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Sample records for sv40 virus

  1. Effect of caffeine on the ultraviolet light induction of SV40 virus from transformed hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, G.B.; Kleinman, L.F.; Little, J.B.; Black, P.H.; Kaplan, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of caffeine on the uv light induction of SV40 virus from two transformed hamster cell lines heterogeneous for the induction of infectious virus was studied. The amount of virus induced was significantly increased in both cell lines when exposure to uv light was followed by treatment with caffeine. Caffeine in the absence of uv irradiation did not stimulate virus induction, nor did it stimulate SV40 replication in a lytic infection. There was an apparent difference in the concentrations of caffeine which maximally stimulated SV40 virus induction in the two cell lines. This effect could not be explained by differences in cell survival after exposure to uv light and caffeine. Since caffeine is known to cause the accumulation of gaps formed in DNA during postreplication repair of uv-irradiated rodent cells, our results support the hypothesis that the formation of gaps or breaks in DNA is an important early step in virus induction

  2. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Masaaki; Morikawa, Katsuma; Suda, Tatsuya; Ohno, Naohito; Matsushita, Sho; Akatsuka, Toshitaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Matsui, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A ⁎ 02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A ⁎ 02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties

  3. Properties of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigens encoded by SV40 mutants with deletions in gene A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C N; Tornow, J; Clark, R; Tjian, R

    1986-01-01

    The biochemical properties of the large T antigens encoded by simian virus 40 (SV40) mutants with deletions at DdeI sites in the SV40 A gene were determined. Mutant large T antigens containing only the first 138 to 140 amino acids were unable to bind to the SV40 origin of DNA replication as were large T antigens containing at their COOH termini 96 or 97 amino acids encoded by the long open reading frame located between 0.22 and 0.165 map units (m.u.). All other mutant large T antigens were able to bind to the SV40 origin of replication. Mutants with in-phase deletions at 0.288 and 0.243 m.u. lacked ATPase activity, but ATPase activity was normal in mutants lacking origin-binding activity. The 627-amino acid large T antigen encoded by dlA2465, with a deletion at 0.219 m.u., was the smallest large T antigen displaying ATPase activity. Mutant large T antigens with the alternate 96- or 97-amino acid COOH terminus also lacked ATPase activity. All mutant large T antigens were found in the nuclei of infected cells; a small amount of large T with the alternate COOH terminus was also located in the cytoplasm. Mutant dlA2465 belonged to the same class of mutants as dlA2459. It was unable to form plaques on CV-1p cells at 37 or 32 degrees C but could form plaques on BSC-1 monolayers at 37 degrees C but not at 32 degrees C. It was positive for viral DNA replication and showed intracistronic complementation with any group A mutant whose large T antigen contained a normal carboxyl terminus. These findings and those of others suggest that both DNA binding and ATPase activity are required for the viral DNA replication function of large T antigen, that these two activities must be located on the same T antigen monomer, and that these two activities are performed by distinct domains of the polypeptide. These domains are distinct and separable from the domain affected by the mutation of dlA2465 and indicate that SV40 large T antigen is made up of at least three separate functional

  4. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Masaaki [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Morikawa, Katsuma [Department of Biological Information, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Suda, Tatsuya [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Ohno, Naohito [Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Matsushita, Sho [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Allergy Center, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Akatsuka, Toshitaka [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: handa.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Solutions Research Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Matsui, Masanori, E-mail: mmatsui@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties.

  5. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Masaaki; Morikawa, Katsuma; Suda, Tatsuya; Ohno, Naohito; Matsushita, Sho; Akatsuka, Toshitaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Matsui, Masanori

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A*02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A*02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure-based design of a disulfide-linked oligomeric form of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen DNA-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of forming the ‘lock-washer’ conformation of the origin-binding domain of SV40 large T antigen in solution, using structure-based analysis an intermolecular disulfide bridge was engineered into the origin-binding domain to generate higher order oligomers in solution. The 1.7 Å resolution structure shows that the mutant forms a spiral in the crystal and has the de novo disulfide bond at the protein interface, although structural rearrangements at the interface are observed relative to the wild type. The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS–PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner

  7. Insertion of liver enriched transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) in a vector which contains simian virus (SV40) promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nbaheen, M.; Pourzand, C.; Tyrrell, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    One way of targeting gene expression in vivo is to control transcription using a tissue-specific regulatory system. Tissue specific promoters or enhancers are in use in transgenic animals and could be utilized in medical for gene therapy. At present the usual method for selection of a tissue-specific promoter is to identify a gene, which is expressed at unusually high level in the target tissue, and then to use the promoter for this gene to drive expression of another therapeutic gene in the target tissue. This approach is logical but does not always lead to high levels of gene expression. A second approach is to investigate the scope for discovery of synthetic specific promoters using a target tissue. The objective of the work described in this paper was to use both approach to design plasmid DNA expression vectors that would carry liver-specific promoter/enhancer linked to reporter gene (i.e. luciferase). Then transfect these vectors to both liver-derived and non-liver cell lines. This is followed by evaluation of the liver-specificity of each construct by measuring the basal level expression of the reporter gene (i.e. luciferase activity) in both cell lines. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) is liver-enriched transcription factor used to design new synthetic enhancers by inserting a tandem array of 1', 3' or 5' repeats of the HNF-4 binding site upstream of the SV40 promoter linked to the luciferase reporter gene within an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based vector, p 706. The results of transfection revealed that unexpectedly the HNF-4 binding sites in these constructs act as a repressor rather than enhancer of the liver-specific expression of the luciferase gene. (author)

  8. Biological activity of SV40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study on the biological activity of SV40 DNA. The transforming activity of SV40 DNA and DNA fragments is investigated in order to define as precisely as possible the area of the viral genome that is involved in the transformation. The infectivity of SV40 DNA is used to study the defective repair mechanisms of radiation damages of human xeroderma pigmentosum cells. (C.F.)

  9. Immortalization of Human Fetal Hepatocyte by Ectopic Expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, Human Papilloma Virus (E7) and Simian Virus 40 Large T (SV40 T) Antigen Towards Bioartificial Liver Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2014-09-01

    Generation of genetically stable and non-tumoric immortalization cell line from primary cells would be enormously useful for research and therapeutic purposes, but progress towards this goal has so far been limited. It is now universal acceptance that immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes based on recent advances of telomerase biology and oncogene, lead to unlimited population doubling could be the possible source for bioartificial liver device. Immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes cell line by ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), human papilloma virus gene (E7) and simian virus 40 large T (SV40 T) antigens is main goal of present study. We used an inducible system containing human telomerase and E7, both of which are cloned into responder constructs controlled by doxycycline transactivator. We characterized the immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells by analysis of green fluorescent cells (GFP) positive cells using flow cytometry (FACs) cell sorting and morphology, proliferative rate and antigen expression by immunohistochemical analysis. In addition to we analysized lactate formation, glucose consumption, albumin secretion and urea production of immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells. After 25 attempts for transfection of adult primary hepatocytes by human telomerase and E7 to immortalize them, none of the transfection systems resulted in the production of a stable, proliferating cell line. Although the transfection efficiency was more than 70% on the first day, the vast majority of the transfected hepatocytes lost their signal within the first 5-7 days. The remaining transfected hepatocytes persisted for 2-4 weeks and divided one or two times without forming a clone. After 10 attempts of transfection human fetal hepatocytes using the same transfection system, we obtained one stable human fetal hepatocytes cell line which was able albumin secretion urea production and glucose consumption. We established a

  10. The Influence of SV40 polyA on Gene Expression of Baculovirus Expression Vector Systems.

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    Tamer Z Salem

    Full Text Available The simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (SV40 polyA has been routinely inserted downstream of the polyhedrin promoter in many baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS. In the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV, the polyhedrin promoter (very late promoter transcribes its gene by a viral RNA polymerase therefore there is no supporting evidence that SV40 polyA is required for the proper gene expression under the polyhedrin promoter. Moreover, the effect of the SV40 polyA sequence on the polyhedrin promoter activity has not been tested either at its natural polyhedrin locus or in other loci in the viral genome. In order to test the significance of adding the SV40 polyA sequence on gene expression, the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp was evaluated with and without the presence of SV40 polyA under the control of the polyhedrin promoter at different genomic loci (polyherin, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt, and gp37. In this study, spectrofluorometry and western blot showed reduction of EGFP protein for all recombinant viruses with SV40 polyA, whereas qPCR showed an increase in the egfp mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that SV40 polyA increases mRNA levels but decreases protein production in the BEVS when the polyhedrin promoter is used at different loci. This work suggests that SV40 polyA in BEVSs should be replaced by an AcMNPV late gene polyA for optimal protein production or left untouched for optimal RNA production (RNA interference applications.

  11. The Influence of SV40 polyA on Gene Expression of Baculovirus Expression Vector Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Tamer Z.; Seaborn, Craig P.; Turney, Colin M.; Xue, Jianli; Shang, Hui; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (SV40 polyA) has been routinely inserted downstream of the polyhedrin promoter in many baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS). In the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the polyhedrin promoter (very late promoter) transcribes its gene by a viral RNA polymerase therefore there is no supporting evidence that SV40 polyA is required for the proper gene expression under the polyhedrin promoter. Moreover, the effect of the SV40 polyA sequence on the polyhedrin promoter activity has not been tested either at its natural polyhedrin locus or in other loci in the viral genome. In order to test the significance of adding the SV40 polyA sequence on gene expression, the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was evaluated with and without the presence of SV40 polyA under the control of the polyhedrin promoter at different genomic loci (polyherin, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt), and gp37). In this study, spectrofluorometry and western blot showed reduction of EGFP protein for all recombinant viruses with SV40 polyA, whereas qPCR showed an increase in the egfp mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that SV40 polyA increases mRNA levels but decreases protein production in the BEVS when the polyhedrin promoter is used at different loci. This work suggests that SV40 polyA in BEVSs should be replaced by an AcMNPV late gene polyA for optimal protein production or left untouched for optimal RNA production (RNA interference applications). PMID:26659470

  12. High throughput testing of the SV40 Large T antigen binding to cellular p53 identifies putative drugs for the treatment of SV40-related cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Michele; Rudzinski, Jennifer; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    SV40 has been linked to some human malignancies, and the evidence that this virus plays a causative role in mesothelioma and brain tumors is mounting. The major SV40 oncoprotein is the Large tumor antigen (Tag). A key Tag transforming activity is connected to its capability to bind and inactivate cellular p53. In this study we developed an effective, high throughput, ELISA-based method to study Tag-p53 interaction in vitro. This assay allowed us to screen a chemical library and to identify a chemical inhibitor of the Tag binding to p53. We propose that our in vitro assay is a useful method to identify molecules that may be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of SV40-related human cancers

  13. Random integration of SV40 in SV40-transformed, immortalized human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Kaji, H

    1987-02-01

    We have studied the relationship between immortalization of SV40-transformed human embryonic fibroblasts and their SV40 integration sites. From several independently transformed cell pools, we have isolated clones which do not harbor unintegrated SV40 DNA. We have analysed whole-cell DNA from these clones, using the Southern blot method. Our results suggest that no specific integration sites in the cellular genome exist which are a prerequisite for the immortalization process. Although some integration sites were found to be predominant in pre-crisis clones, they could not be detected in the post-crisis clones. This suggests that none of these predominating sites is selected for during the crisis period.

  14. SV40 Assembly In Vivo and In Vitro

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    Ariella Oppenheim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid is a T = 7d icosahedral lattice ∼45 nm in diameter surrounding the ∼5 kb circular minichromosome. The outer shell is composed of 360 monomers of the major capsid protein VP1, tightly bound in 72 pentamers. VP1 is a jellyroll β-barrel, with extending N- and C-terminal arms. The N-terminal arms bind DNA and face the interior of the capsid. The flexible C-arms tie together the 72 pentamers in three distinct kinds of interactions, thus facilitating the formation of a T = 7 icosahedron from identical pentameric building blocks. Assembly in vivo was shown to occur by addition of capsomers around the DNA. We apply a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches to study SV40 assembly. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest the following model: one or two capsomers bind at a high affinity to ses, the viral DNA encapsidation signal, forming the nucleation centre for assembly. Next, multiple capsomers attach concomitantly, at lower affinity, around the minichromosome. This increases their local concentration facilitating rapid, cooperative assembly reaction. Formation of the icosahedron proceeds either by gradual addition of single pentamers to the growing shell or by concerted assembly of pentamer clusters.

  15. Characterization of SV-40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Curt E; Patel, Brijesh B; Cook, Leah M; Wang, Jun; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Eltoum, Isam A; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease in humans are invaluable tools in the fight against prostate cancer. Recently, a Simian Virus-40 T-antigen (SV-40 Tag) targeted probasin promoter rat model was developed. This model, however, has not been extensively characterized; hence we have investigated the ontogeny of prostate cancer and determined the role of sex steroid receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling proteins in the novel SV-40 Tag rat. The SV-40 Tag rat was histopathologically characterized for time to tumor development, incidence and multiplicity and in the ventral, dorsal, lateral and anterior lobes of the prostate. Immunoassay techniques were employed to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sex steroid receptor and growth factor signaling-related proteins. Steroid hormone concentrations were measured via coated well enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated prostate cancer developed as early as 2 and 10 weeks of age, respectively in the ventral prostate (VP) followed by in the dorsolateral (DLP). At 8 weeks of age, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations in SV-40 Tag rats were increased when compared to non-transgenic rats. High cell proliferation and apoptotic indices were found in VP and DLP of transgenic rats. Furthermore, we observed increased protein expression of androgen receptor, IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prostates of SV-40 Tag rats. The rapid development of PIN and prostate cancer in conjunction with the large prostate size makes the SV-40 Tag rat a useful model for studying prostate cancer. This study provides evidence of the role of sex steroid and growth factor proteins in prostate cancer development and defines appropriate windows of opportunity for preclinical trials and aids in the rational design of

  16. Generation of a Vero-Based Packaging Cell Line to Produce SV40 Gene Delivery Vectors for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy Studies

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    Miguel G. Toscano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication-defective (RD recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen. SuperVero cells produce similar numbers of SV40 vector particles compared to the currently used packaging cell lines, albeit in the absence of contaminating RC SV40 particles. Our unique SV40 vector platform named SVac paves the way to clinically test a whole new generation of SV40-based therapeutics for a broad range of important diseases.

  17. A monoclonal antibody against SV40 large T antigen (PAb416) does not label Merkel cell carcinoma.

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    Pelletier, Daniel J; Czeczok, Thomas W; Bellizzi, Andrew M

    2018-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma represents poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of cutaneous origin. In most studies, the vast majority of Merkel cell carcinomas are Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-associated. SV40 polyomavirus immunohistochemistry is typically used in the diagnosis of other polyomavirus-associated diseases, including tubulointerstitial nephritis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, given cross-reactivity with BK and JC polyomaviruses. MCPyV-specific immunohistochemistry is commercially available, but, if antibodies against SV40 also cross-reacted with MCPyV, that would be advantageous from a resource-utilisation perspective. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 39 Merkel cell carcinomas, 24 small-cell lung carcinomas, and 18 extrapulmonary visceral small-cell carcinomas. SV40 large T antigen immunohistochemistry (clone PAb416) was performed; MCPyV large T antigen immunohistochemistry (clone CM2B4) had been previously performed. UniProt was used to compare the amino acid sequences of the SV40, BK, JC and MCPyV large T antigens, focusing on areas recognised by the PAb416 and CM2B4 clones. SV40 immunohistochemistry was negative in all tumours; MCPyV immunohistochemistry was positive in 38% of Merkel cell carcinomas and in 0% of non-cutaneous poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. UniProt analysis revealed a high degree of similarity between SV40, BK, and JC viruses in the region recognised by PAb416. There was less homology between SV40 and MCPyV in this region, which was also interrupted by two long stretches of amino acids unique to MCPyV. The CM2B4 clone recognises a unique epitope in one of these stretches. The PAb416 antibody against the SV40 large T antigen does not cross-react with MCPyV large T antigen, and thus does not label Merkel cell carcinoma. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. SV40 late protein VP4 forms toroidal pores to disrupt membranes for viral release.

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    Raghava, Smita; Giorda, Kristina M; Romano, Fabian B; Heuck, Alejandro P; Hebert, Daniel N

    2013-06-04

    Nonenveloped viruses are generally released from the cell by the timely lysis of host cell membranes. SV40 has been used as a model virus for the study of the lytic nonenveloped virus life cycle. The expression of SV40 VP4 at later times during infection is concomitant with cell lysis. To investigate the role of VP4 in viral release and its mechanism of action, VP4 was expressed and purified from bacteria as a fusion protein for use in membrane disruption assays. Purified VP4 perforated membranes as demonstrated by the release of fluorescent markers encapsulated within large unilamellar vesicles or liposomes. Dynamic light scattering results revealed that VP4 treatment did not cause membrane lysis or change the size of the liposomes. Liposomes encapsulated with 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-3-indacene-labeled streptavidin were used to show that VP4 formed stable pores in membranes. These VP4 pores had an inner diameter of 1-5 nm. Asymmetrical liposomes containing pyrene-labeled lipids in the outer monolayer were employed to monitor transbilayer lipid diffusion. Consistent with VP4 forming toroidal pore structures in membranes, VP4 induced transbilayer lipid diffusion or lipid flip-flop. Altogether, these studies support a central role for VP4 acting as a viroporin in the disruption of cellular membranes to trigger SV40 viral release by forming toroidal pores that unite the outer and inner leaflets of membrane bilayers.

  19. A mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on expression of the SV40 large T antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Brugge, Petra J; Ta, Van B T; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W

    2009-01-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen is a potent oncogene able to transform many cell types and has been implicated in leukemia and lymphoma. In this report, we have achieved sporadic SV40 T-antigen expression in mature B cells in mice, by insertion of a SV40 T antigen gene in opposite...... transcriptional orientation in the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) chain locus between the D and J(H) segments. SV40 T-antigen expression appeared to result from retention of the targeted germline allele and concomitant antisense transcription of SV40 large T in mature B cells, leading to chronic lymphocytic...... leukemia (CLL). Although B-cell development was unperturbed in young mice, aging mice showed accumulation of a monoclonal B-cell population in which the targeted IgH allele was in germline configuration and the wild-type IgH allele had a productive V(D)J recombination. These leukemic B cells were Ig...

  20. Early superoxide dismutase alterations during SV40-transformation of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravard, A; Hoffschir, F; Sabatier, L; Ricoul, M; Pinton, A; Cassingena, R; Estrade, S; Luccioni, C; Dutrillaux, B

    1992-11-11

    The expression of superoxide dismutases (SOD) 1 and 2 was studied in 4 clones of human fibroblasts after their infection by simian virus 40 (SV40), in parallel with the alterations of chromosomes 21 and chromosome 6q arms, carrying the genes that encode for SOD1 and SOD2 respectively. For all clones, a similar scheme with 2 main phases was observed for both chromosome and SOD variations. The first phase, defined as the pre-crisis phase, was characterized by chromosomal instability, but maintenance of normal numbers of chromosome 6q arms and chromosomes 21. The level of SOD2 mRNA was high, while SOD2 activity and immunoreactive protein were low. SOD1 protein and activity were decreased. In the second phase, defined as the post-crisis phase, the accumulation of clonal chromosomal rearrangements led to the loss of 6q arms, while the number of chromosomes 21 remained normal. SOD2 mRNA level was decreased and SOD2 immunoreactive protein and activity remained low. SOD1 protein and activity increased with passages, reaching values similar to those of control cells at late passages. As in established SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell lines, good correlation was found between SOD2 activity and the relative number of 6q arms. These results allow us to reconstruct the sequence of events leading to the decrease of SOD2, a possible tumor-suppressor gene, during the process of SV40-transformation of human fibroblasts.

  1. Impaired CK1 delta activity attenuates SV40-induced cellular transformation in vitro and mouse mammary carcinogenesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun Hirner

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 is a powerful tool to study cellular transformation in vitro, as well as tumor development and progression in vivo. Various cellular kinases, among them members of the CK1 family, play an important role in modulating the transforming activity of SV40, including the transforming activity of T-Ag, the major transforming protein of SV40, itself. Here we characterized the effects of mutant CK1δ variants with impaired kinase activity on SV40-induced cell transformation in vitro, and on SV40-induced mammary carcinogenesis in vivo in a transgenic/bi-transgenic mouse model. CK1δ mutants exhibited a reduced kinase activity compared to wtCK1δ in in vitro kinase assays. Molecular modeling studies suggested that mutation N172D, located within the substrate binding region, is mainly responsible for impaired mutCK1δ activity. When stably over-expressed in maximal transformed SV-52 cells, CK1δ mutants induced reversion to a minimal transformed phenotype by dominant-negative interference with endogenous wtCK1δ. To characterize the effects of CK1δ on SV40-induced mammary carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing mutant CK1δ under the control of the whey acidic protein (WAP gene promoter, and crossed them with SV40 transgenic WAP-T-antigen (WAP-T mice. Both WAP-T mice as well as WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T bi-transgenic mice developed breast cancer. However, tumor incidence was lower and life span was significantly longer in WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T bi-transgenic animals. The reduced CK1δ activity did not affect early lesion formation during tumorigenesis, suggesting that impaired CK1δ activity reduces the probability for outgrowth of in situ carcinomas to invasive carcinomas. The different tumorigenic potential of SV40 in WAP-T and WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T tumors was also reflected by a significantly different expression of various genes known to be involved in tumor progression, specifically of those involved in wnt-signaling and DNA

  2. Transformation of SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cells by 3-methylcholanthrene increases IFN- and Large T Antigen-induced transcripts

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    Easton Marilyn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Virus 40 (SV40 immortalization followed by treatment of cells with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC has been used to elicit tumors in athymic mice. 3-MC carcinogenesis has been thoroughly studied, however gene-level interactions between 3-MC and SV40 that could have produced the observed tumors have not been explored. The commercially-available human uroepithelial cell lines were either SV40-immortalized (HUC or SV40-immortalized and then 3-MC-transformed (HUC-TC. Results To characterize the SV40 - 3MC interaction, we compared human gene expression in these cell lines using a human cancer array and confirmed selected changes by RT-PCR. Many viral Large T Antigen (Tag expression-related changes occurred in HUC-TC, and it is concluded that SV40 and 3-MC may act synergistically to transform cells. Changes noted in IFP 9-27, 2'-5' OAS, IF 56, MxA and MxAB were typical of those that occur in response to viral exposure and are part of the innate immune response. Because interferon is crucial to innate immune host defenses and many gene changes were interferon-related, we explored cellular growth responses to exogenous IFN-γ and found that treatment impeded growth in tumor, but not immortalized HUC on days 4 - 7. Cellular metabolism however, was inhibited in both cell types. We conclude that IFN-γ metabolic responses were functional in both cell lines, but IFN-γ anti-proliferative responses functioned only in tumor cells. Conclusions Synergism of SV40 with 3-MC or other environmental carcinogens may be of concern as SV40 is now endemic in 2-5.9% of the U.S. population. In addition, SV40-immortalization is a generally-accepted method used in many research materials, but the possibility of off-target effects in studies carried out using these cells has not been considered. We hope that our work will stimulate further study of this important phenomenon.

  3. Gene expression promoted by the SV40 DNA targeting sequence and the hypoxia-responsive element under normoxia and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Sacramento

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to find suitable DNA-targeting sequences (DTS for the construction of plasmid vectors to be used to treat ischemic diseases. The well-known Simian virus 40 nuclear DTS (SV40-DTS and hypoxia-responsive element (HRE sequences were used to construct plasmid vectors to express the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene (hVEGF. The rate of plasmid nuclear transport and consequent gene expression under normoxia (20% O2 and hypoxia (less than 5% O2 were determined. Plasmids containing the SV40-DTS or HRE sequences were constructed and used to transfect the A293T cell line (a human embryonic kidney cell line in vitro and mouse skeletal muscle cells in vivo. Plasmid transport to the nucleus was monitored by real-time PCR, and the expression level of the hVEGF gene was measured by ELISA. The in vitro nuclear transport efficiency of the SV40-DTS plasmid was about 50% lower under hypoxia, while the HRE plasmid was about 50% higher under hypoxia. Quantitation of reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo, under hypoxia and normoxia, confirmed that the SV40-DTS plasmid functioned better under normoxia, while the HRE plasmid was superior under hypoxia. These results indicate that the efficiency of gene expression by plasmids containing DNA binding sequences is affected by the concentration of oxygen in the medium.

  4. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

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    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  5. SV40 Utilizes ATM Kinase Activity to Prevent Non-homologous End Joining of Broken Viral DNA Replication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PKcs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PKcs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5′ to 3′ end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication. PMID:25474690

  6. SV40 T antigen alone drives karyotype instability that precedes neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, F A; Peabody, D S; Cooper, J L; Cram, L S; Kraemer, P M

    1990-01-01

    To define the role of SV40 large T antigen in the transformation and immortalization of human cells, we have constructed a plasmid lacking most of the unique coding sequences of small t antigen as well as the SV40 origin of replication. The promoter for T antigen, which lies within the origin of replication, was deleted and replaced by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter. This minimal construct was co-electroporated into normal human fibroblasts of neonatal origin along with a plasmid containing the neomycin resistance gene (neo). Three G418-resistant, T antigen-positive clones were expanded and compared to three T antigen-positive clones that received the pSV3neo plasmid (capable of expressing large and small T proteins and having two origins of replication). Autonomous replication of plasmid DNA was observed in all three clones that received pSV3neo but not in any of the three origin minus clones. Immediately after clonal expansion, several parameters of neoplastic transformation were assayed. Low percentages of cells in T antigen-positive populations were anchorage independent or capable of forming colonies in 1% fetal bovine serum. The T antigen-positive clones generally exhibited an extended lifespan in culture but rarely became immortalized. Large numbers of dead cells were continually generated in all T antigen-positive, pre-crisis populations. Ninety-nine percent of all T antigen-positive cells had numerical or structural chromosome aberrations. Control cells that received the neo gene did not have an extended life span, did not have noticeable numbers of dead cells, and did not exhibit karyotype instability. We suggest that the role of T antigen protein in the transformation process is to generate genetic hypervariability, leading to various consequences including neoplastic transformation and cell death.

  7. Analysis of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in control and SV40-transformed human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, P D; Brandt, P C; Vanaman, T C

    1997-01-01

    It has been long known that neoplastic transformation is accompanied by a lowered requirement for extracellular Ca2+ for growth. The studies presented here demonstrate that human fibroblastic cell lines produce the two commonly found 'housekeeping' isoforms of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), PMCA1b and 4b, and at the expression of both is demonstrably lower in cell lines neoplastically transformed by SV40 than in the corresponding parental cell lines. Western blot analyses of lysates from control (GM00037) and SV40-transformed (GM00637) skin fibroblasts revealed a 138 kDa PMCA whose level was significantly lower in the SV40-transformed cells relative to either total cellular protein or alpha-tubulin. Similar analyses of plasma membrane preparations from control WI-38) and SV40-transformed (WI-38VA13) lung fibroblasts revealed 3-4-fold lower levels of PMCA in the SV40-transformed cells. Competitive ELISAs performed on detergent solubilized plasma membrane preparations indicated at least 3-4-fold lower levels of PMCA in the SV40-transformed cell lines compared to controls. Reverse transcriptase coupled-PCR analyses showed that PMCA1b and PMCA4b were the only isoforms expressed in all four cell lines. The PMCA4b mRNA level detected by Northern analysis also was substantially lower in SV40 transformed skin fibroblasts than in non-transformed fibroblasts. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed levels of PMCA1b and 4b mRNAs to be 5 and 10-fold lower, respectively, in GM00637 than in GM00037 when the levels of PCR products were normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA. These results demonstrate that the expression of these distinct PMCA genes is substantially lower in SV40 transformed human skin and lung fibroblasts and may be coordinately regulated in these cells.

  8. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Test of models for replication of SV40 DNA following UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The replication of SV40 DNA immediately after irradiation of infected monkey cells has been examined. SV40 DNA synthesis is inhibited in a UV fluence-dependent fashion, and the synthesis of completely replicated (Form I) SV40 molecules is more severely inhibited than is total SV40 DNA synthesis. Two models for DNA replication-inhibition have been tested. Experimental results have been compared to those predicted by mathematical models derived to describe two possible molecular mechanisms of replication inhibition. No effect of UV irradiation on the uptake and phosphorylation of 3 H-thymidine nor on the size of the intracellular deoxythymidine triphosphate pool of SV40-infected cells have been observed, validating the use of 3 H-thymidine incorporation as a measure of DNA synthesis in this system. In vitro studies have been performed to further investigate the mechanism of dimer-specific inhibition of completion of SV40 DNA synthesis observed in in vivo. The results of these studies are consistent with a mechanism of discontinuous synthesis past dimer sites, but it is equally possible that the mechanism of DNA replication of UV-damaged DNA in the in vitro system is different from that which occurs in vivo

  10. Homologous SV40 RNA trans-splicing: Special case or prime example of viral RNA trans-splicing?

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    Sushmita Poddar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To date the Simian Virus 40 (SV40 is the only proven example of a virus that recruits the mechanism of RNA trans-splicing to diversify its sequences and gene products. Thereby, two identical viral transcripts are efficiently joined by homologous trans-splicing triggering the formation of a highly transforming 100 kDa super T antigen. Sequences of other viruses including HIV-1 and the human adenovirus type 5 were reported to be involved in heterologous trans-splicing towards cellular or viral sequences but the meaning of these events remains unclear. We computationally and experimentally investigated molecular features associated with viral RNA trans-splicing and identified a common pattern: Viral RNA trans-splicing occurs between strong cryptic or regular viral splice sites and strong regular or cryptic splice sites of the trans-splice partner sequences. The majority of these splice sites are supported by exonic splice enhancers. Splice sites that could compete with the trans-splicing sites for cis-splice reactions are weaker or inexistent. Finally, all but one of the trans-splice reactions seem to be facilitated by one or more complementary binding domains of 11 to 16 nucleotides in length which, however occur with a statistical probability close to one for the given length of the involved sequences. The chimeric RNAs generated via heterologous viral RNA trans-splicing either did not lead to fusion proteins or led to proteins of unknown function. Our data suggest that distinct viral RNAs are highly susceptible to trans-splicing and that heterologous viral trans-splicing, unlike homologous SV40 trans-splicing, represents a chance event.

  11. SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: evidence for cellular aging in pre-crisis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G H

    1985-10-01

    Pre-crisis SV40-transformed human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cultures have a finite proliferative lifespan, but they do not enter a viable senescent state at end of lifespan. Little is known about either the mechanism for this finite lifespan in SV40-transformed HDF or its relationship to finite lifespan in normal HDF. Recently we proposed that in normal HDF the phenomena of finite lifespan and arrest in a viable senescent state depend on two separate processes: 1) an age-related decrease in the ability of the cells to recognize or respond to serum and/or other mitogens such that the cells become functionally mitogen-deprived at the end of lifespan; and 2) the ability of the cells to enter a viable, G1-arrested state whenever they experience mitogen deprivation. In this paper, data are presented that suggest that pre-crisis SV40-transformed HDF retain the first process described above, but lack the second process. It is shown that SV40-transformed HDF have a progressively decreasing ability to respond to serum as they age, but they continue to traverse the cell cycle at the end of lifespan. Concomitantly, the rate of cell death increases steadily toward the end of lifespan, thereby causing the total population to cease growing and ultimately to decline. Previous studies have shown that when SV40-transformed HDF are environmentally serum deprived, they likewise exhibit continued cell cycle traverse coupled with increased cell death. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that pre-crisis SV40-transformed HDF still undergo the same aging process as do normal HDF, but they end their lifespan in crisis rather than in the normal G1-arrested senescent state because they have lost their ability to enter a viable, G1-arrested state in response to mitogen deprivation.

  12. Comparative human cellular radiosensitivity: I. The effect of SV40 transformation and immortalisation on the gamma-irradiation survival of skin derived fibroblasts from normal individuals and from ataxia-telangiectasia patients and heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlett, C F; Green, M H; Priestley, A; Harcourt, S A; Mayne, L V

    1988-12-01

    We have compared cell killing following 60Co gamma irradiation in 22 primary human fibroblast strains, nine SV40-immortalized human fibroblast lines and seven SV40-transformed pre-crisis human fibroblast cultures. We have examined material from normal individuals, from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients and from A-T heterozygotes. We have confirmed the greater sensitivity of A-T derived cells to gamma radiation. The distinction between A-T and normal cells is maintained in cells immortalized by SV40 virus but the immortal cells are more gamma radiation resistant than the corresponding primary fibroblasts. Cells transformed by plasmids (pSV3gpt and pSV3neo) expressing SV40 T-antigen, both pre- and post-crisis, show this increased resistance, indicating that it is expression of SV40 T-antigen, rather than immortalization per se which is responsible for the change. We use D0, obtained from a straight line fit, and D, estimated from a multitarget curve, as parameters to compare radiosensitivity. We suggest that both have their advantages; D0 is perhaps more reproducible, but D is more realistic when comparing shouldered and non-shouldered data.

  13. Inhibition of in vitro SV40 DNA replication by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, G.; Wood, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage was found to inhibit SV40 origin-dependent DNA synthesis carried out by soluble humancell extracts. Replication of SV40-based plasmids was reduced to approx. 35% of that in unirradiated controls after irradiation with 50-100 J/m 2 germicidal ultraviolet light, where an average of 3-6 pyrimidine dimer photoproducts were formed per plasmid circle. Inhibition of the DNA helicase activity of T antigen (required for initiation of replication in the in vitro system) was also investigated, and was only significant after much higher fluences, 1000-5000 J/m 2 . The data indicate that DNA damage by ultraviolet light inhibits DNA synthesis in cell-free extracts principally by affecting components of the replication complex other than the DNA helicase activity of T antigen. The soluble system could be used to biochemically investigate the possible bypass or tolerance of DNA damage during replication (author). 21 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated ras oncogene and SV40 T-antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L N; Little, J B

    1992-08-01

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. Cells transfected with EJ ras alone showed no morphological alterations nor significant changes in radiosensitivity. Cell clones expressing ras and/or SV40 T-antigen showed a reduced requirement for serum supplements, an increase in aneuploidy and chromosomal aberrations, and enhanced growth in soft agar as an early cellular response to SV40 T-antigen expression. The sequential order of transfection with SV40 T-antigen and ras influenced radio-sensitivity but not the induction of morphological changes. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself.

  15. SV40 large T-p53 complex: evidence for the presence of two immunologically distinct forms of p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, J.; Gamble, J.

    1985-01-01

    The transforming protein of SV40 is the large T antigen. Large T binds a cellular protein, p53, which is potentially oncogenic by virtue of its functional involvement in the control of cell proliferation. This raises the possibility that p53 may mediate, in part, the transforming function of SV40 large T. Two immunologically distinct forms of p53 have been identified in normal cells: the forms are cell-cycle dependent, one being restricted to nondividing cells (p53-Go) and the second to dividing cells (p53-G divided by). The authors have now dissociated and probed the multimeric complex of SV40 large T-p53 for the presence of immunologically distinct forms of p53. Here they present evidence for the presence of p53-Go and p53-G divided by complexed with SV40 large T

  16. Host-cell reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated SV 40 DNA in five complementation groups of xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.; Eb, A.J. van der

    1976-01-01

    Host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated double-stranded SV40 DNA was studied in BSC-1 monkey cells, normal human cells, heterozygous Xeroderma pigmentosum xp cells, representative cell strains of the five complemention groups of XP and in XP 'variant' cells. The following percentages of survival of the plaque-forming ability of double-stranded SV40 DNA were found in XP cells compared with the value found in normal monkey and human cells: groupA, 13%; group B, 30%; group C, 18%; group D, 14%; group E, 59%; and in the heterozygous XP cells almost 100%. The survival in XP 'variant' cells was 66%. The survival of single-stranded SV40 DNA in BSC-1 cells was much lower than that of double-stranded SV40 DNA in XP cells of complementation group A, which possibly indicates that some repair of UV damage occurs even in XP cells of group A

  17. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated RAS oncogene and SV40 T-antigen

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    Su, L.-N.; Little, J.B. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself. (author).

  18. SV40 host-substituted variants: a new look at the monkey DNA inserts and recombinant junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Maxine; Winocour, Ernest

    2011-04-10

    The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated RAS oncogene and SV40 T-antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, L.-N.; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself. (author)

  20. Transcriptional repression is epigenetically marked by H3K9 methylation during SV40 replication

    OpenAIRE

    Kallestad, Les; Christensen, Kendra; Woods, Emily; Milavetz, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Background We have recently shown that T-antigen binding to Site I results in the replication-dependent introduction of H3K9me1 into SV40 chromatin late in infection. Since H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 are also present late in infection, we determined whether their presence was also related to the status of ongoing transcription and replication. Transcription was either inhibited with 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidizole (DRB) or stimulated with sodium butyrate and the effects on histone m...

  1. Oncogenic transformation of rat lung epithelioid cells by SV40 DNA and restriction enzyme fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya-Grosjean, L.; Lasne, C.; Nardeux, P.; Chouroulinkov, I.; Monier, R.

    1979-01-01

    Rat epithelioid lung cells were transformed with various preparations of SV40 DNA using the Ca 2+ -precipitation technique. The amount of SV40 genetic information integrated into transformed clones was evaluated by DNA-DNA renaturation kinetics. The growth properties on plastic and in soft-agar were examined, as well as the ability to induce tumors in syngeneic newborn animals or in adult nude mice. One particular transformed line, which had received the HpaII/BamHIA (59 per cent) fragment, was found to contain about 3 integrated copies of this fragment per cell and no significant amount of the HpaII/BamHIB (41 per cent fragment). This line which grew to high saturatio densities and efficiently formed clones in low serum on plastic, produced tumors in both syngeneic rats and nude mice. Thus the HpaII/BamHIA fragment, which mainly includes early viral information, was sufficient to impart these properties to rat epithelioid lung cells. (author)

  2. Pleomorphic adenoma cells vary in their susceptibility to SV40 transformation depending on the initial karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, B; Thode, B; Bartnitzke, S; Bullerdiek, J; Schloot, W

    1992-07-01

    Chromosomal aberrations involving 8q12 or 12q13-15 characterize two cytogenetic subgroups of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. As the tumors of the two groups differ in their clinical and histologic characteristics, we decided to determine their susceptibility to SV40 transformation. We transfected cell cultures from 13 adenomas with aberrations involving 8q12 and from seven adenomas with involvement of 12q13-15 using an SV40 plasmid coding for the early region of the viral genome. Whereas all cultures with aberrations of 12q13-15 showed transformed foci, only 4 of the 13 cultures with 8q12 abnormalities showed foci of transformed cells. We also observed a much higher immortalization rate in the first group (3/7 vs. 1/13). All successfully transformed tumor cell cultures showed a relatively stable karyotype in the pre-crisis stage and a high mitotic index, were T-antigen positive, and had an extended life span in vitro.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation inactivates SV40 by disrupting at least four genetic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.C.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The most UV sensitive region within the SV40 viral genome contains the transcriptional promotors and enhancers for the early and late viral genes plus part of the origin of DNA replication. Lesions within this regulatory region are 3.2-fold more effective in inactivating viral DNA than is the same amount of damage randomly distributed throughout the viral genome. The region least sensitive to damage lies within the coding portion of the viral coat protein genes, which are expressed only late in infection and would therefore be transcribed from undamaged progeny viral genomes, provided DNA replication occurs. Damage within this region is only 45% as effective in inactivating viral DNA as are randomly distributed lesions. Thus there is a 7-fold difference in the lethal effect of DNA damage within the most and least sensitive regions of the viral genome. Intermediate sensitivities are observed within the transcribed portion of the viral A gene, coding for the T antigen whose expression is required early in infection, and in a region at the terminus of DNA replication. The sum of the individual sensitivities for all regions of the SV40 genome is equal to the total sensitivity of viral DNA subjected to random damage. (author)

  4. Replication of simian virus 40 in simian virus 40-transformed hamster kidney cells induced by mitomycin C or 60Co γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakusanova, T.; Smales, W.P.; Kaplan, J.C.; Black, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Several clones of simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster kidney cells, which are heterogeneous for induction of infectious SV40, have been studied. SV40 yields are low after induction with 60 Co γ irradiation or mitomycin C. In order to clarify the mechanism(s) by which virus is produced in induced cells, we analyzed the replication of viral DNA and production of virion (V) antigen and infectious virus after induction in various clones as well as in lytically infected permissive cells. Cells replicating SV40 DNA or synthesizing V antigen were visualized by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence techniques, respectively. Only some cells in induced cultures were found to produce SV40 and those which did were less efficient than lytically infected monkey cells. Mitomycin C or 60 Co γ irradiation acted by inducing more cells to replicate virus rather than by increasing the amount of SV40 released from individual cells. A greater proportion of cells could be induced to replicate SV40 DNA than to synthesize V antigen in all induced clones studied. Also, SV40 DNA replication was induced at lower doses of γ irradiation than the production of either V antigen or infectious virus suggesting that synthesis of late virus protein is more restricted in induced cells than is replication of SV40 DNA. These findings indicate that one of the effects of induction treatments on SV40-transformed hamster cells is an enhancement of the cells' capacity to support SV40 replication

  5. Progressive paralysis associated with diffuse astrocyte anaplasia in delta 202 mice homozygous for a transgene encoding the SV40 T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Revilla, Rubén; Soto-Zárate, Carlos; Ridaura, Cecilia; Chávez-Dueñas, Lucía; Paul, Dieter

    2004-03-01

    A convenient transgenic astrocytoma model in delta202 mice, homozygous for a construct encoding the early region of the SV40 virus genome, is described. In the offspring of crosses between delta202 mice heterozygous for the transgene nearly 60% were transgenic; one third of these developed progressive paralysis starting in the hindlimbs at approximately 35 days of age and died at 90 +/- 30 days of age. In affected mice proliferating-non-neuronal cells immunostained with antibodies to the GFAP, an astrocyte marker, whose number increased with age were found in the white matter of the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord, and progressive degeneration and necrosis of spinal motoneurons was observed that-may explain the paralysis. The early onset and reproducible time course of the neurological disease suggest that homozygous delta202 mice, whose proliferating astrocytes appear to damage spinal motoneurons, are a useful model to study astrocyte differentiation, function and tumorigenesis.

  6. Differential effects of simple repeating DNA sequences on gene expression from the SV40 early promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirhaeri, S; Wohlrab, F; Wells, R D

    1995-02-17

    The influence of simple repeat sequences, cloned into different positions relative to the SV40 early promoter/enhancer, on the transient expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was investigated. Insertion of (G)29.(C)29 in either orientation into the 5'-untranslated region of the CAT gene reduced expression in CV-1 cells 50-100 fold when compared with controls with random sequence inserts. Analysis of CAT-specific mRNA levels demonstrated that the effect was due to a reduction of CAT mRNA production rather than to posttranscriptional events. In contrast, insertion of the same insert in either orientation upstream of the promoter-enhancer or downstream of the gene stimulated gene expression 2-3-fold. These effects could be reversed by cotransfection of a competitor plasmid carrying (G)25.(C)25 sequences. The results suggest that a G.C-binding transcription factor modulates gene expression in this system and that promoter strength can be regulated by providing protein-binding sites in trans. Although constructs containing longer tracts of alternating (C-G), (T-G), or (A-T) sequences inhibited CAT expression when inserted in the 5'-untranslated region of the CAT gene, the amount of CAT mRNA was unaffected. Hence, these inhibitions must be due to posttranscriptional events, presumably at the level of translation. These effects of microsatellite sequences on gene expression are discussed with respect to recent data on related simple repeat sequences which cause several human genetic diseases.

  7. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified SV40 minichromosomes: the liquid drop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubochet, J; Adrian, M; Schultz, P; Oudet, P

    1986-03-01

    The structure of SV40 minichromosomes has been studied by cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified thin layers of solution. In high-salt buffer (130 mM NaCl), freshly prepared minichromosomes are condensed into globules 30 nm or more in diameter. On the micrograph, they appear to be formed by the close packing of 10 nm granules which give rise to a 10 nm reflection in the optical diffractogram. The globules can adopt many different conformations. At high concentration, they fuse into a homogeneous 'sea' of closely packed 10 nm granules. In low-salt buffer (less than 10 mM NaCl), the globules open, first into 10 nm filaments, and then into nucleosome-strings. The 'liquid drop' model is proposed to explain the condensed structure of the minichromosome in high-salt buffer: nucleosomes stack specifically on top of one another, thus forming the 10 nm filaments. 10 nm filaments in turn, tend to aggregate laterally. Optimizing both these interactions results in the condensation of 10 nm filaments or portions thereof into a structure similar to that of a liquid. Some implications of this model for the structure of cellular chromatin are discussed.

  8. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with SV40 T-antigen mutants defective in RB and P53 binding domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LingNah Su; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    A series of human diploid fibroblast cell clones were developed by DNA transfection with either wild-type SV40 T-antigen (SV40T) or T-antigen mutants defective in its various functional domains. Cell clones expressing the wild-type SV40 T were significantly radioresistant as compared with clones transfected with the neo gene only (D o 192 ± 13 vs 127 ± 19). This radioresistance persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. A series of mutants with point or deletion mutations within each functionally active domain of SV40 T were also examined for their ability to alter radiosensitivity and induce morphological transformation. Cell clones transfected with T-antigen mutants defective in nuclear localization or origin binding showed increased radioresistance similar to clones transfected with wild-type T-antigen, and expressed morphological changes characteristic of SV40 T-transfected cells. (author)

  9. Reconstitution of wild type viral DNA in simian cells transfected with early and late SV40 defective genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F J; Gao, Y; Xu, X

    1993-11-01

    The DNAs of polyomaviruses ordinarily exist as a single circular molecule of approximately 5000 base pairs. Variants of SV40, BKV and JCV have been described which contain two complementing defective DNA molecules. These defectives, which form a bipartite genome structure, contain either the viral early region or the late region. The defectives have the unique property of being able to tolerate variable sized reiterations of regulatory and terminus region sequences, and portions of the coding region. They can also exchange coding region sequences with other polyomaviruses. It has been suggested that the bipartite genome structure might be a stage in the evolution of polyomaviruses which can uniquely sustain genome and sequence diversity. However, it is not known if the regulatory and terminus region sequences are highly mutable. Also, it is not known if the bipartite genome structure is reversible and what the conditions might be which would favor restoration of the monomolecular genome structure. We addressed the first question by sequencing the reiterated regulatory and terminus regions of E- and L-SV40 DNAs. This revealed a large number of mutations in the regulatory regions of the defective genomes, including deletions, insertions, rearrangements and base substitutions. We also detected insertions and base substitutions in the T-antigen gene. We addressed the second question by introducing into permissive simian cells, E- and L-SV40 genomes which had been engineered to contain only a single regulatory region. Analysis of viral DNA from transfected cells demonstrated recombined genomes containing a wild type monomolecular DNA structure. However, the complete defectives, containing reiterated regulatory regions, could often compete away the wild type genomes. The recombinant monomolecular genomes were isolated, cloned and found to be infectious. All of the DNA alterations identified in one of the regulatory regions of E-SV40 DNA were present in the recombinant

  10. Hyperacetylation and differential deacetylation of histones H4 and H3 define two distinct classes of acetylated SV40 chromosomes early in infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milavetz, Barry

    2004-01-01

    SV40 chromosomes undergoing encapsidation late in infection and SV40 chromatin in virions are hyperacetylated on histones H4 and H3. However, the fate of the SV40 chromosomes containing hyperacetylated histones in a subsequent round of infection has not been determined. In order to determine if SV40 chromosomes undergo changes in the extent of histone acetylation during early infection, we have analyzed SV40 chromosomes isolated 30 min and 3 h postinfection by quantitative ChIP assays, depletion ChIP assays, competitive ChIP assays, and ChIP assays combined with restriction endonuclease sensitivity using antibodies to hyperacetylated histones H4 and H3. We have shown that at 30 min postinfection, the hyperacetylated histones are associated with two distinct classes of SV40 chromosomes. One form is hyperacetylated specifically on histone H4 while a second form is hyperacetylated on both H4 and H3. Both forms of chromosomes appear to contain a nucleosome-free promoter region. Over the course of the next few hours of infection, the class of SV40 chromosomes hyperacetylated on only H4 is reduced or completely eliminated through deacetylation

  11. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

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    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  12. Alterations of DNA content in human endometrial stromal cells transfected with a temperature-sensitive SV40: tetraploidization and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, C A; Mayben, J P; Butler, T D; Haskill, J S; Kaufman, D G

    1992-01-01

    The normal genomic stability of human cells is reversed during neoplastic transformation. The SV40 large T antigen alters the DNA content in human endometrial stromal cells in a manner that relates to neoplastic progression. Human endometrial stromal cells were transfected with a plasmid containing the A209 temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 (tsSV40), which is also defective in the viral origin of replication. Ninety-seven clonal transfectants from seven different primary cell strains were isolated. Initial analysis revealed that 20% of the clonal populations (19/97) had an apparent diploid DNA content, 35% (34/97) had an apparent tetraploid DNA content, and the remainder were mixed populations of diploid and tetraploid cells. No aneuploid populations were observed. Diploid tsSV40 transformed cells always give rise to a population of cells with a tetraploid DNA content when continuously cultured at the permissive temperature. The doubling of DNA content can be vastly accelerated by the sudden reintroduction of large T antigen activity following a shift from non-permissive to permissive temperature. Tetraploid tsSV40 transfected cells have a lower capacity for anchorage-independent growth and earlier entry into 'crisis' than diploid cells. These results indicate that during the pre-crisis, extended lifespan phase of growth, the SV40 large T antigen causes a doubling of DNA content. This apparent doubling of DNA content does not confer growth advantage during the extended lifespan that precedes 'crisis'.

  13. Enhanced replication of damaged SV40 DNA in carcinogen-treated monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maga, J.A.; Dixon, K.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of mammalian cells with certain chemical or physical carcinogens prior to infection with ultraviolet-irradiated virus results in enhanced survival or reactivation of the damaged virus. To investigate the molecular basis of this enhanced reactivation (ER), Simian virus 40 DNA replication in carcinogen-treated cells was examined. Treatment of monkey kidney cells with N-acetoxy-2-acetylamino-fluorene or UV radiation 24 h prior to infection with ultraviolet-irradiated Simian virus 40 leads to enhancement of viral DNA replication measured at 36 h after infection by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation or hybridization. The enhancement of DNA replication is observed when cells are treated from 1 to 60 h before infection or 1 to 16 h after infection. The fact that enhancement is observed also when cells are treated after infection rules out the possiblity that enhancement occurs at the level of adsorption or penetration of the virus. Measurements of the time course of viral DNA replication indicate that pretreatment of cells does not alter the time of onset of viral DNA replication. It is concluded that ER of Simain virus 40 occurs at the level of viral DNA replication. (author)

  14. Dissociation of DNA damage and mitochondrial injury caused by hydrogen peroxide in SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells

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    Adcock Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since lung epithelial cells are constantly being exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs, the alveolar surface is a major site of oxidative stress, and each cell type may respond differently to oxidative stress. We compared the extent of oxidative DNA damage with that of mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells at the single cell level. Result DNA damage and mitochondrial injury were measured after oxidative stress in the SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cell line challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Single cell analysis of DNA damage was determined by assessing the number of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG positive cells, a marker of DNA modification, and the length of a comet tail. Mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm, was determined using JC-1. A 1 h pulse of H2O2 induced small amounts of apoptosis (3%. 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the length of the comet tail increased within 1 h of exposure to H2O2. The number of cells with reduced ΔΨm increased after the addition of H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In spite of a continual loss of ΔΨm, DNA fragmentation was reduced 2 h after exposure to H2O2. Conclusion The data suggest that SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to oxidative stress, showing that DNA damage can be dissociated from mitochondrial injury.

  15. Amplification of oncogenes and integrated SV40 sequences in mammalian cells by the decay of incorporated iodine-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, A.; Planas-Bohne, F.; Luecke-Huhle, C.

    1986-01-01

    Iodine-125, in the form of 5-[ 125 I]iododeoxyuridine (I-UdR), was incorporated into the DNA of SV40 transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells. Disintegration of the 125 I led to increased cell killing with increasing dose as measured by the colony-forming ability of single cells. The D37 (the dose at which 37% of the cells survive) amounts to 95 decays per cell, corresponding to 0.66 Gy. Variations in the copy number of specific DNA sequences was measured by using dispersed cell blotting with sensitive DNA hybridizations. A 13-fold amplification of the viral DNA sequences (SV40) and a twofold amplification of two cellular oncogenes of the ras-family (Ki-ras and Ha-ras) were found. Other cellular genes, like the alpha-actin gene, were not amplified, and no variation in gene copy number was detected after incubation of cells with cold I-UdR. We suggest the observed gene amplifications are induced by the densely ionizing radiation emitted by the decay of the incorporated 125 I atoms

  16. Sequence-selective topoisomerase II inhibition by anthracycline derivatives in SV40 DNA: Relationship with DNA binding affinity and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capranico, G.; Kohn, K.W.; Pommier, Y.; Zunino, F.

    1990-01-01

    Topoisomerase II mediated double-strand breaks produced by anthracycline analogues were studied in SV40 DNA. The compounds included doxorubicin, daunorubicin, two doxorubicin stereoisomers (4'-epimer and β-anomer), and five chromophore-modified derivatives, with a wide range of cytotoxic activity and DNA binding affinity. Cleavage of 32 P-end-labeled DNA fragments was visualized by autoradiography of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Structure-activity relationships indicated that alterations in the chromophore structure greatly affected drug action on topoisomerase II. In particular, removal of substituents on position 4 of the D ring resulted in more active inducers of cleavage with lower DNA binding affinity. The stereochemistry between the sugar and the chromophore was also essential for activity. All the active anthracyclines induced a single region of prominent cleavage in the entire SV40 DNA, which resulted from a cluster of sites between nucleotides 4237 and 4294. DNA cleavage intensity patterns exhibited differences among analogues and were also dependent upon drug concentration. Intensity at a given site dependent on both stimulatory and suppressive effects depending upon drug concentration and DNA sequence. A good correlation was found between cytotoxicity and intensity of topoisomerase II mediated DNA breakage

  17. Effects of radiation and chemicals on SV40 oncogenesis. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    This project is directed toward developing rapid, quantitative methods and immunologic markers which will permit the early detection of newly forming tumors induced or enhanced by x-irradiation, chemical carcinogens, viruses or combinations of the three. The projects under study in our ongoing collaborative program seek to develop the detailed understanding and precise methodology required for the early detection of embryonic antigens in transformed cells induced by the co-carcinogenic effects of viruses and low-level radiation. A new technique for assaying the earliest transformed cells appearing in a carcinogen treated population affords a unique tool for this study. Present plans involve efforts to purify embryonic determinants from fetal and transformed cells of hamsters and mice in order to define their role in the transformation process and in tumor development

  18. p53 levels, cell cycle kinetics and radiosensitivity in two SV40 transformed Wi38VA13 fibroblast strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, F.; Zoelzer, F.; Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The tumor suppressor protein p53 which can mediate an ionizing radiation-induced G 1 arrest in mammalian cells, forms complexes with SV40 large T antigen (l-T-Ag). We have analyzed the p53 levels, the capability to undergo a G 1 arrest and the radiosensitivity of two SV40 transformed fibroblast strains differing in their large T antigen expression. Material and Methods: One of the two strains (VA13F) is the commercially available form of Wi38VA13, the other (VA13E) arose spontaneously from the original one in our laboratory. Their p53 levels were measured by means of flow cytometry (FCM) and Western blot (WB) with two p53 antibodies (Ab-3, clone PAb240; Ab-6, clone DO-1; both Oncogene Science). Cell cycle distributions were determined flow cytometrically after BrdU labeling at regular time intervals after exposure to 250 kV X-rays. Radiosensitivity was assessed in a clonogenicity assay. Results: The p53 levels of the two strains corresponded to their large T antigen expression, presumably due to complex formation between the two proteins. The strain with a high p53 level did not show a G 1 arrest and had a relatively high radiosensitivity, whereas the strain with a low p53 level showed a significant G 1 arrest and a lower radiosensitivity. Conclusion: These results suggest that 1. complex formation between the large T antigen and p53 reduces the latter's functionality; 2. in these two strains the G 1 arrest is one of the factors determining radiosensitivity. (orig.) [de

  19. Simian virus 40 infection in humans and association with human diseases: results and hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Sabbioni, Silvia; Martini, Fernanda; Negrini, Massimo; Corallini, Alfredo; Tognon, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was introduced in the human population by contaminated poliovaccines, produced in SV40-infected monkey cells, between 1955 and 1963. Epidemiological evidence now suggests that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independent of the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated poliovaccines. This evidence includes detection of SV40 DNA sequences in human tissues and of SV40 antibodies in human sera, as well as rescue of infectious SV40 from a human tumor. Detection of SV40 DNA sequences in blood and sperm and of SV40 virions in sewage points to the hematic, sexual, and orofecal routes as means of virus transmission in humans. The site of latent infection in humans is not known, but the presence of SV40 in urine suggests the kidney as a possible site of latency, as it occurs in the natural monkey host. SV40 in humans is associated with inflammatory kidney diseases and with specific tumor types: mesothelioma, lymphoma, brain, and bone. These human tumors correspond to the neoplasms that are induced by SV40 experimental inoculation in rodents and by generation of transgenic mice with the SV40 early region gene directed by its own early promoter-enhancer. The mechanisms of SV40 tumorigenesis in humans are related to the properties of the two viral oncoproteins, the large T antigen (Tag) and the small t antigen (tag). Tag acts mainly by blocking the functions of p53 and RB tumor suppressor proteins, as well as by inducing chromosomal aberrations in the host cell. These chromosome alterations may hit genes important in oncogenesis and generate genetic instability in tumor cells. The clastogenic activity of Tag, which fixes the chromosome damage in the infected cells, may explain the low viral load in SV40-positive human tumors and the observation that Tag is expressed only in a fraction of tumor cells. 'Hit and run' seems the most plausible mechanism to support this situation. The small tag

  20. Limits of transforming competence of SV40 nuclear and cytoplasmic large T mutants with altered Rb binding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1993-03-01

    Multiple amino acid substitutions were introduced into the SV40 large T region that harbors the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) binding site and the nuclear transport signal, changing either one or both of these determinants. Mutant activities were examined in a set of assays allowing different levels of transforming potential to be distinguished; phenotypic changes in established and pre-crisis rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) were detected under isogenic cell conditions, and comparisons made with other established rodent cells. The limit of the transforming ability of mutants with important substitutions in the Rb binding site fell between two transformation levels of the same established rat cells. Such cells could be induced to form dense foci but not agar colonies (their parental pre-crises REFs, as expected, were untransformed either way). Nonetheless, agar colony induction was possible in other cell lines, such as mouse NIH3T3 and (for one of the mutants) rat F2408. All these mutants efficiently immortalized pre-crisis REFs. The transforming ability of cytoplasmic mutants appeared to depend on the integrity of the Rb-binding sequence to approximately the same extent as that of the wild-type large T, although evidence of in vivo Rb-cytoplasmic large T complexes was not found. The presence or absence of small t was critical when the transforming task of mutants was near the limit of their abilities.

  1. Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.; Lednicky, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus of rhesus macaque origin, was discovered in 1960 as a contaminant of polio vaccines that were distributed to millions of people from 1955 through early 1963. SV40 is a potent DNA tumor virus that induces tumors in rodents and transforms many types of cells in culture, including those of human origin. This virus has been a favored laboratory model for mechanistic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and of cellular transformation. The viral replication protein, named large T antigen (T-ag), is also the viral oncoprotein. There is a single serotype of SV40, but multiple strains of virus exist that are distinguishable by nucleotide differences in the regulatory region of the viral genome and in the part of the T-ag gene that encodes the protein's carboxyl terminus. Natural infections in monkeys by SV40 are usually benign but may become pathogenic in immunocompromised animals, and multiple tissues can be infected. SV40 can replicate in certain types of simian and human cells. SV40-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated polio vaccines. SV40 DNA has been identified in some normal human tissues, and there are accumulating reports of detection of SV40 DNA and/or T-ag in a variety of human tumors. This review presents aspects of replication and cell transformation by SV40 and considers their implications for human infections and disease pathogenesis by the virus. Critical assessment of virologic and epidemiologic data suggests a probable causative role for SV40 in certain human cancers, but additional studies are necessary to prove etiology.

  2. STX140, but not paclitaxel, inhibits mammary tumour initiation and progression in C3(1/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.

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    Florence Meyer-Losic

    Full Text Available Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer models, a rat model of peripheral neuropathy, and through pharmacological testing. Three different in vivo mouse models of breast cancer were used; the metastatic 4T1 orthotopic model, the C3(1/SV40 T-Ag model, and the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. To determine TIX and pharmacological profile of STX140, a comprehensive dosing regime was performed in mice bearing MDA-MD-231 xenografts. Finally, peripheral neuropathy was examined using a rat plantar thermal hyperalgesia model. In the 4T1 metastatic model, STX140 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and lung metastases. All C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice in the control and paclitaxel treated groups developed palpable mammary cancer. STX140 blocked 47% of tumors developing and significantly inhibited growth of tumors that did develop. STX140 treatment caused a significant (P<0.001 survival advantage for animals in early and late intervention groups. Conversely, in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice, paclitaxel failed to inhibit tumor growth and did not increase survival time. Furthermore, paclitaxel, but not STX140, induced significant peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. These results show that STX140 has a greater anti-cancer efficacy, TIX, and reduced neurotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice and therefore may be of significant benefit to patients with breast cancer.

  3. Arginine-rich cross-linking peptides with different SV40 nuclear localization signal content as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, Mariia; Egorova, Anna; Slita, Anna; Maretina, Marianna; Baranov, Vladislav; Kiselev, Anton

    2017-11-01

    The major barriers for intracellular DNA transportation by cationic polymers are their toxicity, poor endosomal escape and inefficient nuclear uptake. Therefore, we designed novel modular peptide-based carriers modified with SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS). Core peptide consists of arginine, histidine and cysteine residues for DNA condensation, endosomal escape promotion and interpeptide cross-linking, respectively. We investigated three polyplexes with different NLS content (10 mol%, 50 mol% and 90 mol% of SV40 NLS) as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery. All carriers tested were able to condense DNA, to protect it from DNAase I and were not toxic to the cells. We observed that cell cycle arrest by hydroxyurea did not affect transfection efficacy of NLS-modified carriers which we confirmed using quantitative confocal microscopy analysis. Overall, peptide carrier modified with 90 mol% of SV40 NLS provided efficient transfection and nuclear uptake in non-dividing cells. Thus, incorporation of NLS into arginine-rich cross-linking peptides is an adequate approach to the development of efficient intranuclear gene delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Defective repair of UV-damaged DNA in human tumor and SV40-transformed human cells but not in adenovirus-transformed human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The DNA repair capacities of five human tumor cell lines, one SV40-transformed human cell line and one adenovirus-transformed human cell line were compared with that of normal human fibroblasts using a sensitive host cell reactivation (HCR) technique. Unirradiated and UV-irradiated suspensions of adenovirus type 2 (Ad 2) were assayed for their ability to form viral structural antigens (Vag) in the various cell types using immunofluorescent staining. The survival of Vag formation for UV-irradiated Ad 2 was significantly reduced in all the human tumor cell lines and the SV40-transformed human line compared to the normal human fibroblasts, but was apparently normal in the adenovirus-transformed human cells. D 0 values for the UV survival of Ad 2 Vag synthesis in the tumor and virally transformed lines expressed as a percentage of that obtained on normal fibroblast strains were used as a measure of DNA repair capacity. Percent HCR values ranged from 26 to 53% in the tumor cells. These results indicate a deficiency in the repair of UV-induced DNA damage associated with human tumorigenesis and the transformation of human cells by SV40 but not the transformation of human cells by adenovirus. (author)

  5. Simian virus 40, poliovirus vaccines, and human cancer: research progress versus media and public interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.

  6. Mesothelioma mortality in Europe: impact of asbestos consumption and simian virus 40

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    Rehak Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that asbestos is the most important cause of mesothelioma. The role of simian virus 40 (SV40 in mesothelioma development, on the other hand, remains controversial. This potential human oncogene has been introduced into various populations through contaminated polio vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the possible presence of SV40 in various European countries, as indicated either by molecular genetic evidence or previous exposure to SV40-contaminated vaccines, had any effect on pleural cancer rates in the respective countries. Methods We conducted a Medline search that covered the period from January 1969 to August 2005 for reports on the detection of SV40 DNA in human tissue samples. In addition, we collected all available information about the types of polio vaccines that had been used in these European countries and their SV40 contamination status. Results Our ecological analysis confirms that pleural cancer mortality in males, but not in females, correlates with the extent of asbestos exposure 25 – 30 years earlier. In contrast, neither the presence of SV40 DNA in tumor samples nor a previous vaccination exposure had any detectable influence on the cancer mortality rate in neither in males (asbestos-corrected rates nor in females. Conclusion Using the currently existing data on SV40 prevalence, no association between SV40 prevalence and asbestos-corrected male pleural cancer can be demonstrated.

  7. Initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro: Pulse-chase experiments identify the first labeled species as topologically unwound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, P.A.; Seo, Yeon Soo; Hurwitz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A distinct unwound form of DNA containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin is produced in replication reactions carried out in mixtures containing crude fractions prepared from HeLa cells. This species, termed form U R , comigrates on chloroquine-containing agarose gels with the upper part of the previously described heterogeneous highly unwound circular DNA, form U. As with form U, formation of form U R is dependent upon the SV40 tumor (T) antigen. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that the first species to incorporate labeled deoxyribonucleotides comigrates with form U R . Restriction analyses of the products of the pulse-chase experiments show that initiation occurs at the SV40 origin and then proceeds outward in a bidirectional manner. These experiments establish form U R as the earliest detectable substrate for SV40 DNA replication and suggest that SV40 DNA replication initiates on an unwound species

  8. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus in a cell line inducible for simian virus 40 synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, G.B.; Kleinman, L.F.; Black, P.H.; Kaplan, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus (HSV) was investigated in irradiated and unirradiated transformed hamster cells in which infectious simian virus 40(SV40) can be induced. Reactivation was enhanced when the cells were treated with UV light or mitomycin C prior to infection with HSV. The UV dose-response curve of this enhanced reactivation was strikingly similar to that found for induction of SV40 virus synthesis in cells treated under identical conditions. This is the first time that two SOS functions described in bacteria have been demonstrated in a single mammalian cell line. (orig.)

  9. p53-stabilizing Agent CP-31398 Prevents Growth and Invasion of Urothelial Cancer of the Bladder in Transgenic UPII-SV40T Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateshwar Madka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of bladder cancer and its recurrence make it an important target for chemoprevention. About half of invasive urothelial tumors have mutations in p53. We determined the chemopreventive efficacy of a p53-stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in a transgenic UPII-SV40T mouse model of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC that strongly resembles human TCC. After genotyping, six-week-old UPII-SV40T mice (n = 30/group were fed control (AIN-76A or experimental diets containing 150 or 300 ppm of CP-31398 for 34 weeks. Progression of bladder cancer growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were killed; urinary bladders were collected to determine weights, tumor incidence, and histopathology. There was a significant increase in bladder weights of transgenic versus wild-type mice (male: 140.2 mg vs 27.3 mg, P < .0001; female: 34.2 mg vs 14.8 mg, P < .0001. A significant decrease in the bladder tumor weights (by 68.6–80.2%, P < .0001 in males and by 36.9–55.3%, P < .0001 in females was observed in CP-31398-treated mice. Invasive papillary TCC incidence was 100% in transgenic mice fed control diet. Both male and female mice exposed to CP-31398 showed inhibition of invasive TCC. CP-31398 (300 ppm completely blocked invasion in female mice. Molecular analysis of the bladder tumors showed an increase in apoptosis markers (p53, p21, Bax, and Annexin V with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor in transgenic mice fed CP-31398. These results suggest that p53-modulating agents can serve as potential chemopreventive agents for bladder TCC.

  10. A casein-kinase-2-related protein kinase is tightly associated with the large T antigen of simian virus 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Koenig, M G; Issinger, O G

    1995-01-01

    by the addition of protein kinase CK2 suggest that at least one of the T-antigen-associated protein kinases is CK2 or a protein-kinase-CK2-related enzyme. The association of recombinant CK2 with T antigen was strongly confirmed by in vitro binding studies. Experiments with temperature-sensitive SV40-transformed......The simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is a multifunctional protein involved in SV40 cell transformation and lytic virus infection. Some of its activities are regulated by interaction with cellular proteins and/or by phosphorylation of T antigen by various protein kinases. In this study, we...... show that immuno-purified T antigen from SV40-transformed cells and from baculovirus-infected insect cells is tightly associated with a protein kinase that phosphorylates T antigen in vitro. In the presence of heparin or a peptide resembling a protein kinase CK2 recognition site, the phosphorylation...

  11. Enhancement of SV40 transformation by treatment of C3H2K cells with uv light and caffeine. I. Combined effect of uv light and caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, T.; Anzai, K.; Andoh, T.

    1975-01-01

    Treatment of cultured mouse cells, C3H2K, with uv light and/or caffeine enhanced the frequency of SV40-induced transformation. This enhancement depends upon the doses of uv and caffeine and the mode of combination of these agents. Irradiation of cells with increasing doses of uv just before infection resulted in approximately 2-fold enhancement of the transformation frequency up to a dose of 90 ergs/mm 2 and 3.3-fold at 150 ergs/mm 2 . Addition of 1 mM caffeine to the medium for 4 days subsequent to infection brought about a 2-fold enhancement. When cells were irradiated and treated with 1 mM caffeine, the enhancement was approximately 4-fold up to a uv dose of 90 ergs/mm 2 and 5.9-fold at 150 ergs/mm 2 . When 0.1 to 4 mM caffeine was added for 4 days postinfection, the absolute number of transformations increased, and an enhancement ratio of 1.3 to 6.8 resulted. After the addition of the same increasing doses of caffeine to uv-irradiated cells (75 ergs/mm 2 ), the enhancement of transformation frequency was even higher ranging 2.0 to 13.3. The transformation frequencies thus obtained by the double treatment were always higher than those predicted if uv and caffeine acted additively. The transformation frequency was little affected by the addition of dibutyrylcyclic AMP and theophylline

  12. Rat bone marrow progenitor cells transduced in situ by rSV40 vectors differentiate into multiple central nervous system cell lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Bianling; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2006-12-01

    Using bone marrow-directed gene transfer, we tested whether bone marrow-derived cells may function as progenitors of central nervous system (CNS) cells in adult animals. SV40-derived gene delivery vectors were injected directly into femoral bone marrow, and we examined transgene expression in blood and brain for 0-16 months thereafter by immunostaining for FLAG epitope marker. An average of 5% of peripheral blood cells and 25% of femoral marrow cells were FLAG(+) throughout the study. CNS FLAG-expressing cells were mainly detected in the dentate gyrus (DG) and periventricular subependymal zone (PSZ). Although absent before 1 month and rare at 4 months, DG and PSZ FLAG(+) cells were abundant 16 months after bone marrow injection. Approximately 5% of DG cells expressed FLAG, including neurons (48.6%) and microglia (49.7%), and occasional astrocytes (1.6%), as determined by double immunostaining for FLAG and lineage markers. These data suggest that one or more populations of cells resident within adult bone marrow can migrate to the brain and differentiate into CNS-specific cells.

  13. Differential protein expression, DNA binding and interaction with SV40 large tumour antigen implicate the p63-family of proteins in replicative senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelloul, Siham; Tarunina, Marina; Barnouin, Karin; Mackay, Alan; Jat, Parmjit S

    2002-02-07

    P53 activity plays a key role in mammalian cells when they undergo replicative senescence at their Hayflick limit. To determine whether p63 proteins, members of the family of p53-related genes, are also involved in this process, we examined their expression in serially passaged rat embryo fibroblasts. Upon senescence, two truncated DeltaNp63 proteins decreased in abundance whereas two TAp63 isoforms accumulated. 2-D gel analysis showed that the DeltaNp63 proteins underwent post-translational modifications in both proliferating and senescent cells. Direct binding of DeltaNp63 proteins to a p53 consensus motif was greater in proliferating cells than senescent cells. In contrast p63alpha isoforms bound to DNA in a p53 dependent manner and this was higher in senescent cells than proliferating cells. An interaction of p63alpha proteins with SV40 large tumour antigen was also detected and ectopic expression of DeltaNp63alpha can extend the lifespan of rat embryo fibroblasts. Taken together the results indicate that p63 proteins may play a role in replicative senescence either by competition for p53 DNA binding sites or by direct interaction with p53 protein bound to DNA.

  14. Analysis of proviral integration in human mammary epithelial cell lines immortalized by retroviral infection with a temperature-sensitive SV40 T-antigen construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, A C; Davies, S C; Burman, J; O'Hare, M J

    1994-06-15

    A panel of eight conditionally immortal lines derived by infection of human breast epithelial cells with an amphotropic retrovirus transducing a ts mutant of SV40 large T-antigen was analyzed with respect to individual retroviral integration patterns. Each line contained multiple integration sites which were clonal and stable over extended passage. Similar integration patterns were observed between individual lines arising separately from the same stock of pre-immortal cells, suggesting a common progenitor. Retroviral integration analysis of pre-immortal cells at different stages of pre-crisis growth showed changes indicative of a progressive transition from polyclonality to clonality as the cells approached crisis. Each of the immortal lines contained a sub-set of the integration sites of their pre-immortal progenitors, with individual combinations and copy numbers of sites. Since all the cell lines appeared to originate from single foci in separate flasks, it is likely that each set arose from a common clone of pre-immortal cells as the result of separate genetic events. There was no evidence from this analysis to suggest that specific integration sites played any part either in the selection of pre-crisis clones or in the subsequent establishment of immortal lines.

  15. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidermal cell-shape regulation and subpopulation kinetics during butyrate-induced terminal maturation of normal and SV40-transformed human keratinocytes: epithelial models of differentiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano-Coico, L; Steinberg, M; Higgins, P J

    1990-10-15

    Recent data indicate that malignant human epidermal cells may be appropriate targets for sodium butyrate (NaB)-mediated differentiation therapy. The response of pre- and post-crisis populations of SV40-transformed human keratinocytes (SVKs) to this differentiation-inducing agent was assessed, therefore, within the framework of NaB-directed normal human keratinocyte (NHK) maturation. NaB augmented cornified envelope (CE) production in NHK and pre-crisis SVK cultures; the time-course and efficiency of induced maturation were similar in the 2 cell systems. In NHKs, the percentage of amplifying ("B" substate) cells decreased with time in NaB correlating with increases in both "C" stage keratinocytes and CEs. The latter formed over one or 2 layers of nucleated basal-like cells. Inductions were accompanied by immediate cell cycle blocks (in both the G1 and G2/M phases), reorganization within the actin cytoskeleton, and transient early increases in cellular actin content. Increased NHK and pre-crisis SVK cytoskeletal-associated actin reached a maximum approximately 48 hr after NaB addition and preceded development of CEs. The CE precursors, thus, probably reside in the "B" substate. Post-crisis SVKs, in contrast, were refractive to NaB-induced terminal maturation or cell-cycle perturbation, failed to initiate actin filament rearrangements, and retained a basal cell-like phenotype. Stable transformation of human SVKs in post-crisis phase, therefore, appears to be associated with loss of maturation "competence" within the "B" keratinocyte subpopulation.

  17. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-01-01

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells

  18. Knockdown of AMPKα decreases ATM expression and increases radiosensitivity under hypoxia and nutrient starvation in an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line, LM217.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Takuma; Urushihara, Yusuke; Shiga, Soichiro; Takeda, Kazuya; Jingu, Keiichi; Hosoi, Yoshio

    2018-01-22

    Presence of unperfused regions containing cells under hypoxia and nutrient starvation contributes to radioresistance in solid human tumors. It is well known that hypoxia causes cellular radioresistance, but little is known about the effects of nutrient starvation on radiosensitivity. We have reported that nutrient starvation induced decrease of mTORC1 activity and decrease of radiosensitivity in an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line, LM217, and that nutrient starvation induced increase of mTORC1 activity and increase of radiosensitivity in human liver cancer cell lines, HepG2 and HuH6 (Murata et al., BBRC 2015). Knockdown of mTOR using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for mTOR suppressed radiosensitivity under nutrient starvation alone in HepG2 cells, which suggests that mTORC1 pathway regulates radiosensitivity under nutrient starvation alone. In the present study, effects of hypoxia and nutrient starvation on radiosensitivity were investigated using the same cell lines. LM217 and HepG2 cells were used to examine the effects of hypoxia and nutrient starvation on cellular radiosensitivity, mTORC1 pathway including AMPK, ATM, and HIF-1α, which are known as regulators of mTORC1 activity, and glycogen storage, which is induced by HIF-1 and HIF-2 under hypoxia and promotes cell survival. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, AMPK activity and ATM expression were increased in LM217 cells and decreased in HepG2 cells compared with AMPK activity under nutrient starvation alone or ATM expression under hypoxia alone. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, radiosensitivity was decreased in LM217 cells and increased in HepG2 cells compared with radiosensitivity under hypoxia alone. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, knockdown of AMPK decreased ATM activity and increased radiation sensitivity in LM217 cells. In both cell lines, mTORC1 activity was decreased under hypoxia and nutrient starvation. Under hypoxia alone, knockdown of mTOR slightly increased ATM

  19. Characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines established from CEA424/SV40 T antigen-transgenic mice with or without a human CEA transgene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nöckel, Jessica; Engel, Natasja K van den; Winter, Hauke; Hatz, Rudolf A; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Kammerer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. Patients with gastric cancer at an advanced disease stage have a poor prognosis, due to the limited efficacy of available therapies. Therefore, the development of new therapies, like immunotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer is of utmost importance. Since the usability of existing preclinical models for the evaluation of immunotherapies for gastric adenocarcinomas is limited, the goal of the present study was to establish murine in vivo models which allow the stepwise improvement of immunotherapies for gastric cancer. Since no murine gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines are available we established four cell lines (424GC, mGC3, mGC5, mGC8) from spontaneously developing tumors of CEA424/SV40 T antigen (CEA424/Tag) mice and three cell lines derived from double-transgenic offsprings of CEA424/Tag mice mated with human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic (CEA424/Tag-CEA) mice (mGC2 CEA , mGC4 CEA , mGC11 CEA ). CEA424/Tag is a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse strain harboring the Tag under the control of a -424/-8 bp CEA gene promoter which leads to the development of invasive adenocarcinoma in the glandular stomach. Tumor cell lines established from CEA424/Tag-CEA mice express the well defined tumor antigen CEA under the control of its natural regulatory elements. The epithelial origin of the tumor cells was proven by morphological criteria including the presence of mucin within the cells and the expression of the cell adhesion molecules EpCAM and CEACAM1. All cell lines consistently express the transgenes CEA and/or Tag and MHC class I molecules leading to their susceptibility to lysis by Tag-specific CTL in vitro. Despite the presentation of CTL-epitopes derived from the transgene products the tumor cell lines were tumorigenic when grafted into C57BL/6, CEA424/Tag or CEA424/Tag-CEA-transgenic hosts and no significant differences in tumor take and tumor growth were observed in the different hosts

  20. Association between simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Madden, Charles R.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Finch, Chris J.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma has increased in frequency over the past 30 years, and is a common cancer in HIV-1-infected patients. Although no definite risk factors have emerged, a viral cause has been postulated. Polyomaviruses are known to infect human beings and to induce tumours in laboratory animals. We aimed to identify which one of the three polyomaviruses able to infect human beings (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus) was associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: We analysed systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma from 76 HIV-1-infected and 78 HIV-1-uninfected patients, and non-malignant lymphoid samples from 79 HIV-1-positive and 107 HIV-1-negative patients without tumours; 54 colon and breast carcinoma samples served as cancer controls. We used PCR followed by Southern blot hybridisation and DNA sequence analysis to detect DNAs of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses. FINDINGS: Polyomavirus T antigen sequences, all of which were SV40-specific, were detected in 64 (42%) of 154 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, none of 186 non-malignant lymphoid samples, and none of 54 control cancers. This difference was similar for HIV-1-infected patients and HIV-1-uninfected patients alike. Few tumours were positive for both SV40 and Epstein-Barr virus. Human herpesvirus type 8 was not detected. SV40 sequences were found most frequently in diffuse large B-cell and follicular-type lymphomas. INTERPRETATION: SV40 is significantly associated with some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These results add lymphomas to the types of human cancers associated with SV40.

  1. The archetype enhancer of simian virus 40 DNA is duplicated during virus growth in human cells and rhesus monkey kidney cells but not in green monkey kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, Frank J.; Greenlee, John E.; Carney, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Archetype SV40, obtained directly from its natural host, is characterized by a single 72-bp enhancer element. In contrast, SV40 grown in cell culture almost invariably exhibits partial or complete duplication of the enhancer region. This distinction has been considered important in studies of human tumor material, since SV40-associated tumor isolates have been described having a single enhancer region, suggesting natural infection as opposed to possible contamination by laboratory strains of virus. However, the behavior of archetypal SV40 in cultured cells has never been methodically studied. In this study we reengineered nonarchetypal 776-SV40 to contain a single 72-bp enhancer region and used this reengineered archetypal DNA to transfect a number of simian and human cell lines. SV40 DNA recovered from these cells was analyzed by restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR, and DNA sequencing. Reengineered archetype SV40 propagated in green monkey TC-7 or BSC-1 kidney cells remained without enhancer region duplication even after extensive serial virus passage. Archetype SV40 grown in all but one of the rhesus or human cell lines initially appeared exclusively archetypal. However, when virus from these cell types was transferred to green monkey cells, variants with partial enhancer duplication appeared after as little as a single passage. These findings suggest (1) that virus with a single 72-bp enhancer may persist in cultured cells of simian and human origin; (2) that variants with partially duplicated enhancer regions may arise within cell lines in quantities below limits of detection; (3) that these variants may enjoy a selective advantage in cell types other than those from which they arose (e.g., green monkey kidney cells); and (4) that certain cell lines may support a selective growth advantage for the variants without supporting their formation. Our data indicate that enhancer duplication may also occur in human as well as rhesus kidney cells. Thus, detection of

  2. Replicative intermediates in UV-irradiated Simian virus 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.M.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used Simian virus 40 (SV40) as a probe to study the replication of UV-damaged DNA in mammalian cells. Viral DNA replication in infected monkey kidney cells was synchronized by incubating a mutant of SV40 (tsA58) temperature-sensitive for the initiation of DNA synthesis at the restrictive temperature and then adding aphidicolin to temporarily inhibit DNA synthesis at the permissive temperature while permitting pre-replicative events to occur. After removal of the drug, the infected cells were irradiated at 100 J/m 2 (254 nm) to produce 6-7 pyrimidine dimers per SV40 genome, and returned to the restrictive temperature to prevent reinitiation of replication from the SV40 origin. Replicative intermediates (RI) were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine. The size distribution of daughter DNA strands in RI isolated shortly after irradiation was skewed towards lengths less than the interdimer spacing in parental DNA; this bias persisted for at least 1 h after irradiation, but disappeared within 3 h by which time the size of the newly-synthesized DNA exceeded the interdimer distance. Evidence was obtained for the generation at late times after irradiation, of Form I molecules in which the daughter DNA strand contain dimers. Thus DNA strand exchange as well as trans-dimer synthesis may be involved in the generation of supercoiled Form I DNA from 0V-damaged SV40 replicative intermediates. (Auth.)

  3. Simian virus 40 inhibits differentiation and maturation of rhesus macaque DC-SIGN+-dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are the initiators and modulators of the immune responses. Some species of pathogenic microorganisms have developed immune evasion strategies by controlling antigen presentation function of DC. Simian virus 40 (SV40 is a DNA tumor virus of rhesus monkey origin. It can induce cell transformation and tumorigenesis in many vertebrate species, but often causes no visible effects and persists as a latent infection in rhesus monkeys under natural conditions. To investigate the interaction between SV40 and rhesus monkey DC, rhesus monkey peripheral blood monocyte-derived DC were induced using recombinant human Interleukin-4 (rhIL-4 and infective SV40, the phenotype and function of DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN+ DC were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR. Results showed that SV40 can down-regulate the expression of CD83 and CD86 on DC and impair DC-induced activation of T cell proliferation. These findings suggest that SV40 might also cause immune suppression by influencing differentiation and maturation of DC.

  4. The mechanism of thioacetamide-induced apoptosis in the L37 albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat hepatocyte-derived cell line occurs without DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulera, S J; Sattler, C A; Gast, W L; Heath, S; Festerling, T A; Pitot, H C

    1998-10-01

    The hepatotoxicant thioacetamide (TH) has classically been used as a model to study hepatic necrosis; however, recent studies have shown that TH can also induce apoptosis. In this report we demonstrate that 2.68+/-0.54% of the albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat hepatocytes undergo TH-induced apoptosis, a level comparable to other in vivo models of liver apoptosis. In addition, TH could induce apoptosis and necrosis in the L37 albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat liver-derived cell line. Examination of dying L37 cells treated with 100 mM TH by electron microscopy revealed distinct morphological characteristics that could be attributed to apoptosis. Quantitation of apoptosis by FACS analysis 24 h after treatment with 100 mM TH revealed that 81.3+/-1.6% of the cells were undergoing apoptosis. In contrast, when L37 cells were treated with 250 mM TH, cells exhibited characteristics consistent with necrotic cell death. DNA fragmentation ladders were produced by growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis; however, in 100 mM TH-induced apoptosis, DNA fragmentation ladders were not observed. Analysis of endonuclease activity in L37 cells revealed that the enzymes were not inactivated in the presence of 100 mM TH. The data presented in this report indicate that the L37 cell line could be used to study the mechanism of TH-induced apoptosis that was not mediated through a mechanism requiring DNA fragmentation.

  5. Stowaways in the history of science: the case of simian virus 40 and clinical research on federal prisoners at the US National Institutes of Health, 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Laura; Campbell, Nancy D

    2014-12-01

    In 1960, J. Anthony Morris, a molecular biologist at the US National Institutes of Health conducted one of the only non-therapeutic clinical studies of the cancer virus SV40. Morris and his research team aimed to determine whether SV40 was a serious harm to human health, since many scientists at the time suspected that SV40 caused cancer in humans based on evidence from in vivo animal studies and experiments with human tissue. Morris found that SV40 had no significant effect but his claim has remained controversial among scientists and policymakers through the present day--both on scientific and ethical grounds. Why did Morris only conduct one clinical study on the cancer-causing potential of SV40 in healthy humans? We use the case to explain how empirical evidence and ethical imperatives are, paradoxically, often dependent on each other and mutually exclusive in clinical research, which leaves answers to scientific and ethical questions unsettled. This paper serves two goals: first, it documents a unique--and uniquely important--study of clinical research on SV40. Second, it introduces the concept of "the stowaway," which is a special type of contaminant that changes the past in the present moment. In the history of science, stowaways are misfortunes that nonetheless afford research that otherwise would have been impossible specifically by creating new pasts. This case (Morris' study) and concept (the stowaway) bring together history of science and philosophy of history for productive dialog. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The virus and the vaccine: the true story of a cancer-causing monkey virus, contaminated polio vaccine, and the millions of Americans exposed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bookchin, Debbie; Schumacher, Jim

    2004-01-01

    .... But now SV40 in showing up in human cancers, and prominent researchers are demanding a serious public health response to this forgotten polio vaccine contaminant. A gripping medical detective story, The Virus and the Vaccine raises major questions about vaccine policy.

  7. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  8. Haiku: New paradigm for the reverse genetics of emerging RNA viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Atieh

    Full Text Available Reverse genetics is key technology for producing wild-type and genetically modified viruses. The ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons method is a recent versatile and user-friendly reverse genetics method to rescue RNA viruses. The main constraint of its canonic protocol was the requirement to produce (e.g., by DNA synthesis or fusion PCR 5' and 3' modified genomic fragments encompassing the human cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV and the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme/simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (HDR/SV40pA, respectively. Here, we propose the ultimately simplified "Haiku" designs in which terminal pCMV and HDR/SV40pA sequences are provided as additional separate DNA amplicons. This improved procedure was successfully applied to the rescue of a wide range of viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus and Enterovirus in mosquito or mammalian cells using only standard PCR amplification techniques and starting from a variety of original materials including viral RNAs extracted from cell supernatant media or animal samples. We also demonstrate that, in specific experimental conditions, the presence of the HDR/SV40pA is not necessary to rescue the targeted viruses. These ultimately simplified "Haiku" designs provide an even more simple, rapid, versatile and cost-effective tool to rescue RNA viruses since only generation of overlapping amplicons encompassing the entire viral genome is now required to generate infectious virus. This new approach may completely modify our capacity to obtain infectious RNA viruses.

  9. Effect of uv-irradiation on genetic recombination of Simian virus 40 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentil, A.; Margot, A.; Sarasin, A.

    1983-01-01

    Genetic recombination in monkey kidney cells has been studied using Simian virus 40 (SV40) as a molecular probe. Control or uv-irradiated cells have been co-infected with two thermosensitive mutants of SV40, tsA58 and tsA30. Recombination between the two viral genomes gives rise to a wild type virus phenotype, able to grow at the restrictive temperature of 41 0 C, which was taken as a measure of the recombination activity of the host cells. Results show that recombination takes place at a low frequency when viruses are not uv-irradiated. Irradiation of one or both viruses increases drastically recombination frequency. Pretreatment of the host cells with uv-light or mitomycin C 24 hours before being infected does not increase recombination frequency measured in our experimental conditions. 23 references, 5 tables

  10. Radiation enhanced reactivation of nuclear replicating mammalian viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstahler, L.E.; Lytle, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    When CV-1 monkey kidney cells were UV-irradiated (0 to 18 J/m 2 ) or X-irradiated (0 to 10 krads) before infection with UV-irradiated simian adenovirus 7 (SA7) or simian virus 40 (SV40), increases in the infectivity of these nuclear replicating viruses as measured by plaque formation were observed. These radiation enhanced reactivations, UV enhanced reactivation (UVER) and X-ray enhanced reactivation (X-ray ER), occurred both when virus infection immediately followed irradiation of the cells (except for X-ray ER with SA7) and when virus infection was delayed until 3 to 5 days after cell irradiation. While there was little difference in the levels of reactivation of UV-irradiated SV40 between immediate and delayed infection, delayed infection resulted in higher levels of reactivation of SA7. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated Herpes simplex virus persisted for several days but did not increase. Thus, X-ray enhanced and UV enhanced reactivations of these mammalian viruses were relatively long-lived effects. Essentially no UVER or X-ray ER was found in CV-1 cells for either immediate or delayed infection with UV-irradiated vaccinia virus or poliovirus, both of which replicate in the cell cytoplasm. These results suggest UVER and X-ray ER in mammalian cells may be restricted to viruses which are replicated in the cell nucleus. (author)

  11. Role of the hydrophilic channels of simian virus 40 T-antigen helicase in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Manna, David; Simmons, Daniel T

    2007-05-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) hexameric helicase consists of a central channel and six hydrophilic channels located between adjacent large tier domains within each hexamer. To study the function of the hydrophilic channels in SV40 DNA replication, a series of single-point substitutions were introduced at sites not directly involved in protein-protein contacts. The mutants were characterized biochemically in various ways. All mutants oligomerized normally in the absence of DNA. Interestingly, 8 of the 10 mutants failed to unwind an origin-containing DNA fragment and nine of them were totally unable to support SV40 DNA replication in vitro. The mutants fell into four classes based on their biochemical properties. Class A mutants bound DNA normally and had normal ATPase and helicase activities but failed to unwind origin DNA and support SV40 DNA replication. Class B mutants were compromised in single-stranded DNA and origin DNA binding at low protein concentrations. They were defective in helicase activity and unwinding of the origin and in supporting DNA replication. Class C and D mutants possessed higher-than-normal single-stranded DNA binding activity at low protein concentrations. The class C mutants failed to separate origin DNA and support DNA replication. The class D mutants unwound origin DNA normally but were compromised in their ability to support DNA replication. Taken together, these results suggest that the hydrophilic channels have an active role in the unwinding of SV40 DNA from the origin and the placement of the resulting single strands within the helicase.

  12. Characterization of components released by alkali disruption of simian virus 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Landers, T; Griffith, J

    1977-01-01

    Treatment of simian virus 40 (SV40) particles at pH 9.8 in the presence of 1 mM dithiothreitol for 5 min at 37 degrees C disrupted the virions into a 60S DNA-protein complex and DNA-free 7S protein particles. The DNA-protein complex contained approximately equal amounts of DNA and protein, and ap...

  13. Simian virus 40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppenheim Ariella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. One of the primary organs affected by sepsis is the lung, presenting as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. Organ damage in sepsis involves an alteration in gene expression, making gene transfer a potential therapeutic modality. This work examines the feasibility of applying simian virus 40 (SV40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy. Methods Sepsis-induced ARDS was established by cecal ligation double puncture (2CLP. SV40 vectors carrying the luciferase reporter gene (SV/luc were administered intratracheally immediately after sepsis induction. Sham operated (SO as well as 2CLP rats given intratracheal PBS or adenovirus expressing luciferase served as controls. Luc transduction was evaluated by in vivo light detection, immunoassay and luciferase mRNA detection by RT-PCR in tissue harvested from septic rats. Vector abundance and distribution into alveolar cells was evaluated using immunostaining for the SV40 VP1 capsid protein as well as by double staining for VP1 and for the surfactant protein C (proSP-C. Immunostaining for T-lymphocytes was used to evaluate the cellular immune response induced by the vector. Results Luc expression measured by in vivo light detection correlated with immunoassay from lung tissue harvested from the same rats. Moreover, our results showed vector presence in type II alveolar cells. The vector did not induce significant cellular immune response. Conclusion In the present study we have demonstrated efficient uptake and expression of an SV40 vector in the lungs of animals with sepsis-induced ARDS. These vectors appear to be capable of in vivo transduction of alveolar type II cells and may thus become a future therapeutic tool.

  14. Formation of pyrimidine dimers in Simian virus 40 chromosomes and DNA in vitro: effects of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenberg, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Simian virus 40 chromosomes were used to determine whether packaging of DNA into chromatin affected the yield of cylcobutane pyrimidine dimers introduced by ultraviolet light (254 nm). SV40 chromatin and purified SV40 DNA (radioactively labeled with different isotopes) were mixed and irradiated in vitro. The proteins were extracted and pyrimidine dimers detected as sites sensitive to the UV-endonuclease encoded by bacteriophage T4. When irradiation was carried out in the presence of at least 0.05 M NaCl the same number of dimers were formed in chromatin as in free DNA. Irradiation in the absence of NaCl, however, reduced the relative yield of dimers in chromatin to 89% of that in free DNA. Different methods of chromatin preparation did not influence these results. (author)

  15. Enhanced mutagenesis of UV-irradiated simian virus 40 occurs in mitomycin C-treated host cells only at a low multiplicity of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasin, A.; Benoit, A.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of monkey kidney cells with mitomycin C (MMC) 24 h prior to infection with UV-irradiated simian virus 40 (SV40) enhanced both virus survival and virus mutagenesis. The use of SV40 as a biological probe has been taken as an easy method to analyse SOS response of mammalian cells to the stress caused by DNA damage or inhibition of DNA replication. The mutation assay we used was based on the reversion from a temperature-sensitive phenotype (tsA58 mutant) to a wild-type phenotype. The optimal conditions for producing enhanced survival and mutagenesis in the virus progeny were determined with regard to the multiplicity of infection (MOI). Results showed that the level of enhanced mutagenesis observed for UV-irradiated virus grown in MMC-treated cells was an inverse function of the MOI, while enhanced survival was observed at nearly the same level regardless of the MOI. For the unirradiated virus, almost no increase in the mutation of virus progeny issued from MMC-treated cells was observed, while a small amount of enhanced virus survival was obtained. These results show that enhanced virus mutagenesis and enhanced virus survival can be dissociated under some experimental conditions. Enhanced virus mutagenesis, analogous to the error-prone replication of phages in SOS-induced bacteria, was observed, at least for SV40, only when DNA of both virus and host cells was damaged and when infection occurred with a small number of viral particles. We therefore hypothesize that an error-prone replication mode of UV-damaged templates is observed in induced monkey kidney cells

  16. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hober Didier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40 in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.

  17. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. PMID:19138419

  18. Intracellular cargo delivery by virus capsid protein-based vehicles: From nano to micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ding; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Men, Dong; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zong-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Cellular delivery is an important concern for the efficiency of medicines and sensors for disease diagnoses and therapy. However, this task is quite challenging. Self-assembly virus capsid proteins might be developed as building blocks for multifunctional cellular delivery vehicles. In this work, we found that SV40 VP1 (Simian virus 40 major capsid protein) could function as a new cell-penetrating protein. The VP1 protein could carry foreign proteins into cells in a pentameric structure. A double color structure, with red QDs (Quantum dots) encapsulated by viral capsids fused with EGFP, was created for imaging cargo delivery and release from viral capsids. The viral capsids encapsulating QDs were further used for cellular delivery of micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs). MPIOs were efficiently delivered into live cells and controlled by a magnetic field. Therefore, our study built virus-based cellular delivery systems for different sizes of cargos: protein molecules, nanoparticles, and micron-sized particles. Much research is being done to investigate methods for efficient and specific cellular delivery of drugs, proteins or genetic material. In this article, the authors describe their approach in using self-assembly virus capsid proteins SV40 VP1 (Simian virus 40 major capsid protein). The cell-penetrating behavior provided excellent cellular delivery and should give a new method for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A subset of herpes simplex virus replication genes induces DNA amplification within the host cell genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbronn, R.; zur Hausen, H. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (West Germany))

    1989-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) induces DNA amplification of target genes within the host cell chromosome. To characterize the HSV genes that mediate the amplification effect, combinations of cloned DNA fragments covering the entire HSV genome were transiently transfected into simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster cells. This led to amplification of the integrated SV40 DNA sequences to a degree comparable to that observed after transfection of intact virion DNA. Transfection of combinations of subclones and of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven expression constructs for individual open reading frames led to the identification of sic HSV genes which together were necessary and sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification: UL30 (DNA polymerase), UL29 (major DNA-binding protein), UL5, UL8, UL42, and UL52. All of these genes encode proteins necessary for HSV DNA replication. However, an additional gene coding for an HSV origin-binding protein (UL9) was required for origin-dependent HSV DNA replication but was dispensable for SV40 DNA amplification. The results show that a subset of HSV replication genes is sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification. This opens the possibility that HSV expresses functions sufficient for DNA amplification but separate from those responsible for lytic viral growth. HSV infection may thereby induce DNA amplification within the host cell genome without killing the host by lytic viral growth. This may lead to persistence of a cell with a new genetic phenotype, which would have implications for the pathogenicity of the virus in vivo.

  20. Effects of interferon on cultured cells persistently infected with viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M

    1986-01-01

    The role of interferon (IFN) in viral persistence at the cellular level was investigated. Two types of persistent infections were chosen. The first type was cell lines which contained hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells) uninfected control hepatoma cells, (Mahlavu, HA22T and Hep G2 cells) or simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA (C2, C6, C11 cells) and control uninfected (CV-1 cells). In the second type of infection Vero cells persistently infected with SSPE or Sendai virus were used. The aim of this work was to determine what effect IFN had in these infections in terms of its antiviral and antiproliferative effects; which of the two major IFN-induced pathways, E enzyme or protein kinase were induced; whether there were any differences in sensitivity to IFN between the DNA and RNA virus persistent infections. The anti-viral effect of IFN was examined by its ability to inhibit Sindbis virus replication using a radioimmunoassay system. The antiproliferative effect of IFN was determined by cell counting and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. The activation of the ribonuclease F, determined by the inhibition of /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation after introduction of 2-5 actin into the cells, was variable, being activated in all cell lines with the exception of the PLC/PRF/5, Hep 3B and Hep G2 cells. Major differences between the two DNA persistent infections and the two RNA persistent infections were found. No correlation was found between the presence of HBV or SV40 persistent infections and the sensitivity of the cell lines to IFN. Both the SSPE and Sendai virus persistent infections were resistant to the antiviral and antiproliferative effect of IFN.

  1. Detection of polyoma virus in brain tissue of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy by real-time PCR and pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Rose C; Kohn, Debra J; Tuohy, Marion J; Prayson, Richard A; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Procop, Gary W

    2004-03-01

    We evaluated 2 methods, a LightCycler PCR assay and pyrosequencing for the detection of the JC polyoma virus (JCV) in fixed brain tissue of 10 patients with and 3 control patients without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Nucleic acid extraction was performed after deparaffinization and proteinase K digestion. The LightCycler assay differentiates the BK virus (BKV), JCV, and SV40 using melt curve analysis. Conventional PCR was used with the same primers to generate products for pyrosequencing. Two sequencing primers were used that differentiate the polyoma viruses. Seven of 11 biopsies (1 patient had 2 biopsies) with PML were positive for JCV by real-time PCR and/or PCR/pyrosequencing. Three of 4 remaining biopsies were positive by real-time PCR but had melting points between JCV and SV40. The 4 specimens that were negative or atypical by LightCycler PCR were positive by traditional PCR, but 1 had an amplicon of lower molecular weight by gel electrophoresis. These were shown to represent JCV by at least 1 of the 2 pyrosequencing primers. The biopsies from patients without PML were PCR negative. Both the LightCycler and pyrosequencing assays are useful for confirming JCV in brain biopsies from patients with PML, but variant JCVs may require supplementary methods to confirm JCV infection.

  2. Herpes simplex virus-1 infection or Simian virus 40-mediated immortalization of corneal cells causes permanent translocation of NLRP3 to the nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate into the potential involvement of pyrin containing 3 gene (NLRP3, a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors with cytosolic pattern recognition, in the host defense of corneas against viruses. METHODS: The herpes viral keratitis model was utilized in BALB/c mice with inoculation of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1. Corneal tissues removed during therapy of patients with viral keratitis as well as a Simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line were also examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect NLRP3 in these subjects, focusing on their distribution in tissue or cells. Western blot was used to measure the level of NLRP3 and another two related molecules in NLPR3 inflammasome, namely caspase-1 and IL-1β. RESULTS: The NLRP3 activation induced by HSV-1 infection in corneas was accompanied with redistribution of NLRP3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in both murine and human corneal epithelial cells. Furthermore, in the SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells, NLRP3 was exclusively located in the nucleus, and treatment of the cells with high concentration of extracellular potassium (known as an inhibitor of NLRP3 activation effectively drove NLRP3 back to the cytoplasm as reflected by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. CONCLUSION: It is proposed that herpes virus infection activates and causes redistribution of NLRP3 to nuclei. Whether this NLRP3 translocation occurs with other viral infections and in other cell types merit further study.

  3. Distribution of ultraviolet-induced lesions in Simian Virus 40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourre, F.; Renault, G.; Sarasin, A.; Seawell, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    In order to analyze the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis in mammalian cells, we devised an analytical assay using Simian Virus 40 as biological probe. To study the possible correlations between the distribution of the lesions on the treated DNA and the distribution of mutations, we have located and quantified the lesions induced by ultraviolet light (254 nm) on a SV40 DNA fragment. At a fluence of 2,000J/m 2 , our results show that the formation frequency of thymine-thymine dimers (TT) is three to four times higher than the formation frequency of the other types of dimers (TC, CT, CC). On the other hand, the formation frequency of a dimer is influenced by the adjacent sequence. In particular, a pyrimidine in the 5' position of a thymine-thymine dimer enhances its formation frequency. At the dose used the formation frequency of the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts is twenty times less than the formation frequency of pyrimidine dimers. This paper shows the distribution of the major lesions induced by UV-light on a defined fragment of SV40 genome after UV irradiation. This work is necessary to get an insight in the molecular mechanisms of UV-mutagenesis

  4. Transformation of human fibroblasts by ionizing radiation, a chemical carcinogen, or simian virus 40 correlates with an increase in susceptibility to the autonomous parvoviruses H-1 virus and minute virus of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.J.; Becquart, P.; Duponchel, N.; Salome, N.; Avalosse, B.L.; Namba, M.; Rommelaere, J.

    1988-01-01

    Morphologically altered and established human fibroblasts, obtained either by 60 Co gamma irradiation, treatment with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, or simian virus 40 (SV40) infection, were compared with their normal finite-life parental strains for susceptibility to the autonomous parvoviruses H-1 virus and the prototype strain of minute virus of mice (MVMp). All transformed cells suffered greater virus-induced killing than their untransformed progenitors. The cytotoxic effect of H-1 virus was more severe than that of MVMp. Moreover, the level of viral DNA replication was much (10- to 85-fold) enhanced in the transformants compared with their untransformed parent cells. Thus, in this system, cell transformation appears to correlate with an increase in both DNA amplification and cytotoxicity of the parvoviruses. However, the accumulation of parvovirus DNA in the transformants was not always accompanied by the production of infectious virus. Like in vitro-transformed fibroblasts, a fibrosarcoma-derived cell line was sensitive to the killing effect of both H-1 virus and MVMp and amplified viral DNA to high extents. The results indicate that oncogenic transformation can be included among cellular states which modulate permissiveness to parvoviruses under defined growth conditions

  5. Preirradiation of host (monkey) cells mitigates the effects of UV upon simian virus 40 DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaria, A.; Edenberg, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of preirradiation of host (monkey) cells upon the replication of UV-damaged SV40. Control cells and cells preirradiated with low fluences of UV were infected with undamaged SV40, and the immediate effects of a subsequent irradiation were determined. UV inhibited total SV40 DNA synthesis in both preirradiated and control cells, but the extent of inhibition was less in the preirradiated cells. A test fluence of 60 J/m 2 to SV40 replicating in preirradiated cells reduced synthesis only as much as a test fluence of 25 J/m 2 in control cells. The fraction of recently replicated SV40 molecules that re-entered the replication pool and subsequently completed one round of replication in the first 2 h after UV was also decreased less in the preirradiated cells. Thus preirradiation of the host cell mitigates the immediate inhibitory effects of a subsequent UV exposure upon SV40 replication. (Auth.)

  6. Influence of cell dissociation procedures on the tumorigenicity of Simian Virus 40 transformed fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.; Risius, J.; Beckmann, A.; Tobias, C.A.; Gurney, E.

    1975-11-01

    Mouse fibroblasts transformed by Simian Virus 40 (SV40) were examined for tumor forming ability in syngeneic BALB/c mice following dissociation from tissue culture dishes by two procedures. A significantly greater in vivo proliferative capacity was observed for cells dissociated by the tryspin-EDTA procedure, with the injected cell dose for tumor production in 50 percent of recipient mice (the TPD 50 ) being 16-fold lower than the TPD 50 for cells dissociated by the EDTA procedure. Host immunosuppression with 300 rad whole-body γ irradiation led to a significant 7-fold decrease in the TPD 50 for cells dissociated by the EDTA procedure, while no significant decrease in TPD 50 was observed for cells dissociated by the tryspin-EDTA procedure

  7. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  8. Enhanced replication of UV-damaged Simian virus 40 DNA in carcinogen-treated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maga, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The replication of UV-damaged Simian virus 40 (SV40) in carcinogen-treated monkey cells has been studied to elucidate the mechanism of carcinogen-enhanced reactivation. Carcinogen enhanced reactivation is the observed increase in UV-irradiated virus survival in host cells treated with low doses of carcinogen compared to UV-irradiated virus survival in untreated hosts. Carcinogen treatment of monkey kidney cells with either N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAAF) or UV radiation leads to an enhanced capacity to replicate UV-damaged virus during the first round of infection. To further define the mechanism leading to enhanced replication, a detailed biochemical analysis of replication intermediates in carcinogen-treated cells was performed. Several conclusions can be drawn. First enhanced replication can be observed in the first four rounds of replication after UV irradiation of viral templates. The second major finding is that the relaxed circular intermediate model proposed for the replication of UV-damaged templates in untreated cells appears valid for replication of UV-damaged templates in carcinogen-treated cells. Possible mechanisms and the supporting evidence are discussed and future experiments outlined

  9. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  10. Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus polyadenylation site use in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciolek, Nicole L.; McNally, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Polyadenylation of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA is inefficient, as approximately 15% of RSV RNAs represent read-through transcripts that use a downstream cellular polyadenylation site (poly(A) site). Read-through transcription has implications for the virus and the host since it is associated with oncogene capture and tumor induction. To explore the basis of inefficient RSV RNA 3'-end formation, we characterized RSV polyadenylation in vitro using HeLa cell nuclear extracts and HEK293 whole cell extracts. RSV polyadenylation substrates composed of the natural 3' end of viral RNA and various lengths of upstream sequence showed little or no polyadenylation, indicating that the RSV poly(A) site is suboptimal. Efficiently used poly(A) sites often have identifiable upstream and downstream elements (USEs and DSEs) in close proximity to the conserved AAUAAA signal. The sequences upstream and downstream of the RSV poly(A) site deviate from those found in efficiently used poly(A) sites, which may explain inefficient RSV polyadenylation. To assess the quality of the RSV USEs and DSEs, the well-characterized SV40 late USEs and/or DSEs were substituted for the RSV elements and vice versa, which showed that the USEs and DSEs from RSV are suboptimal but functional. CstF interacted poorly with the RSV polyadenylation substrate, and the inactivity of the RSV poly(A) site was at least in part due to poor CstF binding since tethering CstF to the RSV substrate activated polyadenylation. Our data are consistent with poor polyadenylation factor binding sites in both the USE and DSE as the basis for inefficient use of the RSV poly(A) site and point to the importance of additional elements within RSV RNA in promoting 3' end formation

  11. The host-dependent interaction of alpha-importins with influenza PB2 polymerase subunit is required for virus RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Resa-Infante

    Full Text Available The influenza virus polymerase is formed by the PB1, PB2 and PA subunits and is required for virus transcription and replication in the nucleus of infected cells. As PB2 is a relevant host-range determinant we expressed a TAP-tagged PB2 in human cells and isolated intracellular complexes. Alpha-importin was identified as a PB2-associated factor by proteomic analyses. To study the relevance of this interaction for virus replication we mutated the PB2 NLS and analysed the phenotype of mutant subunits, polymerase complexes and RNPs. While mutant PB2 proteins showed reduced nuclear accumulation, they formed polymerase complexes normally when co expressed with PB1 and PA. However, mutant RNPs generated with a viral CAT replicon showed up to hundred-fold reduced CAT accumulation. Rescue of nuclear localisation of mutant PB2 by insertion of an additional SV40 TAg-derived NLS did not revert the mutant phenotype of RNPs. Furthermore, determination of recombinant RNP accumulation in vivo indicated that PB2 NLS mutations drastically reduced virus RNA replication. These results indicate that, above and beyond its role in nuclear accumulation, PB2 interaction with alpha-importins is required for virus RNA replication. To ascertain whether PB2-alpha-importin binding could contribute to the adaptation of H5N1 avian viruses to man, their association in vivo was determined. Human alpha importin isoforms associated efficiently to PB2 protein of an H3N2 human virus but bound to diminished and variable extents to PB2 from H5N1 avian or human strains, suggesting that the function of alpha importin during RNA replication is important for the adaptation of avian viruses to the human host.

  12. Derivation of a JC virus-resistant human glial cell line: implications for the identification of host cell factors that determine viral tropism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Gretchen V.; Manley, Kate; Atwood, Walter J.

    2003-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a common human polyomavirus that infects 70-80% of the population worldwide. In immunosuppressed individuals, JCV infects oligodendrocytes and causes a fatal demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The tropism of JCV is restricted to oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and B lymphocytes. Several mechanisms may contribute to the restricted tropism of JCV, including the presence or absence of cell-type-specific transcription and replication factors and the presence or absence of cell-type-specific receptors. We have established a system to investigate cellular factors that influence viral tropism by selecting JCV-resistant cells from a susceptible glial cell line (SVG-A). SVG-A cells were subjected to several rounds of viral infection using JC virus (M1/SVEΔ). A population of resistant cells emerged (SVGR2) that were refractory to infection with the Mad-4 strain of JCV, the hybrid virus M1/SVEΔ, as well as to the related polyomavirus SV40. SVGR2 cells were as susceptible as the SVG-A cells to infection with an unrelated amphotropic retrovirus. The stage at which these cells are resistant to infection was investigated and the block appears to be at early viral gene transcription. This system should ultimately allow us to identify glial specific factors that influence the tropism of JCV

  13. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  14. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  15. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  16. Nuclear export and import of human hepatitis B virus capsid protein and particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available It remains unclear what determines the subcellular localization of hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein (HBc and particles. To address this fundamental issue, we have identified four distinct HBc localization signals in the arginine rich domain (ARD of HBc, using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and fractionation/Western blot analysis. ARD consists of four tight clustering arginine-rich subdomains. ARD-I and ARD-III are associated with two co-dependent nuclear localization signals (NLS, while ARD-II and ARD-IV behave like two independent nuclear export signals (NES. This conclusion is based on five independent lines of experimental evidence: i Using an HBV replication system in hepatoma cells, we demonstrated in a double-blind manner that only the HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV, among a total of 15 ARD mutants, can predominantly localize to the nucleus. ii These results were confirmed using a chimera reporter system by placing mutant or wild type HBc trafficking signals in the heterologous context of SV40 large T antigen (LT. iii By a heterokaryon or homokaryon analysis, the fusion protein of SV40 LT-HBc ARD appeared to transport from nuclei of transfected donor cells to nuclei of recipient cells, suggesting the existence of an NES in HBc ARD. This putative NES is leptomycin B resistant. iv We demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation that HBc ARD can physically interact with a cellular factor TAP/NXF1 (Tip-associated protein/nuclear export factor-1, which is known to be important for nuclear export of mRNA and proteins. Treatment with a TAP-specific siRNA strikingly shifted cytoplasmic HBc to nucleus, and led to a near 7-fold reduction of viral replication, and a near 10-fold reduction in HBsAg secretion. v HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV was accumulated predominantly in the nucleus in a mouse model by hydrodynamic delivery. In addition to the revised map of NLS, our results suggest that HBc could shuttle rapidly between nucleus and cytoplasm via a novel

  17. Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Immortalized Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells Depends upon a Delicate Balance between Hemagglutinin Acid Stability and Endosomal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Yasugi, Mayo; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito; Ohba, Tomoyuki; Honda, Ayae; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-04-24

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus, H5N1, is a serious threat to public health worldwide. Both the currently circulating H5N1 and previously circulating AI viruses recognize avian-type receptors; however, only the H5N1 is highly infectious and virulent in humans. The mechanism(s) underlying this difference in infectivity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the difference in infectivity between the current and previously circulating strains. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen to establish a series of clones (SAEC-Ts). These clones were then used to test the infectivity of AI strains. Human SAEC-Ts could be broadly categorized into two different types based on their susceptibility (high or low) to the viruses. SAEC-T clones were poorly susceptible to previously circulating AI but were completely susceptible to the currently circulating H5N1. The hemagglutinin (HA) of the current H5N1 virus showed greater membrane fusion activity at higher pH levels than that of previous AI viruses, resulting in broader cell tropism. Moreover, the endosomal pH was lower in high susceptibility SAEC-T clones than that in low susceptibility SAEC-T clones. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the infectivity of AI viruses, including H5N1, depends upon a delicate balance between the acid sensitivity of the viral HA and the pH within the endosomes of the target cell. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying H5N1 pathogenesis in humans relies on its ability to fuse efficiently with the endosomes in human airway epithelial cells. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Profiling of glycan receptors for minute virus of mice in permissive cell lines towards understanding the mechanism of cell recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Halder

    Full Text Available The recognition of sialic acids by two strains of minute virus of mice (MVM, MVMp (prototype and MVMi (immunosuppressive, is an essential requirement for successful infection. To understand the potential for recognition of different modifications of sialic acid by MVM, three types of capsids, virus-like particles, wild type empty (no DNA capsids, and DNA packaged virions, were screened on a sialylated glycan microarray (SGM. Both viruses demonstrated a preference for binding to 9-O-methylated sialic acid derivatives, while MVMp showed additional binding to 9-O-acetylated and 9-O-lactoylated sialic acid derivatives, indicating recognition differences. The glycans recognized contained a type-2 Galβ1-4GlcNAc motif (Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc or 3'SIA-LN and were biantennary complex-type N-glycans with the exception of one. To correlate the recognition of the 3'SIA-LN glycan motif as well as the biantennary structures to their natural expression in cell lines permissive for MVMp, MVMi, or both strains, the N- and O-glycans, and polar glycolipids present in three cell lines used for in vitro studies, A9 fibroblasts, EL4 T lymphocytes, and the SV40 transformed NB324K cells, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The cells showed an abundance of the sialylated glycan motifs recognized by the viruses in the SGM and previous glycan microarrays supporting their role in cellular recognition by MVM. Significantly, the NB324K showed fucosylation at the non-reducing end of their biantennary glycans, suggesting that recognition of these cells is possibly mediated by the Lewis X motif as in 3'SIA-Le(X identified in a previous glycan microarray screen.

  19. Ultraviolet-irradiated simian virus 40 activates a mutator function in rat cells under conditions preventing viral DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, J.; Su, Z.Z.; Dinsart, C.; Rommelaere, J. (Universite libre de Bruxelles, Rhode St Genese (Belgium))

    The UV-irradiated temperature-sensitive early SV40 mutant tsA209 is able to activate at the nonpermissive temperature the expression of mutator and recovery functions in rat cells. Unirradiated SV40 activates these functions only to a low extent. The expression of these mutator and recovery functions in SV40-infected cells was detected using the single-stranded DNA parvovirus H-1 as a probe. Because early SV40 mutants are defective in the initiation of viral DNA synthesis at the nonpermissive temperature, these results suggest that replication of UV-damaged DNA is not a prerequisite for the activation of mutator and recovery functions in mammalian cells. The expression of the mutator function is dose-dependent, i.e., the absolute number of UV-irradiated SV40 virions introduced per cell determines its level. Implications for the interpretation of mutation induction curves in the progeny of UV-irradiated SV40 in permissive host cells are discussed.

  20. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  2. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  3. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  4. Transcription and replication result in distinct epigenetic marks following repression of early gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kallestad, Les; Woods, Emily; Christensen, Kendra; Gefroh, Amanda; Balakrishnan, Lata; Milavetz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Simian Virus 40 (SV40) early transcription is repressed when the product of early transcription, T-antigen, binds to its cognate regulatory sequence, Site I, in the promoter of the SV40 minichromosome. Because SV40 minichromosomes undergo replication and transcription potentially repression could occur during active transcription or during DNA replication. Since repression is frequently epigenetically marked by the introduction of specific forms of methylated histone H3, we characterized th...

  5. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  6. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    in the atomic structures of the DNA tumor papovaviruses (SV40 and polyoma). The swollen structure is closely similar to the expanded form of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) previously determined at 8A resolution by X-ray crystallography.

  7. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  8. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  9. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  10. [Viral contamination of polio vaccines in context of antivaccination mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mats, A N; Kuz'mina, M N; Cheprasova, E V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of publications about real and suggested contamination of polio vaccines produced in 1950s and 1960s with simian viruses--SV40 and SIV--is performed. Factual data are discussed and antivaccination fictions about calamitous consequences of really occurred contamination with SV40 and concocted contamination with SIV are refuted.

  11. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  17. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  18. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  19. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  20. Establishment of Myotis myotis cell lines--model for investigation of host-pathogen interaction in a natural host for emerging viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui He

    Full Text Available Bats are found to be the natural reservoirs for many emerging viruses. In most cases, severe clinical signs caused by such virus infections are normally not seen in bats. This indicates differences in the virus-host interactions and underlines the necessity to develop natural host related models to study these phenomena. Due to the strict protection of European bat species, immortalized cell lines are the only alternative to investigate the innate anti-virus immune mechanisms. Here, we report about the establishment and functional characterization of Myotis myotis derived cell lines from different tissues: brain (MmBr, tonsil (MmTo, peritoneal cavity (MmPca, nasal epithelium (MmNep and nervus olfactorius (MmNol after immortalization by SV 40 large T antigen. The usefulness of these cell lines to study antiviral responses has been confirmed by analysis of their susceptibility to lyssavirus infection and the mRNA patterns of immune-relevant genes after poly I:C stimulation. Performed experiments indicated varying susceptibility to lyssavirus infection with MmBr being considerably less susceptible than the other cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated a strong activation of interferon mediated antiviral response in MmBr contributing to its resistance. The pattern recognition receptors: RIG-I and MDA5 were highly up-regulated during rabies virus infection in MmBr, suggesting their involvement in promotion of antiviral responses. The presence of CD14 and CD68 in MmBr suggested MmBr cells are microglia-like cells which play a key role in host defense against infections in the central nervous system (CNS. Thus the expression pattern of MmBr combined with the observed limitation of lyssavirus replication underpin a protective mechanism of the CNS controlling the lyssavirus infection. Overall, the established cell lines are important tools to analyze antiviral innate immunity in M. myotis against neurotropic virus infections and present a valuable

  1. Establishment of Myotis myotis cell lines--model for investigation of host-pathogen interaction in a natural host for emerging viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaocui; Korytář, Tomáš; Zhu, Yaqing; Pikula, Jiří; Bandouchova, Hana; Zukal, Jan; Köllner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Bats are found to be the natural reservoirs for many emerging viruses. In most cases, severe clinical signs caused by such virus infections are normally not seen in bats. This indicates differences in the virus-host interactions and underlines the necessity to develop natural host related models to study these phenomena. Due to the strict protection of European bat species, immortalized cell lines are the only alternative to investigate the innate anti-virus immune mechanisms. Here, we report about the establishment and functional characterization of Myotis myotis derived cell lines from different tissues: brain (MmBr), tonsil (MmTo), peritoneal cavity (MmPca), nasal epithelium (MmNep) and nervus olfactorius (MmNol) after immortalization by SV 40 large T antigen. The usefulness of these cell lines to study antiviral responses has been confirmed by analysis of their susceptibility to lyssavirus infection and the mRNA patterns of immune-relevant genes after poly I:C stimulation. Performed experiments indicated varying susceptibility to lyssavirus infection with MmBr being considerably less susceptible than the other cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated a strong activation of interferon mediated antiviral response in MmBr contributing to its resistance. The pattern recognition receptors: RIG-I and MDA5 were highly up-regulated during rabies virus infection in MmBr, suggesting their involvement in promotion of antiviral responses. The presence of CD14 and CD68 in MmBr suggested MmBr cells are microglia-like cells which play a key role in host defense against infections in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus the expression pattern of MmBr combined with the observed limitation of lyssavirus replication underpin a protective mechanism of the CNS controlling the lyssavirus infection. Overall, the established cell lines are important tools to analyze antiviral innate immunity in M. myotis against neurotropic virus infections and present a valuable tool for a

  2. Establishment of Myotis myotis Cell Lines - Model for Investigation of Host-Pathogen Interaction in a Natural Host for Emerging Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaocui; Korytář, Tomáš; Zhu, Yaqing; Pikula, Jiří; Bandouchova, Hana; Zukal, Jan; Köllner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Bats are found to be the natural reservoirs for many emerging viruses. In most cases, severe clinical signs caused by such virus infections are normally not seen in bats. This indicates differences in the virus-host interactions and underlines the necessity to develop natural host related models to study these phenomena. Due to the strict protection of European bat species, immortalized cell lines are the only alternative to investigate the innate anti-virus immune mechanisms. Here, we report about the establishment and functional characterization of Myotis myotis derived cell lines from different tissues: brain (MmBr), tonsil (MmTo), peritoneal cavity (MmPca), nasal epithelium (MmNep) and nervus olfactorius (MmNol) after immortalization by SV 40 large T antigen. The usefulness of these cell lines to study antiviral responses has been confirmed by analysis of their susceptibility to lyssavirus infection and the mRNA patterns of immune-relevant genes after poly I:C stimulation. Performed experiments indicated varying susceptibility to lyssavirus infection with MmBr being considerably less susceptible than the other cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated a strong activation of interferon mediated antiviral response in MmBr contributing to its resistance. The pattern recognition receptors: RIG-I and MDA5 were highly up-regulated during rabies virus infection in MmBr, suggesting their involvement in promotion of antiviral responses. The presence of CD14 and CD68 in MmBr suggested MmBr cells are microglia-like cells which play a key role in host defense against infections in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus the expression pattern of MmBr combined with the observed limitation of lyssavirus replication underpin a protective mechanism of the CNS controlling the lyssavirus infection. Overall, the established cell lines are important tools to analyze antiviral innate immunity in M. myotis against neurotropic virus infections and present a valuable tool for a

  3. Caffeine toxicity is inversely related to DNA repair in simian virus 40-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum cells irradiated with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Human cells transformed by simian virus 40 (SV40) are more sensitive to killing by ultraviolet light when grown in caffeine after irradiation. The degree of sensitization at 2 mM caffeine (expressed as the ratio of the 37% survival dose for control cells divided by the 37% survival dose for cells grown in caffeine, i.e., the dose modification factor) was approximately 1.9 in transformed normal cells and 3.8-5.8 in excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) groups A, C, and D cells. A large dose modification factor of 12 was observed in a transformed XP variant cell line. Chinese hamster ovary cells were not significantly different from transformed normal human cells, with a maximum dose modification factor of 1.5. Two radioresistant XP revertants that do not excise cyclobutane dimers gave different responses; one resembled its group A parent in being sensitized by caffeine, and one did not. These results can be interpreted on the basis of a single hypothesis that cells are killed as a result of attempts to replicate damaged DNA. Increased replication rates caused by transformation, increased numbers of replication forks in DNA caused by caffeine, and increased numbers of damaged sites ahead of replication forks in excision-defective cells are all processes that will consequently increase killing according to this hypothesis. A corollary is that the XP variant may be highly sensitized to caffeine because of excision defects at the DNA replication forks, an idea that may be important in designing cloning strategies for the XP variant gene

  4. Caffeine toxicity is inversely related to DNA repair in simian virus 40-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum cells irradiated with ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaver, J.E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Human cells transformed by simian virus 40 (SV40) are more sensitive to killing by ultraviolet light when grown in caffeine after irradiation. The degree of sensitization at 2 mM caffeine (expressed as the ratio of the 37% survival dose for control cells divided by the 37% survival dose for cells grown in caffeine, i.e., the dose modification factor) was approximately 1.9 in transformed normal cells and 3.8-5.8 in excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) groups A, C, and D cells. A large dose modification factor of 12 was observed in a transformed XP variant cell line. Chinese hamster ovary cells were not significantly different from transformed normal human cells, with a maximum dose modification factor of 1.5. Two radioresistant XP revertants that do not excise cyclobutane dimers gave different responses; one resembled its group A parent in being sensitized by caffeine, and one did not. These results can be interpreted on the basis of a single hypothesis that cells are killed as a result of attempts to replicate damaged DNA. Increased replication rates caused by transformation, increased numbers of replication forks in DNA caused by caffeine, and increased numbers of damaged sites ahead of replication forks in excision-defective cells are all processes that will consequently increase killing according to this hypothesis. A corollary is that the XP variant may be highly sensitized to caffeine because of excision defects at the DNA replication forks, an idea that may be important in designing cloning strategies for the XP variant gene.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C targets p53 and modulates its transcriptional and apoptotic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Fuming; Saha, Abhik; Murakami, Masanao; Kumar, Pankaj; Knight, Jason S.; Cai Qiliang; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Robertson, Erle S.

    2009-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancers and the corresponding encoded protein induces apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest at the G1/S checkpoint in response to DNA damage. To date, previous studies have shown that antigens encoded by human tumor viruses such as SV40 large T antigen, adenovirus E1A and HPV E6 interact with p53 and disrupt its functional activity. In a similar fashion, we now show that EBNA3C, one of the EBV latent antigens essential for the B-cell immortalization in vitro, interacts directly with p53. Additionally, we mapped the interaction of EBNA3C with p53 to the C-terminal DNA-binding and the tetramerization domain of p53, and the region of EBNA3C responsible for binding to p53 was mapped to the N-terminal domain of EBNA3C (residues 130-190), previously shown to interact with a number of important cell-cycle components, specifically SCF Skp2 , cyclin A, and cMyc. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EBNA3C substantially represses the transcriptional activity of p53 in luciferase based reporter assays, and rescues apoptosis induced by ectopic p53 expression in SAOS-2 (p53 -/- ) cells. Interestingly, we also show that the DNA-binding ability of p53 is diminished in the presence of EBNA3C. Thus, the interaction between the p53 and EBNA3C provides new insights into the mechanism(s) by which the EBNA3C oncoprotein can alter cellular gene expression in EBV associated human cancers.

  6. Epstein - Barr Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Štorkánová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus Bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), its general characteristics, transmission and spread of the virus, symptoms of disease and subsequent therapy and recovery. More specifically, it focuses on infectious mononucleosis, as well as more generally to other diseases, which the Epstein-Barr virus causes. It includes details of the vaccine against EB virus. There are the statistics on the incidence of infectious mononucleosis.

  7. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  8. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  9. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  10. Comparative human cellular radiosensitivity: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlett, C.F.; Green, M.H.L.; Priestley, A.; Harcourt, S.A.; Mayne, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    The authors compared cell killing following 60 Co gamma irradiation in 22 primary human fibroblast strains, nine SV40-immortalized human fibroblast lines and seven SV40-transformed pre-crisis human fibroblast cultures from normal individuals, from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients and from A-T heterozygotes. They confirmed the greater sensitivity of A-T derived cells to gamma radiation. The distinction between A-T and normal cells is maintained in cells immortalized by SV40-virus but immortal cells are more gamma radiation resistant than corresponding primary fibroblasts. Cells transformed by plasmids (pSV3gpt and pSV3neo) expressing SV40 T-antigen, both pre- and post-crisis, show this increased resistance, indicating that expression of SV40 T-antigen, rather than immortalization per se is responsible for the change. (author)

  11. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  12. Human FEN1 Expression and Solubility Patterson in DNA Replication and Repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carrier, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Flap endo-/exonuclease (FEN1) is a highly conserved protein shown to be one of 10 essential human proteins required for the production of form I DNA following DNA replication from the simian virus 40 (SV40...

  13. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  14. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  15. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  16. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  18. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  19. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  20. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  1. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  3. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  6. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  7. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  8. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  9. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  10. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  11. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  12. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  14. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  15. [The great virus comeback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  16. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  17. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  18. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  20. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  1. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  2. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pepino mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a relatively new plant virus that has become a signifi cant agronomical problem in a relatively short period of time. It is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae and is readily mechanically transmissible. It is capable of infecting tomato

  4. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  5. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  6. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  7. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  9. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  10. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...

  11. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, Michael A.; Harrison, Tim J.; Jameel, S.; Meng, X.J.; Okamoto, H.; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.; Smith, Donald B.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which

  12. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil sh...

  13. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This article is based on virus theory (Røvik, 2007, 2011), and proposes to develop a framework that defines technology as a virus that penetrates the organism of an organization. The framework develops a new vocabulary, which can help in analyzing technologies and their negative effects on actors...... and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  14. Differential post-irradiation caffeine response in normal diploid versus SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: potential role of nuclear organization and protein-composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Y.C.; Parsian, A.J.; Duncan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the enhancement of cell killing by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine (CAF) is mediated by alterations in chromatin structure, several nuclear parameters were examined in both caffeine-responsive and non-responsive cell lines. (author)

  15. Radiation-induced transformation of SV40-immortalized human thyroid epithelial cells by single and fractionated exposure to γ-irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riches, A.C.; Herceg, Z.; Bryant, P.E.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation-induced transformation of a human thyroid epithelial cell line (HTori-3) has been investigated following exposure to single and fractionated doses of γ-irradiation. The human epithelial cells were irradiated in vitro and following passaging, transplanted to the athymic nude mouse. Following a single exposure to γ-irradiation in the range 0.5-4Gy, 22 tumours were observed in 45 recipients and following three equal fractions in the range 0.5-4Gy per fraction, 18 tumours were observed in 31 recipients. Tumours were undifferentiated carcinomas and were observed from 7 to 20 weeks after transplantation. They occurred after similar radiation doses to those received by the children in the Belarus region of Ukraine, who developed thyroid tumours. The number of tumours observed, in each group receiving cells irradiated with a single dose of γ-irradiation in the range 0.5-4 Gy, was similar. Cell lines were established from some tumours and the tumorigenicity confirmed by retransplantation. These tumour cell lines were more radiosensitive than the human thyroid epithelial cell line they were derived from. This indicates that transformed cells were not being selected from a subpopulation within the parent cell line but that radiation-induced transformants were being induced de novo. The human origin of the tumours was established by karyotyping, immunocytochemical demonstration of human epithelial cytokeratins and p53 analysis. DNA fingerprinting confirmed that the tumours were derived from the original cell line. (author)

  16. HIV-1 gp120 neurotoxicity proximally and at a distance from the point of exposure: protection by rSV40 delivery of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Agrawal, Lokesh; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2009-06-01

    Toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) for substantia nigra (SN) neurons may contribute to the Parkinsonian manifestations often seen in HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). We studied the neurotoxicity of gp120 for dopaminergic neurons and potential neuroprotection by antioxidant gene delivery. Rats were injected stereotaxically into their caudate-putamen (CP); CP and (substantia nigra) SN neuron loss was quantified. The area of neuron loss extended several millimeters from the injection site, approximately 35% of the CP area. SN neurons, outside of this area of direct neurotoxicity, were also severely affected. Dopaminergic SN neurons (expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, TH, in the SN and dopamine transporter, DAT, in the CP) were mostly affected: intra-CP gp120 caused approximately 50% DAT+ SN neuron loss. Prior intra-CP gene delivery of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) protected SN neurons from intra-CP gp120. Thus, SN dopaminergic neurons are highly sensitive to HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity, and antioxidant gene delivery, even at a distance, is protective.

  17. Differential post-irradiation caffeine response in normal diploid versus SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: potential role of nuclear organization and protein-composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Y.C.; Parsian, A.J.; Duncan, P.G. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine)

    1993-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that the enhancement of cell killing by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine (CAF) is mediated by alterations in chromatin structure, several nuclear parameters were examined in both caffeine-responsive and non-responsive cell lines. (author).

  18. STX140, but Not Paclitaxel, Inhibits Mammary Tumour Initiation and Progression in C3(1)/SV40 T/t-Antigen Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Losic, Florence; Newman, Simon P.; Day, Joanna M.; Reed, Michael J.; Kasprzyk, Philip G.; Purohit, Atul; Foster, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX) caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer mode...

  19. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  20. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  1. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  2. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  3. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  4. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  5. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  6. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  8. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...

  9. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice ... Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  17. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  19. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  1. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Login My ACOG Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  2. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  3. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  4. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  5. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  6. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  7. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  8. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  9. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  12. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  13. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  14. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  15. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  16. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  17. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  18. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  20. Zika virus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus has been in the news for quite some time due to the ongoing recent outbreak in the Southern America, which started in December 2015. It has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in February 2016 owing to its association with the congenital deformities, particularly microcephaly in infants borne to the infected mothers. The rapid spread of the virus throughout the United States of America and subsequently to Asia has raised serious international concerns. Its spread to countries neighboring India is a serious threat to the Indian population. This review article gives an overview about the virus, its diagnosis, clinical features, and the management.

  1. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular

    biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses.

    Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life.

    Archaeal viruses are

  2. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  3. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  4. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  5. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  6. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  7. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  8. Monoclonal antibodies against plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, E.; Dietzgen, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since antigenic properties of plant viruses were discovered antisera have been raised and used for plant virus diagnosis and for the analysis of virus structure as well. From the early qualitative diagnosis method of precipitating the virus in clarified sap of an infected plant and the first quantitative application of the precipitin test vast progress has been made with regard to the development of highly sensitive and highly quantitative methods for virus detection. Of equal importance was the improvement of methods for separating virus from host cell components since the specificity of antisera raised against a virus could be increased by using an antigen for immunization highly concentrated and largely freed from contaminating host substances. The introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into plant virology allows detection of virus in nanogram quantities. Still, the conventionally raised antisera, no matter how pure an antigen was used for immunization, are polyclonal. They contain products of thousands of different antibody-secreting plasma cell clones which can be directed against all antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the virus, but also against antigens of the host plant that may not have been entirely separated from the immunizing virus during the purification procedure. Even after cross adsorption of polyclonal antisera some residual heterogeneity can be expected to remain. Within these boundaries the information gained with polyclonal antisera on virus structure and on virus diagnosis has to be interpreted

  9. Virus Nilam: Identifikasi, Karakter Biologi dan Fisik, Serta Upaya Pengendaliannya

    OpenAIRE

    Miftakhurohmah, Miftakhurohmah; Noveriza, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Infeksi virus pada tanaman nilam dapat menyebabkan penurunan produksi dan kualitas minyak. Sembilan jenis virus diidentifikasi menginfeksi tanaman nilam, yaitu Patchouli mosaic virus (PatMoV), Patchouli mild mosaic virus (PatMMV), Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Patchouli yellow mosaic virus (PatYMV), Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), dan Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). Kesembilan virus tersebut memiliki genom ...

  10. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  11. Virus en Endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Pérez Tomás, Ricardo; Segura Egea, Juan José; Viñas, Miguel; López-López, José

    2014-01-01

    La infección endodóntica es la infección que afecta al sistema de conductos radiculares y, sin duda, es el principal agente etiológico de las periodontitis apicales. Además, de las bacterias patógenas endodónticas, se ha buscado en los últimos años asociar la presencia de virus en distintos tipos de patología endodóntica. Los virus que más se han buscado y asociado son los pertenecientes a la familia herpesvirus, los cuales se han encontrado presentes en patologías periapicales principalmente...

  12. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  13. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  14. Epidemiology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. There is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available , for permission to present this paper. ?8? References 1. REPORT. CONMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ANAGEMEZIT OF PME SANITARY ENGINEERING DIVISION (1970). Engineering evaluation of virus hazard in water. Jour. Eng. Div. Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. SA 1, 7112... Water Systems, Austin, Texas, 1974 13. CARESON, G.F., WOODA.RD, F.E., WENTWORTII, D.P. and SPRODI, O.J. (1968) Virus inactivation on clay particles in natural waters. Journ. Wat. Pollut. Cont. Fed., 4Q R39, 7116. 14. MOSJ~EY, J.W. (1967...

  16. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  17. Resistance to Two Heterologous Neurotropic Oncolytic Viruses, Semliki Forest Virus and Vaccinia Virus, in Experimental Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Lemay, Chantal; De Silva, Naomi; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Cox, Julie; Becker, Michelle; Choi, Youngmin; Ananth, Abhirami; Sellers, Clara; Breton, Sophie; Roy, Dominic; Falls, Theresa; Brun, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Hinkkanen, Ari; Bell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated Semliki Forest virus (SFV) may be suitable for targeting malignant glioma due to its natural neurotropism, but its replication in brain tumor cells may be restricted by innate antiviral defenses. We attempted to facilitate SFV replication in glioma cells by combining it with vaccinia virus, which is capable of antagonizing such defenses. Surprisingly, we found parenchymal mouse brain tumors to be refractory to both viruses. Also, vaccinia virus appears to be sensitive to SFV-induced antiviral interference. PMID:23221568

  18. RNA viruses in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2009-03-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.

  19. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan A. Rather; Jameel B. Lone; Vivek K. Bajpai; Woon K. Paek; Jeongheui Lim

    2017-01-01

    ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is bei...

  20. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... genome sequencing centre; HSP, High scoring Segment pair;. NHGRI, National ... the genome of the rhesus monkey (rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta). The sequencing and comparative analysis was funded by the National ... Definition. Accession ..... Marburg virus genomics and association with a large.

  1. Zika virus and placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the new arboviral infection problem. The serious outcome of infection and induction of abnormal infant become the big issue in reproductive medicine. The pathogenesis and pathology of the placenta in the affected case is an interesting issue. Here, the authors focus and discuss on this topic in this short article.

  2. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-11-13

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  3. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  4. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  5. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Dal Elena; Graça, da John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour

  6. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological featur...

  7. Animal Models of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753

  8. Archaeal viruses of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2015-01-01

    in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs...... with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition...... and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species....

  9. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  10. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  11. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  12. Detection of selected plant viruses by microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    HRABÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this master thesis was the simultaneous detection of four selected plant viruses ? Apple mosaic virus, Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prune harf virus, by microarrays. The intermediate step in the process of the detection was optimizing of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  13. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  15. Understanding Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2017-01-01

    This article describes what pediatric healthcare professionals should know about Zika virus (ZIKV). ZIKV is classified as an arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is not new. The virus was first discovered almost 70 years ago in Uganda. The first isolate of the virus was found in rhesus monkeys in the Zika Forrest, hence the nomenclature. The primary route of ZIKV transmission to humans is through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito-primarily Aedes aegypti. When the mosquito bites individuals infected with the virus, mosquitos then become the vector of transmitting the infection to others. Women can also pass ZIKV to their fetus during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. ZIKV can also be transmitted through sexual activity from an individual who is infected with the virus to his or her partners. It is estimated that approximately 18% of individuals infected with ZIKV will go on to develop symptoms. When symptoms develop, it is usually within 3-12 days, although this may vary. Most often, symptoms are mild and self-limited. The most common symptoms are fever, arthralgia, maculopapular rash, and conjunctivitis lasting up to seven days. Less frequent symptoms include headache, vertigo, myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. At present, there is no vaccine available to prevent ZIKV and no specific antiviral treatment. Supportive care consisting of rest, hydration, analgesics, antihistamines, and antipyretics is recommended as needed. Given that there is no vaccine or treatment for ZIKV, considerable efforts must be focused on prevention. One of the most effective ways of preventing ZIKV infection is through avoiding mosquito bites, especially when traveling to or residing in areas where transmission is present. Precautions should include wearing appropriate attire with the objective of having as little skin exposed as possible, use of screens for windows and doors, and use of insect repellent. What is

  16. Dengue Virus and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Heaton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several independent groups have published that autophagy is required for optimal RNA replication of dengue virus (DENV. Initially, it was postulated that autophagosomes might play a structural role in replication complex formation. However, cryo-EM tomography of DENV replication complexes showed that DENV replicates on endoplasmic reticulum (ER cisternae invaginations and not on classical autophagosomes. Recently, it was reported that autophagy plays an indirect role in DENV replication by modulating cellular lipid metabolism. DENV-induced autophagosomes deplete cellular triglycerides that are stored in lipid droplets, leading to increased β-oxidation and energy production. This is the first example of a virus triggering autophagy to modulate cellular physiology. In this review, we summarize these data and discuss new questions and implications for autophagy during DENV replication.

  17. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  18. Uukuniemi virus, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Zelená, Hana; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Mrázek, Jakub

    2018-04-20

    Following the identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Heartland viruses, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses has increased rapidly. Uukuniemi virus has been proposed as a model for tick-borne phleboviruses. However, the number of available sequences is limited. In the current study we performed whole-genome sequencing on two Uukuniemi viral strains isolated in 2000 and 2004 from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic. Both strains cluster together with Potepli63 strain isolated in the country in 1963. Although the Czech strains were isolated many years apart, a high identity was seen at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, suggesting that UUKV has a relatively stable genome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantum dot-induced viral capsid assembling in dissociation buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ding Gao,1,2 Zhi-Ping Zhang,1 Feng Li,3 Dong Men,1 Jiao-Yu Deng,1 Hong-Ping Wei,1 Xian-En Zhang,1 Zong-Qiang Cui1 1State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 2Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 3Division of Nanobiomedicine and i-Lab, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Viruses encapsulating inorganic nanoparticles are a novel type of nanostructure with applications in biomedicine and biosensors. However, the encapsulation and assembly mechanisms of these hybridized virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs are still unknown. In this article, it was found that quantum dots (QDs can induce simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid assembly in dissociation buffer, where viral capsids should be disassembled. The analysis of the transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction experimental results showed that the SV40 major capsid protein 1 (VP1 can be assembled into ≈25 nm capsids in the dissociation buffer when QDs are present and that the QDs are encapsulated in the SV40 capsids. Moreover, it was determined that there is a strong affinity between QDs and the SV40 VP1 proteins (KD = 2.19E-10 M, which should play an important role in QD encapsulation in the SV40 viral capsids. This study provides a new understanding of the assembly mechanism of SV40 virus-based nanoparticles with QDs, which may help in the design and construction of other similar virus-based nanoparticles. Keywords: quantum dots, simian virus 40, self-assembly, encapsulation, virus-based nanoparticles

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  1. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  2. Thermoactivation of viruses by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H.; von Brodorotti, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different viruses, suspended in drinking water, were examined for their ability to be inactivated by microwaves from a microwave oven. Up to a virus content of 10/sup 5/ TCID/sub 50//ml inactivation was successful within a few minutes of microwave treatment and occurred in parallel to the heat stability of the viruses. Evidence for direct effects of microwaves on viruses could not be detected. 7 of the viruses studied were inactivated rapidly when temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C under microwave treatment were reached in the flowing water, while a bovine parvovirus was only inactivated by temperatures above 90/sup 0/C. The advantages of a thermal virus-decontamination of fluids and material by microwaves are discussed.

  3. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  4. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  5. Virus Information Update CIAC-2301

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    a tune through a sound card. Byway is reported to be in the wild internationally, especially in Venezuela, Mexico , Bulgaria, UK and USA. REMOVAL NOTE...1482, Varicella Type: Program. Disk Location: Features: Damage: Size: See Also: Notes: v6-146: This virus was written to hurt users of the TBCLEAN...antivirus package. If you have a file infected with the Varicella virus, and if you tried to clean this virus infected file with tbclean, what would

  6. Advances in virus research. Volume 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffer, M.A.; Maramorosch, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses

  7. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  8. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinical Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and ...

  9. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  10. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  11. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and analysis.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  14. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Eszter Cseh; András Takács; László Kocsis; Richard Gáborjányi

    2012-01-01

    The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grape...

  15. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  16. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  17. antibodies against Herpes simplex virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    171. 5. Celum, C. L. The Interaction between Herpes Sim- plex Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Her- pes, 2004; 1: 36A-44A. 6. Brown, Z.A., Selke, S., Zeh, J., Kopelman, J., Maslow,. A., Ashley, R.L., Watts, D.H., Berry, S., Herd, M. and.

  18. Crenarchaeal Viruses: Morphotypes and Genomes,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, P.; Basta, P.; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present our current knowledge about double-stranded (dsDNA) viruses infecting hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeaota, the organisms which predominate in hot terrestrial springs with temperatures over 80 °C. These viruses exhibit extraordinary diversity of morphotypes most of which have...

  19. Epidemic of cell phone virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

    2008-03-01

    Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

  20. Release of Virus from Lymphoid Tissue Affects Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus Kinetics in the Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus

  1. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauck, Michael; Yú, Shu Qìng; Caì, Yíngyún; Hensley, Lisa E; Chiu, Charles Y; O'Connor, David H; Kuhn, Jens H

    2015-03-19

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. Copyright © 2015 Lauck et al.

  3. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  4. Sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. [Cauliflower mosaic virus, lettuce mosaic virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, S A; Shepherd, R J [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA); California Univ., Davis (USA))

    1980-06-01

    A simple and highly sensitive radioimmunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of plant viruses is described. The RISA procedure is a microplate method based on the principle of 'double-antibody sandwich' and follows essentially the protocol of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Clark and Adams, 1977), with the exception that /sup 125/I-labelled ..gamma..-globulin is substituted for the ..gamma..-globulin enzyme conjugate; the bound /sup 125/I-..gamma..-globulin is dissociated by acidification from the double-antibody sandwich. The radioactivity is proportional to virus concentration, and cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) could be detected at concentrations as low as 5 and 2 ng/ml, respectively. Direct evidence of the adverse effects of conjugation with enzyme on the binding abilities of antibodies is presented. The RISA procedure should prove valuable with viruses for which the ELISA values are too low to be dependable.

  5. Plant virus sensitivity to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergyne Czeck, B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary experiments for prevention were conducted with weakened plant viruses, namely with Arabis mosaic virus isolated from strawberries and tobacco mosaic virus. Treatment 24 hours prior to the infection with the radiation-weakened virus resulted in a 60-70% infection prevention. (author)

  6. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  7. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  8. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  9. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  10. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  11. A new looming of Zika virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirav R Soni

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease) were conjunctivitis (red eyes), back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples.

  12. Ebola virus: bioterrorism for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramodkumar Pyarelal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is a severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus. Ebola virus (EBOV spreads by human to human transmission through contacts with body fluids from infected patients. Initial stages of EBOV are non-specific which makes the differential diagnosis broad. Here in this review article we focused on to show the details of EBOV, from its first case right up to the possible targets to cure this lethal disease. In this study we have shown the statistical survey, epidemiology, disease ontology, different genes coding for different proteins in EBOV and future aspects of it.

  13. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  14. "The evil virus cell": Students‘ knowledge and beliefs about viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzinger, Sonja M.; Fink, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Education about virus biology at school is of pivotal interest to raise public awareness concerning means of disease transmission and, thus, methods to prevent infection, and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment due to patient pressure on physicians in case of viral diseases such as influenza. This study aimed at making visible the knowledge of Austrian high school and university students with respect to virus biology, virus structure and health-education issues. The data presented here stem from comprehensive questionnaire analyses, including the task to draw a virus, from a cross-sectional study with 133 grade 7 and 199 grade 10 high school students, and 133 first-year biology and 181 first-year non-biology university students. Analyses were performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. ANOVA revealed a highly significant group effect for total knowledge relating to virus biology and health issues (F(3, 642) = 44.17, p students and grade 10 high school students. Students enrolled in university-level biology outperformed all other groups, even though they had not yet encountered this topic at their courses; part of this phenomenon might be due to their affinity for learning about biological topics. However, even many first-year biology students had a high number of severe misconceptions, e.g., defining a virus as a pro- or eukaryotic cell, or falsely naming malaria as a viral disease. Since there was no significant difference in virus-related knowledge between high schools, virus biology seems to have been taught similarly among the tested schools. However, the majority of participants stated that the virus-related knowledge they had acquired at school was not sufficient. Based on the results presented here we urgently suggest improving and intensifying teaching this topic at school, since virus-related knowledge was by far too fragmentary among many participants. Such lack of health-relevant knowledge may contribute to pressure on physicians by patients

  15. "The evil virus cell": Students' knowledge and beliefs about viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K; Enzinger, Sonja M; Fink, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Education about virus biology at school is of pivotal interest to raise public awareness concerning means of disease transmission and, thus, methods to prevent infection, and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment due to patient pressure on physicians in case of viral diseases such as influenza. This study aimed at making visible the knowledge of Austrian high school and university students with respect to virus biology, virus structure and health-education issues. The data presented here stem from comprehensive questionnaire analyses, including the task to draw a virus, from a cross-sectional study with 133 grade 7 and 199 grade 10 high school students, and 133 first-year biology and 181 first-year non-biology university students. Analyses were performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. ANOVA revealed a highly significant group effect for total knowledge relating to virus biology and health issues (F(3, 642) = 44.17, p students and grade 10 high school students. Students enrolled in university-level biology outperformed all other groups, even though they had not yet encountered this topic at their courses; part of this phenomenon might be due to their affinity for learning about biological topics. However, even many first-year biology students had a high number of severe misconceptions, e.g., defining a virus as a pro- or eukaryotic cell, or falsely naming malaria as a viral disease. Since there was no significant difference in virus-related knowledge between high schools, virus biology seems to have been taught similarly among the tested schools. However, the majority of participants stated that the virus-related knowledge they had acquired at school was not sufficient. Based on the results presented here we urgently suggest improving and intensifying teaching this topic at school, since virus-related knowledge was by far too fragmentary among many participants. Such lack of health-relevant knowledge may contribute to pressure on physicians by patients

  16. Das Epstein-Barr-Virus ( = Epstein-Barr virus)

    OpenAIRE

    Niller, H. H.; Wolf, Hans J.

    1993-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus is an ubiquitous humanpathogenic herpesvirus. It has been identified as the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis. In addition it is associated with the cancers nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma. Like other herpesviruses it infects cells in a lytic way or it persists in a latent state. Classically, the serologic diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infections is done by the agglutination of sheep erythrocytes according to Paul and Bunnell as a rapid testing m...

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  18. A REVIEW ON ZIKA VIRUS (ZIKV) -A DREADFUL MEMBER OF THE VIRUS FAMILY FLAVIVIRIDAE

    OpenAIRE

    1Rafiya Begum, 2 Raafia Aseena, 3Nuha Rasheed and 4 Abdul Saleem Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Research on zika virus examine the virus that is spread to humans through a mosquito bite, with symptoms that include fever, rash, joint pain, and conjuctivities. For most people zika virus is not necessarily anything to worry, as it is not fatal and symptoms are generally mild for period up to a week. Hospitalization because of zika virus is almost always not necessary. However, the zika virus can be extremely dangerous to pregnant womes. Key Words: Zika, virus, transmission, fatal, flavivir...

  19. Electron microscopic identification of Zinga virus as a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaleye, O D; Baigent, C L; Mueller, G; Tomori, O; Schmitz, H

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of a negatively stained suspension of Zinga virus showed particles 90-100 nm in diameter, enveloped with spikes 12-20 nm in length and 5 nm in diameter. Further identification of the virus by immune electron microscopy showed the reactivity of human Rift Valley fever virus-positive serum with Zinga virus. Results of this study are in agreement with earlier reports that Zinga virus is a strain of Rift Valley fever virus.

  20. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  1. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pneumoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rima, Bert; Collins, Peter; Easton, Andrew; Fouchier, Ron; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lee, Benhur; Maisner, Andrea; Rota, Paul; Wang, Linfa; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-12-01

    The family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian species, while some members of the Metapneumovirus genus may also infect birds. Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans, such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. There are no known vectors for pneumoviruses and transmission is thought to be primarily by aerosol droplets and contact. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pneumoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pneumoviridae.

  2. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hepeviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Michael A; Harrison, Tim J; Jameel, S; Meng, X-J; Okamoto, H; Van der Poel, W H M; Smith, Donald B; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-11-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans. Avian hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Hepeviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hepeviridae.

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  4. Mayaro virus: the jungle flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izurieta RO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo O Izurieta,1 David A DeLacure,1 Andres Izurieta,2 Ismael A Hoare,1 Miguel Reina Ortiz,1,3 1Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Fundación Raíces, Esmeraldas, Ecuador Abstract: Mayaro fever is an emerging acute viral disease endemic in Central and South America. Mayaro virus (MAYV is classified in the Semliki Forest virus antigenic complex and shares similarities with the alphavirus Chikungunya virus and the flavivirus Dengue virus. MAYV is an arbovirus transmitted by Haemagogus janthinomys, with competence also demonstrated in Aedes aegypti, Aedes scapularis, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Outbreaks and small epidemics of Mayaro fever have occurred in several countries in northern South America and the Caribbean. In addition, travel-associated cases have been reported in European nationals returning from endemic areas. Clinical features of Mayaro fever include fever, chills, persistent arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, maculopapular rash, itching, dizziness, and, rarely, lymphadenopathy. Methods of control for MAYV are similar to those used for other sylvatic arboviruses. Although MAYV was discovered as long ago as the 1950s and continues to be prevalent in the tropical areas of the Americas, it remains neglected and under-studied. This paper provides a thorough and current review of the published MAYV literature ranging from its original description to modern outbreaks, and from the basic virus characteristics to the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this disease. Keywords: Mayaro virus, emerging arbovirus, dengue-like virus, arthrogenic virus

  5. Zika virus and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Christina N; Bano, Rashda; Washington Cross, Chantel I; Segars, James H

    2017-06-01

    Due to the fact that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted, there is a potential risk for disease transmission at several stages of assisted reproduction. Such a possibility poses a serious challenge to couples pursing fertility with reproductive technologies. Here, we discuss what is known regarding Zika virus infection with respect to sexual transmission and correlate this knowledge with recent recommendations in the realm of infertility treatment. Zika virus can be transmitted from infected men and women through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse. Zika virus RNA has been detected in blood, semen, cervical mucus and vaginal fluid. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control recommends that infected men wait 6 months, and infected women 8 weeks, prior to attempting pregnancy. Reproductive tissue donors should wait 6 months before giving a specimen. Further study of Zika virus transmission in different reproductive tissues and establishment of validated testing methods for viral disease transmissibility are urgently needed. Reproductive technologists need to establish screening, testing and laboratory protocols aimed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission during assisted reproduction.

  6. Archaeal Viruses from High-Temperature Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Snyder, Jamie C; Young, Mark J

    2018-02-27

    Archaeal viruses are some of the most enigmatic viruses known, due to the small number that have been characterized to date. The number of known archaeal viruses lags behind known bacteriophages by over an order of magnitude. Despite this, the high levels of genetic and morphological diversity that archaeal viruses display has attracted researchers for over 45 years. Extreme natural environments, such as acidic hot springs, are almost exclusively populated by Archaea and their viruses, making these attractive environments for the discovery and characterization of new viruses. The archaeal viruses from these environments have provided insights into archaeal biology, gene function, and viral evolution. This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaeal virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations.

  7. Archaeal Viruses from High-Temperature Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Munson-McGee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeal viruses are some of the most enigmatic viruses known, due to the small number that have been characterized to date. The number of known archaeal viruses lags behind known bacteriophages by over an order of magnitude. Despite this, the high levels of genetic and morphological diversity that archaeal viruses display has attracted researchers for over 45 years. Extreme natural environments, such as acidic hot springs, are almost exclusively populated by Archaea and their viruses, making these attractive environments for the discovery and characterization of new viruses. The archaeal viruses from these environments have provided insights into archaeal biology, gene function, and viral evolution. This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaeal virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  10. Contact Mechanics of a Small Icosahedral Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cheng; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Dragnea, Bogdan; Ma, Xiang; van der Schoot, Paul; Zandi, Roya

    2017-07-01

    A virus binding to a surface causes stress of the virus cage near the contact area. Here, we investigate the potential role of substrate-induced structural perturbation in the mechanical response of virus particles to adsorption. This is particularly relevant to the broad category of viruses stabilized by weak noncovalent interactions. We utilize atomic force microscopy to measure height distributions of the brome mosaic virus upon adsorption from solution on atomically flat substrates and present a continuum model that captures our observations and provides estimates of elastic properties and of the interfacial energy of the virus, without recourse to indentation.

  11. Structure of viruses: a short history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction

  12. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  14. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  15. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  16. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S; Salmons, Brian; Glenn, Wendy K

    2018-01-01

    Although the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4). Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence. MMTV and human breast cancer-the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer-the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer-the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer-the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal. The influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  17. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV, Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, and Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, bovine leukemia virus (BLV, human papilloma viruses (HPVs, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4. Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence.The evidenceMMTV and human breast cancer—the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer—the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer—the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer—the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal.ConclusionThe influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  18. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Peters

    Full Text Available Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity.

  19. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Pérez, M; Cartagena-Rivera, A X; Lošdorfer Božič, A; Carrillo, P J P; San Martín, C; Mateu, M G; Raman, A; Podgornik, R; de Pablo, P J

    2015-11-07

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed ϕ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.

  20. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  1. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  2. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  3. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  4. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridiou, M.; Borkent-Raven, B.; Hulshof, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control

  5. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if they have been exposed to unprotected sex but do not wish to become pregnant because ... A's Zika virus and complications » Zika digital timeline Video Zika virus - Questions and answers (Q&A) Related ...

  6. Archaeal Viruses: Diversity, Replication, and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellas, Nikki; Snyder, Jamie C; Bolduc, Benjamin; Young, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    The Archaea-and their viruses-remain the most enigmatic of life's three domains. Once thought to inhabit only extreme environments, archaea are now known to inhabit diverse environments. Even though the first archaeal virus was described over 40 years ago, only 117 archaeal viruses have been discovered to date. Despite this small number, these viruses have painted a portrait of enormous morphological and genetic diversity. For example, research centered around the various steps of the archaeal virus life cycle has led to the discovery of unique mechanisms employed by archaeal viruses during replication, maturation, and virion release. In many instances, archaeal virus proteins display very low levels of sequence homology to other proteins listed in the public database, and therefore, structural characterization of these proteins has played an integral role in functional assignment. These structural studies have not only provided insights into structure-function relationships but have also identified links between viruses across all three domains of life.

  7. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L.M.; Strecker, Thomas; Cadar, Daniel; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Faber, Kelly; Patel, Ketan; Brown, Shelley M.; Davis, William G.; Klena, John D.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Noack, Bernd; Emmerich, Petra; Rieger, Toni; Wolff, Svenja; Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Eickmann, Markus; Mengel, Jan Philipp; Schultze, Tilman; Hain, Torsten; Ampofo, William; Bonney, Kofi; Aryeequaye, Juliana Naa Dedei; Ribner, Bruce; Varkey, Jay B.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Lyon, G. Marshall; Kann, Gerrit; De Leuw, Philipp; Schuettfort, Gundolf; Stephan, Christoph; Wieland, Ulrike; Fries, Jochen W.U.; Kochanek, Matthias; Kraft, Colleen S.; Wolf, Timo; Nichol, Stuart T.; Becker, Stephan; Ströher, Ute

    2018-01-01

    We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo. PMID:29460758

  8. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  9. A Literature Review of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Anna R; Bloch, Evan M

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic.

  10. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  11. Structural and Functional Studies on the Fusion and Attachment Envelope Glycoproteins of Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    including measles virus (MeV), mumps virus, Sendai virus (SeV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), rinderpest virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), human...Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD. Hut 102, MT2, MT4, and CEM human T cell lines were provided by Chou-Zen Giam, USUHS, Bethesda, MD. The human osteosarcoma

  12. Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

    2013-10-01

    Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  14. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  15. Viruses, Vaccines and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Judy; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N; Hill, Patricia Wonch; Smith, Rebecca; West, John; Wood, Charles

    Current research in virology is changing public conceptions about vaccines and infectious disease. The University of Nebraska State Museum collaborated with research virologists, science writers, artists and learning researchers to create public outreach materials about viruses and infectious disease. The project, funded by the National Institute of Health's SEPA program, developed comics, a book with Carl Zimmer, and other materials and programs. The project launched three kinds of learning research: 1) a survey of Nebraska adults on their opinions about vaccines and infectious disease; 2) a study comparing the mental models of viruses, vaccines and infection from virologists, teachers, and students; and 3) a controlled study 873 high school students randomly assigned to read either a comic or a text-based essay with the same virus information.

  16. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA. PMID:19013331

  17. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  18. RNAi suppressors encoded by pathogenic human viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Walter; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses

  19. Characterization of pseudorabies viruses produced in mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... for influenza A and B viruses (Govorkova et al., 1996). In addition, the propagation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a porcine coronavirus had been unsuccessful until serial passage of the virus in Vero cells. (Hofmann and Wyler, 1988; Song et al., 2003). There- fore, this cell line is being widely ...

  20. Contact Mechanics of a Small Icosahedral Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Cheng; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Ma, Xiang; Schoot, Paul van der; Zandi, Roya; Dragnea, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Virus binding to a surface results at least locally, at the contact area, in stress and potential structural perturbation of the virus cage. Here we address the question of the role of substrate-induced deformation in the overall virus mechanical response to the adsorption event. This question may

  1. Emerging viruses in the genus Comovirus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel; Koloniuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2010), s. 290-292 ISSN 0920-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Capsid proteins * plant virus * Radish mosaic virus * Turnip ringspot virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2010

  2. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  3. Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-10-01

    Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

  4. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  5. Influenza B viruses : not to be discounted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Bodewes, Rogier; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Vries, Rory D

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to influenza A viruses, which have been investigated extensively, influenza B viruses have attracted relatively little attention. However, influenza B viruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and full understanding of their biological and

  6. Chikungunya Virus: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: ŠŠ A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. ŠŠ A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...

  7. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,

  8. Inhibition of Interferon Induction and Action by the Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type ...

  9. Characterization of Ebola Virus Entry by Using Pseudotyped Viruses: Identification of Receptor-Deficient Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Wool-Lewis, Rouven J.; Bates, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Studies analyzing Ebola virus replication have been severely hampered by the extreme pathogenicity of this virus. To permit analysis of the host range and function of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (Ebo-GP), we have developed a system for pseudotyping these glycoproteins into murine leukemia virus (MLV). This pseudotyped virus, MLV(Ebola), can be readily concentrated to titers which exceed 5 × 106 infectious units/ml and is effectively neutralized by antibodies specific for Ebo-GP. Analysis of ...

  10. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Blasdell, Kim R; Calisher, Charles H; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Longdon, Ben; Stone, David M; Tesh, Robert B; Tordo, Noël; Vasilakis, Nikos; Whitfield, Anna E; Nbsp Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-04-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Rhabdoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

  11. Systematic analysis of protein identity between Zika virus and other arthropod-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Huber, Roland G; Bond, Peter J; Grad, Yonatan H; Camerini, David; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-07-01

    To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains. We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. We quantified the identity between the Zika virus and each of the other viruses, as well as within-Zika virus polymorphism for all amino acid k -mers across the proteome, with k ranging from 6 to 100. We assessed accessibility of protein fragments by calculating the solvent accessible surface area for the envelope and nonstructural-1 (NS1) proteins. In total, we identified 294 Zika virus protein fragments with both low proportion of identity with other viruses and low levels of polymorphisms among Zika virus strains. The list includes protein fragments from all Zika virus proteins, except NS3. NS4A has the highest number (190 k -mers) of protein fragments on the list. We provide a candidate list of protein fragments that could be used when developing a sensitive and specific serological test to detect previous Zika virus infections.

  12. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, D.; Göbels, K.; Niedrig, M.; Sim-Brandenburg, J.-W.; Làge-Stehr, J.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period

  13. [Epidemiologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Minta, D; Sounko, A; Dembele, M; Toure, C S; Kalle, A; Traore, H H; Maiga, M Y

    2006-01-01

    In order to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among patients infected by the HIV, We realized a transverse survey case--control in hepato-gastro-enterological ward and serology unity of National Institute of Research in Public health (INRSP). Our sample was constituted with 100 patients HIV positive compared to 100 controls HIV negative. The viral markers research has been made by methods immuno-enzymatiqueses of ELISA 3rd generation. Tests permitted to get the following results: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) was positive among 21% with patients HIV positive versus 23% among control (p = 0,732); Antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV ab) was present among 23% with patients HIV positive versus 0% among control (p <0,05). Female was predominant among co-infections patient, but without statistic link (p = 0,9 and p = 0,45); The co-infection HBV- HCV was significatively linked to age beyond 40 years (p = 0,0005). Co-infections with HIV infection and hepatitis virus are not rare and deserve to be investigated.

  14. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Type 2 (HSV-2) and its association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in rural Kilimanjaro Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Oria village from March to June 2005 involving all individuals aged 15-44 years ...

  16. Citrus Tristeza Virus: An Increasing Trend in the Virus Occurrence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus orchards around the world. Here, we report, an ELISA-based indexing of citrus trees over a period of eight years (2002 to 2010) in Northwest Pakistan, revealing that the incidence of CTV is increasing mainly with the distribution ...

  17. Immortalized human hepatocytes as a tool for the study of hepatocytic (de-)differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, IJ; Moshage, H; Roelofsen, H; Muller, M; Heymans, HSA; Ruiters, M; Kuipers, F

    Primary human hepatocytes were immortalized by stable transfection with a recombinant plasmid containing the early region of simian virus (SV) 40. The cells were cultured in serum-free, hormonally defined medium during the immortalization procedure. Foci of dividing cells were seen after 3 months.

  18. Analogies between geminivirus and oncovirus: Cell cycle regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geminiviruses are a large family of plant viruses whose genome is composed of one or two circular and single strand of DNA. They replicate in the cell nucleus being Rep protein, the only viral protein necessary for their replication process. Geminiviruses as same as animal DNA oncoviruses, like SV40, adenovirus and ...

  19. Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 - Novel virus at the edge of myco- and plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabáková, Lenka; Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2017-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RdRp of PlRV1 has no counterpart among mycoviruses, but it is about 30% identical with the RdRp of plant ourmiaviruses. Recently, new mycoviruses related to plant ourmiaviruses and forming one clade with PlRV1 have been discovered. This separate clade could represent the crucial link between plant and fungal viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Herpes simplex virus following stab phlebectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Lum, Ying Wei; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection following surgery is an unusual postoperative phenomenon. Many mechanisms have been suggested, with the most likely explanation related to latent virus reactivation due to a proinflammatory response in the setting of local trauma. Here, we present a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation in an immunocompetent female following a conventional right lower extremity stab phlebectomy. Salient clinical and physical examination findings are described, and management strategies for herpes simplex virus reactivation are outlined. This is the first known case report of herpes simplex virus reactivation following lower extremity phlebectomy.

  1. Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Viruses as Novel Nanoplatforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Kristine Buch

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth, and with an estimated 1031 virus-like particles in the biosphere, viruses are virtually everywhere. Traditionally, the study of viruses has focused on their roles as infectious agents. However, over the last decades with the development...... presents an in depth investigation of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus SMV. Decisive steps in the viral life-cycle are studied with focus on the early stages of infection. TEM observations suggest that SMV1 virions enter into host cells via a fusion entry mechanism, involving three distinct stages...

  2. A new looming of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R. Soni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease were conjunctivitis (red eyes, back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from blood samples.

  3. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  4. Zika virus en seksuele transmissie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, J W; Brandwagt, D A H; Timen, A; van der Eijk, A A; Vennema, H; Te Wierik, M J M

    2017-01-01

    - More evidence has become available concerning the sexual transmission of Zika virus and viral shedding in semen, which has led to the expansion of international guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission; Dutch guidelines have not been altered.- Internationally, the use of condoms during sex

  5. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Zika Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Nencka, Radim; Huvarová, I.; Palus, Martin; Alves, M. J.; Gould, E. A.; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 5 (2016), s. 707-711 ISSN 0022-1899 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zika virus * flavivirus * nucleoside analogue * antiviral * therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 6.273, year: 2016

  6. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Baculoviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Baculoviridae is a family of large viruses with circular dsDNA genomes ranging from 80 to 180 kbp. Virions consist of enveloped rod-shaped nucleocapsids and are embedded in distinctive occlusion bodies measuring 0.15 to 15 µm. The occlusion bodies consist of a matrix composed of a single viral...

  7. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pleolipoviridae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamford, D.H.; Pietila, M.K.; Roine, E.; Atanasova, N.S.; Dienstbier, Ana; Oksanen, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 12 (2017), s. 2916-2917 ISSN 0022-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pleolipoviridae * taxonomy * Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  8. A Case of Ebola Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses Ebola virus.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  9. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  10. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  11. Hepatitis A Virus in Transplants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-17

    Dr. Monique Foster, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses an unusual case of hepatitis A virus in a transplant patient.  Created: 5/17/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/17/2017.

  12. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  13. Recombination in hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Candelas, Fernando; López-Labrador, F Xavier; Bracho, María Alma

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.

  14. Control of feline leukaemia virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Weijer (Kees); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractFeline leukaemia virus (FeLV) usually occurs in its natural species, the domestic cat. FeLV is also important to human individuals as a comparative model, as it may cause a variety of diseases, some malignant and some benign, such as immunosuppression, which bears a resemblance to AIDS

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Duvenhage virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis H. Nel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Duvenhage virus (DUVV constitutes one of the 11 species in the Lyssavirus genus and causes fatal rabies encephalitis. The virus is associated with insectivorous bat species and three human cases have been reported, all of which were linked to contact with bats. Few of these isolates have been studied and thus little is known about the phylogeny and epidemiology of this lyssavirus. Until 2007, when an isolate was made from the East African country of Kenya, all isolations of this virus had been from southern Africa. This discovery led to many questions regarding the spread and diversity of this lyssavirus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the DUVV isolates constitute two different lineages, in which the southern African isolates group together to form one lineage and the more recent isolate from Kenya constitutes a new, second lineage. We found that the new isolate has a genetic variation that has not yet been seen for DUVV. Not only is our lack of knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of this uniquely African virus emphasised, but we have also demonstrated the potential diversity within this genotype.

  16. Oncolytic viruses as anticancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman eWoller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy.

  17. Tetraspanin Assemblies in Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Florin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins (Tspans are a family of four-span transmembrane proteins, known as plasma membrane “master organizers.” They form Tspan-enriched microdomains (TEMs or TERMs through lateral association with one another and other membrane proteins. If multiple microdomains associate with each other, larger platforms can form. For infection, viruses interact with multiple cell surface components, including receptors, activating proteases, and signaling molecules. It appears that Tspans, such as CD151, CD82, CD81, CD63, CD9, Tspan9, and Tspan7, coordinate these associations by concentrating the interacting partners into Tspan platforms. In addition to mediating viral attachment and entry, these platforms may also be involved in intracellular trafficking of internalized viruses and assist in defining virus assembly and exit sites. In conclusion, Tspans play a role in viral infection at different stages of the virus replication cycle. The present review highlights recently published data on this topic, with a focus on events at the plasma membrane. In light of these findings, we propose a model for how Tspan interactions may organize cofactors for viral infection into distinct molecular platforms.

  18. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  19. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  20. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Pneumoviridae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.K. Rima (Bert); Collins, P. (Peter); Easton, A. (Andrew); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); Kurath, G. (Gael); Lamb, R.A. (Robert A.); Lee, B. (Benhur); A. Maisner (Andrea); P.A. Rota (Paul); Wang, L. (Linfa); Lefkowitz, E.J. (Elliot J.); Davison, A.J. (Andrew J.); Simmonds, P. (Peter); Sabanadzovic, S. (Sead); Smith, D.B. (Donald B.); Orton, R.J. (Richard J.); Siddell, S.G. (Stuart G.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian

  1. Chikungunya VIrUS infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of 107 cases of serologically proven chikungunya (CHIK) virus infection was undertaken. All respondents 'had contracted the. 'disease at least 3 years previously; 87,9% had fully .recovered, 3,7% experienced only occasional stiff- ness or mild discomfort, 2,8% had persistent resi- dual joint stiffness but ...

  2. How infectious is SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. How infectious is SARS virus. Influenza: 1 patient infects ten people. SARS: 1 patient infects 2-4 people. Incubation period 10 days. Are there `silent´ cases ? Is quarantine enough ? How will it behave if and when it returns ?

  3. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  4. Diversity of large DNA viruses of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Bergoin, Max; van Oers, Monique M

    2017-07-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships of the invertebrate viruses to viruses infecting mammals or other vertebrates. The shared characteristics of the viruses within the various families are described, including the structure of the virus particle, genome properties, and gene expression strategies. Finally, we explain the transmission and mode of infection of the most important viruses in these families and indicate, which orders of invertebrates are susceptible to these pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Literature Review of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus’s vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic. PMID:27070380

  6. COMPOSITION OF FOWLPOX VIRUS AND INCLUSION MATRIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANDALL, C C; GAFFORD, L G; DARLINGTON, R W; HYDE, J

    1964-04-01

    Randall, Charles C. (University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson), Lanelle G. Gafford, Robert W. Darlington, and James M. Hyde. Composition of fowlpox virus and inclusion matrix. J. Bacteriol. 87:939-944. 1964.-Inclusion bodies of fowlpox virus infection are especially favorable starting material for the isolation of virus and inclusion matrix. Electron micrographs of viral particles and matrix indicated a high degree of purification. Density-gradient centrifugation of virus in cesium chloride and potassium tartrate was unsatisfactory because of inactivation, and clumping or disintegration. Chemical analyses of virus and matrix revealed significant amounts of lipid, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid, but no ribonucleic acid or carbohydrate. Approximately 47% of the weight of the virus and 83% of the matrix were extractable in chloroform-methanol. The lipid partitions of the petroleum ether extracts were similar, except that the phospholipid content of the matrix was 2.2 times that of the virus. Viral particles were sensitive to diethyl ether and chloroform.

  7. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Competitive virus assay method for titration of noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (END⁺ and END⁻ viruses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Mahmod; Ohi, Kota; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Fukusho, Akio

    2013-03-01

    A new, reliable and secure virus assay method, named the competitive virus assay (CVA) method, has been established for the titration of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) that either show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon or heterologous interference phenomenon (but not the END phenomenon). This method is based on the principle of (1) homologous interference between BVDVs, by using BVDV RK13/E(-) or BVDV RK13/E(+) strains as competitor virus, and (2) END phenomenon and heterologous interference, by using attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) TCND strain as challenge virus. In titration of BVDV END(+) and BVDV END(-) viruses, no significant difference in estimated virus titer was observed between CVA and conventional methods. CVA method demonstrated comparable levels of sensitivity and accuracy as conventional END and interference methods, which require the use of a velogenic Miyadera strain of NDV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both of which are agents of high-risk diseases. As such, the CVA method is a safer alternative, with increased bio-safety and bio-containment, through avoidance of virulent strains that are commonly employed with conventional methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  10. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons

  11. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious diseases or cancer. In this article, I speculate about the role of viruses during evolution based on knowledge of contemporary viruses. Are viruses our oldest ancestors?

  12. The MRC-5 human embryonal lung fibroblast two-dimensional gel cellular protein database: quantitative identification of polypeptides whose relative abundance differs between quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Dejgaard, K; Madsen, Peder

    1990-01-01

    interferon-induced proteins, were not detected in the master MRC-5 images. The identity of 36 of the transformation-sensitive proteins whose levels are up or down regulated by two times or more was determined and additional information can be transferred from the master transformed human epithelial amnion......, this comprehensive database will outline an integrated picture of the expression levels and properties of the thousands of protein components of organelles, pathways and cytoskeletal systems that may be directly or indirectly involved in properties associated with the transformed state. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Dec...

  13. Neuronal protein gene product 9.5 (IEF SSP 6104) is expressed in cultured human MRC-5 fibroblasts of normal origin and is strongly down-regulated in their SV40 transformed counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vandekerckhove, J

    1991-01-01

    of proteins recovered from 2D gels we have identified PGP 9.5 UCH-L1 as polypeptide IEF SSP 6104 (Mr = 27,000, pI = 5.49) in the comprehensive 2D gel cellular protein database of human embryonal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts [(1989) Electrophoresis 10, 76 115; (1990) Electrophoresis 11, 1072 1113]. This protein...

  14. Pharmacological inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  15. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  16. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  17. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared...

  18. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell cultures or nerve tissues obtained from animals that have developed rabies...

  19. Identification of virus isolates inducing mosaic of sugarcane in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugarcane mosaic disease caused by sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and sorghum mosaic Virus (SrMV) is an economically important viral disease of sugarcane worldwide. Field survey was conducted to assess the presence of the viruses involve in ...

  20. Application of artificial intelligence for detecting derived viruses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Asiru, OF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available they infect files and systems is still the same. Hence, such viruses cannot be argued to be new. In this paper, the authors refer to such viruses as derived viruses. Just like new viruses, derived viruses are hard to detect with current scanning...

  1. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee; Schriewer, Jill; Evans, David H.; Buller, R. Mark; Barry, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus

  2. Initial characterization of Vaccinia Virus B4 suggests a role in virus spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burles, Kristin; Irwin, Chad R.; Burton, Robyn-Lee [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Schriewer, Jill [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Evans, David H. [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada); Buller, R. Mark [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Barry, Michele, E-mail: michele.barry@ualberta.ca [Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Currently, little is known about the ankyrin/F-box protein B4. Here, we report that B4R-null viruses exhibited reduced plaque size in tissue culture, and decreased ability to spread, as assessed by multiple-step growth analysis. Electron microscopy indicated that B4R-null viruses still formed mature and extracellular virions; however, there was a slight decrease of virions released into the media following deletion of B4R. Deletion of B4R did not affect the ability of the virus to rearrange actin; however, VACV811, a large vaccinia virus deletion mutant missing 55 open reading frames, had decreased ability to produce actin tails. Using ectromelia virus, a natural mouse pathogen, we demonstrated that virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, showed decreased spread to organs and was attenuated during infection. This initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread, and that other unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus. - Highlights: • B4R-null viruses show reduced plaque size, and decreased ability to spread. • B4R-null viruses formed mature and extracellular virions; and rearranged actin. • Virus devoid of EVM154, the B4R homolog, was attenuated during infection. • Initial characterization suggests that B4 may play a role in virus spread. • Unidentified mediators of actin tail formation may exist in vaccinia virus.

  3. Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  4. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P.; Castón, José R.; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particl...

  5. Type C virus activation in nontransformed mouse cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampar, B.; Hatanaka, M.; Aulakh, G.; Derge, J.G.; Lee, L.; Showalter, S.

    1977-01-01

    Infection of nontransformed mouse cells with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (uv-HSV) resulted in the activation of an endogenous xenotropic (x-tropic) type C virus. Synthesis of type C virus persisted for only a few days, with most of the virus remaining cell associated. The levels of type C virus activated by uv-HSV varied depending on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) and the uv dose. At low uv doses, where cell killing occurred, little or no type C virus synthesis was observed. Maximum levels of type C virus synthesis were observed with the minimum uv dose which eliminated cell killing by HSV. Synthesis of type C virus, albeit at lower levels, was still observed at uv doses beyond those required to prevent cell killing

  6. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-19

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV.

  7. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, S.; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-01-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea.

  8. Type C virus activation in nontransformed mouse cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampar, B. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD); Hatanaka, M.; Aulakh, G.; Derge, J.G.; Lee, L.; Showalter, S.

    1977-02-01

    Infection of nontransformed mouse cells with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (uv-HSV) resulted in the activation of an endogenous xenotropic (x-tropic) type C virus. Synthesis of type C virus persisted for only a few days, with most of the virus remaining cell associated. The levels of type C virus activated by uv-HSV varied depending on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) and the uv dose. At low uv doses, where cell killing occurred, little or no type C virus synthesis was observed. Maximum levels of type C virus synthesis were observed with the minimum uv dose which eliminated cell killing by HSV. Synthesis of type C virus, albeit at lower levels, was still observed at uv doses beyond those required to prevent cell killing.

  9. New frontiers in oncolytic viruses: optimizing and selecting for virus strains with improved efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundstrom K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Lundstrom PanTherapeutics, Lutry, Switzerland Abstract: Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated selective replication and killing of tumor cells. Different types of oncolytic viruses – adenoviruses, alphaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, Newcastle disease viruses, rhabdoviruses, Coxsackie viruses, and vaccinia viruses – have been applied as either naturally occurring or engineered vectors. Numerous studies in animal-tumor models have demonstrated substantial tumor regression and prolonged survival rates. Moreover, clinical trials have confirmed good safety profiles and therapeutic efficacy for oncolytic viruses. Most encouragingly, the first cancer gene-therapy drug – Gendicine, based on oncolytic adenovirus type 5 – was approved in China. Likewise, a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus-based drug for the treatment of melanoma has been registered in the US and Europe as talimogene laherparepvec. Keywords: immunotherapy, viral vectors, clinical trials, drug approval

  10. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  11. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  12. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-09-24

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus.

  13. Configuring Symantec AntiVirus

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This is the only book that will teach system administrators how to configure, deploy, and troubleshoot Symantec Enterprise Edition in an enterprise network. The book will reflect Symantec''s philosophy of "Centralized Antivirus Management." For the same reasons that Symantec bundled together these previously separate products, the book will provide system administrators with a holistic approach to defending their networks from malicious viruses. This book will also serve as a Study Guide for those pursuing Symantec Product Specialist Certifications.Configuring Symantec AntiVirus Enterprise Edition contains step-by-step instructions on how to Design, implement and leverage the Symantec Suite of products in the enterprise.ØFirst book published on market leading product and fast-growing certification. Despite the popularity of Symantec''s products and Symantec Product Specialist certifications, there are no other books published or announced.ØLess expensive substitute for costly on-sight training. Symantec off...

  14. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Picornaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, R; Delwart, E; Gorbalenya, A E; Hovi, T; King, A M Q; Knowles, N J; Lindberg, A M; Pallansch, M A; Palmenberg, A C; Reuter, G; Simmonds, P; Skern, T; Stanway, G; Yamashita, T; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The family Picornaviridae comprises small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 6.7 to 10.1 kb, and contains >30 genera and >75 species. Most of the known picornaviruses infect mammals and birds, but some have also been detected in reptiles, amphibians and fish. Many picornaviruses are important human and veterinary pathogens and may cause diseases of the central nervous system, heart, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract or upper respiratory tract. Most picornaviruses are transmitted by the faecal-oral or respiratory routes. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Picornaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/picornaviridae.

  15. Dinucleotide Composition in Animal RNA Viruses Is Shaped More by Virus Family than by Host Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlub, Timothy E; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-04-15

    Viruses use the cellular machinery of their hosts for replication. It has therefore been proposed that the nucleotide and dinucleotide compositions of viruses should match those of their host species. If this is upheld, it may then be possible to use dinucleotide composition to predict the true host species of viruses sampled in metagenomic surveys. However, it is also clear that different taxonomic groups of viruses tend to have distinctive patterns of dinucleotide composition that may be independent of host species. To determine the relative strength of the effect of host versus virus family in shaping dinucleotide composition, we performed a comparative analysis of 20 RNA virus families from 15 host groupings, spanning two animal phyla and more than 900 virus species. In particular, we determined the odds ratios for the 16 possible dinucleotides and performed a discriminant analysis to evaluate the capability of virus dinucleotide composition to predict the correct virus family or host taxon from which it was isolated. Notably, while 81% of the data analyzed here were predicted to the correct virus family, only 62% of these data were predicted to their correct subphylum/class host and a mere 32% to their correct mammalian order. Similarly, dinucleotide composition has a weak predictive power for different hosts within individual virus families. We therefore conclude that dinucleotide composition is generally uniform within a virus family but less well reflects that of its host species. This has obvious implications for attempts to accurately predict host species from virus genome sequences alone. IMPORTANCE Determining the processes that shape virus genomes is central to understanding virus evolution and emergence. One question of particular importance is why nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies differ so markedly between viruses. In particular, it is currently unclear whether host species or virus family has the biggest impact on dinucleotide frequencies and

  16. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  17. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  18. Recent advances on Ebola virus

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Waheed; Mehreen Tahir; Hasnain Waheed; Sher Zaman Safi

    2017-01-01

    The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest of its kind, with more than 11 000 deaths and 28 637 cases. The epidemic mobilized a coalition of countries from US to China, European Union, and African countries. The international community was not prepared to face this unprecedented epidemic. Numbers of research groups are working to find a potent vaccine against Ebola. Ebola virus has the ability to dodge the immune system either by blocking interferon production ...

  19. Viruses & kidney disease: beyond HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and t...

  20. Saffold virus infection associated with human myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nielsen, Alex Yde; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saffold virus was described in 2007 as one of the first human viruses within the genus cardioviruses. Cardioviruses may cause severe infections of the myocardium in animals, and several studies have associated saffold virus with human disease. As a result, saffold virus has been...... isolated from different anatomical compartments, including the myocardium, but, until now, it has not been possible to demonstrate the accompanying histopathological signs of inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine if saffold virus is capable of causing invasive infection in the human...... myocardium. STUDY DESIGN: Using real-time PCR, we retrospectively examined formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cardiac tissue specimens from 150 deceased individuals diagnosed with myocarditis at autopsy. The results were compared with histological findings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Saffold virus was detected...

  1. Tunable protease-activatable virus nanonodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Justin; Ho, Michelle L; Tiwari, Abhinav; Gomez, Eric J; Dempsey, Christopher; Van Vliet, Kim; Igoshin, Oleg A; Silberg, Jonathan J; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Suh, Junghae

    2014-05-27

    We explored the unique signal integration properties of the self-assembling 60-mer protein capsid of adeno-associated virus (AAV), a clinically proven human gene therapy vector, by engineering proteolytic regulation of virus-receptor interactions such that processing of the capsid by proteases is required for infection. We find the transfer function of our engineered protease-activatable viruses (PAVs), relating the degree of proteolysis (input) to PAV activity (output), is highly nonlinear, likely due to increased polyvalency. By exploiting this dynamic polyvalency, in combination with the self-assembly properties of the virus capsid, we show that mosaic PAVs can be constructed that operate under a digital AND gate regime, where two different protease inputs are required for virus activation. These results show viruses can be engineered as signal-integrating nanoscale nodes whose functional properties are regulated by multiple proteolytic signals with easily tunable and predictable response surfaces, a promising development toward advanced control of gene delivery.

  2. Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Robert; Georgi, Fanny

    2018-01-01

    Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections. We discuss advantages and opportunities of confocal and multi-photon microscopy, selective plane illumination microscopy, and super-resolution microscopy. We emphasize the prevalent concepts in image processing and data analyses, and provide an outlook into label-free digital holographic microscopy for virus research. PMID:29670029

  3. No Love Lost Between Viruses and Interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterl, Volker; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-11-01

    The interferon system protects mammals against virus infections. There are several types of interferons, which are characterized by their ability to inhibit virus replication and resultant pathogenesis by triggering both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. Virus infection is sensed by a variety of cellular pattern-recognition receptors and triggers the synthesis of interferons, which are secreted by the infected cells. In uninfected cells, cell surface receptors recognize the secreted interferons and activate intracellular signaling pathways that induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes; the proteins encoded by these genes inhibit different stages of virus replication. To avoid extinction, almost all viruses have evolved mechanisms to defend themselves against the interferon system. Consequently, a dynamic equilibrium of survival is established between the virus and its host, an equilibrium that can be shifted to the host's favor by the use of exogenous interferon as a therapeutic antiviral agent.

  4. Zika virus: the latest newcomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos eSaiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980´s, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization (WHO, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in foetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis and public health.

  5. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  6. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  7. Human Papilloma Virus and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Mattoscio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are a group of double-stranded DNA viruses known to be the primary cause of cervical cancer. In addition, evidence has now established their role in non-melanoma skin cancers, head and neck cancer (HNC, and the development of other anogenital malignancies. The prevalence of HPV-related HNC, in particular oropharyngeal cancers, is rapidly increasing, foreseeing that HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers will outnumber uterine cervical cancers in the next 15–20 years. Therefore, despite the successful advent of vaccines originally licensed for cervical cancer prevention, HPV burden is still very high, and a better understanding of HPV biology is urgently needed. Autophagy is the physiological cellular route that accounts for removal, degradation, and recycling of damaged organelles, proteins, and lipids in lysosomal vacuoles. In addition to this scavenger function, autophagy plays a fundamental role during viral infections and cancers and is, therefore, frequently exploited by viruses to their own benefit. Recently, a link between HPV and autophagy has clearly emerged, leading to the conceivable development of novel anti-viral strategies aimed at restraining HPV infectivity. Here, recent findings on how oncogenic HPV16 usurp autophagy are described, highlighting similarities and differences with mechanisms adopted by other oncoviruses.

  8. Recent advances on Ebola virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Waheed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest of its kind, with more than 11 000 deaths and 28 637 cases. The epidemic mobilized a coalition of countries from US to China, European Union, and African countries. The international community was not prepared to face this unprecedented epidemic. Numbers of research groups are working to find a potent vaccine against Ebola. Ebola virus has the ability to dodge the immune system either by blocking interferon production or by glycoprotein-based immune diversion. Individuals who survived from the Ebola virus are facing different health issues after the infection. The rate of miscarriage is also high in Ebola survivors while there are variable reports of the presence of Ebola virus in semen of Ebola survivors. There are many asymptomatic Ebola patients under consideration. West African countries lack the basic healthcare system, for which the actual number of deaths by the Ebola outbreak are much more than the deaths caused by the direct viral infection. The hospitals were empty due to fear and death of nurses and doctors. Millions of children missed the vaccine against measles. Hundreds of thousands of people could not get food. The Ebola epidemic also affected the mental health of people living in endemic countries. The families affected by Ebola are facing discrimination in the society. There is a dire need to adopt United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3, which stresses to prepare ourselves to face any national or global health risk.

  9. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Rozák; Zdenka Gálová

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen a...

  10. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    C C Azodo; P Erhabor

    2015-01-01

    The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understandin...

  11. Zika Virus: An Emergent Neuropathological Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martyn K.; Wollebo, Hassen S.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain–Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Zika virions are enveloped and icosahedral, and contain a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which encodes 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins that are expressed as a single polyprotein that undergoes cleavage. Zika genomic RNA replicates in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Zika virus was first detected in 1947 in the blood of a febrile monkey in Uganda’s Zika Forest and in crushed suspensions of the Aedes mosquito, which is one of the vectors for Zika virus. The virus remained obscure, with a few human cases confined to Africa and Asia. There are two lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asian, with the Asian strain causing outbreaks in Micronesia in 2007 and French Polynesia in 2013–2014. From here, the virus spread to Brazil with the first report of autochthonous Zika transmission in the Americas in March 2015. The rapid advance of the virus in the Americas and its likely association with microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome make Zika an urgent public health concern. PMID:27464346

  12. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  13. Measles virus: Background and oncolytic virotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sankhajit Bhattacharjee; Pramod Kumar Yadava

    2018-01-01

    Measles is a highly transmissible disease caused by measles virus and remains a major cause of child mortality in developing countries. Measles virus nucleoprotein (N) encapsidates the RNA genome of the virus for providing protection from host cell endonucleases and for specific recognition of viral RNA as template for transcription and replication. This protein is over-expressed at the time of viral replication. The C-terminal of N protein is intrinsically disordered, which enables this prot...

  14. Varicella zoster virus infection causing urinary retention in a child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... Varicella zoster virus (VZV) of the human herpes virus family .... VZV, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. Radiculomyelitis causing transient urinary retention and sensory lumbosacral symptoms is known as Elsberg ...

  15. Bacteriophages: update on application as models for viruses in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriophages: update on application as models for viruses in water. ... the resistance of human viruses to water treatment and disinfection processes. ... highly sensitive molecular techniques viruses have been detected in drinking water ...

  16. serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.

  17. survey of the symptoms and viruses associated with cowpea (vigna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-29

    Oct 29, 2012 ... of the prevalence of virus disease symptoms and to specifically identify the viruses infecting cowpea. (Vigna unguiculata . ... 1Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of ..... emerging viruses. This will ...

  18. Tomato ringspot virus and Tobacco ringspot virus in Highbush Blueberry in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars Patriot and Bluecrop showing virus-like symptoms and decline in vigor in New York was conducted to assess the occurrence of viruses. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic bushes reacted positively to Tobacco ringspot virus ...

  19. Functional properties of Virus-Encoded and Virus-Regulated 7TM Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have developed several survival strategies that involve exploitation of 7TM receptors. These include virus-encoded 7TM receptors and ligands and viral regulation of endogenous receptors. Many functional properties have been ascribed to virus-exploited...

  20. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... an opportunity for public comment on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  1. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... for the notice of public meeting entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  2. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  3. Monitoring virus entry into living cells using DiD-labeled dengue virus particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayala Nunez, Vanesa; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of approaches can be applied to investigate the multiple steps and interactions that occur during virus entry into the host cell. Single-virus tracking is a powerful real-time imaging technique that offers the possibility to monitor virus-cell binding, internalization, intracellular

  4. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Charles; Lauck, M; Yú, SQ; Caì, Y; Hensley, LE; Chiu, CY; O'Connor, DH; Kuhn, JH

    2015-01-01

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm vi

  5. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus

  6. Tubule-forming capacity of the movement proteins of alfalfa mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D. T.; van der Wel, N. N.; Jansen, K. A.; Goldbach, R. W.; van Lent, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The structural phenotype of the movement proteins (MPs) of two representatives of the Bromoviridae, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), was studied in protoplasts. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the MPs of these viruses, for which there has been no evidence of a

  7. «I Am Legend»: comparison of the fictional virus infection and Rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CAMACHO AGUILERA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the movie I am legend (2007 by, the rabies virus infection is reviewed in this article, given its strong resemblance to the fictional disease created in this film caused by the virus Krippin. A review of history, virus characteristics, viral transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, mortality, treatment and prevention, are presented and are contrasted with the film.

  8. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  9. Molecular characterization of pea enation mosaic virus and bean leafroll virus from the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapati, B; Druffel, K L; Eigenbrode, S D; Karasev, A; Pappu, H R

    2010-10-01

    The family Luteoviridae consists of eight viruses assigned to three different genera, Luteovirus, Polerovirus and Enamovirus. The complete genomic sequences of pea enation mosaic virus (genus Enamovirus) and bean leafroll virus (genus Luteovirus) from the Pacific Northwest, USA, were determined. Annotation, sequence comparisons, and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes together with those of known polero- and enamoviruses were conducted.

  10. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  11. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...

  12. 2016, the year of Zika virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the literature on neurological infections was, understandably, dominated by Zika virus. However, we should not overlook important publications on the treatment of cryptococcal and bacterial meningitis

  13. Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Duncan R. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.

  14. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  15. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  17. Incidence of hepatotropic viruses in biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenfels, Stefan; Krassmann, Miriam; Al-Masri, Ahmed N; Verhagen, Willem; Leonhardt, Johannes; Kuebler, Joachim F; Petersen, Claus

    2009-04-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the most frequent indication for paediatric liver transplantation. We tested the hypothesis of a viral aetiology of this disease by screening liver samples of a large number of BA patients for the common human hepatotropic viruses. Moreover, we correlated our findings to the expression of Mx protein, which has been shown to be significantly up-regulated during viral infections. Seventy-four liver biopsies (taken during Kasai portoenterostomy) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for DNA viruses (herpes simplex virus [HSV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], varicella zoster virus [VZV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], adenovirus, parvovirus B19 and polyoma BK) and RNA viruses (enteroviruses, rotavirus and reovirus 3). Mx protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Virus DNA/RNA was found in less than half of the biopsies (8/74 CMV, 1/74 adenovirus; 21/64 reovirus, 1/64 enterovirus). A limited number presented with double infection. Patients that had detectable viral RNA/DNA in their liver biopsies were significantly older than virus-free patients (P = 0.037). The majority (54/59) of the liver biopsies showed expression of Mx proteins in hepatocytes, bile ducts and epithelium. Our data suggest that the known hepatotropic viruses do not play a major role in the aetiology and progression of BA. Their incidence appears to be, rather, a secondary phenomenon. Nonetheless, the inflammatory response in the livers of BA patients mimics that observed during viral infections.

  18. Examination of suspicious objects by virus analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananin, E. V.; Ananina, I. S.; Nikishova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents data on virus threats urgency. But in order for antiviruses to work properly, all data on new implementations of viruses should be added to its database. For that to be done, all suspicious objects should be investigated. It is a dangerous process and should be done in the virtual system. However, it is not secure for the main system as well. So the diagram of a secure workplace for a virus analyst is proposed. It contains software for its protection. Also all kinds of setting to ensure security of the process of investigating suspicious objects are proposed. The proposed approach allows minimizing risks caused by the virus.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 μg of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells. (Auth.)

  20. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G A; Salmi, A A [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  1. Biomedical nanotechnology using virus-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destito, G; Schneemann, A; Manchester, M

    2009-01-01

    A great challenge in biomedicine is the ability to target therapeutics to specific locations in the body in order to increase therapeutic benefit and minimize adverse effects. Virus-based nanotechnology takes advantage of the natural circulatory and targeting properties of viruses, in order to design therapeutics and vaccines that specifically target tissues of interest in vivo. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and flock house virus (FHV) nanoparticle-based strategies hold great promise for the design of targeted therapeutics, as well as for structure-based vaccine approaches.

  2. Script-viruses Attacks on UNIX OS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Mikhaylov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article attacks on UNIX OS are considered. Currently antivirus developers are concentrated on protecting systems from viruses that are most common and attack popular operating systems. If the system or its components are not often attacked then the antivirus products are not protecting these components as it is not profitable. The same situation is with script-viruses for UNIX OS as most experts consider that it is impossible for such viruses to get enough rights to attack. Nevertheless the main conclusion of this article is the fact that such viruses can be very powerful and can attack systems and get enough rights.

  3. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view

    OpenAIRE

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious disease...

  4. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV. Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1. This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2 showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses.

  5. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Ma, Jingjiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Richt, Juergen A; Wentworth, David E; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-10-01

    Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses.

  6. Virus wars: using one virus to block the spread of another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Paff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The failure of traditional interventions to block and cure HIV infections has led to novel proposals that involve treating infections with therapeutic viruses–infectious viruses that specifically inhibit HIV propagation in the host. Early efforts in evaluating these proposals have been limited chiefly to mathematical models of dynamics, for lack of suitable empirical systems. Here we propose, develop and analyze an empirical system of a therapeutic virus that protects a host cell population against a lethal virus. The empirical system uses E. coli bacteria as the host cell population, an RNA phage as the lethal virus and a filamentous phage as the therapeutic virus. Basic dynamic properties are established for each virus alone and then together. Observed dynamics broadly agree with those predicted by a computer simulation model, although some differences are noted. Two cases of dynamics are contrasted, differing in whether the therapeutic virus is introduced before the lethal virus or after the lethal virus. The therapeutic virus increases in both cases but by different mechanisms. With the therapeutic virus introduced first, it spreads infectiously without any appreciable change in host dynamics. With the therapeutic virus introduced second, host abundance is depressed at the time therapy is applied; following an initial period of therapeutic virus spread by infection, the subsequent rise of protection is through reproduction by hosts already protected. This latter outcome is due to inheritance of the therapeutic virus state when the protected cell divides. Overall, the work establishes the feasibility and robustness to details of a viral interference using a therapeutic virus.

  7. Protecting Anti-virus Programs From Viral Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    During a fight between viruses and anti-viruses it is not always predictable that the anti-virus is going to win. There are many malicious viruses which target to attack and paralyze the anti-viruses. It is necessary for an anti-virus to detect and destroy the malware before its own files are detected and destroyed by the malware. The anti-virus may follow thorough testing and auditing procedures to fix all its bugs before releasing the software in the market. Besides the anti-virus may use a...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...

  9. Genomic characterisation of Almpiwar virus, Harrison Dam virus and Walkabout Creek virus; three novel rhabdoviruses from northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McAllister

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdoviridae represent a diverse group of viruses with the potential to cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Currently there are nine genera in the family; however a large number of rhabdoviruses remain unassigned. Here we characterise three novel rhabdoviruses genomes. Almpiwar virus (ALMV, isolated from skinks in northern Queensland, is the first completely sequenced rhabdovirus from squamates, with serological studies indicating multiple animal host species. Harrison Dam virus (HARDV and Walkabout Creek virus (WACV were isolated from mosquitoes in the Northern Territory and biting midges in southern Queensland respectively and their vertebrate hosts remain unknown. Serological cross-neutralisation tests with other Australian rhabdoviruses indicate that ALMV, WACV and HARDV are distinct viruses with little antigenic cross-reactivity. Next-generation sequencing revealed that all viruses encode the core proteins common to rhabdoviruses (N, P, M, G and L, plus additional ORFs between the M and G genes. HARDV also contains a small ORF between the G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of N and L proteins suggests that HARDV and WACV share a common lineage with the tupaviruses and Sandjimba group, whereas ALMV is a distinct and divergent virus showing no clear relationship to any rhabdovirus except the recently characterised Niahka virus (NIAV.

  10. Interventions Against West Nile Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Where Are We?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.; Ergonul, O.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    ARBO-ZOONET is an international network financed by the European Commission's seventh framework program. The major goal of this initiative is capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases, with a clear focus on West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and

  11. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  12. Selective host range restriction of goat cells for recombinant murine leukemia virus and feline leukemia virus type A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, P J; Thiel, H J; Blevins, C S; Dunlop, N M

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a strain of normal goat fibroblasts which was uniquely selective in that it allowed the replication of xenotropic murine leukemia virus but not polytropic recombinant murine leukemia virus. In addition, feline leukemia virus type A replication was severely diminished in these goat cells, whereas feline leukemia virus type B and feline endogenous RD114-CCC viruses replicated efficiently. No other known cells exhibit this pattern of virus growth restriction. These goat cells allow t...

  13. ANALISIS GEN HAEMAGGLUTININ PADA VIRUS CAMPAK LIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit Campak disebabkan oleh virus campak yang termasuk genus Morbilivirus dan Family Paramyxoviridae. Penyakit campak masih menjadi masalah kesehatan karena masih ditemukan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab terjadinya KLB tersebut diduga sebagaiakibat perbedaan antigenesitas antara strain vaksin yang digunakan dengan strain virus campak liar yang beredar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran tentang karakteristik genetik gen Haemagglutinin virus campak liar yang ada di Indonesia. Spesimen yang digunakan sebanyak 27 isolat virus penyebab KLB dari 17 propinsi selama periode tahun 2003-2010. Isolat virus dilakukan pemeriksaan secara RT-PCR dan sekuensing dengan metode Sanger. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Bioedit 7.0 dan MEGA 4.0. Hasil penelitian didapatkan perbedaan 10 asam amino antara virus campak strain vaksin CAM-70 dan virus campak liar pada posisi D416N; K424T; V451M; N455T; V466I; I473T; F476L; Y481S atau Y481N; H495N; G505D. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan karakteristik genetik antara virus campak liar di Indonesia berbeda dengan strain virus vaksin CAM-70.Kata kunci : Campak, Analisis Molekuler, Hemagglutinin, CD46AbstractMeasles is caused by virus belonging to the genus Morbilivirus and Family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is still a public health problem because outbreak of measles still found in Indonesia. Outbreak is suspected as a result of differences in antigenicity between vaccine strains used with wild-type measles virus strains circulating in Indonesia. This study aims to get genetic characteristics of wild-type measles virus haemagglutinin gene in Indonesia. The specimens were used 27 viral isolates from 17 provinces period 2003-2010. Viral isolates examined by RT-PCR and sequencing with Sanger method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.0 and MEGA 4.0 software. The results showed 10 amino acid differences

  14. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H.; Murray, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia

  15. Laboratory biosafety for handling emerging viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Made Artika

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging viruses are viruses whose occurrence has risen within the past twenty years, or whose presence is likely to increase in the near future. Diseases caused by emerging viruses are a major threat to global public health. In spite of greater awareness of safety and containment procedures, the handling of pathogenic viruses remains a likely source of infection, and mortality, among laboratory workers. There is a steady increase in both the number of laboratories and scientist handling emerging viruses for diagnostics and research. The potential for harm associated to work with these infectious agents can be minimized through the application of sound biosafety concepts and practices. The main factors to the prevention of laboratory-acquired infection are well-trained personnel who are knowledgable and biohazard aware, who are perceptive of the various ways of transmission, and who are professional in safe laboratory practice management. In addition, we should emphasize that appropriate facilities, practices and procedures are to be used by the laboratory workers for the handling of emerging viruses in a safe and secure manner. This review is aimed at providing researchers and laboratory personnel with basic biosafety principles to protect themselves from exposure to emerging viruses while working in the laboratory. This paper focuses on what emerging viruses are, why emerging viruses can cause laboratory-acquired infection, how to assess the risk of working with emerging viruses, and how laboratory-acquired infection can be prevented. Control measures used in the laboratory designed as such that they protect workers from emerging viruses and safeguard the public through the safe disposal of infectious wastes are also addressed.

  16. Lack of Durable Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies Against Zika Virus from Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew H; McGowan, Eileen; Jadi, Ramesh; Young, Ellen; Lopez, Cesar A; Baric, Ralph S; Lazear, Helen M; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-05-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.

  17. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  19. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between...

  20. Propagation Effect of a Virus Outbreak on a Network with Limited Anti-Virus Ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Xu

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new computer virus spreading model which takes into account the possibility of a virus outbreak on a network with limited anti-virus ability. Then, the model is investigated for the existence of equilibria and their stabilities are proved and illustrated. Moreover, it is found that these two factors are not only relative to the threshold value determining whether the virus becomes extinct or not, but that they are also relative to the virus epidemic levels. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that, in some ways, it would be practically possible to eradicate the virus or suppress its prevalence below a suitable level. Consequently, some suggestions are proposed that may help eradicate or suppress virus propagation over a real computer network.