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Sample records for svalbard archipelago norway

  1. Climate change impacts on wildlife in a High Arctic archipelago - Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Aars, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian; Pavlova, Olga; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Ravolainen, Virve; Strøm, Hallvard

    2017-02-01

    The Arctic is warming more rapidly than other region on the planet, and the northern Barents Sea, including the Svalbard Archipelago, is experiencing the fastest temperature increases within the circumpolar Arctic, along with the highest rate of sea ice loss. These physical changes are affecting a broad array of resident Arctic organisms as well as some migrants that occupy the region seasonally. Herein, evidence of climate change impacts on terrestrial and marine wildlife in Svalbard is reviewed, with a focus on bird and mammal species. In the terrestrial ecosystem, increased winter air temperatures and concomitant increases in the frequency of 'rain-on-snow' events are one of the most important facets of climate change with respect to impacts on flora and fauna. Winter rain creates ice that blocks access to food for herbivores and synchronizes the population dynamics of the herbivore-predator guild. In the marine ecosystem, increases in sea temperature and reductions in sea ice are influencing the entire food web. These changes are affecting the foraging and breeding ecology of most marine birds and mammals and are associated with an increase in abundance of several temperate fish, seabird and marine mammal species. Our review indicates that even though a few species are benefiting from a warming climate, most Arctic endemic species in Svalbard are experiencing negative consequences induced by the warming environment. Our review emphasizes the tight relationships between the marine and terrestrial ecosystems in this High Arctic archipelago. Detecting changes in trophic relationships within and between these ecosystems requires long-term (multidecadal) demographic, population- and ecosystem-based monitoring, the results of which are necessary to set appropriate conservation priorities in relation to climate warming. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rock glaciers from Norway and Svalbard, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A complete inventory of rock glaciers on mainland Norway and Svalbard has only been carried out in connection with coarse geomorphological mapping. The data...

  3. The Svalbard REU Program: Undergraduates Pursuing Arctic Climate Change Research on Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, S.; Werner, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Svalbard Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program sponsored by the Arctic Natural Sciences Program of the National Science Foundation has been successfully providing international field research experiences since 2004. Each year, 7-9 undergraduate students have participated in 4-5 weeks of glacial geology and climate change fieldwork on Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago in the North Atlantic (76- 80° N lat.). While we continue to learn new and better ways to run our program, we have learned specific management and pedagogical strategies that allow us to streamline our logistics and to provide genuine, meaningful research opportunities to undergraduate students. We select student participants after extensive nationwide advertising and recruiting. Even before applying to the program, students understand that they will be doing meaningful climate change science, will take charge of their own project, and will be expected to continue their research at their home institution. We look for a strong commitment of support from a student's advisor at their home institution before accepting students into our program. We present clear information, including participant responsibilities, potential risks and hazards, application procedures, equipment needed, etc on our program website. The website also provides relevant research papers and data and results from previous years, so potential participants can see how their efforts will contribute to growing body of knowledge. New participants meet with the previous years' participants at a professional meeting (our "REUnion") before they start their field experience. During fieldwork, students are expected to develop research questions and test their own hypotheses while providing and responding to peer feedback. Professional assessment by an independent expert provides us with feedback that helps us improve logistical procedures and shape our educational strategies. The assessment also shows us how

  4. Climatology of aerosol optical properties in Northern Norway and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hamre, B.; Frette, Ø.; Stamnes, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    We present comparisons between estimates of the aerosol optical thickness and the Ångström exponent in Northern Norway and Svalbard based on data from AERONET stations at Andenes (69° N, 16° E, 379 m altitude) and Hornsund (77° N, 15° E, 10 m altitude) for the period 2008-2010. The three-year annual mean values for the aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm τ(500) at Andenes and Hornsund were 0.11 and 0.10, respectively. At Hornsund, there was less variation of the monthly mean value of τ(500) than at Andenes. The annual mean values of the Ångström exponent α at Andenes and Hornsund were 1.18 and 1.37, respectively. At Andenes and Hornsund α was found to be larger than 1.0 in 68% and 93% of the observations, respectively, indicating that fine-mode particles were dominating at both sites. Both sites had a similar seasonal variation of the aerosol size distribution although one site is in an Arctic area while the other site is in a sub-arctic area.

  5. Aerosol optical properties in Northern Norway and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hamre, B.; Frette, Ø.; Blindheim, S.; Stebel, K.; Sobolewski, P.; Toledano, C.; Stamnes, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present comparisons between estimates of the aerosol optical thickness and the Ångström exponent in Northern Norway and Svalbard based on data from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) stations at Andenes (69.28° N, 16.01° E, 379 m altitude) and Hornsund (77.00° N, 15.56° E, 10 m altitude) for the period 2008-2011. The four-year annual mean values for the aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm τ(500) at Andenes and Hornsund both were 0.10. At Hornsund, there was less variation of the monthly mean value of τ(500) than at Andenes. The annual mean values of the Ångström exponent α at Andenes and Hornsund were 1.25 and 1.37, respectively. At Andenes and Hornsund α was found to be larger than 1.1 in 64% and 86% of the observations, respectively, indicating that fine-mode particles were dominating at both sites. Both sites had a similar seasonal variation of the aerosol size distribution although one site is in an arctic area while the other site is in a sub-arctic area.

  6. Population genetics of purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia) in the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Maria; Korpelainen, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated patterns of genetic variability in Saxifraga oppositifolia in the isolated Arctic Svalbard archipelago. The genetic analysis included genotyping using nine polymorphic microsatellite markers and sequencing of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region. Among populations, mean allele numbers per microsatellite locus ranged from 2.0 to 2.6, and 9 % of alleles were unique. Observed (H O) and expected (H E) heterozygosities averaged 0.522 and 0.445, respectively. Typically negative but non-significant F IS values (mean -0.173) were found in S. oppositifolia populations. F ST values were relatively low (mean 0.123). The Bayesian structure analysis provided additional information on population genetic structures. Seven out of 11 studied populations, including populations located both near each other and far apart (distances 5-210 km), showed relatively homogeneous clustering patterns, while one population located on a slope in the main settlement of Longyearbyen possessed a unique genetic structure. The Mantel test proved that there is no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances. Different growth habits (compact, trailing and intermediate) did not possess distinct genetic compositions based on microsatellite variation. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed 12 polymorphic sites. Among 24 sequenced Svalbard samples, eight haplotypes were detected, none shared by the mainland samples. Population genetic structures of S. oppositifolia in Svalbard show that both genetic variation and differentiation levels are modest, outcrossing is the main mating system, and dispersal and gene flow are important, probably attributable to strong winds and human and animal vectors.

  7. The Globalization of the Arctic: Negotiating Sovereignty and Building Communities in Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehøj

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic archipelago of Svalbard has been under Norwegian sovereignty since 1920 yet remains subject to international law. Until recently, the islands’ only major economic activities were unprofitable Russian – and Norwegian – funded mining operations aimed at maintaining continuous settlement. Now, however, Norway’s top-down governance of the territory has been complicated by the emergence of economic diversity, multinationalism, and local democracy in the town of Longyearbyen. Simultaneously, China and other states are promoting their Arctic interests by exploiting the preoccupation with Russia that characterizes Norway’s Svalbard policy. By interpreting Svalbard’s local communities through the prism of international relations, this article highlights the practical challenges to creating genuinely international territories.

  8. The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna

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    Stephen J. Coulson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experience from the Antarctic indicates that the establishment of alien species may have significant negative effects on native flora and fauna in polar regions and is considered to be amongst the greatest threats to biodiversity. But, there have been few similar studies from the Arctic. Although the terrestrial invertebrate inventory of the Svalbard Archipelago is amongst the most complete for any region of the Arctic, no consideration has yet been made of alien terrestrial invertebrate species, their invasiveness tendencies, threat to the native biology or their route of entry. Such baseline information is critical for appropriate management strategies. Fifteen alien invertebrate species have established in the Svalbard environment, many of which have been introduced via imported soils. Biosecurity legislation now prohibits such activities. None of the recorded established aliens yet show invasive tendencies but some may have locally negative effects. Ten species are considered to be vagrants and a further seven are classified as observations. Vagrants and the observations are not believed to be able to establish in the current tundra environment. The high connectivity of Svalbard has facilitated natural dispersal processes and may explain why few alien species are recorded compared to isolated islands in the maritime Antarctic. The vagrant species observed are conspicuous Lepidoptera, implying that less evident vagrant species are also arriving regularly. Projected climate change may enable vagrant species to establish, with results that are difficult to foresee.

  9. Historic PCB congener profiles in an ice core from Svalbard, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.; Matthews, K.A. [Pennsylvania Univ, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, G.W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Isaksson, E. [Norwegian Polar Inst., Tromso (Norway); Teixeira, C.; Muir, D.C.G. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada); Van Wal, R.S.W. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    This study identified historic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels and congener patterns in an ice core from Svalbard, Norway in order to identify types of sources and characteristic PCB congeners that remain in ice over time. A 60 meter ice core was drilled near the summit of the highest ice cap in Eurasia. Two snow/firn samples were also taken from the top meter of ice in order to determine PCB characteristics from the previous 2 years. The core was analyzed for electrical conductivity and density in the field, which resulted in estimates of water equivalent deposition. The upper 38 meters of the core were divided into 6 separate samples. PCBs were separated from polar compounds by elution through silica-gel with hexane. Fuzzy c means (FCM) was used to identify and map 2 different congener patterns. FCM cluster centroid compositions were then compared to Aroclor mixtures in order to identify parent materials or mixes. Results showed that peak PCB concentrations occurred over 3 core layers between 1972 and 1998. More recent layers had lower concentrations. However, the 2 snow samples had PCB concentrations similar to peak values observed in earlier layers. FCM of the congener profile results indicated a binary system with little gradation between them. All samples were dominated by pentachlorobiphenyls. It was concluded that lower molecular mass congeners had a tendency to remain in the gas phase at the Svalbard location. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

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    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  11. Cryogenic Origin for Mars Analog Carbonates in the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex Svalbard (Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, H. E. F.; Benning, L.; Blake, D. F.; Fogel, M.; Ming, D.; Skidmore, M.; Steele, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell eruptive centers in the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex (BVC) on Svalbard (Norway) formed by subglacial eruptions ca. 1 Ma ago. These eruptive centers carry ubiquitous magnesian carbonate deposits including dolomitemagnesite globules similar to those in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. Carbonates in mantle xenoliths are dominated by ALH84001 type carbonate globules that formed during quenching of CO2-rich mantle fluids. Lava hosted carbonates include ALH84001 type carbonate globules occurring throughout lava vesicles and microfractures and massive carbonate deposits associated with vertical volcanic vents. Massive carbonates include < or equal 5 cm thick magnesite deposits protruding downwards into clear blue ice within volcanic vents and carbonate cemented lava breccias associated with volcanic vents. Carbonate cements comprise layered deposits of calcite, dolomite, huntite, magnesite and aragonite associated with ALH84001 type carbonate globules lining lava vesicles. Combined Mossbauer, XRD and VNIR data show that breccia carbonate cements at Sverrefjell are analog to Comanche carbonates at Gusev crater.

  12. Tracing the Origins of Organic Matter in the Ice of Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidonish, J. E.; Bowden, R.; Benning, L. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the origin of organic matter (OM) in Arctic ice is of key importance in understanding the nature and origin of life in both modern and ancient ice. In turn, knowledge of this OM is important for studying biosignatures of ice, necessary for the search for life on Mars. In a study of samples from Svalbard, Norway, both stable isotope analysis and the presence of a unique UV-absorbing pigment (scytonemin) serve as a means of tracing potential sources of organic matter to glacial ice. Possible sources for glacial OM include the following: 1) aeolian sources including black carbon or local soils, creating "dirty snow", 2) plant sources from surrounding areas including higher plants, lichens, and mosses, 3) microbial sources from on the ice itself , i.e., snow algae and cryoconites, and 4) microbial biofilms and endoliths from nearby habitats.. The UV-sunscreen pigment scytonemin is prevalent in many of the sources, particularly snow algae, cryoconites, lichens and microbial biofilms, as determined by spectrophotometry and ultra-performance LCMS analysis. These same methods also revealed the presence of scytonemin in various ice cores and surface runoff samples, suggesting that these plant and microbial sources are indeed tied to the introduction of OM to the ice of Svalbard. Supporting pigment signature tracing, stable isotope analysis of 13C and 15N shows a clear trend confirming the origin of OM from regional organic matter, as both ice cores and runoff have an isotopic signature comparable to Svalbard plants, snow algae, cryconites, and lichen. These two lines of evidence conclude in tandem that the OM found in Svalbard's glaciers have an origin in the surrounding ecosystem. This finding suggests that traces of life can both be transported and preserved in ice for extended periods of time. This has especial meaning in the pursuit of biosignatures on Mars, as well as the study of paleoclimate on Earth. Future studies can focus on further tracing of

  13. The importance of tidewater glaciers for marine mammals and seabirds in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Christian; Assmy, Philipp; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kohler, Jack; Kovacs, Kit M.; Reigstad, Marit; Steen, Harald; Strøm, Hallvard; Sundfjord, Arild; Varpe, Øystein; Walczowski, Waldek; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Zajaczkowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of Svalbard's land areas are glaciated at the present time. The Archipelago has more than 1100 glaciers (> 1 km2) and 163 of these are “tidewater glaciers” - that is glaciers that terminate (with their calving front) at the sea. It has been known for a long time that these glacier front areas are important feeding areas for seabirds and marine mammals. Herein, we review current knowledge regarding the importance of these areas for these animals and reflect upon the processes that create these apparent “hotspots”. Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, routinely dominate avian assemblages in front of glaciers in Svalbard, but fulmars Fulmarus glacialis, ivory gulls Pagophila eburnea and glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus also contribute to aggregations, which can sometimes comprise many thousands of individuals. The birds are often found in the so-called “brown zone”, which is an area in front of tidewater glaciers that is ice-free due to currents and muddy due to suspended sediments. Animals at these sites typically have their stomachs full of large zooplankton or fish. These brown zones are also foraging hotspots for Svalbard's ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Prime breeding habitat for ringed seals in Svalbard occurs deep in the fjords where ice pieces calved from the glacier fronts become frozen into land-fast sea-ice, promoting the accumulation of snow to a depth suitable for ringed seal females to dig out birth lairs above breathing holes in the ice. These pupping areas are important hunting areas for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in spring, especially female bears with cubs of the year during the period following emergence from the winter/birthing den. Glacier-ice pieces floating in coastal areas are also important for all seal species in the region as dry platforms during moulting and also as general resting platforms for both birds and seals. During the last decade there have been several years with a

  14. Raman and SEM analysis of a biocolonised hot spring travertine terrace in Svalbard, Norway

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    Jorge-Villar Susana E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A profile across 8 layers from a fossil travertine terrace from a low temperature geothermal spring located in Svalbard, Norway has been studied using both Raman spectroscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques to identify minerals and organic life signals. Results Calcite, anatase, quartz, haematite, magnetite and graphite as well as scytonemin, three different carotenoids, chlorophyll and a chlorophyll-like compound were identified as geo- and biosignatures respectively, using 785 and/or 514 nm Raman laser excitation wavelengths. No morphological biosignatures representing remnant microbial signals were detected by high-resolution imaging, although spectral analyses indicated the presence of organics. In contrast, in all layers, Raman spectra identified a series of different organic pigments indicating little to no degradation or change of the organic signatures and thus indicating the preservation of fossil biomarker compounds throughout the life time of the springs despite the lack of remnant morphological indicators. Conclusion With a view towards planetary exploration we discuss the implications of the differences in Raman band intensities observed when spectra were collected with the different laser excitations. We show that these differences, as well as the different detection capability of the 785 and 514 nm laser, could lead to ambiguous compound identification. We show that the identification of bio and geosignatures, as well as fossil organic pigments, using Raman spectroscopy is possible. These results are relevant since both lasers have been considered for miniaturized Raman spectrometers for planetary exploration.

  15. A New Ophthalmosaurid (Ichthyosauria) from Svalbard, Norway, and Evolution of the Ichthyopterygian Pelvic Girdle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsett, Lene Liebe; Roberts, Aubrey J.; Druckenmiller, Patrick S.; Hurum, Jørn H.

    2017-01-01

    In spite of a fossil record spanning over 150 million years, pelvic girdle evolution in Ichthyopterygia is poorly known. Here, we examine pelvic girdle size relationships using quantitative methods and new ophthalmosaurid material from the Slottsmøya Member Lagerstätte of Svalbard, Norway. One of these new specimens, which preserves the most complete ichthyosaur pelvic girdle from the Cretaceous, is described herein as a new taxon, Keilhauia nui gen. et sp. nov. It represents the most complete Berriasian ichthyosaur known and the youngest yet described from the Slottsmøya Member. It is diagnosed on the basis of two autapomorphies from the pelvic girdle, including an ilium that is anteroposteriorly expanded at its dorsal end and an ischiopubis that is shorter or subequal in length to the femur, as well as a unique character combination. The Slottsmøya Member Lagerstätte ichthyosaurs are significant in that they represent a diverse assemblage of ophthalmosaurids that existed immediately preceding and across the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary. They also exhibit considerable variation in pelvic girdle morphology, and expand the known range in size variation of pelvic girdle elements in the clade. PMID:28121995

  16. Isolation and Physiological Characterization of Psychrophilic Denitrifying Bacteria from Permanently Cold Arctic Fjord Sediments (Svalbard, Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Andy; Prakash, Om; Green, Stefan J.; Jahnke, Linda; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of reactive nitrogen loss from polar sediments is mediated by denitrification, but microorganisms mediating denitrification in polar environments remain poorly characterized. A combined approach of most-probable-number (MPN) enumeration, cultivation and physiological characterization was used to describe psychrophilic denitrifying bacterial communities in sediments of three Arctic fjords in Svalbard (Norway). A MPN assay showed the presence of 10(sup 3)-10(sup 6) cells of psychrophilic nitrate-respiring bacteria g(sup -1) of sediment. Fifteen strains within the Proteobacteria were isolated using a systematic enrichment approach with organic acids as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor. Isolates belonged to five genera, including Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) and Herminiimonas (Betaproteobacteria). All isolates were denitrifiers, except Shewanella, which exhibited the capacity for dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Growth from 0 to 40 degC demonstrated that all genera except Shewanella were psychrophiles with optimal growth below 15 degC, and adaptation to low temperature was demonstrated as a shift from primarily C16:0 saturated fatty acids to C16:1 monounsaturated fatty acids at lower temperatures. This study provides the first targeted enrichment and characterization of psychrophilic denitrifying bacteria from polar sediments, and two genera, Arcobacter and Herminiimonas, are isolated for the first time from permanently cold marine sediments.

  17. A white humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae in the Atlantic Ocean, Svalbard, Norway, August 2012

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    Christian Lydersen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A white humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae was observed on several occasions off Svalbard, Norway, during August 2012. The animal was completely white, except for a few small dark patches on the ventral side of its fluke. The baleen plates were light-coloured, but the animal's eyes had normal (dark colouration. This latter characteristic indicates that the animal was not an albino; it was a leucistic individual. The animal was a full-sized adult and was engaged in “bubble-feeding”, together with 15–20 other humpback whales, each time it was seen. Subsequent to these sightings, polling of the marine mammal science community has resulted in the discovery of two other observations of white humpback whales in the Barents Sea area, one in 2004 and another in 2006; in both cases the observed individuals were adult animals. It is likely that all of these sightings are of the same individual, but there is no genetic or photographic evidence to confirm this suggestion. The rarity of observations of such white individuals suggests that they are born at very low frequencies or that the ontogenetic survival rates of the colour morph are low.

  18. Relationship of cyanobacterial and algal assemblages with vegetation in the high Arctic tundra (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

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    Richter Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of cyanobacteria and green algae assemblages occurring in various tundra types determined on the basis of mosses and vascular plants and habitat conditions. The research was carried out during summer in the years 2009-2013 on the north sea-coast of Hornsund fjord (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago. 58 sites were studied in various tundra types differing in composition of vascular plants, mosses and in trophy and humidity. 141 cyanobacteria and green algae were noted in the research area in total. Cyanobacteria and green algae flora is a significant element of many tundra types and sometimes even dominate there. Despite its importance, it has not been hitherto taken into account in the description and classification of tundra. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the legitimacy of using phycoflora in supplementing the descriptions of hitherto described tundra and distinguishing new tundra types. Numeric hierarchical-accumulative classification (MVSP 3.1 software methods were used to analyze the cyanobacterial and algal assemblages and their co-relations with particular tundra types. The analysis determined dominant and distinctive species in the communities in concordance with ecologically diverse types of tundra. The results show the importance of these organisms in the composition of the vegetation of tundra types and their role in the ecosystems of this part of the Arctic.

  19. Growth chronology of Greenland Cockles (Serripes groenlandicus) from Bear Island, Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Ambrose, William; Locke, William; Wanamaker, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is occurring rapidly in the Arctic, and observing the links between environmental drivers and biological effects can provide key information on the ecosystem consequences of climate change. Analysis of shell-based records of mollusks (sclerochronology) provides an effective and expanding approach to reconstructing environmental-ecological linkages. In particular, annually resolved archives can be key indicators of how climate change manifests in the marine ecosystem. We developed a master growth chronology of the Greenland Cockle (Serripes groenlandicus) from Bear Island (Bjørnøya), Svalbard, Norway (74°41'N, 18°56'E) from analysis of annual shell increments. The chronology was developed from 20 individuals ranging in age from 24 to 45 years old (the oldest known individuals of this species to date). The chronology, expressed as a standardized growth index (SGI), extended from 1968 to 2012 and exhibited a cyclical pattern, with decadal periods of high growth, alternating with slower growth intervals. We also identified significant relationships between large-scale climate regimes (e.g. NAO, AMO), local environmental conditions (e.g. sea temperature, sea ice), and shell growth. Additionally, growth chronologies, and environmental linkages were compared from this, near the southern extent of the Barents Sea polar front, with other Arctic locations influenced by different water masses to examine the nature of the environmental regulation on shell growth of this species in the Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean. We conclude that the Greenland Cockle is quite sensitive to environmental changes over annual to decadal scales and therefore can serve as a proxy of climate change effects on ecosystem processes in the Arctic.

  20. Science as national belonging: The construction of Svalbard as a Norwegian space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peder; Paglia, Eric

    2016-12-01

    This article examines how science has been employed to establish, maintain, and contest senses of belonging on Svalbard, an Arctic archipelago administered by Norway since 1925 under an international treaty. Our central argument is that the process of constructing Svalbard as a space belonging to Norway has long been intertwined with the processes of describing and representing the archipelago and that participating in those processes has also permitted other states to articulate their own narratives of belonging - on Svalbard in particular and in the Arctic more generally. We deploy the concept of belonging to capture a sense of legitimate presence and stakeholdership that we do not believe can be adequately captured by narrow concepts of sovereignty. Norway's historic and current use of science validates (and even naturalizes) its rule over Svalbard. At the same time, other states use science on Svalbard to articulate geopolitical scripts that portray them as stakeholders in an Arctic that is of transregional relevance due to the effects of climate change.

  1. Analysis Of Conservation Experience Of Heritage Objects In Lithuania (The Curonian Spit And Norway (The Vega Archipelago

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    Nijolė Piekienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Vega Archipelago (Norway are objects on the UNESCO World Heritage List because of their special kind of landscapes that have been formed not without human intervention. Landscapes created by nature itself or with human help are exceptional works which, as determined by the legal acts in regulation of these processes, have to be referred to as objects of cultural heritage. The cultural heritage must be protected, exhibited and viewed as objects of science and cognition. Lithuania and Norway have different conditions formed for identification, conservation and protection of these works, but both countries have recognized that protection of cultural heritage, passing it on for future generations is the duty of the state. Prospects of heritage management and development, and exchange of experience should be the top priorities for action in Lithuania.

  2. Isotopic and geochemical investigation of two distinct Mars analog environments using evolved gas techniques in Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stern, J.C.; McAdam, A.C.; Kate, I.L. ten; Bish, D.L.; Blake, D.F.; Morris, R.V.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M.L.; Glamoclija, M.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Steele, A.; Amundsen, H.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) investigated two distinct geologic settings on Svalbard, using methodologies and techniques to be deployed on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). AMASE-related research comprises both analyses conducted during the expedition and further analyses of

  3. How quickly do High Arctic coastal environments respond to rapid deglaciation and the paraglacial transformation of proglacial areas? - Answers from Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

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    Strzelecki, Matt; Long, Antony; Lloyd, Jerry; Zagórski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The coastal zone is one of the most important storage systems for sediments that are eroded and transported by rivers, wind and slope processes from deglacierised valleys and proglacial areas before reaching their final sediment sink (fjords or the open sea. The Svalbard archipelago provides an excellent location to quantify how High Arctic coasts are responding to climate warming and the associated paraglacial landscape transformations. In this paper we summarize the results of several coastal surveys carried out by our research teams along the paraglacial coasts of Spitsbergen during the last decade. We reconstruct the post-Little Ice Age development of selected coastlines in Spitsbergen to illustrate the variable coastal response to paraglacial and periglacial processes activated following the recent retreat of glaciers. Our surveys use aerial photogrammetric and GIS analyses, sedimentological classification of coastal deposits and field-based geomorphological mapping in Kongsfjorden, Billefjorden, Bellsund, Hornsund and Sørkappland. Our results document dramatic changes in sediment flux and coastal response under intervals characterized by a warming climate, retreating local ice masses, a shortened winter sea-ice season and thawing permafrost. The study highlights the need for a greater understanding of the controls on High Arctic coastal geomorphology, especially given the potential for future accelerated warming and sea-level rise.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Onset of the Growing Season on Svalbard, Arctic Norway — Measured by MODIS-NDVI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Rune Karlsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is among the regions with the most rapid changes in climate and has the expected highest increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of phenological phases, such as onset of the growing season observed from remote sensing, are among the most sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. The study area here is the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, located between 76°30ʹ and 80°50ʹN. The goal of this study was to use MODIS Terra data (the MOD09Q1 and MOD09A1 surface reflectance products, both with 8-day temporal composites to map the onset of the growing season on Svalbard for the 2000–2013 period interpreted from field observations. Due to a short and intense period with greening-up and frequent cloud cover, all the cloud free data is needed, which requires reliable cloud masks. We used a combination of three cloud removing methods (State QA values, own algorithms, and manual removal. This worked well, but is time-consuming as it requires manual interpretation of cloud cover. The onset of the growing season was then mapped by a NDVI threshold method, which showed high correlation (r2 = 0.60, n = 25, p < 0.001 with field observations of flowering of Salix polaris (polar willow. However, large bias was found between NDVI-based mapped onset and field observations in bryophyte-dominated areas, which indicates that the results in these parts must be interpreted with care. On average for the 14-year period, the onset of the growing season occurs after July 1st in 68.4% of the vegetated areas of Svalbard. The mapping revealed large variability between years. The years 2000 and 2008 were extreme in terms of late onset of the growing season, and 2002 and 2013 had early onset. Overall, no clear trend in onset of the growing season for the 2000–2013 period was found.

  5. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a High Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüers, J.; Westermann, S.; Piel, K.; Boike, J.

    2014-01-01

    The annual variability of CO2 exchange in most ecosystems is primarily driven by the activities of plants and soil microorganisms. However, little is known about the carbon balance and its controlling factors outside the growing season in arctic regions dominated by soil freeze/thaw-processes, long-lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a High Arctic tundra area on the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy-covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to zero grams carbon per square meter per year, but shows a very strong seasonal variability. Four major CO2 exchange seasons have been identified. (1) During summer (ground snow-free), the CO2 exchange occurs mainly as a result of biological activity, with a predominance of strong CO2 assimilation by the ecosystem. (2) The autumn (ground snow-free or partly snow-covered) is dominated by CO2 respiration as a result of biological activity. (3) In winter and spring (ground snow-covered), low but persistent CO2 release occur, overlain by considerable CO2 exchange events in both directions associated with changes of air masses and air and atmospheric CO2 pressure. (4) The snow melt season (pattern of snow-free and snow-covered areas), where both, meteorological and biological forcing, resulting in a visible carbon uptake by the high arctic ecosystem. Data related to this article are archived under: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.809507.

  6. Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    This background note for Norway by the U.S. State Department describes the geography, people, history, government, politics, and foreign relations of this newly oil-rich Scandinavian nation. Norwegians number 4.1 million, growing only at 0.3% per year, of Germanic origin, with 20,000 Laplanders. Infant mortality is 9/1000; life expectancy is 73 and 80 years. The government is a constitutional monarchy, with socialized medicine, education through university and social security. Norway became independent of Sweden in 1905, was a non-belligerent in both world wars, but was occupied by Nazi Germany. Subsequently Norway has required military service and is a member of NATO. Norway is a wealthy developed nation, with a positive foreign trade balance, a per capita income of $14,000, resources of oil, fish, timber, hydroelectric power, ores, and an industrial economy. Norway sends out about $471 million in foreign aid.

  7. Sea ice-associated decline in body condition leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-01-15

    Global climate changes are magnified in the Arctic and are having an especially dramatic effect on the spatial and temporal distribution and the thickness traits of sea ice. Decline of Arctic sea ice may lead to qualitative and/or quantitative changes in diet and reduced body condition (i.e. adipose tissue stores) of ice-associated apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). This may further affect their tissue concentrations of lipophilic pollutants. We determined how variations in adipose tissue stores associated to both breeding status and spatial changes in sea ice conditions and diet influence concentrations and biotransformation of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We collected 112 blood and fat samples from female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of different breeding status (alone, with cubs of the year, or with yearlings) during two seasons (April and September) in 2012 and 2013 at three locations of Svalbard, Norway, with contrasted sea ice conditions. We inferred diet from nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in red blood cells and fatty acid composition in adipose tissue. Relative to diet, body condition, which was negatively related to sea ice extent at both temporal and spatial scales, was the most important predictor for concentrations of POPs in plasma and fat, whereas diet showed a minor influence. Additionally, fatter females were more efficient at biotransforming PCBs than were leaner ones. Breeding status influenced the concentrations of less lipophilic compounds such as β-hexachlorocyclohexane, which were lower in females with yearlings, probably due to excretion into milk and subsequent offloading to young. In conclusion, our results indicate that declining sea ice indirectly leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears mediated through reduced feeding opportunities and declining body condition rather than changes in diet composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Norway with a territory of 386,000 sq. km or 150,000 sq. miles is slightly larger than New Mexico. In 1991 the population was estimated at 4.3 million with an annual growth rate of .5% and a literacy rate of 100%. The infant mortality rate is 7/1000 live births, and lie expectancy is 73 years for men and 80 years for women. Norway's government is a hereditary constitutional monarchy since independence n 1905. Ethnically, Norwegians are predominantly Germanic, but there are indigenous communities of Sami (Lapps) in the north, and in recent years almost 150,000 immigrants, foreign workers, and asylum-seekers have settled there. Norway's health system includes free hospital care, physicians compensation, cash benefits during illness and pregnancy, and other medical and dental plans. Until the 1981 election, Norway has been governed by Labor Party governments since 1935, except for 3 periods (1963, 1965-71, and 1972-73). Gro Harlem Brundtland is again the prime minister after forming her 3rd government in 10 years. Norway holds national elections in September 1993. Norway's large shipping fleet is modern; metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are traditional industries, and major oil and gas discoveries in the mid-1970s transformed the economy. High oil prices in the 1983-85 period raised consumer spending, wages, and inflation. Norway is aspiring to restructure its nonoil economy in favor of efficient, nontraditional industry. The prime minister has indicated that Norway may apply for European Community (EC) membership before the end of 1992. Its main trading partners are the EC countries and its Scandinavian neighbors with the US in 5th place.

  9. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a high Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luërs, J.; Westermann, Signe; Piel, K.

    2014-01-01

    The annual variability of CO2 exchange in most ecosystems is primarily driven by the activities of plants and soil microorganisms. However, little is known about the carbon balance and its controlling factors outside the growing season in Arctic regions dominated by soil freeze/thaw processes, long......-lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a high Arctic tundra area at the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to 0 g C m-2 yr-1......, but displays a strong seasonal variability. Four major CO2 exchange seasons have been identified. (1) During summer (snow-free ground), the CO2 exchange occurs mainly as a result of biological activity, with a dominance of strong CO2 assimilation by the ecosystem. (2) The autumn (snow-free ground or partly...

  10. Sea ice and polar bear den ecology at Hopen Island, Svalbard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. E. Derocher; M. Andersen; Ø. Wiig; J. Aars; E. Hansen; M. Biuw

    2011-01-01

    The maternity denning of polar bears was studied at Hopen Island, Svalbard, Norway, using information collected by direct observation and live-capture of females and cubs during den emergence in spring of 1994 to 2008...

  11. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...

  12. Elevation changes measured on Svalbard glaciers and ice caps from airborne laser data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Bamber, J.L.; Krabill, W.; Raper, V.; Dowdeswell, J.A.

    Precise airborne laser surveys were conducted during spring in 1996 and 2002 on 17 ice caps and glaciers in the Svalbard archipelago covering the islands of Spitsbergen and Nordaustlandet. We present the derived elevation changes. Lower-elevation glaciers in south Spitsbergen show the largest

  13. Catching up: the state and potential of historical catch data from Svalbard in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard in the European Arctic has a well-documented history of natural-resource exploitation. Since its discovery in 1596, the archipelago has witnessed phases of commercial whaling, sealing, fur-hunting, and fishing. Scientific expeditions, mass tourism, and mining have also added to the

  14. Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, C.L.; Hermansen, O.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Lunder, C.; Fiebig, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Krognes, T.; Stebel, K.

    2012-07-01

    The report summaries the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin and observatory situated on Svalbard in Arctic Norway during the period 2001-2010 and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2010. The monitoring programme is performed by the NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research and funded by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) (now Climate and Pollution Agency) and NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research.(Author)

  15. Eruption age of the Sverrefjellet volcano, Spitsbergen Island, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Treiman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sverrefjellet is a Pleistocene-age basaltic volcanic construct on north-western Spitsbergen Island (Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Published ages for the Sverrefjellet eruption range between 6000 years and ca. 1 million years before present. The age of eruption is dated here as 1.05±0.07 (1σ My, consistent with Ar–Ar isochron and plateau ages of several analysed samples. Radiogenic Ar represents a small proportion of the released Ar, <15% in nearly all samples. Non-radiogenic Ar components include air, excess 40Ar (seen as inverse isochron intercept values >40Ar/36Ar = 295.5, low-temperature alterations (Ar release at low temperature, with high Cl/K, carbonates and zeolites (Ar release at intermediate temperature and xenolithic material (Ar release at high temperature, high Ca/K. The effects of the largely non-radiogenic argon sources are also seen in the total-gas Ar–Ar “ages”, which range from 1.3 to 10.3 My, significantly larger than the inferred eruption age. It is likely that total-gas Ar–Ar “ages” and whole-rock K–Ar “ages” of similar basalts also exceed their true eruption ages.To access the supplementary material to this article please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online.

  16. The hunting of the Greenland right whale in Svalbard, its interaction with climate and its impact on the marine ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, L

    1999-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, tens of thousands of Greenland right whales were killed as a result of extensive European whaling in the coastal waters of the Svalbard archipelago. The author reconstructed these whaling activities, examined how the changing climate affected whaling productivity,

  17. Size and composition of the wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus population in the Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alendal, Einar; Bie, Steven de; van Wieren, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    In the summer of 1977 we studied the reindeer population on the islands Barentsøya and Edgeøya in the eastern part of the Svalbard archipelago. A total of 1374 reindeer were observed: 326 animals in the western parts of Barentsøya and 1048 animals on Edgeøya. Considering those parts of Edgeøya which

  18. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of Pink-Footed Geese: 2014 progress summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest-management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60 thousand) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark.  Specifically, this report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information and its implications for the harvest management strategy.

  19. Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: the extended Svalbard Airport temperature series, 1898–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Nordli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the few long instrumental records available for the Arctic is the Svalbard Airport composite series that hitherto began in 1911, with observations made on Spitsbergen, the largest island in the Svalbard Archipelago. This record has now been extended to 1898 with the inclusion of observations made by hunting and scientific expeditions. Temperature has been observed almost continuously in Svalbard since 1898, although at different sites. It has therefore been possible to create one composite series for Svalbard Airport covering the period 1898–2012, and this valuable new record is presented here. The series reveals large temperature variability on Spitsbergen, with the early 20th century warming as one striking feature: an abrupt change from the cold 1910s to the local maxima of the 1930s and 1950s. With the inclusion of the new data it is possible to show that the 1910s were colder than the years at the start of the series. From the 1960s, temperatures have increased, so the present temperature level is significantly higher than at any earlier period in the instrumental history. For the entire period, and for all seasons, there are positive, statistically significant trends. Regarding the annual mean, the total trend is 2.6°C/century, whereas the largest trend is in spring, at 3.9°C/century. In Europe, it is the Svalbard Archipelago that has experienced the greatest temperature increase during the latest three decades. The composite series may be downloaded from the home page of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and should be used with reference to the present article.

  20. Naturressursene og verdenspolitikken på Svalbard 1596-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roald Berg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of Spitsbergen/Svalbard has been characterized by a combination of masculine heroism and continuous struggle for the natural resources at the islands. In the beginning, from the 16th century, it was an international struggle for the harvesting of the whale and walrus; its value was so great that international conflicts led to the development of such doctrines as mare clausum and mare liberum ininternational law. The competition for the utilization of the coal resources led the Americans near annexation during the first decade of the 20th century before Norway received sovereignty over the islands after the first world war and the services of the Norwegian merchant fleet during that war. After the cold war the oil deposits in the Barents Sea might trigger another period of resource struggle at the islands and the oceans around them.

  1. Nitrate stable isotopes and major ions in snow and ice samples from four Svalbard sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Vega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reactive nitrogen (Nr deposition in the Arctic may adversely impact N-limited ecosystems. To investigate atmospheric transport of Nr to Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic, snow and firn samples were collected from glaciers and analysed to define spatial and temporal variations (1–10 years in major ion concentrations and the stable isotope composition (δ15N and δ18O of nitrate (NO3- across the archipelago. The δ15N NO3- and δ18ONO3- averaged −4‰ and 67‰ in seasonal snow (2010–11 and −9‰ and 74‰ in firn accumulated over the decade 2001–2011. East–west zonal gradients were observed across the archipelago for some major ions (non-sea salt sulphate and magnesium and also for δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3- in snow, which suggests a different origin for air masses arriving in different sectors of Svalbard. We propose that snowfall associated with long-distance air mass transport over the Arctic Ocean inherits relatively low δ15NNO3- due to in-transport N isotope fractionation. In contrast, faster air mass transport from the north-west Atlantic or northern Europe results in snowfall with higher δ15NNO3- because in-transport fractionation of N is then time-limited.

  2. 15-years of permafrost monitoring on Janssonhaugen, Svalbard; new insights into permafrost response and sensitivity to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Ketil; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Vikhamar Schuler, Dagrun; Nordli, Øyvind

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic land areas have experienced greater warming over the last three decades than elsewhere in the world. In Europe the Svalbard archipelago (located in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean from 74° to 81°N and 10° to 35°E) have experienced the greatest temperature change during this period. At Svalbard airport the mean annual air temperature has increased by approximately 4 °C since 1980. Air temperatures on Svalbard are highly sensitive to the coupled sea ice-ocean-atmosphere system and recent studies suggest that the shrinkage in Arctic sea-ice cover is the most important factor for the record high temperatures. Continuous temperature series from two instrumented permafrost boreholes (102 m and 15 m deep) on Janssonhaugen, Svalbard, provide main data for the present analysis. The boreholes are located 23 km from Svalbard Airport and were established in 1998 within the EU-funded PACE project and are designed for long-term temperature monitoring. In this study we examine the impact of the recent atmospheric warming on the permafrost in Svalbard. Trends and variability in permafrost temperatures at different depths are compared to trends in air temperature and ground surface temperatures. Although Janssonhaugen is representative for exposed sites where snow cover typically is thin or absent, the altered effect of a thin snow cover on subsurface thermal regime has not been analysed in detail so far. The effect of variability in snow cover on ground temperatures is studied and quantified by combined use of snow cover modeling, 1-D transient heat flow modeling and advanced time-series analyses. The study gives new insights into permafrost response and sensitivity to climate change, including effects of more frequent anomalous weather events.

  3. Svalbard as a study model of future High Arctic coastal environments in a warming world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piskozub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Svalbard archipelago, a high latitude area in a region undergoing rapid climate change, is relatively easily accessible for field research. This makes the fjords of Spitsbergen, its largest island, some of the best studied Arctic coastal areas. This paper aims at answering the question of how climatically diverse the fjords are, and how representative they are for the expected future Arctic diminishing range of seasonal sea-ice. This study uses a meteorological reanalysis, sea surface temperature climatology, and the results of a recent one-year meteorological campaign in Spitsbergen to determine the seasonal differences between different Spitsbergen fjords, as well as the sea water temperature and ice ranges around Svalbard in recent years. The results show that Spitsbergen fjords have diverse seasonal patterns of air temperature due to differences in the SST of the adjacent ocean, and different cloudiness. The sea water temperatures and ice concentrations around Svalbard in recent years are similar to what is expected most of the Arctic coastal areas in the second half of this century. This makes Spitsbergen a unique field study model of the conditions expected in future warmer High Arctic.

  4. Reduced metabolic cost of locomotion in Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea during winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lees

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Svalbard rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta hyperborea experiences extreme photoperiodic and climatic conditions on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. This species, however, is highly adapted to live in this harsh environment. One of the most striking adaptations found in these birds is the deposition, prior to onset of winter, of fat stores which may comprise up to 32% of body mass and are located primarily around the sternum and abdominal region. This fat, while crucial to the birds' survival, also presents a challenge in that the bird must maintain normal physiological function with this additional mass. In particular these stores are likely to constrain the respiratory system, as the sternum and pelvic region must be moved during ventilation and carrying this extra load may also impact upon the energetic cost of locomotion. Here we demonstrate that winter birds have a reduced cost of locomotion when compared to summer birds. A remarkable finding given that during winter these birds have almost twice the body mass of those in summer. These results suggest that Svalbard ptarmigan are able to carry the additional winter fat without incurring any energetic cost. As energy conservation is paramount to these birds, minimising the costs of moving around when resources are limited would appear to be a key adaptation crucial for their survival in the barren Arctic environment.

  5. Generalized Geology of Svalbard (geo_sval)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age of surface outcrops of bedrock of Svalbard. It also includes...

  6. Reading the archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bongie

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] A History of Literature in the Caribbean, Volume 3: Cross-Cultural Studies. JAMES A. ARNOLD (ed.. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1997. xvii + 399 pp. (Cloth US$ 120.00 The Other America: Caribbean Literature in a New World Context. J. MICHAEL DASH. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1998. xii + 197 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.50, Paper US$ 18.50 In his most recent theoretical work, Traite du Tout-Monde, Edouard Glissant stresses the virtues of what he calls "archipelagic thinking." "The entire world is becoming an archipelago," he asserts (1997:194, and for this reason we need to distance ourselves from both insular and continental ways of thinking if we are to register the complexities of that global creolization process. The archipelago is situated between the solitary confines of the islands that constitute it and the expansive territory of the mainland toward which it points, relating the one to the other while retaining its own indeterminately distinct identity. For Glissant, actual archipelagos such as the Caribbean are exemplary sites for understanding the complex new relations that ambivalently and chaotically join together all the hitherto unconnected parts of the world. As a consequence of this, the need for understanding the Caribbean as an archipelago becomes ever more pressing: the Caribbean must be considered in its archipelagic totality, as a region that can only be adequately understood through comparative, cross-cultural analysis focusing less on its discrete parts than on the way these parts exist in relation with and to one another.

  7. Observations of enhanced thinning in the upper reaches of Svalbard glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. James

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the volume and extent of land ice of the Svalbard archipelago have been the subject of considerable research since their sensitivity to changes in climate was first noted. However, the measurement of these changes is often necessarily based on point or profile measurements which may not be representative if extrapolated to a whole catchment or region. Combining high-resolution elevation data from contemporary laser-altimetry surveys and archived aerial photography makes it possible to measure historical changes across a glacier's surface without the need for extrapolation. Here we present a high spatial resolution time-series for six Arctic glaciers in the Svalbard archipelago spanning 1961 to 2005. We find high variability in thinning rates between sites with prevalent elevation changes at all sites averaging −0.59 ± 0.04 m a−1 between 1961–2005. Prior to 1990, ice surface elevation was changing at an average rate of −0.52 ± 0.09 m a−1 which decreased to −0.76 ± 0.10 m a−1 after 1990. Setting the elevation changes against the glaciers' altitude distribution reveals that significant increases in thinning rates are occurring most notably in the glaciers' upper reaches. We find that these changes are coincident with a decrease in winter precipitation at the Longyearbyen meteorological station and could reflect a decrease in albedo or dynamic response to lower accumulation. Further work is required to understand fully the causes of this increase in thinning rates in the glaciers' upper reaches. If on-going and occurring elsewhere in the archipelago, these changes will have a significant effect on the region's future mass balance. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the climatological context of geodetic mass balance measurements and demonstrate the difficulty of using index glaciers to represent regional changes in areas of strong climatological gradients.

  8. Video cascade accumulation of the total solar eclipse on Svalbard 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigernes, Fred; Ellingsen, Pål Gunnar; Partamies, Noora; Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Brekke, Pål; Eriksen Holmen, Silje; Danielsen, Arne; Olsen, Bernt; Chen, Xiangcai; Dyrland, Margit; Baddeley, Lisa; Lorentzen, Dag Arne; Aleksander Krogtoft, Marcus; Dragland, Torstein; Mortensson, Hans; Smistad, Lisbeth; Heinselman, Craig J.; Habbal, Shadia

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a novel image accumulation filter technique that reveals small-scale features and details from intense luminosity or high dynamic range (HDR) video recordings. It was discovered and developed from the analyses of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) film of the total solar eclipse that occurred Friday 20 March 2015 in Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E) on Svalbard, Norway. The result of the filter is fused with a HDR image of the corona and the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) image of the solar disk.

  9. Comparison of meteorological conditions in Svalbard fjords: Hornsund and Kongsfjorden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cisek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comparison of basic meteorological parameters in two Arctic fjords situated on the west coast of Spitsbergen, the main island of the Svalbard archipelago. Air temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity and cloud cover from the period 2005 to 2016 are described and compared with previous (from 1975 analyses of meteorological conditions in the investigated region. Such a choice of dates coincides with the time the GAME project measurements were carried out. The main goal of this study was to compare meteorological conditions in two fjords: Hornsund and Kongsfjorden, during the time of rapid climate changes. The results are collated with research results available in literature from previous years. We discovered that in the investigated period the climate of the Hornsund region is more oceanic than in Kongsfjorden. The stable level of the difference in climate elements is manifested and is evident mainly through greater amplitudes in air temperatures in Kongsfjorden, and in stronger winds in Hornsund.

  10. The red-sky enigma over Svalbard in December 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sigernes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available On 6 December 2002, during winter darkness, an extraordinary event occurred in the sky, as viewed from Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E, Svalbard, Norway. At 07:30 UT the southeast sky was surprisingly lit up in a deep red colour. The light increased in intensity and spread out across the sky, and at 10:00 UT the illumination was observed to reach the zenith. The event died out at about 12:30 UT. Spectral measurements from the Auroral Station in Adventdalen confirm that the light was scattered sunlight. Even though the Sun was between 11.8 and 14.6deg below the horizon during the event, the measured intensities of scattered light on the southern horizon from the scanning photometers coincided with the rise and setting of the Sun. Calculations of actual heights, including refraction and atmospheric screening, indicate that the event most likely was scattered solar light from a target below the horizon. This is also confirmed by the OSIRIS instrument on board the Odin satellite. The deduced height profile indicates that the scattering target is located 18–23km up in the stratosphere at a latitude close to 73–75° N, southeast of Longyearbyen. The temperatures in this region were found to be low enough for Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC to be formed. The target was also identified as PSC by the LIDAR systems at the Koldewey Station in Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E. The event was most likely caused by solar illuminated type II Polar Stratospheric Clouds that scattered light towards Svalbard. Two types of scenarios are presented to explain how light is scattered. Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (Transmissions and scattering of radiation; Middle atmospherecomposition and chemistry; Instruments and techniques – History of geophysics (Atmospheric Sciences; The red-sky phenomena

  11. Modern Process Studies in Kongsfjord, Svalbard: Arctic Geoscience Research Experience for U.S. Undergraduates (Svalbard REU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. D.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Svalbard REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) program focuses on understanding how high latitude glaciers, meltwater streams, and sedimentation in lakes and fjords respond to changing climate. Since summer of 2004, six under-graduate students have been selected to participate in the summer field program. Students work on individual projects and in close conjunction with faculty advisors and other student researchers. They formulate their own research questions, develop their project, and complete their field research during a five-week program on Svalbard, Norway. Following the summer program, students complete their projects at their home institution during the following academic year as a senior thesis. A spring symposium brings all participants back together again with their final results. The most recent field season was completed in Kongsfjord (79N) showing that the contemporary studies of tidewater glacier margins provide an unparalleled opportunity for introducing motivated third year undergraduate students to the challenges and rewards of polar geoscientific field research. Rates of rapid change in this high-latitude Arctic environment emphasize the complexity of the Earth System at the interface of the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. Given background information in glacial and marine geology, glaciology, hydrology, climatology and fjord oceanography not routinely offered in undergraduate curricula, students develop the science questions to be addressed and establish a field plan for instrumentation and sampling. Working together in small boats in one of the most challenging natural environments, the students expand their leadership skills, learn the value of teamwork and collaborative data sharing while maintaining a strong sense of ownership over their individual science projects. The rigors of studying an actively calving tidewater glacier also builds on their outdoor skills, especially when it is necessary to improvise and become

  12. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  13. Regional passive seismic monitoring reveals dynamic glacier activity on Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Köhler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic glacier activity is increasingly observed through passive seismic monitoring. We analysed near-regional-scale seismicity on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard to identify seismic icequake signals and to study their spatial–temporal distribution within the 14-year period from 2000 until 2013. This is the first study that uses seismic data recorded on permanent broadband stations to detect and locate icequakes in different regions of Spitsbergen, the main island of the archipelago. A temporary local seismic network and direct observations of glacier calving and surging were used to identify icequake sources. We observed a high number of icequakes with clear spectral peaks between 1 and 8 Hz in different parts of Spitsbergen. Spatial clusters of icequakes could be associated with individual grounded tidewater glaciers and exhibited clear seasonal variability each year with more signals observed during the melt season. Locations at the termini of glaciers, and correlation with visual calving observations in situ at Kronebreen, a glacier in the Kongsfjorden region, show that these icequakes were caused dominantly by calving. Indirect evidence for glacier surging through increased calving seismicity was found in 2003 at Tunabreen, a glacier in central Spitsbergen. Another type of icequake was observed in the area of the Nathorstbreen glacier system. Seismic events occurred upstream of the glacier within a short time period between January and May 2009 during the initial phase of a major glacier surge. This study is the first step towards the generation and implementation of an operational seismic monitoring strategy for glacier dynamics in Svalbard.

  14. Late Mesozoic magmatism in Svalbard: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, Kim; Tveranger, Jan; Ogata, Kei; Braathen, Alvar; Planke, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Late Mesozoic mafic igneous rocks are widespread across the Arctic region, and are collectively referred to as the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). In Svalbard the HALIP is represented by the Diabasodden Suite, an extensive system of predominantly basic intrusive doleritic rocks.

  15. The Arctic Playground of Europe: Sir Martin Conway’s Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism is a significant aspect of the processes of modernity in the High Arctic. This article discusses the British art historian and mountaineer Sir William Martin Conway's two travelogues, The First Crossing of Spitsbergen (1897 and With Ski and Sledge over Arctic Glaciers (1898, in terms of a pioneering tourist approach to the archipelago of Svalbard. Unlike earlier yachting tourists, Conway described a journey into the uncharted interior of the main island, Spitsbergen. His books are therefore narrated as exploration accounts and following many of the demands of that genre, such as an emphasis on mapping, natural science and being the first. However, they may also be read as guidebooks for other discerning and undaunted British gentleman travellers. Inspired by the art critic John Ruskin’s “science of aspects”, which combined accurate scientific observations and practical knowledge with an imaginative and aesthetic response to the landscape, Conway attempts to give his readers a positive sense of the qualities of the Arctic. At the same time, he promotes Svalbard as an Arctic “Playground of Europe”, where adventurous Alpinists in addition to climbing unknown mountains and glaciers could find fraternal domesticity far away from home around the hearth of the campfire. In this way Conway locates natural beauty, life and recreational opportunities where travellers before him had only described desolation and death.

  16. Structure and changing dynamics of a polythermal valley glacier on a centennial timescale: Midre Lovenbreen, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hambrey, M. J.; Murray, T.; Glasser, N. F.

    2005-01-01

    structural glaciology, polythermal glacier, Svalbard, ground-penetrating radar, numerical modeling......structural glaciology, polythermal glacier, Svalbard, ground-penetrating radar, numerical modeling...

  17. Metals in Racomitrium lanuginosum from Arctic (SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago) and alpine (Karkonosze, SW Poland) tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2018-02-19

    Arctic-alpine tundra habitats are very vulnerable to the input of relatively small amounts of xenobiotics, and thus their level in such areas must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we collected the terrestrial widespread moss Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. in Spitsbergen in the Arctic moss lichen tundra and, for comparison, in the Arctic-alpine tundra in the Karkonosze (SW Poland). Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in this species and in the parent rock material were measured. We tested the following hypothesis: R. lanuginosum from Spitsbergen contains lower metal levels than the species from the Karkonosze collected at altitudes influenced by long-range transport from former Black Triangle industry. Principal component and classification analysis (PCCA) ordination revealed that mosses of Spitsbergen were distinguished by a significantly higher Na concentration of marine spray origin and mosses of Karkonosze were distinguished by significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn probably from long-range atmospheric transport. The influence of the polar station with a waste incinerator resulted in significantly higher Co, Li, and Ni concentrations in neighbouring mosses in comparison with this species from other sites. This investigation contributes to the use of R. lanuginosum as a bioindicator for metal contamination in Arctic and alpine tundra regions characterised by severe climate habitats with a restricted number of species. This moss enables the control of pollution usually brought solely by long-range atmospheric transport in high mountains as well as in Arctic areas.

  18. Seismic surveys test on Innerhytta Pingo, Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Giuliana; Petronio, Lorenzo; Accaino, Flavio; Romeo, Roberto; Wheeler, Walter

    2015-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of an experimental full-wave seismic survey test conducted on the Innnerhytta a Pingo, located in the Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands, Norway. Several seismic surveys were adopted in order to study a Pingo inner structure, from classical reflection/refraction arrays to seismic tomography and surface waves analysis. The aim of the project IMPERVIA, funded by Italian PNRA, was the evaluation of the permafrost characteristics beneath this open-system Pingo by the use of seismic investigation, evaluating the best practice in terms of logistic deployment. The survey was done in April-May 2014: we collected 3 seismic lines with different spacing between receivers (from 2.5m to 5m), for a total length of more than 1 km. We collected data with different vertical geophones (with natural frequency of 4.5 Hz and 14 Hz) as well as with a seismic snow-streamer. We tested different seismic sources (hammer, seismic gun, fire crackers and heavy weight drop), and we verified accurately geophone coupling in order to evaluate the different responses. In such peculiar conditions we noted as fire-crackers allow the best signal to noise ratio for refraction/reflection surveys. To ensure the best geophones coupling with the frozen soil, we dug snow pits, to remove the snow-cover effect. On the other hand, for the surface wave methods, the very high velocity of the permafrost strongly limits the generation of long wavelengths both with these explosive sources as with the common sledgehammer. The only source capable of generating low frequencies was a heavy drop weight system, which allows to analyze surface wave dispersion below 10 Hz. Preliminary data analysis results evidence marked velocity inversions and strong velocity contrasts in depth. The combined use of surface and body waves highlights the presence of a heterogeneous soil deposit level beneath a thick layer of permafrost. This is the level that hosts the water circulation from depth controlling

  19. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE......), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma.......57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen...

  20. Neoproterozoic Stromatolites and Microphytolites of the Spitsbergen Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Artem; Anisimova, Svetlana; Kosteva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    The Svalbard archipelago is located in the extreme North-West of the Barents Sea. On the archipelago in the framework of large-scale exploration of the continental shelf exploration work carried out by employees of the Polar Marine Geological Expedition (PMGE). The authors were further explored and tested the Neoproterozoic sections of the Groups Veteranen, Akademikarbreen and Polarisbreen on the East and West banks of the Sorgfjorden (the Northern part of the Ny Friesland Peninsula) and in the moraine of the glacier Duner. The rocks carbonate-terrigenous Veteranen Group (upper Riphean) is set in the rocky outcrops on the Western and Eastern banks of Sorgfjorden and in ice-dressed rocks of the Bay. The Group consists of four Formations (bottom to top): Kortbreen, Kingbreen, Glasgowbreen and Oxfordbreen. The rocks carbonate-terrigenous Akademikarbreen Group (upper Riphean) have a lower areal distribution than the breed Veteranen Group in the project area is established only in the southern part of the Bay, in the valleys Kluftdalen, Rivnedalen and small-unnamed streams, as well as on the plateau Fleinfjellet and Vidarfjellet. The Groups consists of four formation (bottom to top): Grusdievbreen, Svanbergfjellet, Draken and Backlundtoppen. According to previous researchers, limestone in Kingbreen Formation (Veteranen Group) met with radial-rayed Microphytolites group Radiosus. And in light grey, cream, pink and red limestones of the Academikarbreen Group, in the Svanbergfjellet Formation defined columnar branching Stromatolites Inzeria djejimi Raab., Gymnosolen aff. ramsayi Steinm. Stromatolites of Conophyton miloradovichi Raab. in the dolomites of the overlying sediments Draken and Backlundtoppen Formations contain Vendian the bubbles Microphytolites Vesicularites bothrydioformis Krasnop. In carbonate rocks of the Akademikerbreen Group were confirmed by the finds of Neoproterozoic microbial entities identified by previous researchers, and identified new locations of

  1. Geomorphological investigation of multiphase glacitectonic composite ridge systems in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Harold; Benn, Douglas I.; Lukas, Sven; Spagnolo, Matteo; Cook, Simon J.; Swift, Darrel A.; Clark, Chris D.; Yde, Jacob C.; Watts, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Some surge-type glaciers on the High-Arctic archipelago of Svalbard have large glacitectonic composite ridge systems at their terrestrial margins. These have formed by rapid glacier advance into proglacial sediments during the active surge phase, creating multicrested moraine complexes. Such complexes can be formed during single surge advances or multiple surges to successively less-extensive positions. The few existing studies of composite ridge systems have largely relied on detailed information on internal structure and sedimentology to reconstruct their formation and links to surge processes. However, natural exposures of internal structure are commonly unavailable, and the creation of artificial exposures is often problematic in fragile Arctic environments. To compensate for these issues, we investigate the potential for reconstructing composite ridge system formation based on geomorphological evidence alone, focusing on clear morphostratigraphic relationships between ridges within the moraine complex and relict meltwater channels/outwash fans. Based on mapping at the margins of Finsterwalderbreen (in Van Keulenfjorden) and Grønfjordbreen (in Grønfjorden), we show that relict meltwater channels that breach outer parts of the composite ridge systems are in most cases truncated upstream within the ridge complex by an inner pushed ridge or ridges at their ice-proximal extents. Our interpretation of this relationship is that the entire composite ridge system is unlikely to have formed during the same glacier advance but is instead the product of multiple advances to successively less-extensive positions, whereby younger ridges are emplaced on the ice-proximal side of older ridges. This indicates that the Finsterwalderbreen composite ridge system has been formed by multiple separate advances, consistent with the cyclicity of surges. Being able to identify the frequency and magnitude of former surges is important as it provides insight into the past behaviour of

  2. Alkenone-based reconstructions reveal four-phase Holocene temperature evolution for High Arctic Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem G. M.; D'Andrea, William J.; Bakke, Jostein; Balascio, Nicholas L.; Werner, Johannes P.; Gjerde, Marthe; Bradley, Raymond S.

    2018-03-01

    Situated at the crossroads of major oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns, the Arctic is a key component of Earth's climate system. Compounded by sea-ice feedbacks, even modest shifts in the region's heat budget drive large climate responses. This is highlighted by the observed amplified response of the Arctic to global warming. Assessing the imprint and signature of underlying forcing mechanisms require paleoclimate records, allowing us to expand our knowledge beyond the short instrumental period and contextualize ongoing warming. However, such datasets are scarce and sparse in the Arctic, limiting our ability to address these issues. Here, we present two quantitative Holocene-length paleotemperature records from the High Arctic Svalbard archipelago, situated in the climatically sensitive Arctic North Atlantic. Temperature estimates are based on U37K unsaturation ratios from sediment cores of two lakes. Our data reveal a dynamic Holocene temperature evolution, with reconstructed summer lake water temperatures spanning a range of ∼6-8 °C, and characterized by four phases. The Early Holocene was marked by an early onset (∼10.5 ka cal. BP) of insolation-driven Hypsithermal conditions, likely compounded by strengthening oceanic heat transport. This warm interval was interrupted by cooling between ∼10.5-8.3 ka cal. BP that we attribute to cooling effects from the melting Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Temperatures declined throughout the Middle Holocene, following a gradual trend that was accentuated by two cooling steps between ∼7.8-7 ka cal. BP and around ∼4.4-4.3 ka cal. BP. These transitions coincide with a strengthening influence of Arctic water and sea-ice in the adjacent Fram Strait. During the Late Holocene (past 4 ka), temperature change decoupled from the still-declining insolation, and fluctuated around comparatively cold mean conditions. By showing that Holocene Svalbard temperatures were governed by an alternation of forcings, this study

  3. Recent Levels of Technetium-99 in Seawater at the West Coast of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gerland

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seawater from the western coast of Svalbard was sampled in the spring and summer of 2000 to determine levels of technetium-99 (99Tc, a conservative-behaving, manmade radionuclide originating from European nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper deals with the recent levels of this radionuclide in seawater and with the link between an Arctic fjord, Kongsfjorden, and the Western Spitsbergen Current (WSC, investigated using 99Tc results. By means of the WSC, the 99Tc radionuclides ultimately reach the eastern Fram Strait west of Spitsbergen (the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago. Results from oceanographic modelling and sea ice observations indicate a direct coupling between Kongsfjorden and the area west of it. The findings in connection with new radionuclide results presented in this paper concur with these assumptions. Furthermore they indicate that the inner part of Kongsfjorden is also well linked to the WSC. Surface seawater from the central part of the WSC, sampled during a cruise with RV Polarstern in the summer of 2000, shows a higher level of 99Tc than those measured in Kongsfjorden in spring 2000. However, all levels measured in surface water are of the same order of magnitude. Data from sampling of deeper water in the WSC area provide information pertaining to the lateral distribution of 99Tc. The results, along with additional data from spring 2001, indicate that Kongsfjorden is suitable for monitoring the levels of 99Tc arriving in the European Arctic and that the sheltered setting of this fjord does not necessarily provide protection against pollution from the open sea.

  4. Establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen, Nordenskjöld land, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elagina, Nelly; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Chernov, Robert; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Vasilyeva, Tatiana; Mavlyudov, Bulat; Kudikov, Arseny

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic archipelago Svalbard consists of a vast glacierized area which contributes significantly to the sea level rise outside of Greenland and Antarctica due to recent warming. The glaciers of Svalbard have already experienced an unprecedented increase in average summer temperatures, melt periods, and rainfall in late autumn and early summer. Glaciers of the Nordenskjöld land were the subject of glaciological studies conducted through the Soviet scientific program at the Institute of Geography RAS, Moscow starting in the 1960s. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union glaciological monitoring was stopped in the late 1980s. It was resumed in 2003 with direct observations of winter accumulation and summer melt at a number of glaciers in Nordenskjöld land. However, until now snow pit and stake data were inconsistent and were reported randomly. Recent efforts by the Institute of Geography RAS have been aimed at establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen (7 km2) located 16 km south of Barentsburg. Starting from 2014 observations have included a new ablation stake network of 15 stakes measured biannually, two automatic weather stations located at the glacier tongue and at the accumulation area, and annual high resolution GPR surveys of snow thickness together with snow pit measurements repeated every spring. Special attention has been paid to the evaluation of refreezing ice and superimposed ice distribution. Active layer (10 m) borehole temperatures are measured annually at stake locations. The obtained mass balance gradients are compared with the geodetic mass balance changes in 1990-2005 and recent Arctic DEM data. Additionally glacier bedrock, polythermal structure and surface topography maps have been completed using GPR data and DGPS measurements. All available satellite imagery has been used to reconstruct the snowline elevation changes from 1986 to 2016. Remarkably almost a total absence of accumulation area has been registered in

  5. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  6. Elemental analysis of soils and Salix polaris in the town of Pyramiden and its surroundings (Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcarová, Lucie; Novotný, Karel; Chattová, Barbora; Elster, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The contents of elements in the top soil (upper 5 cm) and deeper soil (5 to 10 cm) layers and in Salix polaris (leaves and stem) from the former Soviet mining town of Pyramiden and its close vicinity on the Svalbard archipelago were determined. The analyses covered major and trace elements, including heavy metals, in order to describe anthropogenic impacts related to the management of the mining town. Soil samples and plant tissues were analysed from 13 localities across and close to town vicinity. The plant ground cover of all sampling points was determined, and plant tissues (leaves and stem) were collected. Higher contents of Cd (3-11 mg kg(-1)) and Mo (11-33 mg kg(-1)) were detected in the soils. With relation to the world average concentration of metals in soils, the geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and the level of pollution of the analysed soils were classified into seven pollution grades. The soils of the studied localities were usually unpolluted (grade 1) when analysed for metals, with the soil pollution grades 4-6 identified only for Cd and Mo (moderately to strongly polluted). In Salix polaris, excessive amounts of Fe (60-1520 mg kg(-1)), Zn (80-1050 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.2-5.5 mg kg(-1)) and Cr (0-3.6 mg kg(-1)) were observed. The Igeo of these elements, compared with values considered sufficient for plants, showed pollution grades from 2 to 6. The pollution load index (PLI) ranged between 0.49 and 1.01. Only one locality could be considered polluted having a PLI higher than 1. Plant/soil transfer factors (TF) for trace metals decreased in the following order: Zn > Cu > Cd > Mn > Ni > As > Mo > Pb > Co > Al > Cr > Fe. The principal contribution of this study consists in the assessment of the contamination of soils and plants by toxic heavy metals in an otherwise pristine environment of the Svalbard archipelago related to urban/industrial activities.

  7. Holocene record of glacier variability from lake sediments reveals tripartite climate history for Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem; Bakke, Jostein; Vasskog, Kristian; D`Andrea, William; Bradley, Raymond; Olafsdottir, Sædis

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is responding sensitively to ongoing global climate change, warming and moistening faster than any other region on the planet. Holocene proxy paleoclimate time series are increasingly used to put this amplified response in perspective by understanding Arctic climate processes beyond the instrumental period. Glaciers rapidly respond to climate shifts as demonstrated by their current demise around the world. This response has a composite climate signature, marked by shifts in hydroclimate (winter precipitation) as well as (summer) temperature. Attendant changes in glacier size are recorded by variations in glacigenic rock flour that may be deposited in downstream lakes. Here, we present a Holocene reconstruction of glacier activity, based on sediments from Hajeren, a glacier-fed lake on northwest Spitsbergen in the High Arctic Svalbard archipelago. Owing to undisturbed sediments and robust age control, we could resolve variability on a sub-centennial scale. To ensure the accurate detection of glacier activity, we applied a toolbox of physical, magnetic and geochemical proxies in conjunction with multivariate statistics. Our findings indicate a three-stage Holocene climate history for Svalbard, driving by melt water pulses, episodic Atlantic cooling and a decline in orbitally driven summer insolation. Correspondence between inferred advances, including a Holocene glacier maximum around 9.5 ka BP, suggests forcing by the melting LIS during the Early Holocene. Following a late Holocene Thermal Maximum around 7.4 ka BP, glaciers disappeared from the catchment. Glaciers reformed around 4.2 ka BP during the regional onset of the Neoglacial, supporting previous findings. This transition did, however, not mark the onset of persistent glacier activity in the catchment, but a series of centennial-scale cycles of growth and decay, including events around 3.3 and 1.1 ka BP. As orbitally driven insolation declined towards the present, the glaciation threshold

  8. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Sabine; Hermansen, Ove; Grythe, Henrik; Fiebig, Markus; Stebel, Kerstin; Cassiani, Massimo; Baecklund, Are; Stohl, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic, during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when no ships were present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime-mean concentrations of 60-nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45% relative to values when no ships are present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are generally present but carry high concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60-nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11%, respectively. Our findings have two important implications: Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summer-time Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is suspected that large parts of the Svalbard archipelago are

  9. Diagnosing the decline in climatic mass balance of glaciers in Svalbard over 1957-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ims Østby, Torbjørn; Vikhamar Schuler, Thomas; Ove Hagen, Jon; Hock, Regine; Kohler, Jack; Reijmer, Carleen H.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the long-term mass balance of the high-Arctic Svalbard archipelago is difficult due to the incomplete geodetic and direct glaciological measurements, both in space and time. To close these gaps, we use a coupled surface energy balance and snow pack model to analyse the mass changes of all Svalbard glaciers for the period 1957-2014. The model is forced by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, downscaled to 1 km resolution. The model is validated using snow/firn temperature and density measurements, mass balance from stakes and ice cores, meteorological measurements, snow depths from radar profiles and remotely sensed surface albedo and skin temperatures. Overall model performance is good, but it varies regionally. Over the entire period the model yields a climatic mass balance of 8.2 cm w. e. yr-1, which corresponds to a mass input of 175 Gt. Climatic mass balance has a linear trend of -1.4 ± 0.4 cm w. e. yr-2 with a shift from a positive to a negative regime around 1980. Modelled mass balance exhibits large interannual variability, which is controlled by summer temperatures and further amplified by the albedo feedback. For the recent period 2004-2013 climatic mass balance was -21 cm w. e. yr-1, and accounting for frontal ablation estimated by Błaszczyk et al.(2009) yields a total Svalbard mass balance of -39 cm w. e. yr-1 for this 10-year period. In terms of eustatic sea level, this corresponds to a rise of 0.037 mm yr-1. Refreezing of water in snow and firn is substantial at 22 cm w. e. yr-1 or 26 % of total annual accumulation. However, as warming leads to reduced firn area over the period, refreezing decreases both absolutely and relative to the total accumulation. Negative mass balance and elevated equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) resulted in massive reduction of the thick (> 2 m) firn extent and an increase in the superimposed ice, thin (< 2 m) firn and bare ice extents. Atmospheric warming also leads to a marked change in the thermal regime

  10. Go, surf Norway

    OpenAIRE

    L'orange, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    How can a digital service encourage surfers in Norway to catch more Norwegian waves? Through a design ethnographic approach I have explored the surf community and daily life of surfers in Norway. Long travel distances, few surf friends and unpredictable surf conditions are amongst the challenges many surfers face. By applying these insights I have designed a solution that aims to lower the threshold to go surfing in Norway. The design proposal, Bølgen is a digital service provided by the Norw...

  11. Diurnal Variation In Behaviour Of Pink-Footed Geese (Anser Brachyrhynchus) During Spring Migration In Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    During spring migration, Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus stop in mid Norway to refuel before their onward flight to the Svalbard breeding grounds. In mid Norway, geese feed on pastures, stubble as well as newly sown grain fields. The aim of the paper is to describe diurnal variations...... diurnal variation in resting and alertness. The observed diurnal variation differed from what has been found on the wintering grounds indicating that during spring, birds increase their foraging intensity in order to meet energetic and nutritional demands in a short time. Seasonal availability of habitats...

  12. Synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns controlling avalanche activity in central Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Holt; Prokop, Alexander; Eckerstorfer, Markus; Hendrikx, Jordy

    2017-04-01

    Central Svalbard's avalanche activity is primarily controlled by the local and synoptic scale meteorological conditions characterizing the region's winter storms. Previous work has described Svalbard's direct-action snow climate as High-Arctic maritime based on the unique meteorological conditions and resulting snowpack stratigraphy observed in the region. To gain a better understanding of the broad-scale spatial controls on regional avalanche activity in Svalbard, this work investigates synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns associated with observed avalanche cycles during the 2007/2008 to 2015/2016 winter seasons. We use avalanche observations systematically recorded as part of the Cryoslope Svalbard project from 2007-2010 in combination with additional observations from notable avalanche events from 2010-2016 to develop a regional avalanche cycle history. We then compare the timing of these avalanche cycles to an existing daily calendar of synoptic types and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets to characterize the synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns influencing this avalanche activity. Our results indicate regional avalanche cycles are driven by cyclonic activity in the seas surrounding Svalbard under synoptic circulation patterns associated with warm air advection and moisture transport from lower latitudes to Svalbard. The character and spatial distribution of observed avalanche activity can be differentiated by atmospheric circulation type: mid-winter slushflow and wet slab avalanche cycles, for example, are typically associated with meridional southerly flow over the North Atlantic bringing warm air and heavy precipitation to Svalbard. Such analyses can provide a foundation upon which to improve the understanding of central Svalbard's snow climate to facilitate regional avalanche forecasting efforts.

  13. Triassic conodonts from Svalbard and their Boreal correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Nakrem, Hans Arne; Orchard, Michael J.; Weitschat, Wolfgang; Hounslow, Mark W; Beatty, Tyler W.; Mørk, Atle

    2008-01-01

    Conodont faunas are described from Triassic sections of Svalbard, and their occurrences are locally correlated with established ammonoid zones. With a synthesis of previous conodont-based publications, the current work presents a taxonomically up-to-date compilation of conodont data for the Triassic of Svalbard that is used to construct a conodont-based biochronology, indexed to the current lithostratigraphic nomenclature. Twenty-eight taxa spanning the earliest Griesbachian to the earliest C...

  14. Columnar aerosol characterization over Scandinavia and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Bennouna, Y.; Berjón, A.; Torres, B.; Fuertes, D.; González, R.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    An overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard was provided by Toledano et al. (2012) thanks to the collaborative effort of various research groups from different countries that maintain a number of observation sites in the European Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. The spatial coverage of this kind of data has remarkably improved in the last years, thanks, among other things, to projects carried out within the framework of the International Polar Year 2007-08. The data from a set of operational sun photometer sites belonging either to national or international measurement networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) were evaluated. The direct sun observations provided spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE), that are parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first characterization at all sites. At the AERONET sites, microphysical properties derived from inversion of sun-sky radiance data were also examined. AOD (500nm) ranged from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites whereas the aerosol load was higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (average AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols showed larger mean size than in continental areas. Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters were used to evaluate aerosol volume efficiencies. The aerosol optical depth characterization revealed that the seasonal patterns in the high Arctic (with the typical hazy spring), in the sub-Arctic region and Southern Scandinavia are all different. The clean continental, polluted continental and maritime aerosols constitute the three main aerosol types, although persistent (Asian) dust was also detected in Svalbard.

  15. Tracing Atlantic Water Signature in the Arctic Sea Ice Cover East of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the Arctic Ocean between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in order to elucidate the possible role of Atlantic water (AW inflow in shaping ice conditions. Ice conditions substantially affect the temperature regime of the Spitsbergen archipelago, particularly in winter. We test the hypothesis that intensive vertical mixing at the upper AW boundary releases substantial heat upwards that eventually reaches the under-ice water layer, thinning the ice cover. We examine spatial and temporal variation of ice concentration against time series of wind, air temperature, and AW temperature. Analysis of 1979–2011 ice properties revealed a general tendency of decreasing ice concentration that commenced after the mid-1990s. AW temperature time series in Fram Strait feature a monotonic increase after the mid-1990s, consistent with shrinking ice cover. Ice thins due to increased sensible heat flux from AW; ice erosion from below allows wind and local currents to more effectively break ice. The winter spatial pattern of sea ice concentration is collocated with patterns of surface heat flux anomalies. Winter minimum sea ice thickness occurs in the ice pack interior above the AW path, clearly indicating AW influence on ice thickness. Our study indicates that in the AW inflow region heat flux from the ocean reduces the ice thickness.

  16. Disentangling the coupling between sea ice and tundra productivity in Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Fauria, Marc; Karlsen, Stein Rune; Forbes, Bruce C

    2017-08-17

    The rapid decline in Arctic sea ice poses urgent questions concerning its ecological effects, such as on tundra terrestrial productivity. However, reported sea ice/terrestrial productivity linkages have seldom been constrained, and the mechanism governing them remains elusive, with a diversity of spatial scales and metrics proposed, at times in contradiction to each other. In this study, we use spatially explicit remotely sensed sea ice concentration and high-resolution terrestrial productivity estimates (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) across the Svalbard Archipelago to describe local/sub-regional and large-scale components of sea ice/terrestrial productivity coupling. Whereas the local/sub-regional component is attributed to sea breeze (cold air advection from ice-covered ocean onto adjacent land during the growing season), the large-scale component might reflect co-variability of sea ice and tundra productivity due to a common forcing, such as large-scale atmospheric circulation (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Our study clarifies the range of mechanisms in sea ice/terrestrial productivity coupling, allowing the generation of testable hypotheses about its past, present, and future dynamics across the Arctic.

  17. Modelling the snow distribution at two high arctic sites at Svalbard, Norway, and at an alpine site in central Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruland, Oddbjørn; Liston, Glen E.; Vonk, Jorien; Sand, Knut; Killingtveit, Anund

    2004-01-01

    In Arctic regions snow cover has a major influence on the environment both in a hydrological and ecological context. Due to strong winds and open terrain the snow is heavily redistributed and the snow depth is quite variable. This has a significant influence on the snow cover depletion and the

  18. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in Arctic Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Trine; Bernhardsen, Pål; Nielsen, Kaare M; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Andersen, Magnus; Aars, Jon; Sundset, Monica A

    2010-01-14

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81 degrees N, 10-33 degrees E). In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr) were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70%) were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 x 10(4) to 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 x 10(3) to 1.0 x 10(5) cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic beta-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.

  19. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus in Arctic Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brusetti Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81°N, 10-33°E. In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. Results A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70% were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 × 104 to 1.6 × 106 colony forming units (cfu/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic β-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. Conclusion The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.

  20. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Solveig; Kerhervé, Philippe; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Many, Gaël; Morata, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, the strong seasonality and tight pelagic-benthic coupling in the Arctic is expected to change in the next few decades. It is currently unclear how the benthos will be affected by changes of environmental conditions such as supplies of organic matter (OM) from the water column. In the last decade, Kongsfjorden (79°N), a high Arctic fjord in Svalbard influenced by several glaciers and Atlantic water inflow, has been a site of great interest owing to its high sensitivity to climate change, evidenced by a reduction in ice cover and an increase in melting freshwater. To investigate how spatial and seasonal changes in vertical fluxes can impact the benthic compartment of Kongsfjorden, we studied the organic matter characteristics (in terms of quantity and quality) and prokaryotic distribution in sediments from 3 stations along a transect extending from the glacier into the outer fjord in 4 different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in 2012-2013. The biochemical parameters used to describe the sedimentary organic matter were organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen, bulk stable isotope ratios, pigments (chorophyll-a and phaeopigments) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), which is the sum of the main macromolecules, i.e. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Prokaryotic abundance and distribution were estimated by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. This study identifies a well-marked quantitative gradient of biogenic compounds throughout all seasons and also highlights a discrepancy between the quantity and quality of sedimentary organic matter within the fjord. The sediments near the glacier were organic-poor (Norway, Svalbard, Kongsfjorden.

  1. Phase-equilibrium modelling of blueschists from the Vestgötabreen Complex (SW Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Lorenz, Henning; Kozub, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    In Svalbard Archipelago, blueschists are known from Motalafjella area (Oscar II Land). They belong to the Vestgötabreen Complex, which is divided into a Lower (LU) and Upper Unit (UU). The former is composed of high pressure-low temperature (HP-LT) metasediments. The latter consists mainly of blueschists and eclogites. Various radiometric dating yielded an age of c. 470 Ma for the HP-LT metamorphism in the Motalafjella area. The pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for carpholite-bearing schists from LU have been estimated to c. 16 kbar and 330-450°C (Agard et al., 2005), whereas eclogites from UU indicate peak conditions of 18-24 kbar and 580-640°C (Hirajima et al., 1988). During the fieldwork in 2011, blueschists were also discovered at the western coast of Nordenskiöld Land. They form isolated bodies enclosed within metasedimentary units, but their tectonic position is still under debate. Preliminary P-T estimates indicate peak pressure conditions of c. 17 kbar and 480°C (Kośmińska et al., in revision). The age of metamorphism is unknown, however P-T conditions as well as metamorphic assemblage suggest that the blueschists from Nordenskiöld Land may be an equivalent of these in the Vestgötabreen Complex. Samples of blueschists from UU have been collected on Skipperryggen. They consist mainly of glaucophane, garnet, white micas (phengite and paragonite), rutile, lawsonite and chlorite. The garnet typically forms euhedral to subhedral porphyroblasts which contain voluminous inclusions. Its composition varies from Alm63Prp13Grs22Sps2 in the cores to Alm60Prp19Grs20Sps1 in the rims. The change in chemical zoning is rather gradual. The garnet shows bowl-shaped pyrope profiles and opposite almandine trends. The P-T conditions were estimated using phase equilibrium modeling. Preliminary modeling in the NCKFMMnASHTO system yields peak pressure conditions at c. 20 kbar and 520°C. The estimated P-T conditions for the blueschists from Skipperryggen are in

  2. Current use and legacy pesticide deposition to ice caps on Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Hermanson, Mark H.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Camilla; Forsstrom, Sanja; Muir, Derek C. G.; Pohjola, Veijo; van de Wal, Roderik; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Transport and deposition of current use (CUP) and legacy pesticides (LP) and residual products to the Arctic have been documented in abiotic matrices. These observations show that some "low-persistence" pesticides with high OH center dot reaction rates are stable enough to accumulate in a polar

  3. The first magnetotelluric image of the lithospheric-scale geological architecture in central Svalbard, Arctic Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I. Beka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotelluric data, collected from 30 stations on Spitsbergen as part of a reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment along a profile with 0.5–3-km spacing in 0.003–1000-s period range, were used to develop a lithospheric-scale two-dimensional (2D resistivity model, heretofore unavailable for the region. Inverting the determinant of the impedance tensor in 2D, we found the smoothest model fitting the data within a specified tolerance level. We justified the model by perturbing it, performing sensitivity analysis and re-running the inversion with a different algorithm and starting models. From our final model, we constructed a crustal-scale stratigraphic framework, using it to estimate the depth of major geological features and to locate structural deformations. The 2D resistivity model indicates a shallow low resistive (1000 Ωm east of the Billefjorden Fault Zone. Underneath, a (possibly Devonian basin is imaged as a thick conductive anomaly stretching >15 km downwards. Beneath a deformed Paleozoic–Mesozoic successions, an uplifted pre-Devonian shallow basement (>3000 Ωm is revealed. We estimated a thin lithosphere, in the range of ca. 55–100 km thick, that could explain the area's elevated surface heat flow (ca. 60–90 mW/m2, consistent with the calculated depth of thermal lithosphere heat-base boundaries for a partially melting mantle. The model indicates a possible replenishment pathway of upward heat transport from the shallow convective mantle to the composite crustal conductive units. This is encouraging for low-enthalpy geothermal development.

  4. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

  5. Plasma density over Svalbard during the ISBJØRN campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available In 1997, reliable operation of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR was achieved and a rocket launching facility at Ny Ålesund on Svalbard (79°N, 12°E (SVALRAK was established. On 20 November, 1977, the first instrumented payload was launched from SVALRAK. Although the payload configuration had been flown many times previously from Andøya Rocket Range on the Norwegian mainland, this presented an unprecedented in situ determination of positive ion density over Svalbard. Simultaneously, ESR measured similar density profiles but in a higher altitude regime. We have combined the ESR measurements with ionosonde data to establish a calibration and subsequently combined the ground-based and in situ determined profiles to give a composite positive ion density profile from the mesosphere to the thermosphere.

    Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere; instruments and techniques

  6. Plasma density over Svalbard during the ISBJØRN campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, reliable operation of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR was achieved and a rocket launching facility at Ny Ålesund on Svalbard (79°N, 12°E (SVALRAK was established. On 20 November, 1977, the first instrumented payload was launched from SVALRAK. Although the payload configuration had been flown many times previously from Andøya Rocket Range on the Norwegian mainland, this presented an unprecedented in situ determination of positive ion density over Svalbard. Simultaneously, ESR measured similar density profiles but in a higher altitude regime. We have combined the ESR measurements with ionosonde data to establish a calibration and subsequently combined the ground-based and in situ determined profiles to give a composite positive ion density profile from the mesosphere to the thermosphere.Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere; instruments and techniques

  7. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988?2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Einar Eythórsson; Jesper Madsen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vester...

  8. Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System - A New Coordinated Foundation for Environmental Services in and around Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System (SIOS) is an international infrastructure project. There were 28 partners from Europe and Asia involved in the preparatory phase of this ESFRI project. The essential objectives are to establish a mechanism for integration among the existing research institutions in Svalbard to create a joint state-of-the-art observing system in Earth System Science, and better coordinated services for the International Research community with respect to access, data and knowledge management, logistics and training. In addition to the SIOS members various data services, SIOS itself will provide a few new services such as processed satellite data (from Copernicus' Sentinels as well as others) and combined in-situ and satellite data. All in all SIOS represent a new capacity and foundation for more Earth System Science, including climate and environment, data services in and around Svalbard. A presentation of SIOS including time schedule for implementation of the basic services will be given.

  9. A historical review of gravimetric observations in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnvald Pettersen, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    climate change. The viscoelastic postglacial land uplift of Fennoscandia has been detected by terrestrial gravity time series as well as by satellite gravimetry. Corrections for local effects of snow load, hydrology, and ocean loading at coastal stations have been improved. The elastic adjustment of present-day melting of glaciers at Svalbard and in mainland Norway has been detected. Gravimetry is extensively employed at offshore oil facilities to monitor the subsidence of the ocean floor during oil and gas extraction.

  10. Adjustment of regional climate model output for modeling the climatic mass balance of all glaciers on Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Marco; Obleitner, Friedrich; Reijmer, Carleen H; Pohjola, Veijo A; Głowacki, Piotr; Kohler, Jack

    2016-05-27

    Large-scale modeling of glacier mass balance relies often on the output from regional climate models (RCMs). However, the limited accuracy and spatial resolution of RCM output pose limitations on mass balance simulations at subregional or local scales. Moreover, RCM output is still rarely available over larger regions or for longer time periods. This study evaluates the extent to which it is possible to derive reliable region-wide glacier mass balance estimates, using coarse resolution (10 km) RCM output for model forcing. Our data cover the entire Svalbard archipelago over one decade. To calculate mass balance, we use an index-based model. Model parameters are not calibrated, but the RCM air temperature and precipitation fields are adjusted using in situ mass balance measurements as reference. We compare two different calibration methods: root mean square error minimization and regression optimization. The obtained air temperature shifts (+1.43°C versus +2.22°C) and precipitation scaling factors (1.23 versus 1.86) differ considerably between the two methods, which we attribute to inhomogeneities in the spatiotemporal distribution of the reference data. Our modeling suggests a mean annual climatic mass balance of -0.05 ± 0.40 m w.e. a-1 for Svalbard over 2000-2011 and a mean equilibrium line altitude of 452 ± 200 m  above sea level. We find that the limited spatial resolution of the RCM forcing with respect to real surface topography and the usage of spatially homogeneous RCM output adjustments and mass balance model parameters are responsible for much of the modeling uncertainty. Sensitivity of the results to model parameter uncertainty is comparably small and of minor importance.

  11. Malthus on norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M

    1966-11-01

    Abstract Malthus visited Norway in 1799 and his impression of the country's demographic experience was important in determining the character of the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population. He relied for the most part on non-statistical sources. This led him to exaggerate, e.g. the size of households, the number of unmarried farm servants and to miss important features, e.g. differences in marital age patterns, regional variations in fertility and nuptiality. The bias of his itinerary and of his main informants is also apparent. Statistical material not available to Malthus indicates that he was right to stress the late age at marriage in Norway but wrong to ignore the operation of the positive check. Mortality was frequently high in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Norway, much higher than Malthus ever realized. This destroys the symmetry, as well as the morality, of Malthus's exposition.

  12. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  13. Island Movements: Thinking with the Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pugh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.

  14. Applying a mesoscale atmospheric model to Svalbard glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claremar, B.; Obleitner, F.; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; Pohjola, V.; Waxegard, A.; Karner, F.; Rutgersson, A.

    2012-01-01

    The mesoscale atmospheric model WRF is used over three Svalbard glaciers. The simulations are done with a setup of the model corresponding to the state-of-the-art model for polar conditions, Polar WRF, and it was validated using surface observations. The ERA-Interim reanalysis was used for boundary

  15. Multidecadal climate and seasonal snow conditions in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, W. J.J.; Kohler, J.; Liston, G. E.; Hagen, J. O.; Luks, B.; Reijmer, C. H.; Pohjola, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard climate is undergoing amplified change with respect to the global mean. Changing climate conditions directly affect the evolution of the seasonal snowpack, through its impact on accumulation, melt, and moisture exchange. We analyze long-term trends and spatial patterns of seasonal snow

  16. Papposphaera heldalii sp nov (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae) from Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Egge, Jorun Karin

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to establish a taxonomy for the polar contingent of lightly calcified coccolithophores, we are currently dealing with species of Papposphaera. Here we describe a new species, Papposphaera heldalii sp. nov., based on material from Svalbard. The species is unique in terms of calyx...

  17. Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuth, Christopher; Moholdt, Geir; Kohler, Jack; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kääb, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    ... third of the total observed global sea level rise. It is therefore important to quantify glacier volume changes for the various glaciated regions in the world, both to estimate glacial sea level contribution and to link such contributions to regional climatic changes. In this paper we estimate the contribution of Svalbard glaciers to sea level rise. Various m...

  18. Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) U-Pb & Lu-Hf Isotope Analysis of Detrital Zircons from the Old Red Sandstone, NW Svalbard: Implications for Northern Caledonian Paleogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, L. P.; Gee, D. G.; Fisher, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Svalbard archipelago consists of three Caledonian provinces that were assembled by thrusting and transcurrent faulting during the Silurian and Devonian in a location directly northeast of the Greenland Caledonides. Syn- to post-orogenic alluvial strata, referred to as the Old Red Sandstones, filled pull-apart basins adjacent to the transcurrent faults and comprise cover assemblages that help constrain the timing of the Caledonian orogeny. To further investigate the tectonic history and paleogeography of the Raudfjorden-Liefdefjorden-Woodfjorden area of Spitsbergen, NW Svalbard, we analyzed rock samples of the Old Red Sandstones and underlying Precambrian basement complexes for detrital zircon analysis. Laboratory studies of the Old Red Sandstones include the novel Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) technique, which allows for simultaneous U-Pb & Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircon crystals. Lower Devonian Red Bay Group strata contain a range of early Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons with prominent age peaks c. 960, 1050, 1370, 1450, 1650, and 2700 Ma; subordinate Ordovician (c. 460-490 Ma) and Cryogenian (c. 650 Ma) detrital zircons occur in a subset of the samples. Underlying Precambrian metasedimentary rocks are composed of similar earliest Neoproterozoic to Neoarchean age populations, which argues for much of the Red Bay Group to be derived from local basement rocks during thrusting and other faulting. The U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of Paleozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircons are consistent with Arctic crustal evolution, and support the hypothesis that northwestern and northeastern provinces of the Svalbard Caledonides are extruded fragments of the northeast Greenland allochthons. The new Hf isotope results further allow paleogeographic and stratigraphic comparisons with rock assemblages proximal to the North Atlantic Caledonides during the Silurian-Devonian, including the Pearya terrane of Ellesmere Island, Alexander terrane of NW

  19. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard – a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2013-08-01

    suspected that large parts of the Svalbard archipelago are affected by cruise ship emissions. Thus, our results may be taken as a warning signal of future pan-Arctic conditions if Arctic shipping becomes more frequent and emission regulations are not strict enough.

  20. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard - a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, S.; Hermansen, O.; Grythe, H.; Fiebig, M.; Stebel, K.; Cassiani, M.; Baecklund, A.; Stohl, A.

    2013-08-01

    large parts of the Svalbard archipelago are affected by cruise ship emissions. Thus, our results may be taken as a warning signal of future pan-Arctic conditions if Arctic shipping becomes more frequent and emission regulations are not strict enough.

  1. Selected anthropogenic and natural radioisotopes in the Barents Sea and off the western coast of Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Matishov, Gennady G; Solatie, Dina

    2013-12-01

    The Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) performed high-latitude expeditions to the Barents Sea during 2007-2009 where a scientist from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) participated. The aim of the expeditions was to study and map the current radiological situation throughout the Barents Sea. In the expeditions, samples of seawater, sediment and biota were collected for radioactivity studies. The (90)Sr and (137)Cs isotopes were analysed from the seawater samples and no spatial distribution in the concentrations of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found. The sediment samples were analysed for γ-emitting isotopes. In the statistical analysis performed only the (90)Sr was found to have no spatial distribution. In the (137)Cs concentrations two areas containing higher concentrations were observed: one in the western part of Svalbard and another in Franz Victoria Trough near the Franz Josef Land archipelago. The increase in the western coast of Svalbard suggests an Atlantic influence while in the Franz Victoria Trough source regions are possibly more complex. Since (137)Cs in marine sediments mainly originates from terrestrial sources, finding higher concentrations in the northern part of the Barents Sea may also suggest a contribution of (137)Cs carried by the ocean currents and by sea ice from the outside Barents Sea. In addition to γ spectrometric measurements, the sediment samples were radiochemically analysed for (210)Pb. It was found that the unsupported fraction of (210)Pb showed significant spatial variation. The fraction of unsupported (210)Pb was reduced to 40-70% near Bear Island, Edge Island and in the Franz Josef Land archipelago. In these regions the sea is typically covered with sea ice during winter. The relatively low fraction of unsupported (210)Pb is possibly caused by blocking of wet and dry deposition of (210)Pb onto the sea by winter sea ice. In biota samples, only small traces, at the level of 0.2 Bq/kg w.w. of (137)Cs, were found

  2. Cossidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Borth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera of the Socotra Archipelago is revised. Five species are recognized, including two new species (Mormogystia brandstetteri and Meharia hackeri, and dubious identifications and records are discussed. Adults and genitalia are illustrated and bionomic details, molecular evidence and a synonymic checklist of Socotra Cossidae genera is provided. A review of their distribution reveals that at least 80 percent of Socotro`s Cossidae species are unique to the archipelago which is renowned for its endemism.

  3. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  4. Teachers, Researchers, and Students Collaborating in Arctic Climate Change Research: The Partnership Between the Svalbard REU and ARCUS PolarTREC programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, S.; Warburton, J.; Oddo, B.; Kane, M.

    2007-12-01

    Since 2004, the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) "TREC" program (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, now "PolarTREC") has sent four K-12 teachers to Svalbard, Norway to work alongside researchers and undergraduate students conducting climate change research as part of the Svalbard Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program. The benefits of this scientist/educator/student partnership are many. Researchers benefit from teacher participation as it increases their understanding of student learning and the roles and responsibilities of K-12 teachers. The TREC teacher contributes to the research by making observations, analyzing data, and carrying heavy loads of equipment. In collaborating with K- 12 teachers, undergraduate student participants discover the importance of teamwork in science and the need for effective communication of scientific results to a broad audience. The questions that K-12 teachers ask require the scientists and students in our program to explain their work in terms that non-specialists can understand and appreciate. The K-12 teacher provides a positive career role model and several Svalbard REU undergraduate students have pursued K-12 teaching careers after graduating. TREC teachers benefit from working alongside the researchers and by experiencing the adventures of real scientific research in a remote arctic environment. They return to their schools with a heightened status that allows them to share the excitement and importance of scientific research with their students. Together, all parties contribute to greatly enhance public outreach. With ARCUS logistical support, TREC teachers and researchers do live web conferences from the field, reaching hundreds of students and dozens of school administrators and even local politicians. Teachers maintain web journals, describing the daily activities and progress of the researcher team. Online readers from around the world write in to ask questions, which the

  5. Holothurian (Echinodermata) Diversity in the Glorieuses Archipelago

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ste Clotilde, La Réunion, France. Keywords: Holothuria, Glorieuses Islands, Western Indian Ocean, occurrence, diversity, coral reefs. Abstract—Due to their isolation, Eparses Islands provide a valuable opportunity to investigate biodiversity in the absence of anthropogenic influence. The Glorieuses. Archipelago forms part ...

  6. Deriving ice thickness, glacier volume and bedrock morphology of the Austre Lov\\'enbreen (Svalbard) using Ground-penetrating Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Saintenoy, Albane; Booth, Adam D; Tolle, F; Bernard, E; Laffly, Dominique; Marlin, C; Griselin, M

    2013-01-01

    The Austre Lov\\'enbreen is a 4.6 km2 glacier on the Archipelago of Svalbard (79 degrees N) that has been surveyed over the last 47 years in order of monitoring in particular the glacier evolution and associated hydrological phenomena in the context of nowadays global warming. A three-week field survey over April 2010 allowed for the acquisition of a dense mesh of Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) data with an average of 14683 points per km2 (67542 points total) on the glacier surface. The profiles were acquired using a Mala equipment with 100 MHz antennas, towed slowly enough to record on average every 0.3 m, a trace long enough to sound down to 189 m of ice. One profile was repeated with 50 MHz antenna to improve electromagnetic wave propagation depth in scattering media observed in the cirques closest to the slopes. The GPR was coupled to a GPS system to position traces. Each profile has been manually edited using standard GPR data processing including migration, to pick the reflection arrival time from the ic...

  7. Current knowledge of the Tardigrada of Svalbard with the first records of water bears from Nordaustlandet (High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zawierucha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The first investigations of the tardigrades of Svalbard took place in the early 20th century and 30 papers on the subject have been published to date. In this article, we summarize available information on the distribution of tardigrades in this Arctic archipelago with remarks on the dubious species and records. Additionally, we examined 28 new moss, lichen and soil samples collected from the islands of Nordaustlandet, Edgeøya and Prins Karls Forland. These samples yielded 324 specimens, 15 exuvia and 132 free-laid eggs belonging to 16 limnoterrestrial species (Heterotardigrada and Eutardigrada. These include five first records of water bears from Nordaustlandet, eight new records for Edgeøya and four for Prince Karls Forland. The most dense population of tardigrades was found in a sample with 253 specimens/10 g of dry material and the least dense population in a sample with three specimens/10 g of dry material. The most frequently recorded species in samples collected in this study were Testechiniscus spitsbergensis Scourfield, 1897, Macrobiotus harmsworthi harmsworthi Murray, 1907, and M. islandicus islandicus Richters, 1904. This article also provides the first ever scanning electron microscope photomicrographs of Tenuibiotus voronkovi Tumanov, 2007.

  8. Temporal constraints on hydrate-controlled methane seepage off Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, C; Feseker, T; Treude, T; Krastel, S; Liebetrau, V; Niemann, H; Bertics, V J; Dumke, I; Dünnbier, K; Ferré, B; Graves, C; Gross, F; Hissmann, K; Hühnerbach, V; Krause, S; Lieser, K; Schauer, J; Steinle, L

    2014-01-17

    Methane hydrate is an icelike substance that is stable at high pressure and low temperature in continental margin sediments. Since the discovery of a large number of gas flares at the landward termination of the gas hydrate stability zone off Svalbard, there has been concern that warming bottom waters have started to dissociate large amounts of gas hydrate and that the resulting methane release may possibly accelerate global warming. Here, we corroborate that hydrates play a role in the observed seepage of gas, but we present evidence that seepage off Svalbard has been ongoing for at least 3000 years and that seasonal fluctuations of 1° to 2°C in the bottom-water temperature cause periodic gas hydrate formation and dissociation, which focus seepage at the observed sites.

  9. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  10. Effect of wind on Svalbard reindeer fur insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer through Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus fur samples was studied with respect to wind velocity, season and animal age. A total of 33 dorsal fur sections were investigated using a wind tunnel. Insulation varied with season (calving, summer, autumn and winter. At zero wind velocity, fur insulation was significantly different between seasons for both calf and adult fur samples. At the same time, there was no significant difference between calf and adult insulation for the summer, autumn and winter seasons. Calf fur insulated as well as adult fur. Winter insulation of Svalbard reindeer was approximately 3 times that of summer. Increasing wind veloci¬ty increased heat loss, however, the increase was not dramatic. When wind coefficients (slope of the heat transfer regression lines were compared, between season and between calf and adult, no significant differences were reported. All fur samples showed similar increases in heat transfer for wind velocities between 0 and 10 m.s-1. The conductance of winter fur of Svalbard reindeer was almost half that of caribou fur. Also, conductance was not as greatly influenced by wind as caribou fur

  11. Status and biology of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lydersen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals in Svalbard are the northernmost population of this species. This small population is comprised of ca. 1,000 individuals, most of which reside along the west coast of Prins Karls Forland (78°20’N. Satellite tracking studies have shown that adults are resident. Birthing occurs in the latter half of June. Newborns weigh about 11 kg and gain an average of 0.7 kg/d during the nursing period. Haulout patterns in Svalbard harbour seals are influenced by date (season, time of day, tidal cycle and temperature. Moulting takes place in early fall, first among juveniles, then in adult females and finally in adult males. Feeding studies show that polar cod (Boreogadus saida is the dominant prey in terms of numbers, while Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is the dominant prey based on biomass, at least during the early autumn. Growth curves display significant sexual dimorphism with asymptotic values for standard length and body mass being greater formales. Testosterone levels inmales showed an abrupt increase at 6 years of age, while estradiol levels in females increased abruptly from age 4 years. The reproductive rate for adult females was 0.93. Longevity of Svalbard harbour seals is very short compared with populations from other areas.

  12. Diet and metabolic state are the main factors determining concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in female polar bears from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Lone, Karen; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Torget, Vidar; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in organisms worldwide, including Polar Regions. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus), the top predator of Arctic marine ecosystems, accumulates high concentrations of PFASs, which may be harmful to their health. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors (habitat quality, season, year, diet, metabolic state [i.e. feeding/fasting], breeding status and age) predict PFAS concentrations in female polar bears captured on Svalbard (Norway). We analysed two perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) and C 8 -C 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in 112 plasma samples obtained in April and September 2012-2013. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) in red blood cells and plasma, and fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue were used as proxies for diet. We determined habitat quality based on movement patterns, capture position and resource selection functions, which are models that predict the probability of use of a resource unit. Plasma urea to creatinine ratios were used as proxies for metabolic state (i.e. feeding or fasting state). Results were obtained from a conditional model averaging of 42 general linear mixed models. Diet was the most important predictor of PFAS concentrations. PFAS concentrations were positively related to trophic level and marine diet input. High PFAS concentrations in females feeding on the eastern part of Svalbard, where the habitat quality was higher than on the western coast, were likely related to diet and possibly to abiotic factors. Concentrations of PFSAs and C 8 -C 10 PFCAs were higher in fasting than in feeding polar bears and PFOS was higher in females with cubs of the year than in solitary females. Our findings suggest that female polar bears that are exposed to the highest levels of PFAS are those 1) feeding on high trophic level sea ice-associated prey, 2) fasting and 3) with small cubs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Porphyrias in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Mira; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Støle, Egil; Villanger, Jørild Haugen; Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Baravelli, Carl; Sandberg, Sverre

    2014-04-29

    Porphyria is an umbrella term for a group of largely hereditary diseases that are due to defective haem synthesis. The diseases have a varied and partly overlapping range of symptoms and presentations. The commonest forms of porphyria are porphyria cutanea tarda, acute intermittent porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the prevalence and pathological manifestations of porphyrias in Norway. Information on all patients registered with the Norwegian Porphyria Centre (NAPOS) up to 2012 was used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of porphyrias in Norway. Figures on symptoms, precipitating factors and follow-up routines were obtained from the Norwegian Porphyria Registry, which includes 70% of Norwegians registered with NAPOS as having porphyria. The prevalence of porphyria cutanea tarda was approximately 10 : 100,000 and that of acute intermittent porphyria approximately 4 : 100,000. The total incidence of all porphyrias was approximately 0.5-1 : 100,000 per year. Diagnostic delay, i.e. the time passing between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis, varied from 1-17 years depending on the type of porphyria. There was wide variation in the frequency with which patients with the various types of porphyria went for medical check-ups. The prevalence of acute intermittent porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda appears to be higher in Norway than in most other countries. Data from the Norwegian Porphyria Registry makes it possible to demonstrate differences in treatment and follow-up of porphyria patients and may be used to initiate necessary measures.

  14. 1st Science-Industry platform on expedition cruise tourism in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.A.J.; Olsen, J.; Hovelsrud, G.; Lang, I.; Jorgensen, F.

    2014-01-01

    The interest in Svalbard as a cruise tourism destination has increased gradually over the past decades, leading to a range of opportunities and challenges for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, communities, and regulatory systems on Svalbard and elsewhere in the Arctic (e.g. Greenland, Iceland,

  15. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma. Subsequently, associations between hormone concentrations (9 steroids), POPs (21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 8 OH-PCBs, 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and OCP metabolites, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and biological variables (age, head length, body mass, girth, body condition index), capture date, location (latitude and longitude), lipid content and cholesterol levels were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) modelling. Average concentrations of androgens, estrogens and progestagens were in the range of 0.57-83.7 (0.57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen/estrogen ratios being approximately 60 times higher in adult males than in subadult males. PCA plots and OPLS models indicated that TS was positively related to biometrics, such as body condition index in male polar bears. A negative relationship was also observed between POPs and DHT. Consequently, POPs and body condition may potentially affect the endocrinological function of steroids, including development of reproductive tissues and sex organs and the

  16. Re-evaluation of the 1950–1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vogler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical total ozone measurements taken with Dobson Spectrophotometer #8 at Longyearbyen (78.2° N, 15.6° E, Svalbard, Norway, in the period 1950–1962 have been re-analyzed and homogenized based on the original measurement logs, using present-day procedures. In lack of sufficient calibration information, an empirical quality assessment was performed, based on a climatological comparison with ozone measurements in Tromsø, using TOMS data at both sites in the period 1979–2001, and ground-based Dobson data in the period 1950–1962. The assessment revealed that the C wavelength pair direct-sun (DS measurements are most trustworthy (and most frequent, while the WMO standard reference mode AD direct-sun has a systematic bias. Zenith-blue (ZB measurements at solar zenith angles (SZA <78° were adjusted to DS data using different empirical functions before and after 1957 (the start of the International Geophysical Year. ZB measurements at larger SZAs were homogenized by means of a normalization function derived from days with measurements over a wide range of SZAs. Zenith-cloudy measurements, which are particularly frequent during the summer months, were homogenized by applying correction factors depending on the cloud type (high thin clouds and medium to low thick clouds. The combination of all measurements yields a total of 4685 single values, covering 1637 days from September 1950 to September 1962; moon measurements during the polar night add another 137 daily means. The re-evaluated data show a convincing consistence with measurements since 1979 (TOMS, SAOZ, Dobson as well as with the 1957–1962 data stored at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre (WOUDC.

  17. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  18. Enterobacter cloacae with a novel variant of ACT AmpC beta-lactamase originating from glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) in Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literak, Ivan; Manga, Ivan; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chroma, Magdalena; Jamborova, Ivana; Dobiasova, Hana; Sedlakova, Miroslava Htoutou; Cizek, Alois

    2014-07-16

    We aimed at Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and Salmonella isolates in wild birds in Arctic Svalbard, Norway. Cloacal swabs of little auks (Alle alle, n=215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus, n=15) were examined. Inducible production of AmpC enzyme was detected in E. cloacae KW218 isolate. Sequence analysis of the 1146 bp PCR product of the ampC gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with the blaACT-14 and blaACT-5 AmpC beta-lactamase genes. Four, respectively six of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms generated amino acid substitutions in the amino acid chain. As the ampC sequence polymorphism in the investigated E. cloacae strain was identified as unique, we revealed a novel variant of the ampC beta-lactamase gene blaACT-23. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, J.; Donham, E.; Montgomery, A.; Spalding, H.; Parrish, F.; Boland, R.; Fenner, D.; Gove, J.; Vetter, O.

    2010-06-01

    Efforts to map coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago using optical imagery have revealed the presence of numerous scleractinian, zoothanthellate coral reefs at depths of 30-130+ m, most of which were previously undiscovered. Such coral reefs and their associated communities have been recently defined as mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs). Several types of MCEs are found in Hawai‘i, each of which dominates a different depth range and is characterized by a unique pattern of coral community structure and colony morphology. Although MCEs are documented near both ends of the archipelago and on many of the islands in between, the maximum depth and prevalence of MCEs in Hawai‘i were found to decline with increasing latitude. The Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) had significantly deeper and greater percentages of scleractinian coral, and peaks in cover of both scleractinian corals and macroalgae occurred within depth bins 20 m deeper than in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Across the archipelago, as depth increased the combined percentage of living cover of mega benthic taxa declined sharply with increasing depth below 70 m, despite the widespread availability of hard substrate.

  20. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  1. Characteristics of Arctic winds at CANDAC-PEARL (80° N, 86° W and Svalbard (78° N, 16° E for 2006–2009: radar observations and comparisons with the model CMAM-DAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Operation of a Meteor Wind Radar (MWR at Eureka, Ellesmere Island (80° N, 86° W began in February 2006; this is the location of the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, operated by the "Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change" (CANDAC. The first 36 months of wind data (82–97 km are here combined with contemporaneous winds from the Meteor Wind Radar at Adventdalen, Svalbard (78° N, 16° E, to provide the first evidence for substantial interannual variability (IAV of longitudinally spaced observations of mean/background winds and waves at such High Arctic latitudes. The influences of "Sudden Stratospheric Warmings" (SSW are also apparent. Monthly meridional (north-south, NS 3-year means for each location/radar demonstrate that winds (82–97 km differ significantly between Canada and Norway, with winter-equinox values generally northward over Eureka and southward over Svalbard. Using January 2008 as case study, these oppositely directed meridional winds are related to mean positions of the Arctic mesospheric vortex. The vortex is from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model, with its Data Assimilation System (CMAM-DAS. The characteristics of "Sudden stratospheric Warmings" SSW in each of the three winters are noted, as well as their uniquely distinctive short-term mesospheric wind disturbances. Comparisons of the mean winds over 36 months at 78 and 80° N, with those within CMAM-DAS, are featured. E.g. for 2007, while both monthly mean EW and NS winds from CMAM/radar are quite similar over Eureka (82–88 km, the modeled autumn-winter NS winds over Svalbard (73–88 km differ significantly from observations. The latter are southward, and the modeled winds over Svalbard are predominately northward. The mean positions of the winter polar vortex are related to these differences.

  2. Rapid formation of a sea ice barrier east of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; van Woert, M. L.; Neumann, G.

    2005-11-01

    Daily SeaWinds scatterometer images acquired by the QuikSCAT satellite show an elongated sea ice feature that formed very rapidly (˜1-2 days) in November 2001 east of Svalbard over the Barents Sea. This sea ice structure, called "the Svalbard sea ice barrier," spanning approximately 10° in longitude and 2° in latitude, restricts the sea route and poses a significant navigation hazard. The secret of its formation appears to lie in the bottom of the sea: A comparison between bathymetry from the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean data and the pattern of sea ice formation from scatterometer data reveals that the sea ice barrier conforms well with and stretches above a deep elongated channel connecting the Franz Josef-Victoria Trough to the Hinlopen Basin between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. Historic hydrographic data from this area indicate that this sea channel contains cold Arctic water less than 50 m below the surface. Strong and persistent cold northerly winds force strong heat loss from this shallow surface layer, leading to the rapid formation of the sea ice barrier. Heat transfer rates estimated from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and wind data over this region suggest that the surface water along the deep channel can be rapidly cooled to the freezing point. Scatterometer results in 1999-2003 show that sea ice forms in this area between October and December. Understanding the ice formation mechanisms helps to select appropriate locations for deployment of buoys measuring wind and air-sea temperature profile and to facilitate ice monitoring, modeling, and forecasting.

  3. Hydroclimate variability of High Arctic Svalbard during the Holocene inferred from hydrogen isotopes of leaf waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balascio, Nicholas L.; D'Andrea, William J.; Gjerde, Marthe; Bakke, Jostein

    2018-03-01

    The response of the Arctic hydrologic cycle to global warming includes changes in precipitation patterns and moisture availability associated with variable sea ice extent and modes of atmospheric circulation. Reconstructions of past hydroclimate changes help constrain the natural range of these systems, identify the manners in which they respond to different forcing mechanisms, and reveal their connections to other components of the climate system, all of which lead to a better understanding of present and future changes. Here we examine hydroclimate changes during the Holocene in the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard by reconstructing the isotopic composition of precipitation. We measured the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD values) of leaf wax compounds (n-alkanes; C25-C31) in a sediment core from Lake Hakluytvatnet on the island of Amsterdamøya, northwest Spitsbergen. We interpret δD values of mid-chain (C25) and long-chain (C29, C31) length n-alkanes to represent changes in the isotopic composition of lake water and precipitation over the last 12.9 ka. After deglaciation of the catchment, water supply became restricted and the lake experienced significant evaporative isotopic enrichment indicating warmer conditions from 12.8 to 7.5 ka. The isotope values suggest an increase in the delivery of moisture from warmer sub-polar air masses between 12.8 and 9.5 ka, followed by generally warm, but unstable conditions between 9.5 and 7.5 ka, possibly indicating a response to meltwater forcing. Sedimentary evidence indicates a hiatus in deposition c. 7.5-5.0 ka, likely as a result of desiccation of the lake. At c. 5.0 ka lacustrine sedimentation resumed and over the last 5 ka there was a progressive increase in the influence of polar air masses and colder conditions, which culminated in an abrupt shift to colder conditions at c. 1.8 ka. This late Holocene cooling ended c. 0.18 ka, when isotopic data indicate warmer conditions and greater influence of moisture

  4. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    the game-theoretic model empirically. Testing the model rigorously is difficult, mainly because some of the relevant variables are not reliably measured and are endogenous. Two models were developed: one to identify sources of changes in the rate of violations, one to identify sources of changes......This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...... and the police. This model makes predictions both about how drivers will adapt to changes in the amount of enforcement (the more enforcement, the less violations) as well as how the police will adapt to changes in the rate of violations (the less violations, the less enforcement). The paper attempts to test...

  5. Modeling glacier-surface albedo across Svalbard for the 1979-2015 period: The HiRSvaC500-α data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Marco; Möller, Rebecca

    2017-03-01

    Albedo is an important quantity for determining the energy balance of snow and ice surfaces and thus also for the mass balance of glaciers. It is especially important in polar regions where shortwave radiation fluxes typically provide most of the energy input to a glacier. In order to use albedo data in any spatially distributed glaciological modeling, it is vital that the albedo fields are not only of high accuracy but also available on sufficiently high spatial resolution and in a manner that is consistent over time. This article presents the newly developed data set HiRSvaC500-α, which provides daily updated, gapless albedo fields for all glacierized areas of the Arctic archipelago Svalbard on a 500 m resolution over the period 1979-2015. Albedo modeling for creation of the data set is done using a multistep geostatistical approach on the basis of remotely sensed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo data and gridded ERA-Interim climate data. Validation of the modeled HiRSvaC500-α albedo fields against in situ albedo measurements at automatic weather stations operated on two different glaciers suggests that the accuracy of the newly developed data set lies close to that of remotely sensed MODIS albedo data. An analysis of the HiRSvaC500-α albedo data set yields a mean annual-average albedo of 0.754 across all glaciers of Svalbard over 1979-2015. A decrease of albedo with time is found, following a highly significant (95% level) trend of -0.010 per decade. For certain subregions, this trend even reaches up to -0.014 per decade.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  7. An introduction to the flora of the Milne Bay Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johns, R.; Gideon, O.; Simaga, J.; Kuria, T.; Bagoera, G.

    2009-01-01

    The term Milne Bay Archipelago is used to include Goodenough, Fergusson and Normanby Islands – collectively the d’Entrecasteau Islands, the islands of the Louisiade Archipelago, Missima, Rossel and Sudest Islands and the two northern islands, the Trobriands and Woodlark. All are very complex with

  8. Status and biology of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lydersen

    1998-06-01

    water prior to weaning. They are capable of diving for up to 12min and dive to the bottom of the study areas (max. 89 m. Nursing females spend more than 80% of their time in the water. Maximum recorded dive duration for mothers was 21.2 min. In order to produce a weaned pup, the net energy expenditure for a ringed seal mother is 1,073 MJ. This energy value corresponds to the consumption of 185 kg of polar cod or 282 kg of P. libellula. The annual gross energy consumption for adult males and females is calculated to be 5,600 MJ and 7,300 MJ, respectively. The main predators of ringed seals in Svalbard are polar bears (Ursus maritimus and Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus. In addition, both glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus are documented as predators of ringed seals in this area. Heavy predation pressure is probably the main factor explaining why pups of this species start diving at such a young age, why they have access to so many breathing holes (8.7 on average and why they keep their white coat long after its thermoregulatory properties have vanished. Pollution levels in ringed seals from Svalbard are, generally speaking, similar to levels in other areas of the Arctic.

  9. Low virus to prokaryote ratios in the cold: benthic viruses and prokaryotes in a subpolar marine ecosystem (Hornsund, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Borys; Filippini, Manuela; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Kedra, Monika; Kuliński, Karol; Middelboe, Mathias

    2013-03-01

    The density and spatial distribution of benthic viruses and prokaryotes in relation to biotic and abiotic factors were investigated in sediment cores collected in Hornsund, a permanently cold fjord on the West coast of Svalbard, Norway. The cores were obtained from the mouth of the fjord to the central basin, along a longitudinal transect. The results of our analyses showed lower densities of viruses (0.2 x 10(8) to 5.4 x 10(8) virus-like particles/g) and lower virus-to-prokaryote ratios (0.2-0.6, with the exception of the uppermost layer in the central basin, where the ratio was about 1.2) at the study site than generally found in the temperate areas, despite the relatively high organic matter content in subpolar sediments. Variations in benthic viral and prokaryote abundances along gradients of particle sedimentation rates, phytopigment concentrations, and macrobenthic species composition together suggested the influence of particle sedimentation and macrobenthic bioturbation on the abundance and spatial distribution ofprokaryotes and viruses in cold habitats.

  10. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  11. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in Arctic soils: A case-study in Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Montse; Sierra, Jordi; Drotikova, Tatiana; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2017-11-01

    A combined assessment on the levels and distribution profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements in soils from Pyramiden (Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago) is here reported. As previously stated, long-range atmospheric transport, coal deposits and previous mining extractions, as well as the stack emissions of two operative power plants at this settlement are considered as potential sources of pollution. Eight top-layer soil samples were collected and analysed for the 16 US EPA priority PAHs and for 15 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) during late summer of 2014. The highest levels of PAHs and trace elements were found in sampling sites located near two power plants, and at downwind from these sites. The current PAH concentrations were even higher than typical threshold values. The determination of the pyrogenic molecular diagnostic ratios (MDRs) in most samples revealed that fossil fuel burning might be heavily contributing to the PAHs levels. Two different indices, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) and the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), were determined for assessing soil samples with respect to trace elements pollution. Samples collected close to the power plants were found to be slightly and moderately polluted with zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg), respectively. The Spearman correlation showed significant correlations between the concentrations of 16 PAHs and some trace elements (Pb, V, Hg, Cu, Zn, Sn, Be) with the organic matter content, indicating that soil properties play a key role for pollutant retention in the Arctic soils. Furthermore, the correlations between ∑16 PAHs and some trace elements (e.g., Hg, Pb, Zn and Cu) suggest that the main source of contamination is probably pyrogenic, although the biogenic and petrogenic origin of PAHs should not be disregarded according to the local geology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  13. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    KAUST Repository

    Bourgeois, Solveig

    2016-08-23

    in BPC (~ 0.2–0.3 mg C g DW) by 4.5 and 9 times compared to sediments from the inner and outer stations. δC values in sedimentary organic matter of Kongsfjorden varied between − 23.8 and − 19.3‰ and reflected distinct sources of organic matter between basins. Bacterial total cell numbers in sediments of Kongsfjorden were < 2 × 10 cells ml and the prokaryotic community structure was strongly influenced by the marked environmental biogenic gradients. Overall, the spatial variability prevailed over the seasonal variability in sediments of Kongsfjorden suggesting that glacier inputs prominently control the functioning of this benthic ecosystem and its communities. Regional index terms: Norway, Svalbard, Kongsfjorden.

  14. New particle formation in the Svalbard region 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzenberg, Jost; Tunved, Peter; Galí, Martí; Leck, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Events of new particle formation (NPF) were analyzed in a 10-year data set of hourly particle size distributions recorded on Mt. Zeppelin, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Three different types of NPF events were identified through objective search algorithms. The first and simplest algorithm utilizes short-term increases in particle concentrations below 25 nm (PCT (percentiles) events). The second one builds on the growth of the sub-50 nm diameter median (DGR (diameter growth) events) and is most closely related to the classical banana type of event. The third and most complex, multiple-size approach to identifying NPF events builds on a hypothesis suggesting the concurrent production of polymer gel particles at several sizes below ca. 60 nm (MEV (multi-size growth) events). As a first and general conclusion, we can state that NPF events are a summer phenomenon and not related to Arctic haze, which is a late winter to early spring feature. The occurrence of NPF events appears to be somewhat sensitive to the available data on precipitation. The seasonal distribution of solar flux suggests some photochemical control that may affect marine biological processes generating particle precursors and/or atmospheric photochemical processes that generate condensable vapors from precursor gases. Notably, the seasonal distribution of the biogenic methanesulfonate (MSA) follows that of the solar flux although it peaks before the maxima in NPF occurrence. A host of ancillary data and findings point to varying and rather complex marine biological source processes. The potential source regions for all types of new particle formation appear to be restricted to the marginal-ice and open-water areas between northeastern Greenland and eastern Svalbard. Depending on conditions, yet to be clarified new particle formation may become visible as short bursts of particles around 20 nm (PCT events), longer events involving condensation growth (DGR events), or extended events with elevated

  15. Holocene environmental changes from Dicksonfjorden sediments of western Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Ji; Nam, Seung-Il; Son, Yeong Ju; Forwick, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The last deglaciation of the Svalbard-Barents ice sheet, initiated since 13000 yrs BP, and subsequent warming through the Holocene prompted dramatic climate changes in the Svalbard fjords. Consequently, significant changes are expected in processes that determine the nature of sediments delivered (often en masse) to the steep fjords system, including sediment weathering, primary production in fjords and terrestrial realms, and the main domain of sediment transport (i.e. a shift from ice-rafting to glaciofluvial). This study investigates paleoenvironmental changes in the western Svalbard region using the Holocene glaciomarine sediments from Dicksonfjorden of the west Spitsbergen. We examine geochemical composition of organic (carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes) and inorganic (major and trace elements concentrations) components of core sediments from the inner part of Dicksonfjorden, where sediments are mainly derived from the late Paleozoic mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentary sequences distributed on the western Spitsbergen. Based on our preliminary result, carbon isotope data exhibits an overall 2 ‰ positive shift since the last deglaciation, suggesting a major change in the nature of organic matter. We posit that a shift of the major source of organic matter from terrestrial plant to aquatic algae. The rising temperature likely promoted chemical weathering and thus enhanced nutrient supply for algal growth, since the early Holocene climate optimum. It is corroborated by the organic C/N ratio showing an antithetic relationship with the 13Corg result. Principal component analysis is applied to major and trace element data, obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning measurements, in order to uncover main controls on inorganic geochemistry of sediments. The result indicates that there are at least two periods marked with major changes in the inorganic sediment geochemistry, one in 13000 yrs BP and the other one in 5000 yrs BP. We will further test

  16. Water Quality Modeling System for Coastal Archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, L.; Miettunen, E.; Lukkari, K.; Puttonen, I.; Ropponen, J.; Tikka, K.; Piiparinen, J.; Lignell, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal seas are encountering pressures from eutrophication, fishing, ship emissions and coastal construction. Sustainable development and use of these areas require science-based guidance with high quality data and efficient tools. Our study area, the Archipelago Sea, is located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea. It is a shallow, topographically heterogeneous and eutrophic sub-basin, covered with thousands of small islands and islets. The catchment area is 8950 km2and has ca. 500 000 inhabitants. We are developing a modeling system that can be used by local authorities and in ministry level decision making to evaluate the environmental impacts that may result from decisions and changes made both in the watershed and in the coastal areas. The modeling system consists of 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS and water quality model FICOS, both applied to the area with high spatial resolution. Models use river discharge and nutrient loading data supplied by watershed model VEMALA and include loading from multiple point sources located in the Archipelago Sea. An easy-to-use interface made specifically to answer the end-user needs, includes possibility to modify the nutrient loadings and perform model simulations to selected areas and time periods. To ensure the quality and performance of the modeling system, comprehensive measurement dataset including hydrographic, nutrient, chlorophyll-a and bottom sediment data, was gathered based on monitoring and research campaigns previously carried out in the Archipelago Sea. Verification showed that hydrodynamic model was able to simulate surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. However, the dynamics of the deeper layers need to be improved, especially in areas that have sharp bathymetric gradients. The preliminary analysis of the water quality model results showed that the model was able to reproduce the basic characteristics of

  17. Frontal destabilization of Stonebreen, Edgeøya, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Strozzi

    2017-02-01

    and synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite data, a number of zones of velocity increases have been observed at formerly slow-flowing calving fronts on Svalbard. Here we present the dynamic evolution of the southern lobe of Stonebreen on Edgeøya. We observe a slowly steady retreat of the glacier front from 1971 until 2011, followed by a strong increase in ice surface velocity along with a decrease of volume and frontal extension since 2012. The considerable losses in ice thickness could have made the tide-water calving glacier, which is grounded below sea level some 6 km inland from the 2014 front, more sensitive to surface meltwater reaching its bed and/or warm ocean water increasing frontal ablation with subsequent strong multi-annual ice-flow acceleration.

  18. [Occasional smoking in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Marianne

    2014-01-28

    In recent decades, daily smoking has become less common, while occasional smoking has stayed at the same level. The purpose of the study is to describe occasional smokers on the basis of their smoking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from Statistics Norway's quarterly surveys of tobacco use in 2010 and 2011 were used. Information on smoking habits, smoking-related behaviour and the respondents' attitudes to their own smoking was collected in telephone interviews. Of the 8,700 men and women aged 16-74 (response rate 57%) who were included, altogether 1,583 were daily smokers and 907 occasional smokers. The occasional smokers were younger, more frequently lived in large cities and had a higher level of education and income than the daily smokers. Twenty-nine of 174 (17%) occasional smokers used snus on a daily basis, compared to 10 of 394 (3%) of the daily smokers. The occasional smokers had great confidence in their ability to quit: 95% responded that they would be smoke-free in five years, compared to 55% of the daily smokers (n = 2,158). Fifty-five (35%) of the occasional smokers lit up several times weekly (16 cigarettes per week on average), while the remaining (65%) smoked only once per week as a maximum (five cigarettes per week on average). Those who smoked several times each week had attitudes to their own smoking and usage pattern for tobacco that were similar to those of the daily smokers. Nearly half of the occasional smokers defined themselves as non-smokers. Norwegian occasional smokers are a heterogeneous group in terms of their smoking pattern and frequency, and many define themselves as non-smokers.

  19. The fast-ice growth and freezing of the bottom in the Braganzavagen Gulf (Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey; Pnyushkov, Andrey; Filchuk, Kirill; Morozov, Yevgenii; Ryzhov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The results of oceanographic and sea ice studies in the shallow Braganzavågen Gulf (Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard) in March 2016 are presented. These studies are a continuation of observational efforts initiated by UNIS (Svalbard, Norway) in 2014. 2016 field campaign includes instrumental measurements of snow and ice properties in the fjord (e.g., ice thicknesses, temperatures, and salinities), as well as high-resolution CTD measurements within the under-ice water column. Collected observations were accompanied by freezing simulations of adjacent water and bottom ground layers performed with a one-dimensional thermodynamic model (Bogorodskii and Pnyushkov, 2015). The model uses two methods to reproduce phase transition areas - a "classic" (frontal) method for the fast ice, and transition in the continuous media (mushy zone) for the bottom sediments. Meteorological observations during the winter 2015-16 at Sveagruva (northwest coast) were used in these simulations as the atmospheric forcing. Numerical experiments were carried out for the initial salinity of 35 psu and 2 m water depth. The simulations start with the beginning of water freezing determined by a steady air temperature transition through the freezing point. The start of freezing was also verified by comparison with sea ice charts available for the Van Mijenfjorden for the period of simulations. Model simulations showed that the growth of sea ice in shallow (salinity in the under-ice layer. For instance, at a 0.5 m depth the salinity in the under ice water layer exceeds 160 psu, which corresponds to the freezing temperature below -9C. In fact, the water salinity does not reach high values because of the horizontal mixing. However, available hydrological observations showed relatively small (0.2-0.5 m) amplitudes of tides - the major contributor to the horizontal exchange in this area. These small amplitudes likely suggest small advective salt fluxes induced by tides, and thus their little effect on the

  20. Resonance scattering by auroral N2+: steady state theory and observations from Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jokiaho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auroral energy input at high latitudes often depend on observations of emissions from the first negative band of ionised nitrogen. However, these emissions are affected by solar resonance scattering, which makes photometric and spectrographic measurements difficult to interpret. This work is a statistical study from Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, during the solar minimum between January and March 2007, providing a good coverage in shadow height position and precipitation conditions. The High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES measured three bands of N2+ 1N (0,1, (1,2 and (2,3, and one N2 2P band (0,3 in the magnetic zenith. The brightness ratios of the N2+ bands are compared with a theoretical treatment with excellent results. Balance equations for all important vibrational levels of the three lowest electronic states of the N2+ molecule are solved for steady-state, and the results combined with ion chemistry modelling. Brightnesses of the (0,1, (1,2 and (2,3 bands of N2+ 1N are calculated for a range of auroral electron energies, and different values of shadow heights. It is shown that in sunlit aurora, the brightness of the (0,1 band is enhanced, with the scattered contribution increasing with decreasing energy of precipitation (10-fold enhancements for energies of 100 eV. The higher vibrational bands are enhanced even more significantly. In sunlit aurora the observed 1N (1,2/(0,1 and (2,3/(0,1 ratios increase as a function of decreasing precipitation energy, as predicted by theory. In non-sunlit aurora the N2+ species have a constant proportionality to neutral N2. The ratio of 2P(0,3/1N(0,1 in the morning hours shows a pronounced decrease, indicating enhancement of N2+ 1N emission. Finally we study the relationship of all emissions and their ratios to rotational temperatures. A clear effect is observed on rotational development of the bands. It is possible that greatly enhanced rotational temperatures may be a

  1. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane flame retardants in the polar bear food chain in Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørmo, Eugen Gravningen; Salmer, Maria Pettersvik; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Hop, Haakon; Baek, Kine; Kovacs, Kit Maureen; Lydersen, Christian; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Lie, Elisabeth; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were investigated in an arctic marine food chain consisting of four invertebrate species: polar cod (Boreogadus saida), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The most abundant BFR, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47, was found in detectable concentrations even in zooplankton, the lowest trophic level examined in this study. Most of the investigated BFRs biomagnified as function of tropic level in the food chain. A noticeable exception occurred at the highest trophic level, the polar bear, in which only BDE-153 was found to increase from its main prey, the ringed seal, indicating that polar bears appear to be able to metabolize and biodegrade most BFRs. In contrast, lower-brominated PBDEs, particularly BDE-47, showed clear signs of bioaccumulation in zooplankton, polar cod, and ringed seals. We suggest that this discrepancy in the fate of BFRs among the different species may be related to greater induction of oxidative detoxification activities in the polar bear. Absorption and debromination rates may be more important for bioaccumulation rates of BFRs in zooplankton, polar cod, and ringed seals. Lipid weight-based concentrations (LWCs) and whole body-based concentrations (WBCs) of BFRs were used to assess biomagnification factors (BMFs). Whole-body concentrations gave the most realistic BMFs, as BMFs derived from LWCs seem to be confounded by the large variability in lipid content of tissues from the investigated species. This study demonstrates that PBDEs and HBCD have reached measurable concentrations even in the lower trophic levels (invertebrates and fish) in the Arctic and biomagnifies in the polar bear food chain.

  2. Impacts of coal dust from an active mine on the spectral reflectance of Arctic surface snow in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; Dierssen, Heidi; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Schmitt, Carl; Chlus, Adam; Hermanson, Mark; Painter, Thomas H.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2017-02-01

    Light-absorbing particles (LAPs) in snow such as dust and black carbon influence the radiative forcing at the Earth's surface, which has major implications for global climate models. LAPs also significantly influence the melting of glaciers, sea ice, and seasonal snow. Here we present an in situ study of surface snow near an active coal mine in the Norwegian Arctic. We couple measurements of spectral hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) with measurements of LAPs characterized in two ways, as refractory black carbon using a Single Particle Soot Photometer and the total light absorption of LAPs measured with the Light Absorption Heating Method. The Snow Ice and Aerosol Radiation model was constrained by LAP measurements. Results were compared to observed spectral albedo measurements. Modeled and observed albedos were similar at the cleaner and more remote sites. However, the modeled spectral albedos do not fully account for the low spectral albedo measured next to the mine. LAP measurements also showed a large variation in particle sizes (tenths to tens of microns) related to transport distance of the particles from the mine. Here we find that LAPs from coal dust reduce the spectral HDRF by up to 84% next to the mine and 55% 0.5 km downwind of the mine. The coupling of extreme LAP observations (1 ng g-1 to 4863 ng g-1) with HDRF measurements from 350 to 2500 nm has facilitated the development of spectral band pairs, which could be used in the future to remotely assess LAPs in Arctic snow.

  3. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese: 2016 progress summary: Technical Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, No. 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. This report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information (1991-2015) and its implications for the harvest management strategy. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent. These results suggest that the pink‐footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density‐dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. Beginning with the 2016 hunting season, harvest quotas will be prescribed on an annual basis rather than every three years because of the potential to better meet population management objectives. Based on updated model weights, the recent observations of population size (74,800), the proportion of the population comprised of one-year-old birds (0.138), and temperature days in Svalbard (20), the optimal harvest quota for the 2016 hunting season is 25,000. The large increase in quota compared to that during first three years of AHM reflects stakeholders’ desire to reduce population size to the goal of 60,000, recognizing that population size remains relatively high and above-average production is expected in 2016 due to a warm spring.

  4. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  5. Cornice dynamics and meteorological control at Gruvefjellet, Central Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vogel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cornice fall avalanches endanger life and infrastructure in Nybyen, a part of Svalbard's main settlement Longyearbyen, located at 78° N in the High Arctic. Thus, cornice dynamics – accretion, cracking and eventual failure – and their controlling meteorological factors were studied along the ridgeline of the Gruvefjellet plateau mountain above Nybyen in the period 2008–2010. Using two automatic time-lapse cameras and hourly meteorological data in combination with intensive field observations on the Gruvefjellet plateau, cornice process dynamics were investigated in larger detail than previously possible. Cornice accretion starts directly following the first snowfall in late September and October, and proceeds throughout the entire snow season under a wide range of air temperature conditions that the maritime winter climate of Svalbard provides. Cornice accretion is particularly controlled by distinct storm events, with a prevailing wind direction perpendicular to the ridge line and average wind speeds from 12 m s−1. Particularly high wind speeds in excess of 30 m s−1 towards the plateau ridgeline lead to cornice scouring and reduce the cornice mass both vertically and horizontally. Induced by pronounced air temperature fluctuations which might reach above freezing and lead to midwinter rainfall events, tension cracks develop between the cornice mass and the plateau. Our measurements indicate a linear crack opening due to snow creep and tilt of the cornice around a pivot point. Four to five weeks elapsed between the first observations of a cornice crack until cornice failure. Throughout the two snow seasons studied, 180 cornice failures were recorded, of which 70 failures were categorized as distinctive cornice fall avalanches. A clear temporal pattern with the majority of cornice failures in June was found. Thus only daily air temperature could determine avalanche from non-avalanche days. Seven large cornice fall

  6. Seasonal patterns in Arctic planktonic metabolism (Fram Strait - Svalbard region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, R.; Duarte, C. M.; Holding, J.; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A.; García-Corral, L. S.; Reigstad, M.; Wassmann, P.

    2012-06-01

    The metabolism of the Arctic Ocean is marked by extreme pronounced seasonality and spatial heterogeneity associated with light conditions, ice cover, water masses and nutrient availability. Here we report the marine planktonic metabolic rates (Net Community Production, Gross Primary Production and Community Respiration) along three different seasons of the year for a total of eight cruises along the western sector of the European Arctic (Fram Strait - Svalbard region) in the Arctic Ocean margin: one at the end of 2006 (fall/winter), two in 2007 (early spring and summer), two in 2008 (early spring and summer), one in 2009 (late spring-early summer) and one in 2010 (spring). The results show that metabolisms of the western sector of the European Arctic varies throughout the year, depending mostly on the stage of bloom, which is mainly determined by availability of light and nutrients. Here we report metabolic rates for the different periods, including the spring bloom, summer and the dark period, increasing considerably the empirical basis on metabolic rates in the Artic Ocean, and especially in the European Arctic corridor. We also report a rough annual metabolic balance for this area of the Arctic Ocean, resulting in a Net Community Production of 108 g C m-2 yr-1.

  7. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow firn core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the March–May maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br / Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of March–May sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open-ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment could be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosions that have been observed to occur mainly above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  8. An imaging interferometry capability for the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grydeland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric imaging (aperture synthesis imaging is a technique used by radio astronomers to achieve angular resolution that far surpasses what is possible with a single large aperture. A similar technique has been used for radar imaging studies of equatorial ionospheric phenomena at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We present plans for adding an interferometric imaging capability to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, a capability which will contribute significantly to several areas of active research, including naturally and artificially enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and their detailed relation in space and time to optical phenomena, polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE, and meteor studies. Interferometry using the two antennas of the ESR has demonstrated the existence of extremely narrow, field-aligned scattering structures, but having only a single baseline is a severe limitation for such studies. Building additional IS-class antennas at the ESR is not a trivial task. However, the very high scattering levels in enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and PMSE means that a passive receiver antenna of more modest gain should still be capable of detecting these echoes. In this paper we present simulations of what an imaging interferometer will be capable of observing for different antenna configurations and brightness distributions, under ideal conditions, using two different image inversion algorithms. We also discuss different antenna and receiver technologies.

  9. An imaging interferometry capability for the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grydeland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric imaging (aperture synthesis imaging is a technique used by radio astronomers to achieve angular resolution that far surpasses what is possible with a single large aperture. A similar technique has been used for radar imaging studies of equatorial ionospheric phenomena at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We present plans for adding an interferometric imaging capability to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, a capability which will contribute significantly to several areas of active research, including naturally and artificially enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and their detailed relation in space and time to optical phenomena, polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE, and meteor studies.

    Interferometry using the two antennas of the ESR has demonstrated the existence of extremely narrow, field-aligned scattering structures, but having only a single baseline is a severe limitation for such studies. Building additional IS-class antennas at the ESR is not a trivial task. However, the very high scattering levels in enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and PMSE means that a passive receiver antenna of more modest gain should still be capable of detecting these echoes.

    In this paper we present simulations of what an imaging interferometer will be capable of observing for different antenna configurations and brightness distributions, under ideal conditions, using two different image inversion algorithms. We also discuss different antenna and receiver technologies.

  10. Autonomous detection of calving-related seismicity at Kronebreen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Köhler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We detect and cluster waveforms of seismic signals recorded close to the calving front of Kronebreen, Svalbard, to identify glacier-related seismic events and to investigate their relation to calving processes. Single-channel geophone data recorded over several months in 2009 and 2010 are combined with eleven days of direct visual observations of the glacier front. We apply a processing scheme which combines conventional seismic event detection using a sensitive trigger algorithm and unsupervised clustering of all detected signals based on their waveform characteristics by means of Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs. About 10% of the directly observed calving events close to the geophone (<1 km can be correlated with seismic detections. We are able to distinguish between false detections, instrumental artifacts, and three classes of signals which are, with different degrees of uncertainty, emitted by calving or glacier activity in general. By extrapolating the interpretation of seismic event classes beyond the time period of visual observations, the temporal distribution of glacier-related events shows an increase in event rate in autumn, particularly for the class which is related to iceberg calving. Using the seismic event distribution in this class as a proxy for the calving rate and measurements of glacier velocity and glacier front position, we discuss the possible relationship between glacier dynamics and calving processes at Kronebreen.

  11. Monitoring and forecasting local landslide hazard in the area of Longyearbyen, Svalbard - early progress and experiences from the Autumn 2016 events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thea; Krøgli, Ingeborg; Boje, Søren; Colleuille, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Since 2013 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has operated a landslide early warning system (LEWS) for mainland Norway. The Svalbard islands, situated 800 km north of the Norwegian mainland, and 1200 km from the North Pole, are not part of the conventional early warning service. However, following the fatal snow avalanche event 19 Dec. 2015 in the settlement of Longyearbyen (78° north latitude), local authorities and the NVE have initiated monitoring of the hydro-meteorological conditions for the area of Longyearbyen, as an extraordinary precaution. Two operational forecasting teams from the NVE; the snow avalanche and the landslide hazard forecasters, perform hazard assessment related to snow avalanches, slush flows, debris flows, shallow slides and local flooding. This abstract will focus on recent experiences made by the landslide hazard team during the autumn 2016 landslide events, caused by a record setting wet and warm summer and autumn of 2016. The general concept of the Norwegian LEWS is based on frequency intervals of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions. This general concept has been transposed to the Longyearbyen area. Although the climate is considerably colder and drier than mainland Norway, experiences so far are positive and seem useful to the local authorities. Initially, the landslide hazard evaluation was intended to consider only slush flow hazard during the snow covered season. However, due to the extraordinary warm and wet summer and autumn 2016, the landslide hazard forecasters unexpectedly had to issue warnings for the local authorities due to increased risk of shallow landslides and debris flows. This was done in close cooperation with the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, who provided weather forecasts from the recently developed weather prediction model, AROME-Arctic. Two examples, from 14-15 Oct and 8-9 Nov 2016, will be given to demonstrate how the landslide hazard assessment for the Longyearbyen area is

  12. New geological data of New Siberian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy

    2014-05-01

    The area of New Siberian Archipelago (NSA) encompasses different tectonic blocks is a clue for reconstruction of geological structure and geodynamic evolution of East Arctic. According to palaeomagnetic study two parts of the archipelago - Bennett and Anjou Islands formed a single continental block at least from the Early Palaeozoic. Isotope dating of De Long Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks suggests Neoproterozoic (Baikalian) age of its basement. The De Long platform sedimentary cover may be subdivided into two complexes: (1) intermediate of PZ-J variously deformed and metamorphosed rocks and (2) K-KZ of weakly lithified sediments. The former complex comprises the Cambrian riftogenic volcanic-clastic member which overlain by Cambrian-Ordovician turbiditic sequence, deposited on a continental margin. This Lower Palaeozoic complex is unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous (K-Ar age of c.120 Ma) basalts with HALIP petrochemical affinities. In Anjou Islands the intermediate sedimentary complex encompasses the lower Ordovician -Lower Carboniferous sequence of shallow-marine limestone and subordinate dolomite, mudstone and sandstone that bear fossils characteristic of the Siberian biogeographic province. The upper Mid Carboniferous - Jurassic part is dominated by shallow-marine clastic sediments, mainly clays. The K-KZ complex rests upon the lower one with angular unconformity and consists mainly of coal-bearing clastic sediments with rhyolite lavas and tuffs in the bottom (117-110 Ma by K-Ar) while the complexe's upper part contains intraplate alkalic basalt and Neogene-Quaternary limburgite. The De-Long-Anjou block's features of geology and evolution resemble those of Wrangel Island located some 1000 km eastward. The Laptev Sea shelf outcrops in intrashelf rises (Belkovsky and Stolbovoy Islands) where its geology and structure may be observed directly. On Belkovsky Island non-dislocated Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary cover of littoral-marine coal

  13. Thinking Strategically in the Aleutian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, M.; Burn, D. M.; Poe, A.

    2016-02-01

    Each year, thousands of deep-draft vessels transit through the Aleutians along shipping routes between North America and Asia. In December 2004 the M/V Selendang Ayu, a 740-foot bulk carrier, lost power and drifted aground on the north shore of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutians. The vessel was broken in two, spilling over 300,000 gallons of heavy fuel oil and cargo of soybeans. The resulting disaster claimed the lives of six crewmen, as well as thousands of seabirds and at least six sea otters. Our comprehensive analysis of North Pacific shipping routes through application of data from the Automatic Identification System (mandated by the International Maritime Organization for these deep-draft vessels), has documented that many of these ships pass perilously close to several of the Aleutian islands. Our results helped inform a proposal by the U.S. Coast Guard to the International Maritime Organization for the establishment of five Areas to be Avoided (ATBAs) in the Aleutians. These ATBAs would apply to ships 400 gross tons and heavier, transiting on the Great Circle Route on either the north or south side of the Aleutian archipelago. The proposal was approved by the IMO in June 2015 and takes effect on January 1, 2016. Further analysis of new vessel routes that would conform to the proposed ATBAs using distance as a proxy for exposure indicates that the new routes would reduce potential risk to seabird colonies by 17% and to endangered Steller sea lions at haulouts and rookeries by 21%, while adding less than 1% to the overall length of the voyage between the two continents. Additional analysis supported by the ABSI/WCS partnership will identify areas most at risk to vessel drift groundings, which can inform spill response preparation efforts. There are enormous economic benefits for vessel operators to reduce the risk of impacts to natural resources such as marine mammals and seabirds.

  14. Application of a minimal glacier model to Hansbreen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oerlemans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hansbreen is a well studied tidewater glacier in the southwestern part of Svalbard, currently about 16 km long. Since the end of the 19th century it has been retreating over a distance of 2.7 km. In this paper the global dynamics of Hansbreen are studied with a minimal glacier model, in which the ice mechanics are strongly parameterised and a simple law for iceberg calving is used. The model is calibrated by reconstructing a climate history in such a way that observed and simulated glacier length match. In addition, the calving law is tuned to reproduce the observed mean calving flux for the period 2000–2008.

    Equilibrium states are studied for a wide range of values of the equilibrium line altitude. The dynamics of the glacier are strongly nonlinear. The height-mass balance feedback and the water depth-calving flux feedback give rise to cusp catastrophes in the system.

    For the present climatic conditions Hansbreen cannot survive. Depending on the imposed climate change scenario, in AD 2100 Hansbreen is predicted to have a length between 10 and 12 km. The corresponding decrease in ice volume (relative to the volume in AD 2000 is 45 to 65%.

    Finally the late-Holocene history of Hansbreen is considered. We quote evidence from dated peat samples that Hansbreen did not exist during the Holocene Climatic Optimum. We speculate that at the end of the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum Hansbreen could advance because the glacier bed was at least 50 m higher than today, and because the tributary glaciers on the western side may have supplied a significant amount of mass to the main stream. The excavation of the overdeepening and the formation of the shoal at the glacier terminus probably took place during the Little Ice Age.

  15. Effect of periodic melting on geochemical and isotopic signals in an ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjola, V.A.; Moore, J.C.; Isaksson, E.; Jauhiainen, T.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Martma, T.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Vaikmäe, R.

    2002-01-01

    [1] We examine the quality of atmospherically deposited ion and isotope signals in an ice core taken from a periodically melting ice field, Lomonosovfonna in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The aim is to determine the degree to which the signals are altered by periodic melting of the ice. We use

  16. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  17. Sensitivity to long-term climate change of subpermafrost groundwater systems in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldorsen, S.; Heim, M.; Dale, A.; Landvik, J.Y.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Leijnse, A.; Salvigsen, O.; Ove Hagen, J.; Banks, D.

    2010-01-01

    Deep subpermafrost aquifers are highly climate-dependent, with the permafrost as an aquitard preventing groundwater recharge and discharge. A study from the high-arctic island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, shows that during a glacial to interglacial phase, both the permafrost and the glacier regime will

  18. The invertebrate fauna of anthropogenic soils in the High-Arctic settlement of Barentsburg, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torstein Solhøy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial environment of the High Arctic consists of a mosaic of habitat types. In addition to the natural habitat diversity, various human-influenced types may occur. For the resident invertebrate fauna, these anthropogenic habitats may be either unusually favourable or detrimental. In the town of Barentsburg, Svalbard, soils were imported for the greenhouses from southern Russia. These soils were subsequently discarded outside the greenhouses and have become augmented with manure from the cowsheds. Both the greenhouse and the cowsheds are now derelict. This site represents an unusually nutrient-rich location with considerable development of organic soils, in stark contrast to the naturally forming organic soils in Svalbard, which are typically thin and nutrient poor. Few previous studies have examined the soil invertebrate communities of human-disturbed or -created habitats in the Arctic. In an often nutrient-poor terrestrial environment, it is unclear how the invertebrate fauna will react to such nutrient enhancement. In these soils, 46 species of invertebrates were determined. Eleven species have not been recorded from other habitats in Svalbard and are hence likely to have been introduced. The native species assemblage in the anthropogenic soils was not atypical for many natural sites in Svalbard. Despite the enriched organic soils and highly ameliorated winter temperature conditions, the soil invertebrate fauna biodiversity does not appear to be enhanced beyond the presence of certain probably introduced species.

  19. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the investigation of historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Benjamin; Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard in the European High Arctic. A short-lived British marble quarry in Kongsfjorden lay deserted after 1920. We ask why this attempt at the large-scale development of High Arctic marble was unproductive; whether there are structural

  20. The lichen genus Caloplaca (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) on Svalbard. Notes and additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Lorentsen, Line Balschmidt; Arup, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    23 species of the lichen genus Caloplaca from Svalbard are described and/or discussed. The descriptions are natural language descriptions based on characters for each species coded into LIAS (Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes). A total of 37 Caloplaca species...

  1. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990).

  2. Herpetology of the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 110 species of amphibians (18 frogs and toads, and 1 salamander) and reptiles (47 snakes, 39 lizards, and 5 turtles) are known from the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys. The high diversity of the herpetofauna comes from a variety of factors, including a convergence of biotic communities representing deserts, grasslands, and mountains....

  3. Sources of 137Cs to an Arctic fjord (Hornsund, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata

    2017-12-01

    Although primary sources of anthropogenic 137Cs have decreased nowadays, the Arctic is exposed to a variety of secondary sources. These include riverine run-off, oceanic currents, drifting sea ice, melting glaciers and permafrost. Recent reports underline the role of glaciers, specifically cryoconite holes, in radionuclide accumulation. Therefore, this study investigates the hypothesis that melting glaciers are an important means of delivering 137Cs for Arctic fjord (Hornsund, Svalbard). As marine sediments are the final sink for most contaminants, seven 30-40 cm long sediment cores collected in 2016 were investigated for 137Cs activity concentration. Five were collected in a transect from the central to the outer part of the fjord while two were collected within one km of the different melting tidewater glaciers. Sediment layers were dated using 210Pb to reveal the history of 137Cs accumulation. The measured 137Cs activity concentrations ranged from <0.1 to 7.7 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3.1 Bq kg-1 were measured in surface (0-2 cm) sediments. The total 137Cs inventories were calculated for five station and ranged from 322 to 908 Bq m-2, of which 29-34 Bq m-2 were deposited within the last decade. At two stations characterized by largest sediment accumulation rates only the last decade inventories were calculated and they ranged from 13 to 444 Bq·m-2. The mean of 137Cs fluxes calculated for last decade ranged from 2.7 to 44.1 Bq m-2yr-1. The history of 137Cs environmental inputs was well revealed in the sediments as the 137Cs penetration depth agreed with the time of its introduction to the Arctic and the most pronounced 137Cs activity concentration peak was found in sediments dated for circa 1963. Although 137Cs fluxes and inventories were largest in the glacial bay (Brepollen), the 137Cs was diluted in a large amount of sedimenting material. Based on the results in this study, the glaciers do not appear to act as

  4. Alternative Education and Home Schooling in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christian W.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of balance between community rules and personal freedom as it relates to who should control the education of children in Norway. Reviews the historical development of alternative education in Norway, including the growth of private schools and home schooling. Comments on future educational needs and the provision of good…

  5. INOPS Survey data report for Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Holt, Steffen

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Norway. The statistics relies on data collected in the period from April 2015 to October 2015 through an online...... survey send to managers in all 428 municipalities in Norway....

  6. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  7. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  8. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  9. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  10. Modelling the regional climate and isotopic composition of Svalbard precipitation using REMOiso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divine..[], D.V.; Sjolte, Jesper; Isaksson, E.

    2011-01-01

    on Svalbard ice caps in 1997 (Lomonosovfonna, 1250 m asl) and 2005 (Holtedahlfonna, 1150 m asl) and the GNIP series from Ny-angstrom lesund and Isfjord Radio. The surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation data from Longyearbyen and Ny-angstrom lesund are used to assess the skill of the model......Simulations of a regional (approx. 50 km resolution) circulation model REMOiso with embedded stable water isotope module covering the period 1958-2001 are compared with the two instrumental climate and four isotope series (d18O) from western Svalbard. We examine the data from ice cores drilled...... than summer. The simulated and measured Holtedahlfonna d18O series agree reasonably well, whereas no significant correlation has been observed between the modelled and measured Lomonosovfonna ice core isotopic series. It is shown that sporadic nature as well as variability in the amount inherent...

  11. Two rare coprophilous ascomycetes from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.; Kristiansen, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two uncommon coprophilous ascomycetes, Ascobolus cervinus and Caccobius minusculus, only recorded once, each from two different continents, are reported for the first time from Norway. Both are provided with new descriptions and compared with authentic material.

  12. To the knowledge of cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) of the Balearic Archipelago, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumia, Franco; Gayubo, Severiano Fernández

    2013-01-01

    The Chrysididae of the Balearic Archipelago were studied by operating four Malaise traps in the Mallorca and Menorca Islands. Traps captured 98 individuals belonging to 19 species. Including all available data from literature, the number of species in this archipelago rise to 34. Hedychridium balearicum Strumia, sp. nov (Mallorca) is described and key to the Hedychridium monochroum species-group is given. Extrapolation from available data suggests the presence of about 58 to 107 Chrysididae species in the Balearic Archipelago.

  13. The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval, NE Svalbard:Chemostratigraphy and genesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Ian J.; Bonnand, Pierre; Davies, Tesni; Fleming, Edward J.; Grassineau, Nathalie; Halverson, Galen P.; Hambrey, Michael J.; McMillan, Emily M.; McKay, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Ian J.; Stevenson, Carl T. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval (LCWI) refers to a non-glacial interval that separates presumed representatives of the Sturtian and Marinoan panglaciations. Its duration is poorly constrained radiometrically and its deposits are relatively poorly known in most geographic regions. This paper aims to constrain the duration, palaeoenvironments and petrogenesis of such deposits in the classic region of NE Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The succession comprises a 200–205 m dolomitic shale (Macdonaldrygg...

  14. The geomorphic imprint of glacier surges into open-marine waters: Examples from eastern Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Ottesen, D.; Dowdeswell, Julian Andrew; Bellec, VK; Bjarnadóttir, LR

    2017-01-01

    Seafloor morphology beyond nine tidewater glaciers terminating in open-marine settings in eastern Svalbard has been investigated using multibeam swath-bathymetry. Historical information on tidewater glacier fluctuations over the past century or so shows that the seafloor offshore has been exposed only recently. Most glaciers have been observed to surge or have looped surface moraines indicating past surges. During these ice advances and subsequent retreat, a well-preserved submarine landform ...

  15. Sandstone Provenance of the De Geerdalen Formation, Svalbard - Emphasis on Petrography and Chromium Spinel Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Harstad, Trond Svånå

    2016-01-01

    Detrital chromium spinel mineral-chemical analyses, in combination with sandstone petrography, were conducted on samples from the Upper Triassic De Geerdalen Formation from several locations on Svalbard, in order to interpret sandstone provenance. Petrographic identification of detrital minerals and lithic fragments was used to identify source rock lithology. The accessory mineral chromium spinel was used as a petrogenetic marker to distinguish tectonic setting of mafic and ultra- mafic sourc...

  16. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  17. Seasonal differences in jump performance in the Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Lees

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage is essential to the survival of many bird species, providing energy reserves, but can have an effect on locomotor performance with an associated potential increase in predation risk. In particular, the ability to initiate flight through jumping is critical to predator avoidance and may be influenced by changes in body mass (Mb. Here we investigate seasonal differences in the jump take-off performance of high Arctic Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea resulting from around a 50% increase in Mb during winter as a result of fat deposition. Using force-plate data and videography, we reveal that, in the absence of alterations to take-off angle, winter Svalbard rock ptarmigan are unable to increase hind-limb power output during jumping to compensate for their increased Mb. As a result, peak take-off velocity is reduced by 42% and jump duration is also extended during winter. The consequences of reduced jumping performance upon Svalbard ptarmigan during winter may be relatively small given their low risk of predation during this season. It may be, however, that the observed reduction in jumping performance when fat may contribute to the sub-maximal pattern of fat acquisition observed in other bird species.

  18. A new species of Toxorhynchites mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, T; Miyagi, I; Tanaka, K

    1990-05-01

    Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) okinawensis Toma, Miyagi, and Tanaka, n. sp., from Okinawajima, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, is described and illustrated. Its taxonomy, bionomics, and zoogeography are discussed briefly.

  19. Documenting the biodiversity of the Madrean Archipelago: An analysis of a virtual flora and fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas S. Deyo; Thomas R. Van Devender; Alex Smith; Edward. Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Madrean Archipelago Biodiversity Assessment (MABA) of Sky Island Alliance is an ambitious project to document the distributions of all species of animals and plants in the Madrean Archipelago, focusing particularly on northeastern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. The information is made available through MABA’s online database (madrean.org). The sources...

  20. Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part III: coral rubble-dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine White

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from coral rubble samples throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data. A new locality is presented for Paranamixis misakiensis Thomas, 1997. An identification key to all described Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided.

  1. Seismological observations of glaciers dynamic on the Spitsbergen archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a brief description of results of Spitsbergen glacier observations by the seismic method. The study has been carried out both by permanent and temporary stations data. Characteristic features of glacier-related seismic events have been shown. Main areas of glacier seismic activity on the Archipelago have been revealed. A detailed study of Horsund-fjord glacier activity has been carried out using local seismic station HSPB data. Temporal and spatial distributions of glacier-related events have been obtained for the area. Season variations in temporal distribution of the events have been found

  2. Language Policy and Corporate Law in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper explores the relationship between national language policies and corporate law in Norwegian business. By adopting a legal perspective on the national language policy of Norway as it has been stipulated by the Norwegian Ministry of Church and Culture (2008) and The Language Council...... of Norway (2005) the paper investigates how the 500 largest companies in Norway comply with the language requirement of the Norwegian Accounting Act for the financial year of 2015. The results show that 44.9 % of the companies presented their financial statements in one or more foreign language in addition...... to the Norwegian language version, 36.2 % of the companies presented their financial statements in Norwegian only, while 18.9 % of the companies had been granted dispensation from the Norwegian Directorate of Taxes to deviate from the language requirement of the Accounting Act and presented their financial...

  3. The impact of a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean on the temperature, precipitation and surface mass balance of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Day

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The observed decline in summer sea ice extent since the 1970s is predicted to continue until the Arctic Ocean is seasonally ice free during the 21st Century. This will lead to a much perturbed Arctic climate with large changes in ocean surface energy flux. Svalbard, located on the present day sea ice edge, contains many low lying ice caps and glaciers and is expected to experience rapid warming over the 21st Century. The total sea level rise if all the land ice on Svalbard were to melt completely is 0.02 m.

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of climate change on Svalbard's surface mass balance (SMB and to determine, in particular, what proportion of the projected changes in precipitation and SMB are a result of changes to the Arctic sea ice cover. To investigate this a regional climate model was forced with monthly mean climatologies of sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration for the periods 1961–1990 and 2061–2090 under two emission scenarios. In a novel forcing experiment, 20th Century SSTs and 21st Century sea ice were used to force one simulation to investigate the role of sea ice forcing. This experiment results in a 3.5 m water equivalent increase in Svalbard's SMB compared to the present day. This is because over 50 % of the projected increase in winter precipitation over Svalbard under the A1B emissions scenario is due to an increase in lower atmosphere moisture content associated with evaporation from the ice free ocean. These results indicate that increases in precipitation due to sea ice decline may act to moderate mass loss from Svalbard's glaciers due to future Arctic warming.

  4. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  5. Tidal power in Norway; Maanekraft fra dypet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The world's first tidal power station is scheduled for stat-up in the spring of 2003. It is located in Kvalsundet, off Hammerfest, Norway. This is a pilot installation of a 300 kW tidal turbine at a depth of 50 metres. When fully developed in 2007, the tidal power plant will deliver 32 GWh per year. Hammerfest Stroem has patented the energy and the company hopes to be able to install similar power stations both in Norway and abroad. The potential worldwide is claimed to be more than 450 TWh per year.

  6. A review of selected physical parameterization sensitivity settings within Polar-WRF model over Svalbard area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilguj, Natalia; Kryza, Maciej; Czernecki, Bartosz; Migała, Krzysztof; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    In this work we present the results of the sensitivity study using the mesoscale meteorological Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar-WRF) for high-resolution dynamical downscaling done over the Svalbard area. In total, 36 unique simulations were performed for January 2009 and June 2008. For each model run, we have used different configuration of physical parameters, including the tests of long and shortwave radiation schemes, planetary boundary layer, microphysics and cumulus parameterizations. Additionally, two model runs were tested using the same configuration for physical parameterizations, but with two different digital elevation models: the default one as provided in the WRF Preprocessing System, and a high-resolution layer available for the Svalbard area. The sensitivity of the model in terms of spatial resolution is also analyzed, as the Polar-WRF model was configured using three-way nested domains with 27km, 9km and 3km grid cell resolutions. The results were compared against meteorological observations gathered at 9 weather stations. These preliminary results show high sensitivity of the obtained dynamical downscaling geophysical fields to the selected model configuration. For example, mean values of Pearson correlation coefficients for near-surface air temperature may vary from 0.3 up to 0.73 in June and from 0.79 up to 0.97 depending on analyzed locations. Significant differences of stations mean error (ME) distributions occur for longwave radiation schemes (particularly for CAM and New Goddard). This study is an attempt to address the most optimal model configuration for the area of Svalbard in order to downscale a future climate scenarios as accurate as possible.

  7. Stratigraphy of the uppermost Old Red Sandstone of Svalbard (Mimerdalen Subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Piepjohn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Between the fjords Dicksonfjorden and Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard's youngest deposits (Early Givetian to Famennian in age of the Old Red Sandstone—the Mimerdalen Subgroup—are exposed. They form a narrow outcrop area parallel to the Billefjorden Fault Zone and overlie unconformably the multicoloured sandstones of the Lower Devonian Wood Bay Formation. Stratigraphic rank and subdivision of the succession were changed repeatedly since its first mention in 1910. Based on student work in 1996, as well as regional mapping by the authors in 1993 and 2003, the present work formalizes the stratigraphic framework of the succession. This framework has already been applied in recent geological maps. At the same time it is a continuation of the lithostratigraphic standardization carried out by the Committee on the Stratigraphy of Svalbard (1999, where only post-Devonian rocks were considered. Except for some small-pebble conglomerate layers in the Wood Bay Formation, the upper part of the Mimerdalen Subgroup contains the first coarse-grained deposits in Svalbard's Old Red since the lowermost Devonian Red Bay Group. Faulting between its formations as well as conglomerate pebbles derived from the Lower Devonian Wood Bay Formation indicate the onset of the Svalbardian Event after the tectonic stability during the deposition of the Wood Bay Formation. The Mimerdalen Subgroup is probably the detrital fill of a small foreland basin derived from erosion during the uplift of the Ny-Friesland Block to the east of the Billefjorden Fault Zone. It was later affected by compressional tectonic movements during the Svalbardian Event.

  8. Past and Present Glacial Sedimentary Environments in Krossfjorden, Western Svalbard: Glacier Front Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, J. A.; Husum, K.; Forwick, M.; Abernethy, C.; Macdonald, F.; Kohler, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic will probably experience the most severe environmental change on Earth with an estimated annual average warming of 4 - 8°C degrees. The fjord systems of western Svalbard are highly sensitive to the present warming and are therefore very vulnerable to change. These `natural Arctic laboratories', are influenced by both temperate Atlantic water advected from the West Spitsbergen Current as well as atmospheric input from North America, Europe and Asia. Furthermore, marine terminating glaciers locally influence many Svalbard fjords. Thus, Svalbard is an important site for investigations of polar marine environmental and climate change. The distribution and movement of glacier fronts in the Krossfjorden-Kongsfjorden region has previously been mapped using surface vessels, yet the innermost part of these fjords and the glacier front environments have not been subject to detailed surveys. In this study, the seafloor from the inner part of a fjord in Krossfjorden, the Fjortendejulibuka, and the adjacent to the tide water Fjortendejulibreen glacial front, has been mapped using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with a swath sonar system, providing very high-resolution bathymetry, side-scan data and the seabed photography to document the seabed geomorphology, sediment type and benthic habitat. Preliminary bathymetric, photographic and side-scan data suggests sedimentation from subglacial meltwater dominates the ice-proximal zone whilst settling from suspension is more prevalent away from the glacier. Seabed photographs from the AUV reveal a fine-grained depositional environment with fine-grain sediments and intense bioturbation with a limited benthic species diversity. Glaciomarine systems are characterized by a dynamic climatically controlled environment and the use of autonomous and robotic vehicles can greatly aid in the monitoring of change by collecting high-resolution datasets where vessel based observations are lacking.

  9. Salivary glands in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the size of salivaty glands in Svalbard reindeer {Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus in relation to feeding strategy, season and reproductive status. The mean body mass (BM, standard deviation j in adult non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer was 72.0, s = 4.2, kg (n = 8 in September and 46.7, s = 7.1, kg (« = 4 in April. The mean BM of adult non-lactating Norwegian reindeer was 67.5, s = 7.7, kg (» = 8 in September and 59.2, s = 9.6, kg (n = 9 in March. In non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer the mean combined mass of parotid glands was 82.7, s = 4.5, g in September and 58.8, s = 8.7, g in April (P < 0.05. In the Norwegian reindeer the mean combined mass of the parotid glands was 95.2, s = 14.4, g in Septembet and 68.1, s = 9.5, g in Match (P < 0.05. We wete not able to find any sub-species differences in the size of the salivaty glands which could be related to phenotypic difference in feeding strategy. Both sub-species had parotid glands sizes similar to that of intermediate ruminant types, ranging from 0.11-0.14% of BM. The larger absolute size of salivaty glands in summer compared to winter reflects the importance of high rates of production of saliva when the dry matter intake and microbial fermentation is high.

  10. The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Stratford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(ers are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.

  11. Seasonal and distributional patterns of seabirds along the Aleutian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M.; Hunt, G.L.; Piatt, John F.; Byrd, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is of global importance to seabirds during the northern summer, but little is known about seabird use of these waters during winter. We compare summer and winter abundances of seabirds around 3 islands: Buldir in the western, Kasatochi in the central, and Aiktak in the eastern Aleutians. The density of combined seabird biomass in nearshore marine waters was higher in summer than in winter at Buldir and Kasatochi, but was higher in winter at Aiktak, despite the departure of abundant migratory species. Comparing foraging guilds, we found that only piscivores increased at the western and central sites in winter, whereas at the eastern site several planktivorous species increased as well. The only planktivore remaining in winter at the central and western sites in densities comparable to summer densities was whiskered auklet Aethia pygmaea. Crested auklet Aethia cristatella and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia showed the greatest proportional winter increase at the eastern site. The seasonal patterns of the seabird communities suggest a winter breakdown of the copepod-based food web in the central and western parts of the archipelago, and a system that remains rich in euphausiids in the eastern Aleutians. We suggest that in winter crested auklets take the trophic role that short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris occupy during summer. We hypothesize that advection of euphausiids in the Aleutian North Slope Current is important for supporting the high biomass of planktivores that occupy the Unimak Pass region on a year-round basis. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  12. New vascular plant records for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Lynn J.; Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Bull, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is a vast region of approximately 1,420,000 km2, with a flora characterized by low species diversity, low endemicity, and little influence by alien species. New records of vascular plant species are documented here based on recent fieldwork on Victoria and Baffin Islands; additional records based on recent literature sources are mentioned. This paper serves as an update to the 2007 publication Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and brings the total number of vascular plants for the region to 375 species and infraspecific taxa, an increase of 7.7%. Three families (Amaranthaceae, Juncaginaceae, Pteridaceae) and seven genera (Cherleria L., Cryptogramma R. Br., Platanthera Rich., Sabulina Rchb., Suaeda Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel., Triglochin L., Utricularia L.) are added to the flora, and one genus is deleted (Minuartia L.). Five species are first records for Nunavut (Arenaria longipedunculata Hultén, Cryptogramma stelleri (S.G. Gmel.) Prantl, Puccinellia banksiensis Consaul, Saxifraga eschscholtzii Sternb., Utricularia ochroleuca R.W. Hartm.) PMID:26311505

  13. New vascular plant records for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn J. Gillespie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is a vast region of approximately 1,420,000 km2, with a flora characterized by low species diversity, low endemicity, and little influence by alien species. New records of vascular plant species are documented here based on recent fieldwork on Victoria and Baffin Islands; additional records based on recent literature sources are mentioned. This paper serves as an update to the 2007 publication Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and brings the total number of vascular plants for the region to 375 species and infraspecific taxa, an increase of 7.7%. Three families (Amaranthaceae, Juncaginaceae, Pteridaceae and seven genera (Cherleria L., Cryptogramma R. Br., Platanthera Rich., Sabulina Rchb., Suaeda Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel., Triglochin L., Utricularia L. are added to the flora, and one genus is deleted (Minuartia L.. Five species are first records for Nunavut (Arenaria longipedunculata Hultén, Cryptogramma stelleri (S.G. Gmel. Prantl, Puccinellia banksiensis Consaul, Saxifraga eschscholtzii Sternb., Utricularia ochroleuca R.W. Hartm.

  14. Marine actinomycetes from Madeira Archipelago preliminary taxonomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Santos Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The oceans cover 70 % of the Earth´s surface and harbor most of the planet´s biodiversity. However the microbiological component of this diversity remains relatively unexplored. Marine actinomycetes, are a robust resource of chemically prolific novelty. Producing structurally unique biological active secondary metabolites, generating a valuable source for innovative biotechnology and drug discovery[1,2]. As a consequence, the ecological role of actinomycetes and their marine ecosystems may no longer be neglected. It is crucial to move our research efforts into ocean regions for which we know little or nothing about the indigenous microbial diversity. The Portuguese Archipelago, Madeira is located in the Macaronesian Atlantic region, emerging from the African tectonic plate, found in the extreme south of the Tore-Madeira ridge, has a unique biogeography and biodiversity. These distinctive characteristics combined with the fact that Madeira have never been explored, as far as indigenous marine actinomycetes are concerned, makes it from the scientific point of view, the perfect target for our studies. From 662 marine sediment samples collected along Madeira Archipelago (Figure 1 during June of 2012, covering depths from 10-1310 m, a total of 421 actinomycete strains were isolated. In a previous study, an assemblage of 82 strains was selected for taxonomic identification, having into account representative morphological diversity characteristics of the actinomycetes, isolated from Madeira Archipelago. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was observed that the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora and Salinispora were predominant, 81% [3]. Additionally, in a recent study, our team selected 168 strains with Salinispora look-alike morphological features. From these 28 strains were identified as belonging to the seawater-obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Representing the first report of Salinispora spp. in the Macaronesian Atlantic Ocean

  15. Spatial mapping of multi-year superimposed ice on the glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ola; Kohler, Jack; Lüthje, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and satellite ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are used to map the thickness and extent of the superimposed ice (SI) zone on the surge-type glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard. GPR imagery shows sub-horizontal SI layers lying unconformably above a discrete boundary....... Below this boundary, the ice has a GPR signature similar to that of ice further down-glacier in the ablation zone. This boundary is posited to represent the closing of crevasses that were created during the last surge of Kongsvegen in similar to 1948. Open crevasses would have interrupted the formation...

  16. Chenophila nanseni sp. n. (Acari: Syringophilidae parasitising the barnacle goose in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoracki Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Chenophila nanseni sp. n., collected from covert quills of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis (Anseriformes: Anatidae in Svalbard (Spitsbergen is described and female polymorphism is recorded in this species. In syringophilids this phenomenon was known only for representatives of the genus Stibarokris. The new species differs from the similar Ch. platyrhynchos by following features: in females of Ch. nanseni the anterior margin of the propodonotal shield is flat (vs. concave in Ch. platyrhynchos and the lengths of idiosomal setae si, f2 and ag3 in Ch. nanseni are distinctly shorter than in Ch. plathyrynchos.

  17. Organic carbon degradation in arctic marine sediments, Svalbard: A comparison of initial and terminal steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2006-01-01

    of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis and sulfate reduction were measured in parallel cores collected from 5 fjords on the west and northwest coast of Svalbard, in the high Arctic. Inventories of total dissolved carbohydrates were also measured in order to evaluate their potential role in carbon turnover...... carbohydrate concentrations were comparable to those measured in more temperate sediments, and likely comprise a considerable fraction of porewater dissolved organic carbon. A comparison of dissolved carbohydrate inventories with hydrolysis and sulfate reduction rates suggests that the turnover of carbon...

  18. An Interglacial Polar Bear and an Early Weichselian Glaciation at Poolepynten, Western Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingolfsson, O.; Alexanderson, H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent discovery of a subfossil polar bear (Ursus maritimus) jawbone in the Poolepynten coastal cliff sequence, western Svalbard (Ingolfsson & Wiig, 2009), and its implications for the natural history of the polar bear (Lindqvist et al. 2010; Miller et al. 2012), motivated an effort to better constrain the environmental history and age envelope of the Poolepynten sediment sequence, particularly the lithostratigraphy of the coastal cliffs with emphasis on re-dating the sequence using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. We report a revised lithostratigraphy and nine new OSL ages. It is concluded that the Poolepynten sequence holds evidence of four regional glaciation events, recorded in the strata as erosional unconformities and/or glacial deposits followed by shallow-marine deposition signifying transgressions and subsequent glacio-isostatic rebound and regression. Our OSL ages refine previous age determinations (14C and IRSL) and support the interpretation that the subfossil polar bear jawbone is of last interglacial (Eemian) age (Alexanderson et al. in press). References: Alexanderson, H., Ingolfsson, O., Murray, A.S. & Dudek, J. in press. An Interglacial Polar Bear and an Early Weichselian Glaciation at Poolepynten, Western Svalbard. Boreas 00, 000-000. Ingolfsson, O. & Wiig, O. 2009. Late Pleistocene fossil find in Svalbard: the oldest remains of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1744) ever discovered. Polar Research 28, 455-466. Lindqvist, C., Schuster, S. C., Sun, Y., Talbot, S. L., Qi, J., Ratan, A., Tomsho, L. P., Kasson, L., Zeyl, E., Aars, J., Miller, W., Ingólfsson, Ó., Bachmann, L. & Wiig, Ø. 2010. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 5053-5057. Miller, W., Schuster, S. C., Welch, A. J., Ratan, A., Bedoya-Reina, O. C., Zhao, F., Kim, H. L., Burhans, R.C., Drautz, D.I., Wittekindt, N.E., Tomsho, L.P., Ibarra-Laclette, E

  19. Holocene landscape history and ground ice distribution in Svalbard and NE-Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cable, Stefanie

    quantified and shows a large variability at local, landform and landscape scale and with depth, just as lithology and carbon distribution vary considerably. This variability is linked to the landscape history and patterns of permafrost aggradation, controlled by the relief, sediment transport and hydrology......- and carbon-rich permafrost on alluvial fans continued to aggrade during warmer Early Holocene climate, linked to nivation and slope erosion, fan sedimentation and vegetation expansion, in Svalbard, loess terraces and alluvial fans seem more vulnerable to degradation in a warmer climate where...

  20. A new specimen of the hybodont shark Palaeobates polaris with three-dimensionally preserved Meckel's cartilage from the Smithian (Early Triassic) of Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Romano C; Brinkmann W

    2010-01-01

    A new well preserved specimen of Palaeobates polaris from the Smithian ‘fish horizon’ of Spitsbergen (Svalbard archipelago Arctic Norway) is presented. The find is more complete than the type material of P. polaris and contains amongst others the left mandibular branch with associated dentition and labial cartilage as well as elements of the hyoid arch and a portion of the anterior dorsal fin. P. polaris shares with the other species of the genus Palaeobates the same tooth histology (orthodon...

  1. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic da...

  2. Accreditation of occupational health services in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Bjørnstad, O

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, an accreditation system for occupational health services (OHS) in Norway was implemented. To examine OHS experiences of the accreditation system in Norway 4 years after its implementation. A web-based questionnaire was sent to all accredited OHS asking about their experiences with the accreditation system. Responses were compared with a similar survey conducted in 2011. The response rate was 76% (173/228). OHS reported that the most common changes they had had to make to achieve accreditation were: improvement of their quality assurance system (53%), a plan for competence development (44%) and increased staffing in occupational hygiene (36%) and occupational medicine (28%). The OHS attributed improved quality in their own OHS (56%) and in OHS in Norway (47%), to the accreditation process. The accreditation system was well accepted by OHS, who reported that it had improved the quality of their OHS and of OHS in Norway. The results are similar to the findings of a 2011 survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  3. The Bamble Sector, South Norway: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Harlov, D.E.; Andersen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Bamble Sector, South Norway, is one of the world’s classic amphibolite- to granulitefacies transition zones. It is characterized by a well-developed isograd sequence, with isolated ‘granulite-facies islands’ in the amphibolite-facies portion of the transition zone. The area is

  4. Improved predictions of atmospheric icing in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Bjørg Jenny; Nygaard, Bjørn Egil; Thompson, Gregory; Bengtsson, Lisa; Berntsen, Terje

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric icing of ground structures is a problem in cold climate locations such as Norway. During the 2013/2014 winter season two major power lines in southern Norway suffered severe damage due to ice loads exceeding their design values by two to three times. Better methods are needed to estimate the ice loads that affect various infrastructure, and better models are needed to improve the prediction of severe icing events. The Wind, Ice and Snow loads Impact on Infrastructure and the Natural Environment (WISLINE) project, was initiated to address this problem and to explore how a changing climate may affect the ice loads in Norway. Creating better forecasts of icing requires a proper simulation of supercooled liquid water (SLW). Preliminary results show that the operational numerical weather prediction model (HARMONIE-AROME) at MET-Norway generates considerably lower values of SLW as compared with the WRF model when run with the Thompson microphysics scheme. Therefore, we are piecewise implementing specific processes found in the Thompson scheme into the AROME model and testing the resulting impacts to prediction of SLW and structural icing. Both idealized and real icing cases are carried out to test the newly modified AROME microphysics scheme. Besides conventional observations, a unique set of specialized instrumentation for icing measurements are used for validation. Initial results of this investigation will be presented at the conference.

  5. New records of Marine Turbellaria from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During an excursion to Norway organized by the Department of Systematic Zoology of the Rijksuniversiteit of Leiden in August 1973, I had the opportunity to make some observations on Turbellarians of salt-marshes and rocky shores of the Trondheimsfjord (63o 37' N 9° 43' Ε) and the

  6. Measurement of acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arne Semb

    1976-01-01

    Since January 1972, chemical analysis of daily precipitation samples from about 20 background stations in Norway has been carried out on a routine basis. Air monitoring is carried out at six stations. The chemical analysis programme is: sulphate, pH and acidity in precipitation, sulphates and sulphur dioxide in air. In addition, more detailed chemical analysis of...

  7. Geographical distribution of Phytophthora ramorum in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    María- Luz Herrero; Brita Toppe; Trond Rafoss

    2008-01-01

    In November 2002, Phytophthora ramorum was detected for the first time in Norway. It was isolated from Rhododendron catawbiense imported earlier the same year. After the first detection, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has carried out surveys from 2003 to 2006. The surveys were first directed to nurseries and garden centres....

  8. Field Studies of Gullies and Pingos on Svalbard - a Martian Analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, E.; Johannsson, H. A. B.; Johnsson, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; McKay, C. P.; Olvmo, M.; Johansson, L.; Fredriksson, S.; Schmidt, H. T.; McDaniel, S.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Hauber, E.; Zanetti, M.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The gully systems on Mars [1] have been found to superpose young geological surfaces such as dunes and thermal contraction polygons [2]. This in combination with the general absence of superimposed impact craters suggest that the gullies are relatively recent geological formations [3]. The observed gullies display a wide set of morphologies ranging from features seemingly formed by fluvial erosion to others pointing to dry landslide processes. A recent discovery [4] suggests that this is an ongoing process, which appears to occur even today. Several formation mechanisms have been proposed for the Martian gullies, such as liquid carbon dioxide reservoirs [5], shallow liquid water aquifer [6], melting ground ice [7], dry landslide [8], snow melt [9] and deep liquid water aquifer [10]. However, none of these models can alone explain all the gullies discovered on Mars. So far Martian gullies have been studied only from orbit via remote sensing data. Hydrostatic pingos are perennial ice-cored mounds that may reach an elongated or circular radius of approximately 150 m. They are found in periglacial environments where they are formed by freezing processes in the continuous permafrost. The pingos go through different evolutionary stages as they mature, where the final stage leaves an annular rim left by the collapse of the summit. Images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) show small fractured mounds in the Martian mid-latitudes [11]. Even though some differences are observed, the best terrestrial analogues for the observed mound morphology are pingos [11]. Gullies and pingos found in Arctic climates on Earth could be an analog for the Martian ones. A comparative analysis might help to understand the formation mechanisms of the Martian pingos and gullies and their possible eroding agent. Svalbard as a Martian Analog: Svalbard is situated at 74°-81°N and 10°-35°E, in the discontinuous zone of permafrost, and is a fairly good

  9. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  10. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  11. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  12. Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Maltese islands form an archipelago of three major islands lying in the Sicily channel at about 140 km south of Sicily and 300 km north of Libya. So far very few investigations have been carried out on seismicity around the Maltese islands and no maps of seismic hazard for the archipelago are available. Assessing the seismic hazard for the region is currently of prime interest for the near-future development of industrial and touristic facilities as well as for urban expansion. A culture of seismic risk awareness has never really been developed in the country, and the public perception is that the islands are relatively safe, and that any earthquake phenomena are mild and infrequent. However, the Archipelago has been struck by several moderate/large events. Although recent constructions of a certain structural and strategic importance have been built according to high engineering standards, the same probably cannot be said for all residential buildings, many higher than 3 storeys, which have mushroomed rapidly in recent years. Such buildings are mostly of unreinforced masonry, with heavy concrete floor slabs, which are known to be highly vulnerable to even moderate ground shaking. We can surely state that in this context planning and design should be based on available national hazard maps. Unfortunately, these kinds of maps are not available for the Maltese islands. In this paper we attempt to compute a first and preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Maltese islands in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) at different periods. Seismic hazard has been computed using the Esteva-Cornell (1968) approach which is the most widely utilized probabilistic method. It is a zone-dependent approach: seismotectonic and geological data are used coupled with earthquake catalogues to identify seismogenic zones within which earthquakes occur at certain rates. Therefore the earthquake catalogues can be reduced to the

  13. Rain more important than windchill for insulation loss in Svalbard reindeer fur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer through dry and wet Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus summer and winter midback fur samples was studied in a wind tunnel. A light wetting water spray simulated heavy fog, mist or light rain, while heavy soaking simulated heavy rain. Wind velocities ranged from 0 to 10 m.s-1. Calf fur samples were from June, August and March. Adult fur samples were females from August and March. There was no evidence for increased heat loss from lightly wet fur relative to dry fur. Calm air conductance decreased for calf fur (P’s < 0.05. Adult fur also decreased, however, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Further, wind coefficients and regressions for lightly wet fur were similar or below those for dry fur. A thin water film forming on the fur surface may have caused this. It is unlikely that a light rain, fog or mist would cause increased heat loss for Svalbard reindeer, and no increase of metabolic heat production would be needed to maintain thermoregulation. Only the simulated heavy rain dramatically raised heat loss from the fur samples examined regardless of age or season, e.g., heavy soaking increased calm air conductance for all furs (P’s < 0.05. This was likely due to the addition of evaporative heat loss from the fur surface and a reduction in the amount of trapped air within the fur. Windchill was of minor importance, since wind coefficients were generally close to zero, meaning increasing wind velocity only marginally raised heat loss even with the added effect of evaporative heat loss. Rain would cause greater insulation loss than increasing wind velocity in Svalbard reindeer of all ages, with the exception of calves under one month old, which could experience dramatic insulation loss from a combination of heavy rain and windchill. Dry or wet, Svalbard reindeer fur appears to provide better insulation than fur of others of their species.Abstract in Danish / Abstrakt: Varmetab fra tørre og våde Svalbard

  14. Glacio−meteorology of Ebbabreen, Dickson Land, central Svalbard, during 2008–2010 melt seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecki Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interior of Svalbard, High Arctic, is relatively arid and warm during the summer, but impact of this quasi−continental climate type on the glacio−meteorology, surface energy balance and melt processes has been seldom researched. This study brings new data from a weather station located on the largest glacier in Dickson Land, Ebbabreen, at 550 m a.s.l from July and August 2008-2010. The paper discusses air temperature and moisture, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation and estimates of turbulent heat exchange of the melting surface in the background of atmospheric circulation over Svalbard. The results have shown that average insolation in the study area was low with ca. 135Wm−2. Frequent occurrence of strongly negative temperature gradients resulted in mean July-August air temperature of 1.9°C at the measuring site. Relatively low air vapour pressure led to negative latent heat flux, particularly during advection of air masses from the northern and north−eastern sector. The local microclimate supports the sensible heat transfer, which reached its maxi− mum during eastern circulation situations.

  15. Norwegian Arctic climate. Climate influencing emissions, scenarios and mitigation options at Svalbard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestreng, Vigdis; Kallenborn, Roland; Oekstad, Elin

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to establish an emission inventory and emission scenarios for climate influencing compounds at Svalbard, as a basis to develop strategies for emission reduction measures and policies. Emissions for the years 2000-2007 have been estimated for the Svalbard Zone. This area, covering about 173 000 km{sub 2}, ranges from 10 E to 35 E longitude and 74 N to 81 N latitude (Figure 1). In addition, air and ship transport between Tromsoe at the Norwegian mainland and Svalbard has been included. Pollutants considered in our inventory are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), Sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} as NO{sub 2}), and for the first time also estimates of black carbon (BC, soot) and organic carbon (OC) have been included. Our results show that emissions of all pollutants have increased over the time span 2000-2007 (Figure 2), and are expected to increase also in the future if additional measures are not implemented (Figure 12). The emissions from Svalbard are minuscule compared to emission released from the Norwegian mainland and waters (1% in the case of CO{sub 2}). Even so, local releases of climate influencing compounds in the vulnerable Arctic may turn out to make a difference both with respect to adverse environmental effects and to climate change. Emissions have been estimated for all activities of any significance taking place at and around Svalbard. Combustion sources as well as fugitive emissions of methane are included. The main sectors are coal mining, energy production and transportation. Pollution from 28 sub sectors related to these activities has been estimated. The scope of this work differs from that covered by national inventories since emission estimates are based on the fuel consumed and include emissions from international shipping and aviation. Fuel consumption data were collected from local authorities, institutions and industry. Emission factors have been selected from relevant

  16. Vertical Profiles and Chemical Properties of Aerosol Particles upon Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated particle samples were collected in the Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in April 2011 both at ground level and in the free atmosphere exploiting a tethered balloon equipped also with an optical particle counter (OPC and meteorological sensors. Individual particle properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive microanalysis (SEM-EDS. Results of the SEM-EDS were integrated with particle size and optical measurements of the aerosols properties at ground level and along the vertical profiles. Detailed analysis of two case studies reveals significant differences in composition despite the similar structure (layering and the comparable texture (grain size distribution of particles in the air column. Differences in the mineral chemistry of samples point at both local (plutonic/metamorphic complexes in Svalbard and remote (basic/ultrabasic magmatic complexes in Greenland and/or Iceland geological source regions for dust. Differences in the particle size and shape are put into relationship with the mechanism of particle formation, that is, primary (well sorted, small or secondary (idiomorphic, fine to coarse grained origin for chloride and sulfate crystals and transport/settling for soil (silicate, carbonate and metal oxide particles. The influence of size, shape, and mixing state of particles on ice nucleation and radiative properties is also discussed.

  17. Managing visitor sites in Svalbard: from a precautionary approach towards knowledge-based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Fangel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased tourism in the Arctic calls for more knowledge to meet management challenges. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the effects of human use on vegetation, fauna and cultural heritage in Svalbard, and it addresses the need for site-specific knowledge for improved management. This paper draws upon scientific studies, knowledge held by management authorities and local people, the Governor's database on visitors and visited sites and our own data from landing sites we visited. There is a certain level of basic knowledge available, allowing us to roughly grade the vulnerability of sites. However, there is a thorough lack of site-specific data related to the management of single locations or groups of similar locations. Future research needs to address specific on-site challenges in the management of visitor sites. Relevant management models and measures are discussed. We contend that a shift away from a blanket application of the precautionary principle and towards a more integrated, site-specific and evidence-based management plan will contribute to more trusted and reliable, and thereby acceptable among stakeholders, decisions in the management of growing tourism activity in Svalbard.

  18. Sediment accumulation and carbon burial rates in subpolar fjords of Svalbard, European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.; Dominiczak, A.; Forwick, M.; Apolinarska, K.; Moskalik, M.; Woszczyk, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Svalbard region is particularly sensitive to global climate changes as proved by modern monitoring data and the past records. One of the most evident results is rapid retreat of glaciers during the post-Little Ice Age period (after 1900) observed in many subpolar fjords in Svalbard. The goal of this study is to assess impact of these changes on sediment accumulation rates and carbon burial rate. The study reviews the existing data and provide new high resolution results on 210Pb and 137Cs-based sediment accumulation as well as organic carbon burial rates from a dozen of cores collected in Hornsund fjord, western Spitsbergen. The results prove the sediment accumulation rate to be in order of several mm to several cm/year and large increase in the area of high accumulation rate due to rapid glaciers retreat and formation of new inner fjord bays. In consequence, the total amount of sediment stored in the fjord increases, as well as increase the carbon burial rates. The available data suggest that this kind of fjords may serve as significant sediment and carbon sinks, largely exceeding other polar marine environments. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2013/10/E/ST10/00166.

  19. Winter to summer oceanographic observations in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Sundfjord, Arild; Fer, Ilker; Provost, Christine; Villacieros Robineau, Nicolas; Koenig, Zoe; Onarheim, Ingrid H.; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Duarte, Pedro; Dodd, Paul A.; Graham, Robert M.; Schmidtko, Sunke; Kauko, Hanna M.

    2017-08-01

    Oceanographic observations from the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard collected between January and June 2015 from the N-ICE2015 drifting expedition are presented. The unique winter observations are a key contribution to existing climatologies of the Arctic Ocean, and show a ˜100 m deep winter mixed layer likely due to high sea ice growth rates in local leads. Current observations for the upper ˜200 m show mostly a barotropic flow, enhanced over the shallow Yermak Plateau. The two branches of inflowing Atlantic Water are partly captured, confirming that the outer Yermak Branch follows the perimeter of the plateau, and the inner Svalbard Branch the coast. Atlantic Water observed to be warmer and shallower than in the climatology, is found directly below the mixed layer down to 800 m depth, and is warmest along the slope, while its properties inside the basin are quite homogeneous. From late May onwards, the drift was continually close to the ice edge and a thinner surface mixed layer and shallower Atlantic Water coincided with significant sea ice melt being observed.

  20. Mixing rates and vertical heat fluxes north of Svalbard from Arctic winter to spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Peterson, Algot K.

    2017-06-01

    Mixing and heat flux rates collected in the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard during the N-ICE2015 drift expedition are presented. The observations cover the deep Nansen Basin, the Svalbard continental slope, and the shallow Yermak Plateau from winter to summer. Mean quiescent winter heat flux values in the Nansen Basin are 2 W m-2 at the ice-ocean interface, 3 W m-2 in the pycnocline, and 1 W m-2 below the pycnocline. Large heat fluxes exceeding 300 W m-2 are observed in the late spring close to the surface over the Yermak Plateau. The data consisting of 588 microstructure profiles and 50 days of high-resolution under-ice turbulence measurements are used to quantify the impact of several forcing factors on turbulent dissipation and heat flux rates. Wind forcing increases turbulent dissipation seven times in the upper 50 m, and doubles heat fluxes at the ice-ocean interface. The presence of warm Atlantic Water close to the surface increases the temperature gradient in the water column, leading to enhanced heat flux rates within the pycnocline. Steep topography consistently enhances dissipation rates by a factor of four and episodically increases heat flux at depth. It is, however, the combination of storms and shallow Atlantic Water that leads to the highest heat flux rates observed: ice-ocean interface heat fluxes average 100 W m-2 during peak events and are associated with rapid basal sea ice melt, reaching 25 cm/d.

  1. Frost flower chemical signature in winter snow on Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Beaudon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of snow and ice cores from Svalbard is influenced by variations in local sea ice margin and distance to open water. Snow pits sampled at two summits of Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, exhibit spatially heterogeneous soluble ions concentrations despite similar accumulation rates, reflecting the importance of small-scale weather patterns on this island ice cap. The snow pack on the western summit shows higher average values of marine ions and a winter snow layer that is relatively depleted in sulphate. One part of the winter snow pack exhibits a [SO42-/Na+] ratio reduced by two thirds compared with its ratio in sea water. This low sulphate content in winter snow is interpreted as the signature of frost flowers, which are formed on young sea ice when offshore winds predominate. Frost flowers have been described as the dominant source of sea salt to aerosol and precipitation in ice cores in coastal Antarctica but this is the first time their chemical signal has been described in the Arctic. The eastern summit does not show any frost flower signature and we interpret the unusually dynamic ice transport and rapid formation of thin ice on the Hinlopen Strait as the source of the frost flowers.

  2. Eurekan deformation on Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard - new insights from Ar40/Ar39 muscovite dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnrich, Karol; Schneider, David; Manecki, Maciej; Czerny, Jerzy; Myhre, Per Inge; Majka, Jarosław; Kośmińska, Karolina; Barnes, Christopher; Maraszewska, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Eurekan deformation has been proven to be a complex sequence of tectonic episodes, dominated by compression in the Circum Arctic region. It was associated with early Cenozoic collision of Eurasia, North America and Greenland plates producing fold-thrust belt style of deformation. Timing of this enigmatic event has not yet been extensively resolved by radiometric dating (Piepjohn et al. 2016, Journal of the Geological Society, 173(6), 1007-1024). Reinhardt et al. (2013, Z. Dt. Ges. Geowiss., 164 (1), 131-147) dated syn-tectonic volcanic ashes at c. 60 Ma and 54 Ma on Ellesmere Island, Canada. Tagner et al. (2011, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 303(3), 203-214) interpreted c. 49-47 Ma 40Ar/39Ar ages on trachyte flows in northern Greenland as peak compression during the Eurekan event. On Svalbard, Tessensohn et al. (2001, Geologisches Jahrbuch, B 91, 83-104) reported K/Ar whole rock ages ranging from c. 67 to 49 Ma for the slates from Svartfjella-Eidembukta-Daudmannsodden Lineament. Bentonite layers in the Central Tertiary Basin are as young as c. 56 Ma (Charles et al. 2011, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, 1-19), predating latest deformation. Moreover, Barnes et al (2017, in prep.) applied (U-Th)/He thermochronology along the western margin of Svalbard and resolved Early to Middle Eocene heating, likely documenting burial related to thrusting. Here we present new results from 40Ar/39Ar muscovite dating of ductile to brittle shear zone on Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard, indicating Eurekan age of thrusting. Prins Karls Forland is dominated by Neoproterozoic siliciclastic metasediments (comprising Caledonian basement) regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies conditions. A ˜1 km wide ductile to brittle shear zone (the Bouréefjellet shear zone) separates the amphibolite facies Pinkie Unit from the lower grade upper structural unit, the Grampianfjella Formation (Faehnrich et al. 2016, EGU 2016). The age of the amphibolite facies metamorphism (c. 370-355 Ma

  3. A comparison of annual and seasonal carbon dioxide effluxes between subarctic Sweden and high-arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Mats P.; Morgner, Elke; Björk, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    estimated in High-Arctic Adventdalen, Svalbard, and sub-Arctic Latnjajaure, Sweden, using a new trace gas-based method to track real-time diffusion rates through the snow. Summer measurements from snow-free soils were made using a chamber-based method. Measurements were obtained from different snow regimes...

  4. Simulating melt, runoff and refreezing on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard, using a coupled snow and energy balance model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, W.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326056645; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; Pohjola, V.A.; Pettersson, R.; van Angelen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    A distributed energy balance model is coupled to a multi-layer snow model in order to study the mass balance evolution and the impact of refreezing on the mass budget of Nordenski¨oldbreen, Svalbard. The model is forced with output from the regional climate model RACMO and meteorological data from

  5. Thermogenic methane injection via bubble transport into the upper Arctic Ocean from the hydrate-charged Vestnesa Ridge, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S.; Greinert, J.

    2014-01-01

    We use new gas-hydrate geochemistry analyses, echosounder data, and three-dimensional P-Cable seismic data to study a gas-hydrate and free-gas system in 1200 m water depth at the Vestnesa Ridge offshore NW Svalbard. Geochemical measurements of gas from hydrates collected at the ridge revealed a

  6. The Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Arctic Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Per; Alexanderson, Helena; Funder, Svend Visby

    2015-01-01

    We here suggest a glacial and climate history of the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in arctic Siberia for the last about 150 000 years (ka). Primarily it is based on results from seven field seasons between 1996 and 2012, to a large extent already published in papers referred...... of the Byrranga mountains and its post-glacial marine limit there was c. 100 m a.s.l. The later glacial phases (around 70e60 ka and 20 ka) terminated at the North Taimyr Ice Marginal Zone (NTZ), along or some distance inland from the present northwest coast of Taimyr. They dammed glacial lakes, which caused...... the Taimyr River to flow southwards where to-day it flows northwards into the Kara Sea. The c. 20 ka glacial phase, contemporary with the maximum (LGM) glaciation in NW Europe, was this glacial cycle's least extensive one up here e probably an effect of precipitation shadow caused by the major glaciations...

  7. Herbivore Biodiversity Varies with Patch Size in an Urban Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Bode

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ecosystem fragmentation on biodiversity during urbanization are well established. As a city grows, it replaces much of the native plant life with asphalt, cement, and lawns, yet small patches of native plants remain in greenspaces, which act as refugia for native animals. However, little work has been done on the patterns of re-colonization by native animals as urban decay allows for re-establishment of native plant communities. We found that patterns of biodiversity in the insect herbivore community within an archipelago of abandoned lots follow patterns of island biogeography, with higher biodiversity on large islands. We also found that insect colonization of the abandoned lots was correlated with each species' dispersal ability. The patterns seen here have implications for patterns of species movement into urban systems as new parks are established or as abandoned lots are re-colonized by native plants.

  8. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  9. Patterns in reef fish assemblages: Insights from the Chagos Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Samoilys

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. This study examined fish assemblages and associated benthic variables across five atolls within the Chagos Archipelago, where fishing pressure is largely absent, to better understand these relationships. We found high variability in fish assemblages among atolls and sites across the archipelago, especially for key groups such as a suite of grazer-detritivore surgeonfish, and the parrotfishes which varied in density over 40-fold between sites. Differences in fish assemblages were significantly associated with variable levels of both live and recently dead coral cover and rugosity. We suggest these results reflect differing coral recovery trajectories following coral bleaching events and a strong influence of 'bottom-up' control mechanisms on fish assemblages. Species level analyses revealed that Scarus niger, Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Chlorurus strongylocephalos were key species driving differences in fish assemblage structure. Clarifying the trophic roles of herbivorous and detritivorous reef fishes will require species-level studies, which also examine feeding behaviour, to fully understand their contribution in maintaining reef resilience to climate change and fishing impacts.

  10. Skull pathology in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1892 to 2002 in relation to organochlorine pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Buelowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)]. E-mail: csh@dmu.dk; Riget, Frank F. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wiig, Oystein [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172 Blindern, N-0562 Oslo (Norway); Kirkegaard, Maja [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Born, Erik W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are heavily polluted with long-range transported organochlorines such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). To investigate the negative health impacts, a time-trend study of skull pathology was conducted on 269 East Greenland and 241 Svalbard polar bears. The skulls were sampled during 1892-2002 and 1964-1992, respectively. Seven different pathological changes were found: adonti, displacement of teeth, caries, osseous proliferations, exostosis, tooth wear and periodontitis. Only tooth wear and periodontitis was in a prevalence that allowed statistical treatment. The most severe cases of tooth wear and periodontitis were accompanied by a substantial loss of alveolar bone structure. The prevalence of tooth wear and periodontitis increased significantly with age (p < 0.001) with incisor wear being more severe than in canines, premolars and molars (p < 0.001). No sex difference was found for tooth wear (p = 0.22) while a significant difference between sexes was found for periodontitis (p = 0.01) with males having higher prevalence than females (odds ratio of 2.5 for males:females). In East Greenland, the prevalence of tooth wear was significantly higher in polar bears collected in the pre pollution period (< 1960) than in bears sampled during polluted periods (1960-1980 and 1981-2002) (p < 0.001). Regarding periodontitis, the prevalence was not significantly different between pre-pollution and pollution periods (p = 0.309). Polar bears from Svalbard had significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear (p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.02) than polar bears from East Greenland. The tooth wear and periodontitis odds ratios for Svalbard:East Greenland were 135 and 2.6, respectively. Hence, we found a clear age/sex link and geographical difference but no evidence for an association between skull pathology and exposure to organochlorines in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears.

  11. Pleistocene iceberg dynamics on the west Svalbard margin: Evidence from bathymetric and sub-bottom profiler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Minshull, Timothy A.; Crocker, Anya J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Wu, Shiguo; Soryal, Simon M.

    2017-04-01

    Large icebergs leave evidence of their drift via ploughing of the seabed, thereby providing a geological record of episodes of calving from thick ice sheets. We interpret large-scale curvilinear depressions on the western Svalbard margin as ploughmarks produced by the keels of icebergs that grounded on the seafloor as they drifted through this area. Iceberg ploughmarks were identified at modern water depths between 300 m and 1000 m and in two distinct stratigraphic units. Combining data from sediment cores with seismic stratigraphy from sub-bottom profiler data suggests that the ploughmarks developed in two phases: (1) during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6; and (2) during MIS 2, indicating the presence of large drifting icebergs on the western Svalbard margin during both the Late Saalian and Late Weichselian glaciations. Sediment-core data along the western Svalbard margin indicate a sharp increase in mass-transported sediments dated at 23.7 ± 0.2 ka, consistent with the MIS 2 age of the younger iceberg-ploughed surface. The ploughmarks are oriented in two main directions: SW-NE and S-N. S-N oriented ploughmarks, which shallow to the north, indicate iceberg drift from the south with a SW-NE component marking the zone of splitting of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) into the Yermak Slope Current (YSC) and North Spitsbergen Current (NSC). Large MIS 6 and MIS 2 icebergs most likely had an Arctic Ocean source. We suggest that these icebergs probably left the Arctic Ocean southward through Fram Strait and circulated within the Norwegian-Greenland Sea before being transported northwards along the Svalbard margin by the WSC. An additional likely source of icebergs to the western Svalbard margin during MIS 2 was the ice-sheet terminating in the western Barents Sea, from which icebergs drifted northward.

  12. Monitoring of heavy metal partitioning in reef corals of Lakshadweep Archipelago, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anu, G.; Kumar, N.C.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, S.M.

    This paper focuses on the partitioning of trace metals in five selected coral species from Lakshadweep Archipelago, which remains as one of the least studied areas in the Indian Ocean. Based on the morphological features, selected coral species...

  13. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the islands and banks in the Mariana archipelago, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the Mariana archipelago between the U.S. Territory of Guam and Uracas Island in the Commonwealth...

  14. Melithaeidae (Coelenterata: Anthozoa) from the Indian Ocean and the Malay Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofwegen, van L.P.

    1987-01-01

    Melithaeidae from the Indian Ocean and the Malay Archipelago are described and figured, including three new species: Clathraria maldivensis, C. omanensis and Acabaria andamanensis. A lectotype is designated for Acabaria variabilis (Hickson).

  15. The Galapagos archipelago: A natural laboratory to examine sharp hydroclimatic, geologic and anthropogenic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Madelyn; Schmitt, Sarah; Riveros-Iregui, Diego; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2016-01-01

    Poor understanding of the water cycle in tropical ecosystems has the potential to exacerbate water shortages and water crises in the region. We suggest that the Galápagos Islands provide an excellent proxy to regions across the tropics as a result of sharp hydroclimatic, anthropogenic, and pedohydrologic gradients across the archipelago. Hydroclimatic and pedohydrologic gradients are found across different elevations on single islands, as well as across the archipelago, whereas anthropogenic gradients reflect land use and land cover change across islands as population and growth in tourism have affected individual islands differently. This article highlights specific opportunities to further examine our understanding of the interactions between water and critical zone processes in tropical ecosystems, making connections between the Galápagos archipelago and much of the understudied tropics. The Galápagos archipelago offers a natural laboratory through which we can examine current threats to freshwater security as well as the dynamics of coupled natural and human systems.

  16. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geanne Carla Novais Pereira; Marcel Serra Coelho; Marina do Vale Beirão; Rodrigo Fagundes Braga; Geraldo Wilson Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra...

  17. Settlers for the Empire. The Demography of the Azores archipelago, 1776-1820

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Paulo Teodoro de; Sousa, Paulo Silveira e

    2015-01-01

    UID/HIS/04666/2013 Journal indexado na Scopus - artigo a aguardar ID The Azores archipelago was one of the first territories to be settled in the Atlantic, after 1427. During the eighteen century the archipelago kept a relatively low mortality and high birth rates a periodic surplus of population. Azoreans were often enlisted by the Portuguese crown to occupy its empire. This text will present an overview of the structures and population movements of these islands, during the late Anci...

  18. Mission in the strategic territory management (on the example of the Solovetsky Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Tsvetkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the main aspects of the territory mission development in the context of strategic management of the territory. The paper shows the role and importance of the mission in the management of the territory and reflects the main issues and the principles of its formation. Using the example of the Solovetsky Archipelago the author analyzes the mission, gives recommendations for its improvement and provides the model of the Solovetsky archipelago mission development.

  19. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  20. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of metasediments from southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Schneider, David A.; Majka, Jarosław; Lorenz, Henning; Gee, David G.; Manecki, Maciej; Barnes, Chris

    2015-04-01

    We conducted SIMS U-Pb geochronology on detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks of Svalbard's Southwestern Caledonian Province, including: Prins Karls Forland, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, and Sørkapp Land. Quartzite from the northernmost area, Prins Karls Forland, was collected from the amphibolite facies Pinkie Unit, which was thought to be Mesoproterozoic. Preliminary detrital zircon dating obtained for this unit yielded ages as young as early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (0.95-1.05 Ga), with dominant populations around 1.4 and 1.6 Ga. Samples from Wedel Jarlsberg Land were collected from the Eimfjellet, Deilegga and Sofiebogen groups, and except for one quartzite from the Gulliksenfjellet Formation (Eimfjellet Group), samples also possess ages as young as early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (0.9-1.1 Ga). Older zircon age signatures are dominated by Mesoproterozoic populations at ca. 1.3 Ga and 1.45-1.6 Ga, with older Paleoproterozoic ages also present. The Gulliksenfjellet Formation is characterized by 1.75-1.9 and 2.5-3.0 Ga detrital zircon ages; no detrital grains younger than 1.7 Ga are present. The samples from Sørkapp Land were collected from an unnamed complex, which is thought to be an equivalent of the Neoproterozoic Isbjørnhamna Group of Wedel Jarlsberg Land. Youngest detrital zircons of early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (ca. 0.95-1.1 Ga) age are abundant. The older populations are dominated by Mesoproterozoic to Paleoproterozoic zircon, with clusters at 1.3-1.35, 1.65, and 1.8 Ga. Single Archean grains were also identified. The detrital zircon age signatures for metasedimentary rocks from Sørkapp are similar to those identified within Wedel Jarlsberg Land. In summary, our data from the southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Province indicate: a) an early Neoproterozic maximum sedimentation age for the units; and b) a distinct late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic provenance. The exception is the Gulliksenfjellet

  1. Do contemporary (1980–2015 emissions determine the elemental carbon deposition trend at Holtedahlfonna glacier, Svalbard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ruppel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The climate impact of black carbon (BC is notably amplified in the Arctic by its deposition, which causes albedo decrease and subsequent earlier snow and ice spring melt. To comprehensively assess the climate impact of BC in the Arctic, information on both atmospheric BC concentrations and deposition is essential. Currently, Arctic BC deposition data are very scarce, while atmospheric BC concentrations have been shown to generally decrease since the 1990s. However, a 300-year Svalbard ice core showed a distinct increase in EC (elemental carbon, proxy for BC deposition from 1970 to 2004 contradicting atmospheric measurements and modelling studies. Here, our objective was to decipher whether this increase has continued in the 21st century and to investigate the drivers of the observed EC deposition trends. For this, a shallow firn core was collected from the same Svalbard glacier, and a regional-to-meso-scale chemical transport model (SILAM was run from 1980 to 2015. The ice and firn core data indicate peaking EC deposition values at the end of the 1990s and lower values thereafter. The modelled BC deposition results generally support the observed glacier EC variations. However, the ice and firn core results clearly deviate from both measured and modelled atmospheric BC concentration trends, and the modelled BC deposition trend shows variations seemingly independent from BC emission or atmospheric BC concentration trends. Furthermore, according to the model ca. 99 % BC mass is wet-deposited at this Svalbard glacier, indicating that meteorological processes such as precipitation and scavenging efficiency have most likely a stronger influence on the BC deposition trend than BC emission or atmospheric concentration trends. BC emission source sectors contribute differently to the modelled atmospheric BC concentrations and BC deposition, which further supports our conclusion that different processes affect atmospheric BC concentration and

  2. Do contemporary (1980-2015) emissions determine the elemental carbon deposition trend at Holtedahlfonna glacier, Svalbard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Meri M.; Soares, Joana; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Martma, Tõnu; Svensson, Jonas; Kohler, Jack; Pedersen, Christina A.; Manninen, Sirkku; Korhola, Atte; Ström, Johan

    2017-10-01

    The climate impact of black carbon (BC) is notably amplified in the Arctic by its deposition, which causes albedo decrease and subsequent earlier snow and ice spring melt. To comprehensively assess the climate impact of BC in the Arctic, information on both atmospheric BC concentrations and deposition is essential. Currently, Arctic BC deposition data are very scarce, while atmospheric BC concentrations have been shown to generally decrease since the 1990s. However, a 300-year Svalbard ice core showed a distinct increase in EC (elemental carbon, proxy for BC) deposition from 1970 to 2004 contradicting atmospheric measurements and modelling studies. Here, our objective was to decipher whether this increase has continued in the 21st century and to investigate the drivers of the observed EC deposition trends. For this, a shallow firn core was collected from the same Svalbard glacier, and a regional-to-meso-scale chemical transport model (SILAM) was run from 1980 to 2015. The ice and firn core data indicate peaking EC deposition values at the end of the 1990s and lower values thereafter. The modelled BC deposition results generally support the observed glacier EC variations. However, the ice and firn core results clearly deviate from both measured and modelled atmospheric BC concentration trends, and the modelled BC deposition trend shows variations seemingly independent from BC emission or atmospheric BC concentration trends. Furthermore, according to the model ca. 99 % BC mass is wet-deposited at this Svalbard glacier, indicating that meteorological processes such as precipitation and scavenging efficiency have most likely a stronger influence on the BC deposition trend than BC emission or atmospheric concentration trends. BC emission source sectors contribute differently to the modelled atmospheric BC concentrations and BC deposition, which further supports our conclusion that different processes affect atmospheric BC concentration and deposition trends

  3. Happiness in Serbia and Norway:  

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtic, Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Happiness here is investigated by means of 12 young people from Serbia and Norway. The main instrument was interview with a short questionnaire. Happiness is in line with other studies found to be a complex human quality with a variety of meanings and numerous influences. These meanings can be divided into actual happiness (predominant positive feelings and satisfaction of life), ideal happiness (complete and lasting one), good fortune or luck, the pursuit of happiness, creation of happiness ...

  4. Moods of Norway: NY market entry

    OpenAIRE

    Haugom, Mats Klevengen; Throne, Sindre Raaen; Myrseth, Sebastian; Løvoll, Linda-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this document is to identify the key strategic and supplementary measures the Moods of Norway(MoN) management must take under consideration, to successfully penetrate the New York marketplace, more importantly stay there. Methodology In order to identify those areas of importance stated in the purpose, we looked at the several areas of importance such as the company´s history of expansion, identified business objectives for the New York launch, anal...

  5. Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially affect α-, β- and γ-diversities on oceanic archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Weigelt, Patrick; Kissling, W. Daniel; Kreft, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeographic studies traditionally treat single islands as units of analysis. This ignores the fact that most islands are spatially nested within archipelagos. Here, we took a fundamentally different approach and focused on entire archipelagos using species richness of vascular plants on 23 archipelagos worldwide and their 174 constituent islands. We assessed differential effects of biogeographic factors (area, isolation, age, elevation), current and past climate (temperature, precipitation, seasonality, climate change velocity) and intra-archipelagic spatial structure (archipelago area, number of islands, area range, connectivity, environmental volume, inter-island distance) on plant diversity. Species diversity of each archipelago (γ) was additively partitioned into α, β, nestedness and replacement β-components to investigate the relative importance of environmental and spatial drivers. Multiple regressions revealed strong effects of biogeography and climate on α and γ, whereas spatial factors, particularly number of islands, inter-island distance and area range, were key to explain β. Structural equation models additionally suggested that γ is predominantly determined by indirect abiotic effects via its components, particularly β. This highlights that β and the spatial arrangement of islands are essential to understand insular ecology and evolution. Our methodological framework can be applied more widely to other taxa and archipelago-like systems, allowing new insights into biodiversity origin and maintenance. PMID:24759857

  6. [Water-borne disease outbreaks in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Karin; Gondrosen, Bjørn; Lund, Vidar

    2003-12-04

    The drinking water in Norway has traditionally been considered being of good quality. However, outbreaks related to drinking water are reported every year. We review waterborne outbreaks in Norway over the last 15 years, and describe the aetiology of and contributory factors in these outbreaks. We compiled data on waterborne outbreaks reported to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Norwegian Food Control Authority during 1988-2002. We included all events in which two or more people fell ill and water was the suspected source of infection. Over the 15-year period. 72 outbreaks were reported, affecting a total of 10 616 persons. Campylobacter was the cause in 26% (19/72) of the outbreaks, norovirus in 18% (13/72). The causative organism was unknown in 46% (33/72). The water came from public waterworks in 32 of the 54 outbreaks for which this information was available (59%); from a private supply in the remaining 22. For 62% (16/26) of the outbreaks related to waterworks, the water was not disinfected before distribution. None of the private water supplies were disinfected. Over the last five years, there were more outbreaks related to private supplies. The most important contributory factor to waterborne outbreaks in Norway is contamination of the raw water combined with missing or faulty disinfecting procedures. To prevent future outbreaks, a continuous upgrading of small and private water supplies is needed. Reporting of outbreaks is important for the implementation of targeted and effective preventive measures.

  7. Resource partitioning in sympatric arctic-breeding geese: summer habitat use, spatial and dietary overlap of Barnacle and Pink-footed Geese in Svalbard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FOX, TONY (A. D.); EIDE, NINA E; BERGERSEN, ESPEN; MADSEN, JESPER

    2009-01-01

    The spatial, habitat and dietary overlap of two breeding goose species was studied in Sassendalen, Svalbard, in summer 2003 based on abundance within 500 x 500-m grid squares and faecal diet analyses...

  8. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  9. Impacts of Geomorphic Disturbances on Plant Colonization in Ebba Valley, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawska Monika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming observed nowadays causes an increase in geomorphic activity in polar regions. Within the areas influenced by cold climatic conditions, relief dynamics and vegetation development are the main landscape shaping processes. The study is limited to the Ebba Valley (78°43’N; 16°37’E in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard, where geomorphologic observations and vegetation sampling were conducted in 2007. The valley was divided into three zones differentiated by dominating geomorphic activity and stability of deposits. The settlement and the evolution of plant cover have been documented there. The main factors that control well developed vegetation cover within raised marine terraces are frost heave and solifluction. In deeper parts of the valley, aeolian processes dominate and high differentiation of microsite conditions causes high variability in plant coverage. The area close to the Ebba glacier marginal zone is characterized by initial stages of plant colonisation where disturbance to vegetation is mainly caused by hydrological processes.

  10. Cold season soil respiration in response to grazing and warming in the High Arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strebel, Ditte; Elberling, Bo; Morgner, Elke

    2010-01-01

    of Arctic Goose Habitat: Impacts of Land Use, Conservation and Elevated Temperatures). New measurements of soil CO2 effluxes, temperatures and water contents were regularly made from July to November 2007. SOC stocks were quantified, and the reactivity and composition measured by basal soil respiration (BSR...... in significantly higher CO2 effluxes. Different grazing intensities had no significant effects on observed soil respiration, but BSR rates at the mesic site (13-23 mu g CO2 g soil-C-1 h-1) were highest with moderate grazing and lowest in the absence of grazing. A limited effect of grazing on microbial respiration......The influence of goose grazing intensity and open-topped chambers (OTCs) on near-surface quantities and qualities of soil organic carbon (SOC) was evaluated in wet and mesic ecosystems in Svalbard. This study followed up a field experiment carried out in 2003-05 (part of the project Fragility...

  11. Crinoids from Svalbard in the aftermath of the end−Permian mass extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamon Mariusz A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The end-Permian mass extinction constituted a major event in the history of crinoids. It led to the demise of the major Paleozoic crinoid groups including cladids, disparids, flexibles and camerates. It is widely accepted that a single lineage, derived from a late Paleozoic cladid ancestor (Ampelocrinidae, survived this mass extinction. Holocrinid crinoids (Holocrinus, Holocrinida along with recently described genus Baudicrinus (Encrinida, the only crinoid groups known from the Early Triassic, are considered the stem groups for the post-Paleozoic monophyletic subclass Articulata. Here, we report preliminary data on unexpectedly diverse crinoid faunas comprising at least four orders from the Lower Triassic (Induan and Olenekian of Svalbard, extending their stratigraphic ranges deeper into the early Mesozoic. These findings strongly imply that the recovery of crinoids in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction began much earlier at higher palaeolatitudes than in the central Tethys.

  12. Industrial heritage sites in Spitsbergen (Svalbard), South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula: Sources of historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacquebord, Louwrens; Avango, Dag

    2016-09-01

    Industrial heritage sites in Polar Regions are very important as sources of historical information. Together with archival documents this information gives us the possibility to complete the picture of the exploitation of natural resources in those regions. Thirty years of historical-archaeological field research at whaling and mining sites in Spitsbergen (Svalbard), South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula has shown that these sites can provide unique evidence about the driving forces behind industrial development, the design of industrial technology, the structure of the settlements, strategies to control natural resources and achieve political influence, and the impact of resource extraction on the local environment. In this article we will give examples of the results of our research at these sites.

  13. Chemical and geochemical composition of spring-summer Arctic aerosol collected at Ny Alesund, Svalbard Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udisti, Roberto; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Cappelletti, David; Giardi, Fabio; Grotti, Marco; Lucarelli, Franco; Moroni, Beatrice; Nava, Silvia; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita

    2017-04-01

    Since March 2010, spring-summer (usually March - September) campaigns were continuously carried out at the Italian Gruvebadet Observatory, Ny Alesund, Svalbard Island. Aerosol was sampled by PM10 (daily) and 4-stage (4-day resolution) collector devices and size distribution was evaluated at 10 min resolution in the range 10 nm - 20 um (106 size classes by a TSI SMPS-APS integrated system). Six-year (2010-2015) PM10 and size-segregated (>10, 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.002. A. Bazzano et al., "Long-range transport of atmospheric lead reaching Ny Alesund: inter-annual and seasonal variations of potential source areas". Atmos. Environ., 2016, 139, 11-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.026.

  14. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10

  15. Diversity of bacteria in surface ice of Austre Lovénbreen glacier, Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yin-Xin; Yan, Ming; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; He, Jian-Feng; Sun, Kun; Zhang, Fang

    2013-05-01

    Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries Cores 1U and 2U were constructed using two ice core samples collected from Austre Lovénbreen glacier in Svalbard. The two libraries yielded a total of 262 clones belonging to 59 phylotypes. Sequences fell into 10 major lineages of the domain Bacteria, including Proteobacteria (alpha, beta, gamma and delta subdivisions), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria and candidate division TM7. Among them, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were most abundant. UniFrac data showed no significant differences in community composition between the two ice cores. A total of nineteen bacterial strains from the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Psychrobacter were isolated from the ice cores. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses revealed a close relationship between the ice core isolates and bacteria in marine environments, indicating a wide distribution of some bacterial phylotypes in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  16. Soil Physical and Environmental Conditions Controlling Patterned-Ground Variability at a Continuous Permafrost Site, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    This study examines soil physical and environmental conditions controlling patterned-ground variability on an alluvial fan in a continuous permafrost landscape, at Adventdalen, Svalbard. On-site monitoring of ground temperature, soil moisture and snow depth, laboratory analyses of soil physical...... properties and principal component analysis indicate that the distribution of patterned ground depends primarily on soil texture, soil moisture and the winter ground thermal regime associated with snow cover. Mudboils and composite patterns (mudboils surrounded by small polygons) occupy well-drained areas...... composed of clay-rich aeolian sediments. Compared to mudboils, composite patterns show a sharper contrast in soil texture between barren centres and vegetated rims. Hummocks filled with organic materials develop on poorly drained lowlands associated with a shallow water table. Ice-wedge polygons...

  17. Remote sensing of seawater and drifting ice in Svalbard fjords by compact Raman LIDAR

    CERN Document Server

    Bunkin, Alexey F; Lednev, Vasily N; Lushnikov, Dmitry L; Marchenko, Aleksey V; Morozov, Eugene G; Pershin, Sergey M; Yulmetov, Renat N

    2013-01-01

    A compact Raman LIDAR system for remote sensing of sea and drifting ice was developed at the Wave Research Center at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS. The developed system is based on a diode pumped solid state YVO4:Nd laser combined with compact spectrograph equipped with gated detector. The system exhibits high sensitivity and can be used for mapping or depth profiling of different parameters within many oceanographic problems. Light weight (~20 kg) and low power consumption (300 W) make possible to install the device on any vehicle including unmanned aircraft or submarine system. The Raman LIDAR presented was used for Svalbard fjords study and analysis of different influence of the open sea and glaciers on the water properties. Temperature, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter distributions in the seawater were studied in the Ice Fjord, Van Mijen Fjord and Rinders Fjord. Drifting ice and seawater in the Rinders Fjord were characterized by the Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence. It...

  18. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna M.

    2017-03-27

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing sea ice and glaciers to melt at record breaking rates, which has consequences for carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean that are yet to be fully understood. Microbial carbon cycling is driven by internal processing of in situ produced organic carbon (OC), however recent research suggests that melt water from sea ice and glaciers could introduce an allochthonous source of OC to the microbial food web with ramifications for the metabolic balance of plankton communities. In this study, we characterized autochthonous and allochthonous sources of OC to the Western Svalbard fjord system using stable isotopes of carbon. We quantified δ13C of eukaryotic and prokaryotic planktonic groups using polar lipid-derived fatty acids as biomarkers in addition to measuring δ13C of marine particulate OC and dissolved OC from glacial runoff. δ13C of bacteria (−22.5‰) was higher than that of glacial runoff OC (−28.5‰) and other phytoplankton groups (−24.7 to −29.1‰), which suggests that marine bacteria preferentially use a third source of OC. We present a Bayesian three-source δ13C mixing model whereby ∼ 60% of bacteria carbon is derived from OC in sea ice, and the remaining carbon is derived from autochthonous production and glacial-derived OC. These results suggest that subsidies of OC from melting glaciers will not likely influence microbial carbon cycling in Svalbard fjords in the future and that further research is needed to determine the effects of melting sea ice on microbial carbon cycling in fjord systems and elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Seasonal speed-up of two outlet glaciers of Austfonna, Svalbard, inferred from continuous GPS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dunse

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the ice discharge from ice caps and ice sheets occurs through spatially limited flow units that may operate in a mode of steady flow or cyclic surge behaviour. Changes in the dynamics of distinct flow units play a key role in the mass balance of Austfonna, the largest ice cap on Svalbard. The recent net mass loss of Austfonna was dominated by calving from marine terminating outlet glaciers. Previous ice-surface velocity maps of the ice cap were derived by satellite radar interferometry (InSAR and rely on data acquired in the mid-1990s with limited information concerning the temporal variability. Here, we present continuous Global Positioning System (GPS observations along the central flowlines of two fast flowing outlet glaciers over 2008–2010. The data show prominent summer speed-ups with ice-surface velocities as high as 240% of the pre-summer mean. Acceleration follows the onset of the summer melt period, indicating enhanced basal motion due to input of surface meltwater into the subglacial drainage system. In 2008, multiple velocity peaks coincide with successive melt periods. In 2009, the major melt was of higher amplitude than in 2008. Flow velocities appear unaffected by subsequent melt periods, suggesting a transition towards a hydraulically more efficient drainage system. The observed annual mean velocities of Duvebreen and Basin-3 exceed those from the mid-1990s by factors two and four, respectively, implying increased ice discharge at the calving front. Measured summer velocities up to 2 m d−1 for Basin-3 are close to those of Kronebreen, often referred to as the fastest glacier on Svalbard.

  20. Long-term monitoring of methane release and associated oceanographc setting offshore Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dølven, Knut Ola; Ferre, Benedicte; Frank, Carsten; Mienert, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are stored in the Arctic Ocean sediments, both as free gas and in form of methane hydrates. Warming of Arctic Ocean bottom water can destabilize methane hydrates and cause extensive methane release to the ocean, influencing marine environments (Åström et al., 2016). Previous oceanographic studies have shown a significant methane release from seep-sites offshore western Svalbard, mainly based on hydrographic snapshots and/or echosounder data. These studies have shown that the methane release has significant temporal variations, and these variations can only be investigated properly with ocean observatories. Two K-Lander ocean observatories, developed in collaboration between CAGE and Kontgberg Maritime were deployed at two of these seep sites at 90 and 240 meter depth, from July 2015 to May 2016. Time series obtained from these two observatories include ocean current profiles, temperature, salinity, pressure, as well as dissolved methane and CO2 concentration. The oceanographic data show a clear seasonal variation and indicates that the water column can be significantly affected by atmospheric forcing during winter season. At the same time, methane concentration shows significant temporal variations on both relatively short (hours) and long (seasonal) time scales, with values ranging from 90 to 800 nmol/kg. The short term variations indicates a non-mixed benthic boundary layer with respect to dissolved methane, while the long term variations may indicate seasonal changes in the vertical transport of methane in the water column. Acknowledgements This project is funded by CAGE (Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate), Norwegian Research Council grant no. 223259. Reference Åström, E. Carrol, M. L., Ambrose, W., Carrol, J. "Arctic cold seeps in marine methane hydrate environments: impacts on shelf macrobenthic community structure offshore Svalbard". Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2016 (1616-1599) 552 p. 1-18.

  1. Freezing and hungry? Hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities in Barents Sea sediments around Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Straaten, Nontje

    2017-04-01

    The Polar Regions are characterised by varying temperatures and changing ice coverage, so most of the primary production take place in the warmer season. Consequently, sedimentation rates and nutrient input are low. The diversity and metabolic potentials of the microbial communities inhabiting these sediments in the Northern Barents Sea are largely unknown. Recent reports on natural methane seeps as well as the increase in hydrocarbon exploration activities in the Arctic initiated our studies on the potential of indigenous microbial communities to degrade methane and higher hydrocarbons under in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Furthermore, the subseafloor geochemistry in these areas was studied, together with important microbial groups, like methanotrophs, methanogens, metal and sulfate reducers, which may drive seafloor ecosystems in the Northern Barents Sea. Sediment samples were collected in several areas around Svalbard in the years 2013-2016 ranging from shallow (200m) areas on the Svalbard shelf to deep sea areas on the eastern Yermak Plateau (3200m water depths). Shelf sediments showed the highest organic carbon content which decreased with increasing depths. Iron and manganese as potential electron acceptors were found in the porewater especially in the top 50 cm of the cores, while sulfate was always present in substantial amounts in porewater samples down to the end of the up to two metre long cores. Concentrations of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide were low. The potential of the indigenous microorganisms to degrade methane and higher hydrocarbons as well as different oils under in situ temperatures and pressures was widespread in surface sediments. Degradation rates were higher under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions, and decreased with increasing sediment as well as water depths. Similar pattern were found for other metabolic processes, including sulfate, Fe and Mn reduction as well as carbon dioxide and methane production rates

  2. Ancient DNA sheds new light on the Svalbard foraminiferal fossil record of the last millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Esling, P; Szczuciński, W; Zajączkowski, M; Pawlowski, J

    2014-07-01

    Recent palaeogenetic studies have demonstrated the occurrence of preserved ancient DNA (aDNA) in various types of fossilised material. Environmental aDNA sequences assigned to modern species have been recovered from marine sediments dating to the Pleistocene. However, the match between the aDNA and the fossil record still needs to be evaluated for the environmental DNA approaches to be fully exploited. Here, we focus on foraminifera in sediments up to one thousand years old retrieved from the Hornsund fjord (Svalbard). We compared the diversity of foraminiferal microfossil assemblages with the diversity of aDNA sequenced from subsurface sediment samples using both cloning and high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Our study shows that 57% of the species archived in the fossil record were also detected in the aDNA data. However, the relative abundance of aDNA sequence reads and fossil specimens differed considerably. We also found a limited match between the stratigraphic occurrence of some fossil species and their aDNA sequences, especially in the case of rare taxa. The aDNA data comprised a high proportion of non-fossilised monothalamous species, which are known to dominate in modern foraminiferal communities of the Svalbard region. Our results confirm the relevance of HTS for studying past micro-eukaryotic diversity and provide insight into its ability to reflect fossil assemblages. Palaeogenetic studies including aDNA analyses of non-fossilised groups expand the range of palaeoceanographical proxies and therefore may increase the accuracy of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Diversity of hard-bottom fauna relative to environmental gradients in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Voronkov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A baseline study of hard-bottom zoobenthos in relation to environmental gradients in Kongsfjorden, a glacial fjord in Svalbard, is presented, based on collections from 1996 to 1998. The total species richness in 62 samples from 0 to 30 m depth along five transects was 403 species. Because 32 taxa could not be identified to species level and because 11 species are probably new to science, the total number of identified species was 360. Of these, 47 species are new for Svalbard waters. Bryozoa was the most diverse group. Biogeographic composition revealed features of both Arctic and sub-Arctic properties of the fauna. Species richness, frequency of species occurrence, mean abundance and biomass generally decreased towards the tidal glaciers in inner Kongsfjorden. Among eight environmental factors, depth was most important for explaining variance in the composition of the zoobenthos. The diversity was consistently low at shallow depths, whereas the non-linear patterns of species composition of deeper samples indicated a transitional zone between surface and deeper water masses at 15–20 m depth. Groups of “colonial” and “non-colonial” species differed in diversity, biogeographic composition and distribution by location and depth as well as in relation to other environmental factors. “Non-colonial” species made a greater contribution than “colonial” species to total species richness, total occurrence and biomass in samples, and were more influenced by the depth gradient. Biogeographic composition was sensitive to variation of zoobenthic characteristics over the studied depth range. A list of recorded species and a description of sampling sites are presented.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants, skull size and bone density of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland 1892-2015 and Svalbard 1964-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard-Petersen, Tobias; Langebæk, Rikke; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Bech; Bechshoft, Thea; Wiig, Øystein; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Pertoldi, Cino; Lorenzen, Eline D; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2017-12-26

    We investigated skull size (condylobasal length; CBL) and bone mineral density (BMD) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (n = 307) and Svalbard (n = 173) sampled during the period 1892-2015 in East Greenland and 1964-2004 at Svalbard. Adult males from East Greenland showed a continuous decrease in BMD from 1892 to 2015 (linear regression: p non-significant trend that the skull size of adult East Greenland females was negatively correlated with collection year 1892-2015 (linear regression: p = 0.06). No temporal change was found for BMD or skull size in Svalbard polar bears (ANOVA: all p > 0.05) nor was there any significant difference in BMD between Svalbard and East Greenland subpopulations. Skull size was larger in polar bears from Svalbard than from East Greenland (two-way ANOVA: p = 0.003). T-scores reflecting risk of osteoporosis showed that adult males from both East Greenland and Svalbard are at risk of developing osteopenia. Finally, when correcting for age and sex, BMD in East Greenland polar bears increased with increasing concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) i.e. ΣPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), ΣHCH (hexachlorohexane), HCB (hexachlorobenzene) and ΣPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) while skull size increased with ΣHCH concentrations all in the period 1999-2014 (multiple linear regression: all p polar bears. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  6. Acoustic habitat of an oceanic archipelago in the Southwestern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Lis; Barbosa, Mariana; Secchi, Eduardo; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Underwater soundscapes can be highly variable, and in natural conditions are often dominated by biological signals and physical features of the environment. Few studies, however, focused on oceanic islands soundscapes. Islands in the middle of ocean basins can provide a good example of how untouched marine soundscapes are. Autonomous acoustic recordings were carried out in two different seasons in Trindade-Martin Vaz Archipelago, Southwestern Atlantic, providing nearly continuous data for both periods. Sound levels varied daily and between seasons. During summer, higher frequencies were noisier than lower frequencies, with snapping shrimp being the dominating sound source. During winter, lower frequencies were noisier than higher frequencies due to humpback whale constant singing. Biological signal detection had a marked temporal pattern, playing an important role in the soundscape. Over 1000 humpback whale sounds were detected hourly during winter. Fish vocalizations were detected mostly during night time during both summer and winter. The results show an acoustic habitat dominated by biological sound sources and highlight the importance of the island to humpback whales in winter.

  7. Assessment of Satellite Precipitation Products in the Philippine Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. D.; Tendencia, E.; Espana, K.; Sabido, J.; Bagtasa, G.

    2016-06-01

    Precipitation is the most important weather parameter in the Philippines. Made up of more than 7100 islands, the Philippine archipelago is an agricultural country that depends on rain-fed crops. Located in the western rim of the North West Pacific Ocean, this tropical island country is very vulnerable to tropical cyclones that lead to severe flooding events. Recently, satellite-based precipitation estimates have improved significantly and can serve as alternatives to ground-based observations. These data can be used to fill data gaps not only for climatic studies, but can also be utilized for disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study characterized the statistical errors of daily precipitation from four satellite-based rainfall products from (1) the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (2) the CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH) of NOAA and (3) the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP) and (4) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). Precipitation data were compared to 52 synoptic weather stations located all over the Philippines. Results show GSMAP to have over all lower bias and CMORPH with lowest Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In addition, a dichotomous rainfall test reveals GSMAP and CMORPH have low Proportion Correct (PC) for convective and stratiform rainclouds, respectively. TRMM consistently showed high PC for almost all raincloud types. Moreover, all four satellite precipitation showed high Correct Negatives (CN) values for the north-western part of the country during the North-East monsoon and spring monsoonal transition periods.

  8. The coastal fishes and fisheries of the Socotra Archipelago, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonz, Uwe; Lavergne, Edouard; Klaus, Rebecca; Krupp, Friedhelm; Aideed, Moteah Sheikh; Saeed, Fouad Naseeb

    2016-04-30

    The Socotra Archipelago is situated in the Gulf of Aden where tropical and "pseudo-temperate" conditions combine to create a unique marine ecosystem. The diversity, ecology, productivity and fisheries of the coastal fish assemblages are still relatively understudied and no update of the scientific knowledge existed. The islands support unique coastal and coral-associated fish assemblages in spite of the limited biogenic reef frameworks. Fish diversity is the highest among comparable Arabian eco-regions, and fish biomass productivity high too by Indian Ocean standards. The production of the once traditionally-managed small-scale fishery is severely declining and whether it is sustainable nowadays is extremely doubtful. At a time when Yemen is torn apart by a severe political and humanitarian crisis it is timely to review and update the current state of knowledge for scientists and managers, and thereby ease access to existing information, facilitating follow-on studies and evidence-based conservation and fisheries management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paleomagnetism of the Upper Paleozoic of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashev, V. V.; Metelkin, D. V.; Mikhal'tsov, N. E.; Vernikovsky, V. A.; Matushkin, N. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    The rock magnetic and paleomagnetic results from the Upper Paleozoic sedimentary sequences composing the isles of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago are presented. The recorded temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetic hysteresis parameters, and the results of the first-order reversal curve (FORC) measurements suggest the presence of single-domain or pseudo-single-domain magnetite and hematite grains in the rocks. The Upper Paleozoic deposits overall are promising for unraveling the tectonic evolution of the Barents-Kara region. Together with the rock magnetic data, the positive fold and reversal tests testify to the primary origin of the indentified magnetization components. However, the interpretation of the paleomagnetic data should take into account the probable inclination shallowing. New substantiation is offered for the paleomagnetic poles for Early Devonian and Late Permian. For the first time, paleomagnetic constraints are obtained for the Late Carboniferous boundary. It is shown that the Early Cimmerian deformation stage within the Paikhoi-Novaya Zemlya region is associated with the sinistral strike slip displacement along the Baidaratskii suture during which the internal structure of the Southern Novaya Zemlya segment could undergo shear in addition to the nappe-thrust transformations. The Northern Novaya Zemlya segment, which is shifted northwest with respect to the Southern segment, was deformed in the thrusting mode with an overall clockwise rotation of this segment relative to the East European Craton.

  10. Factors controlling phosphorus release from sediments in coastal archipelago areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttonen, Irma; Kohonen, Tuula; Mattila, Johanna

    2016-07-15

    In coastal archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea, significantly higher phosphate concentrations (6.0±4.5μmol/l, mean±SD) were measured in water samples close to the sediment surface compared with those from 1m above the seafloor (1.6±2.0μmol/l). The results indicated notable phosphate release from sediments under the bottom water oxygen concentrations of up to 250μmol/l, especially in areas that had experienced recent temporal fluctuation between oxic and hypoxic/anoxic conditions. No single factor alone was found to control the elevated PO4-P concentrations in the near-bottom water. In addition to the oxygen in the water, the contents of potentially mobile phosphorus fractions, grain-size, the organic content at the sediment surface, and the water depth were all important factors controlling the internal loading of phosphorus. The complexity of this process needs to be accounted for in assessments of the internal loading of phosphorus and in potential mitigation plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fern rhizomes as fodder in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2016-09-06

    Although ferns are often known under collective names in Norway, e.g. blom, a substantial number of vernacular names for individual fern species are known, in particular for useful or poisonous taxa. In the past, the rhizomes (Norwegian: moldfôr) of selected species were collected for fodder. Only scattered records of such use are available from southern Norway, and the tradition's core area is found in the two North Norwegian counties of Nordland and Troms, in accordance with the longer winters encountered in the north, frequently leading to fodder shortage in early spring. The tradition extends northeastwards into Finnmark, but is less well documented there. Although numerous sources mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder, the fern species hiding behind the tradition are incompletely known. This paper aims at reviewing available data in terms of identifyng the species used for fodder, the history and geographical distribution of such use, and other relevant traditions, e.g. the timing and mode of collection, and the way the rhizomes were used. The study is based on data extracted from a variety of archival and literature sources; the latter retrived from my database of more than 7500 publications providing information on plant names and plant uses in Norway. More than 200 individual records mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder in Norway. Only a fraction of these, typically made by botanist recording data on plant uses, provides information on the identity of the species used. Based on these, Dryopteris filix-mas and Matteuccia struthiopteris stand out as the most important species serving as sources of fern rhizomes for fodder. Locally, Dryopteris expansa was the preferred species, and this taxon may to some extent be overlooked in the records so far available. With a few exceptions, Norwegian folk tradition singles out Athyrium filix-femina as a harmful and poisonous species, causing livestock to go blind and lame, but whether this is true or not

  12. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  13. ENOR - An Energy-Model for Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ek

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy model for Norway, ENOR, is a dynamic, multisectoral economic stimulation model to be used for long term energy analyses. Energy sectors and energy carriers are in principle treated in the same way as other sectors and economic commodities and integrated in the same general framework. The model has a two-level structure - a central coordination module ensures economic consistency, while the behaviour of each production and consumption sector is modelled in separate sector models. The model framework is thus capable of handling both engineering and economic knowledge.

  14. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Lower limb amputations in Trondheim, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wits?, Eivind; Lium, Arne; Lydersen, Stian

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose In the city of Trondheim, Norway, diabetic lower-limb amputations accounted for one-third of all lower-limb amputations (LLAs). In an attempt to reduce this rate, a diabetic foot team was established in 1996. We present the incidence of LLA in Trondheim as measured 10 years later. Patients and methods In 2004?07, we registered all LLAs performed in Trondheim and then compared the data with previously published data from 1994?1997. From 1996 through 2006, we registered t...

  16. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  17. The changing impact of snow conditions and refreezing on the mass balance of an idealized Svalbard glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Van Pelt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glacier surface melt and runoff depend strongly on seasonal and perennial snow (firn conditions. Not only does the presence of snow and firn directly affect melt rates by reflecting solar radiation, it may also act as a buffer against mass loss by storing melt water in refrozen or liquid form. In Svalbard, ongoing and projected amplified climate change with respect to the global mean change has severe implications for the state of snow and firn and its impact on glacier mass loss. Model experiments with a coupled surface energy balance - firn model were done to investigate the surface mass balance and the changing role of snow and firn conditions for an idealized Svalbard glacier. A climate forcing for the past, present and future (1984-2104 is constructed, based on observational data from Svalbard Airport and a seasonally dependent projection scenario. Results illustrate ongoing and future firn degradation in response to an elevational retreat of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA of 31 m decade−1. The temperate firn zone is found to retreat and expand, while cold ice in the ablation zone warms considerably. In response to pronounced winter warming and an associated increase in winter rainfall, the current prevalence of refreezing during the melt season gradually shifts to the winter season in a future climate. Sensitivity tests reveal that in a present and future climate the density and thermodynamic structure of Svalbard glaciers are heavily influenced by refreezing. Refreezing acts as a net buffer against mass loss. However, the net mass balance change after refreezing is substantially smaller than the amount of refreezing itself, which can be ascribed to melt-enhancing effects after refreezing, which partly offset the primary mass-retaining effect of refreezing.

  18. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  19. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  20. Glacier surges and landforms in a permafrost environment at the tidewater glacier Paulabreen, inner Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the landsystem of the Svalbard tidewater glacier Paulabreen and its late Holocene surge moraines, focusing on the glaciology and the glacial geology. An active surge of Skobreen/Paulabreen was observed and the glacier dynamics and stress regime was studied using satellite images, a time-lapse movie and photographs. A persistent subglacial conduit was found beneath the medial moraine between Paulabreen and Bakaninbreen, and we postulate that this constrained sur...

  1. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland, western Norway, with a survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Godske Bjørklund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Bjørklund BG. 2009. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland western Norway with a u survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway. Fauna Norvegica29: 11-54. A total of 156 species (or subspecies o rotifers, mostly non-planktonic, have been identified from freshwater or slightly brackish-water localities in the county of Hordaland; 83 are new to Norway and 24 others are new to the county. One hundred of the species were collected from the two valleys of Eksingedalen and Teigdalen in spring and summer 1967. Samples were taken on the shallow shores of lake-like parts of the rivers, and in pools, tarns and small lakes. Forty more or less euryhaline fresh­water rotifers were also collected during studies of slightly brackish-water localities around Bergen in 1963-1969. A number of freshwater rotifers were collected at several localities in and around Bergen in 1968-1970, and on the western part of Hardangervidda. Of those so far identified ,23 are new to Norway and 8 more are new to the county. They are therefore included in the species list. A few additional ones are referred to in the taxonomical notes. All the species are listed with localities and habitat categories, or, in the case of the last-mentioned ones, just the district where they were collected. The paper includes notes, measurements and ,in most cases, figures regarding 44 little known, variable or taxonomically problematical species, especially in the genera Cephalodella and Trichocerca. Comments are given on the distribution , abundance and diversity of the species. The paper presents asurvey of previous investigations on rotifers in Norway, listing 200 previously recorded freshwater (a few euryhaline rotifers, giving other names, the authors who recorded the finds and, in most cases, the counties where the species were collected. 

  2. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  3. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  4. Young Christians in Norway, national socialism, and the German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The German occupation of Norway during the Second World War caused unprecedented problems for the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway and other Christian denominations. The subordination of the church to the de facto Nazi state eventually led its bishops and most of its pastors to sever their ties to the ...

  5. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  6. [Medical publishing in Norway 1905-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Larsen, Øivind

    2005-06-02

    The nation-building process in Norway took mainly place before the Norwegian-Swedish union came to a close in 1905. This was not a dramatic change, though the end of the union did bring a lift to Norwegian national consciousness. In 1905 there were three general medical journals in Norway and approximately 1200 doctors. German was the most important language of international science, but most scientific publishing was done in Norwegian. After the Second World War, English became the dominating language of scientific communication. Twentieth-century medicine and medical publishing was an era of specialisation and internationalisation. Norwegian medicine has to a large extent been internationalised through Nordic cooperation, with the Nordic specialist journals being of particular importance. With increasing professionalism in research, international English-language journals have become the major channels of communication, though several Norwegian-language journals (on paper or on the internet) have been established and are of crucial importance to a national identity within medical specialties. In 2005 there is only one general medical journal in Norwegian, in a country with approximately 20,000 doctors. A national identity related to medical publishing is not given much attention, though national medicine is still closely tied in with national culture. Good clinical practice should be based on a firm knowledge of local society and local tradition. This is a challenge in contemporary medical publishing.

  7. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  8. Playing with LISEM: Experiences from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greipsland, Inga; Krzeminska, Dominika

    2017-04-01

    Reducing soil loss from agricultural land is an important environmental challenge that is of relevance for both the European Soil Thematic Strategy (EC 2002) and the Water Framework Directive (EC 2000). Agricultural land in Norway is scarce, covering only around 3% of the total land area (The World Bank, 2015), which puts stress on preserving soil quality for food production. Additionally, reducing sediment loss is a national priority because of associated transport of pollutants such as phosphorous, which can cause eutrophication in nearby waterbodies. It is necessary to find tools that can estimate the effect of different scenarios on erosion processes on agricultural areas. We would like to present the challenges experienced and the results obtained by using LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model) on the plot- subcatchment- and catchment scale in southeastern Norway. The agricultural catchment has been the subject of long-term monitoring of water quality. Challenges included spatial upscaling of local calibration, calibration on areas with very low soil loss rates and equifinality. In this poster, we want to facilitate a discussion about the possibilities of and limitations to the model for predicting hydrological and soil erosion processes at different scales.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF SATELLITE PRECIPITATION PRODUCTS IN THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the most important weather parameter in the Philippines. Made up of more than 7100 islands, the Philippine archipelago is an agricultural country that depends on rain-fed crops. Located in the western rim of the North West Pacific Ocean, this tropical island country is very vulnerable to tropical cyclones that lead to severe flooding events. Recently, satellite-based precipitation estimates have improved significantly and can serve as alternatives to ground-based observations. These data can be used to fill data gaps not only for climatic studies, but can also be utilized for disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study characterized the statistical errors of daily precipitation from four satellite-based rainfall products from (1 the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, (2 the CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH of NOAA and (3 the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP and (4 Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN. Precipitation data were compared to 52 synoptic weather stations located all over the Philippines. Results show GSMAP to have over all lower bias and CMORPH with lowest Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. In addition, a dichotomous rainfall test reveals GSMAP and CMORPH have low Proportion Correct (PC for convective and stratiform rainclouds, respectively. TRMM consistently showed high PC for almost all raincloud types. Moreover, all four satellite precipitation showed high Correct Negatives (CN values for the north-western part of the country during the North-East monsoon and spring monsoonal transition periods.

  10. European Plate Observing System - Norway (EPOS-N): A National Consortium for the Norwegian Implementation of EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Tellefsen, Karen

    2017-04-01

    relevant data for solid Earth science research. In addition to the standard data and data products such as seismological, geodetic, geomagnetic and geological data, there are a number of non-standard data and data products that will be integrated. In parallel, advanced visualization technologies are being implemented, which will provide a platform for a possible future ICS-D (distributed components of the Integrated Core Services) for EPOS. In order to enhance the monitoring capacity in the Arctic, planning and site selection process for the new instrument installations are well underway, as well as the procurement of the required equipment. In total, 17 new seismological and geodetic stations will be co-located in selected sites in Northern Norway, Jan Mayen and Svalbard. In addition, a seismic array with 9 nodes will be installed on Bear Island. A planned aeromagnetic survey along the Knipovich Ridge is being conducted this year, which will give new insights to the tectonic development of the mid-ocean ridge systems in the North Atlantic.

  11. The island as container: islands, archipelagos and player movement in video games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nyman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of islands and archipelagos as settings in video games has proven enduring and popular: these locations are usually shown to be dangerous places where travel can be difficult. The use of island and archipelago settings in this medium developed along with conventions about water in general being an obstacle to traverse, meaning that player characters that experience islands and archipelagoes are forced to discover ways to travel around, over, and away from them. Islands remain popular settings because they work well with players’ preconceptions about these spaces, with people’s understandings of natural boundaries that make travel difficult, and with game designers’ intent to control player character movement throughout a world that is necessarily constrained by the reach of technology.

  12. The geomorphological effect of cornice fall avalanches in the Longyeardalen valley, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eckerstorfer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of snow avalanches and their geomorphological effect in the periglacial parts of the cryosphere is important for enhanced geomorphological process understanding as well as hazard-related studies. Only a few field studies, and particularly few in the High Arctic, have quantified avalanche sedimentation. Snow avalanches are traditionally ranked behind rockfall in terms of their significance for mass-wasting processes of rockslopes. Cornice fall avalanches are at present the most dominant snow avalanche type at two slope systems, called Nybyen and Larsbreen, in the valley Longyeardalen in central Svalbard. Both slope systems are on northwest-facing lee slopes underneath a large summit plateau, with annual cornices forming on the top. High-frequency and magnitude cornice fall avalanching is observed by daily automatic time-lapse photography. In addition, rock debris sedimentation by cornice fall avalanches was measured directly in permanent sediment traps or by snow inventories. The results from a maximum of seven years of measurements in a total of 13 catchments show maximum mean rock debris sedimentation rates ranging from 8.2 to 38.7 kg m−2 at Nybyen, and from 0.8 to 55.4 kg m−2 at Larsbreen. Correspondingly, avalanche fan surfaces accreted from 2.6 to 8.8 mm yr−1 at Nybyen, and from 0.2 to 13.9 mm yr−1 at Larsbreen. This comparably efficient rockslope mass wasting is due to collapsing cornices producing cornice fall avalanches containing large amounts of rock debris throughout the entire winter. The rock debris of different origin stems from the plateau crests, the adjacent free rock face and the transport pathway, accumulating distinct avalanche fans at both slope systems. Cornice fall avalanche sedimentation also contributed to the development of a rock glacier at the Larsbreen site during the Holocene. We have recorded present maximum rockwall retreat rates of 0.9 mm yr−1 at Nybyen, but as much as 6.7 mm yr−1 at

  13. From transpression to trnstension along the west Barents margin: the Forlandsundet basin, W. Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terje Osmundsen, Per; Redfield, Thomas F.; Ganerød, Morgan; Appleyard, Tyler; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Schaaf, Niklas

    2017-04-01

    The enigmatic and understudied Forlandsundet Basin in western Svalbard represents the outermost onshore Cenozoic basin along the NE Atlantic margin. It occupies a key location to understand the margińs tectono-sedimentary history as the margin switched from transpression to transtension in the late Paleogene. During Paleocene and Eocene time, the Barents segment of the NE Atlantic margin accommodated dextral shear between Svalbard and Greenland resulting in the formation of a transpressional orogen and associated foreland basin in western Spitsbergen. At anomaly 13 time (c. 33Ma), re-arrangement of the spreading system in the North Atlantic included formation of the obliquely ultraslow-spreading Knipovitch Ridge west of Spitsbergen. Ridge formation was preceded by a very dramatic reduction of crustal thickness west of Spitsbergen. The Forlandsundet Graben structure sits at the shoulder of a very narrow necking domain developed along parts of the sheared margin, where continental crust was thinned to a few kilometers or less over c. 100 km horizontal distance. The basin geometry is that of an asymmetric graben to half-graben filled with coarse continental-derived siliciclastics and finer-grained marine sediments. Parts of the outcropping stratigraphy represent continental-derived conglomeratic debris flows deposited into the marine environment. The basin is poorly dated but ages ranging from the Eocene to Early/Late Oligocene have been proposed by previous workers based on fossils and strontium isotope data. The basin is bound by normal/oblique faults that truncate the Paleocene-Eocene W. Spitsbergen fold and thrust belt, which may favor the Oligocene age. Both normal/oblique faults and contractional structures in the form of folds and thrusts are documented. Large-scale folds are oriented at an oblique to high angle compared with structures in the fold and thrust belt, but approximate the NW-SE maximum elongation trend as recorded by a number of oblique-slip and

  14. Gas emissions at the continental margin west off Svalbard: mapping, sampling, and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, H.; Römer, M.; Pape, T.; Bergès, B.; dos Santos Fereirra, C.; Boelmann, J.; Geprägs, P.; Tomczyk, M.; Nowald, N.; Dimmler, W.; Schroedter, L.; Glockzin, M.; Bohrmann, G.

    2014-05-01

    We mapped, sampled, and quantified gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard during R/V Heincke cruise He-387 in late summer 2012. Hydroacoustic mapping revealed that gas emissions were not limited to a zone just above 396 m below sea level (m b.s.l.). Flares from this depth gained significant attention in the scientific community in recent years because they may be caused by bottom water-warming induced hydrate dissolution in the course of global warming and/or by recurring seasonal hydrate formation and decay. We found that gas emissions occurred widespread between about 80 and 415 m b.s.l. which indicates that hydrate dissolution might only be one of several triggers for active hydrocarbon seepage in that area. Gas emissions were remarkably intensive at the main ridge of the forlandet moraine complex in 80 to 90 m water depths, and may be related to thawing permafrost. Focused seafloor investigations were performed with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "Cherokee". Geochemical analyses of gas bubbles sampled at about 240 m b.s.l. as well as at the 396 m gas emission sites revealed that the vent gas is primarily composed of methane (> 99.70%) of microbial origin (average δ13C = -55.7‰ V-PDB). Estimates of the regional gas bubble flux from the seafloor to the water column in the area of possible hydrate decomposition were achieved by combining flare mapping using multibeam and single beam echosounder data, bubble stream mapping using a ROV-mounted horizontally-looking sonar, and quantification of individual bubble streams using ROV imagery and bubble counting. We estimated that about 53 × 106 mol methane were annually emitted at the two areas and allow a large range of uncertainty due to our method (9 to 118 × 106 mol yr-1). These amounts, first, show that gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard were in the same order of magnitude as bubble emissions at other geological settings, and second, may be used to calibrate models

  15. Gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard: mapping, sampling, and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, H.; Römer, M.; Pape, T.; Bergès, B.; dos Santos Fereirra, C.; Boelmann, J.; Geprägs, P.; Tomczyk, M.; Nowald, N.; Dimmler, W.; Schroedter, L.; Glockzin, M.; Bohrmann, G.

    2014-11-01

    We mapped, sampled, and quantified gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard during R/V Heincke cruise He-387 in late summer 2012. Hydroacoustic mapping revealed that gas emissions were not limited to a zone just above 396 m water depth. Flares from this depth have gained significant attention in the scientific community in recent years because they may be caused by bottom-water warming-induced hydrate dissolution in the course of global warming and/or by recurring seasonal hydrate formation and decay. We found that gas emissions occurred widespread between about 80 and 415 m water depth, which indicates that hydrate dissolution might only be one of several triggers for active hydrocarbon seepage in that area. Gas emissions were remarkably intensive at the main ridge of the Forlandet moraine complex in 80 to 90 m water depths, and may be related to thawing permafrost. Focused seafloor investigations were performed with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "Cherokee". Geochemical analyses of gas bubbles sampled at about 240 m water depth as well as at the 396 m gas emission sites revealed that the vent gas is primarily composed of methane (> 99.70%) of microbial origin (average δ13C = -55.7‰ V-PDB). Estimates of the regional gas bubble flux from the seafloor to the water column in the area of possible hydrate decomposition were achieved by combining flare mapping using multibeam and single-beam echosounder data, bubble stream mapping using a ROV-mounted horizontally looking sonar, and quantification of individual bubble streams using ROV imagery and bubble counting. We estimated that about 53 × 106 mol methane were annually emitted at the two areas and allow for a large range of uncertainty due to our method (9 to 118 × 106 mol yr-1). First, these amounts show that gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard were on the same order of magnitude as bubble emissions at other geological settings; second, they may be used to calibrate

  16. Oceanic archipelagos: a perspective on the geodynamics and biogeography of the World’s smallest biotic provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Triantis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the island-level of specific archipelagos or single archipelagos. Recently, it was proposed that oceanic archipelagos qualify as biotic provinces, with diversity primarily reflecting a balance between speciation and extinction, with colonization having a minor role. Here we focus on major attributes of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also re-affirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity.

  17. Predicting the fate of methane emanating from the seafloor using a marine two-phase gas model in one dimension (M2PG1) - Example from a known Arctic methane seep site offshore Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Pär; Ferré, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Transport of methane in seawater occurs by diffusion and advection in the dissolved phase, and/or as free gas in form of bubbles. The fate of methane in bubbles emitted from the seafloor depends on both bubble size and ambient conditions. Larger bubbles can transport methane higher into the water column, potentially reaching the atmosphere and contributing to greenhouse gas concentrations and impacts. Single bubble or plume models have been used to predict the fate of bubble mediated methane gas emissions. Here, we present a new process based two-phase (free and dissolved) gas model in one dimension, which has the capability to dynamically couple water column properties such as temperature, salinity and dissolved gases with the free gas species contained in bubbles. The marine two-phase gas model in one dimension (M2PG1) uses a spectrum of bubbles and an Eulerian formulation, discretized on a finite-volume grid. It employs the most up-to-date equations for solubility and compressibility of the included gases, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane. M2PG1 is an extension of PROBE (Omstedt, 2011), which facilitates atmospheric coupling and turbulence closures to realistically predict vertical mixing of all properties, including dissolved methane. This work presents the model's first application in an Arctic Ocean environment at the landward limit of the methane-hydrate stability zone west of Svalbard, where we observe substantial methane bubble release over longer time periods. The research is part of the Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE) and is supported by the Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence funding scheme grant No. 223259 and UiT. Omstedt, A. (2011). Guide to process based modeling of lakes and coastal seas: Springer.

  18. Snowdrift modelling for the Vestfonna ice cap, north-eastern Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sauter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The redistribution of snow by drifting and blowing snow frequently leads to an inhomogeneous snow mass distribution on larger ice caps. Together with the thermodynamic impact of drifting snow sublimation on the lower atmospheric boundary layer, these processes affect the glacier surface mass balance. This study provides a first quantification of snowdrift and sublimation of blowing and drifting snow on the Vestfonna ice cap (Svalbard by using the specifically designed snow2blow snowdrift model. The model is forced by atmospheric fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model and resolves processes on a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is applied to the Vestfonna ice cap for the accumulation period 2008/2009. Comparison with radio-echo soundings and snow-pit measurements show that important local-scale processes are resolved by the model and the overall snow accumulation pattern is reproduced. The findings indicate that there is a significant redistribution of snow mass from the interior of the ice cap to the surrounding areas and ice slopes. Drifting snow sublimation of suspended snow is found to be stronger during spring. It is concluded that the redistribution process is strong enough to have a significant impact on glacier mass balance.

  19. Microbial community development on the surface of Hans and Werenskiold Glaciers (Svalbard, Arctic): a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Górniak, Dorota; Świątecki, Aleksander; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Szatraj, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek K

    2015-09-01

    Surface ice and cryoconite holes of two types of polythermal Svalbard Glaciers (Hans Glacier--grounded tidewater glacier and Werenskiold Glacier-land-based valley glacier) were investigated in terms of chemical composition, microbial abundance and diversity. Gathered data served to describe supraglacial habitats and to compare microbe-environment interactions on those different type glaciers. Hans Glacier samples displayed elevated nutrient levels (DOC, nitrogen and seston) compared to Werenskiold Glacier. Adjacent tundra formations, bird nesting sites and marine aerosol were candidates for allochtonic enrichment sources. Microbial numbers were comparable on both glaciers, with surface ice containing cells in the range of 10(4) mL(-1) and cryoconite sediment 10(8) g(-1) dry weight. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis band-based clustering revealed differences between glaciers in terms of dominant bacterial taxa structure. Microbial community on Werenskiold Glacier benefited from the snow-released substances. On Hans Glacier, this effect was not as pronounced, affecting mainly the photoautotrophs. Over-fertilization of Hans Glacier surface was proposed as the major factor, desensitizing the microbial community to the snow melt event. Nitrogen emerged as a limiting factor in surface ice habitats, especially to Eukaryotic algae.

  20. Sr isotopic variations in Upper Proterozoic carbonates from Svalbard and East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Louis A.; Keto, Lisette S.; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Swett, Keene

    1989-01-01

    Precambrian Sr isotope stratigraphy was investigated by determining variations in Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios in the Upper Proterozoic carbonate succession from Svalbard and East Greenland. Data from this study were combined with those from literature to construct a curve of Sr-87/Sr-86 versus time for Upper Proterozoic seawater. The curve for the Upper Riphean-Vandian showed that the isotopic composition of Sr in seawater was low (Delta Sr-87 of about -500) between 900 and 650 Ma but rose rapidly to about +30 by 600 Ma (this range of long-term variation exceeds the total Phanerozoic variation). The very low values of Delta Sr-87 inferred for the Riphean require that, for this time, the submarine hydrothermal water flux was a large fraction of the Sr input to the oceans, while the rise in Delta Sr-87 in the Upper Proterozoic seawater reflects both a change in the ratio of hydrothermal and continental fluxes of Sr to the oceans, and a change in the isotopic composition of Sr from continental sources.

  1. Characteristics of Temperature and Humidity Inversions and Low-Level Jets over Svalbard Fjords in Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Vihma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature and specific humidity inversions and low-level jets were studied over two Svalbard fjords, Isfjorden and Kongsfjorden, applying three tethersonde systems. Tethersonde operation practices notably affected observations on inversion and jet properties. The inversion strength and depth were strongly affected by weather conditions at the 850 hPa level. Strong inversions were deep with a highly elevated base, and the strongest ones occurred in warm air mass. Unexpectedly, downward longwave radiation measured at the sounding site did not correlate with the inversion properties. Temperature inversions had lower base and top heights than humidity inversions, the former due to surface cooling and the latter due to adiabatic cooling with height. Most low-level jets were related to katabatic winds. Over the ice-covered Kongsfjorden, jets were lifted above a cold-air pool on the fjord; the jet core was located highest when the snow surface was coldest. At the ice-free Isfjorden, jets were located lower.

  2. Modelling the controls on the front position of a tidewater glacier in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jaime; Navarro, Francisco J.; Lapazaran, Javier J.; Welty, Ethan; Puczko, Darek; Finkelnburg, Roman

    2017-04-01

    Calving is an important mass-loss process at ice sheet and marine-terminating glacier margins, but identifying and quantifying its principal driving mechanisms remains challenging. Hansbreen is a grounded tidewater glacier in southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard, with a rich history of field and remote sensing observations. The available data make this glacier suitable for evaluating mechanisms and controls on calving, some of which are considered in this paper. We use a full-Stokes thermomechanical 2D flow model (Elmer/Ice), paired with a crevasse-depth calving criterion, to estimate Hansbreen’s front position at a weekly time resolution. The basal sliding coefficient is re-calibrated every four weeks by solving an inverse model. We investigate the possible role of backpressure at the front (a function of ice mélange concentration) and the depth of water filling crevasses by examining the model’s ability to reproduce the observed seasonal cycles of terminus advance and retreat. Our results suggest that the ice-mélange pressure plays an important role in the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice front, and that the crevasse-depth calving criterion, when driven by modelled surface meltwater, closely replicates observed variations in terminus position. These results suggest that tidewater glacier behavior is influenced by both oceanic and atmospheric processes, and that neither of them should be ignored.

  3.  Winter time burst of CO2 from the High Arctic soils of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Hansen, Birger; Elberling, Bo

    of relatively few measurements which appear to give small and constant emission rates. Further, most studies of the processes behind winter time emission of CO2 conclude that the flux during this time of year can be linked to the respiratory release of CO2 from soil micro organisms, which is temperature...... the winter at a high arctic location in Svalbard (78°N). Measurements were conducted in the field during the winter season of 2004-2005 and show reliable and continuous measurements of CO2 fluxes down to a level of 0.01 ìmol m-2 s-1 and good correspondence with other types of soil chambers. Our results...... indicate that a substantial part of the annual CO2 emission from the ecosystem occur during the freeze in period, where more CO2 is emitted from the soil over a few weeks than the accumulated flux for the rest of the winter. During the coldest part of the...

  4. Viral dynamics in cryoconite holes on a high Arctic glacier (Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesio, Alexandre M.; Mindl, Birgit; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Hodson, Andrew J.; Sattler, Birgit

    2007-12-01

    Viruses are an abundant and dynamic constituent of microbial communities in aquatic ecosystems. In this study we characterized the abundance of viruses associated first with the bottom sediment and overlying water of cryoconite holes and second with shallow ice cores of two different glaciers in Svalbard. Viral abundances were ca. 10-100 times lower than the average for marine and freshwater ecosystems in temperate regions. Virus to bacterium ratios (VBR) (average > 10, range between 0.7 and 74 in the water and ice samples) and a strong positive correlation between viral and bacterial abundance (r = 0.93, p viruses most probably play an important role in controlling bacterial mortality and hence biogeochemical cycling on glaciers. Samples taken along a transect from the glacier ablation area to proglacial ponds in its forefield showed that viral abundance increased in response to a higher host availability, which in turn probably resulted from an increase in temperature and higher mineral levels in the ponds. In a transplantation experiment, viruses from cryoconite holes were incubated with a bacterial community from a proglacial lake. Results from the transplantation experiment showed that viruses from cryoconite holes were able to infect bacteria from proglacial lakes and thus influence biogeochemical cycles across different glacial ecosystems. Our data therefore suggest that viruses in cryoconite holes may be able to infect a broad range of bacterial species.

  5. Metagenomics of the Svalbard reindeer rumen microbiome reveals abundance of polysaccharide utilization loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip B Pope

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass remains a largely untapped source of renewable energy predominantly due to its recalcitrance and an incomplete understanding of how this is overcome in nature. We present here a compositional and comparative analysis of metagenomic data pertaining to a natural biomass-converting ecosystem adapted to austere arctic nutritional conditions, namely the rumen microbiome of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Community analysis showed that deeply-branched cellulolytic lineages affiliated to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are dominant, whilst sequence binning methods facilitated the assemblage of metagenomic sequence for a dominant and novel Bacteroidales clade (SRM-1. Analysis of unassembled metagenomic sequence as well as metabolic reconstruction of SRM-1 revealed the presence of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci-like systems (PULs as well as members of more than 20 glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families targeting various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin. Functional screening of cloned metagenome fragments revealed high cellulolytic activity and an abundance of PULs that are rich in endoglucanases (GH5 but devoid of other common enzymes thought to be involved in cellulose degradation. Combining these results with known and partly re-evaluated metagenomic data strongly indicates that much like the human distal gut, the digestive system of herbivores harbours high numbers of deeply branched and as-yet uncultured members of the Bacteroidetes that depend on PUL-like systems for plant biomass degradation.

  6. Micromorphological difference between glacial and glaciofluvial quartz grain, evidence from Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbcová, Klára

    2017-04-01

    Micromorphology of glaciofluvial sediments were only partially shown by Mahaney et al. (2001). This paper deals with the main diagnostic textures of glaciofluvial sediments and changes of their micromorphology caused fluvial transport. All samples were collected in Svalbard in August 2012. Two glacial samples and six glaciofluvial samples were taken near the glacier Bertilbreen and one glacial sample and seven glaciofluvial samples were taken near the glacier Hørbyebreen. Samples were prepared according to the Mahaney (2002) and examined under electron microscope. The correlation analyses was used to set the main glaciofluvial microtextures. Similarity of the samples was tested by one-way ANOVA by F-test. Increasing numbers of V-shaped pits, rounded grains, meandering ridges and microblocks are typical for characteristic microtextures of glaciofluvial grains which had greater rate of fluvial transport. But the grains mainly transported by glacier had a greater percentage occurence of subangular grains, straight steps, straight and curved grooves, adhering particles, pitting and V-shaped etch pits. The fastest change in variability was set during the first kilometre of fluvial transport. The study was funded by the Grant Agency of Charles University (GAUK 1314214). Keywords: exoscopy, quartz grains micromorphology, glaciofluvial sediments References: MAHANEY, W. C. (2002): Atlas of sand grain surface textures and applications. Oxford University Press, USA, 237 s. MAHANEY, W. C., STEWART A., KALM, V. (2001): Quantification of SEM microtextures useful in sedimentary environmental discrimination. Boreas, 30, s. 165 - 171.

  7. Fluctuations of the Vestfonna ice margin at Brageneset, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, after the last glacial maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Four radiocarbon datings of shells of Mya truncata and Saxicava arctica from the till of the end-moraine of the advance of Vestfonna against Brageneset, Nordaustlandet, between AD 1861 and 1899, gave ages between 8300 BP and 8700 BP. These are from the time when the ice margin had retreated from Brageneset after the last glaciation. An additional age of 7900 BP obtained for Astarteelliptica, also from the end-moraine, shows that the shells in the till represent a mixed death assemblage, as also shown by the composition of the molluscan fauna in general. By comparing the altitudes of the two pumice levels with their altitudes in other areas of Svalbard a curve for the relative uplift of Brageneset could be constructed. According to this curve the highest point of Brageneset at 46.5 m emerged at about 9200 BP, which gives a minimum age for the general deglaciation, an age in agreement with dates obtained from other parts of Nordaustlandet.

  8. Triassic Sequence Geological Development of the Arctic with focus on Svalbard and the Barents Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerk, Atle

    1998-12-31

    Triassic rocks are of great interest for exploration in Arctic areas as they have proved to include both good hydrocarbon source rocks and potential hydrogen reservoir rocks. In this thesis, the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Arctic Triassic successions are studied within a sequence stratigraphical framework. Inter-regional comparisons throughout the Arctic are based on comparisons of transgressive-regressive sequences. Improved dating of the studied sequences, and the recognition and correlation of sequence boundaries of second and third order, facilitate interpretation of facies distribution and the geological development both within and between the studied areas. Main emphasis is given to the Triassic succession of Svalbard and the Barents Shelf, which through this study is integrated within a circum-Arctic sequence stratigraphical framework. Good correspondence of the Triassic sequence boundaries between the different Arctic areas indicate that they are mainly controlled by eustacy, while decreasing correspondence of the sequence boundaries in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods indicate that local and large scale tectonism becomes progressively more dominant in the circum-Arctic Realm through the Mesozoic Era. These hypotheses are further discussed. 701 refs., 110 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Diversity and distribution of fungal communities in the marine sediments of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (High Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Fei Wang, Neng; Qin Zhang, Yu; Yu Liu, Hong; Yan Yu, Li

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities in eight marine sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Sedimentary fungal communities showed high diversity with 42,219 reads belonging to 113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 62 belonged to the Ascomycota, 26 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Chytridiomycota, 1 to Zygomycota, 1 to Glomeromycota, and 21 to unknown fungi. The major known orders included Hypocreales and Saccharomycetales. The common fungal genera were Pichia, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Malassezia. Interestingly, most fungi occurring in these Arctic sediments may originate from the terrestrial habitats and different basins in Kongsfjorden (i.e., inner basin, central basin, and outer basin) harbor different sedimentary fungal communities. These results suggest the existence of diverse fungal communities in the Arctic marine sediments, which may serve as a useful community model for further ecological and evolutionary study of fungi in the Arctic.

  10. Modeling the Controls on the Front Position of a Tidewater Glacier in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Otero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Calving is an important mass-loss process at ice sheet and marine-terminating glacier margins, but identifying and quantifying its principal driving mechanisms remains challenging. Hansbreen is a grounded tidewater glacier in southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard, with a rich history of field and remote sensing observations. The available data make this glacier suitable for evaluating mechanisms and controls on calving, some of which are considered in this paper. We use a full-Stokes thermomechanical 2D flow model (Elmer/Ice, paired with a crevasse-depth calving criterion, to estimate Hansbreen's front position at a weekly time resolution. The basal sliding coefficient is re-calibrated every 4 weeks by solving an inverse model. We investigate the possible role of backpressure at the front (a function of ice mélange concentration and the depth of water filling crevasses by examining the model's ability to reproduce the observed seasonal cycles of terminus advance and retreat. Our results suggest that the ice-mélange pressure plays an important role in the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice front, and that the crevasse-depth calving criterion, when driven by modeled surface meltwater, closely replicates observed variations in terminus position. These results suggest that tidewater glacier behavior is influenced by both oceanic and atmospheric processes, and that neither of them should be ignored.

  11. Cold-seep ostracods from the western Svalbard margin: direct palaeo-indicator for methane seepage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Sztybor, Kamila; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Okahashi, Hisayo; Sato, Runa; Tanaka, Hayato

    2018-01-01

    Despite their high abundance and diversity, microfossil taxa adapted to a particular chemosynthetic environment have rarely been studied and are therefore poorly known. Here we report on an ostracod species, Rosaliella svalbardensis gen. et sp. nov., from a cold methane seep site at the western Svalbard margin, Fram Strait. The new species shows a distinct morphology, different from other eucytherurine ostracod genera. It has a marked similarity to Xylocythere, an ostracod genus known from chemosynthetic environments of wood falls and hydrothermal vents. Rosaliella svalbardensis is probably an endemic species or genus linked to methane seeps. We speculate that the surface ornamentation of pore clusters, secondary reticulation, and pit clusters may be related to ectosymbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria. This new discovery of specialized microfossil taxa is important because they can be used as an indicator species for past and present seep environments (http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:6075FF30-29D5-4DAB-9141-AE722CD3A69B" target="_blank">http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:6075FF30-29D5-4DAB-9141-AE722CD3A69B).

  12. Demographic population structure and fungal associations of plants colonizing High Arctic glacier forelands, Petuniabukta, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Těšitel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in Arctic glacier forelands has been described as unidirectional, non-replacement succession characterized by the gradual establishment of species typical for mature tundra with no species turnover. Our study focused on two early colonizers of High Arctic glacier forelands: Saxifraga oppositifolia (Saxifragaceae and Braya purpurascens (Brassicaceae. While the first species is a common generalist also found in mature old growth tundra communities, the second specializes on disturbed substrate. The demographic population structures of the two study species were investigated along four glacier forelands in Petuniabukta, north Billefjorden, in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Young plants of both species occurred exclusively on young substrate, implying that soil conditions are favourable for establishment only before soil crusts develop. We show that while S. oppositifolia persists from pioneer successional stages and is characterized by increased size and flowering, B. purpurascens specializes on disturbed young substrate and does not follow the typical unidirectional, non-replacement succession pattern. Plants at two of the forelands were examined for the presence of root-associated fungi. Fungal genus Olpidium (Fungus incertae sedis was found along a whole successional gradient in one of the forelands.

  13. Ground clutter cancellation in incoherent radars: solutions for EISCAT Svalbard radar

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    T. Turunen

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Incoherent scatter radars measure ionosphere parameters using modified Thomson scatter from free electrons in the target (see e.g. Hagfors, 1997. The integrated cross section of the ionospheric scatterers is extremely small and the measurements can easily be disturbed by signals returned by unwanted targets. Ground clutter signals, entering via the antenna side lobes, can render measurements at the nearest target ranges totally impossible. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, which started measurements in 1996, suffers from severe ground clutter and the ionosphere cannot be measured in any simple manner at ranges less than about 120–150 km, depending on the modulation employed. If the target and clutter signals have different, and clearly identifiable, properties then, in principle, there are always ways to eliminate the clutter. In incoherent scatter measurements, differences in the coherence times of the wanted and unwanted signals can be used for clutter cancellation. The clutter cancellation must be applied to all modulations, usually alternating codes in modern experiments, used for shorter ranges. Excellent results have been obtained at the ESR using a simple pulse-to-pulse clutter subtraction method, but there are also other possibilities.Key words: Radio science (ionospheric physics; signal processing; instruments and techniques

  14. Phase calibration of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar interferometer using optical satellite signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sullivan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between natural ion-line enhancements in radar spectra and auroral activity has been the subject of recent studies but conclusions have been limited by the spatial and temporal resolution previously available. The next challenge is to use shorter sub-second integration times in combination with interferometric programmes to resolve spatial structure within the main radar beam, and so relate enhanced filaments to individual auroral rays. This paper presents initial studies of a technique, using optical and spectral satellite signatures, to calibrate the received phase of a signal with the position of the scattering source along the interferometric baseline of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. It is shown that a consistent relationship can be found only if the satellite passage through the phase fringes is adjusted from the passage predicted by optical tracking. This required adjustment is interpreted as being due to the vector between the theoretical focusing points of the two antennae, i.e. the true radar baseline, differing from the baseline obtained by survey between the antenna foot points. A method to obtain a measurement of the true interferometric baseline using multiple satellite passes is outlined.

  15. Warming of the West Spitsbergen Current and sea ice north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piechura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a grant from the Fifth European Union Frame-work Programme project ASOF-N, contract EVK2-CT-200200139, the Sixth Frame-work Programme DAMOCLES, contract 018509GOCE, and grants from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, decisions 61/N-IPY/2007/0 and 175/IPY/2007/01.AbstractAccording to the results of recent research, besides the atmospheric circulation, it is heat transport to the Arctic Ocean (AO by ocean currents, the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC in particular, that is playing a significant role in the process of Arctic warming. Data collected by the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences (IO PAS, in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas, and Fram Strait during the last 20 years reveal considerable changes in the amount of heat transported by the WSC into the Arctic Ocean. An increase in Atlantic Water (AW temperature and the intensification of heat transport were observed in 2004-06; after this period, both parameters decreased. The aim of this study was to find out whether the fluctuations in heat input by the WSC have influenced the sea-ice distribution around Svalbard. In fact they do, but oceanic heat transport should nonetheless be regarded as just one of many processes influencing sea-ice behaviour.

  16. Pregnancy outcome in Norway after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irgens, L.M.; Lie, R.T.; Ulstein, M.; Skeie Jensen, T.; Skjaerven, R.; Sivertsen, F.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, F.; Strand, T. (Bergen Univ. (NO)); Egil Skjeldestad, F. (Trondheim, Univ. (NO))

    1991-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome has been studied in terms of legal abortions, early spontaneous abortions and total number of pregnancies (in an ad hoc study covering 6 counties) as well as various perinatal health problems (on the basis of routinely recorded data for epidemiological surveillance from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway). Apparently, no effects were observed in terms of an increased occurrence of legal abortions, while spontaneous abortions increased from 2.4% of all pregnancies during the last 12 months before the accident to 3% after the accident. At the same time, the total number of pregnancies somewhat decreased. Based on monthly measurements in each municipality of external and internal (food-based) doses, dose-response associations were assessed for a number of perinatal health problems. No associations were observed.

  17. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  18. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  19. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  20. Diabetes: cost of illness in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Trond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus places a considerable burden on patients in terms of morbidity and mortality and on society in terms of costs. Costs related to diabetes are expected to increase due to increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the health care costs attributable to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Norway in 2005. Methods Data on inpatient hospital services, outpatient clinic visits, physician services, drugs, medical equipment, nutrition guidance, physiotherapy, acupuncture, foot therapy and indirect costs were collected from national registers and responses to a survey of 584 patients with diabetes. The study was performed with a prevalence approach. Uncertainty was explored by means of bootstrapping. Results When hospital stays with diabetes as a secondary diagnosis were excluded, the total costs were €293 million, which represents about 1.4% of the total health care expenditure. Pharmaceuticals accounted for €95 million (32%, disability pensions €48 million (16%, medical devices €40 million (14% and hospital admissions €21 million (7%. Patient expenditures for acupuncture, physiotherapy and foot therapy were many times higher than expenditure for nutritional guidance. Indirect costs (lost production from job absenteeism accounted for €70.1 million (24% of the €293 million and included sick leave (€16.7 million, disability support and disability pensions (€48.2 million and other indirect costs (€5.3 million. If all diabetes related hospital stays are included (primary- and secondary diagnosis total costs amounts to €535 million, about 2.6% of the total health care expenditure in Norway. Conclusions Diabetes represents a considerable burden to society in terms of health care costs and productivity losses.

  1. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Sandra; Bakker, Mirjam I; Hatta, Mochammad; Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Dwiyanti, Ressy; Usman, Romi; Sultan, Andi R; Sabir, Muhammad; Tandirogang, Nataniel; Amir, Masyhudi; Yasir, Yadi; Pastoor, Rob; van Beers, Stella; Smits, Henk L

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua) in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas. We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of age in a health facility-based case-control study between June 2010 and June 2011. Individuals suspected of typhoid were tested using the typhoid IgM lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever followed by blood culture testing. Cases and controls were defined post-recruitment: cases were individuals with a culture or serology positive result (n = 449); controls were individuals negative to both serology and culture, with or without a diagnosis other than typhoid (n = 484). Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of household level and individual level behavioural risk factors and we calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of removing each risk significant independent behavioural risk factor. Washing hands at critical moments of the day and washing hands with soap were strong independent protective factors for typhoid (OR = 0.38 95% CI 0.25 to 0.58 for each unit increase in hand washing frequency score with values between 0 = Never and 3 = Always; OR = 3.16 95% CI = 2.09 to 4.79 comparing washing hands with soap sometimes/never vs. often). These effects were independent of levels of access to water and sanitation. Up to two thirds of cases could be prevented by compliance to these practices (hand washing PAF = 66.8 95% CI 61.4 to 71.5; use of soap PAF = 61.9 95%CI 56.7 to 66.5). Eating food out in food stalls or restaurant was an important risk factor (OR = 6.9 95%CI 4.41 to 10.8 for every unit increase in frequency score). Major gains could potentially be

  2. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alba

    Full Text Available Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas.We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of age in a health facility-based case-control study between June 2010 and June 2011. Individuals suspected of typhoid were tested using the typhoid IgM lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever followed by blood culture testing. Cases and controls were defined post-recruitment: cases were individuals with a culture or serology positive result (n = 449; controls were individuals negative to both serology and culture, with or without a diagnosis other than typhoid (n = 484. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of household level and individual level behavioural risk factors and we calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF of removing each risk significant independent behavioural risk factor.Washing hands at critical moments of the day and washing hands with soap were strong independent protective factors for typhoid (OR = 0.38 95% CI 0.25 to 0.58 for each unit increase in hand washing frequency score with values between 0 = Never and 3 = Always; OR = 3.16 95% CI = 2.09 to 4.79 comparing washing hands with soap sometimes/never vs. often. These effects were independent of levels of access to water and sanitation. Up to two thirds of cases could be prevented by compliance to these practices (hand washing PAF = 66.8 95% CI 61.4 to 71.5; use of soap PAF = 61.9 95%CI 56.7 to 66.5. Eating food out in food stalls or restaurant was an important risk factor (OR = 6.9 95%CI 4.41 to 10.8 for every unit increase in frequency score.Major gains could

  3. Littoral Decapods of Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mille-Pagaza

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Decapod community inhabiting the rocky littoral of eight bays from Socorro island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, was studied during March 1992. Samples were collected from one-square meter plots placed following transects drawn perpendicularly to the shoreline along the intertidal zone. Species richness and abundance were determined in each bay, as well as the similarity between bays using Morisita’s index. Organisms collected belong to six families, 20 genera and 26 species of the Brachyura and Anomura infraorders. Xanthidae was the family with the highest number of species, and the highest species richness was recorded at the V. Lozano bay. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni and Calcinus explorator were the most abundant species in nearly all localities. Dendrogram obtained define two groups of bays at a similarity level above 0.67, given the similarity in the crab’s species richness and their abundance between bays in the island.Se estudió la comunidad de cangrejos del litoral rocoso de ocho bahías de la Isla Socorro, Archipiélago Revillagigedo en marzo de 1992. Las muestras fueron colectadas en cuadrantes de un m² a lo largo de transectos perpendiculares a la costa en la zona intermareal. Se determinó la riqueza específica, la abundancia por especie para cada bahía, así como la similitud entre bahías mediante el índice de Morisita. Los organismos colectados pertenecen a seis familias, 20 géneros y 26 especies de los infraordenes Brachyura y Anomura. La familia con el mayor número de especies fue Xanthidae y la mayor riqueza específica se registró en la bahía V. Lozano. Pachygrapsus transversus, Xanthodius cooksoni y Calcinus explorator fueron las más abundantes en casi todas las localidades. En el dendrograma se definen dos agrupaciones con nivel de similitud superior a 0.67, dada la semejanza en la riqueza específica de cangrejos y las abundancias entre las bahías.

  4. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  5. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988–2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988–2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics. PMID:23977175

  6. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn M Tombre

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size. The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  7. Mitigation options for futurewater scarcity : A case study in Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, Maria Fernanda; Trifunović, Nemanja; Sharma, Saroj Kumar; Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran; Kennedy, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos Archipelago), like many other tourist islands, is currently experiencing an exponential increase in tourism and local population growth, jeopardizing current and future water supply. An accurate assessment of the future water supply/demand balance is crucial to

  8. On new and little-known Frogs from the Malayan Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1883-01-01

    Being occupied with an examination of the frogs from the Malayan Archipelago in our Collections, the type-specimens of Bufo cruentatus (Schleg.) Tschudi and Hylaplesia borbonica Kuhl & v. Hass. came under my hand, and I was not a little surprised to see that the later authors believe those two

  9. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, Judy R.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  10. Checklist and analysis of completeness of the reef fish fauna of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourriére, Manon; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Ayala-Bocos, Arturo; Ketchum, James A; Chávez-Comparan, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents an updated checklist of cartilaginous and bony fishes from the Revillagigedo Archipelago reefs and nearby areas (Tropical Eastern Pacific). To compile this list, we gathered data from field surveys between 1994 and 2015, from an exhaustive literature review, and by consulting museum collections and databases. With these records we estimated the completeness of the local fish inventory using four non-parametric rarefaction methods. We report a total of 389 species in 102 families; 235 of these are reef fish that occur in the Eastern but also in the Central Pacific, and 13 species were identified as endemic to the archipelago. A non-parametric statistical model predicts that the expected number of reef fish present at Revillagigedo should be 244.3 ± 3.2 species, which is 9 species more than the observed richness, and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02). That predictive model estimates that about 96% of the total richness of reef fish from the archipelago is known. Comparisons of the completeness of the inventory at Revillagigedo to that reported for the fish fauna of the Eastern Pacific and worldwide, showed that the quality of the sampling effort is remarkably high, in spite of the geographic isolation of the archipelago.

  11. Preliminary checklist of Cetacea in the Indonesian Archipelago and adjacent waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, P.; Smeenk, C.; Leatherwood, S.

    1997-01-01

    Records of 29 species of cetaceans from the Indonesian Archipelago have been gleaned from published and unpublished sources, representing five families: Phocoenidae (1 species), Delphinidae (16), Ziphiidae (3), Physeteridae (3), and Balaenopteridae (6). The presence of 26 species could be confirmed

  12. Effects of boating activities on aquatic vegetation in the Stockholm archipelago, Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Klemens; Sandström, Alfred; Isaeus, M.; Schreiber, H.; Karas, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aquatic vegetation in 44 similar shallow and sheltered inlets exposed to different kinds of disturbances by boating was studied in a rocky archipelago in the Baltic Sea. The results indicate that both recreational boating activities and traffic by medium sized ferryboats may cause significant

  13. Bacterial community composition and potential driving factors in different reef habitats of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegler, Hauke F.; Lukman, Muhammad; Teichberg, Mirta

    2017-01-01

    Coastal eutrophication is a key driver of shifts in bacterial communities on coral reefs. With fringing and patch reefs at varying distances from the coast the Spermonde Archipelago in southern Sulawesi, Indonesia offers ideal conditions to study the effects of coastal eutrophication along a spat...

  14. Megachile timberlakei Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Yet another adventive bee species to the Galapagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Galapagos Archipelago has been thought to be extremely depauperate in bees, with only one species known, Xylocopa darwini. Recently a second species, Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum, was detected. Here we document a third species, Megachile timberlakei. We provide floral records as well as a dia...

  15. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log...

  16. Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum Friese (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): The elusive "dwarf bee" of the Galapagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endemic large carpenter bee, Xylocopa darwini Cockerell, was the only known bee pollinator to the Galapagos Archipelago but as early as 1964 locals also spoke of the "dwarf bee of Floreana". We report the presence of the wool carder bee, Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum Friese, on the island of Fl...

  17. Unchanging Incidence of Hip Fracture in Southeastern Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polesie, Sam; Sigurdsen, Ulf; Bjørgul, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain trends in the incidence of hip fracture in southeastern Norway by comparing the hip fracture incidence for the years 2008 to 2010 to that of a study from 1998...

  18. Exposure to organic solvents among car painters in Bergen, Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moen, B E; Hollund, B E

    2000-01-01

    .... This study evaluated some of the effects of these regulations, by measuring the levels of exposure to organic solvents in six car-painting garages and relating them to the limit values in Norway...

  19. Direct maternal deaths in Norway 1976-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersgaard, Alice Beate; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Oian, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To report direct maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Norway between 1976 and 1995 including a description of the underlying complications in pregnancy, the causes of death and assessment of standard of care. METHODS: The maternal deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Registry......, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We requested copies of the hospital case records and the maternal death autopsies. The direct maternal deaths were classified on the basis underlying causes and assessed for substandard care according to the guidelines at the time of death...... and preventability provided optimal conditions and up to date guidelines. RESULTS: In the period 1976-1995 we identified 61 direct maternal deaths in Norway. The direct MMR was 5.5/100,000 births. Sufficient information was available for analysis in 51 of these cases. Six deaths occurred in early pregnancy. Among...

  20. Brief Communication: Trends in sea ice extent north of Svalbard and its impact on cold air outbreaks as observed in spring 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I satellite data reveals that the Whaler's Bay polynya north of Svalbard was considerably larger in the three winters from 2012 to 2014 compared to the previous 20 years. This increased polynya size leads to strong atmospheric convection during cold air outbreaks in a region north of Svalbard that was typically ice-covered in the last decades. The change in ice cover can strongly influence local temperature conditions. Dropsonde measurements from March 2013 show that the unusual ice conditions generate extreme convective boundary layer heights that are larger than the regional values reported in previous studies.

  1. Small Scale Genetic Population Structure of Coral Reef Organisms in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Timm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Small island archipelagos with fringing and dispersed reef systems represent special marine ecosystems, providing a patchy habitat for many coral reef organisms. Although geographic distances may be short, it is still unclear if such environments are inhabited evenly with panmictic conditions or if limited connectivity between marine populations, even on small geographic scales, leads to genetic differentiation between areas within the archipelago or even single reef structures. To study diversity patterns and connectivity between reefs of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia, population genetic analyses of two reef organisms were performed by using the mitochondrial control region and microsatellite markers. A vertebrate (clown anemonefish and an invertebrate species (sea squirt were studied in parallel to investigate if there are general patterns of connectivity in Spermonde for sessile or site attached marine species, which can be extrapolated to a larger group. The genetic population structures revealed restrictions in gene flow in the clown anemone fish (Amphiprion ocellaris, especially between near-shore reefs in the South of the archipelago. This indicates very localized genetic exchange and may also reflect the high self-recruitment typical for these fish. The northern reefs show higher connectivity despite geographic distances being larger. The filter-feeding sessile sea squirt, Polycarpa aurata, features similar population patterns, especially in the southern area. However, connectivity is generally higher in the middle and shelf edge areas of Spermonde for this species. The results underline that there are restrictions to gene flow even on very small geographic scales in the studied organisms, with many barriers to gene flow in the southern shallower shelf area. Weaker currents in this area may lead to more influence of biological factors for dispersal, such as larval behavior, motility and competition for suitable habitat. The

  2. Small Hydro Power Plants in a given region in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Masoliver Verdaguer, Anna Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the hydropower development in Norway is more or less restricted to small scale installations without reservoirs as they are regarded as an environmentally solution. This thesis provides an overview of the hydropower potential of nine rivers in Sør-Trøndelag, a county in Norway. This feasibility study includes technical, economical and environmental considerations. There is a combination of theoretical, experimental and programming work. First of all, the hydropower pl...

  3. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) new for the fauna of Norway, Part 5

    OpenAIRE

    RIEDEL, Matthias; Hansen, Lars Ove

    2012-01-01

    The family Ichneumonidae represents a very species-rich family of parasitoid Hymenoptera. In Norway, 1583 different Ichneumonid species have been reported so far. The present survey gives distributional records for 98 additional species of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) previously not known from Norway. 21 of them have hitherto not been reported from Scandinavia, including the first Palaearctic record of Syrphophilus tricinctus (Ashmead, 1902). Posted here with permission from the...

  4. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  5. Conodont biostratigraphy in the Early to Middle Ordovician strata of the Oslobreen Group in Ny Friesland, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Oliver; Stouge, Svend; Brandl, Philipp A.

    2013-01-01

    . Collections of well-preserved conodonts (CAI 1) have been recovered from the Lower to lower Middle Ordovician interval in the region. Eight regional conodont zones are established in this preliminary study of the Oslobreen Group exposed at Hinlopenstretet, NE Svalbard. In ascending order these zones are...... Oepikodus evae becomes frequent and is succeeded by O. intermedius in abundance in the lower Valhallfonna Formation (Olenidsletta Member). The upper strata are characterised by the Periodon-Paroistodus assemblage characteristic for outer shelf and slope environments around Laurentia. In total...

  6. The southern Svalbard Margin sedimentary system: preliminary results from EGLACOM cruise 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Romana; Lucchi, Renata G.; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Persico, Davide; Ángeles Bárcena, Maria; Caburlotto, Andrea; Macrı, Patrizia; Villa, Giuliana; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Rebesco, Michele

    2010-05-01

    The Storfjorden sedimentary system (South-western Svalbard margin) was investigated during the EGLACOM cruise between 8th July and 4th August 2008 on board R/V OGS-Explora. EGLACOM (Evolution of a GLacial Arctic COntinental Margin: the southern Svalbard ice stream-dominated sedimentary system) project is the Italian contribution to the International Polar Year (IPY) Activity 367 (Neogene ice streams and sedimentary processes on high-latitude continental margins - NICE STREAMS) in combination with the IPY-Spanish SVAIS project. Four EGLACOM sediment cores were collected from the slope and shelf areas and were scanned for radiographs and multi-sensor core logger for physical properties. Sediment samples were collected every 10 cm, and analyzed for textural and compositional characteristics including the biogenic components. Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigations were carried out at high-resolution along the core's length. Both data sets contributed to develop a high-resolution age models in combination with the palaeostratigraphy (using foraminifera, diatoms and nannoplankton) and AMS dating. On the upper slope, coarser-grained sediments containing abundant pebbles (IRD-rich facies), overlain a sequence of laminated mud interbedded with silt layers (laminated facies), having scarce, badly preserved and often reworked biogenic fraction. On the lower slope, the uppermost sequence is formed by fine-grained bioturbated sediments with abundant planktonic and benthic foraminifera reflecting open-ocean conditions similar to present days. The dominance of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi indicates well oxygenated bottom waters and the calcareous nannofossil' assemblage indicates this facies deposited within the Emiliania huxleyi Acme Zone. The bioturbated facies overlay an interval of crudely laminated mud containing a peak of diatoms and sponge spiculae abundance that corresponds to a decrease in foraminifers content. Here the nannofossil

  7. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos

    2016-04-01

    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  8. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  9. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  10. Controls on microalgal community structures in cryoconite holes upon high Arctic glaciers, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnahme, T. R.; Devetter, M.; Žárský, J. D.; Šabacká, M.; Elster, J.

    2015-07-01

    Glaciers are known to harbor surprisingly complex ecosystems. On their surface, distinct cylindrical holes filled with meltwater and sediments are considered as hot spots for microbial life. The present paper addresses possible biological interactions within the community of prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae (microalgae) and relations to their potential grazers, additional to their environmental controls. Svalbard glaciers with substantial allochthonous input of material from local sources reveal high microalgal densities. Small valley glaciers with high sediment coverages and high impact of birds show high biomasses and support a high biological diversity. Invertebrate grazer densities do not show any significant negative correlation with microalgal abundances, but a positive correlation with eukaryotic microalgae. Most microalgae found in this study form large colonies ( 25 μm), which may protect them against invertebrate grazing. This finding rather indicates grazing as a positive control on eukaryotic microalgae by nutrient recycling. Density differences between the eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria and their high distinction in RDA and PCA analyses indicate that these two groups are in strong contrast. Eukaryotic microalgae occurred mainly in unstable cryoconite holes with high sediment loads, high N : P ratios, and a high impact of bird guano, as a proxy for nutrients. In these environments autochthonous nitrogen fixation appears to be negligible. Selective wind transport of Oscillatoriales via soil and dust particles is proposed to explain their dominance in cryoconites further away from the glacier margins. We propose that, for the studied glaciers, nutrient levels related to recycling of limiting nutrients is the main factor driving variation in the community structure of microalgae and grazers.

  11. Controls on microalgal community structures in cryoconite holes upon high-Arctic glaciers, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnahme, T. R.; Devetter, M.; Žárský, J. D.; Šabacká, M.; Elster, J.

    2016-02-01

    Glaciers are known to harbor surprisingly complex ecosystems. On their surface, distinct cylindrical holes filled with meltwater and sediments are considered hot spots for microbial life. The present paper addresses possible biological interactions within the community of prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae (microalgae) and relations to their potential grazers, such as tardigrades and rotifers, additional to their environmental controls. Svalbard glaciers with substantial allochthonous input of material from local sources reveal high microalgal densities. Small valley glaciers with high sediment coverages and high impact of birds show high biomasses and support a high biological diversity. Invertebrate grazer densities do not show any significant negative correlation with microalgal abundances but rather a positive correlation with eukaryotic microalgae. Shared environmental preferences and a positive effect of grazing are the proposed mechanisms to explain these correlations. Most microalgae found in this study form colonies ( 25 µm), which may protect them against invertebrate grazing. This finding rather indicates grazing as a positive control on eukaryotic microalgae by nutrient recycling. Density differences between the eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria and their high distinction in redundancy (RDA) and principal component (PCA) analyses indicate that these two groups are in strong contrast. Eukaryotic microalgae occurred mainly in unstable cryoconite holes with high sediment loads, high N : P ratios, and a high impact of nutrient input by bird guano, as a proxy for nutrients. In these environments autochthonous nitrogen fixation appears to be negligible. Selective wind transport of Oscillatoriales via soil and dust particles is proposed to explain their dominance in cryoconites further away from the glacier margins. We propose that, for the studied glaciers, nutrient levels related to recycling of limiting nutrients are the

  12. Overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Gausa, M.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Berjón, A.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; de Frutos, A. M.; Bennouna, Y.; Blindheim, S.; Myhre, C. L.; Zibordi, G.; Wehrli, C.; Kratzer, S.; Hakansson, B.; Carlund, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Herber, A.; Torres, B.

    2012-06-01

    An overview on the data of columnar aerosol properties measured in Northern Europe is provided. Apart from the necessary data gathered in the Arctic, the knowledge of the aerosol loading in nearby areas (e.g. sub-Arctic) is of maximum interest to achieve a correct analysis of the Arctic aerosols and transport patterns. This work evaluates data from operational sites with sun photometer measurements belonging either to national or international networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) and programs conducted in Scandinavia and Svalbard. We enumerate a list of sites, measurement type and periods together with observed aerosol properties. An evaluation and analysis of aerosol data was carried out with a review of previous results as well. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) are the current parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first evaluation of aerosol properties. AOD (500 nm) ranges from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites (Ny-Ålesund: 0.09; Andenes: 0.10; Sodankylä: 0.08), and it is somewhat higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols show larger mean size (AE = 1.2 at Andenes) than in Finland, with continental climate (AE = 1.5 at Sodankylä). Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters derived from inversion of sun/sky radiances were also investigated. This work makes special emphasis in the joint and collaborative effort of the various groups from different countries involved in this study. Part of the measurements presented here were involved in the IPY projects Polar-AOD and POLARCAT.

  13. Quantitative molecular analysis of the microbial community in marine arctic sediments (Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenschlag, K; Sahm, K; Amann, R

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and rRNA slot blot hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to investigate the phylogenetic composition of a marine Arctic sediment (Svalbard). FISH resulted in the detection of a large fraction of microbes living in the top 5 cm of the sediment. Up to 65.4% +/- 7.5% of total DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole) cell counts hybridized to the bacterial probe EUB338, and up to 4.9% +/- 1.5% hybridized to the archaeal probe ARCH915. Besides delta-proteobacterial sulfate-reducing bacteria (up to 16% 52) members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster were the most abundant group detected in this sediment, accounting for up to 12.8% of total DAPI cell counts and up to 6.1% of prokaryotic rRNA. Furthermore, members of the order Planctomycetales accounted for up to 3.9% of total cell counts. In accordance with previous studies, these findings support the hypothesis that these bacterial groups are not simply settling with organic matter from the pelagic zone but are indigenous to the anoxic zones of marine sediments. Members of the gamma-proteobacteria also constituted a significant fraction in this sediment (6.1% +/- 2.5% of total cell counts, 14.4% +/- 3.6% of prokaryotic rRNA). A new probe (GAM660) specific for sequences affiliated with free-living or endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was developed. A significant number of cells was detected by this probe (2.1% +/- 0.7% of total DAPI cell counts, 13.2% +/- 4. 6% of prokaryotic rRNA), showing no clear zonation along the vertical profile. Gram-positive bacteria and the beta-proteobacteria were near the detection limit in all sediments.

  14. Turbulence and heat flux observations in the Arctic north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Sundfjord, Arild; Fer, Ilker; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Heat fluxes and mixing between the ocean and the sea ice in the Arctic is fundamental to understanding the new first year sea ice regime and consequences for regional and global ocean circulation. Here we present observations collected between January and June 2015 during the Norwegian Young sea Ice (N-ICE2015) campaign in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. In January 2015, the Norwegian research vessel Lance was frozen into the ice at 83o.3N 21.5oE. Oceanographic, atmospheric, sea ice, snow and biological data were collected above, on, and below the ice using R/V Lance as the base for the ice camp that was drifting south towards the Fram Strait. Over the following six months, four different drifts took place in the same area, from the Nansen Basin, through the Marginal Ice Zone, to the open ocean. Throughout the drifts, the oceanography team collected turbulence measurements to estimate mixing, heat, salt, and momentum fluxes in the ice-ocean boundary layer and between the sub-surface warm Atlantic Water layer and the ice-ocean boundary layer close to freezing point. Water tracer data was collected to map water mass properties, and the distribution of the Atlantic Water inflow. Here we present 600 under-ice microstructure profiles spanning five months, from the deep Nansen Basin to the Yermak Plateau. During this period, several large atmospheric storms took place, forcing a fast drift of the ice camp. Tides were weak in the Nansen Basin and strong on the Yermak Plateau. We investigate vertical heat fluxes between the Atlantic Water layer and the surface mixed layer. Variations in mixing and heat fluxes are interpreted in terms of atmospheric forcing and regional topography.

  15. Microseismicity Linked to Gas Migration and Leakage on the Western Svalbard Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Peter; Plaza-Faverola, Andreia; Mienert, Jürgen; Buenz, Stefan; Ferré, Bénédicte; Hubbard, Alun

    2017-12-01

    The continental margin off Prins Karls Forland, western Svalbard, is characterized by widespread natural gas seepage into the water column at and upslope of the gas hydrate stability zone. We deployed an ocean bottom seismometer integrated into the MASOX (Monitoring Arctic Seafloor-Ocean Exchange) automated seabed observatory at the pinch-out of this zone at 389 m water depth to investigate passive seismicity over a continuous 297 day period from 13 October 2010. An automated triggering algorithm was applied to detect over 220,000 short duration events (SDEs) defined as having a duration of less than 1 s. The analysis reveals two different types of SDEs, each with a distinctive characteristic seismic signature. We infer that the first type consists of vocal signals generated by moving mammals, likely finback whales. The second type corresponds to signals with a source within a few hundred meters of the seismometer, either due east or west, that vary on short (˜tens of days) and seasonal time scales. Based on evidence of prevalent seafloor seepage and subseafloor gas accumulations, we hypothesize that the second type of SDEs is related to subseafloor fluid migration and gas seepage. Furthermore, we postulate that the observed temporal variations in microseismicity are driven by transient fluid release and due to the dynamics of thermally forced, seasonal gas hydrate decomposition. Our analysis presents a novel technique for monitoring the duration, intensity, and periodicity of fluid migration and seepage at the seabed and can help elucidate the environmental controls on gas hydrate decomposition and release.

  16. Cryo-conditioned rocky coast systems: A case study from Wilczekodden, Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, M C; Kasprzak, M; Lim, M; Swirad, Z M; Jaskólski, M; Pawłowski, Ł; Modzel, P

    2017-12-31

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the processes controlling development of a cryo-conditioned rock coast system in Hornsund, Svalbard. A suite of nested geomorphological and geophysical methods have been applied to characterise the functioning of rock cliffs and shore platforms influenced by lithological control and geomorphic processes driven by polar coast environments. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys have been used to investigate permafrost control on rock coast dynamics and reveal the strong interaction with marine processes in High Arctic coastal settings. Schmidt hammer rock tests, demonstrated strong spatial control on the degree of rock weathering (rock strength) along High Arctic rock coasts. Elevation controlled geomorphic zones are identified and linked to distinct processes and mechanisms, transitioning from peak hardness values at the ice foot through the wave and storm dominated scour zones to the lowest values on the cliff tops, where the effects of periglacial weathering dominate. Observations of rock surface change using a traversing micro-erosion meter (TMEM) indicate that significant changes in erosion rates occur at the junction between the shore platform and the cliff toe, where rock erosion is facilitated by frequent wetting and drying and operation of nivation and sea ice processes (formation and melting of snow patches and icefoot complexes). The results are synthesised to propose a new conceptual model of High Arctic rock coast systems, with the aim of contributing towards a unifying concept of cold region landscape evolution and providing direction for future research regarding the state of polar rock coasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geometric changes and mass balance of the Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moholdt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and mass balance regime of the Austfonna ice cap, the largest glacier on Svalbard, deviates significantly from most other glaciers in the region and is not fully understood. We have compared ICESat laser altimetry, airborne laser altimetry, GNSS surface profiles and radio echo-sounding data to estimate elevation change rates for the periods 1983–2007 and 2002–2008. The data sets indicate a pronounced interior thickening of up to 0.5 m y−1, at the same time as the margins are thinning at a rate of 1–3 m y−1. The southern basins are thickening at a higher rate than the northern basins due to a higher accumulation rate. The overall volume change in the 2002–2008 period is estimated to be −1.3±0.5 km3 w.e. y−1 (or −0.16±0.06 m w.e. y−1 where the entire net loss is due to a rapid retreat of the calving fronts. Since most of the marine ice loss occurs below sea level, Austfonna's current contribution to sea level change is close to zero. The geodetic results are compared to in-situ mass balance measurements which indicate that the 2004–2008 surface net mass balance has been slightly positive (0.05 m w.e. y−1 though with large annual variations. Similarities between local net mass balances and local elevation changes indicate that most of the ice cap is slow-moving and not in dynamic equilibrium with the current climate. More knowledge is needed about century-scale dynamic processes in order to predict the future evolution of Austfonna based on climate scenarios.

  18. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  19. Dynamics of snow cover characteristics exerting influence on stability of the Svalbard permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Osokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate variations result in changes of the snow cover characteristics which have a certain influence upon thermal state and stability of permafrost. Analysis of data of meteorological station Barentsburg (Svalbard and our own observations has revealed small change in the snow cover thickness for the period 1984–2015. At the same time, duration of the snow cover presence has shortened by 8%. In recent years, more than 60% of the snow cover thickness was formed during the early third of the cold season which adversely affects a rate of the ground freezing. Durations of thaws increased from 12 to 22 days, and the rainfall amount decreased during the cold period from 60 to 120 mm. The largest increase in the thaw duration (by a factor of 7 and decrease of the rainfall amount (by a factor of 8 fall on January and February. Summing up of the thaw duration and the rainfall amount for the 5‑year periods demonstrated significant growth of both. It should be noted also that, according to data of the Barentsburg station and our ones, in a few last years, these parameters reached anomalously high values. Appearance of anomalous values of the snow cover thickness as well as of the dates of its onset became more frequent. For the last decade, recurrence of anomalous values of the snow cover thickness increased: one event for 2.4 years before 2000, and one occurrence of anomalous thickness for 1.4 years since 2001. The later onset of snow cover resulted in shortening of duration of its presence. Occurrence of anomalous duration of the snow cover presence was observed once for 4.3 years before 2001, and once for 3.3 years after 2000.

  20. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, T. K.; Boiko, E. R.; Zenchenko, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction.

  1. Atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Haarsma, Rein; Sillmann, Jana

    2017-04-01

    'Atmospheric rivers' are long, narrow regions of high water vapour content that are responsible for the horizontal transport of moisture to higher latitudes. They are associated with the majority of extreme precipitation events in Norway throughout the observational record. These extreme precipitation events can be associated with flooding that has large impacts on society, such as the October 2014 event in Flåm. We examined changes in extreme precipitation between the current and future climates in the coupled global climate model, EC-EARTH, using high-resolution simulations ( 25 km) that can resolve extratropical storms and atmospheric rivers. We use the r-largest method (r=3) to fit stationary (no covariates) and non-stationary (with an index of atmospheric rivers as a covariate) generalised extreme value distributions to the block maxima of annual precipitation. The value of a regional 'index flood' type approach is explored and future changes in the largest precipitation events of the year that are associated with atmospheric rivers are presented.

  2. The Bamble Sector, South Norway: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo G. Nijland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Proterozoic Bamble Sector, South Norway, is one of the world's classic amphibolite- to granulite-facies transition zones. It is characterized by a well-developed isograd sequence, with isolated ‘granulite-facies islands’ in the amphibolite-facies portion of the transition zone. The area is notable for the discovery of CO2-dominated fluid inclusions in the granulite-facies rocks by Jacques Touret in the late 1960's, which triggered discussion of the role of carbonic fluids during granulite genesis. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the Bamble Sector, with an emphasis on the Arendal-Froland-Nelaug-Tvedestrand area and off shore islands (most prominantly Tromøy and Hisøy where the transition zone is best developed. After a brief overview of the history of geological research and mining in the area, aspects of sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic petrology of the Bamble Sector are discussed, including the role of fluids. Issues relevant to current geotectonic models for SW Scandinavia, directly related to the Bamble Sector, are discussed at the end of the review.

  3. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the islands and banks in the Mariana archipelago, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the Mariana archipelago between the U.S. Territory of Guam and Uracas Island in the Commonwealth...

  4. NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway; NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oort, Bob van; Hovelsrud, Grete K.; Dannevig, Halvor; Bybraaten, Stine

    2012-10-15

    In NORADAPT, researchers from CICERO Center for Climate Research, Western Norway Research Institute, Eastern Norway Research Institute and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute worked in close cooperation with 8 selected municipalities, with the aim to help municipalities assess their vulnerability to climate change and develop adaptation strategies in collaboration with the research group. This report presents climate scenarios for all project municipalities and interprets the expected changes from the figures produced for each municipality. The report refers to socioeconomic scenarios which were developed as part of the project, describes progress throughout the project period and summarizes the main findings of the project through a summary of the final conference at Losby Gods 24-25 October 2011. The project has shown that municipalities are able to put climate change on the agenda, utilize scientific knowledge and implement adaptation measures, but that this depends on several factors, such as capacity, knowledge and involvement in local government, access to relevant knowledge and policy measures, and clear guidance and supervision from regional and national authorities. (Author)

  5. Pathways of carbon oxidation in an Arctic fjord sediment (Svalbard) and isolation of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant Fe(III)-reducing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, Verona; Finke, Niko; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2006-01-01

    , Desulfuromusa, Shewanella and Desulfovibrio were isolated from enrichment cultures of 2 fjord sediments from Svalbard. Strains related to Desulfovibrio reduced Fe(III) without energy generation for growth. All isolates were psychrophilic or psychrotolerant and grew at –2°C, the freezing point of sea water...

  6. Desultovibrio frigidus sp nov and Desulfovibrio ferfireducens sp nov., psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from Arctic fiord sediments (Svalbard) with the ability to reduce Fe(III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, V.; Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2006-01-01

    Strains 18(T) 61(T) and 77 were isolated from two permanently cold fjord sediments on the west coast of Svalbard. The three psychrotolerant strains, with temperature optima at 20-23 degrees C, were able to grow at the freezing point of sea water, -2 degrees C. The strains oxidized important...

  7. Assessment of interannual variations in the surface mass balance of 18 Svalbard glaciers from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Terra albedo product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuell, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074214098; Kohler, J.; Obleitner, F.; Glowacki, P.; Melvold, K.; Bernsen, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831964; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X

    2007-01-01

    We estimate annual anomalies of the surface mass balance of glaciers on Svalbard for the period 2000–2005 (six years), by calculating the so-called ‘‘satellite-derived mass balance’’ (Bsat) from time series of satellite-derived surface albedos. The method needs no other input variables. Surface

  8. Lower limb amputations in Trondheim, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose In the city of Trondheim, Norway, diabetic lower-limb amputations accounted for one-third of all lower-limb amputations (LLAs). In an attempt to reduce this rate, a diabetic foot team was established in 1996. We present the incidence of LLA in Trondheim as measured 10 years later. Patients and methods In 2004–07, we registered all LLAs performed in Trondheim and then compared the data with previously published data from 1994–1997. From 1996 through 2006, we registered the activity of the diabetic foot team and we also registered the number of vascular procedures performed on citizens of Trondheim from 1998 through 2006. Results Comparing the two 3-year periods 1994–97 and 2004–07, we observed a decrease in all non-traumatic LLAs. The incidence of diabetic major LLAs per 103 diabetics per year decreased from 4.0 to 2.4, and in patients with peripheral vascular disease we observed a decrease in LLAs from 18 to 12 per 105 inhabitants per year. 5,915 consultations on diabetic subjects were conducted by the diabetic foot team during the period 1996–2006. From 1998 to 2006, the rate of vascular procedures decreased in the non-diabetic population, and was unchanged in diabetic subjects. Interpretation In the population of Trondheim city there appears to have been a reduction in the rate of vascular obstructive lower-limb disease between the two 3-year periods 1994–97 and 2004–07. In our judgment, the decline in diabetic LLA also reflects better care of the diabetic foot. PMID:20860446

  9. Radiocaesium (137Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Magnus; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2006-06-15

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (+/-SD) of 137Cs were: 0.72+/-0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49+/-0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25+/-0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22+/-0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36+/-0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in 137Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of 137Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of 137Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79+/-32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244+/-36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of 137Cs in the marine ecosystem.

  10. A minimal, statistical model for the surface albedo of Vestfonna ice cap, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Möller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ice cap Vestfonna is located in northeastern Svalbard and forms one of the largest ice bodies of the Eurasian Arctic. Its surface albedo plays a key role in the understanding and modelling of its energy and mass balance. The principle governing factors for albedo evolution, i.e. precipitation and air temperature and therewith snow depth and melt duration, were found to vary almost exclusively with terrain elevation throughout the ice cap. Hence, surface albedo can be expected to develop a comparable pattern. A new statistical model is presented that estimates this mean altitudinal albedo profile of the ice cap on the basis of a minimal set of meteorological variables on a monthly resolution. Model calculations are based on a sigmoid function of the artificial quantity rain-snow ratio and a linear function of cumulative snowfall and cumulative positive degree days. Surface albedo fields of the MODIS snow product MOD10A1 from the period March to October in the years 2001–2008 serve as a basis for both calibration and cross-validation of the model. The meteorological model input covers the period September 2000 until October 2008 and is based on ERA-Interim data of a grid point located close to the ice cap. The albedo model shows a good performance. The root mean square error between observed and modelled albedo values along the altitudinal profile is 0.057±0.028 (mean ± one standard deviation. The area weighted mean even reduces to a value of 0.054. Distinctly higher deviations (0.07–0.09 are only present throughout the very lowest and uppermost parts of the ice cap that are either small in area or hardly affected by surface melt. Thus, the new, minimal, statistical albedo model presented in this study is found to reproduce the albedo evolution on Vestfonna ice cap on a high level of accuracy and is thus suggested to be fully suitable for further application in broader energy or mass-balance studies of the ice cap.

  11. At the edge: Heritage and tourism development in Vietnam’s Con Dao archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of Vietnam’s Con Dao archipelago (and Con Son island in particular as tourism destinations since the formal reunification of Vietnam in 1975. In particular it examines the nature of the area’s two main tourism attractions, Con Son’s prison sites and memorials and the archipelago’s natural environment, and how these have been marketed to and experienced by national and international tourists. This discussion also involves considerations of the concept of thanatourism and how the latter might be understood to operate in a Vietnamese context. The final sections of the article consider development plans and options for the archipelago; how these can be understood within national political contexts; and what problems there might be with their implementation.

  12. Two new species of Crocodile Skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tribolonotus) from the Solomon Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmeyer, Eric N; Austin, Christopher C

    2017-05-15

    We describe two new species of the scincid lizard genus Tribolonotus from the islands of Buka and Choiseul in the Solomon Archipelago, closely related to, and previously included within, T. pseudoponceleti. One species, T. parkeri sp. nov., is endemic to Buka Island and was revealed in our previous study via taxonomically focused analyses of both next-generation sequencing data and morphology. Here, we also further support the validity of this species by more taxonomically comprehensive Bayesian species delimitation of three Sanger sequenced nuclear loci. The second species, T. choiseulensis sp. nov., is endemic to Choiseul Island and was revealed by an expanded morphological data analysis. These results suggest that numerous other species found on multiple island groups in the Solomon Archipelago may similarly represent complexes of multiple, closely related species, and that the biodiversity of the region is vastly underestimated.

  13. The blowflies of the Madeira Archipelago: species diversity, distribution and identification (Diptera, Calliphoridae s. l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Prado e Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and distribution of blowflies from the Madeira Archipelago is updated. New and interesting findings are reported for poorly studied islands and islets of this archipelago, together with a brief analysis of the diversity of Macaronesian Calliphoridae s. l. Seven blowfly species were collected during this study, including the first records of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Pollenia rudis (Fabricius, 1794 and Stomorhina lunata (Fabricius, 1805 from Porto Santo, and of C. vicina, L. sericata and S. lunata from Desertas Islands. The presence of Calliphora loewi Enderlein, 1903 in Madeira Laurisilva forest is discussed and its first instar larva is redescribed, revealing important differences in relation to its original description. An identification key to the adult Madeiran blowflies is provided for the first time.

  14. Geochemistry of spinels from xenoliths of mantle lherzolites (sverre Volcano, spitsbergen Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. С. Ашихмин

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study (LA-ICP-MS method of spinel from the collection of mantle xenoliths of lherzolites (seven xenoliths selected in quaternary alkaline basalts of the Sverre volcano, the Spitsbergen archipelago. The study of two large (more than 15 cm in diameter xenoliths made it possible to study changes in the composition of minerals in the central, intermediate, and marginal parts of the samples of chromium diopside spinel lherzolites. The sinusoidal character of the REE distribution in spinels, which indicates the manifestation of mantle metasomatism, is established. The results obtained for the first time on the trace-element composition for spinels from mantle xenoliths in alkaline basalts of the Spitsbergen archipelago are supplemented by data on the geochemistry of spinels of mantle origin published in the world literature.

  15. Tuvalu, Sovereignty and Climate Change: Considering Fenua, the Archipelago and Emigration

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Farbotko; Elaine Stratford; Heather Lazrus

    2013-01-01

    Tuvalu is a Pacific atoll nation-state that has come to stand for predicaments implicating climate change, forced emigration and resettlement, and loss of territory and sovereignty. Legal and policy remedies seek to address such challenges by radically reframing how sovereignty is conceived. Drawing on literary and legal theory, we seek to extend such work in the terms of cultural geography and anthropology by considering how the archipelago and cultural practices known as fenua could be depl...

  16. At the edge: Heritage and tourism development in Vietnam’s Con Dao archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    HAYWARD, Philip; Tran, Giang Thuy Huu

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the development of Vietnam’s Con Dao archipelago (and Con Son island in particular) as tourism destinations since the formal reunification of Vietnam in 1975. In particular it examines the nature of the area’s two main tourism attractions, Con Son’s prison sites and memorials and the archipelago’s natural environment, and how these have been marketed to and experienced by national and international tourists. This discussion also involves considerations of the concept of ...

  17. New insights on the petrology of submarine volcanics from the Western Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, A. M.; Perinelli, C.; Bianchini, G.; Natali, C.; Martorelli, E.; Chiocci, F. L.

    2016-11-01

    The Pontine Islands form a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It consists of two edifices, the islands of Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone and the islands of Ventotene and Santo Stefano, respectively. The Archipelago developed during two main volcanic cycles in the Plio-Pleistocene: 1) the Pliocene episode erupted subalkaline, silica-rich volcanic units, which constitute the dominant products in the western edifice (Ponza and Zannone Islands); 2) the Pleistocene episode erupted more alkaline products, represented by evolved rocks (trachytes to peralkaline rhyolites) in the islands of Ponza and Palmarola and by basic to intermediate rocks in the eastern edifice (Ventotene and Santo Stefano Islands). In this paper we present new geochemical and petrological data from submarine rock samples collected in two oceanographic cruises and a scuba diving survey. The main result is the recovery of relatively undifferentiated lithotypes that provide further insights on the magmatic spectrum existing in the Pontine Archipelago, allowing modelling of the whole suite of rocks by fractional crystallization processes. New major and trace element data and thermodynamic constrains (by the software PELE) indicate the existence of three distinct evolutionary trends corresponding to a HK calcalkaline series in the Pliocene, followed by a transitional and then by a shoshonite series in the Pleistocene. In particular, the transitional series, so far overlooked in the literature, is required in order to explain the genesis of several peralkaline felsic rocks recognized in the Archipelago. On the whole, the new geochemical data i) confirm the orogenic signature of the suites, ii) allow to rule out an anatectic origin for both subalkaline and peralkaline rhyolites and iii) indicate highly heterogeneous mantle sources, due to crustal components variously recycled in the mantle via subduction.

  18. Phylogeography of the prehensile-tailed skink Corucia zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ingerid J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Bull, C Michael

    2012-01-01

    The biogeography of islands is often strongly influenced by prior geological events. Corucia zebrata (Squamata: Scincidae) is endemic to the geologically complex Solomon Archipelago in Northern Melanesia. We examined the level of divergence for different island populations of C. zebrata and discussed these patterns in light of Pleistocene land bridges, island isolation, and island age. Corucia zebrata was sampled from 14 locations across the Solomon Archipelago and sequenced at two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4; 1697 bp in total) and four nuclear loci (rhodopsin, an unknown intron, AKAP9, and PTPN12). Measures of genetic divergence, analyses of genetic variation, and Bayesian phylogenetic inference were used and the data assessed in light of geological information. Populations of C. zebrata on separate islands were found to be genetically different from each other, with reciprocal monophyly on mitochondrial DNA. Populations on islands previously connected by Pleistocene land bridges were marginally less divergent from each other than from populations on other nearby but isolated islands. There are indications that C. zebrata has radiated across the eastern islands of the archipelago within the last 1–4 million years. Nuclear loci were not sufficiently informative to yield further information about the phylogeography of C. zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago. Analyses of the mitochondrial data suggest that dispersal between islands has been very limited and that there are barriers to gene flow within the major islands. Islands that have been isolated during the Pleistocene glacial cycles are somewhat divergent in their mitochondrial genotypes, however, isolation by distance (IBD) and recent colonization of isolated but geologically younger islands appear to have had stronger effects on the phylogeography of C. zebrata than the Pleistocene glacial cycles. This contrasts with patterns reported for avian taxa, and highlights the fact that biogeographic regions for

  19. The Miocene to Pleistocene colonization of the Philippine archipelago by Begonia sect. Baryandra (Begoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark; Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Blanc, Patrick; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Peng, Ching-I

    2015-05-01

    One third of the species-rich Philippine flora is endemic, and most of the islands in the archipelago have never been connected to a continental region. We currently lack any well-sampled angiosperm phylogenies that span the archipelago, prohibiting the formation of informed hypotheses as to the evolution of this rich and highly endemic flora. We produced time-calibrated phylogenetic trees from both nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (ndhA intron, ndhF-rpl32 spacer, rpl32-trnL spacer, trnC-trnD spacer) regions of 41 species of Begonia sect. Baryandra, all except one endemic to the Philippines. Historical biogeography was reconstructed across the chloroplast phylogeny using a Bayesian binary method of character optimization. Comparison of phylogenies from the two genomes permitted insight into the prevalence of hybridization in the group. The Philippine archipelago was colonized by Begonia sect. Baryandra in the late Miocene, via long-distance dispersal from western Malesia and a point of entry likely to be in the northwestern region of the archipelago. Palawan, Luzon, and Panay all bear early-branching lineages from this initial colonization. There have been Plio-Pleistocene dispersals from these islands into Borneo and Mindanao. Hybridization was common between species as evidenced by haplotype sharing and phylogenetic incongruence. The phylogenies show a high degree of geographic structure, which millions of years of exposure to typhoons have not blurred, showing long-term species and population stability. The recent dispersals to Mindanao are congruent with the geologically recent arrival of the island at its current latitude in the southern Philippines. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Estimates of tidal mixing in the Indonesian archipelago from multidisciplinary INDOMIX in-situ data

    OpenAIRE

    Koch Larrouy, Ariane; Atmadipoera, A.; Beek, P. van; Madec, G.; Aucan, Jerôme; Lyard, F.; Grelet, Jacques; Souhaut, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Indonesian Mixing program (INDOMIX) was designed to quantify the very strong mixing that transforms Pacific waters into isohaline Indonesian Waters in the Indonesian archipelago. The turbulent dissipation rates and associated mixing were estimated and analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach that combines physical and geochemical in-situ observations: (1) direct measurements of the dissipation using a microstructure profiler, (2) use of density-based fine-scale methods applied to CTD a...

  1. Life history traits and patterns of diversification in oceanic archipelagos: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Verdugo, C; Baldwin, BG; Fay, MF; Caujapé-Castells, J

    2014-01-01

    Ecological conditions, such as high habitat diversity and the absence of competitors, have been proposed as key determinants of the patterns of speciation observed in oceanic island floras. However, the relationship between plant traits and lineage diversification has received less attention. Here, we review 120 published phylogenetic and population genetic studies of three well-studied oceanic archipelagos (Canary Islands, Galápagos and Hawai'i) to investigate potential associations between ...

  2. New paleomagnetic data from late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago: tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashev, Victor V.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    New paleomagnetic data for Novaya Zemlya archipelago were obtained by processing the samples collection gathered during the 2014 field season. The paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles were determined from the Paleozoic sedimentary complexes located on the Southern Island (Upper Permian) and the Northern Island (Lower and Upper Devonian, Upper Carboniferous) of the archipelago. Positive fold and reversal tests indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole are in good agreement with poles obtained earlier in the 1980s by E.L. Gurevich and I.A. Pogarskaya. Considering the confidence ovals, the paleomagnetic poles obtained for the sites of the Northern Island are located close to the corresponding path segment of the APWP of Europe. This means that at least since the early Devonian, the northern part of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago had a position that was close to its current position relatively to the Arctic margin of Europe and has not undergone significant shifts or rotations. However, the upper Permian paleomagnetic pole for the Southern Island is very different from the corresponding part of the European APWP. We are considering this pole position within a model, involving significant intraplate movement between the structures of the European and Siberian tectonic provinces until the Late Cretaceous. The sinistral strike-slips inferred by the model could have caused or were accompanying the opening of the Mesozoic rift system in Western Siberia. This event has reached its maximum within the South Kara basin and resulted in the north-westward (in geographic coordinates) displacement of the southern part of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in relation to the Arctic margin of Europe and in the deformation of the Pay-Khoy-Novaya Zemlya margin, which caused its modern curved form. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 14-37-00030 and the

  3. Who isn’t online? Mapping the ‘Archipelago of Disconnection’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph K. Straumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For many people, internet access is an essential part of everyday economic, social, and political activities (c.f. Graham and Dutton 2014. Yet access to the internet is, and has always been, geographically concentrated (Graham, Hale, and Stephens 2012, 2011. As such, it is important to focus on the people and places that are largely left out of digital connectivity. This visualisation looks at these in terms of internet penetration (i.e. the share of their population that have “used the Internet (from any location in the last 12 months” (source: UN 2015. The map highlights all territories that either have internet penetration below 10%, or for which no data from the World Bank exists. A lack of data can exist for several reasons, for example: some of these territories are statistically grouped together with bigger entities, no data have been collected or inferred, or the territories lack widespread recognised statehood. The map ultimately highlights an archipelago of land whose population is mostly cut off from the internet. This Archipelago of Disconnection has its centre of gravity in Sub-Saharan Africa where 28 countries have internet penetration rates beneath the 10% threshold we applied. As the internet becomes ever more embedded into global economic flows (Malecki and Morisset 2011, to the inhabitation of urban spaces (Graham 2013, and to other facets of everyday life, those living in the Archipelago of Disconnection are largely barred from participating in the cultural, educational, political, and economic activities that it affords.

  4. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen G; Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Sahanatien, Vicki; Tremblay, Bruno; Huard, David

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands. Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  5. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G Hamilton

    Full Text Available Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 - 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling.Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2-5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands.Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100.

  6. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Low, Van Lun; Suana, I Wayan

    2017-05-01

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies were carried out in Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia, where 10 species were known. A total of 14 simuliid species including four new species and five new records of the genus Simulium were collected, bringing the number of species from the Lesser Sunda Archipelago to 19. They are classified into four subgenera: two in Nevermannia, nine in Gomphostilbia, seven in Simulium and one in Wallacellum. One of four new species, Simulium (Simulium) baliense, is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae from Bali and Lombok. This new species, which is placed in the Simulium striatum species-group of the subgenus Simulium, is closely related to S. (S.) argyrocinctum De Meijere from Java and Sumatra, but it is distinguished from the latter species by the smaller number of the male enlarged upper-eye facets and larval abdomen lacking dorsal pairs of conical protuberances. The distribution record of S. (S.) upikae Takaoka & Davies from Flores is corrected as that of S. (S.) eximium De Meijere. Some aberrant characters of the pupal gill filaments of S. (G.) atratum De Meijere, S. (G.) floresense Takaoka, Hadi & Sigit and S. (G.) sunapii Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Suana are illustrated. Characteristics of the fauna of black flies in this archipelago are briefly noted. Keys to all 19 species are provided for females, males, pupae and larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Origins of Aleuts and the genetic structure of populations of the archipelago: molecular and archaeological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael H; Rubicz, Rohina C; Zlojutro, Mark

    2010-12-01

    We summarize the results of a field and laboratory research program (1999-2006) in the Aleutian Islands on the origins of the inhabitants of the archipelago and the genetic structure of these populations. The Aleuts show closest genetic affinity to the contemporary Siberian Eskimos and Chukchi of Chukotka and differ significantly from the populations of Kamchatka (the terminus of the archipelago) and Alaskan Eskimos. Our findings support the hypothesis that the ancestors of the Aleuts crossed Beringia and expanded westerly into the islands approximately 9,000 years ago. The Monmonier algorithm indicates genetic discontinuity between contemporary Kamchatkan populations and western Aleut populations, suggesting that island hopping from Kamchatka into the western Aleutian Islands was highly unlikely. The primary determinant of the distribution of genes throughout the archipelago is geography. The most intimate relationship exists between the genetics (based on mtDNA sequences and intermatch/mismatch distances) and geographic distances (measured in kilometers). However, the Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies are not significantly correlated with the geography of the Aleutian Islands. The underlying patterns of precontact genetic structure based on Y-chromosome markers of the Aleut populations is obscured because of the gene flow from Russian male colonizers and Scandinavian and English fishermen. We consider alternative theories about the peopling of the Americas from Siberia. In addition, we attempt a synthesis between archaeological and genetic data for the Aleutian Islands.

  8. Patterns of diversification in islands: A comparative study across three gecko genera in the Socotra Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porta, Joan; Morales, Hernán E; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Sindaco, Roberto; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In this study we used the complete fauna of geckos of the Socotra Archipelago to test whether the three gecko genera co-occurring in the islands (Pristurus, Hemidactylus and Haemodracon) produced similar outcomes of morphological and climatic diversification. To test this, we produced a time-calibrated tree of 346 geckos including all 16 endemic species of the archipelago and 26 potential close-relatives in the continent. Our dating estimates revealed that most of the diversity of geckos in the archipelago was the consequence of in situ diversification. However not all genera shared similar patterns of diversification. While in Hemidactylus and Haemodracon this involved great differences in body size and low levels of climatic diversification (mostly involving sympatric distributions), an opposite pattern appeared in Pristurus in which most of the diversification involved shifts in climatic envelopes (mostly involving allopatric and parapatric distributions) but almost no size differentiation. Consistently with this, Pristurus was the only genus in which rates of size diversification in islands were substantially lower than in the continent. This illustrates how different groups can greatly differ in their patterns of intra-island diversification and highlights the importance of taxon-dependent factors at determining different patterns of diversification in the same insular context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural concentrations and reference values for trace elements in soils of a tropical volcanic archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio Neta, Adelazil de Brito; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; van Straaten, Peter; Bittar, Sheila Maria Bretas

    2018-02-01

    Fernando de Noronha is a small volcanic archipelago in the Southern Atlantic, some 350 km NE of the city of Natal in NE Brazil. These remote volcanic islands represent a largely pristine environment, distant from sources of anthropogenic contamination. This study was carried out to determine the natural concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn in the A and B horizons of soils of Fernando de Noronha. The aims of the study were twofold: determine whether there is a relationship between the bedrock geology and soils and to establish quality reference values for soils from Fernando de Noronha. Soil samples were subjected to acid digestion by the USEPA method 3051A, and metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometry. The results showed that the trace element distribution largely reflects the geochemistry of the underlying volcanic rocks of the Remedios and Quixaba Formations. The results demonstrate that the concentrations of Ba, Cr, Zn, Ni and Cu from the soils of the volcanic Fernando de Noronha archipelago are higher than those found in soils from continental Brazil. However, concentrations of Ni, Cu and Co are lower in soils of the archipelago as compared to other volcanic islands throughout the world. The elevated trace element concentrations of the volcanic parent material of Fernando de Noronha soils seem to be the main factor governing the relatively high natural concentrations of trace elements.

  10. Human genetic diversity in the Japanese Archipelago: dual structure and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinam, Timothy A; Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Hideaki; Saitou, Naruya

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese Archipelago stretches approximately 3,000 kilometers from Hokkaido in the north to the Ryukyu Islands in the south, and has seen human activity since at least 30 thousand years ago (KYA). The Jomon period from 16 to 3 KYA is associated with cord-marked pottery and the people at that time, who were hunter-gatherers, occupied a range of locations across the Japanese Archipelago. The Yayoi period from 3 to 1.7 KYA saw the introduction of migrants from the Asian Continent who brought rice agriculture to the archipelago. The dual-structure model, which is based on craniofacial measurements, proposes that admixture between the Jomon and Yayoi people resulted in current-day Japanese. Subsequent genetic studies using uniparental and autosomal markers in current-day and ancient human samples are widely in support of the dual-structure model. These genetic data have also unveiled the uniqueness of the indigenous Ainu and Ryukyuan people while further demonstrating the genetic substructure within the Mainland Japanese.

  11. Population dynamics of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in kelpforests and barren grounds in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerli, Camilla W.; Gran Stadniczeñko, Sandra; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2015-01-01

    A northward trend of declining abundance of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and increasing kelp recovery along the coast of Norway has provided an opportunity to explore whether the decline of sea urchins can be explained by systematic variations in demographic or fitness......-related traits. The population density of sea urchins in mid-Norway (65°70′N) close to the boundary between barren grounds and recently recovered kelp forests was only 26 % of that on barren grounds in northern Norway (70°70′N). Populations were dominated by young (2–4 years) individuals and age-specific numbers...... in mid-Norway were 50 % higher than in northern Norway. We suggest that increasing predation pressure on sea urchins partly explains the higher mortality in mid-Norway. Recent studies have shown that recruitment of sea urchins is significantly lower in mid-Norway than in northern Norway. The lower mean...

  12. R&D statistics 2015 for the higher education sector in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Kaja

    2017-01-01

    Newsletter presenting main results from the R&D statistics of the higher education sector in Norway. Newsletter presenting main results from the R&D statistics of the higher education sector in Norway.

  13. Monitoring of Agricultural Landscape in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, H. G.; Engan, G.

    2012-07-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of agricultural landscapes. This requires continuous delivery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information, a monitoring program for agricultural landscapes was initiated in Norway 13 years ago. The program documents and reports on land use / land cover changes from data captured through interpretation of true colour aerial photos using stereo instruments. The monitoring programme is based on a sample of 1000 squares of 1 × 1 km and the entire sample of squares is photographed over a five-year period. Each square is then mapped repeatedly every fifth year to record changes. Aerial photo interpretation is based on a custom classification system which is built up hierarchically, with three levels. The first level comprises seven land type classes: Agricultural land, Bare ground, Semi-natural open vegetation, Unforested wetland vegetation, Forest, Urban areas and Water. These land classes are further divided into 24 land types at level two, and approximately 100 land types at level 3. In addition to land type units we map both line elements like stone fences and point elements like buildings and solitary threes. By use of indicators that describe status and change focusing on themes of particular policy interest, we can report on whether policy aims are being fulfilled or not. Four indicator themes have been in focus hitherto: landscape spatial structure, biological diversity, cultural heritage and accessibility. Our data is stored in databases and most of the data quality check/structure process and analyses are now being made in open source software like PostGIS and PostSQL. To assess the accuracy of the photo-interpretation, ground truthing is carried out on 10 % of the squares. The results of this operation document the benefits of having access to photos of the same area from two different years. The program is designed first and foremost to

  14. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  15. Phylogeographic analyses of submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis "marshi" (family Lutjanidae reveal concordant genetic structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R Andrews

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ∼200-360 m in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N = 787 and E. "marshi" (formerly E. carbunculus; N = 770 with 436-490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10-11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus. Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ∼800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management

  16. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  17. The Impact of Divorce on Suicide in Norway, 1951-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Examined divorce and suicide data in Norway. Found that, in spite of Norway's institutional and cultural protection against suicide, a 1 percent increase in divorce was associated with 0.46 percent increase in suicide. Found no links between unemployment and suicide in Norway. Effects of divorce on suicide were independent of religiosity, and the…

  18. Past and Present-day Ice Mass Variation on Svalbard Revealed by Superconducting Gravimeter and GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omang, O. D.; Kierulf, H. P.

    2012-12-01

    In Arctic areas deglaciation after the last glacial maximum, holocene ice-mass variation as well as present day ice melt, contribute to the land uplift. We use both geometric (GPS) and gravity (Superconducting Gravimeter) data from the observatory in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, as well as in-situ mass balance measurements of the local glaciers, to separate the different processes contributing to the land uplift in Ny-Ålesund and Svalbard. Geometric measurements from Ny-Ålesund indicate a land uplift much larger than expected from traditional models of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). In addition the land uplift shows large year-to-year variations. A combination of the measured variations in the land uplift with local ice-mass variations give us a good constraint on the land uplift caused by the present day ice melt. However, we are still not able to explain all of the measured uplift. We compare 10 years of Superconducting Gravimeter measurements with geometric data and find that they are consistent. We also find, as with the geometric data, that the measured gravity change is much larger than expected from glacial isostatic adjustment and present day ice melt. The ratio between unexplained gravity change and unexplained geometric uplift indicates a viscoelastic process. Most likely is the unexplained uplift caused by late holocene ice-mass variations. Daily SG measurements (in red) overlaid by 4 harmonic constituents and piecewise trends (in black), piecewise trends only (in green) and AG measurements with 1 σ uncertainties (in blue). Daily GPS measurements (in red) overlaid by 4 harmonic constituents and piecewise trends (in black) and piecewise trends only (in green).

  19. Ion and neutral temperature distributions in the E-region observed by the EISCAT Tromsø and Svalbard radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maeda

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Common Program Two experiments by the EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the EISCAT Svalbard radar at Longyearbyen from 00:00 to 15:00 UT on 22 September 1998 and 9 March 1999 have been utilized to investigate distributions of the ion and neutral temperatures in the E-region between 105 and 115 km. During the experiments, soft particle precipitations in the dayside cusp were observed over the Svalbard radar site by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F11 satellite. It is found that the dayside electric field in the regions of the low-latitude boundary of the polar cap and the cusp was greater and more variable than that in the auroral region. The ion temperature, parallel to the geomagnetic field at Longyearbyen, was higher than that at Tromsø during the daytime from 06:00 to 12:00 UT. The steady-state ion energy equation has been applied to derive neutral temperature under the assumption of no significant heat transport and viscous heating. The estimated neutral temperature at Longyearbyen was also higher than that at Tromsø. The ion and neutral energy budget was discussed in terms of the ion frictional heating and the Joule heating. The results indicate two possibilities: either the neutral temperature was high in the low latitude boundary of the polar cap and the cusp, or the heat transport by the polar cap neutral winds toward the dayside sector was significant.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere–atmosphere interactions; polar ionosphere

  20. Constraints on oceanic methane emissions west of Svalbard from atmospheric in situ measurements and Lagrangian transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Eckhardt, Sabine; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Mienert, Jurgen; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Bauguitte, Stephane; Pitt, Joseph; Allen, Grant; Bower, Keith; O'Shea, Sebastian; Gallagher, Martin; Percival, Carl; Pyle, John; Cain, Michelle; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Methane stored in seabed reservoirs such as methane hydrates can reach the atmosphere in the form of bubbles or dissolved in water. Hydrates could destabilize with rising temperature further increasing greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate. To assess the impact of oceanic emissions from the area west of Svalbard, where methane hydrates are abundant, we used measurements collected with a research aircraft (FAAM) and a ship (Helmer Hansen) during the Summer 2014, and for Zeppelin Observatory for the full year. We present a model-supported analysis of the atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios measured by the different platforms. To address uncertainty about where CH4 emissions actually occur, we explored three scenarios: areas with known seeps, a hydrate stability model and an ocean depth criterion. We then used a budget analysis and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to compare measurements taken upwind and downwind of the potential CH4 emission areas. We found small differences between the CH4 mixing ratios measured upwind and downwind of the potential emission areas during the campaign. By taking into account measurement and sampling uncertainties and by determining the sensitivity of the measured mixing ratios to potential oceanic emissions, we provide upper limits for the CH4 fluxes. The CH4 flux during the campaign was small, with an upper limit of 2.5 nmol / m s in the stability model scenario. The Zeppelin Observatory data for 2014 suggests CH4 fluxes from the Svalbard continental platform below 0.2 Tg/yr . All estimates are in the lower range of values previously reported.

  1. Microseismic monitoring and velocity model building at the Longyearbyen CO2-Lab, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, V.; Zhao, P.; Lecomte, I.; Braathen, A.; Olaussen, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Longyearbyen CO2 storage lab project addresses the problem to turn Svalbard into a CO2 neutral community. The project has now confirmed that an injective reservoir (800-1000 m depth) and a sealing cap rock section exist around Longyearbyen, and will proceed towards demonstration and monitoring studies of sub surface CO2 storage over time. The progressive construction of the Longyearbyen CO2 storage lab is currently addressing detailed properties and geometry of the reservoir. Liquids other than CO2 have been used in this initial phase (water, brine, gel). The reservoir below Longyearbyen is considered physically open, and, therefore, will likely experience drift of the injected CO2 towards the Northeast, through gradual mixing and expulsion of saline groundwater. This offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavior of CO2 in subsurface saline aquifers. Four wells have been drilled so far and several new monitoring wells are planned for this purpose. In this study, we try to use induced seismicity to monitor the injection fluid in the test site. A precise estimation of the location and magnitude of the microearthquake will be important to investigate the link between the injection and the sudden stress release as a microearthquake. In August 2010 a fluid injection experiment was carried out at the CO2 lab. In parallel, a microseismic monitoring network was deployed close to the injection well. The network consists of a 5-level string of 3-component geophones in a vertical observation well, with 50m distance between the instruments and a maximum depth of 294 meters. In addition, three shallow boreholes of 12 m depth have been drilled at about 500 m distance to the injection well. These additional surface stations are intended to provide more accurate locations for microearthquakes that are large enough to be recorded at the surface. Approximately 17 hours after the 5-days water injection test (from 20th to 25th August, 2010), a relatively strong

  2. Library Automation in Norway--Some Main Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvberg, Ingeborg

    1983-01-01

    Description of how aspects of library automation are dealt with in Norway highlights main centers for library automation (Norsk Senter for Informatik, two universities); Bibsys--integrated library automation system (bibliographic subsystem, circulation subsystem); and Bibnett project (project studying system-to-system communication between…

  3. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanSelm, K; Sam, DL; Van Oudenhoven, JP

    In this study the relative influence of age, gender, locus of control, preferred acculturation strategy, perceived majority members' attitude, and social support on life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees was examined. Hundred and six Bosnians living temporarily in Norway completed a

  5. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  6. An Attempt to Simulate Historic Front Variations of Nigardsbreen, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nigardsbreen (Norway) is one of the very few highlatitude glaciers from which a long record of front positions is known (starting in the beginning of the 18th century). In this paper a dynamic glacier model is used to investigate the possible causes of the observed front variations. These

  7. Accelerating warming and degradation of permafrost in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzelmuller, Bernd; Isaksen, Ketil; Westermann, Sebastian; Hauck, Christian; Hilbich, Christin

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost is sensitive to climate change, modulating geomorphological process rates and ultimately landscape development. In Norway, since the 1980ies many studies have been carried out to evaluate the permafrost distribution, its changing state and its relation especially to climate and snow conditions. This knowledge has flown into numerical models, calculating ground temperatures in space and time. At present Norway has an unique data set obtained from bore holes where we measure temperatures along both altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. In addition at all sites geophysical surveys are available using refraction seismic and electrical resistivity tomography, partly multi-temporal. Finally, daily gridded data sets of meteorological parameters such as air temperature, precipitation and associated snow cover are available back to 1957, allowing the evaluation of climate-ground thermal regime relations along regional gradients. This presentation summarises a c. 10 year record of ground thermal measurements and geophysical surveys from three main sites in northern Norway, along with new evaluations of changes in palsa distribution and size. For the first time we demonstrate the development of talliks in mountain permafrost in northern Norway, and relate and discuss the development of these talliks to changing atmospheric and snow conditions. The observations are also related to long-term change detection observations of palsa mires in the vicinity of the bore holes, highlighting accelerating thaw and degradation of permafrost during the last two decades.

  8. Reproduction of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luksenburg, JA; Pedersen, T; Falk-Petersen, IB

    The reproduction and life history events of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were studied in an unexploited high latitude population in Tromso, northern Norway. Shorthorn sculpins were sampled from November 1998 to March 1999 to determine sex ratio, spawning period, oogenesis, fecundity,

  9. Topographical mineralogy of the Bamble sector, south Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Zwaan, J.C.; Touret, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Bamble sector of southern Norway is a classic high grade metamorphic gneiss region, which provided specimens to many mineralogical collections all over the world. The topographical mineralogy of this area is described and reviewed. All minerals known to occur in the area are listed according to

  10. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  11. Aligning Participation with Authorship: Independent Transmedia Documentary Production in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsen, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe main contribution of this article is to describe how the concept of non-fiction transmedia has challenged the independent documentary film community in Norway. How the new possibilities afforded by web- and mobile media, with the potential of reconfiguring the current relation

  12. Impact of acid precipitation on freshwater ecosystems on Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Wright; Torstein Dale; Egil T. Gjessing; George R. Hendrey; Arne Henriksen; Merete Johannessen; Ivar P. Muniz

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies of precipitation chemistry during the last 20 years have clearly shown that highly polluted precipitation falls over large areas of Scandinavia, and that this pollution is increasing in severity and geographical extent. Precipitation in southern Norway, Sweden, and Finland contains large amounts of H+, SO4...

  13. Alternative Sport Programmes and Social Inclusion in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skille, Eivind Asrum; Waddington, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the "alternative" sport and physical activities provided by the Sports City Programme (SCP) in Norway, which are designed to attract more young people (especially inactive young people) to take part in physical activities. In particular, it examines whether these "alternative" sports have been more…

  14. Reef Island Evolution and Dynamics: Insights from the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Perspectives for the Spermonde Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kench

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Along southwestern Sulawesi, Indonesia, the Spermonde Archipelago comprises some 120 islands of variable size and degree of anthropogenic modification. Comparable to adjacent areas in Southeast Asia, the Spermonde Archipelago is characterized by the congregation of a naturally high marine biodiversity and, at the same time, a high population density influencing the surrounding environmental conditions. As a consequence, during the last decades, research projects that have been carried out in the Spermonde mainly focused on social, ecological, political and economic interactions. However, geological and geomorphological aspects of the coral reef islands are less well understood and there have been few studies undertaken since the pioneering work of Umbgrove, Kuenen, and Verstappen in the Indonesian archipelago in the early to mid-twentieth century. Here we review the existing studies, with a focus on the Spermonde Archipelago, and reconcile them with more recent works on reef island evolution and dynamics from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. This synthesis shows that reef islands in the Spermonde Archipelago are well suited for geomorphological investigations, and provides perspectives for future reef island research in that area that will have global interest. We identify four research priorities: (1 To identify the timing and chronology of island formation; (2 Improved understanding of carbonate budgets and sediment generation that contribute to island building; (3 Document morphological changes in reef islands at seasonal to decadal timescales, and; (4 Quantify the process regime that drives sediment transport and island change with particular focus on the role of different monsoon seasons.

  15. Trends and Gradients in Nutrient Concentrations and Loading in the Archipelago Sea, Northern Baltic, in 1970?1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, J.; Vuorinen, I.; Helminen, H.; Kirkkala, T.; Lehtilä, K.

    2000-02-01

    Eutrophication has been a major environmental change affecting the water quality both in the coastal and open sea areas of the Baltic Sea since the 1960s. Although the total nutrient loading to open sea and also to the Finnish coastal waters is rather well known, the relative importance of various loading sources in different areas is still obscure. We found in the Archipelago Sea, SW Finland, that the great majority of nutrients come as non-point-source loading with the river discharges in the innermost archipelago zone. Fish farming in the middle archipelago zone exerts a remarkable influence on water quality there. The outer archipelago facing the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic proper is influenced by both depending on the season. In a time series study after the initial general rise since the 1970s the increase of nutrient concentrations culminated and levelled off or even turned to a decline in most of the locations studied. It is difficult to single out the cause of this culmination. A reasonable explanation is the general economical decline in Finland. However, same kind of culmination has been found in some other coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, too. The development of the N:P-ratio indicates that during the last two decades nitrogen has developed towards the limiting nutrient in the area studied. The general conclusion is that environmental care should be directed at different targets depending on the archipelago area in question.

  16. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-25

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  17. Ethnic differences in the incidence of cancer in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerkind, Kirsti V; Qureshi, Samera A; Møller, Bjørn; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Deapen, Dennis; Kumar, Bernadette; Ursin, Giske

    2017-04-15

    Traditionally there have been differences in cancer incidence across geographic regions. When immigrants have moved from low-income to high-income countries, their incidence have changed as they have adapted to the lifestyle in the new host country. Given worldwide changes in lifestyle factors over time, we decided to examine cancer incidence in immigrant groups in Norway, a country with a recent immigration history, complete cancer registration and universal public health care. We linked immigration history for the complete population to information on cancer diagnosis from the Cancer Registry of Norway for the period 1990-2012. Age-standardized (world) overall and site-specific cancer incidence were estimated for different immigrant groups and compared to incidence among individuals born in Norway. Among 850,008 immigrants, 9,158 men and 10,334 women developed cancer, and among 5,508,429 Norwegian-born, 263,316 men and 235,020 women developed cancer. While incidence of breast and colorectal cancer were highest among individuals born in Norway and other high-income countries, other cancer types were higher in immigrants from low-income countries. Lung cancer incidence was highest in Eastern European men, and men and women from Eastern Europe had high incidence of stomach cancer. Incidence of liver cancer was substantially higher in immigrants from low-income countries than in individuals born in Norway and other high-income countries. Our results mirror known cancer challenges across the world. Although cancer incidence overall is lower in immigrants from low-income countries, certain cancers, such as lung, liver and stomach cancer, represent major challenges in specific immigrant groups. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Multi‐instrument observations from Svalbard of a traveling convection vortex, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave burst, and proton precipitation associated with a bow shock instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Yeoman, T. K.; Oksavik, K.

    2013-01-01

    An isolated burst of 0.35 Hz electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves was observed at four sites on Svalbard from 0947 to 0954 UT 2 January 2011, roughly 1 h after local noon. This burst was associated with one of a series of ~50 nT magnetic impulses observed at the northernmost stations......-based observations of the Hα line at Longyearbyen indicated proton precipitation at the same time as the EMIC wave burst, and NOAA-19, which passed over the west coast of Svalbard between 0951 and 0952, observed a clear enhancement of ring current protons at the same latitude. Electron precipitation from this same...... satellite indicated that the EMIC burst was located on closed field lines, but near to the polar cap boundary. We believe these are the first simultaneous observations of EMIC waves and precipitating energetic protons so near to the boundary of the dayside magnetosphere. Although several spacecraft upstream...

  19. Connecting airborne Ku-band radar measurements to surface-based measurements: Integrating data from ASIRAS, VHB, and physical property measurements from Greenland and Svalbard. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. L.; Morris, E. M.; Brant, O.

    2009-12-01

    Airborne observations can extend the reach of ground-based campaigns measuring spatial variability of snow properties. We introduce the European Space Agency's Airborne Synthetic aperture Interferometric Radar Altimetry System (ASIRAS), and discuss the penetration of its 13.5 GHz energy into polar firn and snow. We compare results from ASIRAS to physical property measurements in Greenland, Very High Bandwidth (VHB) radar measurements in Svalbard, and physical propetry measurements in both locations. Operating at 1 GHz bandwidth, ASIRAS can penetrate as much as 11 m into polar firn, and has detected annually-occurring density horizons in the dry-snow zone of Greenland. On Austfonna and Kongsvagen in Svalbard, ASIRAS detects the Last Summer Surface (LSS), allowing measurements of winter accumulation. These measurements allow us to examine the nature of the subsurface reflections detected by ASIRAS.

  20. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Elisabete; Figueira, Celso; Aguiar, Nuno; Vasconcelos, Rita [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Sílvia [Laboratório Regional de Veterinária e Segurança Alimentar, Caminho das Quebradas de Baixo n° 79, 9000-254 Funchal (Portugal); Calado, Graça [Laboratório de Saúde Pública, IASaúde, Rua das Pretas n° 1, 9004-515 Funchal (Portugal); Brandão, João [Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Prada, Susana, E-mail: susana@uma.pt [Universidade da Madeira, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal (Portugal); Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos Geológicos, Universidade dos Açores, Rua da Mãe de Deus, Edifício do Complexo Científico, 3° Andar — Ala Sul, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2013-09-01

    Madeira forms a mid-Atlantic volcanic archipelago, whose economy is largely dependent on tourism. There, one can encounter different types of sand beach: natural basaltic, natural calcareous and artificial calcareous. Microbiological and mycological quality of the sand was analyzed in two different years. Bacterial indicators were detected in higher number in 2010 (36.7% of the samples) than in 2011 (9.1%). Mycological indicators were detected in a similar percentage of samples in 2010 (68.3%) and 2011 (75%), even though the total number of colonies detected in 2010 was much higher (827 in 41 samples) than in 2011 (427 in 66 samples). Enterococci and potentially pathogenic and allergenic fungi (particularly Penicillium sp.) were the most common indicators detected in both years. Candida sp. yeast was also commonly detected in the samples. The analysis of the 3rd quartile and maximum numbers of all indicators in samples showed that artificial beaches tend to be more contaminated than the natural ones. However, a significant difference between the variables was lacking. More monitoring data (number of bathers, sea birds, radiation intensity variation, and a greater number of samples) should be collected in order to confirm if these differences are significant. In general, the sand quality in the archipelago's beaches was good. As the sand may be a vector of diseases, an international common set of indicators and values and a compatible methodologies for assessing sand contamination, should be defined, in order to provide the bather's with an indication of beach sand quality, rather than only the water. - Highlights: • Microbial indicators were studied in the beach sands of Madeira archipelago. • Differences between years may be attributed to extreme weather. • Sand of artificial beaches has higher levels of microbial contamination. • Microbial analysis of the sand showed that the beaches have mainly good quality.

  1. 3D Imaging and Automated Ice Bottom Tracking of Canadian Arctic Archipelago Ice Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, J. D.; Xu, M.; Sprick, J.; Athinarapu, S.; Crandall, D.; Burgess, D. O.; Sharp, M. J.; Fox, G. C.; Leuschen, C.; Stumpf, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    The basal topography of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago ice caps is unknown for a number of the glaciers which drain the ice caps. The basal topography is needed for calculating present sea level contribution using the surface mass balance and discharge method and to understand future sea level contributions using ice flow model studies. During the NASA Operation IceBridge 2014 arctic campaign, the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) used a three transmit beam setting (left beam, nadir beam, right beam) to illuminate a wide swath across the ice glacier in a single pass during three flights over the archipelago. In post processing we have used a combination of 3D imaging methods to produce images for each of the three beams which are then merged to produce a single digitally formed wide swath beam. Because of the high volume of data produced by 3D imaging, manual tracking of the ice bottom is impractical on a large scale. To solve this problem, we propose an automated technique for extracting ice bottom surfaces by viewing the task as an inference problem on a probabilistic graphical model. We first estimate layer boundaries to generate a seed surface, and then incorporate additional sources of evidence, such as ice masks, surface digital elevation models, and feedback from human users, to refine the surface in a discrete energy minimization formulation. We investigate the performance of the imaging and tracking algorithms using flight crossovers since crossing lines should produce consistent maps of the terrain beneath the ice surface and compare manually tracked "ground truth" to the automated tracking algorithms. We found the swath width at the nominal flight altitude of 1000 m to be approximately 3 km. Since many of the glaciers in the archipelago are narrower than this, the radar imaging, in these instances, was able to measure the full glacier cavity in a single pass.

  2. Seismicity pattern changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) earthquake of August 16, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Salvatore; Laudani, Antonino; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  3. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gambino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M=4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M=4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  4. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) Earthquake of August 16, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

  5. Use of length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR as non-invasive approach for dietary analysis of Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbae Joo

    Full Text Available To efficiently investigate the forage preference of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, we applied length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR based on length differences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of ribosomal RNA (rRNA to fecal samples from R. tarandus platyrhynchus. A length-heterogeneity (LH database was constructed using both collected potential food sources of Svalbard reindeer and fecal samples, followed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. In total, eighteen fecal samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 from 2 geographic regions and 15 samples were successfully amplified by PCR. The LH-PCR analysis detected abundant peaks, 18.6 peaks on an average per sample, ranging from 100 to 500 bp in size and showing distinct patterns associated with both regions and years of sample collection. Principal component analysis (PCA resulted in clustering of 15 fecal samples into 3 groups by the year of collection and region with a statistically significant difference at 99.9% level. The first 2 principal components (PCs explained 71.1% of the total variation among the samples. Through comparison with LH database and identification by cloning and sequencing, lichens (Stereocaulon sp. and Ochrolechia sp. and plant species (Salix polaris and Saxifraga oppositifolia were detected as the food sources that contributed most to the Svalbard reindeer diet. Our results suggest that the use of LH-PCR analysis would be a non-invasive and efficient monitoring tool for characterizing the foraging strategy of Svalbard reindeer. Additionally, combining sequence information would increase its resolving power in identification of foraged diet components.

  6. Pathways of carbon oxidation in an Arctic fjord sediment (Svalbard) and isolation of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant Fe(III)-reducing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, Verona; Finke, Niko; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2006-01-01

    Desulfuromonas, Desulfuromusa, Shewanella and Desulfovibrio were isolated from enrichment cultures of 2 fjord sediments from Svalbard. Strains related to Desulfovibrio reduced Fe(III) without energy generation for growth. All isolates were psychrophilic or psychro-tolerant and grew at -2 degrees C, the freezing...... point of sea water, indicating adaptation to permanently cold temperatures. Besides Fe(III), the strains reduced other electron acceptors such as oxygen, manganese, elemental sulfur and sulfate....

  7. Genome sequences of a capulavirus infecting Plantago lanceolata in the Åland archipelago of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Hanna; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Filloux, Denis; Kraberger, Simona; Farkas, Kata; Bernardo, Pauline; Frilander, Mikko J; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    The discovery and full-genome sequences of two isolates of a fourth capulavirus species are reported. The viruses were discovered during a viral metagenomics survey of uncultivated Plantago lanceolata plants in the Åland archipelago of south western Finland. The newly discovered viruses apparently produce no symptoms in P. lanceolata. They have a genome organization that is very similar to that of the three known capulavirus species and additionally share between 62.9 and 67.1% genome-wide sequence identity with the isolates of these species. It is therefore proposed that these viruses be assigned to a new capulavirus species named "Plantago lanceolata latent virus".

  8. Geocryological Structure and Glaciers Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the context of global climate processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    New Earth glaciation due to the Quaternary glaciation .epohami and modern climate. We distinguish four types of ice sheets: small glaciers and snowfields - a capacity of up to 100 m .; mountain-valley glaciation - up to 200 m .; net (transition to the coverslip) - up to 300 m. and glaciation (ice sheet) - up to 500 m. The archipelago is characterized by continuous permafrost raprosraneniem, which is located under the roof of the seasonally thawed layer at a depth of 0.1 to 3.2 m . The depth is increased by its lakes and man-made Taliko up to 35 m. The temperature of the permafrost Paleozoic sandstones and shales at a depth of 15 m. Reaches -3,5°; limestones and shales containing cryopeg it reaches -2,8° at a depth of 130 m. Power Cryolithozone on drilling data and calculations 265-280 m. The average temperature of ice sheets are formed depending on the type of ice, its cut and the power supply type and morphology of the surface. It differs from the temperature of the surrounding glacier rocks on 3-7° and is at a depth from the surface of the glacier 13-15 m .: -3 - -4,5°; at a depth of 30 m .: -2°. In the age of the Quaternary glaciation entire archipelago was covered with continental ice. Global warming has resulted in a reduction of its area by 25% In the northern part of the South Island there are snowfields and small lednichki. In the area of Matochkin Shar and further north to South Bay Sulmenova, found mainly hanging and cirque glaciers, severely degraded, and in most cases do not reach the sea. At the same time, in the South Bay and Sulmenova and a number of other areas there are powerful lobes were associated with the ice sheet interior of the North Island, and reaching the sea. In the west of the archipelago to reach the sea only a few branches of the Central ice sheet; in the eastern part of the North Island ice sheet breaks in the sea in the form of ice walls up to 400 meters. This part is called the Nordenskiöld glacier. The maximum ice thickness

  9. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  10. The Svalbard climate transformed rapidly from Younger Dryas climate to warmer-than-present by 11.0 cal ka BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerud, Jan; Svendsen, John Inge

    2017-04-01

    A compilation of about 130 radiocarbon ages shows early Holocene ages from four species of "warm-water" molluscs that later became extinct from Svalbard (77-80 °N) due to colder climate. These species survived the Younger Dryas south of Scotland, possibly even south of England. Mytilus edulis (blue mussel) arrived Svalbard already at 11.0 cal ka and by 10.6 ka it inhabited the north coast, showing that the Arctic sea-ice limit was far north of the last year's northern records. In 2004 this species reappeared on the west coast of Spitsbergen in response to the ongoing warming of the Arctic. We present for the first time dates of Zirfaea crispata, the most warmth-demanding of the molluscs that lived in this Arctic region. At present Zirfaea has its northern limit near the city of Tromsø, some 1000 km farther south. The six ages that were obtained from Zirfaea shells range from 10.2 to 9.7 cal ka BP, indicating a climate 7 °C warmer than at present and an early Thermal Optimum. Svalbard is presently the warmest place on Earth at such high latitude, caused by northwards Atlantic Ocean currents and large-scale atmospheric circulation. Intensification of these processes and stronger high-latitude insolation were the major drivers of the Thermal Optimum.

  11. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  12. Alteration of glacigenic landforms by gravitational mass movements, Ragnarbreen and Ebbabreen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Pleskot, Krzysztof; Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    The extensive recession of Svalbard's glaciers exposed areas containing large amount of dead-ice covered by relatively thin - usually less than a couple of meters - veneer of debris. This landscape can be very dynamic, mainly due to the mass movement processes and dead-ice melting. Continuous redistribution of sediments causes several phases of debris transfer and relief inversion. Hence, the primary glacial deposits released from ice are subsequently transferred by mass movement processes, until they finally reach more stable position. Investigations of dynamics of the mass movement and the way in which they alter the property of glacigenic sediments are therefore cruicial for proper understanding of sedimentary records of previous glaciations. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify short-term dynamic of mass wasting processes; (2) investigate the transformation of the sediment's characteristic by mass wasting processes; (3) asses the contribution of different process to the overall dynamic of proglacial landscape. We focused on the mass-wasting processes in the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, located near the Petuniabukta at the northern end of the Billefjorden, Spitsbergen. Repetitive topographic scanning was combined with sedimentological analysis of: grain size, clast shape in macro and micro scale and thin sections. Debris falls, slides, rolls and flows were the most important processes leading to reworking of glacigenic sediments and altering their properties. Contribution of different processes to the overall dynamic of the landforms was related mainly to the local conditions. Four different morphological types of sites were identified: (1) near vertical ice-cliffs covered with debris, transformed mainly due to dead-ice backwasting and debris falls and slides, (2) steep debris slopes with exposed ice-cores dominated by debris slides, (3) gentle sediment-mantled slopes transformed due to debris flows, and (4) non

  13. Biogeography of planktonic and coral-associated microorganisms across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer L; Bowen, Brian W; Rappé, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Factors driving the distribution of marine microorganisms are widely debated and poorly understood. Recent studies show that free-living marine microbes exhibit geographical patterns indicative of limited dispersal. In contrast, host-associated microbes face a different set of dispersal challenges, and hosts may function as habitat 'islands' for resident microbial populations. Here, we examine the biogeographical distributions of planktonic and adjacent coral-associated bacterial communities across the Hawaiian Archipelago, Johnston Atoll (∼1400 km southwest of Hawaii) and American Samoa in the Pacific Ocean and investigate the potential underlying processes driving observed patterns. Statistical analyses of bacterial community structure, determined using a small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene-based approach, showed that bacterioplankton and coral-associated bacterial communities were distinct, and correlated with geographical distance between sites. In addition, biogeographical patterns of bacterial associates paralleled those of their host coral Porites lobata, highlighting the specificity of these associations and the impact that host dispersal may have on bacterial biogeography. Planktonic and coral-associated bacterial communities from distant Johnston Atoll were shown to be connected with communities from the center of the Hawaiian Archipelago, a pattern previously observed in fish and invertebrates. No significant correlations were detected with habitat type, temperature or depth. However, non-distance-based geographical groupings were detected, indicating that, in addition to dispersal, unidentified environmental factors also affected the distributions of bacterial communities investigated here. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Archipelagos of the Anthropocene: rapid and extensive differentiation of native terrestrial vertebrates in a single metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan L; Clemente, Christofer; Whiting, Martin J; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Frère, Celine H

    2017-05-01

    Some of the best evidence for rapid evolutionary change comes from studies of archipelagos and oceanic islands. City parks are analogous systems as they create geographically isolated green spaces that differ in size, structure and complexity. Very little, however, is known about whether city parks within a single urban centre drive selection and result in the diversification of native species. Here, we provide evidence for the rapid genetic and morphological differentiation of a native lizard (Intellagama lesueurii) at four geographically close yet unconnected parks within one city. Year of establishment of each city park varied from 1855 (oldest) to 2001 (youngest) equating to a generation time range of 32 to three generations. Genetic divergence among city park populations was large despite the small pairwise geographic distances (<5 km) and found to be two to three times higher for microsatellites and three to 33 times higher for mtDNA relative to nonurban populations. Patterns of morphological differentiation were also found to be most extensive among the four city park populations. In contrast to nonurban populations, city park populations showed significant differentiation in relative body size, relative head and limb morphology and relative forelimb and hindlimb length. Crucially, we show that these patterns of differentiation are unlikely to have been caused by founder events and/or drift alone. Our results suggest that city park 'archipelagos' could represent theatres for rapid evolution that may, in time, favour adaptive diversification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Abundance and composition of near surface microplastics and plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewert, Berit; Ogonowski, Martin; Barth, Andreas; MacLeod, Matthew

    2017-07-15

    We collected plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago using a manta trawl, and additionally along a transect in the Baltic Sea from the island of Gotland to Stockholm in a citizen science study. The samples were concentrated by filtration and organic material was digested using hydrogen peroxide. Suspected plastic material was isolated by visual sorting and 59 of these were selected to be characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polypropylene and polyethylene were the most abundant plastics identified among the samples (53% and 24% respectively). We found nearly ten times higher abundance of plastics near central Stockholm than in offshore areas (4.2×105plastics km-2 compared to 4.7×104plastics km-2). The abundance of plastic debris near Stockholm was similar to urban areas in California, USA, and the overall abundance in the Stockholm Archipelago was similar to plastic abundance reported in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Progressive migration and anagenesis in Drimys confertifolia of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Takayama, Koji; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    A common mode of speciation in oceanic islands is by anagenesis, wherein an immigrant arrives and through time transforms by mutation, recombination, and drift into a morphologically and genetically distinct species, with the new species accumulating a high level of genetic diversity. We investigate speciation in Drimys confertifolia, endemic to the two major islands of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, to determine genetic consequences of anagenesis, to examine relationships among populations of D. confertifolia and the continental species D. winteri and D. andina, and to test probable migration routes between the major islands. Population genetic analyses were conducted using AFLPs and nuclear microsatellites of 421 individuals from 42 populations from the Juan Fernández islands and the continent. Drimys confertifolia shows a wide genetic variation within populations on both islands, and values of genetic diversity within populations are similar to those found within populations of the continental progenitor. The genetic results are compatible with the hypothesis of high levels of genetic variation accumulating within anagenetically derived species in oceanic islands, and with the concept of little or no geographical partitioning of this variation over the landscape. Analysis of the probability of migration within the archipelago confirms colonization from the older island, Robinson Crusoe, to the younger island Alejandro Selkirk.

  17. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanne Carla Novais Pereira

    Full Text Available We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  18. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo AV; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. New information Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival. PMID:29104441

  19. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Geanne Carla Novais; Coelho, Marcel Serra; Beirão, Marina do Vale; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  20. Paleomagnetic evidence for a very large counterclockwise rotation of the Madre de Dios Archipelago, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalini, Augusto E.; Hervé, Francisco; Ramos, Victor A.; Singer, Silvia E.

    2001-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Late Paleozoic exotic units exposed in the Madre de Dios Archipelago and Diego de Almagro island, southern Chile, is reported. These units correspond to the Tarlton Limestone and the metabasaltic pillow lavas of the Denaro Complex. Nineteen sites were drilled (14 in limestone and five in lavas). Standard demagnetization procedures show that the primary remanence is not present in the investigated rocks, preventing the determination of the original latitudinal position of these rocks. However, a post-tectonic secondary magnetic component was isolated in eight sites at the Madre de Dios Archipelago, in both limestone and basaltic pillow lavas. Rock magnetic experiments and microscopic observations indicated that the carrier of this remanence is secondary titanomagnetite in the limestone and titanomagnetite-titanomaghemite in the lavas. The most likely event to produce this secondary magnetization is the nearby intrusion of the south Patagonian batholith in the Early Cretaceous. Mean direction from eight sites shows a very large (117.7±29.9°) counterclockwise rotation of the study area with negligible paleolatitude anomaly. This rotation is only constrained as post-Early Cretaceous. Restoration of the structures to their pre-rotation position indicates that accretion of the exotic block took place from the northwest and not from the south as previously proposed. This is more consistent with a low latitude origin for the limestone and the general paleogeographic framework. Different tectonic mechanisms and ages for this large rotation are possible.

  1. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, K. K.

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log-tran...... explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation. Udgivelsesdato: 2002......By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log......-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants...

  2. Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO A.M.C. MELO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA, with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m−3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10−3 mg C m−3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10−3 mg C m−3d−1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849, Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849 showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

  3. An Assessment of Mobile Predator Populations along Shallow and Mesophotic Depth Gradients in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Jacob; Williams, Ivor D; Harvey, Euan S

    2017-06-20

    Large-bodied coral reef roving predators (sharks, jacks, snappers) are largely considered to be depleted around human population centers. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, supporting evidence is primarily derived from underwater visual censuses in shallow waters (≤30 m). However, while many roving predators are present or potentially more abundant in deeper strata (30-100 m+), distributional information remains sparse. To partially fill that knowledge gap, we conducted surveys in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and populated Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) from 2012-2014 using baited remote underwater stereo-video. Surveys between 0-100 m found considerable roving predator community dissimilarities between regions, marked conspicuous changes in species abundances with increasing depth, and largely corroborated patterns documented during shallow water underwater visual censuses, with up to an order of magnitude more jacks and five times more sharks sampled in the NWHI compared to the MHI. Additionally, several species were significantly more abundant and larger in mesophotic versus shallow depths, which remains particularly suggestive of deep-water refugia effects in the MHI. Stereo-video extends the depth range of current roving predator surveys in a more robust manner than was previously available, and appears to be well-suited for large-scale roving predator work in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

  4. Ecosystem implications of conserving endemic versus eradicating introduced large herbivores in the Galapagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Gibbs, James P.; Campbell, Karl; Yackulic, Charles B.; Blake, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of damaged ecosystems through invasive species removal and native species conservation is an increasingly common practice in biodiversity conservation. Estimating the degree of ecosystem response attributable specifically to eradication of exotic herbivores versus restoration of native herbivores is often difficult and is complicated by concurrent temporal changes in other factors, especially climate. We investigated the interactive impacts of native mega-herbivores (giant tortoises) and the eradication of large alien herbivores (goats) on vegetation productivity across the Galapagos Archipelago. We examined archipelago-wide patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for vegetation productivity between 2001 and 2015 and evaluated how goat and historical and current tortoise occurrence influenced productivity. We used a breakpoint analysis to detect change in trends in productivity from five targeted areas following goat eradication. We found a positive association between tortoise occurrence and vegetation productivity and a negative association with goat occurrence. We also documented an increase in plant productivity following goat removal with recovery higher in moister regions than in arid region, potentially indicating an alternate stable state has been created in the latter. Climate variation also contributed to the detected improvement in productivity following goat eradication, sometimes obscuring the effect of eradication but more usually magnifying it by up to 300%. Our work offers perspectives regarding the effectiveness and outcomes of eradicating introduced herbivores and re-introducing native herbivores, and the merits of staging them simultaneously in order to restore critical ecosystem processes such as vegetation productivity.

  5. Advection of Atlantic Water to the Western and Northern Svalbard Shelves Through the Last 17.5 ka cal yr BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slubowska, M. A.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Koc, N.; Kristensen, D. K.; Nilsen, F.; Solheim, A.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the distribution of benthic foraminifera species together with planktonic and benthic foraminifera abundances, stable oxygen isotopes and lithology in two cores: JM02-440 from the western (77° 22' N, 12° 48' E, 240 m water depth) and NP94-51 from the northern (80° 21' N and 16 ° 17' E, 400 m water depth) shelf of Svalbard. The purpose of the study was to reconstruct the changes in flow and character of the relatively warm Atlantic Water through the last 17.5 ka cal yr BP. The results from these two sites were compared with previously published records from the eastern Nordic Seas in order to follow the history of the advection of Atlantic Water as it moved northwards along the Norwegian coast and into the Arctic Ocean. Our results indicate that synchronous oceanographic changes occurred at the western and northern Svalbard shelves. The benthic foraminifera and oxygen isotope records indicate almost continuous presence of the Atlantic Water at the shelf areas since the deglaciation. The Bolling-Allerod period stands out as the warmest period in our records with the highest bottom waters temperatures indicating strong inflow of Atlantic Water. However, the warm Atlantic Water was isolated below cold and probably sea ice covered surface waters in contrast to the surface waters along the Norwegian coast, which experienced enhanced temperatures. During the Younger Dryas a freshening of the bottom waters occurred and the Polar Front was located in a proximal position to both sites. The strong inflow of saline, but chilled Atlantic Water happened during the Early Holocene. A distinct cooling and freshening of the bottom water masses occurred during the Mid- and Late Holocene, and was accompanied by glacier re-advances leading to the present-day conditions. During the last millennium, the inflow of Atlantic Water appears to increase, but the conditions turned unstable. The development of the paleoceanographic conditions at the western and northern

  6. National independence, women's political participation, and life expectancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women's political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women's political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway using foraminiferal metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the salmon industry necessitates the development of fast and accurate tools to assess its environmental impact. Macrobenthic monitoring is commonly used to measure the impact of organic enrichment associated with salmon farm activities. However, classical benthic monitoring can...... of macrofauna-based benthic monitoring. Here, we tested the application of foraminiferal metabarcoding to benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway. We analysed 140 samples of eDNA and environmental RNA (eRNA) extracted from surface sediment samples collected at 4 salmon farming sites in Norway. We sequenced...... appears to be a promising alternative to classical benthic monitoring, providing a solution to the morpho-taxonomic bottleneck of macrofaunal surveys....

  8. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  9. Transnational spaces of care: migrant nurses in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that international nurse recruitment from Latvia to Norway is not a win–win situation. The gains and losses of nurse migration are unevenly distributed between sender and receiver countries. On the basis of empirical research and interviews with Latvian nurses and families they left behind, this article argues that nurse migration transforms families and communities and that national health services now become global workplaces. Some decades ago feminist research pointed to the fact that the welfare state was based on a male breadwinner family and women’s unpaid production of care work at home. Today this production of unpaid care is “outsourced” from richer to poorer countries and is related to an emergence of transnational spaces of care. International nurse recruitment and global nurse care chains in Norway increasingly provide the labor that prevents the new adult worker model and gender equality politics from being disrupted in times where families are overloaded with elder care loads.

  10. Neurological melioidosis in Norway presenting with a cerebral abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Hesstvedt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological melioidosis is a rare condition, as less than 30 cases have been reported in the last 50 years. We present a case of neurological melioidosis, presenting with a cerebral abscess in a returning traveler from an endemic area. While traveling in Cambodia on holiday, the patient was admitted to local hospital for pneumonia. Her condition improved after antimicrobial treatment, and she returned to Norway when discharged. The patient had several contacts with the health care system after returning to Norway, due to recurrent fever and deterioration. Short-term antimicrobial treatment was given with temporary improvement in her condition. Eventually she developed stroke-like symptoms, and a cerebral abscess was found. Cultures from the abscess were positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei and the treatment was adjusted accordingly.

  11. Debris flow recurrence periods and multi-temporal observations of colluvial fan evolution in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, H.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Hauber, E.; Johnsson, A.

    2017-11-01

    Fan-shaped accumulations of debris flow deposits are common landforms in polar regions such as Svalbard. Although depositional processes in these environments are of high interest to climate as well as Mars-analog research, several parameters, e.g., debris flow recurrence periods, remain poorly constrained. Here, we present an investigation based on remote sensing as well as in situ data of a 0.4 km2 large colluvial fan in Hanaskogdalen, central Spitsbergen. We analyzed high resolution satellite and aerial images covering five decades from 1961 to 2014 and correlated them with lichenometric dating as well as meteorological data. Image analyses and lichenometry deliver consistent results and show that the recurrence period of large debris flows (≥ 400 m3) is about 5 to 10 years, with smaller flows averaging at two per year in the period from 2008 to 2013. While this is up to two orders of magnitude shorter than previous estimates for Svalbard (80 to 500 years), we found the average volume of 220 m3 per individual flow to be similar to previous estimates for the region. Image data also reveal that an avulsion took place between 1961 and 1976, when the active part of the fan moved from its eastern to its western portion. A case study of the effects of a light rain event ( 5 mm/day) in the rainy summer of 2013, which triggered a large debris flow, further shows that even light precipitation can trigger major flows. This is made possible by multiple light rain events or gradual snow melt pre-saturating the permafrost ground and has to be taken into account when predicting the likelihood of potentially hazardous mass wasting in polar regions. Furthermore, our findings imply a current net deposition rate on the colluvial fan of 480 m3/year, which is slightly less than the integrated net deposition rate of 576 to 720 m3/year resulting from the current fan volume divided by the 12,500 to 10,000 years since the onset of fan build-up after the area's deglaciation. However

  12. Snow contribution to first-year and second-year Arctic sea ice mass balance north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granskog, Mats A.; Rösel, Anja; Dodd, Paul A.; Divine, Dmitry; Gerland, Sebastian; Martma, Tõnu; Leng, Melanie J.

    2017-03-01

    The salinity and water oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of 29 first-year (FYI) and second-year (SYI) Arctic sea ice cores (total length 32.0 m) from the drifting ice pack north of Svalbard were examined to quantify the contribution of snow to sea ice mass. Five cores (total length 6.4 m) were analyzed for their structural composition, showing variable contribution of 10-30% by granular ice. In these cores, snow had been entrained in 6-28% of the total ice thickness. We found evidence of snow contribution in about three quarters of the sea ice cores, when surface granular layers had very low δ18O values. Snow contributed 7.5-9.7% to sea ice mass balance on average (including also cores with no snow) based on δ18O mass balance calculations. In SYI cores, snow fraction by mass (12.7-16.3%) was much higher than in FYI cores (3.3-4.4%), while the bulk salinity of FYI (4.9) was distinctively higher than for SYI (2.7). We conclude that oxygen isotopes and salinity profiles can give information on the age of the ice and enables distinction between FYI and SYI (or older) ice in the area north of Svalbard.Plain Language SummaryThe role of snow in sea ice mass balance is largely two fold. Firstly, it can slow down growth and melt due to its high insulation and high reflectance, but secondly it can actually contribute to sea ice growth if the snow cover is turned into ice. The latter is largely a consequence of high mass of snow on top of sea ice that can push the surface of the sea ice below sea level and seawater can flood the ice. This mixture of seawater and snow can then freeze and add to the growth of sea ice. This is very typical in the Antarctic but not believed to be so important in the Arctic. In this work we show, for the first time, that snow actually contributes significantly to the growth of Arctic sea ice. This is likely a consequence of the thinning of the Arctic sea ice. The conditions in the Arctic, with thinner and more seasonal ice thus resemble the ice

  13. An Evolutionary Psychological Analysis of Filicide in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ottesen, Vibeke K.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the first study of the characteristics traits of caretaker perpetrated child homicide (filicide) in current day Norway, covering the years 1990–2009. Evolutionary psychological (EP) perspectives on filicide are currently the only theoretical approach that in a comprehensive manner details the underpinning psychological mechanisms of distinct filicide categories and predict what traits will be characteristic of perpetrators, victims and contexts from the respective mechani...

  14. Friendship relations of Southeast Asian immigrant children in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ryland, Fritzie

    2013-01-01

    The main focus and aim of this master thesis is to write about the nature of friendship and experiences of the Southeast Asian immigrant children in Norway. The overall methodological perspective of this study is based on the philosophy of the new social studies of childhood where children are constructed as social actors, listening to their voices, seeing them as active agents in their daily lives who are able to choose their friends and form friendship in their new country. I conducted semi...

  15. Pavement wear and airborne dust pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Snilsberg, Brynhild

    2008-01-01

    In several large cities in Norway the traffic volume is high. The use of studded tires and other friction enhancing measures during winter leads to significant pavement wear, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of airborne particulate matter, often exceeding the limits set in the ambient air regulation. This represents a nuisance or health risk for people being exposed to the pollution. According to regulations set by the European Union particulate matter is measured and regulate...

  16. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) new for the fauna of Norway, Part 4

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Lars Ove; Humala, Andrei; Reshchikov, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    The present survey reports 58 species of wasps belonging to the family Ichneumonidae hitherto not reported from Norway. The subfamilies Cryptinae, Ctenopelmatinae, Ichneumoninae, Microleptinae, Orthocentrinae, Pimplinae and Tryphoninae are represented. The distribution of each species is briefly discussed. Posted here with permission from the journal. Norwegian Journal of Entomology: http://www.entomologi.no/journals/nje/nje.htm. Norsk entomologisk forening: http://www.entomologi.n...

  17. Stauropoctonus bombycivorus (Gravenhorst, 1829) in Norway (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ophioninae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Lars Ove; Berggren, Kai; Sørlibråten, Ove

    2010-01-01

    The conspicuous icneumonid fly Stauropoctonus bombycivorus (Gravenhorst, 1829) is recorded for the first time in Norway. Four specimens have been captured in light-traps at three different localities in 2007: Hvaler in Østfold (Ø) and Arendal in Aust Agder (AAY), respectively. The biology and distribution are briefly discussed. Posted here with permission from the journal. Norwegian Journal of Entomology: http://www.entomologi.no/journals/nje/nje.htm. Norsk entomologisk forening: ...

  18. 'Online Shopping’ Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Pervaiz Ali and Sudha

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction and loyalty of the online customers in Norway. The theoretical framework discusses in brief about the effects of customer loyalty and retention on customer satisfaction. The study on customer satisfaction and loyalty has been done from the perspective of a firm performing online business. To understand the customer satisfaction and loyalty level of online Norwegian shoppers, we pursued with the collection of quantitativ...

  19. Norway and the arctic: between multilateral governance and geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flikke, Geir

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes Norwegian politics in the high north in light of multilateral institutions and new security challenges. The author maintains that Norway's politics is based on functional multilateral organizations and continuity and predictability in the UN framework. This can become more of a challenge if the competition for resource access hardens and the Arctic is defined as a strategically valuable area for one or more states.(Author)

  20. Ethnodemographic processes among the Sami of modern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniia S. Babenysheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of statistics and comparative analysis the article shows ethnodemographic processes among the Sami of Norway in 2000–2013, including the dynamic of population, natural increase, factors and reasons which caused them in this period. The short analysis of references has been made. Stable economic situation is improving the conditions of Sami. At the modern stage, special conditions for keeping the Sami’s ethnic identity are arranged, the basis of which is the language development.

  1. Slow upper mantle beneath Southern Norway from surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, C.; Maupin, V.

    2009-04-01

    A recent regional surface wave tomography for Northern Europe revealed unprecedented images of the upper mantle beneath the (Tertiary) North Atlantic and the bordering Fennoscandian craton of Archean-Proterozoic age. With respect to the circum-Atlantic regions of uplift, no common mantle pattern supporting the uplift of these regions is observed. The western boundary of the thick cratonic lithosphere follows the trend of the continental margin offshore northern Norway (i.e. the northern Scandes are underlain by thick lithosphere) whereas further south the boundary of the craton is located further east beneath southwestern Sweden. SV shear wave velocities beneath southern Norway are 10% slower than ak135 (at 70-115 km depth) and these low-velocities are clearly connected to the North Atlantic low-velocity regime through a ~ 400 km wide "channel". The low-velocity anomaly beneath Southern Norway coincides in geometry roughly with the dome-like high topography of the southern Scandes and may thus have a non-negligible contribution to the isostatic balance of the region. The amplitude and depth-distribution of this anomaly are due to be further constrained by new data that were acquired during the MAGNUS experiment in 2006-2008. The temporary seismic network, consisting of 40 broadband seismometers covers to a large extent the location of the anomaly as imaged by the regional tomography. This enables us to get unique control on the tomographic model at improved lateral and vertical resolution. Preliminary analysis of surface wave phase velocities yields an average 1-D shear wave velocity profile for southern Norway as a first step to constrain the presence and depth extent of this low-velocity anomaly.

  2. The Mesoproterozoic sub-Lifjell unconformity, central Telemark, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kauko Laajoki

    2006-01-01

    The sub-Lifjell unconformity subdivides the traditional Seljord group of the Telemark supracrustals, south Norway, into the Vindeggen and Lifjell groups. It is defined by an in situ weathering breccia and an angular unconformity above quartzites of the 1155 Ma old Vindeggen group and by a volcaniclastic palaeoregolith developed above the 1155±2 Ma old porphyry of the Brunkeberg formation. Due to the complex deformation of the Vindeggen and Lifjell groups this unconformity has often been shea...

  3. Russia’s Security Relations with Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    trade relations as a means of “enticement” or “punishment,” and seeks to establish and deepen the energy dependence of neighboring states on gas and...International Energy Agency noted that in 2015 Finland was 100 percent dependent on imports of gas and oil, with 83 percent of oil and 100 percent of gas...Finland, Norway, Russia, Soviet Union, Sweden, United States, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, European Union, Article 5, collective defense

  4. Examining the determinants of inward FDI: Evidence from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, A.; X. Hua; Nisar, S.; Wu, J

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of macroeconomic factors on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in Norway under the location-specific advantage. Using cointegrating regressions with Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) and the vector autoregressive and error correction model (VAR/VECM) on quarterly data, the study finds that the real GDP, sector GDP, exchange rate and trade openness have a positive and significant impact on FDI inflows. However, money supply, inflation, unemployment and interest rat...

  5. Migrations in Norway and in Other Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Olav Ǿstrem

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of migration movements in Norway and other Scandinavian countries. The overview most of all focuses on history, but gives also comments on the present situation. The quantitative dimension of Norwegian and Scandinavian emigration in different periods is dealt with, but the article also discusses cultural circumstances in connection with emigration from and immigration to this north European region. Emigration started earlier in Norway than in the other Scandinavian or Nordic countries. Of the Scandinavian countries, “it was only from Norway that emigration to America took place on a larger scale during the 1850s”. Sweden and Denmark “during the 1860s … entered a stage of massive emigration which culminated during the 1880s”. Emigration from Iceland started later, but the country experienced “a veritable flood during the 1880s”, at the same time as Eastern and Western Europe. Finland did not reach “great numbers until the initial decades of the 20th century.” The reasons for emigration from the Scandinavian countries have in traditional migration studies been linked to economic and social factors. In this article, based on the author’s thesis on emigration from the local parish Skjold in Rogaland county, Norway, from 1837 to 1914, the focus is on the cultural factor when discussing underlying causes of Nordic mass emigration. By using the term emigrant culture – a personification of the migrants – a way to employ the individual psychological or motive factor is attempted. Considering migration a process of two sides also strengthens the cultural or psychological individual factor.

  6. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  7. [Health effects of climatic changes--possible consequences for Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, P S; Lassen, J

    1997-01-10

    In the year 2100 a global mean temperature increase of 2 degrees C, and a 50 cm rise in sea level are expected. An escalation in the intensity and duration of heat waves will increase mortality, whilst higher temperatures in cold regions may reduce it. On a global scale, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and some types of viral encephalitis are likely to increase. 50 to 80 million more cases of malaria could occur annually. Elevated temperatures and more frequent floods could cause an increase in salmonellosis, cholera and giardiasis. Indirectly, shortages of freshwater and foods may cause serious health problems. The world may see more environmental refugees. For Norway a temperature increase of 3-4 degrees C during winter and 2 degrees C in summer is expected, with more precipitation, especially in western parts. The possibility of the Gulf Stream turning at 40 degrees N and causing a temperature decrease of 10 degrees C, is not very likely. Malaria could reestablish itself in Europe, but hardly in Norway. The most harmful arthropod vector in Norway, the tick Ixodes ricinus, might extend its range into the most populated parts of the country. Marine algal blooms might increase the risk of cholera. Health problems caused by greater floods, poisonous algae and certain freshwater cercaria might increase.

  8. Conference summary: Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago III: Closing remarks and notes from the concluding session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Turner; Alejandro Castellanos

    2013-01-01

    During the first week of May 2012, the Third Conference on Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago brought together more than 300 people with an interest in this region. It included scientists, land managers, activists, and land owners from both sides of the international border. After three and a half days of presentations, the participants gathered for...

  9. High gene flow due to pelagic larval dispersal among South Pacific archipelagos in two amphidromous gastropods (Neritomorpha: Neritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E D; Taffel, J R; Barber, P H

    2010-06-01

    The freshwater stream fauna of tropical oceanic islands is dominated by amphidromous species, whose larvae are transported to the ocean and develop in the plankton before recruiting back to freshwater habitat as juveniles. Because stream habitat is relatively scarce and unstable on oceanic islands, this life history would seem to favor either the retention of larvae to their natal streams, or the ability to delay metamorphosis until new habitat is encountered. To distinguish between these hypotheses, we used population genetic methods to estimate larval dispersal among five South Pacific archipelagos in two amphidromous species of Neritid gastropod (Neritina canalis and Neripteron dilatatus). Sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) revealed that neither species is genetically structured throughout the Western Pacific, suggesting that their larvae have a pelagic larval duration (PLD) of at least 8 weeks, longer than many marine species. In addition, the two species have recently colonized isolated Central Pacific archipelagos in three independent events. Since colonization, there has been little or no gene flow between the Western and Central Pacific archipelagos in N. canalis, and high levels of gene flow across the same region in N. dilatatus. Both species show departures from neutrality and recent dates for colonization of the Central Pacific archipelagos, which is consistent with frequent extinction and recolonization of stream populations in this area. Similar results from other amphidromous species suggest that unstable freshwater habitats promote long-distance dispersal capabilities.

  10. Vertical distributions of late stage larval fishes in the nearshore waters of the San Bias Archipelago, Caribbean Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, IE; Wilson, DT; Meekan, MG

    Light traps were used to describe the vertical distribution of late larval stages of reef fishes in the San Blas Archipelago during three successive new moon periods. Traps were deployed in the lagoon and at an exposed site on the outer reef edge. At each site, two traps were anchored at the surface

  11. Aspects of the biology of the leaf-scale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788 off Madeira archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Severino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 206 Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788 with a total length ranging from 89 to 146 cm were captured at an average depth of 1200 metres. Of the 61 females sampled, 34% were gravid, showing an absolute individual fecundity of two to ten embryos (pups. The results clearly indicated that this deepwater shark spawns in the Portuguesewaters off Madeira archipelago.

  12. Additions to the knowledge of the Pterophoridae (Lepidoptera) of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador, with descriptions of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landry, B.

    1993-01-01

    Two new species of Pterophoridae (Platyptilia vilema spec. nov. and Stenoptilodes gielisi spec, nov.) are described from the Galápagos Islands. Exelastis pumilio (Zeller) is reported from the archipelago for the first time. Seven hostplant records (six of them new) are given for five of the 15

  13. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  14. The diagnosis of early pregnancy and missed abortion in European and Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus and Rangifer tarandus platyrhyncus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tata Ringberg

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone levels in peripheral plasma from a total of 38 pregnant an non-pregnant Norwegian and Svalbard reindeer (R. tarandus tarandus and R. t. platyrhyncbus, respectively, were measured 5 to 6 times between November and May, and the size of 18 corresponding fetuses determined. The serum levels of progesterone were similar in the two subspecies, and increased from 1.5 nmol/1 (non-pregnant level to 10—30 nmol/1 in November in pregnant animals. A maximum of 40—80 nmol/1 was reached in April whereafter the levels declined as time of delivery (beginning of June approached. Animals with «missed» abortions had progesterone levels in serum of 5—6 nmol/1 in November. The size of the fetuses in November (average 3.7 and 30.7 mm makes delayed implantation in reindeer unlikely.Tidlig diagnostisering av drektighet og skjult abort i europeisk rein og Svalbardrein (Rangifer tarandus tarandus og Rangifer tarandus platyrhuncus.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Progesteron er det viktigste drektighetshormon hos pattedyr, og allerede tidlig i drektighetsperioden kan man hos en rekke arter påvise en økning i konsentrasjonen av dette hormon i blodet. Det har vært diskutert om det samme var tilfelle hos rein. Hvis det var så, ville det være mulig ved hjelp av en enkelt blodprøve på høsten å bestemme om dyret var drektig eller ei, og således ha et bedre grunnlag for å velge ut simler for slakt. Formålet med de forsøkene som er beskrevet i denne artikkel var derfor å måle progesteron-verdiene i blodet hos drektige og ikke-drektige simler for å se om de førstnevnte hadde høyere nivå, og dernest å se om det var en sammenheng mellom fosterets størrelse og progesteron-nivået. Til forsøkene ble det brukt tretti V2—2V2 år gamle simler fra reineier John Nordfjells flokk på Røros, samt åtte Svalbard-rein simler. Fra de norske rein ble blodprøver og fostre samlet under slaktning d. 26. november 1979, og fra Svalbard-reinen ble det

  15. Widespread methane seepage along the continental margin off Svalbard - from Bjørnøya to Kongsfjorden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Römer, M.; Torres, M. E.; Bussmann, I.; Pape, T.; Damm, E.; Geprägs, P.; Wintersteller, P.; Hsu, C.-W.; Loher, M.; Bohrmann, G.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous articles have recently reported on gas seepage offshore Svalbard, because the gas emission from these Arctic sediments was thought to result from gas hydrate dissociation, possibly triggered by anthropogenic ocean warming. We report on findings of a much broader seepage area, extending from 74° to 79°, where more than a thousand gas discharge sites were imaged as acoustic flares. The gas discharge occurs in water depths at and shallower than the upper edge of the gas hydrate stability zone and generates a dissolved methane plume that is hundreds of kilometer in length. Data collected in the summer of 2015 revealed that 0.02–7.7% of the dissolved methane was aerobically oxidized by microbes and a minor fraction (0.07%) was transferred to the atmosphere during periods of low wind speeds. Most flares were detected in the vicinity of the Hornsund Fracture Zone, leading us to postulate that the gas ascends along this fracture zone. The methane discharges on bathymetric highs characterized by sonic hard grounds, whereas glaciomarine and Holocene sediments in the troughs apparently limit seepage. The large scale seepage reported here is not caused by anthropogenic warming. PMID:28230189

  16. Ionospheric plasma density structures associated with magnetopause motion: a case study using the Cluster spacecraft and the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pitout

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available On 5 January 2003, the footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, then orbiting in the dayside magnetosphere near the magnetopause, was in the close vicinity of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR in the dayside afternoon sector. This configuration made possible the study of the magnetopause motion and its direct consequences on the ionospheric plasma at high latitude. Cluster observed multiple magnetopause crossings despite its high latitude, while on the ground the magnetic activity was very low, whereas the ionospheric plasma sounded by the ESR exhibited poleward moving plasma density structures. In this paper, we compare the satellite and radar data, in order to show that the plasma density structures are directly related to the magnetopause motion and its associated pulsed ionospheric flow. We propose that the variations in electric field make the convection velocity vary enough to alter the electron population by accelerating the chemistry in the F-region and act as a source of electron depletion. The magnetopause motion is in this case, a source of plasma density structures in the polar dayside ionosphere.

  17. A new method for long-term monitoring of Arctic methane release systems - Application offshore NW Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Dølven, Knut Ola; Silyakova, Anna; Frank, Carsten; Meyer, Mathias; Themann, Sören; Mienert, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    While the Arctic is warming at a rate of almost twice the global average and needs particular attention for climate impacts, it is a challenging place to perform oceanic measurement, especially in regions of seasonal sea ice cover and stormy seasons. The Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE) aims at understanding the impact of methane release on the marine environments and climate change, and one of the strategies relies on monitoring Arctic gas hydrate systems to evaluate the variability of methane release and its dependence on oceanographic changes. Two forefront K-lander observatories, emerging from a collaboration between CAGE and Kongsberg, were successfully deployed and retrieved offshore NW Svalbard in known natural gas release fields (240m and 90m depth), providing eleven months of high-resolution multi-sensor data. Multiple data sets include ocean temperature, salinity, oxygen, dissolved methane and CO2, fluorescence, turbidity as well as ocean current and underwater acoustic measurements. Development and implementation of such cross-disciplinary technology and data analysis brings the marine and maritime research technology fields to the forefront of environmental studies to understand global change and its impacts. This project is funded by CAGE (Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate), Norwegian Research Council grant no. 223259.

  18. Wind Climate in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, and Attribution of Leading Wind Driving Mechanisms through Turbulence-Resolving Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Esau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analysis of wind climate of the Kongsfjorden-Kongsvegen valley, Svalbard. The Kongsfjorden-Kongsvegen valley is relatively densely covered with meteorological observations, which facilitate joint statistical analysis of the turbulent surface layer structure and the structure of the higher atmospheric layers. Wind direction diagrams reveal strong wind channeled in the surface layer up to 300 m to 500 m. The probability analysis links strong wind channeling and cold temperature anomalies in the surface layer. To explain these links, previous studies suggested the katabatic wind flow mechanism as the leading driver responsible for the observed wind climatology. In this paper, idealized turbulence-resolving simulations are used to distinct between different wind driving mechanisms. The simulations were performed with the real surface topography at resolution of about 60 m. These simulations resolve the obstacle-induced turbulence and the turbulence in the non-stratified boundary layer core. The simulations suggest the leading roles of the thermal land-sea breeze circulation and the mechanical wind channeling in the modulation of the valley winds. The characteristic signatures of the developed down-slope gravity-accelerated flow, that is, the katabatic wind, were found to be of lesser significance under typical meteorological conditions in the valley.

  19. Past and Present-day Ice Mass Variation on Svalbard Revealed by Superconducting Gravimeter, GPS and VLBI Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulf, H. P.; Omang, O.

    2012-12-01

    The measured uplift in Ny-Alesund has varied with geodetic technique, analyzed strategy, and the time period used. This has caused problems for both reference frame issues as well as the geophysical interpretations of the results. In Arctic areas deglaciation after the last glacial maximum, Holocene ice mass variation, and present day ice melt contribute to the land uplift. In addition, tectonic contributions cannot be excluded. We use both geometric and gravity data from the observatory in Ny-Alesund as well as in-situ mass balance measurements of local glaciers to separate the different processes contributing to the land uplift in Ny-Alesund and Svalbard. Measurements from the geodetic observatory in Ny-Alesund indicate land uplift much larger than expected from traditional models of glacial isostatic adjustment. In addition, the land uplift shows large variations from year to year. A combination of the measured variations in the land uplift along with local ice mass variations give a good constraint on the land uplift caused by the present day ice melt. However, we are still not able to explain all the measured uplift. The changes in measured gravity are consistent with the geometric measurements but also much larger than expected from the glacial isostatic adjustment and the present day ice melt. The ratio of unexplained gravity change and unexplained geometric uplift indicate a viscoelastic process. The unexplained uplift is most likely caused by late Holocene ice mass variations.

  20. Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available From simultaneous observations of the European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR and the Cooperative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS Finland radar on 9 March 1999, we have derived the height distributions of the thermospheric heating rate at the F region height in association with electromagnetic energy inputs into the dayside polar cap/cusp region. The ESR and CUTLASS radar observations provide the ionospheric parameters with fine time-resolutions of a few minutes. Although the geomagnetic activity was rather moderate (Kp=3+~4, the electric field obtained from the ESR data sometimes shows values exceeding 40 mV/m. The estimated passive energy deposition rates are also larger than 150 W/kg in the upper thermosphere over the ESR site during the period of the enhanced electric field. In addition, enhancements of the Pedersen conductivity also contribute to heating the upper thermosphere, while there is only a small contribution for thermospheric heating from the direct particle heating due to soft particle precipitation in the dayside polar cap/cusp region. In the same period, the CUTLASS observations of the ion drift show the signature of poleward moving pulsed ionospheric flows with a recurrence rate of about 10–20 min. The estimated electromagnetic energy deposition rate shows the existence of the strong heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events.

  1. Evaluation of the use of very high resolution aerial imagery for accurate ice-wedge polygon mapping (Adventdalen, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousada, Maura; Pina, Pedro; Vieira, Gonçalo; Bandeira, Lourenço; Mora, Carla

    2017-09-24

    The main objective of this paper is to verify the accuracy of delineating and characterizing ice-wedge polygonal networks with features exclusively extracted from remotely sensed images of very high resolution. This kind of mapping plays a key role for quantifying ice-wedge degradation in warming permafrost. The evaluation of mapping a network is performed in this study with two sets of aerial images that are compared to ground reference data determined by fieldwork on the same network, located in Adventdalen, Svalbard (78°N). One aerial dataset is obtained from a photogrammetric survey with RGB+NIR imagery of 20cm/pixel, the other from an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) survey that acquired RGB images of 6cm/pixel of spatial resolution. Besides evaluating the degree of matching between the delineations, the morphometric and topological features computed for the differently mapped versions of the network are also confronted, to have a more solid basis of comparison. The results obtained are similar enough to admit that remotely sensed images of very high resolution are an adequate support to provide extensive characterizations and classifications of this kind of patterned ground. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Constraining shifts in North Atlantic plate motions during the Palaeocene by U-Pb dating of Svalbard tephra layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan T; Augland, Lars E; Shephard, Grace E; Burgess, Seth D; Eliassen, Gauti T; Jochmann, Malte M; Friis, Bjarki; Jerram, Dougal A; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik H

    2017-07-28

    Radioisotopic dating of volcanic minerals is a powerful method for establishing absolute time constraints in sedimentary basins, which improves our understanding of the chronostratigraphy and evolution of basin processes. The relative plate motions of Greenland, North America, and Eurasia changed several times during the Palaeogene. However, the timing of a key part of this sequence, namely the initiation of compression between Greenland and Svalbard, is currently poorly constrained. The formation of the Central Basin in Spitsbergen is inherently linked to changes in regional plate motions, so an improved chronostratigraphy of the sedimentary sequence is warranted. Here we present U-Pb zircon dates from tephra layers close to the basal unconformity, which yield a weighted-mean (206)Pb/(238)U age of 61.596 ± 0.028 Ma (2σ). We calculate that sustained sedimentation began at ~61.8 Ma in the eastern Central Basin based on a sediment accumulation rate of 71.6 ± 7.6 m/Myr. The timing of basin formation is broadly coeval with depositional changes at the Danian-Selandian boundary around the other margins of Greenland, including the North Sea, implying a common tectonic driving force. Furthermore, these stratigraphic tie points place age constraints on regional plate reorganization events, such as the onset of seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea.

  3. Temporal constraints on future accumulation-area loss of a major Arctic ice cap due to climate change (Vestfonna, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Marco; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-28

    Arctic glaciers and ice caps are major contributors to past, present and future sea-level fluctuations. Continued global warming may eventually lead to the equilibrium line altitudes of these ice masses rising above their highest points, triggering unstoppable downwasting. This may feed future sea-level rise considerably. We here present projections for the timing of equilibrium-line loss at the major Arctic ice cap Vestfonna, Svalbard. The projections are based on spatially distributed climatic mass balance modelling driven by the outputs of multiple climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) forced by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5. Results indicate strongly decreasing climatic mass balances over the 21(st) century for all RCPs considered. Glacier-wide mass-balance rates will drop down to -4 m a(-1) w.e. (water equivalent) at a maximum. The date at which the equilibrium line rises above the summit of Vestfonna (630 m above sea level) is calculated to range between 2040 and 2150, depending on scenario.

  4. Diagnostic and prognostic simulations with a full Stokes model accounting for superimposed ice of Midtre Lovénbreen, Svalbard

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    T. Zwinger

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present steady state (diagnostic and transient (prognostic simulations of Midtre Lovénbreen, Svalbard performed with the thermo-mechanically coupled full-Stokes code Elmer. This glacier has an extensive data set of geophysical measurements available spanning several decades, that allow for constraints on model descriptions. Consistent with this data set, we included a simple model accounting for the formation of superimposed ice. Diagnostic results indicated that a dynamic adaptation of the free surface is necessary, to prevent non-physically high velocities in a region of under determined bedrock depths. Observations from ground penetrating radar of the basal thermal state agree very well with model predictions, while the dip angles of isochrones in radar data also match reasonably well with modelled isochrones, despite the numerical deficiencies of estimating ages with a steady state model.

    Prognostic runs for 53 years, using a constant accumulation/ablation pattern starting from the steady state solution obtained from the configuration of the 1977 DEM show that: 1 the unrealistic velocities in the under determined parts of the DEM quickly damp out; 2 the free surface evolution matches well measured elevation changes; 3 the retreat of the glacier under this scenario continues with the glacier tongue in a projection to 2030 being situated ≈500 m behind the position in 1977.

  5. Bottom-simulating reflector dynamics at Arctic thermogenic gas provinces: An example from Vestnesa Ridge, offshore west Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Faverola, A.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Hong, W.-L.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S.; Chand, S.; Greinert, J.

    2017-06-01

    The Vestnesa Ridge comprises a >100 km long sediment drift located between the western continental slope of Svalbard and the Arctic mid-ocean ridges. It hosts a deep water (>1000 m) gas hydrate and associated seafloor seepage system. Near-seafloor headspace gas compositions and its methane carbon isotopic signature along the ridge indicate a predominance of thermogenic gas sources feeding the system. Prediction of the base of the gas hydrate stability zone for theoretical pressure and temperature conditions and measured gas compositions results in an unusual underestimation of the observed bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) depth. The BSR is up to 60 m deeper than predicted for pure methane and measured gas compositions with >99% methane. Models for measured gas compositions with >4% higher-order hydrocarbons result in a better BSR approximation. However, the BSR remains >20 m deeper than predicted in a region without active seepage. A BSR deeper than predicted is primarily explained by unaccounted spatial variations in the geothermal gradient and by larger amounts of thermogenic gas at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Hydrates containing higher-order hydrocarbons form at greater depths and higher temperatures and contribute with larger amounts of carbons than pure methane hydrates. In thermogenic provinces, this may imply a significant upward revision (up to 50% in the case of Vestnesa Ridge) of the amount of carbon in gas hydrates.

  6. A surge of the glaciers Skobreen–Paulabreen, Svalbard, observed by time-lapse photographs and remote sensing data

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    Lene Kristensen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a surge of the glaciers Skobreen–Paulabreen, Svalbard, during 2003–05, including a time-lapse movie of the frontal advance during 2005, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission (ASTER imagery and oblique aerial photographs. The surge initiated in Skobreen, and then propagated downglacier into the lower parts of Paulabreen. ASTER satellite images from different stages of the surge are used to evaluate the surge progression. Features on the glacier surface advanced 2800 m over 2.4 yr, averaging 3.2 m/day, while the front advanced less (ca. 1300 m due to contemporaneous calving. The surge resulted in a lateral displacement of the medial moraines of Paulabreen of ca. 600 m at the glacier front. The time-lapse movie captured the advance of the frontal part of the glacier, and dramatically illustrates glacier dynamic processes in an accessible way. The movie documents a range of processes such as a plug-like flow of the glacier, proglacial thrusting, incorporation of old, dead ice at the margin, and calving into the fjord. The movie provides a useful resource for researchers, educators seeking to teach and inspire students, and those wishing to communicate the fascination of glacier science to a wider public.

  7. Mixed phase cloud observation in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard: Preliminary results from the May-June 2011 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, M.; Uchiyama, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Kobayashi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and aerosols are key elements having the potential to change climate by their radiative effects on the energy balance in the global climate system. In the Arctic, we have been continuing ground-based remote-sensing measurements for clouds and aerosols using a sky-radiometer, a micro-pulse lidar and an all-sky camera in Ny-Alesund (78.9N, 11.9E), Svalbard. In addition to the regular operations, we have performed an intensive observation campaign for mixed phase clouds in May-June 2011. This campaign aimed at low-level clouds to investigate cloud optical and microphysical properties and cloud-aerosol interaction processes in the Arctic, mainly from cloud radiation measurements and active remote-sensing at the surface, and in-situ microphysics measurements at the Norwegian Zeppelin Station located at a 474 meters high mountain-side. The instrumentation for in-situ measurements includes conventional cloud microphysics probes, i.e., DMT CAPS and Gerber PVM-100, and a newly developed cloud particle microscopic imager for cloud water/ice particle size distributions and the effective radius. The Rion KR-12A aerosol particle counter and the TSI 3007 condensation particle counter were placed in the ropeway cabin for measuring particle number and size distribution to see the difference between in-cloud and below-cloud conditions. We will present preliminary results from the in-situ cloud measurements for several days during the May-June 2011 field experiment.

  8. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of a glacier-derived naled in front of Austre Grønfjordbreen, Svalbard

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    Jacob C. Yde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and stable isotope composition of a glacier-derived naled in front of the glacier Austre Grønfjordbreen, Svalbard, is examined to elucidate how secondary processes such as preferential retention and leaching affect naled chemistry. Internal candle ice layers have a chemical composition almost similar to that of the lower stratified granular ice layer, whereas the upper granular ice layer has a significantly different composition, which resembles the composition found in glacier meltwater. Grey, platy cryogenic calcite precipitates are found in clusters on the surface of the naled assemblage, indicating preferential retention of Ca2 +  and HCO3 −. This process is particular pronounced in the distal part of the naled. The isotopic composition in the naled is in accordance with the local meteoric water line and without indications of kinetic fractionation during freezing. The ability to form ice-marginal naled indicates that Austre Grønfjordbreen has the high meltwater storage potential required for triggering a glacier surge event.

  9. Aspect sensitive E- and F-region SPEAR-enhanced incoherent backscatter observed by the EISCAT Svalbard radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Dhillon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the aspect sensitivity of heater-enhanced incoherent radar backscatter in the high-latitude ionosphere have demonstrated the directional dependence of incoherent scatter signatures corresponding to artificially excited electrostatic waves, together with consistent field-aligned signatures that may be related to the presence of artificial field-aligned irregularities. These earlier high-latitude results have provided motivation for repeating the investigation in the different geophysical conditions that obtain in the polar cap ionosphere. The Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR facility is located within the polar cap and has provided observations of RF-enhanced ion and plasma line spectra recorded by the EISCAT Svalbard UHF incoherent scatter radar system (ESR, which is collocated with SPEAR. In this paper, we present observations of aspect sensitive E- and F-region SPEAR-induced ion and plasma line enhancements that indicate excitation of both the purely growing mode and the parametric decay instability, together with sporadic E-layer results that may indicate the presence of cavitons. We note consistent enhancements from field-aligned, vertical and also from 5° south of field-aligned. We attribute the prevalence of vertical scatter to the importance of the Spitze region, and of that from field-aligned to possible wave/irregularity coupling.

  10. Utilization of Higher Education : A Review of Employment Challenges and Job Practice among Refugees in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Boayue, Kou Glaymehn

    2011-01-01

    Master i flerkulturell og internasjonal utdanning Purpose of the study: If refugees from Africa and Asia are able to use their foreign higher education in the labor market of Norway is the main topic of this study. Thus, the study explores the impact of Norwegian language training, foreign higher education recognition, NAV job seeker courses, service/job provision by employers, further higher education in Norway, etc., on the labor market outcomes of 18 refugees who fled to Norway with ter...

  11. Untraditional caring arrangements among parents living apart. The case of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ragni Hege Kitterød; Jan Lyngstad

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND In spite of quite symmetric parental roles in Norway, shared residence and father sole custody are still rare when parents split up. Several countries have witnessed an increase in shared residence for children recently, and this is also the case in Norway. OBJECTIVE We wish to add to the literature on untraditional caring arrangements among parents living apart by examining the determinants of shared residence and sole father custody in Norway, a country with high gender-equality ...

  12. Archipelago, Chile

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    Gerald A. Wheeler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Archipiélago Juan Fernández se encuentran diez miembros de la tribu Cariceae (Cyperaceae: cuatro especies de Carex y seis de Uncinia. Ocho de las especies se hallan en la Isla Alejandro Selkirk (= Masafuera; 50 km2, y cuatro en la Isla Robinson Crusoe (= Masatierra; 48 km2. Se describen cuatro nuevos taxones endémicos para el Archipiélago: Carex fernandezensis, C. stuessyi, Uncinia aspericaulis, y U. macloviformis. Sólo dos especies endémicas, Carex berteroniana y Uncinia douglasii, son frecuentes en ambas islas. Otro endemismo, Uncinia costata, es conocido sólo en la localidad de colección del tipo en Alejandro Selkirk. Las tres especies restantes, Uncinia phleoides, U. tenuis, y Carex phalaroides, se encuentran también en el continente Sudamericano, y se cita aquí por primera vez C. phalaroides para el archipiélago. Se lectotipifican los nombres Uncinia costata y U. tenuis f. firmula, y se describe una nueva sección de Carex, sect. Pellucidae, para ubicar a C. stuessyi y taxones afines.

  13. The Influence of Migration on Population Ageing in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago

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    Sonja Podgorelec

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Demographic research in regard to the islands of Cres and Lošinj belongs in the domain of small population studies. Throughout history, and especially after World War II, the islands experienced very strong emigration and later immigration processes. After fifty or more years of continual emigration, immigration began on the island of Lošinj in the 1960s, and on Cres in the 1970s. This reversal from strong depopulation to a significant increase in the size of the population, if the islands are examined as a whole, reveals certain demographic particularities in comparison with other Croatian islands. The long-term reduction of the birth rate and prolonged emigration from settlements in the interior of Cres and from all the islands of the Lošinj archipelago has been the cause of many elderly, single-person and abandoned households. All the analytical indicators pertaining to the age structure are above the threshold which marks the beginning of population ageing. The average age on all the islands has for over thirty years been well above 30, whereas in the Lošinj archipelago it has been above the reproductive age – i.e. about 50. The age coefficient varies between 14.02 for Lošinj and 49.22 for Ilovik. The island of Lošinj itself has the youngest population, and hence the lowest indicators of ageing. The burden on the working-age contingent on each island has changed at a different rate and in a different direction during the last three inter-census periods. The co-efficient of dependency of the young is increasing on all the islands, while the co-efficient of dependency of the elderly age groups is falling on Lošinj, Ilovik, Unije and Cres. The reduction of the birth rate and the negative migration balance caused by high emigration of mainly young, unmarried males has caused a seks ratio imbalance in favour of females. The general co-efficient of females, according to the 1991 census was between 105.7 on Lošinj and 145.5 on Unije. The

  14. Possible Micrometeorological Anomalies Induced by Volcanic Activity Recorded at Stromboli Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

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    Paolo Madonia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hourly values of atmospheric pressure and air temperature have been acquired at the top of two volcanic islands, Stromboli and Salina in the Aeolian Archipelago (Italy, very similar in height and morphology but completely different with regard to their volcanic activity state: the former is permanently active, whereas the latter is extinguished. During the last four years Stromboli experienced normal activity, volcanic unrests, and an effusive eruption (August–November 2014. The comparative analysis of the recorded data, both in the time and frequency domains, evidenced a peculiar micrometeorological regime at Stromboli, more turbulent during unrests with respect to the quieter periods, but showing an apparent paradox during eruptions, characterized by a lower atmospheric turbulence. These observations suggest that the studied volcanic-micrometeorological system is chaotic, due to contemporary opposite transients generated in the atmosphere by volcanic activity changes, and that micrometeorological conditions in volcanic areas are controlled both by exogenous processes and volcanic activity.

  15. Liberalism in the Islamic World and its influence in the Malay Archipelago: Model in Indonesia

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    Abbas Mansur Tamam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liberalism means here Orientalist attempt to attract even Islam conformity with the principles of Western liberalism in form and substance. Hence Zhardha in the Islamic world have to do Orientalism, which under his leadership became the U.S. currently wants Islam that corresponds to the values of modernity and secularism and Western liberalism. And this phenomenon coincides appearance in the Islamic world with its appearance Malay archipelago and Indonesia to face particular Alholanda since colonial days, and then taking this trend develops even have an influence on contemporary history in these islands. So this includes talking on two things: Orientalist role for the emergence of liberalism in the Islamic world, and its influence in the Malay islands.

  16. Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago

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    Katriina Siivonen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

  17. Recent International and Domestic Migration in the Maltese Archipelago: An Economic Review

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    Rose Marie Azzopardi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration strategies often permit densely populated island territories to alleviate unemployment, ease pressure on limited resources, and compensate for the absence of economic diversification. This paper evaluates two types of recent migratory flows affecting the Maltese archipelago: international migration to and from the islands triggered or intensified by European Union membership; and domestic, inter-island movements between the ‘mainland’ (Malta and the smaller island (Gozo.The descriptive statistics used are based on published data, whilst the qualitative evaluation is derived from focus groups and interviews with stakeholders. Conclusions suggest that emigration remains an overall positive experience at the individual level, with constructive spill-over effects, mingling of cultures and better use of resources at the national level. Such benefits can be expected to increase if authorities design policies which encourage rather than discourage migratory flows.

  18. Tuvalu, Sovereignty and Climate Change: Considering Fenua, the Archipelago and Emigration

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    Carol Farbotko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuvalu is a Pacific atoll nation-state that has come to stand for predicaments implicating climate change, forced emigration and resettlement, and loss of territory and sovereignty. Legal and policy remedies seek to address such challenges by radically reframing how sovereignty is conceived. Drawing on literary and legal theory, we seek to extend such work in the terms of cultural geography and anthropology by considering how the archipelago and cultural practices known as fenua could be deployed as symbolic and material resources emphasizing mobility and connection, in contrast to normative ideas of sovereignty, whose orientation to territory imperils atoll states. Our fundamental argument is that legal and policy reforms addressing climate change emigration must be enriched by accounting for the emotional geographies that attend the changing real and conceptual borders of sovereignty and by creating alternative spaces of hope and action.

  19. A new species of Plestiodon (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Senkaku Group, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Ota, Hidetoshi; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2017-04-20

    A new scincid lizard, Plestiodon takarai sp. nov., is described from the Senkaku Group, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. The Plestiodon lizards in this island group have previously been identified as P. elegans because they all exhibit a patch of enlarged and irregularly arranged scales on the posterior surface of their femurs. However, detailed molecular analyses revealed that the Senkaku population, although closely related to P. elegans and other species in the P. latiscutatus species group, is substantially diverged from all other recognized species. Furthermore, although the Senkaku population largely exhibits the characteristic morphological features of this species group, it can be differentiated from all recognized species by the scutellation and hatchling tail coloration. The biogeographical and conservation implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  20. Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jonathan; Dupuy, Christine; Bouvy, Marc; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Charpy, Loïc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Le Pennec, Marcel; Cochard, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.