sub 15} and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  6. Linguistic grammar learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2 and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497 is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners' neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners' DRD2 (rs1800497 genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions.

  7. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kikkas

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity.

  8. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkas, Ingrid; Mallone, Roberto; Larger, Etienne; Volland, Hervé; Morel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As) are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity.

  9. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  10. The Effect of Host Galaxies on Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampeitl, Hubert; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U. /Portsmouth U., ICG; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Bassett, Bruce; /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Foley, Ryan J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2 to 3{sigma}) that SNe Ia are {approx_equal} 0.1 magnitudes brighter in passive host galaxies, than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light curve shape and color variations: This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R{sub V} {approx_equal} 1, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R{sub V} {approx} 2. The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of > 4{sigma}) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  11. Elemental gas-phase abundances of intermediate redshift type Ia supernova star-forming host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Raya, ME; Galbany, L.; López-Sánchez, ÁR; Mollá, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Vílchez, JM; Carnero, A.

    2018-01-01

    The maximum luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depends on the oxygen abundance of the regions of the host galaxies where they explode. This metallicity dependence reduces the dispersion in the Hubble diagram (HD) when included with the traditional two-parameter calibration of SN Ia light-curve (LC) parameters and absolute magnitude. In this work, we use empirical calibrations to carefully estimate the oxygen abundance of galaxies hosting SNe Ia from the SDSS-II/SNe Survey at intermediate redshift, by measuring their emission line intensities. We also derive electronic temperature with the direct method for a small fraction of objects for consistency. We find a trend of decreasing oxygen abundance with increasing redshift for the most massive galaxies. Moreover, we study the dependence of the HD residuals (HR) with galaxy oxygen abundance obtaining a correlation in line with those found in other works. In particular, the HR vs oxygen abundance shows a slope of -0.186±0.123 mag dex-1 (1.52σ), in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This implies smaller distance modulii after corrections for SNe Ia in metal-rich galaxies. Based on our previous results on local SNe Ia, we propose this dependence to be due to the lower luminosity of the SNe Ia produced in more metal-rich environments.

  12. Employing modern statistics to explore the universe with Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, Anja

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) anticipates observing hundreds of thousands of well-measured Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). These stellar remnant explosions are exceptional in that they have a standardizeable light curve which allows for an accurate measurement of their luminosity. The standard nature of SNe Ia allow us to measure relative distances in the Universe with better than 6% precision in distance. With distance estimates in hand to large sets of galaxies through Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) measurements, we can measure the expansion history of the Universe or create flow models of how galaxies (matter) near the Milky Way are moving. In this new regime of large datasets, weaknesses and limitations of the current techniques for estimating cosmological parameters and modeling local flows are becoming apparent. As statistical errors are reduced systematic uncertainties ranging from calibration to survey design and cadence to host galaxy contamination are dominating the error budget and limiting our ability to make improvements on cosmological measurements. Similarly, recent comparisons of flow models reveal systematic inconsistencies between different approaches. For my dissertation I have employed modern statistical methods to improve flow models in the local Universe by accounting for the non-uniform distribution of data across the sky and demonstrated how Approximate Bayesian Computation can tackle complicated likelihood functions in supernova cosmology. I also present the first results of a new near-infrared SN Ia survey called "SweetSpot" whose focus is on improving our ability to standardize the total luminosity of SNe Ia.

  13. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2013-06-20

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and H{alpha}-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  14. Direct and indirect regulation of spinal cord Ia afferent terminal formation by the γ-Protocadherins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhina ePrasad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pcdh-γ gene cluster encodes 22 protocadherin adhesion molecules that interact as homophilic multimers and critically regulate synaptogenesis and apoptosis of interneurons in the developing spinal cord. Unlike interneurons, the two primary components of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit, dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and ventral motor neurons, do not undergo excessive apoptosis in Pcdh-γdel/del null mutants, which die shortly after birth. However, as we show here, mutants exhibit severely disorganized Ia proprioceptive afferent terminals in the ventral horn. In contrast to the fine net-like pattern observed in wild-type mice, central Ia terminals in Pcdh-γ mutants are expanded, clumped, and fill the space between individual motor neurons; quantitative analysis shows a ~2.5 fold increase in the area of terminals. Concomitant with this, there is a 70% loss of the collaterals that Ia afferents extend to ventral interneurons, many of which undergo apoptosis in the mutants. The Ia afferent phenotype is ameliorated, though not entirely rescued, when apoptosis is blocked in Pcdh-γ null mice by introduction of a Bax null allele. This indicates that loss of ventral interneurons, which act as intermediate Ia afferent targets, contributes to the disorganization of terminals on motor pools. Restricted mutation of the Pcdh-γ cluster using conditional mutants and multiple Cre transgenic lines (Wnt1-Cre for sensory neurons; Pax2-Cre for ventral interneurons; Hb9-Cre for motor neurons also revealed a direct requirement for the γ-Pcdhs in Ia neurons and ventral interneurons, but not in motor neurons themselves. Together, these genetic manipulations indicate that the γ-Pcdhs are required for the formation of the Ia afferent circuit in two ways: First, they control the survival of ventral interneurons that act as intermediate Ia targets; and second, they provide a homophilic molecular cue between Ia afferents and target ventral interneurons.

  15. Cefaléia menstrual: estudo semiológico de 100 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miziara Lineu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao redor de 60% das mulheres com migrânea associam o período menstrual com a desencadear das crises. Para cefaléias não migranosas, essa relação é menos evidente. O objetivo desse estudo é apresentar a caracterização clínica da cefaléia menstrual. Cefaléia menstrual foi conceituada, em nosso estudo, como aquela cefaléia compreendida entre dois dias antes do primeiro dia da menstruação e o último dia da mesma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: intensidade, características e localização da dor e dos sintomas associados. Foi analisada a cefaléia de 100 mulheres (154 períodos menstruais, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos. A maior parte foi classificada como migrânea sem aura; a intensidade era severa no primeiro dia de dor, com redução gradativa nos dias subseqüentes; as cefaléias eram predominantemente de qualidade latejante, referidas como unilaterais em algum momento do ciclo menstrual; a duração foi maior que a tradicionalmente referida na literatura. A maior parte se iniciou dois dias antes do início do ciclo menstrual. Náuseas e/ou vômitos foram os sintomas associados mais freqüentes. Foram diagnosticados 9 casos de cefaléia do tipo tensional, 2 casos de cefaléia cervicogênica e 1 caso de cefaléia em pontadas.

  16. Whimper of a Bang: Documenting the Final Days of the Nearby Type Ia Supernova 2011fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappee, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Even though SNe Ia are crucial to cosmological studies as distance indicators, the exact nature of these systems remains theoreltically ambiguous and observationally elusive. However, there is a new hope. The very late-time light curves of SNe Ia harbor important clues to the natures of their progenitor systems. First, the ejecta from the SN will shock heat a non-degenerate companion, leaving it luminous and visible at very late times after the SN has faded . Second, due to nucleosynthetic effects during the explosion, single and double degenerate SNe Ia models are predicted to produce vastly differing amounts of 57Co and 55Fe. 57Co and 55Fe dominate the power of the very late time light curves of SNe Ia after >1050 days after the initial explosion. Broadband observations of the bolometric luminosity at these epochs have the ability to measure the ratio of these two isotopes and thus discriminate between progenitor models. As the brightest SN Ia in nearly 40 years, SN 2011fe offers a prime opportunity to follow a SN Ia to such late epochs. Here we propose HST WFC3 optical and IR photometry of SN 2011fe to observe the transition from a 57Co to a 55Fe powered lightcurve and to constrain a possible shock-heated companion. These observations will place unique constraints on progenitor systems of SNe Ia. SN 2011fe, having been already observed for more than 1600 days and a factor of four million in flux. The observations proposed here would follow SN 2011fe to an epoch 2.5 times later than any other SNe Ia. SN 2011fe is likely to remain the best studied normal SN Ia of our generation and if these observations are not made now, they will likely never be done with Hubble.

  17. Structural analysis of peptides capable of binding to more than one Ia antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sette, A; Buus, S; Colon, S

    1989-01-01

    separate series of truncated synthetic peptides, it was found that in all three cases the different Ia reactivities mapped to largely overlapping regions of the peptides; although, for two of the peptides, the regions involved in binding the different Ia specificities were distinct. Moreover, subtle...... differences were found to dramatically influence some, but not other, Ia reactivities. Using a large panel of synthetic peptides it was found that a significant correlation exists between the capacity of peptides to interact with different alleles of the same molecule (i.e., IAd and IAk), but no correlation...

  18. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Ashall, C.

    2017-01-01

    as investigate the time evolution of the (B V) color and B(B - V), which serves as the basis of the color-stretch relation and Color-MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT...... past maximum, the photosphere recedes to Ni-56-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density rho(c) of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of Ni-56...... production. This results in a.m15 spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe. Ia and approximate to 0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color-magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Delta...

  19. Degeneracy breakdown as a source of supernovae Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavelli, L.

    2018-01-01

    In a confined system of multiple Fermions, the particles are forced into high energy levels by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We refer to this system as a Pauli tower. We pursue the investigation of a model for sub-Chandrasekhar supernovae Ia explosions (SNIa) in which the energy stored in the Pauli tower is released to trigger a nuclear deflagration. The simplest physical model for such a degeneracy breakdown and collapse of the Pauli tower is a phase transition to an exactly supersymmetric state in which the scalar partners of protons, neutrons, and leptons become degenerate with the familiar fermions of our world as in the supersymmetric standard model with susy breaking parameters relaxed to zero. We focus on the ability of the susy phase transition model to fit the total SNIa rate as well as the delay time distribution of SNIa after the birth of a progenitor white dwarf. We also study the ejected mass distribution and its correlation with delay time. Finally, we discuss the expected SNIa remnant in the form of a black hole of roughly Jupiter mass and the prospects for detecting such remnants.

  20. GAMMA RAYS FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA SN 2014J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Grebenev, S. [Space Research Institute (IKI), Profsouznaya 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Isern, J. [Institut for Space Sciences (ICE-CSIC/IEEC), E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bikmaev, I. [Kazan Federal University (KFU), Kremlevskaya Strasse, 18, Kazan (Russian Federation); Bravo, E. [E.T.S.A.V., Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Carrer Pere Serra 1-15, E-08173 Sant Cugat del Valles (Spain); Chugai, N. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 48 Pyatnitskaya Street, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jean, P.; Knödlseder, J. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Lebrun, F. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Kuulkers, E. [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-10

    The whole set of INTEGRAL observations of Type Ia supernova SN 2014J, covering the period 19–162 days after the explosion, has been analyzed. For spectral fitting the data are split into early and late periods covering days 19–35 and 50–162, respectively, optimized for {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}Co lines. As expected for the early period, much of the gamma-ray signal is confined to energies below ∼200 keV, while for the late period it is strongest above 400 keV. In particular, in the late period, {sup 56}Co lines at 847 and 1248 keV are detected at 4.7σ and 4.3σ, respectively. The light curves in several representative energy bands are calculated for the entire period. The resulting spectra and light curves are compared with a subset of models. We confirm our previous finding that the gamma-ray data are broadly consistent with the expectations for canonical one-dimensional models, such as delayed detonation or deflagration models for a near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf. Late optical spectra (day 136 after the explosion) show rather symmetric Co and Fe line profiles, suggesting that, unless the viewing angle is special, the distribution of radioactive elements is symmetric in the ejecta.

  1. An Analysis of Department of Defense Instruction 8500.2 'Information Assurance (IA) Implementation.'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) provides its standard for information assurance in its Instruction 8500.2, dated February 6, 2003. This Instruction lists 157 'IA Controls' for nine 'baseline IA levels.' Aside from distinguishing IA Controls that call for elevated levels of 'robustness' and grouping the IA Controls into eight 'subject areas' 8500.2 does not examine the nature of this set of controls, determining, for example, which controls do not vary in robustness, how this set of controls compares with other such sets, or even which controls are required for all nine baseline IA levels. This report analyzes (1) the IA Controls, (2) the subject areas, and (3) the Baseline IA levels. For example, this report notes that there are only 109 core IA Controls (which this report refers to as 'ICGs'), that 43 of these core IA Controls apply without variation to all nine baseline IA levels and that an additional 31 apply with variations. This report maps the IA Controls of 8500.2 to the controls in NIST 800-53 and ITGI's CoBIT. The result of this analysis and mapping, as shown in this report, serves as a companion to 8500.2. (An electronic spreadsheet accompanies this report.)

  2. Norwegian Film Days in Iaşi. Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, May 27-29, 2012. Interview with Jan Erik Holst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Grecu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi in collaboration with the Norwegian Film Institute in Oslo and the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Bucharest organized the event entitled Norwegian Film Days in Iaşi, between May 27-29, 2012. This cultural event was coordinated by Dr. Crina Leon.The guest speaker was Mr. Jan Erik Holst, executive editor at the Norwegian Film Institute and responsible for major cultural projects abroad. He had previously been invited to Romania for similar projects in Cluj-Napoca and Bucharest.

  3. Cúpulas comerciais para produção de geléia real e rainhas em colméias de abelhas Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Regina Conceição

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente ensaio foi testar quatro tipos comerciais de cúpulas distintas quanto à coloração, altura, volume e diâmetro, na aceitação das larvas transferidas e na produção de geléia real e rainhas. A cúpula que apresentou maior aceitação foi a alaranjada (55,6%, seguida da amarela (37,3%, azul (36,5% e branca (26,9%. As cúpulas que apresentaram maior peso de geléia real foram branca (347,7 mg, alaranjada (312,3 mg, amarela (284,0 mg e azul (202,8 mg. O peso das larvas retiradas no momento da coleta de geléia real não apresentou diferença nas cúpulas de diferentes colorações sendo, em média, 42,0 ± 49,6 mg. O peso das rainhas recém-emergidas foi maior na cúpula branca (190,2 mg, seguida da alaranjada (181,0 mg, amarela (175,4 mg e azul (147,5 mg. O volume das realeiras não apresentou diferença nas cúpulas de diferentes colorações sendo, em média, 822,5 mm³. Com relação às cúpulas de cera, tanto a porcentagem de aceitação quanto a quantidade de geléia real produzida não apresentaram diferença entre os tratamentos. A porcentagem de aceitação nas cúpulas de cera maiores foi 18,2% e nas cúpulas menores, 12,1%. A quantidade de geléia real produzida nas cúpulas de cera menores foi 151,4 mg e nas maiores foi 137,5 mg. As cúpulas branca, alaranjada e amarela apresentaram maior quantidade de geléia real por cúpula (347,7 mg, 312,3 mg e 284,0 mg, respectivamente, entretanto, a maior quantidade total de geléia real produzida por colméia, foi obtida com as cúpulas alaranjadas (1389,40 mg. Para a produção de rainhas também sugere-se o uso das cúpulas alaranjadas

  4. Type Ia supernova rate at a redshift of ~;0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, G.; Afonso, C.; Alard, C.; Albert, J.N.; Aldering, G.; Amadon, A.; Andersen, J.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balland, C.; Bareyre,P.; Beaulieu, J.P.; Charlot, X.; Conley, A.; Coutures, C.; Dahlen, T.; Derue, F.; Fan, X.; Ferlet, R.; Folatelli, G.; Fouque, P.; Garavini, G.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Goldman, B.; Goobar, A.; Gould, A.; Graff, D.; Gros,M.; Haissinski, J.; Hamadache, C.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.M.; deKat, J.; Kent, S.; Kim, A.; Lasserre, T.; LeGuillou, L.; Lesquoy, E.; Loup, C.; Magneville, C.; Marquette, J.B.; Maurice, E.; Maury, A.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Mouchet, M.; Newberg, H.; Nobili, S.; Palanque-Delabrouille,N.; Perdereau, O.; Prevot, L.; Rahal, Y.R.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Spiro, M.; Tisserand, P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Vigroux,L.; Walton, N.A.; Zylberajch, S.

    2004-05-11

    We present the type Ia rate measurement based on two EROS supernova search campaigns (in 1999 and 2000). Sixteen supernovae identified as type Ia were discovered. The measurement of the detection efficiency, using a Monte Carlo simulation, provides the type Ia supernova explosion rate at a redshift {approx} 0.13. The result is 0.125{sub -0.034-0.028}{sup +0.044+0.028} h{sub 70}{sup 2} SNu where 1 SNu = 1 SN/10{sup 10} L{sub {circle_dot}}{sup B}/century. This value is compatible with the previous EROS measurement (Hardin et al. 2000), done with a much smaller sample, at a similar redshift. Comparison with other values at different redshifts suggests an evolution of the type Ia supernova rate.

  5. Confronting Alternative Cosmological Models with the Highest-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Daniel; Scolnic, Daniel; Riess, Adam

    2018-01-01

    High-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the HST CANDELS and CLASH programs significantly extend the Hubble diagram with 7 SNe at z > 1.5 suitable for cosmology, including one at z = 2.3. This unique leverage helps us distinguish "alternative" cosmological models from the standard Lambda-CDM model. Analyzing the Pantheon SN compilation, which includes these high-z SNe, we employ model comparison statistics to quantify the extent to which several proposed alternative expansion histories (e.g., empty universe, power law expansion, timescape cosmology) are disfavored even with SN Ia data alone. Using mock data, we demonstrate that some likelihood analyses used in the literature to support these models are sensitive to unrealistic assumptions and are therefore unsuitable for analysis of realistic SN Ia data.

  6. 78 FR 43852 - Correction for the Cairo, IL and Belmond, IA Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Correction for the Cairo, IL and Belmond, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice and correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B3IA-2AANA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B3IA-2AANA 1B3I 2AAN A A ASVQIKMGTDKYAPLYEPKALSISAGDTVE--FVMN-KVGPHNVIFDKVPAGESAP...GPVTIEIGSKGEELAFDKTELTVSAGQTVTIRFKNNSAVQQHNWILV-KGGEAEAANIANAGLSAGPAANYLPADKSNIIAESPLANGNETVEVTFTAPAAGTYLYICTV...2AAN A 2AANA VEVTFTAPAAGTYL...2AAN A 2AANA NWILV-KGGEA

  8. Circulation of Tc Ia discrete type unit Trypanosoma cruzi in Yucatan Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteón, Victor; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana; Pennignton, Pamela; Ramos-Ligonio, Ángel; Acosta, Karla; Lopez, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    The etiologic agent Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) has been grouped into six discrete type units (DTU I-VI); within DTU-I exists four subgroups defined Ia-Id. In Colombia, the genotype Ia is associated with human infection and domiciliated Rhodnius vector. In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, the main vector involved in T. cruzi transmission is Triatoma dimidiata predominantly via sylvatic and peridomiciliated cycles. In this study, multiple sequence analysis of mini-exon intergenic regions of T. cruzi isolates obtained from T. dimidiata in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico revealed they belonged to Tc Ia DTU along with two additional Mexican strains located 1,570 km away from Yucatan. In conclusion Tc Ia circulates in the Yucatan peninsula in T. dimidiata vector and likewise in the northwest region of Mexico.

  9. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 312 block groups in Des Moines, IA. Carbon attributes, temperature reduction,...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2011) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The EnviroAtlas Woodbine, IA...

  11. What is the role of wind mass transfer in the progenitor evolution of Type Ia supernovae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Carlo

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs) that accrete mass from a binary companion, which can be either a non-degenerate star (a main-sequence star or a giant) or an other WD in a binary merger (single- and double-degenerate scenario, respectively). In population-synthesis studies of SNe Ia the contribution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to either scenario is marginal. However, most of these studies adopt simplified assumptions to compute the effects of wind mass loss and accretion in binary systems. This work investigates the impact of wind mass transfer on a population of binary stars and discusses the role of AGB stars as progenitors of SNe Ia.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Woodbine, IA Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red,...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Des Moines, IA EnviroAtlas Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated from the High Resolution Land Cover (HRLC) product created by the Iowa...

  14. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Peter A. [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Roming, Peter W. A. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Corporation, P.O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, TX 78228-0510 (United States); Bufano, Filomena [Universidad Andres Bello, Departmento de Cincias Fisicas, Avda. Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Codes 660.1 and 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  15. Measuring the Growth Rate of Structure with Type IA Supernovae from LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Cullan; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Kim, Alex G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the peculiar motions of galaxies up to z = 0.5 using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and predict the subsequent constraints on the growth rate of structure. We consider two cases. Our first is based on measurements of the volumetric SNe Ia rate and assumes we can obtain spectroscopic redshifts and light curves for varying fractions of objects that are detected pre-peak luminosity by LSST (some of which may be obtained by LSST itself, and others that would require additional follow-up observations). We find that these measurements could produce growth rate constraints at zRSD) with DESI or 4MOST, even though there are ˜ 4× fewer objects. For our second case, we use semi-analytic simulations and a prescription for the SNe Ia rate as a function of stellar mass and star-formation rate to predict the number of LSST SNe IA whose host redshifts may already have been obtained with the Taipan+WALLABY surveys or with a future multi-object spectroscopic survey. We find ˜18,000 and ˜160,000 SNe Ia with host redshifts for these cases, respectively. While this is only a fraction of the total LSST-detected SNe Ia, they could be used to significantly augment and improve the growth rate constraints compared to only RSD. Ultimately, we find that combining LSST SNe Ia with large numbers of galaxy redshifts will provide the most powerful probe of large-scale gravity in the z< 0.5 regime over the coming decades.

  16. The double-degenerate model for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Wang, B.; Han, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The double-degenerate (DD) model, involving the merging of massive double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) driven by gravitational wave radiation, is one of the classical pathways for the formation of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recently, it has been proposed that the WD+He subgiant channel has a significant contribution to the production of massive double WDs, in which the primary WD accumulates mass by accreting He-rich matter from an He subgiant. We evolved about 1800 CO WD+He star systems and obtained a large and dense grid for producing SNe Ia through the DD model. We then performed a series of binary population synthesis simulations for the DD model, in which the WD+He subgiant channel is calculated by interpolations in the SN Ia production grid. According to our standard model, the Galactic birth rate of SNe Ia is about 2.4 × 10- 3 yr- 1 for the WD+He subgiant channel of the DD model; the total birth rate is about 3.7 × 10- 3 yr- 1 for all channels, reproducing that of observations. Previous theoretical models still have deficit with the observed SNe Ia with delay times 8 Gyr. After considering the WD+He subgiant channel, we found that the delay time distributions are comparable with the observed results. Additionally, some recent studies proposed that the violent WD mergers are more likely to produce SNe Ia based on the DD model. We estimated that the violent mergers through the DD model may contribute to at most 16 per cent of all SNe Ia.

  17. On IA-automorphisms that fix the centre element-wise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let G be a group. An automorphism of G is called an IA-automorphism if it induces the identity mapping on G/γ2(G), where γ2(G) is the commutator sub- group of G. Let IAz(G) be the group of those IA-automorphisms, which fix the centre element-wise and let Autcent(G) be the group of central automorphisms, the ...

  18. 3D non-LTE spectrum synthesis for Type Ia supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Hillebrandt, W

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmology and to the chemical evolution of the Universe, we still have no consistent picture of the nature of these events. Much progress has been made in the hydrodynamical explosion modelling of supernovae Ia in the last few years and fully 3-D explosion models are now available. However those simulations are not directly comparable to observations: to constrain explosion models, radiative transfer calculations must be car...

  19. Effect analysis on the application of IFRS 10 compared with the IAS 27

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Maria Salomé de Jesus Martins

    2013-01-01

    Projecto de Mestrado em Contabilidade / JEL Classification: M41 (Accounting) This study investigates the changes caused on the application of IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements compared with the previous guidance IAS 27 Consolidated and Separated Financial Statements on the Consolidated Financial Statements. IFRS 10 replaces the IAS 27 and is effective application started, for the annuals periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. With the objective of understandin...

  20. Independent Validation of the SEND-PD and Correlation with the MDS-UPDRS Part IA

    OpenAIRE

    Mayela Rodríguez-Violante; Amin Cervantes-Arriaga; Salvador Velázquez-Osuna; Rodrigo Llorens-Arenas; Humberto Calderón-Fajardo; Dan Piña-Fuentes; Pablo Martinez-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease can be assessed by the MDS-UPDRS part IA. The Scale for Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Parkinson's disease (SEND-PD) has been recently developed to assess the severity of some neuropsychiatric symptoms. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the SEND-PD with the corresponding items of the MDS-UPDRS part IA. Methods. Patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated using the MDS-UPDRS and the SEND...

  1. Structure and Function of APH(4)-Ia, a Hygromycin B Resistance Enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stogios, Peter J.; Shakya, Tushar; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei; Wright, Gerard D. (Toronto); (McMaster U.)

    2011-11-18

    The aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (APH) APH(4)-Ia is one of two enzymes responsible for bacterial resistance to the atypical aminoglycoside antibiotic hygromycin B (hygB). The crystal structure of APH(4)-Ia enzyme was solved in complex with hygB at 1.95 {angstrom} resolution. The APH(4)-Ia structure adapts a general two-lobe architecture shared by other APH enzymes and eukaryotic kinases, with the active site located at the interdomain cavity. The enzyme forms an extended hydrogen bond network with hygB primarily through polar and acidic side chain groups. Individual alanine substitutions of seven residues involved in hygB binding did not have significant effect on APH(4)-Ia enzymatic activity, indicating that the binding affinity is spread across a distributed network. hygB appeared as the only substrate recognized by APH(4)-Ia among the panel of 14 aminoglycoside compounds. Analysis of the active site architecture and the interaction with the hygB molecule demonstrated several unique features supporting such restricted substrate specificity. Primarily the APH(4)-Ia substrate-binding site contains a cluster of hydrophobic residues that provides a complementary surface to the twisted structure of the substrate. Similar to APH(2{double_prime}) enzymes, the APH(4)-Ia is able to utilize either ATP or GTP for phosphoryl transfer. The defined structural features of APH(4)-Ia interactions with hygB and the promiscuity in regard to ATP or GTP binding could be exploited for the design of novel aminoglycoside antibiotics or inhibitors of this enzyme.

  2. An Accelerated Radioactive Decay (ARD) Model for Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Bert W.; Leventhal, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    In 1975, Leventhal and McCall [Nature, 255, 690-692] presented a radioactive decay model 56N i --> 56Co --> 56Fe for the post-peak luminosity decay of Type I supernovae light curves, in which the two decay rates are both accelerated by a common factor. In 1976, Rust, Leventhal and McCall [Nature, 262, 118-120] used sums of exponentials fitting to confirm the acceleration hypothesis, but their result was nevertheless rejected by the astronomical community. Here, we model Type Ia light curves with a system of ODEs (describing the nuclear decays) forced by a Ni-deposition pulse modelled by a 3-parameter Weibull pdf, with all of this occuring in the center of a pre-existing, optically thick, spherical shell which thermalizes the emitted gamma rays. Fitting this model to observed light curves routinely gives fits which account for 99.9+% of the total variance in the observed record. The accelerated decay rates are so stable, for such a long time, that they must occur in an almost unchanging environment -- not it a turbulent expanding atmosphere. The amplitude of the Ni-deposition pulse indicates that its source is the fusion of hydrogen. Carbon and oxygen could not supply the large energy/nucleon that is observed. The secondary peak in the infrared light curve can be easily modelled as a light echo from dust in the back side of the pre-existing shell, and the separation between the peaks indicates a radius of ≈15 light days for the shell. The long-term stability of the acceleration suggests that it is a kinematic effect arising because the nuclear reactions occur either on the surface of a very rapidly rotating condensed object, or in a very tight orbit around such an object, like the fusion pulse in a tokomak reactor.

  3. An asymmetric explosion as the origin of spectral evolution diversity in type Ia supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Benetti, S; Stritzinger, M; Röpke, F K; Folatelli, G; Sollerman, J; Taubenberger, S; Nomoto, K; Leloudas, G; Hamuy, M; Tanaka, M; Mazzali, P A; Elias-Rosa, N

    2010-07-01

    Type Ia supernovae form an observationally uniform class of stellar explosions, in that more luminous objects have smaller decline-rates. This one-parameter behaviour allows type Ia supernovae to be calibrated as cosmological 'standard candles', and led to the discovery of an accelerating Universe. Recent investigations, however, have revealed that the true nature of type Ia supernovae is more complicated. Theoretically, it has been suggested that the initial thermonuclear sparks are ignited at an offset from the centre of the white-dwarf progenitor, possibly as a result of convection before the explosion. Observationally, the diversity seen in the spectral evolution of type Ia supernovae beyond the luminosity-decline-rate relation is an unresolved issue. Here we report that the spectral diversity is a consequence of random directions from which an asymmetric explosion is viewed. Our findings suggest that the spectral evolution diversity is no longer a concern when using type Ia supernovae as cosmological standard candles. Furthermore, this indicates that ignition at an offset from the centre is a generic feature of type Ia supernovae.

  4. EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. I. EVIDENCE FOR DOWNSIZING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yijung; Kim, Young-Lo; Lim, Dongwook; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook, E-mail: ywlee2@yonsei.ac.kr [Center for Galaxy Evolution Research and Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology provides the most direct evidence for the presence of dark energy. This result is based on the assumption that the lookback time evolution of SN Ia luminosity, after light curve corrections, would be negligible. Recent studies show, however, that the Hubble residual (HR) of SN Ia is correlated with the mass and morphology of host galaxies, implying the possible dependence of SN Ia luminosity on host galaxy properties. In order to investigate this more directly, we have initiated a spectroscopic survey for early-type host galaxies, for which population age and metallicity can be more reliably determined from the absorption lines. In this first paper of the series, we present here the results from high signal-to-noise ratio (≳100 per pixel) spectra for 27 nearby host galaxies in the southern hemisphere. For the first time in host galaxy studies, we find a significant (∼3.9σ) correlation between host galaxy mass (velocity dispersion) and population age, which is consistent with the “downsizing” trend among non-host early-type galaxies. This result is rather insensitive to the choice of population synthesis models. Since we find no correlation with metallicity, our result suggests that stellar population age is mainly responsible for the relation between host mass and HR. If confirmed, this would imply that the luminosity evolution plays a major role in the systematic uncertainties of SN Ia cosmology.

  5. M@IA: a modular open-source application for microarray workflow and integrative datamining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Béchec, Antony; Zindy, Pierre; Sierocinski, Thomas; Petritis, Dimitri; Bihouée, Audrey; Le Meur, Nolwenn; Léger, Jean; Théret, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Microarray technology is a widely used approach to gene expression analysis. Many tools for microarray management and data analysis have been developed, and recently new methods have been proposed for deciphering biological pathways by integrating microarray data with other data sources. However, to improve microarray analysis and provide meaningful gene interaction networks, integrated software solutions are still needed. Therefore, we developed M@IA, an environment for DNA microarray data analysis allowing gene network reconstruction. M@IA is a microarray integrated application which includes all of the steps of a microarray study, from MIAME-compliant raw data storage and processing gene expression analysis. Furthermore, M@IA allows automatic gene annotation based on ontology, metabolic/signalling pathways, protein interaction, miRNA and transcriptional factor associations, as well as integrative analysis of gene interaction networks. Statistical and graphical methods facilitate analysis, yielding new hypotheses on gene expression data. To illustrate our approach, we applied M@IA modules to microarray data taken from an experiment on liver tissue. We integrated differentially expressed genes with additional biological information, thus identifying new molecular interaction networks that are associated with fibrogenesis. M@IA is a new application for microarray management and data analysis, offering functional insights into microarray data by the combination of gene expression data and biological knowledge annotation based on interactive graphs. M@IA is an interactive multi-user interface based on a flexible modular architecture and it is freely available for academic users at http://maia.genouest.org.

  6. Observational Evidence for High Neutronization in Supernova Remnants: Implications for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Bravo, Eduardo; Timmes, F. X.; Miles, Broxton J.; Townsley, Dean M.; Piro, Anthony L.; Mori, Hideyuki; Andrews, Brett; Park, Sangwook

    2017-07-01

    The physical process whereby a carbon-oxygen white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains highly uncertain. The degree of neutronization in SN Ia ejecta holds clues to this process because it depends on the mass and the metallicity of the stellar progenitor, and on the thermodynamic history prior to the explosion. We report on a new method to determine ejecta neutronization using Ca and S lines in the X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). Applying this method to Suzaku data of Tycho, Kepler, 3C 397, and G337.2-0.7 in the Milky Way, and N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud, we find that the neutronization of the ejecta in N103B is comparable to that of Tycho and Kepler, which suggests that progenitor metallicity is not the only source of neutronization in SNe Ia. We then use a grid of SN Ia explosion models to infer the metallicities of the stellar progenitors of our SNRs. The implied metallicities of 3C 397, G337.2-0.7, and N103B are major outliers compared to the local stellar metallicity distribution functions, indicating that progenitor metallicity can be ruled out as the origin of neutronization for these SNRs. Although the relationship between ejecta neutronization and equivalent progenitor metallicity is subject to uncertainties stemming from the 12C + 16O reaction rate, which affects the Ca/S mass ratio, our main results are not sensitive to these details.

  7. The extent and intensity of the urban heat island in Iași city, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfîcă, Lucian; Ichim, Pavel; Apostol, Liviu; Ursu, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    The study underlines the characteristics of the urban heat island of Iași (Iași's UHI) on the basis of 3 years of air temperature measurements obtained by fixed-point observations. We focus on the identification of UHI development and intensity as it is expressed by the temperature differences between the city centre and the rural surroundings. Annual, seasonal and daily characteristics of Iaşi's UHI are investigated at the level of the classical weather observation. In brief, an intensity of 0.8 °C of UHI and a spatial extension which corresponds to the densely built area of the city were delineated. The Iaşi UHI is stronger during summer calm nights—when the inner city is warmer with 2.5-3 °C than the surroundings—and is weaker during windy spring days. The specific features of Iași's UHI bear a profound connection to the specificity of the urban structure, the high atmospheric stability in the region and the local topography. Also, the effects of Iași's UHI upon some environmental aspects are presented as study cases. For instance, under the direct influence of UHI, we have observed that in the city centre, the apricot tree blossoms earlier (with up to 4 days) and the depth of the snow cover is significantly lower (with up to 10 cm for a rural snow depth of 30 cm) than in the surrounding areas.

  8. THE DISCOVERY OF THE MOST DISTANT KNOWN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David O.; Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dahlen, Tomas; Casertano, Stefano; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); McCully, Curtis; Keeton, Charles R.; Patel, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Hjorth, Jens [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Strolger, Louis-Gregory [Department of Physics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Wiklind, Tommy G. [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Challis, Peter [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Graur, Or [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hayden, Brian; Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); and others

    2013-05-10

    We present the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN) at redshift z = 1.914 from the CANDELS multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This SN was discovered in the infrared using the Wide-Field Camera 3, and it is the highest-redshift Type Ia SN yet observed. We classify this object as a SN Ia by comparing its light curve and spectrum with those of a large sample of Type Ia and core-collapse SNe. Its apparent magnitude is consistent with that expected from the {Lambda}CDM concordance cosmology. We discuss the use of spectral evidence for classification of z > 1.5 SNe Ia using HST grism simulations, finding that spectral data alone can frequently rule out SNe II, but distinguishing between SNe Ia and SNe Ib/c can require prohibitively long exposures. In such cases, a quantitative analysis of the light curve may be necessary for classification. Our photometric and spectroscopic classification methods can aid the determination of SN rates and cosmological parameters from the full high-redshift CANDELS SN sample.

  9. Pulsating Instability of Turbulent Thermonuclear Flames in Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludnenko, Alexei Y.

    2014-01-01

    Presently, one of the main explosion scenarios of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), aimed at explaining both "normal" and subluminous events, is the thermonuclear incineration of a white-dwarf in a single-degenerate system. The underlying engine of such explosions is the turbulent thermonuclear flame. Modern, large-scale, multidimensional simulations of SNIa cannot resolve the internal flame structure, and instead must include a subgrid-scale prescription for the turbulent-flame properties. As a result, development of robust, parameter-free, large-scale models of SNIa crucially relies on the detailed understanding of the turbulent flame properties during each stage of the flame evolution. Due to the complexity of the flame dynamics, such understanding must be validated by the first-principles direct numerical simulations (DNS). In our previous work, we showed that sufficiently fast turbulent flames are inherently susceptible to the development of detonations, which may provide the mechanism for the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in the delayed-detonation model of SNIa. Here we extend this study by performing detailed analysis of the turbulent flame properties at turbulent intensities below the critical threshold for DDT. We carried out a suite of 3D DNS of turbulent flames for a broad range of turbulent intensities and system sizes using a simplified, single-step, Arrhenius-type reaction kinetics. Our results show that at the later stages of the explosion, as the turbulence intensity increases prior to the possible onset of DDT, the flame front will become violently unstable. We find that the burning rate exhibits periodic pulsations with the energy release rate varying by almost an order of magnitude. Furthermore, such flame pulsations can produce pressure waves and shocks as the flame speed approaches the critical Chapman-Jouguet deflagration speed. Finally, in contrast with the current theoretical understanding, such fast turbulent flames can propagate at

  10. Helium in double-detonation models of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Aoife; Sim, Stuart A.; Hachinger, Stephan; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    The double-detonation explosion model has been considered a candidate for explaining astrophysical transients with a wide range of luminosities. In this model, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf star explodes following detonation of a surface layer of helium. One potential signature of this explosion mechanism is the presence of unburned helium in the outer ejecta, left over from the surface helium layer. In this paper we present simple approximations to estimate the optical depths of important He i lines in the ejecta of double-detonation models. We use these approximations to compute synthetic spectra, including the He i lines, for double-detonation models obtained from hydrodynamical explosion simulations. Specifically, we focus on photospheric-phase predictions for the near-infrared 10 830 Å and 2 μm lines of He i. We first consider a double detonation model with a luminosity corresponding roughly to normal SNe Ia. This model has a post-explosion unburned He mass of 0.03 M⊙ and our calculations suggest that the 2 μm feature is expected to be very weak but that the 10 830 Å feature may have modest opacity in the outer ejecta. Consequently, we suggest that a moderate-to-weak He i 10 830 Å feature may be expected to form in double-detonation explosions at epochs around maximum light. However, the high velocities of unburned helium predicted by the model ( 19 000 km s-1) mean that the He i 10 830 Å feature may be confused or blended with the C i 10 690 Å line forming at lower velocities. We also present calculations for the He i 10 830 Å and 2 μm lines for a lower mass (low luminosity) double detonation model, which has a post-explosion He mass of 0.077 M⊙. In this case, both the He i features we consider are strong and can provide a clear observational signature of the double-detonation mechanism.

  11. Mass retention efficiencies of He accretion onto carbon-oxygen white dwarfs and type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Wang, B.; Liu, D.; Han, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a crucial role in studying cosmology and galactic chemical evolution. They are thought to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) when their masses reach the Chandrasekar mass limit in binaries. Previous studies have suggested that He novae may be progenitor candidates of SNe Ia. However, the mass retention efficiencies during He nova outbursts are still uncertain. Aims: In this article, we aim to study the mass retention efficiencies of He nova outbursts and to investigate whether SNe Ia can be produced through He nova outbursts. Methods: Using the stellar evolution code Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics, we simulated a series of multicycle He-layer flashes, in which the initial WD masses range from 0.7 to 1.35 M⊙ with various accretion rates. Results: We obtained the mass retention efficiencies of He nova outbursts for various initial WD masses, which can be used in the binary population synthesis studies. In our simulations, He nova outbursts can increase the mass of the WD to the Chandrasekar mass limit and the explosive carbon burning can be triggered in the center of the WD; this suggests that He nova outbursts can produce SNe Ia. Meanwhile, the mass retention efficiencies in the present work are lower than those of previous studies, which leads to a lower birthrates of SNe Ia through the WD + He star channel. Furthermore, we obtained the elemental abundances distribution at the moment of explosive carbon burning, which can be used as the initial input parameters in studying explosion models of SNe Ia.

  12. The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; McGuire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; DeRose, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age mass metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older massive metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to t1. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.

  13. Genetic heterogeneity of platelet glycoproteins Ia and IIIa and the risk of spontaneous miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachadis, Nikolaos; Tsamadias, Vasileios; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Kaparos, Georgios; Vitoratos, Nikolaos; Kouskouni, Evaggelia; Economou, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the genetic heterogeneity of platelet glycoproteins Ia (GpIa-C807T) and IIIa (GpIIIa-PlA1/PlA2) and spontaneous abortions. Two hundred and twenty two women with a history of unexplained spontaneous miscarriages and no successful pregnancy, and 60 fertile women serving as controls were genotyped for the GpIa-C807T and GpIIIa-PlA1/PlA2 polymorphisms by pyrosequencing. In comparison with the common alleles homozygotes, GpIa-807T and GpIIIa-PlA2 carriers had an increased risk of fetal loss (OR = 3.36, 95%CI: 1.85-6.11, p < 0.001, and OR = 2.58, 95%CI: 1.30-5.13, p = 0.006, respectively). For subjects who were combined carriers of the GpIa-807T and GpIIIa-PlA2 alleles, the risk increased further (OR = 9.13, 95%CI: 2.99-27.82, p < 0.001). The above ORs were highest for women who were younger than 30 years of age. The GpIa-C807T and GpIIIa-PlA1/PlA2 polymorphisms and more pronouncedly their combination are associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortions. The correlations were stronger for younger patients. Our results indicate that GpIa-807T and GpIIIa-PlA2 are susceptibility alleles for fetal loss in the Greek population.

  14. Properties of Deflagration Fronts and Models for Type IA Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, I.; Höflich, P.

    2000-01-01

    Detailed models of the explosion of a white dwarf that include self-consistent calculations of the light curve and spectra provide a link between observational quantities and the underlying explosion model. These calculations assume spherical geometry and are based on parameterized descriptions of the burning front. Recently, the first multidimensional calculations for nuclear burning fronts have been performed. Although a fully consistent treatment of the burning fronts is beyond the current state of the art, these calculations provide a new and better understanding of the physics. Several new descriptions for flame propagation have been proposed by Khokhlov et al. and Niemeyer et al. Using various descriptions for the propagation of a nuclear deflagration front, we have studied the influence on the results of previous analyses of Type Ia supernovae, namely, the nucleosynthesis and structure of the expanding envelope. Our calculations are based on a set of delayed detonation models with parameters that give a good account of the optical and infrared light curves and of the spectral evolution. In this scenario, the burning front first propagates in a deflagration mode and subsequently turns into a detonation. The explosions and light curves are calculated using a one-dimensional Lagrangian radiation-hydro code including a detailed nuclear network. We find that the results of the explosion are rather insensitive to details of the description of the deflagration front, even if its speed and the time from the transition to detonation differ almost by a factor of 2. For a given white dwarf (WD) and a fixed transition density, the total production of elements changes by less than 10%, and the distribution in the velocity space changes by less than 7%. Qualitatively, this insensitivity of the final outcome of the explosion to the details of the flame propagation during the (slow) deflagration phase can be understood as follows: for plausible variations in the speed of

  15. An Empirical Fitting Method for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. II. Estimating the First-light Time and Rise Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate a new empirical fitting method for the optical light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that is able to estimate the first-light time of SNe Ia, even when they are not discovered extremely early. With an improved ability to estimate the time of first light for SNe Ia, we compute the rise times for a sample of 56 well-observed SNe Ia. We find rise times ranging from 10.5 to 20.5 days, with a mean of 16.0 days, and confirm that the rise time is generally correlated with the decline rate {{Δ }}{m}15(B), but with large scatter. The rise time could be an additional parameter to help classify SN Ia subtypes.

  16. Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippenko, Alexei Vladimir [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia; exploding white-dwarf stars) were the key to the Nobel-worthy 1998 discovery and subsequent verification that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, driven by the effects of dark energy. Understanding the nature of this mysterious, yet dominant, component of the Universe is at the forefront of research in cosmology and fundamental physics. SNe Ia will continue to play a leading role in this enterprise, providing precise cosmological distances that improve constraints on the nature of dark energy. However, for this effort to succeed, we need to more thoroughly understand relatively nearby SNe Ia, because our conclusions come only from comparisons between them and distant (high-redshift) SNe Ia. Thus, detailed studies of relatively nearby SNe Ia are the focus of this research program. Many interesting results were obtained during the course of this project; these were published in 32 refereed research papers that acknowledged the grant. A major accomplishment was the publication of supernova (SN) rates derived from about a decade of operation of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) with the 0.76-meter Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT). We have determined the most accurate rates for SNe of different types in large, nearby galaxies in the present-day Universe, and these can be compared with SN rates far away (and hence long ago in the past) to set constraints on the types of stars that explode. Another major accomplishment was the publication of the light curves (brightness vs. time) of 165 SNe Ia, along with optical spectroscopy of many of these SNe as well as other SNe Ia, providing an extensive, homogeneous database for detailed studies. We have conducted intensive investigations of a number of individual SNe Ia, including quite unusual examples that allow us to probe the entire range of SN explosions and provide unique insights into these objects and the stars before they explode. My team's studies have also

  17. Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicken, Malcolm; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Wood-Vasey, W.Michael; /Pittsburgh U.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ.; Challis, Peter; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Jha, Saurabh; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Kelly, Patrick L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rest, Armin; /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Kirshner, Robert P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-04-06

    We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al. to form the Constitution set and, combined with a BAO prior, produces 1 + w = 0.013{sub -0.068}{sup +0.066} (0.11 syst), consistent with the cosmological constant. The CfA3 addition makes the cosmologically useful sample of nearby SN Ia between 2.6 and 2.9 times larger than before, reducing the statistical uncertainty to the point where systematics play the largest role. We use four light-curve fitters to test for systematic differences: SALT, SALT2, MLCS2k2 (R{sub V} = 3.1), and MLCS2k2 (R{sub V} = 1.7). SALT produces high-redshift Hubble residuals with systematic trends versus color and larger scatter than MLCS2k2. MLCS2k2 overestimates the intrinsic luminosity of SN Ia with 0.7 < {Delta} < 1.2. MLCS2k2 with R{sub V} = 3.1 overestimates host-galaxy extinction while R{sub V} {approx} 1.7 does not. Our investigation is consistent with no Hubble bubble. We also find that, after light-curve correction, SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts are intrinsically fainter than those in E/S0 hosts by 2{sigma}, suggesting that they may come from different populations. We also find that SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts have low scatter (0.1 mag) and reddening. Current systematic errors can be reduced by improving SN Ia photometric accuracy, by including the CfA3 sample to retrain light-curve fitters, by combining optical SN Ia photometry with near-infrared photometry to understand host-galaxy extinction, and by determining if different environments give rise to different intrinsic SN Ia luminosity after correction for light-curve shape and color.

  18. Tension and systematics in the Gold06 SnIa data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesseris, S.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2007-02-01

    The Gold06 SnIa data set recently released in astro-ph/0611572 consists of five distinct subsets defined by the group or instrument that discovered and analysed the corresponding data. These subsets are: the SNLS subset (47 SnIa), the HST subset (30 SnIa), the HZSST subset (41 SnIa), the SCP subset (26 SnIa) and the low redshift (LR) subset (38 SnIa). These subsets sum up to the 182 SnIa of the Gold06 data set. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the statistical consistency of each one of the above subsets with the full Gold06 data set. In particular, we compare the best fit w(z) parameters (w0, w1) obtained by subtracting each one of the above subsets from the Gold06 data set (subset truncation), with the corresponding best fit parameters (w0r, w1r) obtained by subtracting the same number of randomly selected SnIa from the same redshift range of the Gold06 data set (random truncation). We find that the probability for (w0r, w1r) = (w0, w1) is large for the Gold06 minus SCP (Gold06-SCP) truncation but is less than 5% for the Gold06-SNLS, Gold06-HZSST and Gold06-HST truncations. This result implies that the Gold06 data set is not statistically homogeneous. By comparing the values of the best fit (w0, w1) for each subset truncation we find that the tension among subsets is such that the SNLS and HST subsets are statistically consistent with each other and 'pull' towards ΛCDM (w0 = -1, w1 = 0) while the HZSST subset is statistically distinct and strongly 'pulls' towards a varying w(z) crossing the line w = -1 from below (w0 0). We also isolate six SnIa that are mostly responsible for this behaviour of the HZSST subset.

  19. High-Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rates in Galaxy Cluster and Field Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbary, Kyle Harris

    This thesis presents Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rates from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey, a program designed to efficiently detect and observe high-redshift supernovae by targeting massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.9 z z > 0.9 SNe. The SN Ia rate is found to be 0.50+0.23-0.19 (stat) +0.10-0.09 (sys) h 702 SNuB (SNuB = 10-12 SNe Lsun,B-1 yr-1), or in units of stellar mass, 0.36+0.16-0.13 (stat) +0.07-0.06 (sys) h 702 SNuM (SNuM = 10-12 SNe M sun-1 yr-1). This represents a factor of approximately 5 +/- 2 increase over measurements of the cluster rate at z influence of younger stellar populations the rate is also calculated specifically in cluster red-sequence galaxies and in morphologically early-type galaxies, with results similar to the full cluster rate. Finally, the upper limit of one host-less cluster SN Ia detected in the survey implies that the fraction of stars in the intra-cluster medium is less than 0.47 (95% confidence), consistent with measurements at lower redshifts. The volumetric SN Ia rate can also be used to constrain the SN Ia delay time distribution. However, there have been discrepancies in recent analyses of both the high-redshift rate and its implications for the delay time distribution. Here, the volumetric SN Ia rate out to z ˜ 1.6 is measured, based on ˜12 SNe Ia in the foregrounds and backgrounds of the clusters targeted in the survey. The rate is measured in four broad redshift bins. The results are consistent with previous measurements at z > 1 and strengthen the case for a SN Ia rate that is greater than approximately 0.6 x 10-4 h70 3 yr-1 Mpc-3 at z ˜ 1 and flattening out at higher redshift. Assumptions about host-galaxy dust extinction used in different high-redshift rate measurements are examined. Different assumptions may account for some of the difference in published results for the z ˜ 1 rate.

  20. A selection fit mechanism in BMP receptor IA as a possible source for BMP ligand-receptor promiscuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Harth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the TGF-β superfamily are characterized by a highly promiscuous ligand-receptor interaction as is readily apparent from the numeral discrepancy of only seven type I and five type II receptors available for more than 40 ligands. Structural and functional studies have been used to address the question of how specific signals can be deduced from a limited number of receptor combinations and to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the protein-protein recognition that allow such limited specificity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we have investigated how an antigen binding antibody fragment (Fab raised against the extracellular domain of the BMP receptor type IA (BMPR-IA recognizes the receptor's BMP-2 binding epitope and thereby neutralizes BMP-2 receptor activation. The crystal structure of the complex of the BMPR-IA ectodomain bound to the Fab AbD1556 revealed that the contact surface of BMPR-IA overlaps extensively with the contact surface for BMP-2 interaction. Although the structural epitopes of BMPR-IA to both binding partners coincides, the structures of BMPR-IA in the two complexes differ significantly. In contrast to the structural differences, alanine-scanning mutagenesis of BMPR-IA showed that the functional determinants for binding to the antibody and BMP-2 are almost identical. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the structures of BMPR-IA bound to BMP-2 or bound to the Fab AbD1556 with the structure of unbound BMPR-IA shows that binding of BMPR-IA to its interaction partners follows a selection fit mechanism, possibly indicating that the ligand promiscuity of BMPR-IA is inherently encoded by structural adaptability. The functional and structural analysis of the BMPR-IA binding antibody AbD1556 mimicking the BMP-2 binding epitope may thus pave the way for the design of low-molecular weight synthetic receptor binders/inhibitors.

  1. Tension between SNeIa and BAO: current status and future forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla-Rivera, Celia [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWD, Kebble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lazkoz, Ruth; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene, E-mail: celia_escamilla@ehu.es, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es, E-mail: irene.sendra@ehu.es [Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Using real and synthetic Type Ia SNe (SNeIa) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data representing current observations forecasts, this paper investigates the tension between those probes in the dark energy equation of state (EoS) reconstruction considering the well known CPL model and Wang's low correlation reformulation. In particular, here we present simulations of BAO data from both the the radial and transverse directions. We also explore the influence of priors on Ω{sub m} and Ω{sub b} on the tension issue, by considering 1σ deviations in either one or both of them. Our results indicate that for some priors there is no tension between a single dataset (either SNeIa or BAO) and their combination (SNeIa+BAO). Our criterion to discern the existence of tension (σ-distance) is also useful to establish which is the dataset with most constraining power; in this respect SNeIa and BAO data switch roles when current and future data are considered, as forecasts predict and spectacular quality improvement on BAO data. We also find that the results on the tension are blind to the way the CPL model is addressed: there is a perfect match between the original formulation and that by the correlation optimized proposed in Wang (2008), but the errors on the parameters are much narrower in all cases of our exhaustive exploration, thus serving the purpose of stressing the convenience of this reparametrization.

  2. Normal Type Ia Supernovae from Violent Mergers of White Dwarf Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakmor, R.; Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Sim, S. A.; Röpke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2012-03-01

    One of the most important questions regarding the progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is whether mergers of two white dwarfs can lead to explosions that reproduce observations of normal events. Here we present a fully three-dimensional simulation of a violent merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with masses of 0.9 M ⊙ and 1.1 M ⊙ combining very high resolution and exact initial conditions. A well-tested combination of codes is used to study the system. We start with the dynamical inspiral phase and follow the subsequent thermonuclear explosion under the plausible assumption that a detonation forms in the process of merging. We then perform detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and radiative transfer simulations to predict synthetic observables from the homologously expanding supernova ejecta. We find that synthetic color light curves of our merger, which produces about 0.62 M ⊙ of 56Ni, show good agreement with those observed for normal SNe Ia in all wave bands from U to K. Line velocities in synthetic spectra around maximum light also agree well with observations. We conclude that violent mergers of massive white dwarfs can closely resemble normal SNe Ia. Therefore, depending on the number of such massive systems available these mergers may contribute at least a small fraction to the observed population of normal SNe Ia.

  3. NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM VIOLENT MERGERS OF WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakmor, R. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Hillebrandt, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Sim, S. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Roepke, F. K. [Institut Fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    One of the most important questions regarding the progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is whether mergers of two white dwarfs can lead to explosions that reproduce observations of normal events. Here we present a fully three-dimensional simulation of a violent merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with masses of 0.9 M{sub Sun} and 1.1 M{sub Sun} combining very high resolution and exact initial conditions. A well-tested combination of codes is used to study the system. We start with the dynamical inspiral phase and follow the subsequent thermonuclear explosion under the plausible assumption that a detonation forms in the process of merging. We then perform detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and radiative transfer simulations to predict synthetic observables from the homologously expanding supernova ejecta. We find that synthetic color light curves of our merger, which produces about 0.62 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni, show good agreement with those observed for normal SNe Ia in all wave bands from U to K. Line velocities in synthetic spectra around maximum light also agree well with observations. We conclude that violent mergers of massive white dwarfs can closely resemble normal SNe Ia. Therefore, depending on the number of such massive systems available these mergers may contribute at least a small fraction to the observed population of normal SNe Ia.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Peculiar Type Ia 1991bg-like Supernovae Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doull, Brandon A.; Baron, E.

    2011-07-01

    Spectroscopic analyses of Type Ia supernovae have shown that there exist four spectroscopic groups—cool, broad line, shallow silicon, and core normal—defined by the widths of the Si II features λ5972 and λ6355. The 1991bg-like SNe Ia are classified as “cool.” Cool SNe Ia are dim, undergo a rapid decline in luminosity, and produce significantly less 56Ni than normal Type Ia supernovae. They also have an unusually deep and wide trough in their spectra at around 4200 Å and a relatively strong Si II absorption attributed to λ5972. We examine the spectra of supernova (SN) 1991bg and the cool SN 1997cn, SN 1999by, and SN 2005bl using the highly parameterized synthetic spectrum code SYNOW, and we find general agreement with similar spectroscopic studies. Our analysis reveals that this group of supernovae is fairly homogeneous, with many of the blue spectral features well fit by Fe II. The nature of the spectroscopic commonalities and the variations in the class are discussed. Finally, we examine intermediates such as SN 2004eo and discuss the spectroscopic subgroup distribution of Type Ia supernovae.

  5. Low-Bit Rate Feedback Strategies for Iterative IA-Precoded MIMO-OFDM-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment (IA is a promising technique that allows high-capacity gains in interference channels, but which requires the knowledge of the channel state information (CSI for all the system links. We design low-complexity and low-bit rate feedback strategies where a quantized version of some CSI parameters is fed back from the user terminal (UT to the base station (BS, which shares it with the other BSs through a limited-capacity backhaul network. This information is then used by BSs to perform the overall IA design. With the proposed strategies, we only need to send part of the CSI information, and this can even be sent only once for a set of data blocks transmitted over time-varying channels. These strategies are applied to iterative MMSE-based IA techniques for the downlink of broadband wireless OFDM systems with limited feedback. A new robust iterative IA technique, where channel quantization errors are taken into account in IA design, is also proposed and evaluated. With our proposed strategies, we need a small number of quantization bits to transmit and share the CSI, when comparing with the techniques used in previous works, while allowing performance close to the one obtained with perfect channel knowledge.

  6. Low-Bit Rate Feedback Strategies for Iterative IA-Precoded MIMO-OFDM-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Sara; Silva, Adão; Dinis, Rui; Gameiro, Atílio

    2014-01-01

    Interference alignment (IA) is a promising technique that allows high-capacity gains in interference channels, but which requires the knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) for all the system links. We design low-complexity and low-bit rate feedback strategies where a quantized version of some CSI parameters is fed back from the user terminal (UT) to the base station (BS), which shares it with the other BSs through a limited-capacity backhaul network. This information is then used by BSs to perform the overall IA design. With the proposed strategies, we only need to send part of the CSI information, and this can even be sent only once for a set of data blocks transmitted over time-varying channels. These strategies are applied to iterative MMSE-based IA techniques for the downlink of broadband wireless OFDM systems with limited feedback. A new robust iterative IA technique, where channel quantization errors are taken into account in IA design, is also proposed and evaluated. With our proposed strategies, we need a small number of quantization bits to transmit and share the CSI, when comparing with the techniques used in previous works, while allowing performance close to the one obtained with perfect channel knowledge. PMID:24678274

  7. Critical analysis of IAS 2 „Stocks”, version of 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea UNTARU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to achieving a comparative analysis of the two versions of IAS 2 „Stocks” (variants of 1993 and 2005. The research is part of a larger study regarding the accounting processes carried out for the acknowledgement and assessment of the company stock, and the purpose of the study is to develop a new framework methodology for the acknowledgement and assessment of stocks. The research is based on a series of work hypotheses: (I1 IAS 2 variant of 1993 needs to be reviewed according to the regulations and normatives in force; (I2 the necessity to review IAS variant of 1993 derives from the critics raised by the regulating authorities for stock and shares, by the professional accountants and by other interested parties, with regard to the reduction or elimination of alternatives, redundancies and conflicts from standards, and the solving of convergence issues; (I3 the 2005 variant of IAS 2 is the result of a limited reviewing of the 1993 variant of IAS 2, and needs to be further modified.

  8. EVIDENCE FOR ASYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Santiago; Anderson, Joseph; Marchi, Sebastian; Gutierrez, Claudia; Hamuy, Mario; Cartier, Regis [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-01

    We study the properties of low-velocity material in the line of sight toward nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that have measured late phase nebular velocity shifts (v{sub neb}), thought to be an environment-independent observable. We have found that the distribution of equivalent widths of narrow blended Na I D1 and D2 and Ca II H and K absorption lines differs significantly between those SNe Ia with negative and positive v{sub neb}, with generally stronger absorption for SNe Ia with v{sub neb} {>=} 0. A similar result had been found previously for the distribution of colors of SNe Ia, which was interpreted as a dependence of the temperature of the ejecta with viewing angle. Our work suggests that (1) a significant part of these differences in color should be attributed to extinction, (2) this extinction is caused by an asymmetric distribution of circumstellar material (CSM), and (3) the CSM absorption is generally stronger on the side of the ejecta opposite to where the ignition occurs. Since it is difficult to explain (3) via any known physical processes that occur before explosion, we argue that the asymmetry of the CSM is originated after explosion by a stronger ionizing flux on the side of the ejecta where ignition occurs, probably due to a stronger shock breakout and/or more exposed radioactive material on one side of the ejecta. This result has important implications for both progenitor and explosion models.

  9. THE FIRST MAXIMUM-LIGHT ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Marion, G. Howie; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Berta, Zachory K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kromer, Markus; Taubenberger, Stefan; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Roepke, Friedrich K.; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, Franco; Seitenzahl, Ivo R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Hsiao, Eric Y.; Morrell, Nidia I. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Simcoe, Robert A., E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664D Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We present the first maximum-light ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared (NIR) Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectrum. This spectrum of SN 2011iv was obtained nearly simultaneously by the Hubble Space Telescope at UV/optical wavelengths and the Magellan Baade telescope at NIR wavelengths. These data provide the opportunity to examine the entire maximum-light SN Ia spectral energy distribution. Since the UV region of an SN Ia spectrum is extremely sensitive to the composition of the outer layers of the explosion, which are transparent at longer wavelengths, this unprecedented spectrum can provide strong constraints on the composition of the SN ejecta, and similarly the SN explosion and progenitor system. SN 2011iv is spectroscopically normal, but has a relatively fast decline ({Delta}m{sub 15}(B) = 1.69 {+-} 0.05 mag). We compare SN 2011iv to other SNe Ia with UV spectra near maximum light and examine trends between UV spectral properties, light-curve shape, and ejecta velocity. We tentatively find that SNe with similar light-curve shapes but different ejecta velocities have similar UV spectra, while those with similar ejecta velocities but different light-curve shapes have very different UV spectra. Through a comparison with explosion models, we find that both a solar-metallicity W7 and a zero-metallicity delayed-detonation model provide a reasonable fit to the spectrum of SN 2011iv from the UV to the NIR.

  10. Exploring the spectroscopic diversity of type Ia supernovae with Deep Learning and Unsupervised Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Emille E. O.; Sasdelli, Michele; Vilalta, Ricardo; Aguena, Michel; Busti, Vinicius C.; Camacho, Hugo; Trindade, Arlindo M. M.; Gieseke, Fabian; de Souza, Rafael S.; Fantaye, Yabebal T.; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    2017-06-01

    The existence of multiple subclasses of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) has been the subject of great debate in the last decade. In this work, we show how machine learning tools facilitate identification of subtypes of SNe Ia. Using Deep Learning for dimensionality reduction, we were capable of performing such identification in a parameter space of significantly lower dimension than its principal component analysis counterpart. This is evidence that the progenitor system and the explosion mechanism can be described with a small number of initial physical parameters. All tools used here are publicly available in the Python package DRACULA (Dimensionality Reduction And Clustering for Unsupervised Learning in Astronomy) and can be found within COINtoolbox (https://github.com/COINtoolbox/DRACULA).

  11. Cosmological parameter estimation from SN Ia data: a model-independent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Herrera, S.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Maturi, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Bartelmann, M.; Röpke, F.

    2013-11-01

    We perform a model-independent reconstruction of the cosmic expansion rate based on Type Ia supernova data. Using the Union2.1 data set, we show that the Hubble parameter behaviour allowed by the data without making any hypothesis about cosmological model or underlying gravity theory is consistent with a flat Λ cold dark matter universe having H0 = 70.43 ± 0.33 and Ωm = 0.297 ± 0.020, weakly dependent on the choice of initial scatter matrix. This is in closer agreement with the recently released Planck results (H0 = 67.3 ± 1.2, Ωm = 0.314 ± 0.020) than other standard analyses based on Type Ia supernova data. We argue this might be an indication that, in order to tackle subtle deviations from the standard cosmological model present in Type Ia supernova data, it is mandatory to go beyond parametrized approaches.

  12. Immobilization induces changes in presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    Neural plasticity occurs throughout adult life in response to maturation, use and disuse. Recent studies have documented that H-reflex amplitudes increase following a period of immobilization. To elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the increase in H-reflex size following immobilization we...... inhibition of SOL Ia afferents and taken together suggest that GABAergic presynaptic inhibition of the SOL Ia afferents is decreased following 2 weeks of immobilization. The depression of the SOL H-reflex when evoked at intervals shorter than 10 s (homosynaptic post-activation depression) also decreased...... following immobilization, suggesting that the activity-dependent regulation of transmitter release from the afferents was also affected by immobilization. We observed no significant changes in disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition. Two weeks after cast removal measurements returned to pre immobilization...

  13. IAS/IFRS and financial reporting quality: Lessons from the European experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Palea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effects of the adoption of IAS/IFRS in Europe on the quality of financial reporting. In doing so, it adopts the perspective of stock market investors and focuses on value-relevance research. The adoption of IAS/IFRS in Europe is an example of accounting standardization among countries with different institutional frameworks and enforcement rules. This allows investigating whether, and to what extent, accounting regulation per se can affect the quality of financial reporting and leads to convergence in financial reporting. This is a key issue for standard setting purposes as IAS/IFRS have been adopted in very diverse countries all over the world, and many others are likely to adopt them in the near future.

  14. PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE MOST DISTANT SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED SUPERNOVA Ia WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, D.; Rykoff, E.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Goldhaber, G.; Hsiao, E. Y. [E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Knop, R. A. [Quest University Canada, Squamish, BC (Canada); Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Burns, M. S. [Colorado College, 14 East Cache La Poudre Street, Colorado Springs, CO 80903 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Connolly, N. [Hamilton College Department of Physics, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Deustua, S.; Fruchter, A. S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruze, CA 94064 (United States); Gibbons, R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240 (United States); Huang, X. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Collaboration: Supernova Cosmology Project; and others

    2013-01-20

    We report the discovery of a redshift 1.71 supernova in the GOODS-North field. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS spectrum has almost negligible contamination from the host or neighboring galaxies. Although the rest-frame-sampled range is too blue to include any Si II line, a principal component analysis allows us to confirm it as a Type Ia supernova with 92% confidence. A recent serendipitous archival HST WFC3 grism spectrum contributed a key element of the confirmation by giving a host-galaxy redshift of 1.713 {+-} 0.007. In addition to being the most distant SN Ia with spectroscopic confirmation, this is the most distant Ia with a precision color measurement. We present the ACS WFC and NICMOS 2 photometry and ACS and WFC3 spectroscopy. Our derived supernova distance is in agreement with the prediction of {Lambda}CDM.

  15. Suzaku Results of SN 1006: Chemical Abundances of the ``youngest'' Galactic Type Ia Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Katsuji

    2008-05-01

    SN 1006 is one of the supernova remnants (SNR) recorded in the Japanese diary ``Meigetsuki''. From the historical records including Meigetsuki, we conclude that SN 1006 was the brightest type Ia supernova remnant. We report on the observations of SN 1006 with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometers (XIS) on board the 5-th Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku. We found that the ionization age of SN 1006 is the youngest among any Galactic SNRs, hence is the best SNR to study early phase of type Ia. In the X-ray spectrum, we found the K-shell emission lines from heavy elements, in particular that from iron, for the first time. The X-ray emitting plasma is highly overabundant in heavy elements, hence are likely due to ejecta. The abundance pattern agrees well to the theoretical prediction of type Ia supernova.

  16. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares E., Felipe; Haislip, Joshua B.; Reichart, Daniel E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods: We obtain and analyze multiband optical light curves and optical/near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results: A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light-curve shape of Δm15(B) = 1.12 ± 0.02 and a stretch s = 0.94 ± 0.01 suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a reddening law of Rv = 1.54 ± 0.65. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si IIλ6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high velocity gradient SN with v˙Si = 164 ± 7 km s-1 d-1. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocities to SN 2002bo and SN 2002dj. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates that the [Fe II]λ7155 and [Ni II]λ7378 lines are redshifted, as expected for a high velocity gradient supernova. All these common intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the high velocity gradient (HVG) group are different from the low velocity gradient (LVG) normal SN Ia population and suggest significant variety in SN Ia explosions. This paper includes data gathered with the Du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2010A-Q-14). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 085.D-0577).

  17. A Three-Dimensional Deflagration Model for Type Ia Supernovae Compared with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Mazzali, P. A.

    2007-10-01

    A simulation of the thermonuclear explosion of a Chandrasekhar-mass C+O white dwarf, the most popular scenario of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), is presented. The underlying modeling is pursued in a self-consistent way, treating the combustion wave as a turbulent deflagration using well tested methods developed for laboratory combustion and based on the concept of ``large-eddy simulations'' (LESs). Such consistency requires to capture the onset of the turbulent cascade on resolved scales. This is achieved by computing the dynamical evolution on a 10243 moving grid, which resulted in the best-resolved three-dimensional SN Ia simulation carried out thus far, reaching the limits of what can be done on present supercomputers. Consequently, the model has no free parameters other than the initial conditions at the onset of the explosion, and therefore it has considerable predictive power. Our main objective is to determine to which extent such a simulation can account for the observations of normal SNe Ia. Guided by previous simulations with less resolution and a less sophisticated flame model, initial conditions were chosen that yield a reasonably strong explosion and a sufficient amount of radioactive nickel for a bright display. We show that observables are indeed matched to a reasonable degree. In particular, good agreement is found with the light curves of normal SNe Ia. Moreover, the model reproduces the general features of the abundance stratification as inferred from the analysis of spectra. This indicates that it captures the main features of the explosion mechanism of SNe Ia. However, we also show that even a seemingly best-choice pure deflagration model has shortcomings that indicate the need for a different mode of nuclear burning at late times, perhaps the transition to a detonation at low density.

  18. Manganese spread in Ursa Minor as a proof of sub-classes of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescutti, G.; Kobayashi, C.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Recently, new sub-classes of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) were discovered, including SNe Iax. The suggested progenitors of SNe Iax are relatively massive, possibly hybrid C+O+Ne white dwarfs, which can cause white dwarf winds at low metallicities. There is another class that can potentially occur at low or zero metallicities; sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions in single and/or double degenerate systems of standard C+O white dwarfs. These explosions have different nucleosynthesis yields compared to the normal, Chandrasekhar mass explosions. Aims: We test these SN Ia channels using their characteristic chemical signatures. Methods: The two sub-classes of SNe Ia are expected to be rarer than normal SNe Ia and do not affect the chemical evolution in the solar neighbourhood; however, because of the shorter delay time and/or weaker metallicity dependence, they could influence the evolution of metal-poor systems. Therefore, we have included both in our stochastic chemical evolution model for the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor. Results: The model predicts a butterfly-shape spread in [Mn/Fe] in the interstellar medium at low metallicity and - at the same time - a decrease of [α/Fe] ratios at lower [Fe/H] than in the solar neighbourhood, both of which are consistent with the observed abundances in stars of Ursa Minor. Conclusions: The surprising agreement between our models and available observations provides a strong indication of the origins of these new sub-classes of SNe Ia. This outcome requires confirmation by future abundance measurements of manganese in stars of other satellite galaxies of our Milky Way. It will be vital for this project to measure not the most extreme metal-poor tail, as more commonly happens, but the opposite; the metal-rich end of dwarf spheroidals.

  19. Observational Evidence for High Neutronization in Supernova Remnants: Implications for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Andrews, Brett [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Yamaguchi, Hiroya [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bravo, Eduardo [E.T.S. Arquitectura del Vallès, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Carrer Pere Serra 1-15, E-08173 Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Timmes, F. X. [The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (United States); Miles, Broxton J.; Townsley, Dean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Piro, Anthony L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mori, Hideyuki [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 602, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Park, Sangwook, E-mail: hector.mr@pitt.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The physical process whereby a carbon–oxygen white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains highly uncertain. The degree of neutronization in SN Ia ejecta holds clues to this process because it depends on the mass and the metallicity of the stellar progenitor, and on the thermodynamic history prior to the explosion. We report on a new method to determine ejecta neutronization using Ca and S lines in the X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). Applying this method to Suzaku data of Tycho, Kepler , 3C 397, and G337.2−0.7 in the Milky Way, and N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud, we find that the neutronization of the ejecta in N103B is comparable to that of Tycho and Kepler , which suggests that progenitor metallicity is not the only source of neutronization in SNe Ia. We then use a grid of SN Ia explosion models to infer the metallicities of the stellar progenitors of our SNRs. The implied metallicities of 3C 397, G337.2−0.7, and N103B are major outliers compared to the local stellar metallicity distribution functions, indicating that progenitor metallicity can be ruled out as the origin of neutronization for these SNRs. Although the relationship between ejecta neutronization and equivalent progenitor metallicity is subject to uncertainties stemming from the {sup 12}C + {sup 16}O reaction rate, which affects the Ca/S mass ratio, our main results are not sensitive to these details.

  20. Treatment outcomes using CBT-IA with Internet-addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S

    2013-12-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder, a subtype of Internet Addiction, is now classified in Section 3 of the DSM-5. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been suggested in treating Internet addiction as this modality has been shown to be an effective treatment for similar impulse control disorders. Given the daily and necessary use of the Internet and technology in general compared to other compulsive syndromes, a specialized form of CBT has been developed called Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet Addiction (CBT-IA). CBT-IA is a comprehensive three phase approach that includes behavior modification to control compulsive Internet use, cognitive restructuring to identify, challenge, and modify cognitive distortions that lead to addictive use, and harm reduction techniques to address and treat co-morbid issues associated with the disorder. As the first model of its kind, this study examines 128 clients to measure treatment outcomes using CBT-IA. Clients were evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) to classify subjects and were administered twelve weekly sessions of CBT-IA. Treatment outcomes were measured at the end of the twelve weeks, one-month, three months and at six month post-treatment. RESULTS showed that over 95% of clients were able to manage symptoms at the end of the twelve weeks and 78% sustained recovery six months following treatment. RESULTS found that CBT-IA was effective at ameliorating symptoms associated with Internet addiction after twelve weekly sessions and consistently over one-month, three months, and six months after therapy. Further research implications such as investigating long-term outcome effects of the model with larger client populations and treatment differences among the subtypes of Internet addiction or with other cultural populations using CBT-IA are discussed.

  1. Prevention of complications in glycogen storage disease type Ia with optimization of metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambska, M; Labrador, E B; Kuo, C L; Weinstein, D A

    2017-08-01

    Prior to 1971, type Ia glycogen storage disease was marked by life-threatening hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, severe failure to thrive, and developmental delay. With the introduction of continuous feeds in the 1970s and cornstarch in the 1980s, the prognosis improved, but complications almost universally developed. Changes in the management of type Ia glycogen storage disease have resulted in improved metabolic control, and this manuscript reviews the increasing evidence that complications can be delayed or prevented with optimal metabolic control as previously was seen in diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A novel strategy for the development of selective active-site inhibitors of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like proteins islet-cell antigen 512 (IA-2) and phogrin (IA-2 beta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drake, P.G.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Andersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    Islet-cell antigen 512 (IA-2) and phogrin (IA-2) are atypical members of he receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family that are characterized by a lack of activity against conventional PTP substrates. The physiological role(s) of these proteins remain poorly defined, although recent studi...

  3. Asociația Europeană a Profesorilor de Istorie EUROCLIO, La intersecția culturilor. Țările regiunii Marii Negre și schimbările politice din sec. XIX-XX, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Palade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Review on two books - Asociația Europeană a Profesorilor de Istorie EUROCLIO, La intersecția culturilor. Țările regiunii Marii Negre și schimbările politice din sec. XIX-XX, 2015

  4. Federal Highway Administration finding of no significant impact for the Iowa Highway 86 (IA 86) from IA 9 to 700 feet south of 110th Street Dickinson County STP-086-1(10)--2C-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    The Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) propose to improve a 3.9-mile segment of Iowa Highway 86 (IA 86) from Iowa Highway 9 (IA 9) to near the Minnesota border within Dickinson County, Iowa (the...

  5. IA 86 from IA 9 to 700 feet south of 110th street Dickinson County, Iowa STP-086-1(10)--2C-30 : environmental assessment and section 4(f) de minimis impact finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    The Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) are evaluating potential alternatives to maintain, improve, or replace a 3.9-mile segment of IA 86 from Iowa Highway 9 (IA 9) to near the Minnesota border ...

  6. The potency and specificity of the interaction between the IA3 inhibitor and its target aspartic proteinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phylip, L H; Lees, W E; Brownsey, B G

    2001-01-01

    The yeast IA3 polypeptide consists of only 68 residues, and the free inhibitor has little intrinsic secondary structure. IA3 showed subnanomolar potency toward its target, proteinase A from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and did not inhibit any of a large number of aspartic proteinases with similar se...

  7. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT IN HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS. I. THE SINGLE-DEGENERATE SCENARIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, Noelia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Tissera, Patricia B. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC. 67 Suc. 28, C1428ZAA, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Matteucci, Francesca, E-mail: nj22@st-andrews.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo, 11, I-34100, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-09-10

    The nature of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors remains uncertain. This is a major issue for galaxy evolution models since both chemical and energetic feedback plays a major role in the gas dynamics, star formation, and therefore the overall stellar evolution. The progenitor models for the SNe Ia available in the literature propose different distributions for regulating the explosion times of these events. These functions are known as the delay time distributions (DTDs). This work is the first one in a series of papers aiming at studying five different DTDs for SNe Ia. Here we implement and analyze the single-degenerate (SD) scenario in galaxies dominated by a rapid quenching of the star formation, displaying the majority of the stars concentrated in the bulge component. We find a good fit to both the present observed SN Ia rates in spheroidal-dominated galaxies and the [O/Fe] ratios shown by the bulge of the Milky Way. Additionally, the SD scenario is found to reproduce a correlation between the specific SN Ia rate and the specific star formation rate (sSFR), which closely resembles the observational trend, at variance with previous works. Our results suggest that SN Ia observations in galaxies with very low and very high sSFRs can help to impose more stringent constraints on the DTDs and therefore on SN Ia progenitors.

  8. A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.55 IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE INFRARED OBSERVATIONS FROM CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Casertano, Stefano; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory [Department of Physics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Hjorth, Jens; Frederiksen, Teddy F. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Faber, S. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 92064 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Garnavich, Peter; Hayden, Brian [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Graur, Or [Department of Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); and others

    2012-02-10

    We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at redshift z = 1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SN Ia with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z > 1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z > 1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests for evolutionary effects that could arise due to differences in SN Ia progenitor systems as a function of redshift. This high-z sample will also allow measurement of the SN Ia rate out to z Almost-Equal-To 2, providing a complementary constraint on SN Ia progenitor models.

  9. Ştefania Cristescu-Golopenţia and the Developing Understanding of the Magical Universe of Romanian Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION CUCEU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the first part of a study concerning the research on magic carried out by Ştefania Cristescu-Golopenţia in the context of the monographic campaigns of Dimitrie Gusti's School (1929-1945. The second part examines Sanda Golopenţia's 1984-2011 "reconstruction" of her mother's work.

  10. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia: a novel GNAS mutation in a Brazilian boy presenting with an early primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cresio; Sampaio, Silvana; Barbieri, Anna Maria; Mantovani, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) is a rare disease characterized by an elevated parathyroid hormone due to the resistance to its action in target tissues. We report a new GNAS mutation causing PHP Ia and an atypical early-onset primary hypothyroidism. A 3-year-old boy was diagnosed with obesity, delayed pyschomotor development, and round face. The laboratory evaluation at the age of 1 year showed primary hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone. These data led to the diagnosis of PHP Ia. Molecular analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in GNAS exon 1 (TCG→CGC, Cys3→Arg) in both the child and his mother. Although previously reported cases described delayed subclinical hypothyroidism as the more common thyroid abnormality, we report a not previously described GNAS mutation associated with an atypical early-onset primary hypothyroidism. These observations broaden the clinical spectrum of PHP Ia and its associated mutations.

  11. Honing Type Ia Supernovae as Distance Indicators, Exploiting Environmental Bias for H0 and w.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigault, Michkael

    2015-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae are excellent distance indicators and provide a uniqueprobe for measuring the expansion history of the Universe. They playkey roles both in measuring the Hubble Constant, H0, and the dark energyequation of state, w. However their exact nature remains uncertain andastrophysical dependencies have been identified and shown to significantlyaffect the measurements of H0 and w. Recently we have used a uniquesample having local host information to demonstrate that, far from beinga problem, correlations between standardized SN Ia brightnesses andproperties of their local environmental can be used to improve SNe Iaas distance indicators. These correlations can be used to both reducethe dispersion in standardized brightnesses and correct existing biases.This proposal aims to analyze both global and local properties usingUV-to-optical photometry in order to understand the source of the SNastrophysical biases found so far, and to use that knowledge to developtools with which future high-redshift SN Ia surveys can correct or exploitthese correlations. The UV data necessary to break the degeneracy betweenstellar ages and dust extinction is only accessible from space, and inthe UV, only HST can provide the angular resolution necessary to study theenvironments of nearby smooth Hubble-flow SN Ia hosts on the kpc scale.

  12. THE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION GENERATED BY THE APPLICATION OF IAS 29 RELATED TO SHAREHOLDERS CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunget Ovidiu Constantin

    2013-07-01

    The objective of IAS 29 is to establish specific standards for entities reporting in the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, so that the financial information provided is meaningful. Our empirical analysis encompasses a hyperinflationary economy covering a wide variety of hyperinflationary conditions.

  13. Modregning i IAS 32 - hvordan man undgår, at terminskontrakter puster balancen op

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank

    1997-01-01

    Betingelserne for at kunne modregne finansielle aktiver og finansielle forpligtelser i IAS 32 betyder ved en strikt fortolkning, at mange danske virksomheders balancer vil blive pustet voldsomt op. Det aktiv, som skal modtages i en terminskontrakt og det passiv, som skal leveres, skal nemlig...

  14. 75 FR 1706 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ..., Eighth Coast Guard District has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operations... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA... ``Search''. They are also available for inspection or copying at the Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S...

  15. Diversity of dsRNA Viruses Infecting Rice Sheath Blight Fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn, is a notorious soil-borne disease prevalent in many rice-growing regions. Although several sporadic studies of mycoviruses in R. solani AG-1 IA have been reported for single strain of R. solani AG-1 IA, there have been no reports describing the distribution and diversity of mycoviruses in natural populations. In this study, 43 R. solani AG-1 IA strains collected from different locations in China were examined for the presence of dsRNA elements to confirm the presence of viral infections. Electrophoretypes showed that 16 of the 43 fungal strains (37.2% contained dsRNAs that can be characterized as viruses. Furthermore, the species-specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR showed dsRNA bands with similar sizes do not always contain the same virus but exist as mixed mycoviral infections. Thus, our findings indicate mycoviruses infecting R. solani AG-1 IA in China are diverse, widespread and universal.

  16. 77 FR 23432 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Asbury and Maquoketa, IA, and Mineral Point, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Asbury and Maquoketa, IA, and Mineral Point, WI AGENCY... the petition for rule making filed by KM Radio of Independence, LLC, proposing the allotment of...

  17. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... water management (rural water supply), public recreation, public fish and wildlife, and watershed...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11227] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service. ACTION: Notice...

  18. A assembléia de usuários e o CAPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Lima Bontempo

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a concepção e o funcionamento da assembléia de usuários de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil (Capsi - em Betim, no Estado de Minas Gerais. O Capsi atende crianças e adolescentes psicóticos, autistas e neuróticos graves, e a assembléia de usuários é um dos seus dispositivos de tratamento. A assembléia é um espaço no qual os participantes utilizam a palavra como instrumento de expressão, introduzindo no Capsi mais uma forma de lidar com os pacientes graves (em crise ou não bem como contribuindo com as discussões da clínica. Enfim, a proposta desse lugar de conversação chamado assembléia é possibilitar, pela via da palavra, a expressão do que o sujeito manifestaria em atos.

  19. The hypervelocity hot subdwarf US 708 - remnant of a double-detonation SN Ia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae {SN Ia} are the most important standard candles for measuring the expansion history of the universe. The thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf can explain their observed properties, but neither the progenitor systems nor any stellar remnants have been conclusively identified. Underluminous SN Ia have been proposed to originate from a so-called double-detonation of a white dwarf. After a critical amount of helium is deposited on the surface through accretion from a close companion, the helium is ignited causing a detonation wave that triggers the explosion of the white dwarf itself. The helium star will then be ejected at so large a velocity that it will escape the Galaxy. The predicted properties of this remnant are an excellent match to the so-called hypervelocity star US 708, a hot, helium-rich star moving at more than 750 km/s, sufficient to leave the Galaxy.Here we propose medium-resolution COS spectroscopy to measure the vsini of the hypervelocity He-sdO US 708 for the first time and to search for abundance anomalies caused by pollution through an SN Ia event. This will allow us to test the double-detonation scenario with sdB donor empirically.

  20. 78 FR 48840 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hampton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... for standard instrument approach procedures at Hampton Municipal Airport, Hampton, IA. A segment would...; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS 0 1. The authority citation for part 71 continues to..., Airspace Designations and Reporting Points, dated August 8, 2012, and effective September 15, 2012, is...

  1. Use of modified cornstarch therapy to extend fasting in glycogen storage disease types Ia and Ib

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Catherine E.; Bhattacharya, Kaustuv; Lee, Philip J.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Theriaque, Douglas W.; Shankar, Meena N.; Smit, G. Peter A.; Weinstein, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD) is caused by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase resulting in severe fasting hypoglycemia. Objective: We compared the efficacy of a new modified starch with the currently used cornstarch therapy in patients with type Ia and Ib GSD. Design: This was

  2. SUPER-CHANDRASEKHAR-MASS LIGHT CURVE MODELS FOR THE HIGHLY LUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009dc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Yasuomi [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken' ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Blinnikov, Sergei I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sorokina, Elena I. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Suzuki, Tomoharu, E-mail: yasuomi.kamiya@ipmu.jp [College of Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)

    2012-09-10

    Several highly luminous Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been discovered. Their high luminosities are difficult to explain with the thermonuclear explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs (WDs). In the present study, we estimate the progenitor mass of SN 2009dc, one of the extremely luminous SNe Ia, using the hydrodynamical models as follows. Explosion models of super-Chandrasekhar-mass (super-Ch-mass) WDs are constructed, and multi-color light curves (LCs) are calculated. The comparison between our calculations and the observations of SN 2009dc suggests that the exploding WD has a super-Ch mass of 2.2-2.4 M{sub Sun }, producing 1.2-1.4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni, if the extinction by its host galaxy is negligible. If the extinction is significant, the exploding WD is as massive as {approx}2.8 M{sub Sun }, and {approx}1.8 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni is necessary to account for the observations. Whether the host-galaxy extinction is significant or not, the progenitor WD must have a thick carbon-oxygen layer in the outermost zone (20%-30% of the WD mass), which explains the observed low expansion velocity of the ejecta and the presence of carbon. Our estimate of the mass of the progenitor WD, especially for the extinction-corrected case, is challenging to the current scenarios of SNe Ia. Implications for the progenitor scenarios are also discussed.

  3. Multidimensional radiative transfer calculations of the light curves and spectra of Type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasen, D; Woosley, S E [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thomas, R C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Roepke, F [Max Plank Institute for Astrophysics, Garching (Germany)], E-mail: kasen@ucolick.org

    2008-07-15

    The explosion of a white dwarf star in a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion leads to the burning and ejection of stellar material at a few percent of the speed of light. The spectacle we observe in the months that follow is from the leaking of radiation from this glowing mass of radioactive debris. The modeling of SN Ia light curves and spectra represents a complex problem in time-dependent radiative transfer. Here we discuss numerical methods, in particular Monte Carlo methods, for calculating 3D multi-wavelength radiative transport on massively parallel machines. Our approach involves a newly developed domain decomposition technique in which the memory load is distributed over multiple processors and photon packets are communicated from node to node. We present results for 2-dimensional models that explore white dwarf explosions over a range of explosion paradigms and ignition conditions. These models give insight into how variations in the initial conditions of the explosion affect the light curve we finally observe. We conclude with an outlook (and some initial results) for large scale 3D radiation transport calculations of SNe Ia in an era of petascale computing.

  4. 49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... examine and observe the functioning of all moving parts of the brake system on each car in order to make... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER... Class IA brake test. The most restrictive car or block of cars in the train shall determine the location...

  5. Independent Validation of the SEND-PD and Correlation with the MDS-UPDRS Part IA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayela Rodríguez-Violante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease can be assessed by the MDS-UPDRS part IA. The Scale for Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Parkinson’s disease (SEND-PD has been recently developed to assess the severity of some neuropsychiatric symptoms. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the SEND-PD with the corresponding items of the MDS-UPDRS part IA. Methods. Patients with Parkinson’s disease were evaluated using the MDS-UPDRS and the SEND-PD by independent raters. Partial SEND-PD and neuropsychiatric MDS-UPDRS part IA were constructed with equivalent items for comparison. Results. A total of 260 consecutive patients were included. Overall, 61.2% of the patients did not report any psychotic symptom and 83.5% did not report any ICD symptom. On the other hand, 78.5% of the patients did report at least one symptom related to apathy, depression, or anxiety. The partial SEND-PD score was 2.9±3.1 (range from 0 to 16. The neuropsychiatric MDS-UPDRS part IA score was 2.9±3 (range from 0 to 14. The correlation coefficient between corresponding items ranged from 0.67 to 0.98 and between both summary indexes was rs=0.93 (all, P<0.001. Conclusion. A high association between equivalent items of the SEND-PD and the MDS-UPDRS was found.

  6. Studies on Pidotimod Enantiomers With Chiralpak-IA: Crystal Structure, Thermodynamic Parameters and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaorui; Su, Xin; Wang, Yue; Chen, Yadong; Shen, Weiyang

    2015-11-01

    Pidotimod, a synthetic dipeptide, has two chiral centers with biological and immunological activity. Its enantiomers were characterized by x-ray crystallographic analysis. A chiral stationary phase (CSP) Chiralpak-IA based on amylose derivatized with tris-(3, 5-dimethylphenyl carbamate) was used to separate pidotimod enantiomers. The mobile phase was prepared in a ratio of 35:65:0.2 of methyl-tert-butyl-ether and acetonitrile trifluoroaceticacid. In addition, thermodynamics and molecular docking methods were used to explain the enantioseparation mechanism by Chiralpak-IA. Thermodynamic studies were carried out from 10 to 45 °C. In general, both retention and enantioselectivity decreased as the temperature increased. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the interaction force between the pidotimod enantiomer (4S, 2'R) and IA CSP is stronger and their complex model is more stable. According to GOLD molecular docking simulation, Van der Waals force is the leading cause of pidotimod enantiomers separation by IA CSP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 76 FR 19746 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA Pursuant to its...-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the Quad-City Foreign Trade Zone, Inc... in the Quad-Cities, Iowa/Illinois area, adjacent to the Quad-Cities Customs and Border Protection...

  8. Memória histórica de Cananéia (XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Paulino de Almeida

    1968-03-01

    Pretendendo Nicolau Dreys, de nacionalidade francesa, obter do govêrno da Província, por Sesmaria, a ilha do Cardoso, e sendo consultada a Câmara de Cananéia, oficiou esta à de Paranaguá em data de 26 de novembro de 1828, prestando as nescessárias informações.

  9. CONSTRAINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA MODELS: SN 2011fe AS A TEST CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, F. K.; Seitenzahl, I. R. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, F.; Hillebrandt, W.; Benitez-Herrera, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Pakmor, R. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Sim, S. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Aldering, G.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2012-05-01

    The nearby supernova SN 2011fe can be observed in unprecedented detail. Therefore, it is an important test case for Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) models, which may bring us closer to understanding the physical nature of these objects. Here, we explore how available and expected future observations of SN 2011fe can be used to constrain SN Ia explosion scenarios. We base our discussion on three-dimensional simulations of a delayed detonation in a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf and of a violent merger of two white dwarfs (WDs)-realizations of explosion models appropriate for two of the most widely discussed progenitor channels that may give rise to SNe Ia. Although both models have their shortcomings in reproducing details of the early and near-maximum spectra of SN 2011fe obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory), the overall match with the observations is reasonable. The level of agreement is slightly better for the merger, in particular around maximum, but a clear preference for one model over the other is still not justified. Observations at late epochs, however, hold promise for discriminating the explosion scenarios in a straightforward way, as a nucleosynthesis effect leads to differences in the {sup 55}Co production. SN 2011fe is close enough to be followed sufficiently long to study this effect.

  10. IAS 36. Varade väärtuse langus. Kuidas seda arvestada? / Veronika Tugo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tugo, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise finantsarvestuse standard IAS 36 määrab kindlaks vara väärtuse languse arvestuse reeglid ja kajastamise etapid. Raha genereerivad üksused, vara väärtuse langus ja sellest tuleneva kahjumi tühistamine

  11. Identification of EhTIF-IA: The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the early branching parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, the rRNA genes are present exclusively on circular extra chromosomal plasmids. The protein factors involved in regulation of rDNA transcription in E. histolytica are not known. We have identified the E. histolytica equivalent of TIF-1A (EhTIF-IA) by homology ...

  12. Acoustically Accessible Window Determination for Ultrasound Mediated Treatment of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; Raju, B.I.; Leyvi, E.; Weinstein, D.; Seip, R.

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is caused by an inherited single-gene defect resulting in an impaired glycogen to glucose conversion pathway. Targeted ultrasound mediated delivery (USMD) of plasmid DNA to liver in conjunction with microbubbles may provide a potential treatment for GSDIa

  13. The VO-Dance web application at the IA2 data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Marco; Knapic, Cristina; Smareglia, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2, http://ia2.oats.inaf.it) is a national infrastructure project of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (Istituto Nazionale di AstroFisica, INAF) that provides services for the astronomical community. Besides data hosting for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Corporation, the Galileo National Telescope (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, TNG) Consortium and other telescopes and instruments, IA2 offers proprietary and public data access through user portals (both developed and mirrored) and deploys resources complying the Virtual Observatory (VO) standards. Archiving systems and web interfaces are developed to be extremely flexible about adding new instruments from other telescopes. VO resources publishing, along with data access portals, implements the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) protocols providing astronomers with new ways of analyzing data. Given the large variety of data flavours and IVOA standards, the need for tools to easily accomplish data ingestion and data publishing arises. This paper describes the VO-Dance tool, that IA2 started developing to address VO resources publishing in a dynamical way from already existent database tables or views. The tool consists in a Java web application, potentially DBMS and platform independent, that stores internally the services' metadata and information, exposes restful endpoints to accept VO queries for these services and dynamically translates calls to these endpoints to SQL queries coherent with the published table or view. In response to the call VO-Dance translates back the database answer in a VO compliant way.

  14. The discovery of the most distant known type Ia supernova at redshift 1.914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Dennis; Rodney, S.A.; Riess, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    grism simulations, finding that spectral data alone can frequently rule out SNe II, but distinguishing between SNe Ia and SNe Ib/c can require prohibitively long exposures. In such cases, a quantitative analysis of the light curve may be necessary for classification. Our photometric and spectroscopic...

  15. The Efficacy of Cross-Discipline Representations for Ill-Defined IAS Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A universal problem to our society is the dramatic increase in the number of security threats, risks, and vulnerabilities to our nation's computer systems, data, and infrastructure. Our future success depends upon the problem-solving and thinking abilities of professionals entering the Information Assurance and Security (IAS) field. These…

  16. Speeding up IA mechanically-steered multistatic radar scheduling with GP-GPUs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors investigate speeding up the execution time of Interval Algebra (IA) mechanically-steered multistatic and multisite radar scheduling using a general-purpose graphical processing unit (GP-GPU). Multistatic/multisite radar...

  17. Performance Reporting - The IASB's Proposed Formats of Financial Statements in the Exposure Draft of IAS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Wagenhofer, Alfred; Evans, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a response to the Exposure Draft of proposed amendments to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements published by the IASB in March 2006. The objective is to bring to the standard setter’s attention research that is relevant to the issues raised in the exposure draft. We review...

  18. Going gently into the night: constraining Type Ia supernova nucleosynthesis using late-time photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, Or

    2016-10-01

    We propose to use WFC3 photometry to construct the optical light curves of the nearby Type Ia supernovae SN 2015F and ASASSN-14lp at late times (>500 days after maximum light). These light curves will allow us to conduct a fundamental test of the theoretically predicted behavior of Type Ia supernova light curves at late times. We will observationally determine whether the nuclear physics of Type Ia supernova ejecta are solely determined by the radioactive decay of 56Co to 56Fe, or whether (and by how much) other nuclear heating mechanisms (such as the leptonic decays of 57Co) become discernible, as predicted. The spatial resolution of HST+WFC3 is crucial to the success of this experiment. At these late times, the fading supernovae are as bright as other surrounding objects (bright stars, star clusters), which would dominate the point-spread functions of ground-based observatories. Due to the rarity of nearby Type Ia supernovae, this experiment will double the sample of supernovae for which this experiment has been conducted and cut the uncertainty on the results by half. Moreover, if this experiment is not conducted in Cycle 24, it is highly unlikely that we would be able to perform it again during the remaining lifetime of HST.

  19. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from Clash: The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Maoz, D.; Riess, A. G.; Jha, S. W.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, approximately 13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z greater than 1.2.We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range z greater than 1.8 and less than 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/ GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys.We model these results together with previous measurements at z less than 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of 1.00 (+0.06(0.09))/(-0.06(0.10)) (statistical) (+0.12/-0.08) (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at greater than 99% significance level.

  20. Migration pattern of hepatitis A virus genotype IA in North-Central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beji-Hamza, Abir; Taffon, Stefania; Mhalla, Salma; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Equestre, Michele; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Cella, Eleonora; Bruni, Roberto; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2015-02-08

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) epidemiology in Tunisia has changed from high to intermediate endemicity in the last decades. However, several outbreaks continue to occur. The last reported sequences from Tunisian HAV strains date back to 2006. In order to provide an updated overview of the strains currently circulating in Tunisia, a large-scale molecular analysis of samples from hepatitis A cases was performed, the first in Tunisia. Biological samples were collected from patients with laboratory confirmed hepatitis A: 145 sera samples in Tunis, Monastir, Sousse and Kairouan from 2008 to 2013 and 45 stool samples in Mahdia in 2009. HAV isolates were characterised by nested RT-PCR (VP1/2A region) and sequencing. The sequences finally obtained from 81 samples showed 78 genotype IA and 3 genotype IB isolates. A Tunisian genotype IA sequence dataset, including both the 78 newly obtained IA sequences and 51 sequences retrieved from GenBank, was used for phylogenetic investigation, including analysis of migration pattern among six towns. Virus gene flow from Sfax and Monastir was directed to all other towns; in contrast, the gene flows from Sousse, Tunis, Mahdia and Kairouan were directed to three, two, one and no towns, respectively. Several different HAV strains co-circulate in Tunisia, but the predominant genotype still continues to be IA (78/81, 96% isolates). A complex gene flow (migration) of HAV genotype IA was observed, with Sfax and Monastir showing gene flows to all other investigated towns. This approach coupled to a wider sampling can prove useful to investigate the factors underlying the spread of HAV in Tunisia and, thus, to implement appropriate preventing measures.

  1. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Ashall, C. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moore University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Burns, C. R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Diamond, T. R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601 La Serena (Chile); Sand, D. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stritzinger, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Suntzeff, N.; Krisciunas, K.; Wang, L. [The G.P. and C. Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Contreras, C.; Morrell, N., E-mail: phoeflich77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Ava España 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-09-01

    We study the optical light curve (LC) relations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for their use in cosmology using high-quality photometry published by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). We revisit the classical luminosity decline rate (Δ m {sub 15}) relation and the Lira relation, as well as investigate the time evolution of the ( B − V ) color and B ( B − V ), which serves as the basis of the color–stretch relation and Color–MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT) producing normal-bright and subluminous SNe Ia. Empirical LC relations can be understood as having the same physical underpinnings, i.e., opacities, ionization balances in the photosphere, and radioactive energy deposition changing with time from below to above the photosphere. Some three to four weeks past maximum, the photosphere recedes to {sup 56}Ni-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density ρ {sub c} of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of {sup 56}Ni production. This results in a Δ m {sub 15} spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe Ia and ≈0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color–magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Δ m {sub 15} with little dispersion in both the CSP-I sample and our DDT models. This allows intrinsic SN Ia variations to be separated from the interstellar reddening characterized by E ( B − V ) and R {sub B}. Invoking different scenarios causes a wide spread in empirical relations, which may suggest one dominant scenario.

  2. The Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae. II. Are they Double-degenerate Binaries? The Symbiotic Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, R.

    2010-08-01

    In order for a white dwarf (WD) to achieve the Chandrasekhar mass, MC , and explode as a Type Ia supernova (SNIa), it must interact with another star, either accreting matter from or merging with it. The failure to identify the class or classes of binaries which produce SNeIa is the long-standing "progenitor problem." Its solution is required if we are to utilize the full potential of SNeIa to elucidate basic cosmological and physical principles. In single-degenerate models, a WD accretes and burns matter at high rates. Nuclear-burning white dwarfs (NBWDs) with mass close to MC are hot and luminous, potentially detectable as supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). In previous work, we showed that >90%-99% of the required number of progenitors do not appear as SSSs during most of the crucial phase of mass increase. The obvious implication might be that double-degenerate binaries form the main class of progenitors. We show in this paper, however, that many binaries that later become double degenerates must pass through a long-lived NBWD phase during which they are potentially detectable as SSSs. The paucity of SSSs is therefore not a strong argument in favor of double-degenerate models. Those NBWDs that are the progenitors of double-degenerate binaries are likely to appear as symbiotic binaries for intervals >106 years. In fact, symbiotic pre-double-degenerates should be common, whether or not the WDs eventually produce SNeIa. The key to solving the Type Ia progenitor problem lies in understanding the appearance of NBWDs. Most of them do not appear as SSSs most of the time. We therefore consider the evolution of NBWDs to address the question of what their appearance may be and how we can hope to detect them.

  3. Exploring the spectroscopic diversity of Type Ia supernovae with DRACULA: a machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasdelli, M.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Vilalta, R.; Aguena, M.; Busti, V. C.; Camacho, H.; Trindade, A. M. M.; Gieseke, F.; de Souza, R. S.; Fantaye, Y. T.; Mazzali, P. A.

    2016-09-01

    The existence of multiple subclasses of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has been the subject of great debate in the last decade. One major challenge inevitably met when trying to infer the existence of one or more subclasses is the time consuming, and subjective, process of subclass definition. In this work, we show how machine learning tools facilitate identification of subtypes of SNe Ia through the establishment of a hierarchical group structure in the continuous space of spectral diversity formed by these objects. Using deep learning, we were capable of performing such identification in a four-dimensional feature space (+1 for time evolution), while the standard principal component analysis barely achieves similar results using 15 principal components. This is evidence that the progenitor system and the explosion mechanism can be described by a small number of initial physical parameters. As a proof of concept, we show that our results are in close agreement with a previously suggested classification scheme and that our proposed method can grasp the main spectral features behind the definition of such subtypes. This allows the confirmation of the velocity of lines as a first-order effect in the determination of SN Ia subtypes, followed by 91bg-like events. Given the expected data deluge in the forthcoming years, our proposed approach is essential to allow a quick and statistically coherent identification of SNe Ia subtypes (and outliers). All tools used in this work were made publicly available in the PYTHON package Dimensionality Reduction And Clustering for Unsupervised Learning in Astronomy (DRACULA) and can be found within COINtoolbox (https://github.com/COINtoolbox/DRACULA).

  4. The influence of contralateral primary afferents on Ia inhibitory interneurones in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwaide, P J; Pepin, J L

    1991-01-01

    1. Contralateral influences on short latency reciprocal inhibition between wrist extensor and flexor muscles were investigated in twenty-two healthy volunteers. Reciprocal inhibition, probably mediated through the Ia inhibitory interneurone, was measured by conditioning the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) H reflex by weak stimulation of the ipsilateral radial nerve. Maximum reciprocal inhibition occurring at a precise delay between conditioning and conditioned stimulations was taken as the test level of inhibition. 2. Contralateral median or radial nerves were stimulated at short intervals before the onset of reciprocal inhibition. The latter was increased by 8.6% after median nerve stimulation and decreased by 16.5% after radial nerve stimulation. 3. The contribution of sensory fibres in the two nerves to contralateral effects was investigated by stimulating purely sensory branches of the nerves. No clear modification of the contralateral reciprocal inhibition was observed. The effects produced by mixed nerve stimulation are thus likely to have been mediated by Ia fibres. 4. In three hemiplegic patients where reciprocal inhibition was reduced unilaterally, stimulation on the spastic side produced contralateral effects similar to those observed in normal subjects. This result indicates that contralateral effects are not mediated through the Ia inhibitory interneurone ipsilateral to the conditioning stimulus. 5. Since contralateral effects occur after short delays (2 ms, median nerve; 3 ms, radial nerve), we suggest a functional scheme in which the excitability of Ia inhibitory interneurones is modified by contralateral primary afferents via the interneurones activated by group I fibres, probably Ia fibres. The short delays indicate that the interneurone transmitting primary afferent influences to the contralateral side is probably excitatory. PMID:1895236

  5. White Dwarf/M Dwarf Binaries as Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-10-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, MV >~ 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and MV >~ 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a "magnetic bottle" connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the "nova limit" and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  6. WHITE DWARF/M DWARF BINARIES AS SINGLE DEGENERATE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, J. Craig, E-mail: wheel@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-10-20

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, M{sub V} {approx}> 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and M{sub V} {approx}> 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a 'magnetic bottle' connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the 'nova limit' and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  7. COMT and ANKK1-Taq-Ia genetic polymorphisms influence visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E; Wiener, Martin; Stephens, Jaclyn A; Lohoff, Falk W; Coslett, H Branch

    2013-01-01

    Complex cognitive tasks such as visual working memory (WM) involve networks of interacting brain regions. Several neurotransmitters, including an appropriate dopamine concentration, are important for WM performance. A number of gene polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in cognitive task performance. COMT, for example, encodes catechol-o-methyl transferase the enzyme primarily responsible for catabolizing dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. Striatal dopamine function, linked with cognitive tasks as well as habit learning, is influenced by the Taq-Ia polymorphism of the DRD2/ANKK1 gene complex; this gene influences the density of dopamine receptors in the striatum. Here, we investigated the effects of these polymorphisms on a WM task requiring the maintenance of 4 or 6 items over delay durations of 1 or 5 seconds. We explored main effects and interactions between the COMT and DRD2/ANKK1-Taq-Ia polymorphisms on WM performance. Participants were genotyped for COMT (Val(158)Met) and DRD2/ANKK1-Taq-Ia (A1+, A1-) polymorphisms. There was a significant main effect of both polymorphisms. Participants' WM reaction times slowed with increased Val loading such that the Val/Val homozygotes made the slowest responses and the Met/Met homozygotes were the fastest. Similarly, WM reaction times were slower and more variable for the DRD2/ANKK1-Taq-Ia A1+ group than the A1- group. The main effect of COMT was only apparent in the DRD2/ANKK1-Taq-Ia A1- group. These findings link WM performance with slower dopaminergic metabolism in the prefrontal cortex as well as a greater density of dopamine receptors in the striatum.

  8. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Ashall, C.; Burns, C. R.; Diamond, T. R.; Phillips, M. M.; Sand, D.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Suntzeff, N.; Contreras, C.; Krisciunas, K.; Morrell, N.; Wang, L.

    2017-09-01

    We study the optical light curve (LC) relations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for their use in cosmology using high-quality photometry published by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). We revisit the classical luminosity decline rate (Δm 15) relation and the Lira relation, as well as investigate the time evolution of the (B - V) color and B(B - V), which serves as the basis of the color-stretch relation and Color-MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT) producing normal-bright and subluminous SNe Ia. Empirical LC relations can be understood as having the same physical underpinnings, I.e., opacities, ionization balances in the photosphere, and radioactive energy deposition changing with time from below to above the photosphere. Some three to four weeks past maximum, the photosphere recedes to 56Ni-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density ρ c of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of 56Ni production. This results in a Δm 15 spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe Ia and ≈0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color-magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Δm 15 with little dispersion in both the CSP-I sample and our DDT models. This allows intrinsic SN Ia variations to be separated from the interstellar reddening characterized by E(B - V) and R B . Invoking different scenarios causes a wide spread in empirical relations, which may suggest one dominant scenario.

  9. The lectin Griffonia simplicifolia I-A4 (GS I-A4) specifically recognizes terminal alpha-linked N-acetylgalactosaminyl groups and is cytotoxic to the human colon cancer cell lines LS174t and SW1116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y F; Boland, C R; Kraus, E R; Goldstein, I J

    1994-05-15

    The lectin GS I-A4 binds to terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyl (GalNAc) groups (which include the Tn antigen), but not to the closely related tumor-associated epitope, sialylated Tn antigen. The lectin also precipitates asialo OSM, but not its native sialylated form. Lectin histochemistry with human colonic tissues showed that GS I-A4 specifically stained specimens of colon cancer and colonic tissues from individuals with FAP; however, normal colonic tissues from patients without colonic disease were rarely stained with this lectin. Glycoconjugates bound by GS I-A4 were observed on the surface membranes of 2 human colon cancer cell lines, LS174t and SW1116, when fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated GS I-A4 was used. GS I-A4 was toxic to these 2 human colon cancer cell lines in monolayer culture. A dose-response study conducted using 10-160 micrograms/ml, of GS I-A4 demonstrated significant dose-related toxicity against LS174t and SW1116 cells. At concentrations > 80 micrograms/ml, > 99% of LS174t and > 90% of SW1116 cells were killed. Four mM GalNAc specifically inhibited the cytotoxic effect of GS I-A4 (p < 0.001), whereas 4mM N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) had no effect. Two other lectins that recognize terminal alpha-GalNAc residues, DBA and LBL, were significantly less cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than GS I-A4. In the light of these findings, we speculate that GS I-A4 may have potential use as a diagnostic agent against colorectal cancer.

  10. PENINGKATAN KEAKTIFAN SISWA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SEJARAH KELAS XI IA SMA IBU KARTINI SEMARANG DENGAN METODE COOPERATIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Ba'in

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini masalah yang dibahas adalah (1 apakah dengan metode cooperative learning model STAD dalam pembelajaran sejarah dapat meningkatkan minat dan keaktifan siswa kelas XI IA 1 SMA Ibu Kartini Semarang tahun 2009/2010; (2 bagaimana respon siswa kelas XI IA 1 SMA Ibu Kartini Semarang tahun 2009/2010 terhadap pembelajaran sejarah dengan menggunakan metode cooperative learning model STAD? Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dapat tidaknya metode cooperative learning model STAD meningkatkan minat dan keaktifan siswa kelas XI IA 1 SMA Ibu Kartini Semarang tahun 2009/2010 dalam pembelajaran sejarah, dan respon siswa kelas XI IA 1 SMA Ibu Kartini Semarang tahun 2009/2010 terhadap pembelajaran sejarah. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa kelas XI IA 1 SMA Ibu Kartini Semarang tahun 2009/2010, guru mata pelajaran sejarah SMA Ibu Kartini, dan tim peneliti sebagai konsultas. Penelitian dilakukan dalam 2 (dua siklus, dan proses pembelajaran yang diteliti pada setiap silus meliputi perencaan, pelaksanaan dan refleksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minat dan keaktifan siswa kelas XI IA 1 SMA Ibu Kartini Semarang tahun 2009/2010 dalam pembelajaran sejarah dengan menggunakan metode cooperative learning model STAD mengalami peningkatan, dari 22,50% pada pra siklus menjadi 69,91% pada sikulus 1 dan 80,00% pada siklus 2. Demikian pula untuk respon siswa, pembelajaran Sejarah di kelas XI IA 1 SMA Ibu Kartini Semarang dengan metode Cooperative Learning direspon positif oleh sebagian besar siswa.Kata Kunci: pembelajaran sejarah, metode Cooperative Learning, SMA Ibu Kartini

  11. Rates and delay times of Type Ia supernovae in the helium-enriched main-sequence donor scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remains a mystery. Comparing theoretical rates and delay-time distributions of SNe Ia with those inferred observationally can constrain their progenitor models. In this work, taking thermohaline mixing into account in the helium-enriched main-sequence (HEMS) donor scenario, we address rates and delay times of SNe Ia in this channel by combining the results of self-consistent binary evolution calculations with population synthesis models. We find that the Galactic SN Ia rate from the HEMS donor scenario is around 0.6-1.2 × 10-3 yr-1, which is about 30% of the observed rate. Delay times of SNe Ia in this scenario cover a wide range of 0.1-1.0 Gyr. We also present the pre-explosion properties of companion stars in the HEMS donor scenario, which will be helpful for placing constraints on SN Ia progenitors through analyzing their pre-explosion images.

  12. Evaluating Systematic Dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae: The Influence of Progenitor 22Ne Content on Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Dean M.; Jackson, Aaron P.; Calder, Alan C.; Chamulak, David A.; Brown, Edward F.; Timmes, F. X.

    2009-08-01

    We present a theoretical framework for formal study of systematic effects in supernovae Type Ia (SNe Ia) that utilizes two-dimensional simulations to implement a form of the deflagration-detonation transition (DDT) explosion scenario. The framework is developed from a randomized initial condition that leads to a sample of simulated SNe Ia whose 56Ni masses have a similar average and range to those observed, and have many other modestly realistic features such as the velocity extent of intermediate-mass elements. The intended purpose is to enable statistically well defined studies of both physical and theoretical parameters of the SNe Ia explosion simulation. We present here a thorough description of the outcome of the SNe Ia explosions produced by our current simulations. A first application of this framework is utilized to study the dependence of the SNe Ia on the 22Ne content, which is known to be directly influenced by the progenitor stellar population's metallicity. Our study is very specifically tailored to measure how the 22Ne content influences the competition between the rise of plumes of burned material and the expansion of the star before these plumes reach DDT conditions. This influence arises from the dependence of the energy release, progenitor structure, and laminar flame speed on 22Ne content. For this study, we explore these three effects for a fixed carbon content and DDT density. By setting the density at which nucleosynthesis takes place during the detonation phase of the explosion, the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion controls the amount of material in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) and therefore 56Ni produced. Of particular interest is how this influence of 22Ne content compares to the direct modification of the 56Ni mass via the inherent neutron excess as discussed by Timmes et al. Although the outcome following from any particular ignition condition can change dramatically with 22Ne content, with a sample of 20

  13. The envelope mass of red giant donors in type Ia supernova progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.; Yang, W.

    2010-06-01

    Context. The single degenerate model is the most widely accepted progenitor model of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) accretes hydrogen-rich material from a main sequence or a slightly evolved star (WD +MS) or from a red giant star (WD + RG), to increase its mass and explodes when approaching the Chandrasekhar mass. The explosion ejecta may impact the envelope of and strip off some hydrogen-rich material from the companion. The stripped-off hydrogen-rich material may manifest itself by means of a hydrogen line in the nebular spectra of SNe Ia. However, no hydrogen line is detected in the nebular spectra. Aims: We compute the remaining amounts of hydrogen in red giant donors to see whether the conflict between theory and observations can be overcome. Methods: By considering the mass-stripping effect from an optically thick wind and the effect of thermally unstable disk, we systematically carried out binary evolution calculation for WD + MS and WD + RG systems. Results: Here, we focus on the evolution of WD + RG systems. We found that some donor stars at the time of the supernova explosion contain little hydrogen-rich material on top of the helium core (as low as 0.017 M⊙), which is smaller than the upper limit to the amount derived from observations of material stripped-off by explosion ejecta. Thus, no hydrogen line is expected in the nebular spectra of these SN Ia. We also derive the distributions of the envelope mass and the core mass of the companions from WD + RG channel at the moment of a supernova explosion by adopting a binary population synthesis approach. We rarely find a RG companion with a very low-mass envelope. Furthermore, our models imply that the remnant of the WD + RG channel emerging after the supernova explosion is a single low-mass white dwarf (0.15-0.30 M⊙). Conclusions: The absence of a hydrogen line in nebular spectra of SNe Ia provides support to the proposal that the WD + RG system is the

  14. Type Ia Supernova Rate Measurements to Redshift 2.5 from Candles: Searching for Prompt Explosions in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Strogler, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Graur, Or; Casertano, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Garnavich, Peter; Cenko, Stephen Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope(HST) that surveyed a total area of approx. 0.25 deg(sup 2) with approx.900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z approx. 2.5. We classify approx. 24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only approx. 3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction isfP0.530.09stat0.100.10sys0.26, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simplet1power law for all timest40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20 of all SN Ia explosions though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  15. Aging-associated oxidative stress leads to decrease in IAS tone via RhoA/ROCK downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Krishna, Chadalavada Vijay; Rattan, Satish

    2014-06-01

    Internal anal sphincter (IAS) tone plays an important role in rectoanal incontinence (RI). IAS tone may be compromised during aging, leading to RI in certain patients. We examined the influence of oxidative stress in the aging-associated decrease in IAS tone (AADI). Using adult (4-6 mo old) and aging (24-30 mo old) rats, we determined the effect of oxidative stress on IAS tone and the regulatory RhoA/ROCK signal transduction cascade. We determined the effect of the oxidative stress inducer LY83583, which produces superoxide anions (O2 (·-)), on basal and stimulated IAS tone before and after treatment of intact smooth muscle strips and smooth muscle cells with the O2 (·-) scavenger SOD. Our data showed that AADI was associated with a decrease in RhoA/ROCK expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Oxidative stress with a LY83583-mediated decrease in IAS tone and relaxation of IAS smooth muscle cells was associated with a decrease in RhoA/ROCK signal transduction, which was reversible by SOD. In addition, LY83583 caused a significant decrease in IAS contraction produced by the RhoA activator and a known RhoA/ROCK agonist, U46619, that was also reversible by SOD. The inhibitory effects of LY83583 and the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 on the U46619-induced increase in IAS tone were similar. We conclude that an increase in oxidative stress plays an important role in AADI in the elderly and may be one of the underlying mechanisms of RI in certain aging patients. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Merging of a CO WD and a He-rich WD to produce a type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Wang, B.; Wu, C.; Han, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Although type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a key role in astrophysics, the companions of the exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) are still not completely identified. It has been suggested recently that a He-rich WD (a He WD or a hybrid HeCO WD) that merges with a CO WD may produce an SN Ia. This theory was based on the double-detonation model, in which the shock compression in the CO core caused by the surface explosion of the He-rich shell might lead to the explosion of the whole CO WD. However, so far, very few binary population synthesis (BPS) studies have been made on the merger scenario of a CO WD and a He-rich WD in the context of SNe Ia. Aims: We aim to systematically study the Galactic birthrates and delay-time distributions of SNe Ia based on the merger scenario of a CO WD and a He-rich WD. Methods: We performed a series of Monte Carlo BPS simulations to investigate the properties of SNe Ia from the merging of a CO WD and a He-rich WD based on the Hurley rapid binary evolution code. We also considered the influence of different metallicities on the final results. Results: From our simulations, we found that no more than 15% of all SNe Ia stem from the merger scenario of a CO WD and a He-rich WD, and their delay times range from 110 Myr to the Hubble time. This scenario mainly contributes to SN Ia explosions with intermediate and long delay times. The present work indicates that the merger scenario of a CO WD and a He-rich WD can roughly reproduce the birthrates of SN 1991bg-like events, and cover the range of their delay times. We also found that SN Ia birthrates from this scenario would be higher for the cases with low metallicities.

  17. EARLY-PHASE PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF TRANSITIONAL TYPE Ia SN 2012ht: DIRECT CONSTRAINT ON THE RISE TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Nogami, Daisaku [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, 17-1 Kitakazan-ohmine-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawabata, Miho; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura [Astronomical Institute, Osaka Kyoiku University, Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takaki, Katsutoshi; Ueno, Issei; Itoh, Ryosuke [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawabata, Koji S.; Moritani, Yuki; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Arai, Akira; Honda, Satoshi [Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Koichi [Kurume, Fukuoka-ken (Japan); Kabashima, Fujio, E-mail: yamanaka@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Miyaki-cho, Saga-ken (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    We report photometric and spectroscopic observations of the nearby Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) 2012ht from –15.8 days to +49.1 days after B-band maximum. The decline rate of the light curve is Δm {sub 15}(B) = 1.39 ± 0.05 mag, which is intermediate between normal and subluminous SNe Ia, and similar to that of the ''transitional'' Type Ia SN 2004eo. The spectral line profiles also closely resemble those of SN 2004eo. We were able to observe SN 2012ht at a very early phase, when it was still rising and was about three magnitudes fainter than at the peak. The rise time to the B-band maximum is estimated to be 17.6 ± 0.5 days and the time of the explosion is MJD 56277.98 ± 0.13. SN 2012ht is the first transitional SN Ia whose rise time is directly measured without using light curve templates, and the fifth SN Ia overall. This rise time is consistent with those of the other four SNe within the measurement error, even including the extremely early detection of SN 2013dy. The rising part of the light curve can be fitted by a quadratic function, and shows no sign of a shock-heating component due to the interaction of the ejecta with a companion star. The rise time is significantly longer than that inferred for subluminous SNe such as SN 1991bg, which suggests that a progenitor and/or explosion mechanism of transitional SNe Ia are more similar to normal SNe Ia rather than to subluminous SNe Ia.

  18. Cefaléia sentinela: sinal de alerta da hemorragia subaracnóidea por ruptura de aneurisma intracraniano

    OpenAIRE

    Asano, Amdore Guescel C

    2006-01-01

    A cefaléia é uma queixa de alta prevalência no mundo. Dentre as várias causas de cefaléia, a hemorragia subaracnóidea por ruptura de aneurisma é uma das mais importantes pela sua elevada taxa de morbidade e mortalidade. Cerca de um terço dos pacientes com hemorragia subaracnóidea por ruptura de aneurisma apresenta um episódio de cefaléia, não usual, de início súbito e forte intensidade, precedendo horas, dias, semanas e meses a hemorragia subaracnóidea, que corresponde a um san...

  19. Apnéia obstrutiva do sono e alterações cardiovasculares = Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggsträm, Fábio Maraschin

    2009-01-01

    Conclusões: existem fortes evidências da associação entre apnéia do sono e alterações cardiovasculares. Embora o diagnóstico e tratamento correto da síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono e da respiração de Cheyne-Stokes seja determinado pela polissonografia de noite inteira, a suspeita clínica deve ser levantada pela história de roncos, apnéias assistidas pelo companheiro e sonolência diurna excessiva

  20. A spectroscopic look at the gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernova 2016geu at z = 0.409

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Zach; Selsing, Jonatan; Hjorth, Jens; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Christensen, Lise; Gall, Christa; Kann, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    The spectacular success of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in SN-cosmology is based on the assumption that their photometric and spectroscopic properties are invariant with redshift. However, this fundamental assumption needs to be tested with observations of high-z SNe Ia. To date, the majority of SNe Ia observed at moderate to large redshifts (0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0) are faint, and the resultant analyses are based on observations with modest signal-to-noise ratios that impart a degree of ambiguity in their determined properties. In rare cases, however, the Universe offers a helping hand: To date a few SNe Ia have been observed that have had their luminosities magnified by intervening galaxies and galaxy clusters acting as gravitational lenses. In this paper, we present long-slit spectroscopy of the lensed SN Ia 2016geu, which occurred at a redshift of z = 0.409, and was magnified by a factor of ≈55 by a galaxy located at z = 0.216. We compared our spectra, which were obtained a couple of weeks to a couple of months past peak light, with the spectroscopic properties of well-observed, nearby SNe Ia, finding that SN 2016geu's properties are commensurate with those of SNe Ia in the local Universe. Based primarily on the velocity and strength of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature, we find that SN 2016geu can be classified as a high-velocity, high-velocity-gradient and 'core-normal' SN Ia. The strength of various features (measured though their pseudo-equivalent widths) argue against SN 2016geu being a faint, broad-lined, cool or shallow-silicon SN Ia. We conclude that the spectroscopic properties of SN 2016geu imply that it is a normal SN Ia, and when taking previous results by other authors into consideration, there is very little, if any, evolution in the observational properties of SNe Ia up to z ≈ 0.4.

  1. IMPACT OF NEW GAMOW–TELLER STRENGTHS ON EXPLOSIVE TYPE IA SUPERNOVA NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kanji; Famiano, Michael A.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Toshio [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hidaka, Jun [Mechanical Engineering Department, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan); Honma, Michio [Center for Mathematical Sciences, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan); Iwamoto, Koichi [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken’ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Otsuka, Takaharu, E-mail: kanji.mori@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: michael.famiano@wmich.edu, E-mail: suzuki@phys.chs.nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: jun.hidaka@meisei-u.ac.jp, E-mail: m-honma@u-aizu.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nomoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: otsuka@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    Recent experimental results have confirmed a possible reduction in the Gamow–Teller (GT{sub +}) strengths of pf-shell nuclei. These proton-rich nuclei are of relevance in the deflagration and explosive burning phases of SNe Ia. While prior GT strengths result in nucleosynthesis predictions with a lower-than-expected electron fraction, a reduction in the GT{sub +} strength can result in a slightly increased electron fraction compared to previous shell model predictions, though the enhancement is not as large as previous enhancements in going from rates computed by Fuller, Fowler, and Newman based on an independent particle model. A shell model parametrization has been developed that more closely matches experimental GT strengths. The resultant electron-capture rates are used in nucleosynthesis calculations for carbon deflagration and explosion phases of SNe Ia, and the final mass fractions are compared to those obtained using more commonly used rates.

  2. Correlations Between Hubble Residuals and MCMC Estimated Local Stellar Ages of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin; Garnavich, Peter

    2018-01-01

    There appears to be correlations between SN Ia Hubble diagram residuals and host galaxy mass, metallicity, and star formation history. An uncorrected bias may produce a systematic offset in cosmological measurements. Global properties are the luminosity average of local environments, therefore the properties of local environments may hold stronger correlations than their global counterparts. There have been previous attempts at finding correlations between local environment properties and Hubble residuals, but nothing without contention has been seen. Looking at the host information from the SDSS Scene Modeling data, we use MCMC to constrain the properties of the stellar population using Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis. We estimate the stellar population's age and star formation history at each resolution element of the galaxy image. The stellar population properties are then compared to the SN Ia properties including the Hubble residuals in the search for correlations that could lead to any systematic bias.

  3. A modernidade européia e sua crise The european modernity and its crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Peralva

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a face sombria da unificação européia atual. Populismo e violência, racismo e xenofobia aparecem como a contrapartida de um processo acelerado de modernização que desafia a capacidade de integração social européia. Examinam-se os modos diferentes como a França e a Alemanha enfrentam o problema.The dark side of the European unification is discussed. Populism and violence, racism and xenophobia appear as a counterpart to an accelerated process of modernization that defies Europe's capability for integration. The different ways of facing this problem in France and Germany are examined.

  4. An unusual white dwarf star may be a surviving remnant of a subluminous Type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennes, S.; Nemeth, P.; Kawka, A.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Khalack, V.; Ferrario, L.; Alper, E. H.

    2017-08-01

    Subluminous Type Ia supernovae, such as the Type Iax-class prototype SN 2002cx, are described by a variety of models such as the failed detonation and partial deflagration of an accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarf star or the explosion of an accreting, hybrid carbon-oxygen-neon core. These models predict that bound remnants survive such events with, according to some simulations, a high kick velocity. We report the discovery of a high proper motion, low-mass white dwarf (LP 40-365) that travels at a velocity greater than the Galactic escape velocity and whose peculiar atmosphere is dominated by intermediate-mass elements. Strong evidence indicates that this partially burnt remnant was ejected following a subluminous Type Ia supernova event. This supports the viability of single-degenerate supernova progenitors.

  5. Tinjauan Rencana Adopsi IAS 41 pada Perusahaan Agrikultur di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Kurniawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the adoption plan of IAS 41 Agriculture as a part of IFRS Convergence in Indonesia by investigating the characteristics of biological assets and agriculture produce in public listed companies in Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The methodology used in this study is qualitative approach by investigating financial statements of agricultural public listed companies for the year 2011. Thestudy shows that the biological assets recorded in the public listed companies range from consumable biological assets and bearer biological assets. It also shows that many bearer biological assets need more than one reporting period to be ready to produce other biological assets or agriculture produce to be harvest. According to IAS 41, these biological assets should be recorded using fair value model, however this model will not be appropriate. This findings lead to another questions what is the valuation appropriate for biological assets which have different characteristics.

  6. Type Ia Supernovae Progenitor Problem and the Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmological observations strongly suggest our universe is the interior of an expanding black hole. If the constant mass of the universe is assumed then from the equation for Schwarzschild radius: r S = 2 Gmc it follows that proportionality constant Gc depends linearly on the universe’s radius R u , identified with r S , i.e. Gc Because the Chandrasekhar limit M Ch relates to the speed of light and to the Newton’s constant as M Ch ( c = G 3 = 2 so expansion involves gradual decrease of M Ch . In result, a single white dwarf can alone become the Type Ia supernova progenitor, which provides a complementary solution to single-degenerate and double-degenerate models for SNe Ia. Both alternative scenarios: G R u and c R are analyzed in regard of their consistence with observations, and their consequences to cosmology.

  7. OPTIONS FOR REPORTING OF DEPRECIATION OF FIXED BIOLOGICAL ASSETS ACCORDING TO IAS 41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An important element of the accounting policies of enterprises, operating in the agricultural sector, is the organization of accountability of fixed biological assets. With the recent changes in the provisions of International Accounting Standards, effective 01.01.2016, bearer plants were removed from the scope of IAS 41 Agriculture and included within the scope of IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of changes on the accounting policies of agricultural enterprises, in particular the assessment of fixed biological assets and capabilities for charging depreciation. An important aspect is the synchronization of accounting and tax legislation regarding possibilities for the recognition of depreciation of fixed biological assets.

  8. Thematic trip: "Save Roşia MontanÄă"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2015-04-01

    The name Roşia Montană, situated in Transylvania, became well known after a Romanian-Canadian company, Roşia Montană Gold Company (RMGC), obtained the concession license on exploitation for gold and silver minerals in the Roşia Montană area. The project consists of opening the largest surface gold mines in Europe using cyanide, which will include four open pits and a processing plant for gold and silver in The Roşia Valley and a tailings facility with an area of 367 hectares in the Corna Valley. One of the main fears is related to a possible ecological accident like the one in Baia Mare in 2000, when a tailing facility dam break led to cyanide pollution of Tisa and Danube rivers that resulted in the death of 1,200 tons of fish and contamination of water resources for 2 million people. This thematic trip is important for the scientific preparation of students and an opportunity to educate them in the spirit of environmental protection. The training and education of students will require assimilation and understanding, actively and consciously, using the knowledge acquired during the compulsory curriculum and training skills. REASON: The continuous degradation of the environment is a major crisis due to human intervention in nature, and the proposed Roşia Montană mining project will continue this trend. The company proposes to extract gold from mines by using the gold separation technique using cyanide, a process that involves destroying a total area of 16 km² which includes 5 mountains, 7 churches, 11 cemeteries and the ruins of Alburnus Maior Citadel, as well as creating pollution that would last for hundreds of years. The extraction of gold from low-grade ores using cyanide processes was estimated to result in a worldwide emission of 45,300 tons of hydrogen cyanide. Environmental education for a healthy life has children as target group, because they are the trustees and beneficiaries of tomorrow's natural resources and can influence the attitudes of

  9. Narcolefsia e apnéia do sono concomitantes: registro de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Reimão

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de concomitância de narcolepsia e apnéia do sono tipo obstrutiva documentado clinicamente e em traçados polissonográficos em laboratório de sono. Após correção cirúrgica da apnéia do sono, com traqueostomia, houve manutenção da sintomatologia narcoléptica e de seu registro característico. Este estudo apoia a necessidade de emprego sistemático da polissonografia de noite inteira e do teste de latência múltipla do sono na avaliação de pacientes com sonolência excessiva diurna.

  10. Survival after Stage IA Endometrial Cancer; Can follow-up be altered?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Henrik; Elnegaard, Sandra; Christensen, René D

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To present Danish national survival data on women with early stage endometrial cancer and use these data to discuss the relevance of postoperative follow-up. Design. Prospective study. Setting. Danish Endometrial Cancer Study (DEMCA). Population. Five hundred and seventy-one FIGO stage...... IA (1988 classification) endometrial cancer patients prospectively included between 1986 and 1999. All patients had total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy without adjuvant therapy. Methods. The patient and the disease characteristics were drawn from the DEMCA database....... Of these recurrences, 15 of 23 (65%) were vaginal. Death from recurrence was observed in nine of 23 (39%) patients, and five of these nine had vaginal recurrences. Conclusions. Women with FIGO stage IA endometrial cancer have a very high disease-specific five year survival. Survival was related to histopathology...

  11. Spectroscopic classification of AT 2017byx as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Sarneczky, K.; Szakats, R.; Szalai, T.; Szekely, P.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    During the commissioning phase of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) survey we observed AT 2017byx (ATLAS17bla, PS17bve) at R.A.=14:17:48.36 Dec.=+52:41:54.6 with the Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) at McDonald Observatory on 2017-04-28.2 UT. The spectrum (range between 3500 and 5500 Angstroms) indicates that AT 2017byx is a Type Ia supernova.

  12. Keterlibatan Perempuan dalam Tindak Pidana Korupsi di Wilayah Hukum Pengadilan Negeri Kelas I.A Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilawati Nilawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini mengkaji tentang tindak pindana korupsi pada perempuan. Hal ini berarti bahwa tindak pidana korupsi bukan hanya monopoli laki-laki. Partisipasi perempuan dalam tindak pidana korupsi di wilayah hukum Pengadilan Negeri Kelas I.A Palembang dapat dikatakan masih dalam tingkatan skala rendah. Sebagian besar tindak pidana korupsi yang dilakukan perempuan tersebut tidak sendirian, melainkan bersama orang atau pihak lain diikuti adanya peluang dan kesempatan. Sehingga tindak korupsinya dapat digolongkan korupsi sistemik. Faktor-faktor  yang menyebabkan perempuan terlibat dalam kasus tindak pidana korupsi di wilayah Hukum Pengadilan Negeri Kelas I.A Palembang, yaitu: rendahnya tingkat keimanan, rendahnya gaji atau pendapatan, sikap mental dan keinginan cepat kaya, pola hidup konsumtif hedonisme, aji mumpung, ada peluang dan kesempatn untuk meng-akses. This paper examined the crime of corruption on women. This meant that corruption was not just a male monopoly. Women's participation in corruption in legal area of the jurisdiction of Class IA Palembang could be said to be still in a low level scale. Most of corruption criminals that were done by women were not alone, but together with another person or party followed by the opportunity and chance. So the acts of corruption could be classified as systemic corruption. The factors that caused women to get involved in cases of corruption criminal in the legal area of the jurisdiction of Class IA Palembang, namely: low levels of faith, low salaries or income, mental attitude and the desire to get rich quick, lifestyle consumptive hedonism, moral hazard, there was an opportunity and chance to access.

  13. Three-Dimensional Delayed-Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernova

    OpenAIRE

    Gamezo, Vadim N.; Khokhlov, Alexei M.; Oran, Elaine S.

    2004-01-01

    We study a Type Ia supernova explosion using large-scale three-dimensional numerical simulations based on reactive fluid dynamics with a simplified mechanism for nuclear reactions and energy release. The initial deflagration stage of the explosion involves a subsonic turbulent thermonuclear flame propagating in the gravitational field of an expanding white dwarf. The deflagration produces an inhomogeneous mixture of unburned carbon and oxygen with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements in ...

  14. Sensitivity study of explosive nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae: I. Modification of individual thermonuclear reaction rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Eduardo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Type Ia supernovae contribute significantly to the nucleosynthesis of many Fe-group and intermediate-mass elements. However, the robustness of nucleosynthesis obtained via models of this class of explosions has not been studied in depth until now. Purpose: We explore the sensitivity of the nucleosynthesis resulting from thermonuclear explosions of massive white dwarfs with respect to uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates. We put particular emphasis on indentifying ...

  15. Fixed points of IA-endomorphisms of a free metabelian Lie algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Jacobian matrix Jϕ of an endomorphism ϕ of F is defined as Jϕ. = ... Let ϕ be an IA-endomorphism of L defined by ϕ : xi → xi + ui , ui ∈ F , 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Then the ..... For each positive integer n we write Ln for the K-subspace spanned by the monomials of degree n. Thus L is a K-space direct sum. L = L1 ⊕ L2 ⊕··· .

  16. ROŞIA MONTANĂ-ABRUD AURIFEROUS AREA AT CROSSROADS: INTENSIVE MINING EXPLOITATION VERSUS TOURISTIC CAPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ADINA JURJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Roşia Montană-Abrud auriferous area at crossroads: intensive mining exploitation versus touristic capitalization. Roşia Montană-Abrud is a mining area located in the North-Eastern side of the Metaliferi (Metalliferous Mountains, part of the Apuseni Mountains, and holds the biggest gold and silver ores deposit in Europe. It also belongs to the Gold (or Auriferous Quadrilateral, an important metalliferous region which covers around 2500 km2 between Baia de Arieş-Zlatna-Săcărâmb-Ţebea. Roşia Montană, the oldest mining locality in Romania, enhanced even more its fame after the apparition of Roşia Montană Gold Corporation (RMGC, a Romanian-Canadian mining company which, according to its claims, intends to exploit (even if it has-legally-only an exploration licence the existing 300 tons of gold and 1600 tons of silver, by usind cyanide. In order to store the approximately 200 000 tons of residual cyanides, the company intends to built a huge tailings pond (about 180 m height and 800 ha in Corna Valley. By comparison, the Bozânta tailings pond near Baia Mare, which broke down in 2000, had only about 90 ha. On the other side, the opponents of the RMGC project aims to protect both natural and cultural heritage, which embed a richness of archaeological, historical and architectural objectivs, particularly. Also, there have been found arguments for the inscription of the area in UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List. This study aims also to highlight the main types of tourism feasible for the mentioned area.

  17. THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Winge, C. [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nugent, P. E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stanishev, V., E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl [CENTRA - Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

    2013-04-01

    We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

  18. Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam; iPTF Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here, we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN only occurred 0.15 +0.15-0.07 d before our first detection. In the ~24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by ~2 mag, following a near-linear rise in flux for ~3 d. Strong C II absorption is detected in the early spectra of iPTF 16abc, before disappearing after ~7 d. Unlike the extensively-observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the (B-V)_0 colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling, or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including: (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the non-evolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong absorption from ionized carbon, are the result of either vigorous mixing of radioactive-Ni in the SN ejecta, or ejecta interaction with diffuse material, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  19. Solitary Gastric Metastasis from a Stage IA Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: A Case Report with Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuguchi, Keishi; Minato, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Isao; Iwadare, Junpei; Kayahashi, Kayo; Mitani, Yuki; WATANABE, KAZUYOSHI

    2017-01-01

    Gastric metastasis from ovarian cancer is exceptionally rare and generally occurs in advanced stages. A 71-year-old woman presented with a solitary gastric submucosal mass 8 years after the diagnosis of a stage IA ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. Endoscopy showed a tumor covered with normal gastric mucosa. Initially, a gastrointestinal stromal tumor was suspected, but biopsy revealed a histology of invasive micropapillary carcinoma, similar to the histological findings of the previously resecte...

  20. Evidence for Type Ia Supernova Diversity from Ultraviolet Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Moreover, the peak luminosity of SNe Ia seems to show an additional dependence on the global characteristics of their host galaxies : events of the same...light-curve shape and color may be ∼0.1 mag brighter in massive (presumably metal-rich) host galaxies (Kelly et al. 2010; Sullivan et al. 2010; Lampeitl...of the white dwarf play a large role in shaping the appearance of the spectrum. The dependence of the UV emission on the progenitor metallicity has

  1. Properties and Alignment of Interstellar Dust Grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with Anomalous Polarization Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem, E-mail: thiemhoang@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios ( R {sub V} < 2) and wavelengths of maximum polarization ( λ{sub max} < 0.4 μ m) for several SNe Ia, which indicates peculiar properties of interstellar (IS) dust in the SN-hosted galaxies and/or the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we use an inversion technique to infer the best-fit grain size distribution and the alignment function of interstellar grains along the lines of sight toward four SNe Ia with anomalous extinction and polarization data (SN 1986G, SN 2006X, SN 2008fp, and SN 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of R{sub V}, a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius a < 0.1 μ m is required. For SN 2014J, a simultaneous fit to its observed extinction and polarization is unsuccessful if all the data are attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 2008fp, our best-fit results for model 1 show that in order to reproduce an extreme value of λ{sub max} ∼ 0.15 μ m, small silicate grains must be aligned as efficiently as big grains. For this case, we suggest that strong radiation from the SN can induce efficient alignment of small grains in a nearby intervening molecular cloud via the radiative torque (RAT) mechanism. The resulting time dependence polarization from this RAT alignment model can be tested by observing at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  2. Spectroscopic classification of AT 2017cfd as a young Type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2017-03-01

    We report the spectroscopic observation of AT 2017cfd, a transient discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) on 2017-03-16. A spectrum (range 3700-9300 Angstroms), taken with the new "Low Resolution Spectrograph-2" (LRS2) on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory by Steve Odewahn on 2017-03-18.16 UT, is similar to that of a Type Ia supernova before maximum light.

  3. Constraints on reconstructed dark energy model from SN Ia and BAO/CMB observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamon, Abdulla Al [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)

    2017-01-15

    The motivation of the present work is to reconstruct a dark energy model through the dimensionless dark energy function X(z), which is the dark energy density in units of its present value. In this paper, we have shown that a scalar field φ having a phenomenologically chosen X(z) can give rise to a transition from a decelerated to an accelerated phase of expansion for the universe. We have examined the possibility of constraining various cosmological parameters (such as the deceleration parameter and the effective equation of state parameter) by comparing our theoretical model with the latest Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation observations. Using the joint analysis of the SN Ia+BAO/CMB dataset, we have also reconstructed the scalar potential from the parametrized X(z). The relevant potential is found, a polynomial in φ. From our analysis, it has been found that the present model favors the standard ΛCDM model within 1σ confidence level. (orig.)

  4. Probing the cosmic distance duality with strong gravitational lensing and supernovae Ia data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, R.F.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58429-500, Campina Grande PB (Brazil); Busti, V.C. [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br, E-mail: vcbusti@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    We propose and perform a new test of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR), D{sub L}(z) / D{sub A}(z) (1 + z){sup 2} = 1, where D{sub A} is the angular diameter distance and D{sub L} is the luminosity distance to a given source at redshift z, using strong gravitational lensing (SGL) and type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) data. We show that the ratio D=D{sub A{sub 1{sub 2}}}/D{sub A{sub 2}} and D{sup *}=D{sub L{sub 1{sub 2}}}/D{sub L{sub 2}}, where the subscripts 1 and 2 correspond, respectively, to redshifts z{sub 1} and z{sub 2}, are linked by D/D{sup *}=(1+z{sub 1}){sup 2} if the CDDR is valid. We allow departures from the CDDR by defining two functions for η(z{sub 1}), which equals unity when the CDDR is valid. We find that combination of SGL and SNe Ia data favours no violation of the CDDR at 1σ confidence level (η(z) ≅ 1), in complete agreement with other tests and reinforcing the theoretical pillars of the CDDR.

  5. Terapêutica hormonal na coréia de Sydenham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Albernaz

    1957-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinco casos de coréia de Sydenham foram submetidos à terapêutica hormonal com Cortisona, Prednisona e Prednisolona; o fenobarbital e a clorpromazina foram utilizados como medicação sintomática e a Penicilina-Benzatina como profilática. Depois de analisadas as referências bibliográficas, comparados os resultados de ν;rios autores, e ajuizados os resultados obtidos em nossos casos, acreditamos poder concluir que: 1 a terapêutica hormonal da coréia de Sydenham, com o uso de ACTH, Cortisona, Prednisona ou Pred-nisclona apresenta resultados satisfatórios; 2 a Prednisona e a Prednisolona são os hormônios mais úteis no tratamento da coréia de Sydenham, sendo possível que sua associação aos salicilatos permita obter resultados ainda melhores; 3 o tratamento deve prolongar-se até o completo desaparecimento dos sintomas, as doses variando de acôrdo com a gravidade e a evolução da moléstia; 4 a terapêutica hormonal deve ser usada sem prejuízo de medicação sintomática (sedativa e profilática (antibiótica.

  6. A MCDM Analysis of the Roşia Montană Gold Mining Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mihai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The need and estimated utility for a structured analysis of the Roşia Montană gold exploitation project have been palpable in the Romanian public sphere during the last 15 years and there is a vast amount of conflicting information and opinions on the benefits and risks involved. This article provides a comprehensive decision analysis of the Roşia Montană project. Over 100 documents from the past years have been gathered regarding the Roşia Montană mining project, which cover the main official, formal and less formal documents covering the case and produced by a wide range of stakeholders. These were then analyzed while designing a multi-criteria tree including the relevant perspectives under which the most commonly discussed four alternatives were analyzed. The result of this can be translated into a valuable recommendation for the mining company and for the political decision-makers. If these stakeholders want the continuation of the project and its acceptance by civil society, the key challenge is to increase the transparency of the process and improve the credibility and legal aspects; if these aspects cannot be met, the decision-makers need to pay attention to the alternatives available for a sustainable development in the area.

  7. A progenitor binary and an ejected mass donor remnant of faint type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Wang, B.; Dunlap, B.; Barlow, B. N.; Schaffenroth, V.; Chen, X.; Irrgang, A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Ziegerer, E.; Kupfer, T.; Miszalski, B.; Heber, U.; Han, Z.; Shporer, A.; Telting, J. H.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Østensen, R. H.; O'Toole, S. J.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2013-06-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are the most important standard candles for measuring the expansion history of the universe. The thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf can explain their observed properties, but neither the progenitor systems nor any stellar remnants have been conclusively identified. Underluminous SN Ia have been proposed to originate from a so-called double-detonation of a white dwarf. After a critical amount of helium is deposited on the surface through accretion from a close companion, the helium is ignited causing a detonation wave that triggers the explosion of the white dwarf itself. We have discovered both shallow transits and eclipses in the tight binary system CD-30°11223 composed of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and a hot helium star, allowing us to determine its component masses and fundamental parameters. In the future the system will transfer mass from the helium star to the white dwarf. Modelling this process we find that the detonation in the accreted helium layer is sufficiently strong to trigger the explosion of the core. The helium star will then be ejected at such high velocity that it will escape the Galaxy. The predicted properties of this remnant are an excellent match to the so-called hypervelocity star US 708, a hot, helium-rich star moving at more than 750 km s-1, sufficient for it to leave the Galaxy. The identification of both progenitor and remnant provides a consistent picture of the formation and evolution of underluminous SNIa.

  8. Treasure Hunting for Type Ia Supernova Ex-Companion Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Edwards, Zachary; Walker, Emma S.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the central region of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) can be used to place constraints on, and in some cases identify, the progenitor systems of nearby supernovae. This procedure has been employed in both the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), with varying levels of success. We present an overview of all of our results for the four confirmed Type Ia supernova remnants in the LMC, including our new results on the stars in the central regions of LMC SNR 0505-67.9 (DEM L71) and LMC SNR 0509-68.7 (N103B), both of which have potential leftover ex-companion stars from single degenerate progenitor systems. Additionally, we present our recent spectrum of the nebulous region at the center of LMC SNR 0509-67.5 showing it to be a background galaxy unrelated to the supernova remnant, which was caused by a Type Ia supernova with a double degenerate progenitor 400 ± 50 years ago. In summary, we can identify the progenitor for one of the four LMC SNRs (LMC SNR 0509-67.5), we can place constraints on one additional progenitor system (LMC SNR 0519-69.0), and we find that all single and double degenerate progenitor systems are still viable options for the final two (LMC SNR 0505-67.9 and LMC SNR 0509-68.7).

  9. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117-5575 (United States); Sand, David J.; Tartaglia, Leonardo [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Valenti, Stefano; Bostroem, K. Azalee [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5270 (United States); Brown, Peter [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kasen, Daniel [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8169 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian D., E-mail: griffin@lco.global [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-08-20

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U , B , and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R {sub ☉} from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ 6580) absorption up through day −13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  10. High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from a Compact Circumstellar Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-05-01

    High-velocity features (HVF) of Ca prior to B-band maximum light are a ubiquitous property of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), but the origin of this high-velocity material is unknown. It may result from ejection of material during the explosion, detonation of material on the surface prior to the supernova or interaction with a companion or material in the nearby environment. Here, we introduce the methods we use to simulate the interaction of SN Ia ejecta with a shell of material surrounding the progenitor at a distance of less than 1 R⊙. Assuming free expansion, constant ion state and excitation temperature, we generate synthetic spectra from the data showing the effect of equation of state, explosion model, and the width, initial density profile and mass of the shell on the appearance and temporal evolution of the Ca ii near-infrared triplet (CaNIR). The Ca abundance of the shell is taken to be a free parameter. We compare the evolution of the pseudo-equivalent width (pEW) of the CaNIR feature resulting from these models to observational results from Silverman et al. We find that the mass of the shell must be less than 0.012 ± 0.004 M⊙. We discuss potential ambiguities in observational methods of determining the pEW of the HVF.

  11. The Peculiar SN 2005hk: Do Some Type Ia Supernovae Explode As Deflagrations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.M.; Li, W.; Frieman, J.A.; Blinnikov, S.I.; DePoy, D.; Prieto, J.L.; Milne, P.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, Gaston; Morrell, N.; Hamuy, M.; Suntzeff, N.B.; Roth, M.; Gonzalez, S.; Krzeminski, W.; Filippenko, A.V.; Freedman, W.L.; Chornock, R.; Jha, S.; Madore, B.F.; Persson, S.E.; /Las Campanas Observ. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.

    2006-11-14

    We present extensive u{prime}g{prime}r{prime}i{prime} BV RIY JHK{sub s} photometry and optical spectroscopy of SN 2005hk. These data reveal that SN 2005hk was nearly identical in its observed properties to SN 2002cx, which has been called 'the most peculiar known type Ia supernova'. Both supernovae exhibited high ionization SN 1991T-like pre-maximum spectra, yet low peak luminosities like SN 1991bg. The spectra reveal that SN 2005hk, like SN 2002cx, exhibited expansion velocities that were roughly half those of typical type Ia supernovae. The R and I light curves of both supernovae were also peculiar in not displaying the secondary maximum observed for normal type Ia supernovae. Our Y JH photometry of SN 2005hk reveals the same peculiarity in the near-infrared. By combining our optical and near-infrared photometry of SN 2005hk with published ultraviolet light curves obtained with the Swift satellite, we are able to construct a bolometric light curve from {approx} 10 days before to {approx}60 days after B maximum. The shape and unusually low peak luminosity of this light curve, plus the low expansion velocities and absence of a secondary maximum at red and near-infrared wavelengths, are all in reasonable agreement with model calculations of a 3D deflagration which produces {approx} 0.25 M{sub {circle_dot}} of {sup 56}Ni.

  12. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-09-29

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets.

  13. The Demographic Component in the Development of a Metropolis. Case-Study: Iaşi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several peculiarities make Iaşi an outstanding city: it is a first-rank city in the national settlement system and the capital of the historical province of Moldova, numbers over 300,000 inhabitants and holds the 2nd position in the national urban hierarchy by demographic size, and a national growth pole since 2008 (Government Decision 998/2008. In view of the above, Iaşi has a significant demographic potential, also discharging complex functions and polarizing a large influence area, being one of the pillars of urban development in Romania. The aim of this paper is to outline the urban development strategy in the light of demographic structures and evolution. The demography today in the peri-urban space shows two characteristic features, namely the urban–rural migration, on the one hand, and the dominant agricultural functionality, on the other hand, as mirrored by the structure of employment. The development–related factors are the positive natural demographic balance, low level of population ageing and supply of a large workforce, a potential well-balanced local labour market. Concluding, the provision of Iaşi integrated urban and peri-urban strategy are pointed out.

  14. Policies on screening female athletes for iron deficiency in NCAA division I-A institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Brandy S; Rosenbloom, Christine A; Skinner, Robert; Summers, Stephanie H

    2003-09-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the United States. This condition has been reported to affect 60% of female athletes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention emphasize screening for anemia in women of childbearing age. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A schools that implement screening for iron deficiency in female athletes as well as the screening policies for those who do. A link to an online survey was sent to 94 NCAA Division I-A schools to determine current practices concerning screening and treating female athletes for iron deficiency. There was a 58% response rate. Frequencies for each response were computed. Forty-three percent of responding institutions report screening female athletes for iron deficiency. This study suggests that screening for iron deficiency in female athletes at NCAA Division I-A schools is not a routine procedure and, for those who do screen, variability exists in the criteria for diagnosis, as well as in treatment protocols. Standard protocols for assessment and treatment of iron deficiency in female athletes need to be developed and implemented.

  15. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Sand, David J.; Valenti, Stefano; Brown, Peter; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Kasen, Daniel; Arcavi, Iair; Azalee Bostroem, K.; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.

    2017-08-01

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U, B, and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R ⊙ from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ6580) absorption up through day -13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  16. Postmeningitis headache: case report Cefaléia pós-meningite: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Palma da Cunha Matta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 18-year-old female patient that developed a migraine-like headache following an acute meningococcal meningitis. She had no previous history of recurrent headaches. The pain was intense, pulsatile and throbbing, typically unilateral, without aura. Its frequency increased during the following weeks and a prophylactic treatment with amitriptyline and atenolol was initiated. There was remission of the attacks.Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 18 anos, previamente hígida, sem história pregressa de cefaléia, que apresentou um quadro agudo caracterizado por febre, cefaléia holocraniana, sonolência, vômitos e sinais de irritação meníngea. Teve investigação laboratorial compatível com meningite meningocócica. Recebeu o tratamento adequado, evoluindo com regressão do quadro infeccioso. Desenvolveu, entretanto, episódios recorrentes de cefaléia pulsátil, sem aura, unilateral, de forte intensidade e acompanhada por náusea e fotofobia. A freqüência dos episódios aumentou progressivamente até que se instituiu tratamento profilático com atenolol e amitriptilina, havendo remissão da dor.

  17. Ethics and Esthetics in Holocaust Images. Case study: the Iași Pogrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Tudorancea (Ciuciu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the negative images rediscovered in recent Romanian history, images of the Iași pogrom of June 28 to 30, 1941, that still triggers rejection reactions in different environments. The fate of these images that were to be destroyed after the event is as interesting as the recent revaluation of the data base of images, which is found today in various archives. In multiple frames civilian witnesses can be seen passing by scenes showing executions and bodies of Jewish children, women and men. Talking about the event is still rare within hours of Romanian history or public setting, often even in Iași, where many teachers prefer to talk about images related to Poland and concentration camps. Also using images from Iași pogrom without interpretations can lead in time to the same type of abuse of the image as in Auschwitz case, a negative stereotype that shows an abused victim exposed of our sight.

  18. A metric space for Type Ia supernova spectra: a new method to assess explosion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasdelli, Michele; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Röpke, F. K.; Sim, S. A.; Pakmor, R.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Fink, M.

    2017-04-01

    Over the past years, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have become a major tool to determine the expansion history of the Universe, and considerable attention has been given to, both, observations and models of these events. However, until now, their progenitors are not known. The observed diversity of light curves and spectra seems to point at different progenitor channels and explosion mechanisms. Here, we present a new way to compare model predictions with observations in a systematic way. Our method is based on the construction of a metric space for SN Ia spectra by means of linear principal component analysis, taking care of missing and/or noisy data, and making use of partial least-squares regression to find correlations between spectral properties and photometric data. We investigate realizations of the three major classes of explosion models that are presently discussed: delayed-detonation Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, sub-Chandrasekhar-mass detonations and double-degenerate mergers, and compare them with data. We show that in the principal component space, all scenarios have observed counterparts, supporting the idea that different progenitors are likely. However, all classes of models face problems in reproducing the observed correlations between spectral properties and light curves and colours. Possible reasons are briefly discussed.

  19. Transgenic rice plants expressing cry1Ia5 gene are resistant to stem borer (Chilo agamemnon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A

    2010-01-01

    The stem borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stem borer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stem borers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants.

  20. Intravital Microscopy for Identifying Tumor Vessels in Patients With Stage IA-IV Melanoma That is Being Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  1. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  2. 78 FR 45909 - Designation for the Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond, IA Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  3. Can the helium-enriched main-sequence donor scenario hide enough hydrogen to explain Type Ia supernovae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations predict that a large amount of hydrogen (≳0.1 M⊙) is removed from a hydrogen-rich companion star by the SN explosion in the single-degenerate scenario of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, non-detection of hydrogen-rich material in the late-time spectra of SNe Ia suggests that the hydrogen mass stripped from the progenitor system is ≲0.001-0.058 M⊙. In this Letter, we include thermohaline mixing into self-consistent binary evolution calculations for the helium-enriched main-sequence (HEMS) donor channel of SNe Ia for the first time. We find that the swept-up hydrogen masses expected in this channel are around 0.10-0.17 M⊙, which is higher than the observational limits, although the companion star is strongly helium-enriched when the SN explodes. This presents a serious challenge to the HEMS donor channel.

  4. Common continuum polarization properties: a possible link between proto-planetary nebulae and Type Ia Supernova progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Patat, Ferdinando; Cikota, Stefan; Spyromilio, Jason; Rau, Gioia

    2017-10-01

    The lines of sight to highly reddened SNe Ia show peculiar continuum polarization curves, growing towards blue wavelengths and peaking at λ _{max} ≲ 0.4 μ m, like no other sightline to any normal Galactic star. We examined continuum polarization measurements of a sample of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB stars from the literature, finding that some proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) have polarization curves similar to those observed along SN Ia sightlines. These polarization curves are produced by scattering on circumstellar dust. We discuss the similarity and the possibility that at least some SNe Ia might explode during the post-AGB phase of their binary companion. Furthermore, we speculate that the peculiar SN Ia polarization curves might provide observational support to the core-degenerate progenitor model.

  5. SN 2010LP—A TYPE IA SUPERNOVA FROM A VIOLENT MERGER OF TWO CARBON-OXYGEN WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Hillebrandt, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pakmor, R. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Fink, M.; Röpke, F. K. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Sim, S. A. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-20

    SN 2010lp is a subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) with slowly evolving lightcurves. Moreover, it is the only subluminous SN Ia observed so far that shows narrow emission lines of [O I] in late-time spectra, indicating unburned oxygen close to the center of the ejecta. Most explosion models for SNe Ia cannot explain the narrow [O I] emission. Here, we present hydrodynamic explosion and radiative transfer calculations showing that the violent merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs of 0.9 and 0.76 M {sub ☉} adequately reproduces the early-time observables of SN 2010lp. Moreover, our model predicts oxygen close to the center of the explosion ejecta, a pre-requisite for narrow [O I] emission in nebular spectra as observed in SN 2010lp.

  6. Microneurographically recorded Ia discharge from the tibial nerve mainly transmits the angular velocity of the ankle joint in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, S; Iwase, S; Mano, T; Fukuda, H; Mochida, J

    2004-08-01

    Investigations of the Ia afferent discharge in clarifying problems in disused and malused skeletal muscles have been carried out mainly in muscles of the upper extremities. However, such problems actually occur more frequently in the antigravity muscles of the lower extremities, such as the triceps surae muscle. An analysis of microneurographically recorded Ia discharges from the tibial nerve innervating the triceps surae muscle during dynamic movement of the ankle joint indicated that they mainly transmitted information on the angular velocity of the joint. However, the information on the position sense of the joint was not as well transmitted through Ia discharges. There was no correlation between the joint angle and the static response. However, the dynamic response of a Ia afferent was well correlated to the angular velocity. It is concluded that the human proprioception of the triceps surae muscle was not dependent on the position of the ankle joint, but largely on its movement by the stretching of the muscle.

  7. Reciprocal Ia inhibition contributes to motoneuronal hyperpolarisation during the inactive phase of locomotion and scratching in the cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Stecina, Katinka; Meehan, Claire Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the classical idea that "reciprocal inhibition" is involved in the hyperpolarisation of motoneurones in their inactive phase during rhythmic activity is still under debate. Here, we investigated the contribution of reciprocal Ia inhibition to the hyperpolarisation...

  8. Detection of weak synaptic interactions between single Ia afferent and motor-unit spike trains in the decerebrate cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, B A; Halliday, D M; Rosenberg, J R

    1993-11-01

    1. Spike trains from identified single Ia afferents from soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were recorded (while 'in continuity' with the spinal cord) simultaneously with single-motor-unit EMG spike trains from the same muscles in decerebrate cats. 2. A total of 143 Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs were examined for the presence of correlated activity between the Ia afferent and motor-unit and between the motor-unit and Ia afferent. Four types of correlation were identified on the basis of the cross-intensity function estimated for individual Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs. These correlations were attributed to the absence or presence of a central Ia afferent-motoneurone interaction or a peripheral motor-unit-muscle spindle interaction. 3. In addition to the cross-correlation-based second-order cross-intensity function, third-order cumulants were defined and used further to investigate Ia afferent-motor-unit interactions. A third-order cumulant density-based approach to signal processing offers improved signal-to-noise ratios, compared with the traditional product density approach, for parameters characterizing certain kinds of linear processes as well as a description of non-linear interactions. Two classes of third-order relations were described. One class was associated with a strong central connection and the other with a weak central connection. 4. Third-order cumulants estimated for Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs with significant second-order central correlations were able to detect a period of decreased motoneuronal excitability. In addition, temporal summation prior to spike initiation could be identified in cases where the afferent discharge was suitably high. 5. Third-order cumulants estimated for Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs in which no significant second-order central correlation existed identified the presence of weak synaptic interactions. It is argued that these interactions result from the summation from the recorded Ia afferent discharge and other

  9. Environmental Dependence of Type Ia Supernova Luminosities from a Sample without a Local–Global Difference in Host Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Lo; Smith, Mathew; Sullivan, Mark; Lee, Young-Wook

    2018-02-01

    It is established that there is a dependence of the luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on environment: SNe Ia in young, star-forming, metal-poor stellar populations appear fainter after light-curve shape corrections than those in older, passive, metal-rich environments. This is accounted for in cosmological studies using a global property of the SN host galaxy, typically the host galaxy stellar mass. However, recent low-redshift studies suggest that this effect manifests itself most strongly when using the local star formation rate (SFR) at the SN location, rather than the global SFR or the stellar mass of the host galaxy. At high-redshift, such local SFRs are difficult to determine; here, we show that an equivalent local correction can be made by restricting the SN Ia sample in globally star-forming host galaxies to a low-mass host galaxy subset (≤1010 M ⊙). Comparing this sample of SNe Ia (in locally star-forming environments) to those in locally passive host galaxies, we find that SNe Ia in locally star-forming environments are 0.081 ± 0.018 mag fainter (4.5σ), consistent with the result reported by Rigault et al., but our conclusion is based on a sample ∼5 times larger over a wider redshift range. This is a larger difference than when splitting the SN Ia sample based on global host galaxy SFR or host galaxy stellar mass. This method can be used in ongoing and future high-redshift SN surveys, where local SN Ia environments are difficult to determine.

  10. A Designer Fluid For Aluminum Phase Change Devices: Aluminum Inorganic Aqueous Solutions (IAS) Chemistry and Experiments. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    Aluminum Inorganic Aqueous Solutions (IAS) Chemistry and Experiments Qi Yao and Ivan Catton University of California, Los Angeles 420 Westwood Plaza...FLUID FOR ALUMINUM PHASE CHANGE DEVICES, Vol II of III Aluminum Inorganic Aqueous Solutions (IAS) Chemistry and Experiments 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...results demonstrate that while there is good evidence that inorganic inhibitors can significantly reduce the production of NCG in an aluminum-water

  11. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 AMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Parrent, Jerod T. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: gmarion@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 1,00084 (China)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s{sup –1}) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M{sub B} = –19.46 mag and Δm{sub 15}(B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v{sub Si} = 13,400 km s{sup –1}). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s{sup –1}. After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF.

  12. Stereoscopic-3D display design: a new paradigm with Intel Adaptive Stable Image Technology [IA-SIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil

    2012-03-01

    Stereoscopic-3D (S3D) proliferation on personal computers (PC) is mired by several technical and business challenges: a) viewing discomfort due to cross-talk amongst stereo images; b) high system cost; and c) restricted content availability. Users expect S3D visual quality to be better than, or at least equal to, what they are used to enjoying on 2D in terms of resolution, pixel density, color, and interactivity. Intel Adaptive Stable Image Technology (IA-SIT) is a foundational technology, successfully developed to resolve S3D system design challenges and deliver high quality 3D visualization at PC price points. Optimizations in display driver, panel timing firmware, backlight hardware, eyewear optical stack, and synch mechanism combined can help accomplish this goal. Agnostic to refresh rate, IA-SIT will scale with shrinking of display transistors and improvements in liquid crystal and LED materials. Industry could profusely benefit from the following calls to action:- 1) Adopt 'IA-SIT S3D Mode' in panel specs (via VESA) to help panel makers monetize S3D; 2) Adopt 'IA-SIT Eyewear Universal Optical Stack' and algorithm (via CEA) to help PC peripheral makers develop stylish glasses; 3) Adopt 'IA-SIT Real Time Profile' for sub-100uS latency control (via BT Sig) to extend BT into S3D; and 4) Adopt 'IA-SIT Architecture' for Monitors and TVs to monetize via PC attach.

  13. Produção de proteína microbiana, concentração plasmática de uréia e excreções de uréia em novilhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de uréia ou casca de algodão

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Karla Alves; Valadares Filho,Sebastião de Campos; Valadares,Rilene Ferreira Diniz; Paixão,Mônica Lopes; Pina,Douglas dos Santos; Paulino,Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Chizzotti,Mário Luiz; Marcondes,Marcos Inácio; Araújo,Alexandre Magno; Porto,Marlos Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos dos níveis de uréia ou casca de algodão sobre a produção de proteína microbiana, estimada por meio dos derivados de purinas na urina, a concentração de uréia plasmática (NUP) e as excreções de uréia em novilhos, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, 24 novilhos mestiços castrados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 300 kg, foram alocados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos quatro tratamentos: 0; 0,65; 1,30 e 1,95% de uréia na base da MS to...

  14. Rusu, Mina-Maria, Poetica sacrului, Colecţia Academica, Seria Litere, Editura Institutul European, Iaşi, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina SAVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mina-Maria Rusu este doctor în ştiinţe umaniste şi are ca domenii principale de interes poetica, estetica şi teologia. A publicat, între altele, Octavian Goga – Poezii, antologie şi comentarii de texte (1999, Competenţă şi performanţă la limba română şi Lumea şi marile ei legende (2002.Poetica sacrului a autoarei Mina-Maria Rusu este prefaţată de academicianul Constantin Ciopraga şi editată la Iaşi, Colecţia Academica, Seria Litere, Editura Institutul European, 2005, 192 pagini.Cartea este structurată în şapte capitole cu subcapitolele aferente, Prefaţă, Preliminarii, Bibliografie selectivă şi Indice de nume.În Prefaţă la Poetica sacrului, Constantin Ciopraga apreciază că lucrarea răspunde clar exigenţelor în materie, autoarea bazându-se pe aprofundarea textelor literare fundamentale, care vizează parcurgerea fenomenului literar în actul transferului divinului în sacru. Poezia considerată catalizatorul relaţiei dintre iraţional şi raţional dă curs dezbaterilor preliminare despre puterea magică a cuvântului, despre metafora deschisă şi hierofanie, despre teza spengleriană a antagonismului dintre cultură şi civilizaţie, precum şi, a efectelor numinosului în fiinţa creaturii.

  15. IAS talk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srianand, IUCAA, Pune

    2009-07-31

    +dv and to the spin temperature (Ts) by. N(H I) = 1.835 × 10. 18. Ts fc. ∫ τ(v) dv cm. −2 . (1). If we assume the absorption line to have a perfect Gaussian profile with a peak optical depth τP, then the above equation will become ...

  16. IAS Fellow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 4 November 1946. Specialization: Polimers for Energy Applications, Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Polymer Surfaces & Interfaces, Structured Polymers Address: Honorary Professor & INSA Senior Scientist, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008, ...

  17. Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS: Building a data-driven framework to inform policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vanderhoeven

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imagine a future where dynamically, from year to year, we can track the progression of alien species (AS, identify emerging problem species, assess their current and future risk and timely inform policy in a seamless data-driven workflow. One that is built on open science and open data infrastructures. By using international biodiversity standards and facilities, we would ensure interoperability, repeatability and sustainability. This would make the process adaptable to future requirements in an evolving AS policy landscape both locally and internationally. In recent years, Belgium has developed decision support tools to inform invasive alien species (IAS policy, including information systems, early warning initiatives and risk assessment protocols. However, the current workflows from biodiversity observations to IAS science and policy are slow, not easily repeatable, and their scope is often taxonomically, spatially and temporally limited. This is mainly caused by the diversity of actors involved and the closed, fragmented nature of the sources of these biodiversity data, which leads to considerable knowledge gaps for IAS research and policy. We will leverage expertise and knowledge from nine former and current BELSPO projects and initiatives: Alien Alert, Invaxen, Diars, INPLANBEL, Alien Impact, Ensis, CORDEX.be, Speedy and the Belgian Biodiversity Platform. The project will be built on two components: 1 The establishment of a data mobilization framework for AS data from diverse data sources and 2 the development of data-driven procedures for risk evaluation based on risk modelling, risk mapping and risk assessment. We will use facilities from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, standards from the Biodiversity Information Standards organization (TDWG and expertise from Lifewatch to create and facilitate a systematic workflow. Alien species data will be gathered from a large set of regional, national and international

  18. The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z~0.5 from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, J. D.; Sullivan, M.; Balam, D.; Pritchet, C. J.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Hardin, D.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lusset, V.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D.; Tao, C.

    2006-09-01

    We present a measurement of the distant Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate derived from the first 2 yr of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey. We observed four 1deg×1deg fields with a typical temporal frequency of ~4 observer-frame days over time spans of 158-211 days per season for each field, with breaks during the full Moon. We used 8-10 m class telescopes for spectroscopic follow-up to confirm our candidates and determine their redshifts. Our starting sample consists of 73 spectroscopically verified SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.2=0.47)=[0.42+0.13-0.09(syst.)+/-0.06(stat.)×10-4 yr-1 Mpc3, assuming h=0.7, Ωm=0.3, and a flat cosmology. Using recently published galaxy luminosity functions derived in our redshift range, we derive a SN Ia rate per unit luminosity of rL(=0.47)=0.154+0.048-0.033(syst.)+0.039-0.031(stat.) SN units. Using our rate alone, we place an upper limit on the component of SN Ia production that tracks the cosmic star formation history of 1 SN Ia per 103 Msolar of stars formed. Our rate and other rates from surveys using spectroscopic sample confirmation display only a modest evolution out to z=0.55. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. This work is also based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Program 171.A-0486), and on observations (programs GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004A-Q-11, GN-2003B-Q-9, and GS-2003B-Q-8) obtained at the Gemini

  19. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2017-06-01

    Conventional Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (M B versus B - V) slope {β }{int} differs from the host galaxy dust law R B , this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude versus apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from {β }{int} in the blue tail to R B in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope {β }{app} between {β }{int} and R B . We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a data set of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 248 nearby SNe Ia at z< 0.10. The conventional linear fit gives {β }{app}≈ 3. Our model finds {β }{int}=2.3+/- 0.3 and a distinct dust law of {R}B=3.8+/- 0.3, consistent with the average for Milky Way dust, while correcting a systematic distance bias of ˜0.10 mag in the tails of the apparent color distribution. Finally, we extend our model to examine the SN Ia luminosity-host mass dependence in terms of intrinsic and dust components.

  20. Estimating dust distances to Type Ia supernovae from colour excess time evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, M.; Goobar, A.; Amanullah, R.; Feindt, U.; Ferretti, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a new technique to infer dust locations towards reddened Type Ia supernovae and to help discriminate between an interstellar and a circumstellar origin for the observed extinction. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the time evolution of the light-curve shape and especially of the colour excess E(B - V) places strong constraints on the distance between dust and the supernova. We apply our approach to two highly reddened Type Ia supernovae for which dust distance estimates are available in the literature: SN 2006X and SN 2014J. For the former, we obtain a time-variable E(B - V) and from this derive a distance of 27.5^{+9.0}_{-4.9} or 22.1^{+6.0}_{-3.8} pc depending on whether dust properties typical of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) or the Milky Way (MW) are used. For the latter, instead, we obtain a constant E(B - V) consistent with dust at distances larger than ∼50 and 38 pc for LMC- and MW-type dust, respectively. Values thus extracted are in excellent agreement with previous estimates for the two supernovae. Our findings suggest that dust responsible for the extinction towards these supernovae is likely to be located within interstellar clouds. We also discuss how other properties of reddened Type Ia supernovae - such as their peculiar extinction and polarization behaviour and the detection of variable, blue-shifted sodium features in some of these events - might be compatible with dust and gas at interstellar-scale distances.

  1. Downregulation of SIRT1 signaling underlies hepatic autophagy impairment in glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Cho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia leads to impaired glucose homeostasis and metabolic manifestations including hepatomegaly caused by increased glycogen and neutral fat accumulation. A recent report showed that G6Pase-α deficiency causes impairment in autophagy, a recycling process important for cellular metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism underlying defective autophagy is unclear. Here we show that in mice, liver-specific knockout of G6Pase-α (L-G6pc-/- leads to downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 signaling that activates autophagy via deacetylation of autophagy-related (ATG proteins and forkhead box O (FoxO family of transcriptional factors which transactivate autophagy genes. Consistently, defective autophagy in G6Pase-α-deficient liver is characterized by attenuated expressions of autophagy components, increased acetylation of ATG5 and ATG7, decreased conjugation of ATG5 and ATG12, and reduced autophagic flux. We further show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency results in activation of carbohydrate response element-binding protein, a lipogenic transcription factor, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, a lipid regulator, and suppressed expression of PPAR-α, a master regulator of fatty acid β-oxidation, all contributing to hepatic steatosis and downregulation of SIRT1 expression. An adenovirus vector-mediated increase in hepatic SIRT1 expression corrects autophagy defects but does not rectify metabolic abnormalities associated with G6Pase-α deficiency. Importantly, a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector-mediated restoration of hepatic G6Pase-α expression corrects metabolic abnormalities, restores SIRT1-FoxO signaling, and normalizes defective autophagy. Taken together, these data show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated down-regulation of SIRT1 signaling underlies defective hepatic autophagy in GSD-Ia.

  2. Neutrino and gravitational wave signal of a delayed-detonation model of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Herzog, Matthias; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Marquardt, Kai; Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Röpke, Friedrich K.

    2015-12-01

    The progenitor system(s) and the explosion mechanism(s) of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are still under debate. Nonelectromagnetic observables, in particular, gravitational waves and neutrino emission, of thermoclear supernovae are a complementary window to light curves and spectra for studying these enigmatic objects. A leading model for SNe Ia is the thermonuclear incineration of a near-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf star in a "delayed detonation." We calculate a three-dimensional hydrodynamic explosion for the N100 delayed-detonation model extensively discussed in the literature, taking the dynamical effects of neutrino emission from all important contributing source terms into account. Although neutrinos carry away 2 ×1049 erg of energy, we confirm the common view that neutrino energy losses are dynamically not very important, resulting in only a modest reduction of final kinetic energy by 2%. We then calculate the gravitational wave signal from the time evolution of the quadrupole moment. Our model radiates 7 ×1039 erg in gravitational waves and the spectrum has a pronounced peak around 0.4 Hz. Depending on viewing angle and polarization, we find that the future space-based gravitational wave missions DECIGO and BBO would be able to detect our source to a distance of ˜1.3 Mpc . We predict a clear signature of the deflagration-to-detonation transition in the neutrino and the gravitational wave signals. If observed, such a feature would be a strong indicator of the realization of delayed detonations in near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs.

  3. Functioning of peripheral Ia pathways in infants with typical development: responses in antagonist muscle pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D; Martin, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    In muscle responses of proprioceptive origin, including the stretch/tendon reflex (T-reflex), the corresponding reciprocal excitation and irradiation to distant muscles have been described from newborn infants to older adults. However, the functioning of other responses mediated primarily by Ia-afferents has not been investigated in infants. Understanding the typical development of these multiple pathways is critical to determining potential problems in their development in populations affected by neurological disease, such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Hence, the goal of the present study was to quantify the excitability of Ia-mediated responses in lower limb muscles of infants with typical development. These responses were elicited by mechanical stimulation applied to the distal tendons of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (QAD) muscles of both legs in twelve 2- to 10-month-old infants and recorded simultaneously in antagonist muscle pairs by surface EMG. Tendon taps alone elicited responses in either, both or neither muscle. The homonymous response (T-reflex) was less frequent in the TA than the GS or QAD muscle. An 80 Hz vibration superimposed on tendon taps induced primarily an inhibition of monosynaptic responses; however, facilitation also occurred in either muscle of the recorded pair. These responses were not influenced significantly by age or gender. Vibration alone produced a tonic reflex response in the vibrated muscle (TVR) and/or the antagonist muscle (AVR). However, for the TA muscle the TVR was more frequently elicited in older than younger infants. High variability was common to all responses. Overall, the random distribution and inconsistency of muscle responses suggests that the gain of Ia-mediated feedback is unstable. We propose that during infancy the central nervous system needs to learn to set stable feedback gain, or destination of proprioceptive assistance, based on their use during functional

  4. AMEGO as a supernova alarm: alert, probe and diagnosis of Type Ia explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie E.; Wang, Xilu

    2017-08-01

    A Type Ia supernova (SNIa) could go entirely unnoticed in the Milky Way and nearby starburst galaxies, due to the large optical and near-IR extinction in the dusty environment, low radio and X-ray luminosities, and a weak neutrino signal. But the recent SN2014J confirms that Type Ia supernovae emit γ-ray lines from 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe radioactive decay, spanning 158 keV to 2.6 MeV. The Galaxy and nearby starbursts are optically thin to γ-rays, so the supernova line flux will suffer negligible extinction. The All-Sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO) will monitor the entire sky every 3 hours from ~200 keV to >10 GeV. Most of the SNIa gamma-ray lines are squarely within the AMEGO energy range. Thus AMEGO will be an ideal SNIa monitor and early warning system. We will show that the supernova signal is expected to emerge as distinct from the AMEGO background within days after the explosion in the SN2014J shell model. The early stage observations of SNIa will allow us to explore the progenitor types and the nucleosynthesis of SNIa. Moreover, with the excellent line sensitivity, AMEGO will be able to detect the SNIa at a rate of a few events per year and will obtain enough gamma-ray observations over the mission lifetimes (~10 SNIa) to sample the SNIa. The high SNIa detection rate will also enable the precise measurement of the 56Ni mass generated during the Type Ia explosion, which will help us test the cosmic distance calibration and probe the cosmic acceleration.

  5. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken’Ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J.; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion–ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models—the helium-ignition branch—does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  6. Hubble Residuals of Nearby SN Ia Are Correlated with Host Galaxy Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Hicken, Malcolm; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Burke, David L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-05-03

    From Sloan Digital Sky Survey u{prime} g{prime} r{prime} i{prime} z{prime} imaging, we estimate the stellar masses of the host galaxies of 70 low redshift SN Ia (0.015 < z < 0.08) from the hosts absolute luminosities and mass-to-light ratios. These nearby SN were discovered largely by searches targeting luminous galaxies, and we find that their host galaxies are substantially more massive than the hosts of SN discovered by the flux-limited Supernova Legacy Survey. Testing four separate light curve fitters, we detect {approx}2.5{sigma} correlations of Hubble residuals with both host galaxy size and stellar mass, such that SN Ia occurring in physically larger, more massive hosts are {approx}10% brighter after light curve correction. The Hubble residual is the deviation of the inferred distance modulus to the SN, calculated from its apparent luminosity and light curve properties, away from the expected value at the SN redshift. Marginalizing over linear trends in Hubble residuals with light curve parameters shows that the correlations cannot be attributed to a light curve-dependent calibration error. Combining 180 higher-redshift ESSENCE, SNLS, and HigherZ SN with 30 nearby SN whose host masses are less than 10{sup 10.8} M{circle_dot} n a cosmology fit yields 1 + w = 0.22{sub -0.108}{sup +0.152}, while a combination where the 30 nearby SN instead have host masses greater than 10{sup 10.8} M{circle_dot} yields 1 + w = ?0.03{sub -0.143}{sup +0.217}. Progenitor metallicity, stellar population age, and dust extinction correlate with galaxy mass and may be responsible for these systematic effects. Host galaxy measurements will yield improved distances to SN Ia.

  7. Analysis of pairs of individual Ia-E.P.S.P.S in single motoneurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, L M; Weiner, R

    1976-01-01

    1. Recordings of individual e.p.s.p.s evoked by the action of single medial gastrocnemius Ia fibres have been made from medial gastrocnemius motoneurones. In many motoneurones the action of two Ia fibres has been observed and the properties of the e.p.s.p.s compared. 2. For sixty-three pairs of averaged e.p.s.p.s, each from the same motoneurone, the ratio of half-widths was plotted against the ratio of rise times. These results were compared with theoretical values derived from the Rall compartmental model. It was found that variations in synaptic current time courses and differences in the termination of localized synaptic terminals were not sufficient to account for all the data. 3. Amplitude and rise time were inversely related but the correlation coefficient was very low. For pairs of e.p.s.p.s in the same motoneurone the e.p.s.p. with the fast rise time was larger than that with the slow rise time in forty-eight of sixty-three cases. 4. In a given motoneurone individual e.p.s.p.s evoked by the action of different Ia fibres did not vary greatly in amplitude. The ratio of peak amplitudes was less than 3 for 86% of the pairs of e.p.s.p.s examined, and the maximum was 4-8. 5. Amplitude histograms were constructed for individual e.p.s.p.s at thirty-three synapses. Twenty-two of them could be shown to satisfy the Poisson law. The others satisfied the binomial law or neither. 6. Within a given motoneurone the amplitude of an e.p.s.p. is closely related to the mean number of quanta released but not to the amplitude of the unit e.p.s.p. produced by the action of a single quantum of transmitter. PMID:176347

  8. A common-envelope wind model for Type Ia supernovae - I. Binary evolution and birth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.

    2017-08-01

    The single-degenerate (SD) model is one of the principal models for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), but some of the predictions in the most widely studied version of the SD model, I.e. the optically thick wind (OTW) model, have not been confirmed by observations. Here, we propose a new version of the SD model in which a common envelope (CE) is assumed to form when the mass-transfer rate between a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) and its companion exceeds a critical accretion rate. The WD may gradually increase its mass at the base of the CE. Due to the large nuclear luminosity for stable hydrogen burning, the CE may expand to giant dimensions and will lose mass from the surface of the CE by a CE wind (CEW). Because of the low CE density, the binary system will avoid a fast spiral-in phase and finally re-emerge from the CE phase. Our model may share the virtues of the OTW model but avoid some of its shortcomings. We performed binary stellar evolution calculations for more than 1100 close WD + MS binaries. Compared with the OTW model, the parameter space for SNe Ia from our CEW model extends to more massive companions and less massive WDs. Correspondingly, the Galactic birth rate from the CEW model is higher than that from the OTW model by ˜30 per cent. Finally, we discuss the uncertainties of the CEW model and the differences between our CEW model and the OTW model.

  9. Testing the Distance-Duality Relation with Galaxy Clusters and Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Lima, J. A. S.; Ribeiro, M. B.

    2010-10-01

    In this Letter, we propose a new and model-independent cosmological test for the distance-duality (DD) relation, η = DL (z)(1 + z)-2/DA (z) = 1, where DL and DA are, respectively, the luminosity and angular diameter distances. For DL we consider two sub-samples of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) taken from Constitution data whereas DA distances are provided by two samples of galaxy clusters compiled by De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al. by combining Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and X-ray surface brightness. The SNe Ia redshifts of each sub-sample were carefully chosen to coincide with the ones of the associated galaxy cluster sample (Δz test of the DD relation. Since for very low redshifts, DA (z) ape DL (z), we have tested the DD relation by assuming that η is a function of the redshift parameterized by two different expressions: η(z) = 1 + η0 z and η(z) = 1 + η0 z/(1 + z), where η0 is a constant parameter quantifying a possible departure from the strict validity of the reciprocity relation (η0 = 0). In the best scenario (linear parameterization), we obtain η0 = -0.28+0.44 -0.44 (2σ, statistical + systematic errors) for the De Filippis et al. sample (elliptical geometry), a result only marginally compatible with the DD relation. However, for the Bonamente et al. sample (spherical geometry) the constraint is η0 = -0.42+0.34 -0.34 (3σ, statistical + systematic errors), which is clearly incompatible with the duality-distance relation.

  10. SODIUM ABSORPTION SYSTEMS TOWARD SN Ia 2014J ORIGINATE ON INTERSTELLAR SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Nogami, D. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kawabata, K. S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Honda, S.; Arai, A. [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2, Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Moritani, Y.; Ishigaki, M.; Nomoto, K.; Schramm, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hashimoto, O. [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Takayama, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Yamanaka, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mazzali, P. A., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-01-10

    Na i D absorbing systems toward Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively studied over the last decade with the aim of finding circumstellar material (CSM), which is an indirect probe of the progenitor system. However, it is difficult to deconvolve CSM components from non-variable, and often dominant, components created by interstellar material (ISM). We present a series of high-resolution spectra of SN Ia 2014J from before maximum brightness to ≳250 days after maximum brightness. The late-time spectrum provides unique information for determining the origin of the Na i D absorption systems. The deep late-time observation allows us to probe the environment around the SN at a large scale, extending to ≳40 pc. We find that a spectrum of diffuse light in the vicinity, but not directly in the line of sight, of the SN has absorbing systems nearly identical to those obtained for the “pure” SN line of sight. Therefore, basically all Na i D systems seen toward SN 2014J must originate from foreground material that extends to at least ∼40 pc in projection and none at the CSM scale. A fluctuation in the column densities at a scale of ∼20 pc is also identified. After subtracting the diffuse, “background” spectrum, the late-time Na i D profile along the SN line of sight is consistent with profiles near maximum brightness. The lack of variability on a ∼1 year timescale is consistent with the ISM interpretation for the gas.

  11. Palomar Transient Factory Discovers Another Possible super- Chandrasekhar Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Suzuki, N.; Cucchiara, A.; Botyanszki, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.

    2010-10-01

    The Type Ia supernova science working group of the Palomar Transient Factory (ATEL#1964) reports the discovery of a possible super-Chandrasekhar mass supernova, PTF10xgx. The supernova is at RA = 00:12:23.15, Dec = +02:30:44.1 (J2000) in the galaxy identified as APMUKS(BJ) B000949.39+021401.7 (Maddox et al. 1990, MNRAS, 243, 692). The supernova was discovered and classified by Oarical, an autonomous software framework of the PTF collaboration, based on observations made with the Palomar 48-inch Oschin Schmidt telescope.

  12. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Havukainen, Liisa; Leite de Araujo Monteiro Filho, Emygdio; de Fatima Filla, Gislaine

    2010-01-01

    El delfín estuarino S. guianensis, habita en aguas tropicales costeras y estuarinas. A pesar de su amplia distribución no se conoce suficiente, por lo tanto, recientemente se han intensificado sus estudios poblacionales. Transectos de línea (Método Distancia) fueron utilizados para estimar la densidad de población de S. guianensis en la Bahía Trapandé, región de estuario de Cananéia, Sudeste de Brasil. El muestreo aleatorio se realizó en tres sectores de la bahía desde mayo 2003 hasta abril 2...

  13. Ford/DOE sodium-sulfur battery electric vehicle development: Phase I-A final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Phase I-A NaS battery powered electric vehicle study program produced encouraging results insofar as showing that a feasible NaS battery design can be developed for installation in an existing production vehicle, such as the Ford Fiesta. The study has shown that this NaS Battery powered Fiesta (modified to be a 2-passenger vehicle), can have adequate performance and range potential such that its use as a test bed could adequately evaluate the potential of the NaS battery as a power source for further electric vehicles.

  14. CHOIX D'OPTIONS COMPTABLES LORS DE LA TRANSITION AUX NORMES IAS/IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Demaria, Samira; Dufour, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Cette contribution se propose d'analyser les choix comptables, des groupes du SBF 120, intervenus lors de la transition aux normes comptables IAS/IFRS. Les apports de la Théorie Positive de la Comptabilité (TPC) sont utilisés à la lumière du principe de prudence pour tenter d'expliquer les choix d'options comptables. Le papier se propose dans un premier temps, d'observer les choix d'options effectués par les groupes français. Puis dans un second temps, d'analyser les d...

  15. Data resources for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Garman, Steven L.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this report were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA). The WLCI is a long-term science based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale in southwest Wyoming while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. The IA is an integrated synthesis and analysis of WLCI resource values based on best available data and information collected from multiple agencies and organizations. It is a support tool for landscape-scale conservation planning and evaluation, and a data and analysis resource that can be used for addressing specific management questions. The IA analysis was conducted using a Geographic Information System in a raster (that is, a grid) environment using a cell size of 30 meters. To facilitate the interpretation of the data in a regional context, mean values were summarized and displayed at the subwatershed unit (WLCI subwatersheds were subset from the National Hydrography Dataset, Hydrologic Unit Code 12/Level 6). A dynamic mapping platform, accessed via the WLCI webpage at http://www.wlci.gov is used to display the mapped information, and to access underlying resource values that were combined to produce the final mapped results. The raster data used in the IA are provided here for use by interested parties to conduct additional analyses and can be accessed via the WLCI webpage. This series contains 74 spatial data sets: WLCI subwatersheds (vector) and 73 geotiffs (raster) that are segregated into the major categories of Multicriteria Index (including Resource Index and Condition), Change Agents, and Future Change. The Total Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Multicriteria Index and the Terrestrial Multicriteria Index. The Aquatic Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Resource Index and the Aquatic Condition. The Aquatic Resource Index is composed of the

  16. Group Ia afferents contribute to short-latency interlimb reflexes in the human biceps femoris muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2017-01-01

    to contralateral motor neurons in humans (Stubbs & Mrachacz-Kersting, JNeurophysiol., 2009; Jankowska, Brain Res. Rev., 2008). Significance Statement: This study provides further indirect evidence for the presence of spinal commissural interneurons relaying ipsilateral sensory information to contralateral motor......, and facilitatory following flexion perturbations. Due to the onset latency (45 ms), spinal pathways likely mediate the reflexes. Furthermore, the same population of cBF motor units (MUs) inhibited following iKnee extension perturbations were facilitated following iKnee flexion perturbations, indicating...... neurons in humans, with primary contributions from group Ia muscle spindle afferents....

  17. Isolation and characterization of antigen-Ia complexes involved in T cell recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Sette, A; Colon, S M

    1986-01-01

    , it is herein demonstrated that the complexes, once formed, are very stable (kd approximately equal to 3 X 10(-6) s-1), but the rate of complex formation is very slow (ka approximately 1 M-1 s-1 explaining the overall low equilibrium constant of approximately 2 X 10(-6) M. Treating the complexes......Using equilibrium dialysis, it has been previously demonstrated that immunogenic peptides bind specifically to the Ia molecules serving as restriction elements in the immune response to these antigens. Using gel filtration to study the formation of ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-I-Ad complexes...

  18. White Dwarf/M Dwarf Binaries as Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) have gotten increasingly tight. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the limits on the companions of SNIa in SNR 0509-67.5 and SN1572 are M dwarfs. M dwarfs have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNIa: they have small but finite magnetic fields, and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the cont...

  19. IAS15 inflation adjustments and EVA: empirical evidence from a highly variable inflation regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Erasmus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflation can have a pronounced effect on the financial performance of a firm. This study makes inflation adjustments to a firm’s cost of sales, depreciation, level of gearing and assets in line with International Accounting Standard 15 (IAS15 in order to calculate an inflation-adjusted version of the economic value added (EVA measure. The study was conducted using data from South African industrial firms during a period characterised by highly variable inflation levels (1991-2005. The results indicate that during this period there were significant differences between the nominal and real values of the firms’ EVAs

  20. Notes on the compatibility of type Ia supernovae data and varying-G cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai, F.; Shojai, A.

    2013-11-01

    Observational data for type Ia supernovae shows that the expansion of the universe is accelerated. This accelerated expansion can be described by a cosmological constant or by dark energy models, like quintessence. An interesting question may be raised here. Is it possible to describe the accelerated expansion of the universe using varying-G cosmological models? Here we shall show that the price for having accelerated expansion in slow-varying-G models (in which the dynamical terms of G are ignored) is to have highly non-conserved matter, and also that it is in contradiction with other data.

  1. Induction of cytochrome p-450-ia1 in juvenile fish by creosote-contaminated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoor, W.P.; Williams, D.E.; Takahashi, N.

    1991-01-01

    Intact sediment cores, including their surface layers, were used in simulated field exposure tests of juvenile guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to creosote-contaminated sediments. Mixed-function oxygenase activity was induced in the fish after 43 days of exposure to environmentally realistic, sublethal concentrations of creosote-related compounds. An average 50-fold induction in the cytochrome P-450-IA1 was found in the liver in the absence of any histopathological lesions. The possibility that a threshold level for proliferative liver changes was not reached is discussed in the light of the observed biochemical activation.

  2. Rinoliquorréia e hidrocefalia por gliose do aqueduto cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de hidrocefalia tardia, determinada por gliose do aqueduto cerebral, complicada com rinoliquorréia. A fístula do líquido cefalorraqueano se estabeleceu em conseqüência da erosão da sela turca pelo assoalho do 3.° ventriculo hipertenso e dilatado, determinando comunicação entre a cavidade ventricular e o seio esfenoidal. O paciente foi operado, tendo a fístula sido ocluída satisfatoriamente; previamente foi feita derivação ventrículo-peritoneal para evitar recidiva da hipertensão do sistema ventricular.

  3. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ghm as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Wang, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z.; Xiang, D.; Rui, L.; Lin, H.; Xu, Z.; Li, B.; Zhao, H.; Wang, L.; Tan, H.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    An optical spectrum (range 360-680 nm) of SN 2017ghm (=PTSS-17uyml), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), was obtained with the new "Low Resolution Spectrograph-2" (LRS2) on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory by S. Rostopchin on 2017 Aug 31.17 UT. The spectrum is consistent with that of a heavily reddened Type Ia supernova (with Av > 2.3 mag) around maximum light.

  4. Type Ia Supernova Distances at Redshift >1.5 from the Hubble Space Telescope Multi-cycle Treasury Programs: The Early Expansion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steven A.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Shafer, Daniel L.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Ferguson, Henry C.; Postman, Marc; Graur, Or; Maoz, Dan; Jha, Saurabh W.; Mobasher, Bahram; Casertano, Stefano; Hayden, Brian; Molino, Alberto; Hjorth, Jens; Garnavich, Peter M.; Jones, David O.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Brammer, Gabriel; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Dickinson, Mark; Challis, Peter M.; Wolff, Schuyler; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Vivian, U.; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Kocevski, Dale; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan

    2018-02-01

    We present an analysis of 15 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshift z> 1 (9 at 1.5 1.5 leads to a factor of ∼3 improvement in the determination of the expansion rate at z = 1.5, reducing its uncertainty to ∼20%, a measurement of H(z=1.5)/{H}0 = {2.69}-0.52+0.86. We then demonstrate that these six derived expansion rate measurements alone provide a nearly identical characterization of dark energy as the full SN sample, making them an efficient compression of the SN Ia data. The new sample of SNe Ia at z> 1.5 usefully distinguishes between alternative cosmological models and unmodeled evolution of the SN Ia distance indicators, placing empirical limits on the latter. Finally, employing a realistic simulation of a potential Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope SN survey observing strategy, we forecast optimistic future constraints on the expansion rate from SNe Ia.

  5. Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Graur, Or; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Casertano, Stefano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Hayden, Brian [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W.; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ∼0.25 deg{sup 2} with ∼900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z ∼ 2.5. We classify ∼24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only ∼3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (<500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction is f{sub P} = 0.53{sub stat0.10}{sup ±0.09}{sub sys0.26}{sup ±0.10}, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simple t {sup –1} power law for all times t > 40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20% of all SN Ia explosions—though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  6. Síndrome da apnéia-hipopnéia obstrutiva do sono. Fisiopatologia Physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barral Martins

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A fisiopatogenia da apnéia obstrutiva do sono é multifatorial. O sexo, a obesidade, os fatores genéticos, anatômicos e hormonais e o controle da ventilação interagem diversamente na fisiopatogenia e expressão clínica da doença. A obesidade é o principal fator de risco, sendo a elevação do índice de massa corpórea, da gordura visceral e da circunferência do pescoço, fortes preditores de sua ocorrência. A progesterona, por aumentar a atividade dos músculos dilatadores das vias aéreas superiores, tem papel protetor nas mulheres antes da menopausa, justificando a maior prevalência da doença na pós-menopausa, no sexo masculino e na síndrome dos ovários policísticos. Evidências apontam para o fato de que o aumento da idade promove diminuição do tônus muscular, com redução da luz das vias aéreas superiores. O dismorfismo crânio-facial, como na retrognatia ou micrognatia, está associado ao posicionamento posterior da língua, e pode resultar em estreitamento da luz das vias aéreas superiores. Finalmente, comando ventilatório reduzido tem sido detectado em pacientes com síndrome de apnéia obstrutiva do sono e hipercapnia.The physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is multifactorial. Gender and obesity status, as well as genetic, anatomic, and hormonal factors, together with ventilatory drive, interact in a diverse manner in the physiopathology and clinical expression of the disease. Obesity is the main risk factor, since increases in body mass index, visceral fat, and neck circumference are strong predictors of the disease. Progesterone increases the activity of the upper airway dilator muscles and therefore plays a protective role in premenopausal women. This explains the fact that the prevalence of the disease is higher in postmenopausal patients, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as in males. Evidence supports the fact that, as individuals grow older, there is a decrease in muscle

  7. THE TOURISTIC CAPITALIZATION STRATEGIES OF ROȘIA MONTANĂ´S HERITAGE – PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina CHIVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The two millennia of continuous mining, transformed the natural and human habitat of Roșia Montană and gave the Romanian settlement unique elements for the national and even international heritage. Nowadays, the natural habitat and the cultural heritage of Roșia Montană are threatened by several factors, among which the possibility of implementing here a mining project, that might destroy a significant part of the archeological site. Thus, in order to avoid the implementation of this project, there were launched a series of alternative programs for the sustainable development of this settlement. In the past ten years it has been proven that, besides other programs, tourism can be an alternative for the sustainable development of Roșia Montană. In the present study, there will be analyzed the elements of heritage from the Roșia Montană area, that possess a touristic attractiveness and that might add significant touristic incomes to the local economy. Furthermore, based on these elements, there will be presented also the current situation and the prospects of the touristic capitalization strategies, applied in order to promote Roșia Montană as a touristic destination. The broad purpose of this study is to emphasize the settlement´s actual potential to develop through tourism.

  8. THE VERY YOUNG TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2013dy: DISCOVERY, AND STRONG CARBON ABSORPTION IN EARLY-TIME SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nugent, Peter E.; Graham, Melissa; Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Shivvers, Isaac; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Howie Marion, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kasen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Valenti, Stefano; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Ciabattari, Fabrizio [Monte Agliale Observatory, Borgo a Mozzano, Lucca, I-55023 Italy (Italy); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balam, Dave [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Hsiao, Eric [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Sand, David, E-mail: zwk@astro.berkeley.edu [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); and others

    2013-11-20

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2013dy in NGC 7250 (d ≈ 13.7 Mpc) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Combined with a prediscovery detection by the Italian Supernova Search Project, we are able to constrain the first-light time of SN 2013dy to be only 0.10 ± 0.05 days (2.4 ± 1.2 hr) before the first detection. This makes SN 2013dy the earliest known detection of an SN Ia. We infer an upper limit on the radius of the progenitor star of R {sub 0} ≲ 0.25 R {sub ☉}, consistent with that of a white dwarf. The light curve exhibits a broken power law with exponents of 0.88 and then 1.80. A spectrum taken 1.63 days after first light reveals a C II absorption line comparable in strength to Si II. This is the strongest C II feature ever detected in a normal SN Ia, suggesting that the progenitor star had significant unburned material. The C II line in SN 2013dy weakens rapidly and is undetected in a spectrum 7 days later, indicating that C II is detectable for only a very short time in some SNe Ia. SN 2013dy reached a B-band maximum of M{sub B} = –18.72 ± 0.03 mag ∼17.7 days after first light.

  9. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rateswith the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, N.; Barbary, K.; Connolly, B.; Kim, A.G.; Pain, R.; Roe, N.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Dawson, K.; Doi, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goober, A.; Gude, A.; Knop,R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Morokuma, T.; Meyers, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D.J.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Strovink, M.; Suzuki, N.; Wang, L.; Yasuda, N.

    2007-10-01

    We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of possible models for the evolution of the Type Ia supernova rate as a function of redshift. The data do not distinguish between a flat rate at redshift > 0.5 and a previously proposed model, in which the Type Ia rate peaks at redshift {approx} 1 due to a significant delay from star-formation to the supernova explosion. Except for the highest redshifts, where the signal to noise ratio is generally too low to apply this technique, this approach yields smaller or comparable uncertainties than previous work.

  10. Spectroscopic Determination of the Low Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krughoff, K.Simon; Connolly, Andrew J.; Frieman, Joshua; SubbaRao, Mark; Kilper, Gary; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-04-10

    Supernova rates are directly coupled to high mass stellar birth and evolution. As such, they are one of the few direct measures of the history of cosmic stellar evolution. In this paper we describe an probabilistic technique for identifying supernovae within spectroscopic samples of galaxies. We present a study of 52 type Ia supernovae ranging in age from -14 days to +40 days extracted from a parent sample of \\simeq 50,000 spectra from the SDSS DR5. We find a Supernova Rate (SNR) of 0.472^{+0.048}_{-0.039}(Systematic)^{+0.081}_{-0.071}(Statistical)SNu at a redshift of = 0.1. This value is higher than other values at low redshift at the 1{\\sigma}, but is consistent at the 3{\\sigma} level. The 52 supernova candidates used in this study comprise the third largest sample of supernovae used in a type Ia rate determination to date. In this paper we demonstrate the potential for the described approach for detecting supernovae in future spectroscopic surveys.

  11. Harmonize Pipeline and Archiving Aystem: PESSTO@IA2 Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smareglia, R.; Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Young, D.; Valenti, S.

    2013-10-01

    Italian Astronomical Archives Center (IA2) is a research infrastructure project that aims at coordinating different national and international initiatives to improve the quality of astrophysical data services. IA2 is now also involved in the PESSTO (Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects) collaboration, developing a complete archiving system to store calibrated post processed data (including sensitive intermediate products), a user interface to access private data and Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant web services to access public fast reduction data via VO tools. The archive system shall rely on the PESSTO Marshall to provide file data and its associated metadata output by the PESSTO data-reduction pipeline. To harmonize the object repository, data handling and archiving system, new tools are under development. These systems must have a strong cross-interaction without increasing the complexities of any single task, in order to improve the performances of the whole system and must have a sturdy logic in order to perform all operations in coordination with the other PESSTO tools. MySQL Replication technology and triggers are used for the synchronization of new data in an efficient, fault tolerant manner. A general purpose library is under development to manage data starting from raw observations to final calibrated ones, open to the overriding of different sources, formats, management fields, storage and publication policies. Configurations for all the systems are stored in a dedicated schema (no configuration files), but can be easily updated by a planned Archiving System Configuration Interface (ASCI).

  12. Semiotics of White Spaces on the Romanian Traditional Blouse, the IA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Corduneanu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we understand the Romanian traditional blouse IA as a multi-dimensional semiotic object, with a complex semiotic structure. We will examine the structure and interpretation of semiotic borders and white spaces on IA, from the perspective of Lotman’s semiotic theory of culture. The white spaces found on our shirts may carry out messages equally important as those expressed by the sewn signs. Not only they define the rhythm, allowing the patterns to breathe, but sometimes they have their own story to tell. The white spaces also come to define the community you belong to, if your age allows you to wear an ornated shirt. The lack of white spaces on the shirts of other ethnic minorities living alongside us may be a hint of their fears and insecurities: they tend to fill in the entire shirt with protective talismans, to make sure they are safe. In some circumstances, as it happens with the shirts from the shores of Nistru River, the white space is a warning. Yet the most interesting subject is to consider and compare the way that these white spaces are “read” and appreciated in our days, after all women had been influenced by the fashion industry and the communication in printed and social media. We like it or not, this influenced our way to define concepts such as “aesthetic”, “elegant”, “luxurious” or “refined”.

  13. Delayed detonations in full-star models of type Ia supernova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, F. K.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2007-03-01

    Aims:We present the first full-star three-dimensional explosion simulations of thermonuclear supernovae including parameterized deflagration-to-detonation transitions that occur once the flame enters the distributed burning regime. Methods: Treating the propagation of both the deflagration and the detonation waves in a common front-tracking approach, the detonation is prevented from crossing ash regions. Results: Our criterion triggers the detonation wave at the outer edge of the deflagration flame and consequently it has to sweep around the complex structure and to compete with expansion. Despite the impeded detonation propagation, the obtained explosions show reasonable agreement with global quantities of observed type Ia supernovae. By igniting the flame in different numbers of kernels around the center of the exploding white dwarf, we set up three different models shifting the emphasis from the deflagration phase to the detonation phase. The resulting explosion energies and iron group element productions cover a large part of the diversity of type Ia supernovae. Conclusions: .Flame-driven deflagration-to-detonation transitions, if hypothetical, remain a possibility deserving further investigation.

  14. Three-dimensional Delayed-Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamezo, Vadim N.; Khokhlov, Alexei M.; Oran, Elaine S.

    2005-04-01

    We study a Type Ia supernova explosion using large-scale three-dimensional numerical simulations based on reactive fluid dynamics with a simplified mechanism for nuclear reactions and energy release. The initial deflagration stage of the explosion involves a subsonic turbulent thermonuclear flame propagating in the gravitational field of an expanding white dwarf. The deflagration produces an inhomogeneous mixture of unburned carbon and oxygen with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements in central parts of the star. During the subsequent detonation stage, a supersonic detonation wave propagates through the material unburned by the deflagration. The total energy released in this delayed-detonation process, (1.3-1.6)×1051 ergs, is consistent with a typical range of kinetic energies obtained from observations. In contrast to the deflagration model, which releases only about 0.6×1051 ergs, the delayed-detonation model does not leave carbon, oxygen, and intermediate-mass elements in central parts of a white dwarf. This removes the key disagreement between three-dimensional simulations and observations, and makes a delayed detonation the mostly likely mechanism for Type Ia supernova explosions.

  15. Modelling space-based integral-field spectrographs and their application to Type Ia supernova cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Hemant; Bonissent, Alain

    2017-04-01

    We present the parameterized simulation of an integral-field unit (IFU) slicer spectrograph and its applications in spectroscopic studies, namely, for probing dark energy with type Ia supernovae. The simulation suite is called the fast-slicer IFU simulator (FISim). The data flow of FISim realistically models the optics of the IFU along with the propagation effects, including cosmological, zodiacal, instrumentation and detector effects. FISim simulates the spectrum extraction by computing the error matrix on the extracted spectrum. The applications for Type Ia supernova spectroscopy are used to establish the efficacy of the simulator in exploring the wider parametric space, in order to optimize the science and mission requirements. The input spectral models utilize the observables such as the optical depth and velocity of the Si II absorption feature in the supernova spectrum as the measured parameters for various studies. Using FISim, we introduce a mechanism for preserving the complete state of a system, called the partial p/partial f matrix, which allows for compression, reconstruction and spectrum extraction, we introduce a novel and efficient method for spectrum extraction, called super-optimal spectrum extraction, and we conduct various studies such as the optimal point spread function, optimal resolution, parameter estimation, etc. We demonstrate that for space-based telescopes, the optimal resolution lies in the region near R ˜ 117 for read noise of 1 e- and 7 e- using a 400 km s-1 error threshold on the Si II velocity.

  16. Tactile stimulation with kinesiology tape alleviates muscle weakness attributable to attenuation of Ia afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged vibration stimulation to normal individuals could lead to muscle weakness attributable to attenuation of afferent feedback. This weakness is neurophysiologically similar to that seen in patients with knee injury. Theoretically, increasing input to gamma motor neurons could reverse this weakness. Sensory input to these neurons from skin could indirectly increase Ia afferent feedback. The present study examined the effect of this tactile stimulation in the form of Kinesiology tape on muscle weakness attributable to attenuation of afferent feedback. Randomized, crossover design. All participants were measured their eccentric maximal voluntary contractions under the 2 conditions (taping and non-taping). First, maximal voluntary contraction during eccentric contraction was measured as baseline. For the taping condition, Kinesiology tape was applied around each subject's knee joint during maximal voluntary contraction measurement after vibration. For the non-taping condition, tape was not applied during maximal voluntary contraction measurement after vibration. Mean percentage changes between pre- and post-vibration stimulation were compared between two conditions. Maximal voluntary contraction and average electromyography of taping condition was significantly larger than that of non-taping condition. Our results suggest that tactile stimulation in the form of Kinesiology tape inhibits the decline of both strength and electromyography. Alpha motor neuron activity attenuated by prolonged vibration would thus be partially rescued by tactile stimulation. These results indirectly suggest that stimulation of skin around the knee could counter quadriceps femoris weakness due to attenuated Ia afferent activity. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Properties and Alignment of Interstellar Dust Grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with Anomalous Polarization Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thiem

    2017-02-01

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios (R V data (SN 1986G, SN 2006X, SN 2008fp, and SN 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of R V , a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius a data are attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 2008fp, our best-fit results for model 1 show that in order to reproduce an extreme value of λ max ˜ 0.15 μm, small silicate grains must be aligned as efficiently as big grains. For this case, we suggest that strong radiation from the SN can induce efficient alignment of small grains in a nearby intervening molecular cloud via the radiative torque (RAT) mechanism. The resulting time dependence polarization from this RAT alignment model can be tested by observing at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  18. A idéia de identidade sob uma perspectiva semiótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Noack

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O tema do artigo é o conceito de identidade. O ponto de partida é a observação de que as idéias de unidade, coerência e continuidade, enquanto constituintes do conceito de identidade, parecem perder o seu poder explicativo atualmente, na assim chamada pós-modernidade. O ideal de um EU uno e total levou a muitos debates e fez perguntar sobre se se deveria abdicar do conceito de identidade. O presente artigo pretende contribuir com esse debate, apresentando algumas reflexões sobre a idéia de identidade desde a perspectiva da Semiótica. Palavras-chave: identidade; semiótica; semiose; identidade como signo Abstract The notion of identity from the standpoint of semiotics - The subject of this article is the concept of identity. The starting point is the observation that the ideas of unity, coherence and continuity, which constitute the concept of identity, appear to be losing their explanatory power in so-called postmodernity. The ideal of a unique and complete "I" has led to heated debate about whether the concept of identity should be abandoned. This article aims to contribute to this debate, offering reflections about the concept of identity from the perspective of Semiotics and about how this perspective can enrich both the concept of identity and identity as such. Keywords: identity; semiotic; semiosis; identity as a sign

  19. The Implementation of IAS/IFRS in Romania – Advances and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a study on the implementation of the international accounting standards in Romania. Through this paper we find out about the stages covered and the solutionsadopted by Romania as well as the perspectives concerning the adaptability of the national accounting system to the performance of the international standards in the accounting domain, namely: the elaboration of accounting regulations harmonized with International Accounting Standards or, in other words, the internationalization of the national accounting system; ensuring the compliance of Romanian accounting regulations with the European directives and, in consequence,waiving the International Accounting Standards (at least at declarative level for the financial reporting in relation to the state institutions; the transition to the gradual implementation of International Accounting Standards/Financial Reporting (IAS/IFRS. We made also some assessments on the perspectives of using IAS/IFRS as a unique set of norms (as accounting basis for the preparation of individual financial statements and we are pointing a series of costs and benefitsof their application. To accomplish this work it has been carried out an analysis on the normalization of accounting and particularly on the accounting norms which apply in Romania.Keywords: normalization, regulations, convergence, conformity, standards, accounting

  20. Papel da gastroplastia no tratamento da apnéia obstrutiva durante o sono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Reimão

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastroplastia foi realizada como forma terapêutica auxiliar para redução de peso em 4 pacientes com obesidade severa e apnéia obstrutiva durante o sono (ASO. As idades variavam de 31 a 54 anos e todos eram do sexo masculino. Em três casos a gastroplastia acompanhou-se de traqueostomia. Após a gastroplastia todos tiveram melhora da sonolência diurna e redução de peso em 16,7% a 40,9%. Avaliações polissonográficas de noite inteira realizadas no pré e pós-operatório (3-4 meses. Os registros pós-operatórios foram feitos com traqueostomia fechada e revelaram redução da freqüência das apnéias e aumento dos estágios 3, 4 e REM. Normalização dos índices de saturação arterial de oxigênio (Sa0(2 foi constatada em três dos 4 casos. Esses dados sugerem que a gastroplastia pode ser utilizada como forma alternativa para redução de peso em casos selecionados de ASO complementando outros procedimentos cirúrgicos como a traqueostomia.

  1. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate.

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Evolution of Type Ia & Stripped-Envelope Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardy, Christopher L.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Hoflich, Peter; Howie Marion, G.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Fesen, Robert A.; Wang, Lifan

    2003-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the study of supernovae (SNe), offering valuable insights into heavy element nucleosynthesis, explosion physics, and pre-explosion mass loss and evolution. Observations of the early-time NIR spectroscopic evolution of Type Ia and Type Ib/Ic SNe will provide constraints on the chemical structure of SN ejecta and the explosion kinematics of supernovae which cannot be obtained in other wavelength regimes. In addition, late-time NIR spectra will be used to measure the radioactive heavy-element yield in these SNe and also probe for molecule formation in the SN ejecta. Here we propose a KPNO ``Target-of-Opportunity'' (ToO) program to obtain early-time NIR spectra of a bright Type Ia or Type Ib/Ic supernova (FLAMINGOS when it is available on either the 2.1 or 4 m telescopes. We are requesting five visits of 1-2 hrs (including calibrations) at roughly 1 week intervals, covering the evolution from discovery to about 30 days after maximum light. We also request a four night run on the 4 m telescope near the end of FLAMINGOS availability in May to obtain a high-quality late-time spectrum of the ToO target.

  3. Coréia aguda na gravidez Acute chorea in pregnancy: comments on twelve consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados doze casos de coréia aguda observados entre 150.000 gestantes (1/12.500. A maioria dos surtos ocorreu no segundo trimestre da primeira gravidez. A duração média dos sintomas foi de três meses, não tendo sido registrado caso algum de óbito materno. Todos os partos foram espontâneos e normais. Houve apenas um óbito fetal conseqüente a choque hemorrágico. São tecidas considerações a propósito dos aspectos clínico, laboratorial e prognóstico da coréia gravídica, sendo focalizado mais pormenorizadamente o problema fisiopatogênico dessa afecção.Twelve consecutive cases of acute chorea occurring among 150.000 pregnant women (1/12.500 are reported. Most of the cases occurred from the fourth do the sixth month of the first pregnancy. The average duration of the symptoms was of three months and no one case of maternal death was verified in the group. The deliveries were spontaneous and normal in all the patients. Only one case of fetal death occurred in consequence of a hemorragic shock. Comments are made on the clinical, laboratorial and prognostic features of chorea gravidarum, being particulary focused the physiopathogenic problem of this condtion.

  4. Integrated Avionics System (IAS), Integrating 3-D Technology On A Spacecraft Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Don J.; Halpert, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    As spacecraft designs converge toward miniaturization, and with the volumetric and mass challenges placed on avionics, programs will continue to advance the "state of the art" in spacecraft system development with new challenges to reduce power, mass and volume. Traditionally, the trend is to focus on high-density 3-D packaging technologies. Industry has made significant progress in 3-D technologies, and other related internal and external interconnection schemes. Although new technologies have improved packaging densities, a system packaging architecture is required that not only reduces spacecraft volume and mass budgets, but increase integration efficiencies, provide modularity and flexibility to accommodate multiple missions while maintaining a low recurring cost. With these challenges in mind, a novel system packaging approach incorporates solutions that provide broader environmental applications, more flexible system interconnectivity, scalability, and simplified assembly test and integration schemes. The Integrated Avionics System (IAS) provides for a low-mass, modular distributed or centralized packaging architecture which combines ridged-flex technologies, high-density COTS hardware and a new 3-D mechanical packaging approach, Horizontal Mounted Cube (HMC). This paper will describe the fundamental elements of the IAS, HMC hardware design, system integration and environmental test results.

  5. Role of cytochrome P450 IA2 in acetanilide 4-hydroxylation as determined with cDNA expression and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Gelboin, H V; Myers, M J

    1991-02-01

    The role of P450 IA2 in the hydroxylation of acetanilide was examined using an inhibitory monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1-7-1 and vaccinia cDNA expression producing murine P450 IA1 (mIA1), murine P450 IA2 (mIA2), or human P450 IA2 (hIA2). Acetanilide hydroxylase (AcOH) activity was measured using an HPLC method with more than 500-fold greater sensitivity than previously described procedures. This method, which does not require the use of radioactive acetanilide, was achieved by optimizing both the gradient system and the amount of enzyme needed to achieve detection by uv light. MAb 1-7-1 inhibits up to 80% of the AcOH activity in both rat liver microsomes and cDNA expressed mouse and human P450 IA2. MAb 1-7-1, which recognizes both P450 IA1 and P450 IA2, completely inhibits the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity of cDNA expressed in IA1. The inhibition of only 80% of the AHH activity present in MC liver microsomes by MAb 1-7-1 suggests that additional P450 forms are contributing to the overall AHH activity present in methylcholanthrene (MC)-liver microsomes as MAb 1-7-1 almost completely inhibits the AHH activity of expressed mIA1. Maximal inhibition of IA2 by 1-7-1 results in an 80% decrease in acetanilide hydroxylase activity in both liver microsomes and expressed mouse and human IA2. The capacity of MAb 1-7-1 to produce identical levels of inhibition of acetanilide hydroxylase activity in rat MC microsomes (80%) and in expressed mouse (81%) and human P450 IA2 (80%) strongly suggests that P450 IA2 is the major and perhaps the only enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetanilide. These results demonstrate the complementary utility of monoclonal antibodies and cDNA expression for defining the contribution of specific P450 enzymes to the metabolism of a given substrate. This complementary approach allows for a more precise determination of the inhibitory capacity of MAb with respect to the metabolic capacity of the target P450.

  6. Clinical outcome and imaging changes after intraarticular (IA) application of etanercept or methylprednisolone in rheumatoid arthritis: Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-Doppler show no effect of IA injections in the wrist after 4 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Boesen, L.; Jensen, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) changes in the wrist of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 4 weeks after an US guided intraarticular (IA) injection. Methods. Contrast enhanced MRI and US-Doppler were performed at baseline and 4 weeks after IA...... injection of either 40 mg methylprednisolone (n = 12) or 25 mg etanercept (n = 13) in 25 patients with RA taking disease modifying antirheumatic drugs with a therapy-resistant wrist joint. All injections were US guided. Results. There was an improvement in swollen target joint score (p

  7. [O I] λλ6300, 6364 IN THE NEBULAR SPECTRUM OF A SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubenberger, S.; Kromer, M.; Hillebrandt, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Pakmor, R. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Maeda, K. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Hachinger, S. [Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Leibundgut, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    In this Letter, a late-phase spectrum of SN 2010lp, a subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), is presented and analyzed. As in 1991bg-like SNe Ia at comparable epochs, the spectrum is characterized by relatively broad [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission lines. However, instead of narrow [Fe III] and [Co III] lines that dominate the emission from the innermost regions of 1991bg-like supernovae (SNe), SN 2010lp shows [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission, usually associated with core-collapse SNe and never previously observed in a subluminous thermonuclear explosion. The [O I] feature has a complex profile with two strong, narrow emission peaks. This suggests that oxygen is distributed in a non-spherical region close to the center of the ejecta, severely challenging most thermonuclear explosion models discussed in the literature. We conclude that, given these constraints, violent mergers are presently the most promising scenario to explain SN 2010lp.

  8. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E

    1992-01-01

    /induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-dimethyluric acid). Mean exposure concentrations for foundry workers were defined by breathing zone...... the highest hpU concentrations (0.70, 95% CI - 0.07-1.47 mumol/mol creatinine) (p less than 0.04). Increased hpU concentrations in smoking foundry workers suggest a more than additive effect from smoking and foundry exposures resulting in increased PAH uptake. Increased P450IA2 enzyme activity was only found...... in smokers and no additional effect of foundry exposures was seen. These data suggest that smoking as well as work related PAH exposure may be casually related to increased risk of lung cancer in foundry workers....

  9. A Monomorphic Haplotype of Chromosome Ia Is Associated with Widespread Success in Clonal and Nonclonal Populations of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asis; Miller, Natalie; Roos, David S.; Dubey, J. P.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Dardé, Marie Laure; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Sibley, L. David

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of animals that also causes a zoonotic infection in humans. Previous studies have revealed a strongly clonal population structure that is shared between North America and Europe, while South American strains show greater genetic diversity and evidence of sexual recombination. The common inheritance of a monomorphic version of chromosome Ia (referred to as ChrIa*) among three clonal lineages from North America and Europe suggests that inheritance of this chromosome might underlie their recent clonal expansion. To further examine the diversity and distribution of ChrIa, we have analyzed additional strains with greater geographic diversity. Our findings reveal that the same haplotype of ChrIa* is found in the clonal lineages from North America and Europe and in older lineages in South America, where sexual recombination is more common. Although lineages from all three continents harbor the same conserved ChrIa* haplotype, strains from North America and Europe are genetically separate from those in South America, and these respective geographic regions show limited evidence of recent mixing. Genome-wide, array-based profiling of polymorphisms provided evidence for an ancestral flow from particular older southern lineages that gave rise to the clonal lineages now dominant in the north. Collectively, these data indicate that ChrIa* is widespread among nonclonal strains in South America and has more recently been associated with clonal expansion of specific lineages in North America and Europe. These findings have significant implications for the spread of genetic loci influencing transmission and virulence in pathogen populations. PMID:22068979

  10. Headaches during pregnancy in women with a prior history of menstrual headaches Cefaléia durante a gestação em mulheres com história de cefaléia menstrual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Melhado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of menstrual headaches prior to pregnancy according to the International Headache Society (IHS classification criteria, 2004, and also study the outcome (frequency and intensity of these pre-existing headaches during the gestational trimesters. METHOD: This study involved 1,101 pregnant women (12 to 45 years old. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview the women during the first, second and third gestational trimesters as well as after delivery. All the interviews were conducted by one of the researchers by applying the IHS Classification (IHSC-2004. RESULTS: A 1,029 women out of the 1,101 women interviewed presented headaches prior to gestation, which made it possible to study headaches in 993 women during the gestational trimesters. Menstrually related headaches were presented by 360 of the 993 women. Migraine was reported by 332/360 women (92.22% with menstrual headaches and 516/633 women (81.51% without menstrual headaches, respectively, prior to gestation. The majority of the women with menstrual migraine presented a headache improvement or disappearance during gestation (62.22% during the first trimester; 74.17% during the second trimester; 77.78% during the third trimester. CONCLUSION: Most of the pregnant women with menstrual or non-menstrual headaches prior to gestation presented migraine, which either improved or disappeared during pregnancy. Women who suffered from non-menstrual headaches improved during pregnancy but not as much as women with menstrual headaches.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de cefaléia relacionada ao ciclo menstrual, antes da gestação, classificá-las, segundo os critérios da Sociedade Internacional de Cefaleia (SIC de 2004, e estudar o comportamento (freqüência e intensidade dessas cefaléias pré-existentes à gestação durante os trimestres gestacionais. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 1101 mulheres grávidas (12 a 45 anos entrevistadas através de question

  11. Uso de clorpromazina para tratamento de cefaléia no serviço de emergência

    OpenAIRE

    AGNALDO R. DA COSTA; PAULO HÉLIO MONZILLO; WILSON LUIZ SANVITO

    1998-01-01

    Quatorze pacientes foram avaliados no serviço de emergência da Santa Casa de São Paulo devido a cefaléia aguda. Quatro pacientes tinham o diagnóstico de enxaqueca com aura e cinco o de enxaqueca sem aura. Quatro pacientes foram diagnosticados como portadores de cefaléia crônica diária com interparoxismos de enxaqueca. E finalmente um paciente tinha o diagnóstico de hemicrania paroxística crônica. Todos os pacientes receberam diagnóstico de acordo com os critérios da International Headache Soc...

  12. The problem of nationalism and patriotism in the works of I.A. Ilyin and its urgency in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the nationalism and patriotism phenomena in the system of normative and legal views of Russian philosopher, specialist in studying of law and state I.A. Ilyin. The author considers his characteristic of nationalism and patriotism in general, their specific nature and peculiarities in Russia, as well as analyzes their condition in post-Soviet period of its development and possibility of using I.A. Ilyin’s views and ideas on this issue as a source of spiritual, moral and national revival of modern Russian society.

  13. Structural and molecular basis for resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics by the adenylyltransferase ANT(2″)-Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Georgina; Stogios, Peter J; Savchenko, Alexei; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-01-06

    The aminoglycosides are highly effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, their efficacy is diminished due to enzyme-mediated covalent modification, which reduces affinity of the drug for the target ribosome. One of the most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance enzymes in Gram-negative pathogens is the adenylyltransferase ANT(2″)-Ia, which confers resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, and kanamycin. Despite the importance of this enzyme in drug resistance, its structure and molecular mechanism have been elusive. This study describes the structural and mechanistic basis for adenylylation of aminoglycosides by the ANT(2″)-Ia enzyme. ANT(2″)-Ia confers resistance by magnesium-dependent transfer of a nucleoside monophosphate (AMP) to the 2″-hydroxyl of aminoglycoside substrates containing a 2-deoxystreptamine core. The catalyzed reaction follows a direct AMP transfer mechanism from ATP to the substrate antibiotic. Central to catalysis is the coordination of two Mg(2+) ions, positioning of the modifiable substrate ring, and the presence of a catalytic base (Asp86). Comparative structural analysis revealed that ANT(2″)-Ia has a two-domain structure with an N-terminal active-site architecture that is conserved among other antibiotic nucleotidyltransferases, including Lnu(A), LinB, ANT(4')-Ia, ANT(4″)-Ib, and ANT(6)-Ia. There is also similarity between the nucleotidyltransferase fold of ANT(2″)-Ia and DNA polymerase β. This similarity is consistent with evolution from a common ancestor, with the nucleotidyltransferase fold having adapted for activity against chemically distinct molecules. IMPORTANCE  : To successfully manage the threat associated with multidrug-resistant infectious diseases, innovative therapeutic strategies need to be developed. One such approach involves the enhancement or potentiation of existing antibiotics against resistant strains of bacteria. The reduction in clinical usefulness of the aminoglycosides is a particular

  14. Amenorréia e osteoporose em adolescentes atletas Amenorrhea and osteosporosis in adolescents athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela MANTOANELLI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A participação feminina no esporte foi crescendo ao longo dos anos. Trabalhos científicos têm mostrado os benefícios trazidos por esta prática para a saúde da mulher, mas quando se trata de esporte competitivo podem surgir problemas. A complicação mais comum descrita pela literatura é a "tríade da atleta", a qual envolve três processos: o distúrbio alimentar, a amenorréia e a osteoporose. A amenorréia atinge, nos Estados Unidos, até 66% das atletas de competição, e algumas de suas possíveis causas são: perda de peso, excesso de treino, quantidade insuficiente de gordura corporal, perda de estoques específicos de gordura corporal e dieta inadequada. Como conseqüência da amenorréia, a esportista pode desenvolver osteoporose precoce. Não se sabe ao certo a porcentagem de atletas com osteopenia, mas há indícios de que a falta de estrógeno, a dieta inadequada e o consumo insuficiente de cálcio serem fatores que as predispõem a desenvolver a doença.The female participation in sports has been increasing over the years. Scientific studies have shown the benefits this practice brings to women's health, but, when it comes to competitive sports, problems may arise. The most common complication described by the literature is the "Female Athlete Triad", which involves three processes: the eating disorder, the amenorrhea, and the osteoporosis. In the United States, the amenorrhea afflicts up to 66% of the competition athletes, and some of its possible causes of are: weight loss, excessive training, insufficient quantity of body fat, loss of specific stores of body fat, and inadequate diet. As a consequence of the amenorrhea, the sportswoman may develop precocious osteoporosis. It is not known for sure the percentage of athletes with osteopenia, but there are indications that the lack of estrogen, the inadequate diet, and the insufficient consumption of calcium are factors predisposing them to develop the disease.

  15. Presença européia na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castro Amoras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho realiza uma breve discussão sobre o início da presença européia na região amazônica e o processo de dominação indígena, apresentando o Regime do Diretório como estratégia utilizada pelos europeus para garantirem a posse e a forma de exploração da área. Muitos conflitos houveram, na Amazônia, entre nações diversas, cobiçosas das riquezas da região, sobressaindo-se os portugueses. O significado da conquista dessa nova terra e colonização significou uma abertura de novas fronteiras para o mundo ocidental, moldando os limites territoriais atuais brasileiros

  16. Luminal proteinases from Plodia interpunctella and the hydrolysis of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(c) protoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; Johnson, D; Upton, S J; Mcgaughey, W H

    1996-06-01

    The ability of proteinases in gut extracts of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, to hydrolyze Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protoxin, casein, and rho-nitroanilide substrates was investigated. A polyclonal antiserum to protoxin CryIA(c) was used in Western blots to demonstrate slower protoxin processing by gut enzymes from Bt subspecies entomocidus-resistant larvae than enzymes from susceptible or kurstaki-resistant strains. Enzymes from all three strains hydrolyzed N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine rho-nitroanilide, N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-phenylalanine rho-nitroanilide, and N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-leucine rho-nitroanilide. Zymograms and activity blots were used to estimate the apparent molecular masses, number of enzymes, and relative activities in each strain. Several serine proteinase inhibitors reduced gut enzyme activities, with two soybean trypsin inhibitors, two potato inhibitors, and chymostatin the most effective in preventing protoxin hydrolysis.

  17. Acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus subgenotype IA as an imported infectious disease from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria I; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    A 25-year-old Japanese man was admitted with general malaise and fever, which had developed 12 days after coming back to Japan from Indonesia. Blood examination revealed elevated transaminase levels and positivity for the IgM anti-HAV antibody; therefore, he was diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. HAV-RNA was detected in his serum and phylogenetically classified as subgenotype IA. The partial genome in the VP1/P2A region was consistent with the strain recently isolated from Surabaya, which indicated that he had been infected during his stay in Indonesia. Thus, HAV vaccination is recommended before visiting HAV-endemic countries for a long period of time.

  18. Sensitivity study of explosive nucleosynthesis in type Ia supernovae: Modification of individual thermonuclear reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Eduardo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    Background: Type Ia supernovae contribute significantly to the nucleosynthesis of many Fe-group and intermediate-mass elements. However, the robustness of nucleosynthesis obtained via models of this class of explosions has not been studied in depth until now.Purpose: We explore the sensitivity of the nucleosynthesis resulting from thermonuclear explosions of massive white dwarfs with respect to uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates. We put particular emphasis on indentifying the individual reactions rates that most strongly affect the isotopic products of these supernovae.Method: We have adopted a standard one-dimensional delayed detonation model of the explosion of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf and have postprocessed the thermodynamic trajectories of every mass shell with a nucleosynthetic code to obtain the chemical composition of the ejected matter. We have considered increases (decreases) by a factor of 10 on the rates of 1196 nuclear reactions (simultaneously with their inverse reactions), repeating the nucleosynthesis calculations after modification of each reaction rate pair. We have computed as well hydrodynamic models for different rates of the fusion reactions of 12C and of 16O. From the calculations we have selected the reactions that have the largest impact on the supernova yields, and we have computed again the nucleosynthesis using two or three alternative prescriptions for their rates, taken from the JINA REACLIB database. For the three reactions with the largest sensitivity we have analyzed as well the temperature ranges where a modification of their rates has the strongest effect on nucleosynthesis.Results: The nucleosynthesis resulting from the type Ia supernova models is quite robust with respect to variations of nuclear reaction rates, with the exception of the reaction of fusion of two 12C nuclei. The energy of the explosion changes by less than ˜4% when the rates of the reactions 12C+12C or 16O+16O are multiplied by a factor of ×10 or

  19. Hepatitis A virus genotype IA-infected patient with marked elevation of aspartate aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshifumi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Takahashi, Koji; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of acute liver failure (ALF) without hepatic encephalopathy with marked elevation of aminotransferase due to hepatitis A, according to the revised Japanese criteria of ALF. This liver biopsy of the patient showed compatible to acute viral hepatitis and she immediately recovered without intensive care. She had no comorbid disorders. Of interest, phylogenetic tree analysis using almost complete genomes of hepatitis A virus (HAV) demonstrated that the HAV isolate from her belonged to the HAV subgenotype IA strain and was similar to the HAJFF-Kan12 strain (99% nucleotide identity) or FH1 strain (98% nucleotide identity), which is associated with severe or fulminant hepatitis A. Careful interpretation of the association between HAV genome variations and severity of hepatitis A is needed and the mechanism of the severe hepatitis should be explored.

  20. iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobar, A.; Amanullah, R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Johansson, J.; Steidel, C.; Law, D.; Mörtsell, E.; Quimby, R.; Blagorodnova, N.; Brandeker, A.; Cao, Y.; Cooray, A.; Ferretti, R.; Fremling, C.; Hangard, L.; Kasliwal, M.; Kupfer, T.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F.; Miller, A. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Neill, J. D.; Ofek, E. O.; Papadogiannakis, S.; Petrushevska, T.; Ravi, V.; Sollerman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taddia, F.; Walters, R.; Wilson, D.; Yan, L.; Yaron, O.

    2017-04-01

    We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

  1. Interaction of an immunodominant epitope with Ia molecules in T-cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adorini, L; Sette, A; Buus, S

    1988-01-01

    The amino acid sequence corresponding to residues 107-116 of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) has been identified as containing an immunodominant T-cell epitope recognized in association with the I-Ed molecule. The immunodominance of this epitope in HEL-primed H-2d mice was demonstrated by analysis...... of the T-cell proliferative response induced by synthetic peptides covering almost the entire HEL sequence. All the T-cell hybridomas from H-2d mice analyzed recognize the HEL sequence 107-116 in association with the I-Ed molecule. Correlating with the restriction of T-cell recognition, HEL-(105......-120)-peptide was found to be immunogenic in H-2d mice. Thus, a single semiconservative substitution drastically reduces binding capacity and abolishes immunogenicity, suggesting that a strict correlation exists between binding of a peptide to Ia molecules and its immunogenicity....

  2. Study of the observational compatibility of an inhomogeneous cosmology with linear expansion according to SNe Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjo, R.

    2017-11-01

    Most of current cosmological theories are built combining an isotropic and homogeneous manifold with a scale factor that depends on time. If one supposes a hyperconical universe with linear expansion, an inhomogeneous metric can be obtained by an appropriate transformation that preserves the proper time. This model locally tends to a flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric with linear expansion. The objective of this work is to analyze the observational compatibility of the inhomogeneous metric considered. For this purpose, the corresponding luminosity distance was obtained and was compared with the observations of 580 SNe Ia, taken from the Supernova Cosmology Project. The best fit of the hyperconical model obtains χ02=562 , the same value as the standard Λ CDM model. Finally, a possible relationship is found between both theories.

  3. Improving the Calibration of the SN Ia Anchor Datasets with a Bayesian Hierarchal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Miles; Rubin, David

    2018-01-01

    Inter-survey calibration remains one of the largest systematic uncertainties in SN Ia cosmology today. Ideally, each survey would measure their system throughputs and observe well characterized spectrophotometric standard stars, but many important surveys have not done so. For these surveys, we calibrate using tertiary survey stars tied to SDSS and Pan-STARRS. We improve on previous efforts by taking the spatially variable response of each telescope/camera into account, and using improved color transformations in the surveys’ natural instrumental photometric system. We use a global hierarchical model of the data, automatically providing a covariance matrix of magnitude offsets and bandpass shifts which reduces the systematic uncertainty in inter-survey calibration, thereby providing better cosmological constraints.

  4. Revendo idéias de Viktor Frankl no centenário de seu nascimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roehe, Marcelo V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Em homenagem ao centenário de nascimento do psicoterapeuta austríaco Viktor Frankl, o artigo apresenta uma síntese de sua vasta produção teórica. Frankl foi o criador de Logoterapia, chamada, por vezes, de terapia do sentido da vida em função de sua idéia básica, a de que o ser humano vive motivado, fundamentalmente, pela vontade de realizar sentido na vida; para isso, o homem deve se empenhar na realização de valores na forma de criações, vivências e atitudes. A teorização de Frankl, historicamente situada no campo fenomenológico-existencial, é uma das que mais radicalmente se opôs a qualquer reducionismo no entendimento do ser humano

  5. STANDARDIZING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES USING GAUSSIAN PROCESS DATA REGRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Nordin, J. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Thomas, R. C. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N. [Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); and others

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel class of models for Type Ia supernova time-evolving spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and absolute magnitudes: they are each modeled as stochastic functions described by Gaussian processes. The values of the SED and absolute magnitudes are defined through well-defined regression prescriptions, so that data directly inform the models. As a proof of concept, we implement a model for synthetic photometry built from the spectrophotometric time series from the Nearby Supernova Factory. Absolute magnitudes at peak B brightness are calibrated to 0.13 mag in the g band and to as low as 0.09 mag in the z = 0.25 blueshifted i band, where the dispersion includes contributions from measurement uncertainties and peculiar velocities. The methodology can be applied to spectrophotometric time series of supernovae that span a range of redshifts to simultaneously standardize supernovae together with fitting cosmological parameters.

  6. SOIL COVER WITHIN THE FUTURE GOLD MINING AREA FROM ROŞIA MONTANĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the types and subtypes of soils within the area where goldbearing ore mining and processing is to take place in the Roşia Montană. Six types of soils: Dystric Cambisol, Eutric Cambisol, Andosol, Lithosol, Regosol and Fluvisol are covering the Rosia Montana area. Dystricambisols and Eutricambisols are predominant (74% from the all studied area, which is 1647 ha. Lithosols represent 11% from the all studied area. The soils are generally skeletal. The prevailing texture in A horizon is loamy and sandy loamy. The fertile layer thickness is generally small. Reaction of the soils is acid, strongly acid over 52% of the area and moderate acid over 40% of the area. The humus content is low. The nitrogen and potassium are at a medium level of content.

  7. The Cardassian expansion revisited: constraints from updated Hubble parameter measurements and Type Ia Supernovae data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, Juan; Amante, Mario H.; Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A.; Motta, V.

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by an updated compilation of observational Hubble data (OHD) which consist of 51 points in the redshift range 0.07 galaxies. We focus on two modified Friedmann equations: the original Cardassian (OC) expansion and the modified polytropic Cardassian (MPC). The dimensionless Hubble, E(z), and the deceleration parameter, q(z), are revisited in order to constrain the OC and MPC free parameters, first with the OHD and then contrasted with recent observations of SN Ia using the compressed and full joint-light-analysis (JLA) samples. We also perform a joint analysis using the combination OHD plus compressed JLA. Our results show that the OC and MPC models are in agreement with the standard cosmology and naturally introduce a cosmological-constant-like extra term in the canonical Friedmann equation with the capability of accelerating the Universe without dark energy.

  8. High-resolution mapping of Rsn1, a locus controlling sensitivity of rice to a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes disease on all major crop-plant species. Anastomosis group 1-IA is the causal agent of sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa), one of the most important rice diseases worldwide. R. solani AG-IA produces a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin a...

  9. Targeted disruption of the IA-2beta gene causes glucose intolerance and impairs insulin secretion but does not prevent the development of diabetes in NOD mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubosaki, A.; Gross, S.; Miura, J.; Saeki, K.; Zhu, M.; Nakamura, S.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Notkins, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Insulinoma-associated protein (IA)-2beta, also known as phogrin, is an enzymatically inactive member of the transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase family and is located in dense-core secretory vesicles. In patients with type 1 diabetes, autoantibodies to IA-2beta appear years before the

  10. The P-loop domain of yeast Clp1 mediates interactions between CF IA and CPF factors in pre-mRNA 3' end formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Holbein

    Full Text Available Cleavage factor IA (CF IA, cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF, constitute major protein complexes required for pre-mRNA 3' end formation in yeast. The Clp1 protein associates with Pcf11, Rna15 and Rna14 in CF IA but its functional role remained unclear. Clp1 carries an evolutionarily conserved P-loop motif that was previously shown to bind ATP. Interestingly, human and archaean Clp1 homologues, but not the yeast protein, carry 5' RNA kinase activity. We show that depletion of Clp1 in yeast promoted defective 3' end formation and RNA polymerase II termination; however, cells expressing Clp1 with mutant P-loops displayed only minor defects in gene expression. Similarly, purified and reconstituted mutant CF IA factors that interfered with ATP binding complemented CF IA depleted extracts in coupled in vitro transcription/3' end processing reactions. We found that Clp1 was required to assemble recombinant CF IA and that certain P-loop mutants failed to interact with the CF IA subunit Pcf11. In contrast, mutations in Clp1 enhanced binding to the 3' endonuclease Ysh1 that is a component of CPF. Our results support a structural role for the Clp1 P-loop motif. ATP binding by Clp1 likely contributes to CF IA formation and cross-factor interactions during the dynamic process of 3' end formation.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1154 CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of... plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus...

  12. Glycogen storage disease type Ia : recent experience with mutation analysis, a summary of mutations reported in the literature and a newly developed diagnostic flowchart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rake, JP; ten Berge, AM; Visser, G; Verlind, E; Niezen-Koning, KE; Buys, CHCM; Smit, GPA; Scheffer, H

    We studied the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) gene of 30 unrelated glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) patients using single strand conformation, polymorphism (SSCP) prior to automated sequencing of exons revealing an aberrant SSCP pattern. In all patients we could identify mutations on both

  13. SiFTO: An Empirical Method for Fitting SN Ia Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, A.; Sullivan, M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. A.; Hook, I. M.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.

    2008-07-01

    We present SiFTO, a new empirical method for modeling Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves by manipulating a spectral template. We make use of high-redshift SN data when training the model, allowing us to extend it bluer than rest-frame U. This increases the utility of our high-redshift SN observations by allowing us to use more of the available data. We find that when the shape of the light curve is described using a stretch prescription, applying the same stretch at all wavelengths is not an adequate description. SiFTO therefore uses a generalization of stretch which applies different stretch factors as a function of both the wavelength of the observed filter and the stretch in the rest-frame B band. We compare SiFTO to other published light-curve models by applying them to the same set of SN photometry, and demonstrate that SiFTO and SALT2 perform better than the alternatives when judged by the scatter around the best-fit luminosity distance relationship. We further demonstrate that when SiFTO and SALT2 are trained on the same data set the cosmological results agree. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

  14. The Appearance of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors: If Not SSSs, then What Do They Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    ``What do the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) look like? How can we hope to find them?'' We focus on the epoch during which mass is incident on a white dwarf (WD) at high rates (> 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1). Such epochs are expected in single-degenerate (SD) progenitors, double-degenerate (DD) progenitors, and in a wide range of binaries with WDs that will not achieve the Chandrasekhar mass, M Ch . High-rate accretion onto a WD produces high luminosities through accretion alone; in addition, most calculations show that quasisteady or episodic nuclear burning can occur, increasing the luminosity by more than an order of magnitude. If the photosphere is not much larger than the WD, the emission will have values of kT in the range of tens of eV, and the source will appear as a luminous supersoft x-ray source (SSS). Studies of local SSSs that are good candidates for nuclear-burning WDs (NBWDs) suggest that many have low duty cycles of SSS activity. This is consistent with the fact that binary WD models predict about 100 times as many SSSs in external galaxies of all types as are actually detected. Interstellar absorption does not appear to be the problem. Instead, it is likely that the ~1037-1038 erg s-1 emitted by NBWDs emerges in other wavebands. The challenge we face is to search for highly luminous systems within the Milky Way and nearby galaxies that have unusual properties consistent with NBWDs, and inconsistent with other physical models. Model tests can then be conducted for individual candidates, allowing us to identify large numbers of progenitors years before explosion.

  15. Deflagration-to-detonation transition by amplification of acoustic waves in type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charignon, C.; Chièze, J.-P.

    2013-02-01

    Aims: We study a new mechanism for deflagration-to-detonation transition in thermonuclear supernovae (SNe Ia), based on the formation of shocks by amplification of sound waves in the steep density gradients of white dwarfs envelopes. We characterise, in terms of wavelength and amplitude, the perturbations which will ignite a detonation after their amplification. Methods: This study was performed using the well tested HERACLES code, a conservative hydrodynamical code, validated in the present specific application by an analytical description of the propagation of sound waves in white dwarfs. Thermonuclear combustion of the carbon oxygen fuel was treated with the α-chain nuclear reactions network. Results: In planar geometry we found the critical parameter to be the height of shock formation. When it occurs in the inner dense regions (ρ > 106 g cm-3) detonation is inevitable but can take an arbitrarily long time. We found that ignition can be achieved for perturbation as low as Mach number: M ~ 0.005, with heating times compatible with typical explosion time scale (a few seconds). On the opposite no ignition occurs when shocks initiated by small amplitude or large wavelength form further away in less dense regions. We show finally that ignition is also achieved in a spherical self-gravitating spherical model of cold C+O white dwarf of 1.430 M⊙, but due to the spherical damping of sound waves it necessitates stronger perturbation (M ~ 0.02). Small perturbations (M ~ 0.003) could still trigger detonation if a small helium layer is considered. In the context of SNe Ia, one has to consider further the initial expansion of the white dwarf, triggered by the deflagration, prior to the transition to detonation. As the star expands, gradients get flatter and ignition requires increasingly strong perturbations.

  16. PTF11kx: A Type Ia Supernova with Hydrogen Emission Persisting after 3.5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M. L.; Harris, C. E.; Fox, O. D.; Nugent, P. E.; Kasen, D.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The optical transient PTF11kx exhibited both the characteristic spectral features of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the signature of ejecta interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) containing hydrogen, indicating the presence of a nondegenerate companion. We present an optical spectrum at 1342 days after peak from Keck Observatory, in which the broad component of Hα emission persists with a similar profile as in early-time observations. We also present Spitzer IRAC detections obtained 1237 and 1818 days after peak, and an upper limit from Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet imaging at 2133 days. We interpret our late-time observations in the context of published results—and reinterpret the early-time observations—in order to constrain the CSM’s physical parameters and to compare to theoretical predictions for recurrent-nova systems. We find that the CSM’s radial extent may be several times the distance between the star and the CSM’s inner edge, and that the CSM column density may be two orders of magnitude lower than previous estimates. We show that the Hα luminosity decline is similar to other SNe with CSM interaction and demonstrate how our infrared photometry is evidence for newly formed, collisionally heated dust. We create a model for PTF11kx’s late-time CSM interaction and find that X-ray reprocessing by photoionization and recombination cannot reproduce the observed Hα luminosity, suggesting that the X-rays are thermalized and that Hα radiates from collisional excitation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results regarding the progenitor scenario and the geometric properties of the CSM for the PTF11kx system.

  17. A New Approach for Obtaining Cosmological Constraints from Type Ia Supernovae using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Elise; Wolf, Rachel; Sako, Masao

    2016-11-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation techniques that robustly account for systematic measurement uncertainties will be crucial for the next generation of cosmological surveys. We present a new analysis method, superABC, for obtaining cosmological constraints from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) without any likelihood assumptions. The ABC method works by using a forward model simulation of the data where systematic uncertainties can be simulated and marginalized over. A key feature of the method presented here is the use of two distinct metrics, the `Tripp' and `Light Curve' metrics, which allow us to compare the simulated data to the observed data set. The Tripp metric takes as input the parameters of models fit to each light curve with the SALT-II method, whereas the Light Curve metric uses the measured fluxes directly without model fitting. We apply the superABC sampler to a simulated data set of $\\sim$1000 SNe corresponding to the first season of the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program. Varying $\\Omega_m, w_0, \\alpha$ and $\\beta$ and a magnitude offset parameter, with no systematics we obtain $\\Delta(w_0) = w_0^{\\rm true} - w_0^{\\rm best \\, fit} = -0.036\\pm0.109$ (a $\\sim11$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Tripp metric and $\\Delta(w_0) = -0.055\\pm0.068$ (a $\\sim7$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Light Curve metric. Including 1% calibration uncertainties in four passbands, adding 4 more parameters, we obtain $\\Delta(w_0) = -0.062\\pm0.132$ (a $\\sim14$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Tripp metric. Overall we find a $17$% increase in the uncertainty on $w_0$ with systematics compared to without. We contrast this with a MCMC approach where systematic effects are approximately included. We find that the MCMC method slightly underestimates the impact of calibration uncertainties for this simulated data set.

  18. Analysis of exercise-to-rest ratios during division IA televised football competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosia, Mikaele F; Bishop, Phillip A

    2008-03-01

    A play in football is speculated to last 3 to 5 seconds. There are few if any peer-reviewed studies determining the exercise-to-rest ratios of a televised National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA college football competition. In this study, we measured the duration of a play, rest intervals between plays, and series of plays. The results of this study may aid strength and conditioning professionals in developing appropriate conditioning programs for their teams that compete on television based on appropriate exercise-to-rest ration training. Durations may have been influenced by the style of offense. Style of play for this study was determined to be running (RUN), passing (PASS), or balanced (BAL). Two NCAA Division IA teams were selected for each style of play based on their offensive production from the 2004 season. The average duration of a play was 5.23 +/- 1.7 seconds. Durations of RUN and PASS plays were 4.86 +/- 1.4 and 5.60 +/- 1.7 seconds, respectively. Durations related to style for RUN, PASS, and BAL were 4.84 +/- 1.4, 5.41 +/- 1.6, and 5.44 +/- 1.6 seconds, respectively. Duration of rest between plays was 46.9 +/- 34 seconds, including extended rest periods such as time outs and injury attention. The average duration of rest between plays without extended rest was 36.1 +/- 6.7 seconds. Average rest time between series was 11:39 +/- 4:19 minutes. The average duration of a PASS play was significantly different (P < 0.05) than that of a RUN play. The average duration of a play for PASS was significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of RUN and BAL. There was no significant difference between style of play and duration of rest between plays or series.

  19. Lesões da traquéia e grandes brônquios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Antonio Marsico

    Full Text Available As lesões traqueobrônquicas são raras, porém, no trauma de tórax, envolvem grande risco de vida. As suas manifestações são variáveis e não é incomum o diagnóstico ser protraído. O sucesso no diagnóstico e tratamento, freqüentemente, requer alto grau de suspeição e a correção cirúrgica como método de escolha. Após trauma fechado de tórax, a ruptura da traquéia e dos brônquios principais, geralmente, ocorre nas proximidades da carina. O rompimento da árvore traqueobrônquica, ocasionado por acidentes em alta velocidade, com alto impacto e grande liberação de energia, geralmente está associado a outras lesões. Os sinais comumente presentes são: enfisema subcutâneo, dispnéia e hemoptise. Os achados radiológicos mais comuns incluem pneumotórax, pneumomediastino, fraturas de costelas e clavícula. As broncoscopias efetivamente rígida e flexível são considerados métodos diagnósticos eficazes, desde que manuseados por cirurgião torácico treinado. O diagnóstico precoce deve ser enfatizado, pois evita as complicações associadas ao reparo tardio das lesões. O mecanismo etiológico, o diagnóstico e os aspectos da terapêutica na literatura mundial são revistos e discutidos.

  20. Como acelerar uniformemente Ia floración en solidaster (Solidago x luteus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor J. Flórez-Roncancio y

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Solidaster (Solidago x luteus es un híbrido interespecífico entre Solidago ptarmicoides y Solidago canadensis. Son plantas típicas de dias largos (DL, las cuales, dependiendo de la temperatura, crecen como rosetas en dias curtos (DC. Estas plantas son cultivadas para flor de corte. Se observaron características vegetativas y reproductivas de este híbrido en condiciones fotoperiódicas de 8h y 20h y se realizaron estudios de comportamiento fotoperiódico del desarrollo desde el botón floral hasta antesis. Tanto en DL como en DC se observó inducción y antesis floral; mientras que, en DL se verifico mayor altura de planta y aumento en el número de ramificaciones laterales, en DC se observó antesis floral más rápida. La evidencia de que los DC aceleraban la antesis floral, en plantas inducidas en días largos, se fortalecia con el experimento de diferente duración en días cortos (5; 10 y 15 días; lo cual se confirmó en experimentos subsecuentes, cuando se comprobó que la planta responde a los fotoperíodos cortos (8h; 10h y 12h, acelerando Ia antesis y a los fotoperíodos largos (16h y 20h, retardándoIa. Los fotoperíodos entre 12h y 16h (14h estarían en una situación de transición entre DC y DL, caracterizando, así, una respuesta cuantitativa con el aumento del fotoperíodo.

  1. Testing ΛCDM at the lowest redshifts with SN Ia and galaxy velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Schmidt, Fabian

    2017-05-01

    Peculiar velocities of objects in the nearby universe are correlated due to the gravitational pull of large-scale structure. By measuring these velocities, we have a unique opportunity to test the cosmological model at the lowest redshifts. We perform this test, using current data to constrain the amplitude of the ``signal'' covariance matrix describing the velocities and their correlations. We consider a new, well-calibrated ``Supercal'' set of low-redshift SNe Ia as well as a set of distances derived from the fundamental plane relation of 6dFGS galaxies. Analyzing the SN and galaxy data separately, both results are consistent with the peculiar velocity signal of our fiducial ΛCDM model, ruling out the noise-only model with zero peculiar velocities at greater than 7σ (SNe) and 8σ (galaxies). When the two data sets are combined appropriately, the precision of the test increases slightly, resulting in a constraint on the signal amplitude of A = 1.05-0.21+0.25, where A = 1 corresponds to our fiducial model. Equivalently, we report an 11% measurement of the product of the growth rate and amplitude of mass fluctuations evaluated at zeff = 0.02, f σ8 = 0.428-0.045+0.048, valid for our fiducial ΛCDM model. We explore the robustness of the results to a number of conceivable variations in the analysis and find that individual variations shift the preferred signal amplitude by less than ~0.5σ. We briefly discuss our Supercal SN Ia results in comparison with our previous results using the JLA compilation.

  2. Multi-Resolution L-Band Microwave Observations for Growing Vegetation during SMAPVEX16-IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, J.; Liu, P. W.; Chakrabarti, S.; De Roo, R. D.; Colliander, A.; Misra, S.; Yueh, S. H.; Williamson, R.; Ramos, I.; Tripp, S.; England, A. W.

    2016-12-01

    Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes passive sensor at L-band that provides global observations of SM at 36 km, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture when data assimilated into land surface models (LSMs). The SMAP Validation Experiment-2016 (SMAPVEX16) was conducted during the summer from May through August 2016 in predominantly agricultural regions in Iowa (SMAPVEX16-IA) and Manitoba. During the experiment, aircraft and ground-based observations of L-band active and passive signatures of corn and soybean were obtained at the SMAP incidence angle of 40•. The aircraft measurements were obtained from the NASA/JPL Passive Active L- and S-band Sensor (PALS) during the time of SMAP overpasses from May 23 through June 3 and from August 3 through August 16, 2016. The ground-based University of Florida (UFLMR) and University of Michigan L-band Radiometer (UMLMR) systems observed microwave signatures of soybean and corn, respectively, at the Sweeney Farms, about 70 km north of Ames, IA. The ground-based sensors conducted every 15-minutes observations from May 23 through September 2, 2016. In addition, soil, vegetation, and micro-meteorological conditions were also monitored throughout the growing season. In this study, we discuss the satellite observations from SMAP and ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) along with those from PALS, and UFLMR/UMLMR at differing resolutions to understand implications of spatial heterogeneity on soil moisture retrievals in agricultural regions. resolutions. The preliminary results show SMAP observations at 36 km correspond well with the ground-based observations for corn, the predominant land cover in the region.

  3. SN 185 and its Remnant RCW 86: A Type Ia Explosion within a Bubble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz; Blair, William; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox; Raymond, John; Reynolds, Stephen; Rho, Jeonghee; Williams, Brian; Winkler, P. Frank

    2008-03-01

    The bright guest star of AD185 is the earliest recorded historical supernova (SN), but its remnant has only recently been firmly identified with RCW 86 with help of X-rays and very high energy (VHE) Gamma-rays. RCW 86 is unlike any other historical SN, implicating a Type Ia explosion within a wind-blown bubble. X-ray synchrotron emission and VHE Gamma-rays are produced by relativistic particles accelerated in fast (several thousand km/s) shocks that are present in RCW 86, while slower radiative and nonradiative shocks are driven into the dusty shell swept up by the SN progenitor. We propose Spitzer observations of RCW 86, that will allow us to determine dust properties and physical conditions within both slow and fast shocks. We will determine shock densities in the whole remnant using MIPS imaging at 24 and 70 microns. This will allow us to finally determine whether VHE emission arises from relativistic electrons or from cosmic ray protons accelerated by the SN shock. We will also determine how acceleration of synchrotron-emitting electrons to TeV energies depends on the shock density. We propose IRS spectral mapping in two very different regions of the remnant to perform a more detailed and sensitive study of dust emission and dust destruction under differing plasma conditions, and of line emission produced by radiative shocks. This will also verify the results of the imaging observations, and will allow for quantitative comparison with models for dust emission and destruction in SN shocks. We request imaging with IRAC in the brightest region of the remnant to map emission from the hottest, transiently heated small grains, and to determine their destruction rates. Physical properties and dust content within the shell swept up by the RCW 86 progenitor will help us to constrain the pre-SN evolution of a Type Ia progenitor, a significant step toward understanding of progenitors of thermonuclear explosions.

  4. Evidence for Type Ia Supernova Diversity from Ultraviolet Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lifan; Filippenko, Alexei; Baron, Eddie; Kromer, Markus; Jack, Dennis; Zhang, Tianmeng; Aldering, Greg; Antilogus, Pierre; Arnett, W. David; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, This dataset provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 A. Significant diversity is seen in the near-maximum-light spectra (approx.2000-3500 A) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope observations, provide further evidence of increased dispersion in the UV emission with respect to the optical. The peak luminosities measured in the uvw lIF250W filter are found to correlate with the B-band light-curve shape parameter .(Delta)m15(B), but with much larger scatter relative to the correlation in the broad-band B band (e.g., approx. 0.4 mag versus approx. 0.2 mag for those with 0.8 3(sigma), being brighter than normal SNe Ia such as SN 2005cf by approx. 0,9 mag and approx. 2.0 mag in the uvwl1F250W and uvm2/F220W filters, respectively. We show that different progenitor metallicity or line-expansion velocities alone cannot explain such a large discrepancy. Viewing-angle effects, such as due to an asymmetric explosion, may have a significant influence on the flux emitted in the UV region. Detailed modeling is needed to disentangle and quantify the above effects

  5. Amenorréia e anormalidades do cromossomo X Amenorrhea and X chromosome abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar as manifestações clínicas de pacientes com amenorréia e anormalidades do cromossomo X. MÉTODOS: realizou-se uma análise retrospectiva dos achados clínicos e laboratoriais das pacientes com amenorréia e anormalidades do cromossomo X, atendidas entre janeiro de 1975 e novembro de 2007. Suas medidas antropométricas foram avaliadas através de tabelas de crescimento padrão, sendo que, quando presentes, dismorfias menores e maiores foram anotadas. O estudo dos cromossomos foi realizado através do cariótipo com bandamento GTG. RESULTADOS: do total de 141 pacientes com amenorréia, 16% apresentavam anormalidades numéricas e 13% estruturais do cromossomo X. Destas pacientes com anormalidade do X (n=41, 35 possuíam descrição clínica completa. Todas elas apresentavam hipogonadismo hipergonadotrófico. Amenorréia primária foi observada em 24 pacientes, das quais 91,7% com fenótipo de síndrome de Turner. Com exceção de um caso com deleção Xq22-q28, todas as demais pacientes com este fenótipo apresentavam alterações envolvendo Xp (uma com uma linhagem 46,XY associada. Os dois casos restantes com apenas amenorréia primária possuíam deleções proximais de Xq. Entre as 11 pacientes com amenorréia secundária, 54,5% apresentavam fenótipo de Turner (todas com monossomia do X isolada ou em mosaico. Entre aquelas com fenótipo de falência ovariana isolada observaram-se somente deleções Xq e trissomia do X. CONCLUSÕES: a análise cromossômica deve sempre ser realizada em mulheres com falência ovariana de causa não conhecida, mesmo na ausência de achados dismórficos. Esta também é de extrema importância em pacientes sindrômicas, pois, além de confirmar o diagnóstico, é capaz de identificar pacientes em risco, como nos casos com uma linhagem 46,XY.PURPOSE: to correlate the clinical manifestations of patients with amenorrhea and X chromosome abnormalities. METHODS: a retrospective analysis of the

  6. Ia-specific mixed leukocyte reactive T cell hybridomas: analysis of their specificity by using purified class II MHC molecules in synthetic membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeshott, C M; Chesnut, R W; Kubo, R T; Grammer, S F; Jenis, D M; Grey, H M

    1986-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the nature of the antigens recognized in allogeneic and syngeneic mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR). Specifically, we wished to determine whether Ia antigens alone were recognized by MLR-reactive T cells, or whether the specificity was determined by the corecognition of non-MHC antigens together with syngeneic or allogeneic Ia. To do this we used 11 T cell hybrids that were characterized as being specific for Iad and were tested their capacity to respond to isolated I-Ad or I-Ed that had been incorporated into liposomes and had bound to the surface of glass beads. Of nine alloreactive T cell hybrids (five I-Ad-and four I-Ed-specific), seven were shown to be responsive to the relevant isolated Ia antigen on glass beads. Also, two of two syngeneic I-Ad-specific T cell hybrids responded to I-Ad on the glass beads. One of the two alloreactive T cell hybrids that failed to respond to the relevant Ia antigen on glass beads was shown to be specific for an antigen in fetal calf serum (FCS) that was recognized in the context of the allo-Ia antigen (I-Ed), because when intact accessory cells were used, a response by this hybrid was only observed when FCS was present in the assay culture medium or when the accessory cells were pre-pulsed with FCS. The possible involvement of FCS antigens and non-Ia accessory cell antigens in the stimulation of the nine T cell hybrids that responded to isolated Ia on glass beads was evaluated. T cell hybrids that were grown and were tested in serum free medium were still capable of reacting to Ia on beads. The isolated Ia preparations used were greater than 90% pure, and their capacity to stimulate the T cell hybrids did not correlate with the degree of contamination with non-Ia proteins. We conclude from these studies that the majority of T cells that respond to allogeneic or syngeneic Ia bearing stimulator cells are specific for the Ia antigens themselves, and do not require the co-recognition of other

  7. Veritasu Inguššias : üks tapmise ja sugulaste kättemaksu lugu / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    31. augustil tapeti Nazranis Inguššia üks opositsiooniliidritest Magomed Jevlojev. Mõrvatu isa Jahja Jevlojevi sõnul ei rakendata tapmise organiseerijatele ja täidesaatjatele veritasu juhul, kui tapja saab kohtus karistatud. Vt. samas: Veritasu traditsioon näeb ette ka lepitamisvõimalust

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Sapelovirus Strain USA/IA33375/2015 Identified in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qi; Zheng, Ying; Guo, Baoqing; Zhang, Jianqiang; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Karen M Harmon; Main, Rodger G.; Li, Ganwu

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome of sapelovirus A, formerly known as porcine sapelovirus (PSV), from a diarrheic pig was sequenced for the first time in the United States (designated PSV USA/IA33375/2015). It shares 87.8% to 83.9% nucleotide identities with other reported PSV strains globally and is most closely related to Asia PSV strains.

  9. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-28

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  10. 76 FR 76745 - DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge, Harrison and Pottawattamie Counties, IA; and Washington County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 236 (Thursday, December 8, 2011)] [Notices] [Pages 76745-76746] [FR Doc No: 2011-31565] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2011-N209; 30136-1265-0000-S3] DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge, Harrison and Pottawattamie Counties, IA; and...

  11. Presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor skill in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Sensory information continuously converges on the spinal cord during a variety of motor behaviours. Here, we examined presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a novel motor skill. We tested whether repetition of two motor tasks with different degrees of difficulty, ...

  12. 77 FR 31831 - Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration....S.C. 71-87k. Alan R. Christian, Acting Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  13. Les normes comptables IAS/IFRS : quel modèle comptable ?, quels utilisateurs privilégiés ?

    OpenAIRE

    Heem, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Au moment où les sociétés européennes s'apprêtent à communiquer leurs comptes consolidés en normes IAS (dès 2005), une réflexion sur la philosophie même de ces normes est plus que jamais d'actualité

  14. Early UV emission from disc-originated matter (DOM) in Type Ia supernovae in the double-degenerate scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Naveh; Soker, Noam

    2017-09-01

    We show that the blue and UV excess emission in the first few days of some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be accounted in the double-degenerate (DD) scenario by the collision of the SN ejecta with circumstellar matter that was blown by the accretion disc formed during the merger process of the two white dwarfs (WDs). We assume that in cases of excess early light, the disc blows the circumstellar matter, that we term disc-originated matter (DOM), hours to days before explosion. To perform our analysis, we first provide a model-based definition for early excess light, replacing the definition of excess light relative to a power-law fit to the rising luminosity. We then examine the light curves of the SNe Ia iPTF14atg and SN 2012cg, and find that the collision of the ejecta with a DOM in the frame of the DD scenario can account for their early excess emission. Thus, early excess light does not necessarily imply the presence of a stellar companion in the frame of the single-degenerate scenario. Our findings further increase the variety of phenomena that the DD scenario can account for, and emphasize the need to consider all different SN Ia scenarios when interpreting observations.

  15. Cytochrome P450 IA2 activity in man measured by caffeine metabolism: effect of smoking, broccoli and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistisen, K; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1991-01-01

    The activity of 3 enzymes related to the bioactivation of toxic compounds and the development of cancer--cytochrome P450 IA2, N-acetyl transferase (NAT), and xanthine oxidase (XO)--can be measured from the ratios of formed metabolites excreted into urine. In the 3 experiments that comprised this study, subjects received at least 1 cup of coffee 2- 6 hours before spot urine samples were taken. The subjects included 335 healthy male and female volunteers who provided information on tobacco, caffeine, and broccoli intake in the preceding 2 weeks, 23 healthy men who exercised 8 hours/day for 30 days, and 9 subjects whose diet included green beans and broccoli. As expected, the ratio reflecting P450 IA2 activity was 66% and 70% higher, respectively, in men and women who smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day compared to male and female nonsmokers. The XO ratio also was significantly increased in smokers. 30 days of vigorous physical exercise increased the P450 IA2 ratio by 50% and the XO ratio by over 100%. Broccoli induced a 19% increase in P450 IA2 activity, while pregnancy and oral contraceptive use reduced this ratio by 29% and 20%, respectively. Since these ratios appear to yield reliable indicators of enzyme activity, prospective studies of their association with cancer development are recommended.

  16. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 and Photodynamic Therapy in Stage IA-IIA Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  17. Chemical fate of the nicotinic acetylcholinergic radiotracer [{sup 123}I]5-IA-85380 in baboon brain and plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Ronald M. [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States) and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States) and VA Connecticut HCS, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States)]. E-mail: ronald.baldwin@vanderbilt.edu; Zoghbi, Sami S. [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Staley, Julie K. [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); VA Connecticut HCS, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Brenner, Eric [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); VA Connecticut HCS, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); VA Connecticut HCS, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Amici, Louis [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); VA Connecticut HCS, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Fujita, Masahiro [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); VA Connecticut HCS, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Innis, Robert B. [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); VA Connecticut HCS, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles [Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); VA Connecticut HCS, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The fate of the nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptor radiotracer [{sup 123}I]5-IA-85380 ([{sup 123}I]5-IA) was studied in baboon by analyzing the chemical composition of brain tissue and plasma after intravenous administration of the tracer. Acetonitrile denaturation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed predominantly unchanged (91-98%) parent tracer in all brain tissues examined, compared to significant metabolism (23% parent) in the plasma at 90 min postinjection, and control tissue recovery of 95-98%. [{sup 123}I]5-IA was distributed to the thalamus with a standardized uptake value of 9.2 (0.04% dose/g) or a concentration 5.8 times higher than that of the cerebellum. The HPLC behavior of a synthesized sample of one hypothesized metabolite, 5-iodo-3-pyridinol (5-IP), was consistent with plasma radiometabolite fraction. Since only parent radiotracer compound was found in brain tissue, these results add confidence that information derived from single photon emission computed tomography images of {sup 123}I activity in the brain after [{sup 123}I]5-IA administration can be interpreted as distribution of an intact radiotracer.

  18. 75 FR 52925 - Opportunity for Designation in the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND; Grand Forks, ND; and Plainview, TX Areas; Request...

  19. 76 FR 15936 - Designation for the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND; Grand Forks, ND; and Plainview, TX Areas AGENCY...

  20. 78 FR 43850 - Opportunity for Designation in Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in Owensboro, KY; Bloomington, IL; Iowa Falls, IA; Casa Grande, AZ; Fargo, ND; Grand Forks, ND and Plainview, TX; Areas; Request...

  1. Growth hormone-releasing hormone resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism type ia: new evidence for imprinting of the Gs alpha gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Maghnie, Mohamad; Weber, Giovanna; De Menis, Ernesto; Brunelli, Valeria; Cappa, Marco; Loli, Paola; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2003-09-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Gs alpha gene cause Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Consistent with the observation that only maternally inherited mutations lead to resistance to hormone action [pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia)], recent studies provided evidence for a predominant maternal origin of Gs alpha transcripts in endocrine organs, such as thyroid, gonad, and pituitary. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of pituitary resistance to hypothalamic hormones acting via Gs alpha-coupled receptors in patients with PHP Ia. Six of nine patients showed an impaired GH responsiveness to GHRH plus arginine, consistent with a complete GH deficiency (GH peak from 2.6-8.6 microg/liter, normal > 16.5), and partial (GH peak 13.9 and 13.6 microg/liter) and normal responses were found in two and one patient, respectively. Accordingly, IGF-I levels were below and in the low-normal range in seven and two patients. All patients had a normal cortisol response to 1 microg ACTH test, suggesting a normal corticotroph function that was confirmed by a normal ACTH and cortisol response to CRH test in three patients. In conclusion, we report that in addition to PTH and TSH resistance, patients with PHP Ia display variable degrees of GHRH resistance, consistent with Gs alpha imprinting in human pituitary.

  2. Evidencia de circulación del virus de la hepatitis A, subgenotipo IA, en muestras ambientales en Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Báez

    2016-08-01

    Conclusión. Este estudio permitió detectar la presencia del HAV en 6,6 % de las muestras de agua de abastecimiento y en 13,3 % de las muestras de agua residual de los municipios en estudio. Se reporta por primera vez la circulación del subgenotipo IA en muestras ambientales en Antioquia.

  3. 75 FR 14243 - Pacific Rim Railway Company, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-City of Keokuk, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Pacific Rim Railway Company, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--City of Keokuk, IA Pacific Rim Railway Company, Inc. (PRIM), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of...

  4. Utilizing the Updated Gamma-Ray Bursts and Type Ia Supernovae to Constrain the Cardassian Expansion Model and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We update gamma-ray burst (GRB luminosity relations among certain spectral and light-curve features with 139 GRBs. The distance modulus of 82 GRBs at z>1.4 can be calibrated with the sample at z≤1.4 by using the cubic spline interpolation method from the Union2.1 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia set. We investigate the joint constraints on the Cardassian expansion model and dark energy with 580 Union2.1 SNe Ia sample (z<1.4 and 82 calibrated GRBs’ data (1.4Ia significantly improves the constraint on Ωm-ΩΛ plane. In the Cardassian expansion model, the best fit is Ωm=0.24-0.15+0.15 and n=0.16-0.52+0.30  (1σ, which is consistent with the ΛCDM cosmology (n=0 in the 1σ confidence region. We also discuss two dark energy models in which the equation of state w(z is parameterized as w(z=w0 and w(z=w0+w1z/(1+z, respectively. Based on our analysis, we see that our universe at higher redshift up to z=8.2 is consistent with the concordance model within 1σ confidence level.

  5. An Empirical Fitting Method for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves: A Case Study of SN 2011fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new empirical fitting method for the optical light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We find that a variant broken-power-law function provides a good fit, with the simple assumption that the optical emission is approximately the blackbody emission of the expanding fireball. This function is mathematically analytic and is derived directly from the photospheric velocity evolution. When deriving the function, we assume that both the blackbody temperature and photospheric velocity are constant, but the final function is able to accommodate these changes during the fitting procedure. Applying it to the case study of SN 2011fe gives a surprisingly good fit that can describe the light curves from the first-light time to a few weeks after peak brightness, as well as over a large range of fluxes (˜5 mag, and even ˜7 mag in the g band). Since SNe Ia share similar light-curve shapes, this fitting method has the potential to fit most other SNe Ia and characterize their properties in large statistical samples such as those already gathered and in the near future as new facilities become available.

  6. Caught in the Act: UV spectroscopy of the ejecta-companion collision from a type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas

    2017-08-01

    There is now significant observational evidence for both of the leading models proposed to explain the origin of type Ia supernovae (SNe). While the majority of SNe Ia likely come from the merger of two white dwarf (WD) stars (known as the double degenerate model), a significant fraction are the result of a WD accreting mass from the hydrogen envelope of a binary companion (known as the single degenerate model). Eventually, as the accreting WD approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, the onset of unstable burning occurs ultimately leading to a thermonuclear explosion. With observational evidence for both channels firmly in place, future efforts to better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia will require detailed studies of individual systems.A fundamental expectation of the single degenerate model is that the collision of the blast wave with the donor star will produce a unique signature - a bright and rapidly declining UV pulse. This UV signal has only been previously observed in a single SN. Here, we propose to undertake STIS UV spectroscopy of one infant type Ia SN with similarly strong UV emission. The spectra will provide unique and detailed insight into the ejecta-companion interaction while also probing the chemical abundance of the outermost layers of the SN ejecta. The ejecta-companion signature is only visible UV, and HST/STIS is the only instrument capable of obtaining the spectra that are needed as a detailed probe of the interaction physics.

  7. A blinded determination of H0 from low-redshift Type Ia supernovae, calibrated by Cepheid variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bonnie R.; Childress, Michael J.; Davis, Tamara M.; Karpenka, Natallia V.; Lidman, Chris; Schmidt, Brian P.; Smith, Mathew

    2017-10-01

    Presently, a >3σ tension exists between values of the Hubble constant H0 derived from analysis of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background by Planck, and local measurements of the expansion using calibrators of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We perform a blinded re-analysis of Riess et al. (2011) to measure H0 from low-redshift SNe Ia, calibrated by Cepheid variables and geometric distances including to NGC 4258. This paper is a demonstration of techniques to be applied to the Riess et al. (2016) data. Our end-to-end analysis starts from available Harvard -Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA3) and Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) photometries, providing an independent validation of Riess et al. (2011). We obscure the value of H0 throughout our analysis and the first stage of the referee process, because calibration of SNe Ia requires a series of often subtle choices, and the potential for results to be affected by human bias is significant. Our analysis departs from that of Riess et al. (2011) by incorporating the covariance matrix method adopted in Supernova Legacy Survey and Joint Lightcurve Analysis to quantify SN Ia systematics, and by including a simultaneous fit of all SN Ia and Cepheid data. We find H_0 = 72.5 ± 3.1 ({stat}) ± 0.77 ({sys}) km s-1 Mpc-1with a three-galaxy (NGC 4258+LMC+MW) anchor. The relative uncertainties are 4.3 per cent statistical, 1.1 per cent systematic, and 4.4 per cent total, larger than in Riess et al. (2011) (3.3 per cent total) and the Efstathiou (2014) re-analysis (3.4 per cent total). Our error budget for H0 is dominated by statistical errors due to the small size of the SN sample, whilst the systematic contribution is dominated by variation in the Cepheid fits, and for the SNe Ia, uncertainties in the host galaxy mass dependence and Malmquist bias.

  8. In vitro sensitivity of dermatophytes to urea Sensibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos à uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Costa Martins

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Urea is commonly used as a keratolytic substance in the treatment of onychomycoses to improve the penetration of antifungal drugs in the lesion sites. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory action of urea on samples of dermatophytes in vitro. METHOD: Minimum inhibitory concentration of urea was determined for 31 samples of dermatophytes cultured in Sabouraud-dextrose broth containing different concentrations (7.5% up to 40% of urea. Absence of growth was the criterion adopted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. RESULTS: The majority of samples (87% were sensitive to urea at 12.5%, or less. 2 isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans and 2 of Trichophyton rubrum required 30%, and 40% urea, respectively, to be completely inhibited. CONCLUSION: In vitro results demonstrate inhibitory activity of urea on dermatophytes, suggesting that it could be used as an adjuvant in topical treatments.OBJETIVO: A uréia é comumente usada como substância queratolítica no tratamento das onicomicoses no intuito de melhorar a penetração das drogas antifúngicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ação inibitória in vitro da uréia em amostras de dermatófitos MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima da uréia foi determinada para trinta e uma amostras de dermatófitos semeadas em meio de cultura Sabouraud-dextrose contendo diferentes concentrações (7,5% até 40% de uréia. Ausência de crescimento foi o critério adotado para a determinação da concentração inibitória mínima. RESULTADOS: A maioria das amostras (87% foi sensível à uréia em concentrações de 12,5% ou menos. Apenas dois isolados de Trichophyton tonsurans e dois de Trichophyton rubrum foram inibidos completamente na presença de 30% e 40% de uréia, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados in vitro demonstraram atividade inibitória da uréia sobre os dermatófitos, sugerindo que possa ser usada como um adjuvante em tratamentos tópicos.

  9. The topic of the Coming God in poetry by I.A. Bunin and S.S. Bekhteev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uryupin Igor Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article in the cultural and philosophical, historical and literary context examines the theme of “coming God” that has in post-revolutionary poetry by I.A. Bunin and S. Behteev special spiritual and moral significance. Identified by the author of the article the mythopoetic constants (motifs, figurative plot, universals, ideologies organize artistic and ontological space of the Russian literature in the early XXth century, the representativeness of the work of the two brightest representatives of “spiritual realism”. Poetic micro- and macrocosm of I.A. Bunin and S. Behteev – artists, rooted in the same physical (Orel-Elets, and even Paris and metaphysical (ChristianOrthodox “soil” is inextricably linked to the ontology and axiology of the New Testament. Through the prism of biblical images the poems of I.A. Bunin and S. Behteev often disclose crucified Motherland, tormented by pangs of godparents, the redeeming blood and sins of the people. It is no coincidence that I.A. Bunin and S. Behteev’s poetry reflects the image of “the coming God” as the embodiment of the moral and ethical of the Absolute with which people can existence. The epithet “future” rather multi-valued and extremely myth suggestive, at the same time points to the “walking” on the crucifixion of Christ the Savior, and “future” court, which is relied on by lyrical characters in poems by I.A. Bunin and S. Behteev, thirsting in exile in a foreign land moral support and reliable spiritual guide. Such guide for many Russian emigrants was “Coming God”, who was inevitably to win “Coming Ham (son of Noah”.

  10. THE CRITICAL MASS RATIO OF DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARIES FOR VIOLENT MERGER-INDUCED TYPE IA SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yushi [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakasato, Naohito [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Tsuruga Ikki-machi Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan); Tanikawa, Ataru; Hachisu, Izumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken’ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Maeda, Keiichi, E-mail: sato@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    Mergers of carbon–oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) are considered to be one of the potential progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent hydrodynamical simulations showed that the less massive (secondary) WD violently accretes onto the more massive (primary) one, carbon detonation occurs, the detonation wave propagates through the primary, and the primary finally explodes as a sub-Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia. Such an explosion mechanism is called the violent merger scenario. Based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of merging CO WDs, we derived a critical mass ratio (q{sub cr}) leading to the violent merger scenario that is more stringent than previous results. We conclude that this difference mainly comes from the differences in the initial condition of whether or not the WDs are synchronously spinning. Using our new results, we estimated the brightness distribution of SNe Ia in the violent merger scenario and compared it with previous studies. We found that our new q{sub cr} does not significantly affect the brightness distribution. We present the direct outcome immediately following CO WD mergers for various primary masses and mass ratios. We also discussed the final fate of the central system of the bipolar planetary nebula Henize 2-428, which was recently suggested to be a double CO WD system whose total mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar-limiting mass, merging within the Hubble time. Even considering the uncertainties in the proposed binary parameters, we concluded that the final fate of this system is almost certainly a sub-Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia in the violent merger scenario.

  11. Recombinant human GH replacement therapy in children with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia: first study on the effect on growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrante, Emanuele; Giavoli, Claudia; Linglart, Agnes; Cappa, Marco; Cisternino, Mariangela; Maghnie, Mohamad; Ghizzoni, Lucia; de Sanctis, Luisa; Lania, Andrea G; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Since the identification of GH deficiency due to resistance to GHRH in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia), no study investigated the effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy on height velocity (HV) in these patients. To address this question, eight prepubertal PHP-Ia children with GH deficiency (seven girls and one boy, aged 5.8-12 yr) underwent a 3- to 8-yr treatment with rhGH. Height and HV were measured before and at 6-month intervals during therapy. Nine sex- and age-matched children with idiopathic GH deficiency were monitored during rhGH therapy for comparison. In PHP-Ia children, height sd scores increased from -2.4 ± 0.58 to -1.8 ± 0.47 (P = 0.04) after 12 months, this increase being maintained after the second (-1.6 ± 0.6) and third (-1.15 ± 0.6) year of therapy, similarly to what recorded in children with idiopathic GH deficiency. The HV and HV sd scores after 3 yr maintained a significant increase from 3.5 ± 0.6 to 7.0 ± 0.9 cm/yr (P pubertal spurt and did not improve their near-adult height, with the only exception of one patient in whom estrogen production was blocked by GnRH analogs. We report the first study on the efficacy of rhGH replacement therapy in prepubertal children with PHP-Ia and provide indication that treatment of GH deficiency should be started soon due to the rather limited time window for a potentially effective therapy.

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. II. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in High-redshift Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbary, K.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Brodwin, M.; Connolly, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Doi, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Faccioli, L.; Fadeyev, V.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Gilbank, D. G.; Gladders, M. D.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E.; Huang, X.; Ihara, Y.; Kashikawa, N.; Koester, B.; Konishi, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lubin, L.; Meyers, J.; Morokuma, T.; Oda, T.; Panagia, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Postman, M.; Ripoche, P.; Rosati, P.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D. J.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Strovink, M.; Suzuki, N.; Takanashi, N.; Tokita, K.; Yasuda, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2012-01-01

    We report a measurement of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in galaxy clusters at 0.9 z z > 0.9 SNe. Finding 8 ± 1 cluster SNe Ia, we determine an SN Ia rate of 0.50+0.23 -0.19 (stat) +0.10 -0.09 (sys) h 2 70 SNuB (SNuB ≡ 10-12 SNe L -1 ⊙, B yr-1). In units of stellar mass, this translates to 0.36+0.16 -0.13 (stat) +0.07 -0.06 (sys) h 2 70 SNuM (SNuM ≡ 10-12 SNe M -1 ⊙ yr-1). This represents a factor of ≈5 ± 2 increase over measurements of the cluster rate at z influence of younger stellar populations by calculating the rate specifically in cluster red-sequence galaxies and in morphologically early-type galaxies, finding results similar to the full cluster rate. Finally, the upper limit of one hostless cluster SN Ia detected in the survey implies that the fraction of stars in the intra-cluster medium is less than 0.47 (95% confidence), consistent with measurements at lower redshifts. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Institute. STScI is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The observations are associated with program GO-10496.

  13. Opsonophagocytic Antibodies to Serotype Ia, Ib, and III Group B Streptococcus among Korean Infants and in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Ji Hyen; Cho, Hye Kyung; Lee, Hyunju; Seo, Ho Seong; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2017-05-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis among infants, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Protection against GBS typically involves antibody-mediated opsonization by phagocytes and complement components. The present study evaluated serotype-specific functional antibodies to GBS among Korean infants and in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products. An opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA) was used to calculate the opsonization indices (OIs) of functional antibodies to serotypes Ia, Ib, and III in 19 IVIG products from 5 international manufacturers and among 98 Korean infants (age: 0-11 months). The GBS Ia, Ib, and III serotypes were selected because they are included in a trivalent GBS vaccine formulation that is being developed. The OI values for the IVIG products were 635-5,706 (serotype Ia), 488-1,421 (serotype Ib), and 962-3,315 (serotype III), and none of the IVIG lots exhibited undetectable OI values (Korean manufacturers. The seropositive rate among infants was significantly lower for serotype Ia (18.4%), compared to serotype Ib and serotype III (both, 38.8%). Infant age of ≥ 3 months was positively correlated with the seropositive rates for each serotype. Therefore, only a limited proportion of infants exhibited protective immunity against serotype Ia, Ib, and III GBS infections. IVIG products that exhibit high antibody titers may be a useful therapeutic or preventive measure for infants. Further studies are needed to evaluate additional serotypes and age groups. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Presence of antibodies against genogroup VI norovirus in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Costantini, Verónica P; Cannon, Jennifer L; Lin, Seh-ching; Nascimento, Maria São José; Vinjé, Jan

    2013-01-01

    .... Sera from 373 small animal veterinarians and 120 age-matched population controls were tested for IgG antibodies to CaNoV by a recombinant virus like particle based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

  15. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /Portsmouth U.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; /UC, Berkeley; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

  16. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Jongeneelen, F J

    1992-01-01

    An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-dimethyluric acid). Mean exposure concentrations for foundry workers were defined by breathing zone hygienic samples (respirable dust 1.2 to 3.52 mg/m3 (93 samples)) and as total PAH (0.46 micrograms/m3) and pyrene concentrations (0.28 micrograms/m3) (six samples). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar IA2 ratios (5.63, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.56-6.70 and 4.40, 95% CI 3.56-5.24). The same was true for smoking controls and foundry workers (9.10, 95% CI 8.00-10.20 and 8.69, 95% CI 7.37-10.01). Both smoking groups had raised IA2 ratios compared with non-smokers (p less than 0.01). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar hpU concentrations (0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.22 and 0.11, 95% CI 0.09-0.13 mumol/mol creatinine). Smoking foundry workers had raised hpU concentrations (0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.59) compared with smoking controls (0.26, 95% CI 0.18-0.34) (p less than 0.01). A small subgroup of smoking foundry workers with the highest exposures to both silica and PAH also had the highest hpU concentrations (0.70, 95% CI - 0.07-1.47 mumol/mol creatinine) (p less than 0.04). Increased hpU concentrations in smoking foundry workers suggest a more than additive effect from smoking and foundry exposures resulting in increased PAH uptake. Increased P450IA2 enzyme activity was only found in smokers and no additional effect of foundry exposures was seen. These data suggest that smoking as well as work related PAH exposure may be casually related to increased risk

  17. Type Ia Supernovae as Sites of the p-process: Two-dimensional Models Coupled to Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglio, C.; Röpke, F. K.; Gallino, R.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2011-10-01

    Beyond Fe, there is a class of 35 proton-rich nuclides, between 74Se and 196Hg, called p-nuclei. They are bypassed by the s and r neutron capture processes and are typically 10-1000 times less abundant than the s- and/or r-isotopes in the solar system. The bulk of p-isotopes is created in the "gamma processes" by sequences of photodisintegrations and beta decays in explosive conditions in both core collapse supernovae (SNe II) and in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). SNe II contribute to the production of p-nuclei through explosive neon and oxygen burning. However, the major problem in SN II ejecta is a general underproduction of the light p-nuclei for A explosive nucleosynthesis with a detailed nuclear reaction network for all isotopes up to 209Bi. We select tracers within the typical temperature range for p-process production, (1.5-3.7) × 109 K, and analyze in detail their behavior, exploring the influence of different s-process distributions on the p-process nucleosynthesis. In addition, we discuss the sensitivity of p-process production to parameters of the explosion mechanism, taking into account the consequences on Fe and alpha elements. We find that SNe Ia can produce a large amount of p-nuclei, both the light p-nuclei below A = 120 and the heavy-p nuclei, at quite flat average production factors, tightly related to the s-process seed distribution. For the first time, we find a stellar source able to produce both light and heavy p-nuclei almost at the same level as 56Fe, including the debated neutron magic 92, 94Mo and 96, 98Ru. We also find that there is an important contribution from the p-process nucleosynthesis to the s-only nuclei 80Kr, 86Sr, to the neutron magic 90Zr, and to the neutron-rich 96Zr. Finally, we investigate the metallicity effect on p-process production in our models. Starting with different s-process seed distributions for two metallicities Z = 0.02 and Z = 0.001, running two-dimensional SN Ia models with different initial composition, we

  18. α-conotoxin RgIA protects against the development of nerve injury-induced chronic pain and prevents both neuronal and glial derangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Cinci, Lorenzo; Micheli, Laura; Zanardelli, Matteo; Pacini, Alessandra; McIntosh, J Michael; Ghelardini, Carla

    2014-10-01

    Neuropathic pain affects millions of people worldwide, causing substantial disability and greatly impairing quality of life. Commonly used analgesics or antihyperalgesic compounds are generally characterized by limited therapeutic outcomes. Thus, there is a compelling need for novel therapeutic strategies able to prevent nervous tissue alterations responsible for chronic pain. The α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist α-conotoxin RgIA (RgIA), a peptide isolated from the venom of a carnivorous cone snail, induces relief in both acute and chronic pain models. To evaluate potential disease-modifying effects of RgIA, the compound was given to rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Two or 10 nmol RgIA injected intramuscularly once a day for 14 days reduced the painful response to suprathreshold stimulation, increased pain threshold to nonnoxious stimuli, and normalized alterations in hind limb weight bearing. Histological analysis of the sciatic nerve revealed that RgIA prevented CCI-induced decreases of axonal compactness and diameter, loss of myelin sheath, and decreases in the fiber number. Moreover, RgIA significantly reduced edema and inflammatory infiltrate, including a decrease of CD86(+) macrophages. In L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia, RgIA prevented morphometric changes and reduced the inflammatory infiltrate consistent with a disease-modifying effect. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, RgIA prevented CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes. These data suggest that RgIA-like compounds may represent a novel class of therapeutics for neuropathic pain that protects peripheral nervous tissues as well as prevents central maladaptive plasticity by inhibiting glial cell activation. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping of epitopes for autoantibodies to the Type 1 diabetes autoantigen IA-2 by peptide phage display and molecular modelling: Overlap of antibody and T-cell determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Dromey, James; Weenink, Sarah M.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    phage display and homology modeling to characterize the epitope of a monoclonal IA-2 Ab (96/3) from a human type 1 diabetic patient. This Ab competes for IA-2 binding with Abs from the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes and therefore binds a region close to common autoantibody epitopes. Alignment...... of peptides obtained after screening phage-displayed peptide libraries with purified 96/3 identified a consensus binding sequence of Asn-x-Glu-x-x-(aromatic)-x-x-Gly. The predicted surface on a three-dimensional homology model of the tyrosine phosphatase domain of IA-2 was analyzed for clusters of Asn, Glu...

  20. Utilização de nitrogênio pelo trigo cultivado em solo fertilizado com adubo verde (Crotalaria juncea) e/ou uréia

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosano Edmilson José; Trivelin Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Araújo Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de; Teixeira Gleuber Mariano; Campos Antônio Xavier de; Silva Flávia Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o aproveitamento do nitrogênio de adubo verde (Crotalaria juncea L.)-15N e da uréia-15N, em fertilização conjugada e separada. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos contendo 5kg de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico (amostra colhida na profundidade de 0-20cm), utilizando trigo (Triticum aestivum L.), cultivar IAC-24. O delineamento inteiramente casualizado foi usado com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições: T1 - uréia-15N (45mg kg-1 de N-uréia); T2 - Crotalar...

  1. The delayed-detonation model of a type IA supernovae. 1: The deflagration phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, David; Livne, Eli

    1994-05-01

    The nature of the 'delayed detonation' mechanism of Khokhlov for the explosion of Type Ia supernovae is investigated by using two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamics simulations. A new algorithm is used to treat the deflagration front. Assuming that it propagates locally at the laminar flame speed, the deflagration is insufficient to unbind the star. Expansion shuts of the flame; much of this small production of iron group nuclei occurs at lower densities, which reduces the electron-capture problem. The burning front does become wrinkled, but the wavelength of the instability is much larger than the computational grid size and is resolved; this is consistent with previous analysis. Because the degenerate star has an adiabatic exponent only slightly above 4/3, the energy released by deflagration drives a pulsation of large amplitude. During the first expansion phase, adiabatic cooling shuts off the burning, and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability then gives mixing of high-entropy ashes with low-entropy fuel. During the first contraction phase, compressional heating reignites the material. This paper deals with the deflagration phase, from the onset of burning, through expansion and quenching of the flame, to the first contraction.

  2. The effect of curvature on detonation waves in Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Gary J.

    2001-04-01

    The effect of curvature on detonation speed and structure for detonation waves in C-O is investigated. Weakly curved detonation fronts have a sonic point inside the reaction zone. In such waves the detonation speed depends on the detailed internal structure and not on simple jump conditions. Hence, in order to obtain the correct propagation speed and products of burning, the reaction length-scales must be resolved in any numerical simulation involving curved detonations in C-O. For each value of the initial density there is a corresponding extinction curvature above which quasi-steady detonations cannot propagate. For densities less than 2×107gcm-3, where the self-sustaining planar waves are Chapman-Jouguet, and for realistic values of the curvature, the sonic point moves from the end of silicon burning to the end of oxygen burning. Hence the effective detonation length, i.e. the length-scale of the burning between the shock and the sonic point which can affect the front, is several orders of magnitudes less than the planar waves predict. However, silicon burning, which occurs downstream of the sonic point, is increased in length by a few orders of magnitude owing to lower detonation speeds and temperatures. Therefore more intermediate-mass elements will be produced by incomplete burning if curvature is taken into account. Recent advances in detonation theory and modelling are also discussed in the context of Type Ia supernovae.

  3. Ontologia: o termo e a idéiaOntology: the term and the idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schiessl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda o conceito de Ontologia e relaciona alguns problemas que motivam os pesquisadores desta área. Contextualiza a sobrecarga informacional em virtude do crescente volume de texto eletrônico armazenado em bases de dados, em especial na Web, e sua implicação na manutenção do fluxo da informação. Além disso, introduz a idéia da Web Semântica como uma solução para a organização dos conteúdos das páginas nos sítios da Web e o papel preponderante das ontologias, dentro deste contexto, que auxiliam a automatização da interpretação destes conteúdos e otimiza a recuperação da informação.This paper presents the concept of Ontology, and lists some problems that challenge researchers in this area. It contextualizes information overload as a result of the increasingly amount of electronic texts in storage, mainly in the Web, and theimplications to keep up with the information cycle. It presents an introduction to Semantic Web Idea in order to organize the content of web sites, and the preponderant role of Ontology that helps the automated interpretation of these contents and optimizes the information retrieval.

  4. EnviroAtlas -- Woodbine, IA -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EnviroAtlas Woodbine, IA land cover (LC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and near infrared) aerial photography from Late Summer 2011 at 1 m spatial resolution. Six land cover classes were mapped: water, impervious surfaces (dark and light), soil and barren land, trees and forest, grass and herbaceous non-woody vegetation, and agriculture. An accuracy assessment using a completely random sampling of 600 samples yielded an overall accuracy of 87.03% percent using a minimum mapping unit of 9 pixels (3x3 pixel window). The area mapped is defined by the US Census Bureau's 2010 Urban Statistical Area for Woodbine. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  5. EnviroAtlas -- Woodbine, IA -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2011) Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The EnviroAtlas Woodbine, IA land cover (LC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and near infrared) aerial photography from Late Summer 2011 at 1 m spatial resolution. Six land cover classes were mapped: water, impervious surfaces (dark and light), soil and barren land, trees and forest, grass and herbaceous non-woody vegetation, and agriculture. An accuracy assessment using a completely random sampling of 600 samples yielded an overall accuracy of 87.03% percent using a minimum mapping unit of 9 pixels (3x3 pixel window). The area mapped is defined by the US Census Bureau's 2010 Urban Statistical Area for Woodbine. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  6. A odisséia da reapropriação: a obra de Mouloud Mammeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bourdieu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reproduz uma conferência de Pierre Bourdieu sobre a obra do escritor e antropólogo argelino Mouloud Mammeri. O texto de Bourdieu foi lido in absentia no colóquio realizado em Argel sobre "A dimensão magrebina da obra de Mouloud Mammeri". O Autor compara a relação de Mammeri com o Magreb, região do Norte da África, como uma "odisséia", na qual essa peregrinação comporta dois momentos. O primeiro, de afastamento da cultura nativa, em direção à cultura universal universitária. O segundo, de reapropriação da cultura de origem através da investigação etnológica e de suas pesquisas sobre os antigos poetas cabilas. A descoberta de Homero e o investimento no trabalho etnológico sobre sua terra natal permitem a Mammeri ligar as duas pontas dessa viagem, graças ao resgate da cultura renegada através da cultura que impôs sua negação. O fim desse percurso equivale à confrontação com uma das modalidades da dominação simbólica, que é a vergonha de si.

  7. Role of regenerating gene IA expression on local invasion and survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haijie; Chen, Xiangdong; Han, Yaofeng

    2017-11-21

    Regenerating gene IA (REGIA) plays an important role in tissue regeneration and tumors prognosis of epithelium origin. However, the role of REGIA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. This study aims to investigate the expression and function of REG1A in NPC. We have found that there was 63 patients with REGIA positive expression of 155 patients in this study (40.65%). The positive expression rate of REGIA was 30.50, 44.44 and 47.83% in stage T2, T3 and T4 patients, respectively. The REGIA expression was significantly difference in T2 and T4 stage tumors or T2 and T3-T4 stage. The positive expression rate of REGIA was found to be higher in patients with cervical lymph node persistence than those with cervical lymph node complete regression. Patients with negative REGIA expression had a better overall survival and free survival than those with REGIA positive expression. In addition, according to the univariate and multivariate analysis, the REGIA expression was an independent adverse prognostic factor for NPC patients. REGIA expression was a useful biomarker in NPC patients for assessing T stage and survival.

  8. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia manifesting as intractable epilepsy in a 23-year-old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Raghavan,1 Charles M Katz21Department of Medicine, Mount Carmel Health, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Carmel Health, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder of calcium metabolism that involves target organ resistance to the action of the parathyroid hormone. As a result, calcium levels may become dangerously low, sometimes leading to seizures and other symptoms. We present a case of a 23-year-old Somalian female on antiepileptic therapy presenting with intractable epilepsy. She was subsequently found to have pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia. She had multiple reasons accounting for loss of seizure control, including worsening hypocalcemia from resistance to the parathyroid hormone; vitamin D deficiency, which could have resulted from lack of exposure to direct sunlight and her antiepileptic medication; and extensive calcium deposition in the brain due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. The patient was stabilized with intravenous therapy and oral calcium, vitamin D, and calcitriol. Her antiepileptic therapy was changed to a medication that did not interfere with vitamin D metabolism or contribute to worsening hypocalcemia.Keywords: calcium, pseudohypoparathyroidism, epilepsy

  9. miR-370 suppresses HBV gene expression and replication by targeting nuclear factor IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongxia; Lv, Ping; Lv, Jing; Zhao, Xiaopei; Liu, Min; Zhang, Guangling; Tang, Hua

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of HBV expression are being increasingly recognized. In this study, we found that overexpression of miR-370 suppressed HBV gene expression and replication in Huh7 cells, whereas antisense knockdown of endogenous miR-370 enhanced HBV gene expression and replication in Huh7 cells and HepG2.2.15 cells. Further, we identified the transcription factor nuclear factor IA (NFIA) as a new host target of miR-370. Overexpression and knockdown studies showed that NFIA stimulated HBV gene expression and replication. Importantly, overexpression of NFIA counteracted the effect of miR-370 on HBV gene expression and replication. Further mechanistic studies showed that miR-370 suppressed HBV replication and gene expression by repressing HBV Enhancer I activity, and one of the NFIA binding site in the Enhancer I element was responsible for the repressive effect of miR-370 on HBV Enhancer I activity. Altogether, our results demonstrated that miR-370 suppressed HBV gene expression and replication through repressing NFIA expression, which stimulates HBV replication via direct regulation on HBV Enhancer I activities. Our findings may provide a new antiviral strategy for HBV infection. J. Med. Virol. 89:834-844, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Tangled Up in Knots: Structures of Inactivated Forms of E. coli Class Ia Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimanyi, Christina M.; Ando, Nozomi; Brignole, Edward J.; Asturias, Francisco J.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Drennan, Catherine L. (MIT); (Scripps)

    2012-10-23

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) provide the precursors for DNA biosynthesis and repair and are successful targets for anticancer drugs such as clofarabine and gemcitabine. Recently, we reported that dATP inhibits E. coli class Ia RNR by driving formation of RNR subunits into {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4} rings. Here, we present the first X-ray structure of a gemcitabine-inhibited E. coli RNR and show that the previously described {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4} rings can interlock to form an unprecedented ({alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4}){sub 2} megacomplex. This complex is also seen in a higher-resolution dATP-inhibited RNR structure presented here, which employs a distinct crystal lattice from that observed in the gemcitabine-inhibited case. With few reported examples of protein catenanes, we use data from small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to both understand the solution conditions that contribute to concatenation in RNRs as well as present a mechanism for the formation of these unusual structures.

  11. Molecular typing of MRSA and of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iaşi, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Vremeră, Teodora; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Romania is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the world. To obtain data on affiliation of MRSA to strains and clonal complexes and on the population of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates from bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections as well as from screening swabs were collected at hospitals in Ia?i, a city in the North-Eastern part of Romania. Isolates were characterised by microarray hybridisation. Nearly half of all isolates (47%), and about one third (34%) of bloodstream isolates were MRSA. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was also high (31% among MRSA, 14% among MSSA). The most common MRSA strain was a PVL-negative CC1-MRSA-IV that might have emerged locally, as a related MSSA was also common. PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV ("USA300") and PVL-negative ST239-like MRSA-III were also frequently found while other MRSA strains were only sporadically detected. Among MSSA, PVL-positive CC121 as well as PVL-negative CC1, CC22 and CC45 predominated. Although this study provides only a snapshot of S. aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Romania, it confirms the high burden of MRSA and PVL on Romanian healthcare settings.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 1 block group in Woodbine, Iowa. The US EPA's Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) was used to estimate the incidence of adverse health effects (i.e., mortality and morbidity) and associated monetary value that result from changes in pollution concentrations for Harrison County, IA. Incidence and value estimates for the block groups are calculated using i-Tree models (www.itreetools.org), local weather data, pollution data, and U.S. Census derived population data. This dataset was produced by the US Forest Service to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  13. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 312 block groups in Des Moines, Iowa. The US EPA's Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) was used to estimate the incidence of adverse health effects (i.e., mortality and morbidity) and associated monetary value that result from changes in pollution concentrations for Dallas, Polk, and Warren Counties, IA. Incidence and value estimates for the block groups are calculated using i-Tree models (www.itreetools.org), local weather data, pollution data, and U.S. Census derived population data. This dataset was produced by the US Forest Service to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  14. Movimento solidário Colméia association: A place to women's citizenship recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Freitas Soares

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at presenting data from an investigation that the Research Group "Sexuality and School", from the Federal University at Rio Grande, has been developing with the Movimento Solidário Colméia Association members. Several meetings, which worked as a narrative space where women could listen to, narrate, and counter-argue stories and facts of their lives were organized. These women have been repeating the meaning attributed to feminine gender about maternity and care of the children, and about living and accepting aggressive attitudes of their partners. During the meetings, we carried out activities, which could provide them with information about these women's rights (from the Human Rights Declaration to the Maria da Penha Law; we contacted the Posto da Mulher workers, as well as the Casa de Passagem workers, an institution which gives shelter to the women and their children who are victims of violence. All of these activities aimed at the wakening for gender identities, trying to deconstruct the ways of thinking which have been passed from one generation to the other.  

  15. Testing the distance duality relation using Type Ia supernovae and ultracompact radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan

    2018-02-01

    We test the possible deviation of the cosmic distance duality relation $D_A(z)(1+z)^2/D_L(z)\\equiv 1$ using the standard candles/rulers in a fully model-independent manner. Type-Ia supernovae are used as the standard candles to derive the luminosity distance $D_L(z)$, and ultra-compact radio sources are used as the standard rulers to obtain the angular diameter distance $D_A(z)$. We write the deviation of distance duality relation as $D_A(z)(1+z)^2/D_L(z)=\\eta(z)$. Specifically, we use two parameterizations of $\\eta(z)$, i.e. $\\eta_1(z)=1+\\eta_0 z$ and $\\eta_2(z)=1+\\eta_0 z/(1+z)$. The parameter $\\eta_0$ is obtained using the Markov chain Monte Carlo methods by comparing $D_L(z)$ and $D_A(z)$ at the same redshift. The best-fitting results are $\\eta_0=-0.06\\pm 0.05$ and $-0.18\\pm 0.16$ for the first and second parameterizations, respectively. Our results depend on neither the cosmological models, nor the matter contents or the curvature of the universe.

  16. Il viaggio utopico nella fantascienza sovietica: La Nebulosa di Andromeda di I.A. Efremov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Zenobi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Utopian Journey in Soviet Science Fiction. The Andromeda nebula by I. a: Efremov Tumannost’ Andromedy by I.A. Efremov, a novel set in the 30-th century, can be interpreted in its utopic entreaties according to the theme of journey, in order to emphasize its strong link with the composite and problematic cultural climate during the Thaw. The journey can be considered as a technical device to depict the changed landscapes of a future communist society that will create a planet Earth totally resembling human rationality, in Efremov’s project. From the structural point of view, the journey is necessary to face the new and to enlarge one’s conceptual system: thanks to the plausible scientifi c hypothesis, the writer casts his project in the 30-th century, extrapolating the present premises and developing them in a better future. The reader is entrusted with the task of gradually discovering the criticisms of contemporaneity, while the definition of it remains rather ambiguous, since many of its aspects are omitted or denied. The evaluation of science as the concrete instrument with which to reach happiness gives the possibility to read the journey as the metaphor of the impulse towards knowledge and the unknown, as well as to the transcendent. In this perspective, the pages of the novel re-echo the Cosmist’s ideals, as the research of a friendly contact with other worlds, and the human victory against space and time represented by the colonization of the Universe.

  17. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: CAN CORIOLIS FORCE BREAK THE SYMMETRY OF THE GRAVITATIONAL CONFINED DETONATION EXPLOSION MECHANISM?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Senz, D. [Departament de Física, UPC, Comte d’Urgell 187, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain); Cabezón, R. M.; Thielemann, F. K. [Departement Physik, Universität Basel. Klingelbergstrasse, 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Domínguez, I., E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu, E-mail: ruben.cabezon@unibas.ch [Departamento de Física, Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-03-10

    Currently the number of models aimed at explaining the phenomena of type Ia supernovae is high and distinguishing between them is a must. In this work we explore the influence of rotation on the evolution of the nuclear flame that drives the explosion in the so-called gravitational confined detonation models. Assuming that the flame starts in a pointlike region slightly above the center of the white dwarf (WD) and adding a moderate amount of angular velocity to the star we follow the evolution of the deflagration using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the results are very dependent on the angle between the rotational axis and the line connecting the initial bubble of burned material with the center of the WD at the moment of ignition. The impact of rotation is larger for angles close to 90° because the Coriolis force on a floating element of fluid is maximum and its principal effect is to break the symmetry of the deflagration. Such symmetry breaking weakens the convergence of the nuclear flame at the antipodes of the initial ignition volume, changing the environmental conditions around the convergence region with respect to non-rotating models. These changes seem to disfavor the emergence of a detonation in the compressed volume at the antipodes and may compromise the viability of the so-called gravitational confined detonation mechanism.

  18. PEISAJUL CULTURAL INDUSTRIAL ȘI NECESITATEA PROTEJĂRII SALE. STUDIU DE CAZ: ROȘIA MONTANĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA-CRISTINA VASILIȚĂ-CRĂCIUN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Industriekulturlandschaft und die Notwendigkeit ihres Schutzes. Die Fallstudie: Roșia Montană. Die Vielzahl und Vielfalt kultureller Elemente, wie die römischen Bergwerke, die unterirdischen Anlagen, die Elemente aus den erzaufbereiteten Zonen usw., die eine deutliche industrielle Kulturlandschaft umzeichnen, sind markante Beweise für die Geschichte des Bergbaus in Roșia Montană. Die Zielsetzung, den wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung welchen dieses Gebiet aufweist (die Entwicklung des Tourismus durch das Setzen des Schwerpunkts auf das Erbe wieder herzustellen, ermöglicht den notwendigen Erhalt dieser Elemente an ihrem Enstehungsplatz. Zeitgleich wird die Fortsetzung der Rohstoff-Förderung (im Einklang mit den drei sozialen, wirtschaftlichen und ökologischen Komponenten als wichtig erachtet. Beide Maßnahmen werden auf diese Weise einen bedeutenden wirtschaftlichen und demographischen Fortschritt herbeiführen.

  19. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  20. Funcţia de Secretar de Stat în Republica Moldova: prezent şi perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara GHEORGHIȚA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available În acest articol este reflectat un studiu succint cu referire la situaţia actuală privind funcţia de secretar de stat în ministerele din Republica Moldova prin prisma mai multor aspecte: instituirea funcţiei de secretar de stat şi atribuţiile acesteia; recrutarea, selectarea şi numirea în funcţie; evaluarea performanţelor profesionale, dezvoltarea capacităţilor profesionale, remunerarea, mobilitatea şi managementul categoriei respective de funcţionari publici. De asemenea, articolul conţine propuneri cu privire la fortificarea rolului secretarului de stat şi a impactului activităţii acestuia.