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Sample records for sv-40 immortalized sebocytes

  1. Temperature-sensitive SV40-immortalized rat middle ear epithelial cells.

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    Toyama, Katsuhiro; Kim, Youngki; Paparella, Michael M; Lin, Jizhen

    2004-12-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of middle ear epithelial cells are essential in both normal and diseased middle ears. The normal situation involves physiologic growth and renewal of the epithelium, and the diseased situation involves pathological changes of the epithelium such as mucous cell metaplasia and ciliated cell proliferation in otitis media. In this study, we used a temperature-sensitive large T antigen (the SV40 mutant) to transduce and immortalize the primary culture of middle ear epithelial cells. SV40-immortalized middle ear epithelial cells have been cultured for more than 50 passages and are stable morphologically. Their nonimmortalized parent cells died at the second passage. Immortalized middle ear epithelial cells carrying the SV40 mutant show a monolayer, cobblestonelike morphology. The cell line expresses characteristic middle ear mucosal molecules such as mucins, keratins, and collagens. It also responds to temperature changes; namely, cells proliferate at 33 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is active, and differentiate at 39 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is inactive. Therefore, we conclude that a temperature-sensitive middle ear epithelial cell line has successfully been established.

  2. Transformation of SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cells by 3-methylcholanthrene increases IFN- and Large T Antigen-induced transcripts

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    Easton Marilyn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Virus 40 (SV40 immortalization followed by treatment of cells with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC has been used to elicit tumors in athymic mice. 3-MC carcinogenesis has been thoroughly studied, however gene-level interactions between 3-MC and SV40 that could have produced the observed tumors have not been explored. The commercially-available human uroepithelial cell lines were either SV40-immortalized (HUC or SV40-immortalized and then 3-MC-transformed (HUC-TC. Results To characterize the SV40 - 3MC interaction, we compared human gene expression in these cell lines using a human cancer array and confirmed selected changes by RT-PCR. Many viral Large T Antigen (Tag expression-related changes occurred in HUC-TC, and it is concluded that SV40 and 3-MC may act synergistically to transform cells. Changes noted in IFP 9-27, 2'-5' OAS, IF 56, MxA and MxAB were typical of those that occur in response to viral exposure and are part of the innate immune response. Because interferon is crucial to innate immune host defenses and many gene changes were interferon-related, we explored cellular growth responses to exogenous IFN-γ and found that treatment impeded growth in tumor, but not immortalized HUC on days 4 - 7. Cellular metabolism however, was inhibited in both cell types. We conclude that IFN-γ metabolic responses were functional in both cell lines, but IFN-γ anti-proliferative responses functioned only in tumor cells. Conclusions Synergism of SV40 with 3-MC or other environmental carcinogens may be of concern as SV40 is now endemic in 2-5.9% of the U.S. population. In addition, SV40-immortalization is a generally-accepted method used in many research materials, but the possibility of off-target effects in studies carried out using these cells has not been considered. We hope that our work will stimulate further study of this important phenomenon.

  3. Immortalization of Porcine 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1-Transgenic Liver Cells Using SV40 Large T Antigen

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    Hee Young Kang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is a steroid hormone essential to the maintenance of homeostasis that is released in response to stress and low blood glucose concentration. Cortisol is converted from cortisone by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1. It has been reported that too much cortisol or overexpression of HSD11B1 induces obesity and the insulin resistance that accompanies metabolic syndrome in rodent adipose tissue. In our previous study, HSD11B1-transgenic (TG fibroblasts were established, and a porcine model was generated by SCNT using those fibroblasts. Hepatocytes overexpressing HSD11B1 were obtained from livers of this porcine model and cultured in vitro. However, the primary hepatocytes were found to have a short life span or low proliferation rate. To overcome these problems, the SV40 large T antigen was transduced into primary HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes, and those cells were immortalized. Immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes showed restored morphology, more rapid proliferation rate, and more expression of HSD11B1 than primary hepatocytes. As well, these cells kept the hepatic characteristics such as gluconeogenic response to cortisone and increased expression of hepatic makers. The immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes may be useful for studying traits and potential therapeutic drugs for treatment of metabolic disorders induced by overexpression of HSD11B1.

  4. Immortalization of Porcine 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1-Transgenic Liver Cells Using SV40 Large T Antigen.

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    Kang, Hee Young; Choi, Young-Kwon; Jeong, Yeon Ik; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-12-05

    Cortisol is a steroid hormone essential to the maintenance of homeostasis that is released in response to stress and low blood glucose concentration. Cortisol is converted from cortisone by 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1). It has been reported that too much cortisol or overexpression of HSD11B1 induces obesity and the insulin resistance that accompanies metabolic syndrome in rodent adipose tissue. In our previous study, HSD11B1-transgenic (TG) fibroblasts were established, and a porcine model was generated by SCNT using those fibroblasts. Hepatocytes overexpressing HSD11B1 were obtained from livers of this porcine model and cultured in vitro. However, the primary hepatocytes were found to have a short life span or low proliferation rate. To overcome these problems, the SV40 large T antigen was transduced into primary HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes, and those cells were immortalized. Immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes showed restored morphology, more rapid proliferation rate, and more expression of HSD11B1 than primary hepatocytes. As well, these cells kept the hepatic characteristics such as gluconeogenic response to cortisone and increased expression of hepatic makers. The immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes may be useful for studying traits and potential therapeutic drugs for treatment of metabolic disorders induced by overexpression of HSD11B1.

  5. Columnar structure of SV40 minichromosome

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    Edward N Trifonov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Like the sequence of the strongest 601 clone nucleosome of Lowary and Widom, the SV40 genome sequence contains tracks of YR dinucleotides separated by small integers of the 10.4n base series (10, 11, 21 and 30 bases. The tracks, however, substantially exceed the nucleosome DNA size and, thus, correspond to more extended structure - columnar chromatin. The micrococcal nuclease digests of the SV40 chromatin do not show uniquely positioned individual nucleosomes. This confirms the columnar structure of the minichromosome, as well as earlier electron microscopy studies.

  6. Immortality of cancers

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    Duesberg, Peter; McCormack, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Immortality is a common characteristic of cancers, but its origin and purpose are still unclear. Here we advance a karyotypic theory of immortality based on the theory that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation. Accordingly, cancers are generated from normal cells by random karyotypic rearrangements and selection for cancer-specific reproductive autonomy. Since such rearrangements unbalance long-established mitosis genes, cancer karyotypes vary spontaneously but are stabilized perpetually by clonal selections for autonomy. To test this theory we have analyzed neoplastic clones, presumably immortalized by transfection with overexpressed telomerase or with SV40 tumor virus, for the predicted clonal yet flexible karyotypes. The following results were obtained: (1) All immortal tumorigenic lines from cells transfected with overexpressed telomerase had clonal and flexible karyotypes; (2) Searching for the origin of such karyotypes, we found spontaneously increasing, random aneuploidy in human fibroblasts early after transfection with overexpressed telomerase; (3) Late after transfection, new immortal tumorigenic clones with new clonal and flexible karyotypes were found; (4) Testing immortality of one clone during 848 unselected generations showed the chromosome number was stable, but the copy numbers of 36% of chromosomes drifted ± 1; (5) Independent immortal tumorigenic clones with individual, flexible karyotypes arose after individual latencies; (6) Immortal tumorigenic clones with new flexible karyotypes also arose late from cells of a telomerase-deficient mouse rendered aneuploid by SV40 virus. Because immortality and tumorigenicity: (1) correlated exactly with individual clonal but flexible karyotypes; (2) originated simultaneously with such karyotypes; and (3) arose in the absence of telomerase, we conclude that clonal and flexible karyotypes generate the immortality of cancers. PMID:23388461

  7. Transgenic Mouse Models of SV40-Induced Cancer.

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    Hudson, Amanda L; Colvin, Emily K

    2016-01-01

    The SV40 viral oncogene has been used since the 1970s as a reliable and reproducible method to generate transgenic mouse models. This seminal discovery has taught us an immense amount about how tumorigenesis occurs, and its success has led to the evolution of many mouse models of cancer. Despite the development of more modern and targeted approaches for developing genetically engineered mouse models of cancer, SV40-induced mouse models still remain frequently used today. This review discusses a number of cancer types in which SV40 mouse models of cancer have been developed and highlights their relevance and importance to preclinical research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

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    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Virus-specific nucleic acids in SV40-exposed hamster embryo cell lines: correlation with S and T antigens.

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    Levin, M J; Oxman, M N; Diamandopoulos, G T; Levine, A S; Henry, P H; Enders, J F

    1969-02-01

    A number of homologous SV40-exposed hamster embryonic cell lines were examined for the presence of RNA complementary to SV40 DNA. Only those lines containing the SV40 T antigen were found to have such virus-specific RNA. In lines containing the SV40 S antigen, but not the SV40 T antigen, virus-specific RNA was not detected. These findings suggest that the S antigen is not coded for directly by the SV40 genome.

  10. VIRUS-SPECIFIC NUCLEIC ACIDS IN SV40-EXPOSED HAMSTER EMBRYO CELL LINES: CORRELATION WITH S AND T ANTIGENS*

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    Levin, Myron J.; Oxman, Michael N.; Diamandopoulos, George Th.; Levine, Arthur S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Enders, John F.

    1969-01-01

    A number of homologous SV40-exposed hamster embryonic cell lines were examined for the presence of RNA complementary to SV40 DNA. Only those lines containing the SV40 T antigen were found to have such virus-specific RNA. In lines containing the SV40 S antigen, but not the SV40 T antigen, virus-specific RNA was not detected. These findings suggest that the S antigen is not coded for directly by the SV40 genome. PMID:4307716

  11. SV40 Assembly In Vivo and In Vitro

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    Ariella Oppenheim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid is a T = 7d icosahedral lattice ∼45 nm in diameter surrounding the ∼5 kb circular minichromosome. The outer shell is composed of 360 monomers of the major capsid protein VP1, tightly bound in 72 pentamers. VP1 is a jellyroll β-barrel, with extending N- and C-terminal arms. The N-terminal arms bind DNA and face the interior of the capsid. The flexible C-arms tie together the 72 pentamers in three distinct kinds of interactions, thus facilitating the formation of a T = 7 icosahedron from identical pentameric building blocks. Assembly in vivo was shown to occur by addition of capsomers around the DNA. We apply a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches to study SV40 assembly. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest the following model: one or two capsomers bind at a high affinity to ses, the viral DNA encapsidation signal, forming the nucleation centre for assembly. Next, multiple capsomers attach concomitantly, at lower affinity, around the minichromosome. This increases their local concentration facilitating rapid, cooperative assembly reaction. Formation of the icosahedron proceeds either by gradual addition of single pentamers to the growing shell or by concerted assembly of pentamer clusters.

  12. Biologic properties of viable deletion mutants of simian virus 40 (SV40) rescued from the cells of an SV40-induced hamster lymphocytic leukemia.

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    Diamandopoulos, G T; Carmichael, G

    1983-12-01

    A lymphocytic leukemia induced by the oncogenic DNA simian virus 40 (SV40) in an inbred LSH/SsLak Syrian golden hamster was evoked to produce infectious SV40 by fusion of the leukemia cells with grivet monkey kidney (GMK) cells and by exposure of the leukemia cells to the chemical inducers mitomycin C and cycloheximide. Plaque-purified viable substrains of the rescued SV40 when studied by restriction endonuclease digestion of viral DNA were found to contain small deletions within the Hind III restriction fragment C. These deletions lay near the viral origin of DNA replication. Ten plaque-purified substrains of the rescued virus identified by immunofluorescence as being SV40 were found, when compared to the wild-type SV40, to replicate slowly and to form small plaques. Although these substrains transformed NIH/3T3 cells as efficiently as the wild-type SV40 in tissue culture, they were generally less oncogenic in vivo--7 of the 10 failed to induce tumors. The 3 oncogenic SV40-rescued substrains were not found to exhibit "lymphocytotropism," i.e., the capacity to infect and neoplastically transform preferentially hamster lymphocytes. Thus the hamster lymphocytic leukemia originally induced by the wild-type SV40 was most likely a chance-stochastic event rather than the result of tropism-determinism mediated by the virus, as is usually the case with leukemogenic RNA viruses.

  13. Polio vaccines, SV40 and human tumours, an update on false positive and false negative results.

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    Elmishad, A G; Bocchetta, M; Pass, H I; Carbone, M

    2006-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been detected in different human tumours in numerous laboratories. The detection of SV40 in human tumours has been linked to the administration of SV40-contaminated polio vaccines from 1954 until 1963. Many of these reports linked SV40 to human mesothelioma. Some studies have failed to detect SV40 in human tumours and this has caused a controversy. Here we review the current literature. Moreover, we present evidence showing how differences in the sensitivities of methodologies can lead to a very different interpretation of the same study. The same 20 mesothelioma specimens all tested negative, 2/20 tested positive or 7/20 tested positive for SV40 Tag by simply changing the detection method on the same immuno-precipitation/western blot membranes. These results provide a simple explanation for some of the apparent discordant results reported in the literature.

  14. Immortalization of Werner syndrome and progeria fibroblasts

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    Saito, H.; Moses, R.E. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Human fibroblast cells from two different progeroid syndromes, Werner syndrome (WS) and progeria, were established as immortalized cell lines by transfection with plasmid DNA containing the SV40 early region. The lineage of each immortalized cell line was confirmed by VNTR analysis. Each of the immortalized cell lines maintained its original phenotype of slow growth. DNA repair ability of these cells was also studied by measuring sensitivity to killing by uv or the DNA-damaging drugs methyl methansulfonate, bleomycin, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum. The results showed that both WS and progeria cells have normal sensitivity to these agents.

  15. An investigation of the occurrence of sv40 antibodies in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four of the samples were from the healthy population group and the remaining 1 (1/64) was from the patient group. An SV40 antibody-blocking assay and a Western blot were used as additional confirmation for the SV40 antibodies, whereas the Western blot assay developed a single common band on all 5 samples.

  16. SV40 DNA amplification and reintegration in surviving hamster cells after 60Co gamma-irradiation.

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    Lücke-Huhle, C; Pech, M; Herrlich, P

    1990-10-01

    SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells were exposed to 60Co gamma-irradiation and the fate of the integrated SV40 sequences was pursued over a period of 20 days following radiation exposure. As shown by colony hybridization, integrated SV40 sequences were amplified in surviving and non-surviving cells. At later times, however, clonal sublines of surviving cells grown for 20-30 cell generations after irradiation had lost most of their amplified SV40 copies but showed altered restriction fragment patterns indicating reintegration of SV40 sequences at new sites of the hamster genome. This suggests that 60Co gamma-irradiation can generate mutations by inducing over-replication of chromosome segments that are then substrates of enzymatic rearrangements.

  17. Fanconi anemia patients are more susceptible to infection with tumor virus SV40.

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    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a recessive DNA repair disease characterized by a high predisposition to developing neoplasms. DNA tumor polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 transforms FA fibroblasts at high efficiency suggesting that FA patients could be highly susceptible to SV40 infection. To test this hypothesis, the large tumor (LT antigen of SV40, BKV, JCV and Merkel Cell (MC polyomaviruses were tested in blood samples from 89 FA patients and from 82 of their parents. Two control groups consisting of 47 no-FA patients affected by other genetic bone marrow failure diseases and 91 healthy subjects were also evaluated. Although JCV, BKV and MC were not found in any of the FA samples, the prevalence and viral load of SV40 were higher in FA patients (25%; mean viral load: 1.1×10(2 copies/10(5cells as compared with healthy individuals (4.3%; mean viral load: 0.8×10(1 copies/10(5cells and genetic controls (0% (p<0.005. A marked age-dependent frequency of SV40 was found in FA with respect to healthy subjects suggesting that, although acquired early in life, the virus can widespread more easily in specific groups of population. From the analysis of family pedigrees, 60% of the parents of SV40-positive probands were positive for the virus compared to 2% of the parents of the SV40-negative probands (p<0.005. It is worthy of note that the relative frequency of SV40-positive relatives detected in this study was the highest ever reported, showing that asymptomatic FA carriers are also more susceptible to SV40. In conclusion, we favor the hypothesis that SV40 spread could be facilitated by individuals who are genetically more susceptible to infection, such as FA patients. The increased susceptibility to SV40 infection seems to be associated with a specific defect of the immune system which supports a potential interplay of SV40 with an underlying genetic alteration that increases the risk of malignancies.

  18. In vitro and in vivo Functional Characterization of Gutless Recombinant SV40-derived CFTR Vectors

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    Mueller, Christian; Strayer, Marlene S; Sirninger, Jeffery; Braag, Sofia; Branco, Francisco; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Flotte, Terence R.; Strayer, David S.

    2009-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory failure caused by progressive airway obstruction and tissue damage is primarily a result of the aberrant inflammatory responses to lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite considerable improvement in patient survival, conventional therapies are mainly supportive. Recent progress towards gene therapy for CF has been encouraging; however, several factors such as immune response and transduced cell turnover remain as potential limitations to CF gene therapy. As alternative gene therapy vectors for CF we examined the feasibility of using SV40-derived vectors (rSV40s) which may circumvent some of these obstacles. To accommodate the large CFTR cDNA, we removed not only SV40 Tag genes, but also all capsid genes. We therefore tested whether “gutless” rSV40s could be packaged and were able to express a functional human CFTR cDNA. Results from our in vitro analysis determined that rSV40-CFTR was able to successfully result in the expression of CFTR protein which localized to the plasma membrane and restored channel function to CFTR deficient cells. Similarly in vivo experiments delivering rSV40-CFTR to the lungs of Cftr−/− mice resulted in a reduction of the pathology associated with intra-tracheal pseudomona aeruginosa challenge. rSV40-CFTR treated mice had had less weight loss when compared to control treated mice as well as demonstrably reduced lung inflammation as evidence by histology and reduced inflammatory cytokines in the BAL. The reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels led to an evident decrease in neutrophil influx to the airways. These results indicate that further study of the application of rSV40-CFTR to CF gene therapy is warranted. PMID:19890354

  19. Fatal SV40-associated pneumonia and nephropathy following renal allotransplantation in rhesus macaque.

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    Song, M; Mulvihill, M S; Williams, K D; Collins, B H; Kirk, A D

    2018-02-01

    Recrudescence of latent and dormant viruses may lead to overwhelming viremia in immunosuppressed hosts. In immunocompromised hosts, Simian virus 40 (SV40) reactivation is known to cause nephritis and demyelinating central nervous system disease. Here, we report SV40 viremia leading to fatal interstitial pneumonia in an immunosuppressed host following renal allotransplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A very late viral protein triggers the lytic release of SV40.

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    Robert Daniels

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available How nonenveloped viruses such as simian virus 40 (SV40 trigger the lytic release of their progeny is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that SV40 expresses a novel later protein termed VP4 that triggers the timely lytic release of its progeny. Like VP3, VP4 synthesis initiates from a downstream AUG start codon within the VP2 transcript and localizes to the nucleus. However, VP4 expression occurs approximately 24 h later at a time that coincides with cell lysis, and it is not incorporated into mature virions. Mutation of the VP4 initiation codon from the SV40 genome delayed lysis by 2 d and reduced infectious particle release. Furthermore, the co-expression of VP4 and VP3, but not their individual expression, recapitulated cell lysis in bacteria. Thus, SV40 regulates its life cycle by the later temporal expression of VP4, which results in cell lysis and enables the 50-nm virus to exit the cell. This study also demonstrates how viruses can generate multiple proteins with diverse functions and localizations from a single reading frame.

  1. In situ study of SV40 virus DNA in lytic infection by mild loosening of nucleoproteins.

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    Puvion-Dutilleul, F; Pedron, J; Lange, M

    1980-11-01

    We have studied SV40 (simian virus40) nucleoprotein in permissively infected monkey kidney cell cultures (CV1) by a procedure which does not require the isolation of the SV40 chromosomes. Treatment of the cells by a low ionic strenght medium containing Photo flo produces a mild loosening of nucleoproteins, and permits the in situ study in ultrathin sections of virus components and their relationships with host cell chromatin. RNP and DNP could be distinguished by uranyl-EDTA-lead staining (for RNP) and by DNase digestion. SV40 DNA was observed as circular molecules, either free or connected with either RNP fibrils or virus capsids. These three aspects were interpreted, respectively, as viral minichromosomes, transcription of virus genome and partially encapsidated virus DNA. During encapsidation a few virus particles appear to be bound to host chromatin. Many, if not all, seemingly mature viruses, singly or in small linear clusters, are also aligned on host chromatin. Some of these observations were corroborated by the Miller spreading technique. They are consistent with a role for the host cell chromatin in the production of nuclear viruses.

  2. Vectors bicistronically linking a gene of interest to the SV40 large T antigen in combination with the SV40 origin of replication enhance transient protein expression and luciferase reporter activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The Simian Virus large T antigen (SVLT) induces replication of plasmids bearing the SV40 origin of replication (SV40 ori) within mammalian cells. The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is an element that allows for the co-translation of proteins from one polycistronic mRNA. Through the combination of these elements, IRES-dependent co-expression of a protein of interest and the SVLT, either constitutive or regulated, on plasmids bearing the SV40 ori generates a positive feedback loop, result...

  3. Vectors bicistronically linking a gene of interest to the SV40 large T antigen in combination with the SV40 origin of replication enhance transient protein expression and luciferase reporter activity.

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    Mahon, Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    The simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) induces replication of plasmids bearing the SV40 origin of replication (SV40 ori) within mammalian cells. The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is an element that allows for the cotranslation of proteins from one polycistronic mRNA. Through the combination of these elements, IRES-dependent coexpression of a protein of interest and the SVLT, either constitutive or regulated, on plasmids bearing the SV40 ori generates a positive feedback loop, resulting in enhanced expression. A vector linking red fluorescent protein (RFP) to the IRES-SVLT element enhances fluorescence ~10-fold over that demonstrated from a vector lacking this element. In transfection-resistant CV-1 cells, the RFP-IRES-SVLT vector substantially increases the number of cells expressing detectable levels of RFP. Furthermore, inclusion of the IRES-SVLT/SV40 ori elements in standard luciferase-based reporter gene constructs and associated effectors results in marked increases in luminescent output and sensitivity, using the β-catenin/TCF pathway and the mammalian two-hybrid assay as models. Ultimately, vector systems combining these well-established elements (IRES-SVLT/SV40 ori) will increase the utility of transient transfection for the production of recombinant proteins, the use of transfection-resistant cell lines, and the effectiveness of luciferase-based high-throughput screening assays.

  4. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

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    Kawano, Masaaki [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Morikawa, Katsuma [Department of Biological Information, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Suda, Tatsuya [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Ohno, Naohito [Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Matsushita, Sho [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Allergy Center, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Akatsuka, Toshitaka [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: handa.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Solutions Research Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Matsui, Masanori, E-mail: mmatsui@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties.

  5. Generation of a Vero-Based Packaging Cell Line to Produce SV40 Gene Delivery Vectors for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy Studies

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    Miguel G. Toscano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication-defective (RD recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen. SuperVero cells produce similar numbers of SV40 vector particles compared to the currently used packaging cell lines, albeit in the absence of contaminating RC SV40 particles. Our unique SV40 vector platform named SVac paves the way to clinically test a whole new generation of SV40-based therapeutics for a broad range of important diseases.

  6. Immortality of cancers: a consequence of inherent karyotypic variations and selections for autonomy.

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    Duesberg, Peter; McCormack, Amanda

    2013-03-01

    Immortality is a common characteristic of cancers, but its origin and purpose are still unclear. Here we advance a karyotypic theory of immortality based on the theory that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation. Accordingly, cancers are generated from normal cells by random karyotypic rearrangements and selection for cancer-specific reproductive autonomy. Since such rearrangements unbalance long-established mitosis genes, cancer karyotypes vary spontaneously but are stabilized perpetually by clonal selections for autonomy. To test this theory we have analyzed neoplastic clones, presumably immortalized by transfection with overexpressed telomerase or with SV40 tumor virus, for the predicted clonal yet flexible karyotypes. The following results were obtained: (1) All immortal tumorigenic lines from cells transfected with overexpressed telomerase had clonal and flexible karyotypes; (2) Searching for the origin of such karyotypes, we found spontaneously increasing, random aneuploidy in human fibroblasts early after transfection with overexpressed telomerase; (3) Late after transfection, new immortal tumorigenic clones with new clonal and flexible karyotypes were found; (4) Testing immortality of one clone during 848 unselected generations showed the chromosome number was stable, but the copy numbers of 36% of chromosomes drifted ± 1; (5) Independent immortal tumorigenic clones with individual, flexible karyotypes arose after individual latencies; (6) Immortal tumorigenic clones with new flexible karyotypes also arose late from cells of a telomerase-deficient mouse rendered aneuploid by SV40 virus. Because immortality and tumorigenicity: (1) correlated exactly with individual clonal but flexible karyotypes; (2) originated simultaneously with such karyotypes; and (3) arose in the absence of telomerase, we conclude that clonal and flexible karyotypes generate the immortality of cancers.

  7. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs) kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs) and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  8. SV40 Infection of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Wharton's Jelly Drives the Production of Inflammatory and Tumoral Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolina; Campisciano, Giuseppina; Zanotta, Nunzia; Valencic, Erica; Delbue, Serena; Bella, Ramona; Comar, Manola

    2017-11-01

    The Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJSCs) are a source of cells with high potentiality for the treatment of human immunological disorders. Footprints of the oncogenic viruses Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and JC Virus (JCPyV) have been recently detected in human WJSCs specimens. The aim of this study is to evaluate if WJSCs can be efficiently infected by these Polyomaviruses and if they can potentially exert tumoral activity. Cell culture experiments indicated that WJSCs could sustain both SV40 and JCPyV infections. A transient and lytic replication was observed for JCPyV, while SV40 persistently infected WJSCs over a long period of time, releasing a viral progeny at low titer without evident cytopathic effect (CPE). Considering the association between SV40 and human tumors and the reported ability of the oncogenic viruses to drive the host innate immune response to cell transformation, the expression profile of a large panel of immune mediators was evaluated in supernatants by the Bioplex platform. RANTES, IL-3, MIG, and IL-12p40, involved in chronic inflammation, cells differentiation, and transformation, were constantly measured at high concentration comparing to control. These findings represent a new aspect of SV40 biological activity in the humans, highlighting its interaction with specific host cellular pathways. In view of these results, it seems to be increasingly urgent to consider Polyomaviruses in the management of WJSCs for their safely use as promising therapeutic source. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 3060-3066, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. SV40 Utilizes ATM Kinase Activity to Prevent Non-homologous End Joining of Broken Viral DNA Replication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PKcs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PKcs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5′ to 3′ end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication. PMID:25474690

  10. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  11. The human sebocyte culture model provides new insights into development and management of seborrhoea and acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C; Xia, L; Akamatsu, H; Seltmann, H; Fritsch, M; Hornemann, S; Rühl, R; Chen, W; Nau, H; Orfanos, C E

    1998-01-01

    Seborrhoea and acne are exclusively human diseases and sebaceous gland differentiation is species specific. Therefore, fundamental research on human sebaceous cell function and control requires human in vitro models. The human sebocyte culture model, introduced in 1989, has been used in several studies to elucidate sebaceous gland activity and its regulation at the cellular level. Cultured human sebocytes have been shown to preserve important sebocytic characteristics, although they undergo an incomplete terminal differentiation in vitro. In vitro synthesis of free fatty acids without bacterial involvement and marked interleukin 1 alpha expression at the mRNA and protein levels with no further induction by lipopolysaccharides lead to the assumption that human sebocytes may initiate acne lesions by an intrinsic mechanism. Androgens affected sebocyte activity in vitro in a manner dependent on the localization of the sebaceous glands. In vitro stimulation of sebocyte proliferation by androgens could be completely abolished by spironolactone. Cultured sebocytes strongly expressed type 1 5 alpha-reductase and metabolized testosterone to androstenedione, 5 alpha-androstanedione, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone and 5 alpha-androstanediol, whereas the levels of 5 alpha-reductase activity were probably not feedback regulated. 4,7 beta-Dimethyl-4-aza-5 alpha-cholestan-3-one, a type 1 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, induced an early, marked down-regulation of 5 alpha-reductase activity in human sebocytes in vitro, while hydrofinasteride, a type 2 inhibitor, required 10(3)-fold higher concentrations to induce similar effects. Stimulation of sebocyte proliferation by insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone and hydrocortisone indicates that the hormonal control of the sebaceous gland could be a complex mechanism. Retinoids inhibited sebocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and down-regulated lipid synthesis and sebocyte differentiation in vitro. Isotretinoin was the

  12. A human corneal equivalent constructed from SV40-immortalised corneal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Tykhonova, Svitlana; Belge, Gazanfer; Bednarz, Jürgen; Diehl, Horst A; Engelke, Maria

    2005-02-01

    Within the last decade, extensive research in the field of tissue and organ engineering has focused on the development of in vitro models of the cornea. The use of organotypic, three-dimensional corneal equivalents has several advantages over simple monolayer cultures. The aim of this study was to develop a corneal equivalent model composed of the same cell types as in the natural human tissue, but by using immortalised cell lines to ensure reproducibility and to minimise product variation. We report our success in the establishment of an SV40-immortalised human corneal keratocyte cell line (designated HCK). A collagen matrix, built up with these cells, displayed the morphological characteristics of the human stromal tissue and served as a biomatrix for the immortalised human corneal epithelial and endothelial cells. Histological cross-sections of the whole-cornea equivalents resemble human corneas in tissue structure. This organotypic in vitro model may serve as a research tool for the ophthalmic science community, as well as a model system for testing for eye irritancy and drug efficacy.

  13. SV40-transformed human corneal keratocytes: optimisation of serum-free culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Anna Katharina; Lombardi-Borgia, Simone; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Seeber, Judith; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Engelke, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the replacement of animal experiments in eye irritation testing, we have established a multilay ered cornea model comprising the co-culture of all three corneal cell types. It was the objective of this study to optimise serum-free culture conditions to preserve both growth and phenotype of an SV40-immortalised human corneal keratocyte cell line (HCK). Our results revealed that HCK continue to proliferate in both monolayer cultures as well as after seeding in a collagen matrix and resemble primary corneal keratocytes in morphology and functional characteristics under defined serum-free conditions. Furthermore, HCK were shown to transform into activated corneal fibroblast phenotypes in response to serum and TGF(beta)1. In summary, HCK cells mimic their in vivo (primary) precursors, both in sustaining the quiescent keratocyte phenotype (serum-starved conditions) and in responding to growth factor stimulation. Hence, this cell line may provide a useful tool to study the toxicity and wound healing response of corneal keratocytes in vitro.

  14. Abrogation of p53-mediated transactivation by SV40 large T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, K; Minowa, A; Sugasawa, K; Takano, T; Hanaoka, F

    1993-03-01

    p53 is known to bind specifically to the 44-bp human DNA sequence in an immunoprecipitation assay. We show here that the transcription of the reporter CAT gene linked with the herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) promoter containing the 44-base sequence is enhanced by mouse wild-type but not mutant-type p53 in F9 and p53-null Saos-2 cells. The p53-mediated transactivation was dramatically abrogated by introduction of SV40 large T antigen (SVLT) in Saos-2 cells in which p53 was clearly associated with SVLT. Furthermore, the p53-SVLT complex did not bind to the 44-base sequence at all. Thus, SVLT sequesters the transactivation function of the wild-type p53 by inhibiting the binding of p53 to the 44-base sequence. This is good evidence to show 'loss of functions' in the product of a tumor-suppressor oncogene by a dominant oncogene product at a molecular level.

  15. Immortality in Empedocles

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Most of the work for the paper was undertaken in Toronto during a Leverhulme Research Fellowship. The paper examines Empedocles’ attributions of immortality. I argue that Empedocles does not withhold immortality from the gods but rather has an unorthodox conception of what immortality is. Immortality does not mean, or imply, endless duration. A god’s immortality is its continuity, as one and the same organism, over a long but finite period. This conception of divine immortality then influe...

  16. Hypermethylation of PGCP gene is associated with human bronchial epithelial cells immortalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chen; Xing, Xiumei; He, Zhini; Chen, Shen; Wang, Shan; Li, Qingye; Guo, Ping; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Huiyao; Chen, Liping; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jian; Xiao, Yongmei; Chen, Wen; Li, Daochuan

    2018-02-05

    Cell immortalization is the initial step for cancer development. To identify the differentially expressed genes regulated by DNA methylation over the course of human primary bronchial epithelial cell (HPBECs) immortalization, an immortalized HBE cell line (HBETT) was generated via introduction of an SV40 LT and a catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) into the HPBECs. Microarrays of mRNA and DNA methylation were performed to compare the transcriptomes and DNA methylomes between these two types of cells. The results from the mRNA microarray revealed many genes whose expression changed upon cell immortalization. We identified signatures including global hypomethylation, perturbation of ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt pathways associated with cell immortalization. Moreover, we revealed 155 differentiated methylation regions (DMRs) within the CpG islands (CGIs) of 42 genes and the perturbation of several key pathways that might be involved in HBE cell immortalization. Among these genes, the hypermethylation of the plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase (PGCP) gene appeared specifically in lung cancer tissues. The inhibition of PGCP expression by promoter hypermethylation was observed in both immortal HBETT cells and benzo[a]pyrene (Bap)-transformed HBE cells. In conclusion, these findings provide new insight into the epigenetic modifications that are critical in the transition and maintenance of cell immortalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of an SV40-Transformed Human Fibroblast (MRC5CVI) and Its Untransformed Counterpart (MRC-5) in Response to UVB Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Wei Chang; Chaang-Ray Chen; Chao-Ying Huang; Wun-Yi Shu; Chi-Shiun Chiang; Ji-Hong Hong; Hsu, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) transforms cells through the suppression of tumor-suppressive responses by large T and small t antigens; studies on the effects of these two oncoproteins have greatly improved our knowledge of tumorigenesis. Large T antigen promotes cellular transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previous studies have shown that not all of the tumor-suppressive responses were inactivated in SV40-transformed cells; however, the underlying cause ...

  18. Expression of inflammatory biomarkers from cultured sebocytes was influenced by treatment with vitamin D

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    Weon Ju Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory cytokines are the key factor in the pathophysiology of acne. It is well known that keratinocytes synthesize many kinds of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it is reported that inflammatory cytokines are also expressed from sebocytes, which originate from the same stem cells with keratinocytes. Aim: To clarify changes in the expression of inflammatory biomarkers from cultured sebocytes after treatment with vitamin D. Materials and Methods: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was done to measure changes in the expression of inflammatory biomarkers, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and several subtypes of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs after treatment of a group of cultured sebocytes with vitamin D. Vitamin D receptor (VDR small interfering RNA (siRNA was added in the other group of cultured sebocytes to assure the role of vitamin D on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was also performed in the vitamin D-treated sebocytes. Results: Cultured sebocytes showed non-significant changes in the gene expression of inflammatory biomarkers after treatment with vitamin D. In cultured sebocytes treated with a VDR siRNA, the expression of inflammatory biomarkers was not blocked after treatment with vitamin D. ELISA showed a significant decrease in the expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9, but a significant increase in the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3, after treatment with vitamin D (10 -6 M. Conclusion: Expression of inflammatory biomarkers is influenced by treatment with vitamin D in cultured sebocytes, but not through VDR.

  19. Dissociation of DNA damage and mitochondrial injury caused by hydrogen peroxide in SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells

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    Adcock Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since lung epithelial cells are constantly being exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs, the alveolar surface is a major site of oxidative stress, and each cell type may respond differently to oxidative stress. We compared the extent of oxidative DNA damage with that of mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells at the single cell level. Result DNA damage and mitochondrial injury were measured after oxidative stress in the SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cell line challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Single cell analysis of DNA damage was determined by assessing the number of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG positive cells, a marker of DNA modification, and the length of a comet tail. Mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm, was determined using JC-1. A 1 h pulse of H2O2 induced small amounts of apoptosis (3%. 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the length of the comet tail increased within 1 h of exposure to H2O2. The number of cells with reduced ΔΨm increased after the addition of H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In spite of a continual loss of ΔΨm, DNA fragmentation was reduced 2 h after exposure to H2O2. Conclusion The data suggest that SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to oxidative stress, showing that DNA damage can be dissociated from mitochondrial injury.

  20. The structure of SV40 large T hexameric helicase in complex with AT-rich origin DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Dahai; Wang, Damian; Li, Shu-Xing; Chen, Xiaojiang S

    2016-12-06

    DNA replication is a fundamental biological process. The initial step in eukaryotic DNA replication is the assembly of the pre-initiation complex, including the formation of two head-to-head hexameric helicases around the replication origin. How these hexameric helicases interact with their origin dsDNA remains unknown. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of the SV40 Large-T Antigen (LT) hexameric helicase bound to its origin dsDNA. The structure shows that the six subunits form a near-planar ring that interacts with the origin, so that each subunit makes unique contacts with the DNA. The origin dsDNA inside the narrower AAA+ domain channel shows partial melting due to the compression of the two phosphate backbones, forcing Watson-Crick base-pairs within the duplex to flip outward. This structure provides the first snapshot of a hexameric helicase binding to origin dsDNA, and suggests a possible mechanism of origin melting by LT during SV40 replication in eukaryotic cells.

  1. Comparative transcriptome profiling of an SV40-transformed human fibroblast (MRC5CVI and its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5 in response to UVB irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chang

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 transforms cells through the suppression of tumor-suppressive responses by large T and small t antigens; studies on the effects of these two oncoproteins have greatly improved our knowledge of tumorigenesis. Large T antigen promotes cellular transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previous studies have shown that not all of the tumor-suppressive responses were inactivated in SV40-transformed cells; however, the underlying cause is not fully studied. In this study, we investigated the UVB-responsive transcriptome of an SV40-transformed fibroblast (MRC5CVI and that of its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5. We found that, in response to UVB irradiation, MRC-5 and MRC5CVI commonly up-regulated the expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes. MRC-5 up-regulated the expressions of chromosome condensation, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic genes, but MRC5CVI did not. Further cell death assays indicated that MRC5CVI was more sensitive than MRC-5 to UVB-induced cell death with increased caspase-3 activation; combining with the transcriptomic results suggested that MRC5CVI may undergo UVB-induced cell death through mechanisms other than transcriptional regulation. Our study provides a further understanding of the effects of SV40 transformation on cellular stress responses, and emphasizes the value of SV40-transformed cells in the researches of sensitizing neoplastic cells to radiations.

  2. Inhibition of multidrug resistance by SV40 pseudovirion delivery of an antigene peptide nucleic acid (PNA in cultured cells.

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    Benjamin Macadangdang

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA is known to bind with extraordinarily high affinity and sequence-specificity to complementary nucleic acid sequences and can be used to suppress gene expression. However, effective delivery into cells is a major obstacle to the development of PNA for gene therapy applications. Here, we present a novel method for the in vitro delivery of antigene PNA to cells. By using a nucleocapsid protein derived from Simian virus 40, we have been able to package PNA into pseudovirions, facilitating the delivery of the packaged PNA into cells. We demonstrate that this system can be used effectively to suppress gene expression associated with multidrug resistance in cancer cells, as shown by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and cell viability under chemotherapy. The combination of PNA with the SV40-based delivery system is a method for suppressing a gene of interest that could be broadly applied to numerous targets.

  3. Cellular ras gene activity is required for full neoplastic transformation by the large tumor antigen of SV40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, L; Brownell, H L; Corbley, M J; Wood, K W; Wang, D; Haliotis, T

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the role of the cellular ras gene product in neoplastic transformation by the SV40 large tumor antigen (SVLT), murine C3H10T1/2 cells were rendered deficient in Ras activity by transfection with inducible or constitutive antisense ras gene constructs or through the introduction of the dominant-negative mutant, ras(asn17). Consistent with previous results, SVLT-induced morphological transformation was unaffected by the down-regulation of c-ras gene product activity. On the other hand, colony formation in soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice were drastically reduced in c-Ras-deficient cells. In addition, SVLT expression in C3H10T1/2 cells led to increased c-Ras activity, as determined by an increase in the Ras-bound GTP/GTP + GDP ratio. These results suggest that c-Ras is required for full neoplastic transformation by SVLT.

  4. DJ-1, an oncogene and causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease, is essential for SV40 transformation in mouse fibroblasts through up-regulation of c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Chul; Kitaura, Hirotake; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2010-09-24

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a tumor virus and its early gene product large T-antigen (LT) is responsible for the transforming activity of SV40. Parkinson's disease causative gene DJ-1 is also a ras-dependent oncogene, but the mechanism of its oncogene function is still not known. In this study, we found that there were no transformed foci when fibroblasts from DJ-1-knockout mice were transfected with LT. We also found that DJ-1 directly bound to LT and that the expression level of c-Myc in transformed cells was parallel to that of DJ-1. These findings indicate that DJ-1 is essential for SV40 transformation. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous Immortalization of Clinically Normal Colon-Derived Fibroblasts from a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Patient

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    Nicholas R. Forsyth

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal human diploid cells do not spontaneously immortalize in culture, but instead enter replicative senescence after a finite number of population doublings. Ablation of key checkpoint arrest or cancersuppressor genes, through dominantly inherited germline mutation (p53+/-, Li-Fraumeni or viral oncogene expression (SV40 large T, HPV16/18, E6/E7 can lead to escape from senescence, additional doublings, entrance into crisis phase, where immortal clones emerge at low frequency. In the vast majority of cases, telomerase is reactivated and telomeres are stabilized. Here we describe the spontaneous immortalization of clinically normal fibroblasts derived from colonic stroma of a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP patient. The preimmortal (C26C and the spontaneously immortalized derivative (C26Ci cells are heterozygous for a characterized germline mutation in exon 15 of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Immortalization was accompanied by spontaneous reactivation of endogenous telomerase and establishment of telomeres at presenescent lengths. Normal checkpoint behavior is retained and a diploid karyotype is maintained. These cells provide a valuable new addition to the limited number of spontaneously immortalized human cell types, particularly fibroblast cells, will be useful in experimentally determining the functional pathways in neoplastic development and in the identification of potential molecular targets for cancer chemoprevention.

  6. The Prognostic Role and Relationship between E2F1 and SV40 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of Egyptian Patients

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    Rehab M. Samaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of lymphomas worldwide. The pathogenesis of lymphomas is not yet well understood. SV40 induces malignant transformation by the large T-antigen (L-TAG and promotes transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb. L-TAG can bind pRb promoting the activation of the E2F1 transcription factor, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase and leading to cell transformation. This immunohistochemical study was conducted to assess the prognostic role and relationship of SV40 L-TAG and E2F1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL of Egyptian patients. This retrospective study was conducted on 105 tissue specimens including 20 follicular hyperplasia and 85 DLBCL cases. SV40 L-TAG was identified in 3/85 (4% of DLBCL. High Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI and apoptotic count were associated with high E2F1 expression (p<0.001 for all. No significant association was reached between E2F1 and SV40. E2F1 expression proved to be the most and first independent prognostic factor on overall survival of DLBCL patients (HR = 5.79, 95% CI = 2.3–14.6, and p<0.001. Upregulation of E2F1 has been implicated in oncogenesis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response but is not seemingly to have a relationship with the accused SV40.

  7. Immortalized human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell expressing suicide gene for anti-tumor therapy in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wayne Y W; Zhang, Ting; Lau, Carol P Y; Wang, C C; Chan, Kai-Ming; Li, Gang

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is one of the greatest health challenges facing the world today with >10 million new cases of cancer every year. The self-renewal, tumor-homing ability and low immunogenicity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) make them potential delivery candidates for suicide genes for anti-tumor therapy. However, unstable supply and short life span of adult MSCs in vitro have limited this therapeutic potential. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if immortalization of human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells by simian virus 40 (SV40-hfBMSCs) could be a stable source of MSCs for clinical application of suicide gene therapy. Transduction of SV40 and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-IRES-green fluorescent protein (TK-GFP) did not cause significant change in the stem cell properties of hfBMSCs. The anti-tumor effect of SV40-TK-hfBMSCs in the presence of the prodrug ganciclovir was demonstrated in vitro and in nude mice bearing human prostate cancer cells, DU145 and PC3, which had been transduced with luciferase and GFP for imaging evaluation by an in vivo live imaging system (IVIS 200 imaging system; Caliper Life Sciences). Repeated injection of low doses (1 × 10(6) cells/kg) of SV40-TK-hfBMSCs was as effective as previously reported and did not cause observable harmful side effects in multiple organs. Mixed lymphocyte reaction showed that SV40-TK-hfBMSCs did not induce significant proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from healthy adults. Taken together, immortalized hfBMSCs represent a reliable and safe source of MSCs for further clinical translational study. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatrai, Peter, E-mail: peter.tatrai@biomembrane.hu [Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Szepesi, Aron, E-mail: aron.szepesi@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Matula, Zsolt, E-mail: matula.zsolt@gmail.com [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Szigeti, Anna, E-mail: anna.szigeti@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Buchan, Gyoengyi, E-mail: buchan@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Madi, Andras, E-mail: madi@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Stem Cell, Apoptosis and Genomics Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Uher, Ferenc, E-mail: uher@biomembrane.hu [Stem Cell Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Dioszegi ut 64, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC{sup hTERT}, ASC{sup Bmi-1}, ASC{sup Bmi-1+hTERT} and ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC{sup Bmi-1} had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC{sup hTERT} and ASC{sup hTERT+Bmi-1}, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC{sup hTERT} also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture

  9. STX140, but not paclitaxel, inhibits mammary tumour initiation and progression in C3(1/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Meyer-Losic

    Full Text Available Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer models, a rat model of peripheral neuropathy, and through pharmacological testing. Three different in vivo mouse models of breast cancer were used; the metastatic 4T1 orthotopic model, the C3(1/SV40 T-Ag model, and the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. To determine TIX and pharmacological profile of STX140, a comprehensive dosing regime was performed in mice bearing MDA-MD-231 xenografts. Finally, peripheral neuropathy was examined using a rat plantar thermal hyperalgesia model. In the 4T1 metastatic model, STX140 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and lung metastases. All C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice in the control and paclitaxel treated groups developed palpable mammary cancer. STX140 blocked 47% of tumors developing and significantly inhibited growth of tumors that did develop. STX140 treatment caused a significant (P<0.001 survival advantage for animals in early and late intervention groups. Conversely, in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice, paclitaxel failed to inhibit tumor growth and did not increase survival time. Furthermore, paclitaxel, but not STX140, induced significant peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. These results show that STX140 has a greater anti-cancer efficacy, TIX, and reduced neurotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice and therefore may be of significant benefit to patients with breast cancer.

  10. Arginine-rich cross-linking peptides with different SV40 nuclear localization signal content as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, Mariia; Egorova, Anna; Slita, Anna; Maretina, Marianna; Baranov, Vladislav; Kiselev, Anton

    2017-11-01

    The major barriers for intracellular DNA transportation by cationic polymers are their toxicity, poor endosomal escape and inefficient nuclear uptake. Therefore, we designed novel modular peptide-based carriers modified with SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS). Core peptide consists of arginine, histidine and cysteine residues for DNA condensation, endosomal escape promotion and interpeptide cross-linking, respectively. We investigated three polyplexes with different NLS content (10 mol%, 50 mol% and 90 mol% of SV40 NLS) as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery. All carriers tested were able to condense DNA, to protect it from DNAase I and were not toxic to the cells. We observed that cell cycle arrest by hydroxyurea did not affect transfection efficacy of NLS-modified carriers which we confirmed using quantitative confocal microscopy analysis. Overall, peptide carrier modified with 90 mol% of SV40 NLS provided efficient transfection and nuclear uptake in non-dividing cells. Thus, incorporation of NLS into arginine-rich cross-linking peptides is an adequate approach to the development of efficient intranuclear gene delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of nonalbumin rats by transplantation of immortalized hepatocytes using artificial human chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, M; Ikeno, M; Nagata, H; Yamamoto, T; Hiroguchi, A; Fox, I J; Miyakawa, S

    2009-01-01

    The shortage of organ donors has impeded the development of human hepatocyte transplantation. Immortalized hepatocytes, however, could provide an unlimited supply of transplantable cells. To determine whether immortalized hepatocytes could provide global metabolic support in end-stage liver disease, rat hepatocyte clones were developed by transduction with the gene encoding the simian virus 40 T antigen (SVLT) using the new technique of human artificial mini chromosome (HAC). Immortalized rat hepatocyte clones were developed by transduction with the gene encoding the SV40 using HAC. Many clones were obtained using this technique. From comparison of the properties of all these clones using the normal hepatocytes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the characteristics of the cell clones (at least partially characterized, and assayed for albumin, glucose-6-phosphate and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, SVLT and beta-actin expression by RT-PCR) showed no differences other than the immortalization. We compared the albumin bands of the first-day (0-day) and 30-day cells by RT-PCR, showing conditions to be stable for at least 1 month. Three experimental animal model groups were used for albumin analysis: nonalbumin rats with 2/3 hepatectomy only (R-NARs; n = 4); R-NARs with intrasplenic transplantation of 3 x 10(7) primary hepatocytes (pHTx; n = 4); and R-NARs with intrasplenic transplantation of 3 x 10(7) immortalized hepatocytes (iHTx; n = 4). All HTx groups produced albumin, but the immortalized hepatocyte group did not generate significantly elevated albumin levels compared with primary hepatocytes. The results presented herein have demonstrated an initial step toward the development of immortalized hepatocytes for transplantable cells or artificial organs using HAC technology.

  12. Zeno's Paradox of Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, S Jay; Carnes, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Scientists who speculate on the future of human longevity have a broad range of views ranging from the promise of immortality, to radical life extension, to declines in life expectancy. Among those who contend that radical life extension is already here, or on the horizon, or immortality is forthcoming, elements of their reasoning appear surprisingly close, if not identical, to a famous mathematical paradox posed by the ancient Greek mathematician known as Zeno. Here we examine the underlying assumptions behind the views that much longer life expectancies are forthcoming or have already arrived, and place their line of reasoning within the context of a new Zeno paradox described here as The Paradox of Immortality. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Science, self, and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, John F

    2011-10-01

    The following considers the concept of scientific naturalism in relation to life after death and contrasts three alternative perspectives on immortality of the soul, including naturalistic fatalism, otherworldly optimism, and long-suffering hope. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines demonstrate enhanced proliferation and migration in response to IGF-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Ann H., E-mail: ann.rosendahl@med.lu.se [Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Surgery, Lund (Sweden); Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Oncology and Pathology, Lund (Sweden); Gundewar, Chinmay; Said Hilmersson, Katarzyna [Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Surgery, Lund (Sweden); Ni, Lan; Saleem, Moin A. [University of Bristol, School of Clinical Sciences, Children' s Renal Unit and Academic Renal Unit, Bristol (United Kingdom); Andersson, Roland [Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Surgery, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-01-15

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a key role in the dense desmoplastic stroma associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Studies on human PSCs have been minimal due to difficulty in maintaining primary PSC in culture. We have generated the first conditionally immortalized human non-tumor (NPSC) and tumor-derived (TPSC) pancreatic stellate cells via transformation with the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase (hTERT). These cells proliferate at 33°C. After transfer to 37°C, the SV40LT is switched off and the cells regain their primary PSC phenotype and growth characteristics. NPSC contained cytoplasmic vitamin A-storing lipid droplets, while both NPSC and TPSC expressed the characteristic markers αSMA, vimentin, desmin and GFAP. Proteome array analysis revealed that of the 55 evaluated proteins, 27 (49%) were upregulated ≥3-fold in TPSC compared to NPSC, including uPA, pentraxin-3, endoglin and endothelin-1. Two insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) were inversely expressed. Although discordant IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 levels, IGF-I was found to stimulate proliferation of both NPSC and TPSC. Both basal and IGF-I stimulated motility was significantly enhanced in TPSC compared to NPSC. In conclusion, these cells provide a unique resource that will facilitate further study of the active stroma compartment associated with pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Generation of human conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines. • Temperature-sensitive SV40LT allows switch to primary PSC phenotype characteristics. • Proteome profiling revealed distinct expression patterns between TPSC and NPSC. • Enhanced IGF-I-stimulated proliferation and motility by TPSC compared to NPSC.

  15. Reversible immortalization of Nestin-positive precursor cells from pancreas and differentiation into insulin-secreting cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pei; Li, Li; Qi, Hui [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Zhou, Han-xin [Department of General Surgery, First Hospital (Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital) of Shenzhen University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Deng, Chun-yan [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Li, Fu-rong, E-mail: frli62@yahoo.com [The Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Jinan University, 518020 Shenzhen (China); Shenzhen Institution of Gerontology, 518020 Shenzhen (China)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NPPCs from mouse pancreas were isolated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tet-on system for SV40 large in NPPCs was used to get RINPPCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RINPPCs can undergo at least 80 population doublings without senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RINPPCs can be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of GLP-1 and sodium butyrate promoted the differentiation process. -- Abstract: Pancreatic stem cells or progenitor cells posses the ability of directed differentiation into pancreatic {beta} cells. However, these cells usually have limited proliferative capacity and finite lifespan in vitro. In the present study, Nestin-positive progenitor cells (NPPCs) from mouse pancreas that expressed the pancreatic stem cells or progenitor cell marker Nestin were isolated to obtain a sufficient number of differentiated pancreatic {beta} cells. Tet-on system for SV40 large T-antigen expression in NPPCs was used to achieve reversible immortalization. The reversible immortal Nestin-positive progenitor cells (RINPPCs) can undergo at least 80 population doublings without senescence in vitro while maintaining their biological and genetic characteristics. RINPPCs can be efficiently induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells that contain a combination of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and sodium butyrate. The results of the present study can be used to explore transplantation therapy of type I diabetes mellitus.

  16. Novel Immortal Cell Lines Support Cellular Heterogeneity in the Human Annulus Fibrosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus G H van den Akker

    Full Text Available Loss of annulus fibrosus (AF integrity predisposes to disc herniation and is associated with IVD degeneration. Successful implementation of biomedical intervention therapy requires in-depth knowledge of IVD cell biology. We recently generated unique clonal human nucleus pulposus (NP cell lines. Recurring functional cellular phenotypes from independent donors provided pivotal evidence for cell heterogeneity in the mature human NP. In this study we aimed to generate and characterize immortal cell lines for the human AF from matched donors.Non-degenerate healthy disc material was obtained as surplus surgical material. AF cells were immortalized by simian virus Large T antigen (SV40LTAg and human telomerase (hTERT expression. Early passage cells and immortalized cell clones were characterized based on marker gene expression under standardized culturing and in the presence of Transforming Growth factor β (TGFβ.The AF-specific expression signature included COL1A1, COL5A1, COL12A1, SFRP2 and was largely maintained in immortal AF cell lines. Remarkably, TGFβ induced rapid 3D sheet formation in a subgroup of AF clones. This phenotype was associated with inherent differences in Procollagen type I processing and maturation, and correlated with differential mRNA expression of Prolyl 4-hydroxylase alpha polypeptide 1 and 3 (P4HA1,3 and Lysyl oxidase (LOX between clones and differential P4HA3 protein expression between AF cells in histological sections.We report for the first time the generation of representative human AF cell lines. Gene expression profile analysis and functional comparison of AF clones revealed variation between immortalized cells and suggests phenotypic heterogeneity in the human AF. Future characterization of AF cellular (sub-populations aims to combine identification of additional specific AF marker genes and their biological relevance. Ultimately this knowledge will contribute to clinical application of cell-based technology in IVD

  17. Ageing and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M R; Mueller, L D

    2000-01-01

    The concept of the force of natural selection was developed to explain the evolution of ageing. After ageing, however, comes a period in which mortality rates plateau and some individual organisms could, in theory, live forever. This late-life immortality has no presently agreed upon explanation. Two main theories have been offered. The first is heterogeneity within ageing cohorts, such that only extremely robust individuals survive ageing. This theory can be tested by comparisons of more and less robust cohorts. It can also be tested by fitting survival data to its models. The second theory is that late-life plateaus in mortality reflect the inevitable late-life plateau in the force of natural selection. This theory can be tested by changing the force of natural selection in evolving laboratory populations, particularly the age at which the force plateaus. This area of research has great potential for elucidating the overall structure of life-history evolution, particularly the interrelationship between the three life-history phases of development, ageing and immortality. PMID:11127912

  18. The Immortal Fire Within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William

    2007-12-01

    Preface; Key to abbreviations in notes; 1. Through rugged ways; 2. Ardent and faithful work with a telescope; 3. Mars; his moons and his heavens; 4. A seeker of comets; 5. Vanderbilt astronomer; 6. In the realm of the nebulae; 7. Go west, young man!; 8. Hanging fire; 9. On Mt. Hamilton; 10. A year of wonders; 11. The young rebel; 12. 'I am tired here'; 13. Immortality; 14. Travels and travails; 15. Barnard and Mars; 16. Nature's true artisan; 17. A tide in his affairs; 18. Yerkes observatory; 19. Disappointments and triumphs; 20. The comet and Milky Way photographs; 21. Comet tales; 22. Observer of all that shines - or obscures; 23. Eclipse and decline; 24. Ad astra; Index.

  19. BMP9 induces osteogenesis and adipogenesis in the immortalized human cranial suture progenitors from the patent sutures of craniosynostosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongzhe; Zhang, Fugui; Reid, Russell R; Ye, Jixing; Wei, Qiang; Liao, Junyi; Zou, Yulong; Fan, Jiaming; Ma, Chao; Hu, Xue; Qu, Xiangyang; Chen, Liqun; Li, Li; Yu, Yichun; Yu, Xinyi; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhao, Chen; Zeng, Zongyue; Zhang, Ruyi; Yan, Shujuan; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Xingye; Shu, Yi; Lei, Jiayan; Li, Yasha; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Jia; Lee, Michael J; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Huang, Dingming; He, Tong-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    The cranial suture complex is a heterogeneous tissue consisting of osteogenic progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and suture mesenchyme. The fusion of cranial sutures is a highly coordinated and tightly regulated process during development. Craniosynostosis is a congenital malformation caused by premature fusion of cranial sutures. While the progenitor cells derived from the cranial suture complex should prove valuable for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying suture development and pathogenic premature suture fusion, primary human cranial suture progenitors (SuPs) have limited life span and gradually lose osteoblastic ability over passages. To overcome technical challenges in maintaining sufficient and long-term culture of SuPs for suture biology studies, we establish and characterize the reversibly immortalized human cranial suture progenitors (iSuPs). Using a reversible immortalization system expressing SV40 T flanked with FRT sites, we demonstrate that primary human suture progenitor cells derived from the patent sutures of craniosynostosis patients can be efficiently immortalized. The iSuPs maintain long-term proliferative activity, express most of the consensus MSC markers and can differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages upon BMP9 stimulation in vitro and in vivo. The removal of SV40 T antigen by FLP recombinase results in a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in the endogenous osteogenic and adipogenic capability in the iSuPs. Therefore, the iSuPs should be a valuable resource to study suture development, intramembranous ossification and the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis, as well as to explore cranial bone tissue engineering. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activators protect sebocytes from apoptosis: a new treatment modality for acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Zouboulis, C C; Ochsendorf, F; Müller, J; Thaçi, D; Bernd, A; Kaufmann, R; Kippenberger, S

    2011-01-01

    The main function of the human sebaceous gland is sebum excretion. Increased sebum levels combined with follicular hyperkeratinization are a prerequisite of acne vulgaris. As peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are known to control lipid metabolism in several human tissues they have been considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. To investigate the effect of activators of PPAR-α (WY14643), PPAR-γ (rosiglitazone) and PPAR-δ (L-165.041) on basal and staurosporine-induced apoptosis in the human sebocyte cell line SZ95 in vitro. After defining the basal effects of PPAR activators on membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release) and DNA synthesis (5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), apoptosis was determined by the release of histone-associated DNA fragments. The underlying signalling events were detected by Western blotting and the use of specific inhibitors against p44/42 and protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. PPAR activators of all three subsets offer antiapoptotic effects, with L-165.041 being the most potent. This compound induced the activation of PKB/Akt and p44/42, two kinases involved in antiapoptosis and proliferation, respectively. An inhibition of these kinases by specific inhibitors reversed the suppression of histone-associated DNA fragments by L-165.041, indicating that these signalling pathways participate in the observed antiapoptotic effect. The present data suggest that activators of PPAR, in particular of the δ subset, might have beneficial effects on acne vulgaris by inhibiting the release of lipids in the context of sebocyte apoptosis. © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists 2010.

  1. The illusion of cell immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayflick, L

    2000-01-01

    Normal cultured cell populations are mortal but cells that are immortal are abnormal and most have properties of cancer cells. Nevertheless, this distinction becomes blurred because the terms ‘mortality’ and ‘immortality’ are subject to enormous variations in understanding. Forty years ago we showed that cell mortality and immortality are inextricably linked to longevity determination, ageing and cancer. We suggested that a counting mechanism existed in normal cells and that has now been identified as telomere attrition. This replicometer, in combination with the discovery of the enzyme telomerase, has gone very far in explaining why most normal somatic cells have a finite capacity to replicate both in vivo and in vitro and how immortal cancer cells circumvent this inevitability. It is suggested that telomere attrition may be better understood as a direct measure of longevity determination and to only have an indirect association with age changes. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10970682

  2. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simvastatin and intracellular pH regulation by the Na+/H+ antiport of SV40-virus-transformed human MRC5 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Ng, L L

    1993-06-01

    1. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase by simvastatin leads to inhibition of both cell growth and Na+/H+ antiport activity. The effect of simvastatin on intracellular pH and Na+/H+ antiport activity was therefore studied on an adherent cell line, the SV40-virus-transformed MRC5 human fibroblast. 2. Simvastatin led to a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular pH, attributed to a reduction in Na+/H+ exchange, together with a rounding of cell shape. Mevalonate (1 mmol/l) prevented these effects of simvastatin, and when added after inhibition of the antiport by simvastatin, reversed these changes within 1-2h. 3. The phenomenon of mevalonate reversal of antiport inhibition by simvastatin was not sensitive to cycloheximide, indicating its post-translational nature. This was also consistent with the short period of incubation with mevalonate leading to reversal of antiport inhibition (1-2 h). These changes in intracellular pH regulation were not due to alterations in cell cholesterol content. 4. A variety of inhibitors of post-translational processes, such as N-linked glycosylation (tunicamycin), phosphorylation (staurosporine), isoprenylation (farnesol, limonene), and of pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins or calmodulin (W7), had no effect on the reversal by mevalonate of simvastatin-induced changes in Na+/H+ antiport activity. 5. N-Ethylmaleimide (50 mumol/l for 5 min) prevented mevalonate reversing the effects of simvastatin, suggesting the importance of thiol groups in the phenomenon of reversal of the inhibition of Na+/H+ antiport activity by simvastatin. Furthermore, concurrent incubation of simvastatin-treated cells with dithiothreitol (1 mmol/l) and N-ethylmaleimide restored the ability of mevalonate to reverse the inhibitory effects of simvastatin on Na+H+ antiport activity.

  4. Immortality of Cu damascene interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2002-04-01

    We have studied short-line effects in fully-integrated Cu damascene interconnects through electromigration experiments on lines of various lengths and embedded in different dielectric materials. We compare these results with results from analogous experiments on subtractively-etched Al-based interconnects. It is known that Al-based interconnects exhibit three different behaviors, depending on the magnitude of the product of current density, j, and line length, L: For small values of (jL), no void nucleation occurs, and the line is immortal. For intermediate values, voids nucleate, but the line does not fail because the current can flow through the higher-resistivity refractory-metal-based shunt layers. Here, the resistance of the line increases but eventually saturates, and the relative resistance increase is proportional to (jL/B), where B is the effective elastic modulus of the metallization system. For large values of (jL/B), voiding leads to an unacceptably high resistance increase, and the line is considered failed. By contrast, we observed only two regimes for Cu-based interconnects: Either the resistance of the line stays constant during the duration of the experiment, and the line is considered immortal, or the line fails due to an abrupt open-circuit failure. The absence of an intermediate regime in which the resistance saturates is due to the absence of a shunt layer that is able to support a large amount of current once voiding occurs. Since voids nucleate much more easily in Cu- than in Al-based interconnects, a small fraction of short Cu lines fails even at low current densities. It is therefore more appropriate to consider the probability of immortality in the case of Cu rather than assuming a sharp boundary between mortality and immortality. The probability of immortality decreases with increasing amount of material depleted from the cathode, which is proportional to (jL2/B) at steady state. By contrast, the immortality of Al-based interconnects is

  5. Disruptive chemicals, senescence and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Amancio; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Lleonart, Matilde E; Martinez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Mondello, Chiara; Scovassi, A Ivana; Bisson, William H; Amedei, Amedeo; Roy, Rabindra; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Vaccari, Monica; Raju, Jayadev; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Salem, Hosni K; Memeo, Lorenzo; Forte, Stefano; Singh, Neetu; Hamid, Roslida A; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Brown, Dustin G; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, Sandra S; Yasaei, Hemad

    2015-06-01

    Carcinogenesis is thought to be a multistep process, with clonal evolution playing a central role in the process. Clonal evolution involves the repeated 'selection and succession' of rare variant cells that acquire a growth advantage over the remaining cell population through the acquisition of 'driver mutations' enabling a selective advantage in a particular micro-environment. Clonal selection is the driving force behind tumorigenesis and possesses three basic requirements: (i) effective competitive proliferation of the variant clone when compared with its neighboring cells, (ii) acquisition of an indefinite capacity for self-renewal, and (iii) establishment of sufficiently high levels of genetic and epigenetic variability to permit the emergence of rare variants. However, several questions regarding the process of clonal evolution remain. Which cellular processes initiate carcinogenesis in the first place? To what extent are environmental carcinogens responsible for the initiation of clonal evolution? What are the roles of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in carcinogenesis? What are the underlying mechanisms responsible for chemical carcinogen-induced cellular immortality? Here, we explore the possible mechanisms of cellular immortalization, the contribution of immortalization to tumorigenesis and the mechanisms by which chemical carcinogens may contribute to these processes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Characterization of bovine immortalized luteal endothelial cells: action of cytokines on production and content of arachidonic acid metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blitek Agnieszka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions between luteal, vascular endothelial, immune cells and its products: steroids, peptide hormones, prostaglandins (PGs, growth factors and cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of corpus luteum (CL function. Luteal endothelial cells undergo many dynamic morphological changes and their action is regulated by cytokines. The aims are: (1 to establish in vitro model for bovine luteal endothelial cells examination; (2 to study the effect of cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha and interferon gamma (IFNgamma on cell viability, leukotrienes (LTs and PG synthases, and endothelin-1 (EDN-1 mRNA, protein expression and their secretion in bovine immortalized luteal endothelial (EnCL-1 cells. Methods The primary cultures of bovine luteal endothelial cells were immortalized by transfection with vector carrying the Simian virus 40 T-antigen (SV40 T-ag sequence. Expression of SV40 T-ag gene in EnCL-1 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining showed the presence of endothelial cell markers: VE-cadherin and von Willebrand factor. EnCL-1 cells were stimulated by TNFalpha with IFNgamma (50 ng/ml each for 24 h. Cell viability, mRNA expression (real time RT-PCR, protein expression (western blotting for LTC4 synthase (LTC4S, LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H, PGE2 and PGF2alpha synthases and endothelin-1 (EDN-1, and levels of LTs (B4 and C4 and PGs (E2 and F2alpha and EDN-1 in the medium (EIA were evaluated. Results We received immortalized luteal endothelial cell line (EnCL-1. Cytokines did not change EnCL-1 cell viability but increased mRNA expression of LTC4S, LTA4H, PGE2 and PGF2alpha synthases and EDN-1. EDN-1/2/3, LTC4 and PGF2alpha synthases protein expression were elevated in the presence of TNFalpha/IFNgamma, and accompanied by increased EDN-1, LTC4 and PGF2alpha secretion. Cytokines had no effect on PGES and LTA4H protein expression, and PGE2 and LTB4 release. Conclusions TNFalpha and IFNgamma

  7. The MRC-5 human embryonal lung fibroblast two-dimensional gel cellular protein database: quantitative identification of polypeptides whose relative abundance differs between quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Dejgaard, K; Madsen, Peder

    1990-01-01

    (1323 with isoelectric focusing and 572 with nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis) are recorded in this database, containing quantitative and qualitative data on the relative abundance of cellular proteins synthesized by quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed MRC-5 fibroblasts. Of the 592......A new version of the MRC-5 two-dimensional gel cellular protein database (Celis et al., Electrophoresis 1989, 10, 76-115) is presented. Gels were scanned with a Molecular Dynamics laser scanner and processed by the PDQUEST II software. A total of 1895 [35S]methionine-labeled cellular polypeptides...

  8. Achievement report on project in fiscal 2000 of public appeal for proposal of international joint research (new industry - No.1). Development of technology to immortalize human cells by co-expression of mortalin and telomerase; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo seika hokokusho (shinki No.1). Mortalin oyobi telomerase no kyohatsugen ni yoru hitosaibo fushika gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been performed on development of a technology to immortalize human cells by co-expression of mortalin and telomerase. The technology was adopted in the public appeal for proposal of international joint research. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof. The research has standardized a method to establish co-expression cell strains of mortalin genes and telomerase genes. Expressing the h TERT genes alone normally was not sufficient to cause immortalization in human fibroblasts. Furthermore, it was found in many cell strains that the co-expression of LTAg and h TERT is not sufficient to immortalize their cells. Expressing SV40stAg simultaneously in these cell strains was proved to have induced the immortalization highly efficiently. Introducing the mot-2 gene in place of virus antigen has resulted in acquisition of human cells regarded immortalized. It was concluded that suppressing initially the action of p53 by using mot-2 initially the immortalization due to the h TERT introduction. (NEDO)

  9. The isolation and characterization of a novel telomerase immortalized first trimester trophoblast cell line, Swan 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straszewski-Chavez, S L; Abrahams, V M; Alvero, A B; Aldo, P B; Ma, Y; Guller, S; Romero, R; Mor, G

    2009-11-01

    Studies using first trimester trophoblast cells may be limited by the inability to obtain patient samples and/or adequate cell numbers. First trimester trophoblast cell lines have been generated by SV40 transformation or similar methods, however, this approach is known to induce phenotypic and karyotypic abnormalities. The introduction of telomerase has been proposed to be a viable alternative for the immortalization of primary human cells. To investigate whether telomerase-induced immortalization might be a more feasible approach for the generation of first trimester trophoblast cell lines, we isolated primary trophoblast cells from a 7-week normal placenta and infected the cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Although this hTERT-infected first trimester trophoblast cell line, which we have named Swan 71, has been propagated for more than 100 passages, it still has attributes that are characteristic of primary first trimester trophoblast cells. The Swan 71 cells are positive for the expression of cytokeratin 7, vimentin and HLA-G, but do not express CD45, CD68 or the Fibroblast Specific Antigen (FSA), CD90/Thy-1. In addition, we also demonstrated that the Swan 71 cells secrete fetal fibronectin (FFN) as well as low levels of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG). Moreover, the Swan 71 cells exhibit a cytokine and growth factor profile that is similar to primary trophoblast cells and are resistant to Fas, but not TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. This suggests that the Swan 71 cells may represent a valuable model for future in vitro trophoblast studies.

  10. Nietzsche, immortality, singularity and eternal recurrence | Olivier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ways, and ultimately opts for Lefort's paradoxical understanding of immortality as the 'transcending of time, within time' before elaborating on a corresponding notion in Lacan's work. It can be shown that Nietzsche, too, provides a distinctly modern conception of 'immortality', articulated in relation to his notions of affirmation, ...

  11. Herpes simplex virus-1 infection or Simian virus 40-mediated immortalization of corneal cells causes permanent translocation of NLRP3 to the nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate into the potential involvement of pyrin containing 3 gene (NLRP3, a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors with cytosolic pattern recognition, in the host defense of corneas against viruses. METHODS: The herpes viral keratitis model was utilized in BALB/c mice with inoculation of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1. Corneal tissues removed during therapy of patients with viral keratitis as well as a Simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line were also examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect NLRP3 in these subjects, focusing on their distribution in tissue or cells. Western blot was used to measure the level of NLRP3 and another two related molecules in NLPR3 inflammasome, namely caspase-1 and IL-1β. RESULTS: The NLRP3 activation induced by HSV-1 infection in corneas was accompanied with redistribution of NLRP3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in both murine and human corneal epithelial cells. Furthermore, in the SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells, NLRP3 was exclusively located in the nucleus, and treatment of the cells with high concentration of extracellular potassium (known as an inhibitor of NLRP3 activation effectively drove NLRP3 back to the cytoplasm as reflected by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. CONCLUSION: It is proposed that herpes virus infection activates and causes redistribution of NLRP3 to nuclei. Whether this NLRP3 translocation occurs with other viral infections and in other cell types merit further study.

  12. Fluorescent Immortalized Human Adipose Derived Stromal Cells (hASCs-TS/GFP+) for Studying Cell Drug Delivery Mediated by Microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocce, Valentina; Balducci, Luigi; Falchetti, Maria L; Pascucci, Luisa; Ciusani, Emilio; Brini, Anna T; Sisto, Francesca; Piovani, Giovanna; Alessandri, Giulio; Parati, Eugenio; Cabeza, Laura; Pessina, Augusto

    2017-11-24

    A new tool for the drug delivery is based on the use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) loaded in vitro with anti-cancer drugs. Unfortunately, the restricted lifespan of MSCs represents a significant limitation to produce them in high amounts and for long time studies. Immortalized MSCs from adipose tissue (hASCs) have been generated as good source of cells with stable features. These cells could improve the development of standardized procedures for both in vitro and preclinical studies. Furthermore they facilitate procedures for preparing large amounts of secretome containing microvesicles (MVs). We used human adipose tissue derived MSCs immortalized with hTERT+SV40 (TS) genes and transfected with GFP (hASCs-TS/GFP+). This line was investigated for its ability to uptake and release anticancer drugs. Microvesicles associated to paclitaxel (MVs/PTX) were isolated, quantified, and tested on pancreatic cancer cells. The line hASCs-TS/GFP+ maintained the main mesenchymal characters and was able to uptake and release, in active form, both paclitaxel and gemcitabine. From paclitaxel loaded hASCs-TS/GFP+ cells were isolated microvesicles in sufficient amount to inhibit "in vitro" the proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells. Our study suggests that human immortalized MSCs could be used for a large scale production of cells for mediated drug delivery. Moreover, the secretion of drug-associated MVs could represent a new way for producing new drug formulation by "biogenesis". In the context of the "advanced cell therapy procedure", the MVs/PTX production would use less resource and time and it could possibly contribute to simplification of GMP procedures. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Universal mortality law and immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  14. Bypass of a site-specific cis-Syn thymine dimer in an SV40 vector during in vitro replication by HeLa and XPV cell-free extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensch-Simon, I; Burgers, P M; Taylor, J S

    1998-06-02

    The key step in skin cancer induction by UV light is thought to be the mutagenic DNA synthesis past a DNA photoproduct in a proto-oncogene or tumor suppressor gene. To investigate this critical step, we have constructed an SV40 vector containing a cis-syn thymine dimer, the major DNA photoproduct induced by UVB light, within an AseI site at a location that would initially be replicated by leading strand synthesis. When the dimer-containing SV40 vector was incubated with cell-free HeLa extracts in the presence of TAg, and then digested with AseI, a 2325 bp fragment corresponding to inhibition of cleavage at the dimer site was observed, suggesting that the dimer had terminated synthesis and/or had been bypassed. When the reaction was limited to one round of replication and the products of restriction enzyme digestion were examined by denaturing gel electrophoresis, bands corresponding to both termination and bypass were observed in roughly a one-to-one ratio. Whereas increasing the dNTP concentration from 10 microM to 1 mM increased the ratio of bypass to termination from 0.6 to 2.6, it had no effect on the site of termination, which occurred exclusively one nucleotide before the dimer. Experiments in which dGTP was held constant at 25 microM and various combinations of the remaining nucleotides were raised from 25 microM to 1 mM showed substantial increases in the bypass-to-termination ratio, with the greatest effect seen for raising all three nucleotides to 1 mM. Replication by primary fibroblast XPV extracts was also investigated and found to be greatly stimulated by rhRPA, whereas the stimulatory effect for HeLa cell extracts was variable. In the presence of rhRPA, the XPV extracts were also found to bypass the cis-syn dimer, which contrasts with a recent report that could not detect dimer bypass in SV40 transformed XPV extracts in the absence of added replication factors [Cordeiro-Stone, M., et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13945-13954].

  15. "Tuck Everlasting": Winnie Foster's Intimations of Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Peter N.

    1998-01-01

    Tells the plot of the novel "Tuck Everlasting" by Natalie Babbitt--the Tucks are invulnerable and immortal, but everlasting life holds trials for them. Provides seven questions for stimulating student response to the novel. (PA)

  16. The immortality of humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; de Vries, Victor C; Noelle, Randolph J

    2010-07-01

    Decades of high-titered antibody are sustained due to the persistence of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells (PCs). The differentiation of each of these subsets is antigen- and T-cell driven and is dependent on signals acquired and integrated during the germinal center response. Inherent in the primary immune response must be the delivery of signals to B cells to create these populations, which have virtual immortality. Differences in biology and chemotactic behavior disperse memory B cells and long-lived PCs to a spectrum of anatomic sites. Each subset must rely on survival factors that can support their longevity. This review focuses on the generation of each of these subsets, their survival, and renewal, which must occur to sustain serological memory. In this context, we discuss the role of antigen, bystander inflammation, and cellular niches. The contribution of BAFF (B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) to the persistence of memory B cells and PCs are also detailed. Insights that have been provided over the past few years in the regulation of long-lived B-cell responses will have profound impact on vaccine development, the treatment of pre-sensitized patients for organ transplantation, and therapeutic interventions in both antibody- and T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.

  17. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors

  18. Immortality in view of Maimonides and Spinoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Shajari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desire for immortality can be seen as the essential natural impulse. Therefore, different religions and thinkers have attempted to see the issue from different viewpoints. The great Jewish philosopher. Maimonides, due to deep fixation to Judaism, has tried to express their issues to be consistent with the Bible and his own community believes. He, in his discussion of resurrection, believed to three basic steps: The Messiah, the resurrection, and the world hereafter. His standpoint of eternity is dedicated to the hereafter. And we can be immortalized only by acting and teachings in accordance with the Bible and righteousness. Like Maimonides, Spinoza – the other Jewish philosopher - considered the immortality as Ultimate bliss through which the “immutable and eternal love of God" can be achieved. In his opinion, a person reaches this stage, when the lusts and emotions can reasonably be overcome, and also, when the power and anger and contempt and disregard others will respond with love and dignity. Thus, a man can be reached its proper perfection and immortality is reached. The difference between these two philosophers is that Maimonides believes through "actual intellect" -that is Emanation of the active intellect- can be immortalized but, for Spinoza, eternity can be reached through the adequate Ideas.

  19. Establishment and characterization of an immortalized bovine glomerular endothelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, K; Horiba, N; Uchida, K; Tsutsui, T; Horita, S; Murai, K; Kawashima, A; Yumura, W; Nihei, H

    1994-08-01

    Bovine subcultures (second passage) of glomerular endothelial cells (GEN) isolated from one-year-old kidney were successfully transfected by recombinant plasmids containing the simian virus (SV)-40 T antigen (Tag) using a lipofectin-mediated procedure. One cell clone was selected, propagated and characterized. This clone can be grown in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. The advantage of this cell line is the cultivation of bovine GEN without the addition of fibroblast growth factor or a coating of fibronectin or gelatin on the culture plate. More than 80 passages were achieved and the doubling time was 32 h. The Tag was easily identified in transfected-GEN by indirect immunofluorescence. These cells weakly expressed factor VIII-related antigen, slightly took up acetylated-low density lipoprotein and secreted a detectable amount of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Immunocytochemical staining for UAE-1 was also positive. Moreover, oncoproteins, such as Ki-67 and p53, were expressed in these cells. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry revealed that the percentages of G1, S, and G2/M stages in cycling transfected-GEN culture in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum were 34%, 52.9%, and 13.1%, respectively. The conditioned medium from confluent transfected-GEN stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into glomerular mesangial cells. This cell line may provide a useful tool for examining modulators of mesangial cell growth. Thus this cell line is the first immortalized bovine GEN that retain the morphologic, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of bovine GEN.

  20. Probabilistic immortality of Cu damascene interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2002-02-01

    We have studied electromigration short-line effects in Cu damascene interconnects through experiments on lines of various lengths L, stressed at a variety of current densities j, and embedded in different dielectric materials. We observed two modes of resistance evolution: Either the resistance of the lines remains constant for the duration of the test, so that the lines are considered immortal, or the lines fail due to abrupt open-circuit failure. The resistance was not observed to gradually increase and then saturate, as commonly observed in Al-based interconnects, because the barrier is too thin and resistive to serve as a redundant current path should voiding occur. The critical stress for void nucleation was found to be smaller than 41 MPa, since voiding occurred even under the mildest test conditions of j=2 MA/cm2 and L=10.5 μm at 300 °C. A small fraction of short Cu lines failed even at low current densities, which deems necessary a concept of probabilistic immortality rather than deterministic immortality. Experiments and modeling suggest that the probability of immortality is described by (jL2/B), where B is the effective elastic modulus of the metallization scheme. By contrast, the immortality of Al-based interconnects with shunt layers is described by (jL) if no voids nucleate, and (jL/B) if voids do nucleate. Even though the phenomenology of short-line effects differs for Al- and Cu-based interconnects, the immortality of interconnects of either materials system can be explained by the phenomena of nucleation barriers for void formation and void-growth saturation. The differences are due solely to the absence of a shunt layer and the low critical stress for void nucleation in the case of Cu.

  1. Phosphate transport in immortalized cell cultures from the renal proximal tubule of normal and Hyp mice: evidence that the HYP gene locus product is an extrarenal factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, T; Econs, M J; Byun, J K; Martel, J; Tenenhouse, H S; Drezner, M K

    1995-09-01

    Whether renal phosphate wasting in X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) results from an intrinsic renal or humoral defect remains controversial. In studies of the murine homolog of XLH, harboring the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen, we obviated the influence of renal cell heterogeneity and impressed memory by comparing Na(+)-phosphate cotransport in immortalized cells from the S1 segment of the proximal tubule. Cells from SV40 transgenic normal and Hyp mice exhibit characteristics of differentiated proximal tubule cells including gluconeogenesis and alkaline phosphatase activity. Surprisingly, however, we found two distinct populations of cells from the S1 proximal tubule of both normal and Hyp mice. In one, PTH treatment increases cAMP accumulation, while in the other both PTH and thyrocalcitonin enhance cAMP production. Kinetic parameters for Na(+)-phosphate cotransport were similar in both subpopulations of cells from normal (Km, 0.29 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.04 mM; Vmax, 4.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.4 nmol/mg/5 minutes) and Hyp mice (0.33 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.04; 6.0 +/- 0.7, 4.8 +/- 0.6). More importantly, phosphate transport in S1 cells of either subpopulation from Hyp mice is no different than that of normals. These data indicate that renal proximal tubule cells from Hyp mice have intrinsically normal phosphate transport and support the hypothesis that a humoral abnormality underlies renal phosphate wasting in XLH.

  2. Education as Immortality: Toward the Rehabilitation of an Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, David

    1998-01-01

    Observes that immortality remains an important animating ideal for teaching and learning, despite being long neglected as theological or egoistic. Makes the case that the role of immortality in pedagogy has a long history in Western thought. Argues that individuals should recognize and address ways that longing for immortality shapes educators'…

  3. On Persons and Immortality Symposium on Pedro Tabensky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On Persons and Immortality Symposium on Pedro Tabensky, Happiness: Personhood, Community, Purpose. ... Concentrating on the example of immortality, I argue that, while there are undoubtedly disadvantages associated with the immortal life, these are contingent rather than essential to the notion of being a person.

  4. Conditionally immortal ovarian cell lines for investigating the influence of ovarian stroma on the estrogen sensitivity and tumorigenicity of ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Saunders, Beatriz O; Haller, Edward; Livingston, Sandra; Nicosia, Santo V; Bai, Wenlong

    2003-01-01

    The tendency of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) to undergo metaplastic and morphogenetic changes during the life cycle, at variance with the adjacent peritoneal mesothelial cells, suggests that its biology may be regulated by underlying ovarian stromal cues. However, little is known about the role that the ovarian stroma plays in the pathobiology of the OSE, largely because of the lack of a suitable in vitro model. Here, we describe the establishment and characterization of conditionally immortalized ovarian stromal and surface epithelial cell lines from H-2K(b)-tsA58 transgenic mice that carry the thermolabile mutant of SV-40 large T antigen under the control of an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-inducible promoter. These cells express functional T antigens, grow continuously under permissive conditions at 33 degrees C in the presence of IFN-gamma, and stop dividing when the activity and expression of the tumor antigen is suppressed by restrictive conditions without IFN-gamma at 39 degrees C. Morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analyses show that conditionally immortal OSE cells form cobblestone-like monolayers, express cytokeratin and vimentin, contain several microvilli, and develop tight junctions, whereas stromal cells are spindle-like, express vimentin but not cytokeratin, and contain rare microvilli, thus exhibiting epithelial and stromal phenotypes, respectively. At variance with the reported behavior of rat epithelial cells, conditionally immortal mouse epithelial cells are not spontaneously transformed after continuous culture in vitro. More importantly, conditioned media from stromal cells cultured under permissive conditions increase the specific activity of the endogenous estrogen receptor in BG-1 human ovarian epithelial cancer cells and promote these cells' anchorage-independent growth, suggesting the paracrine influence of a stromal factor. In addition, stromal cells cultured under restrictive conditions retain this growth

  5. The (not so immortal strand hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tomasetti

    2015-03-01

    Significance: Utilizing an approach that is fundamentally different from previous efforts to confirm or refute the immortal strand hypothesis, we provide evidence against non-random segregation of DNA during stem cell replication. Our results strongly suggest that parental DNA is passed randomly to stem cell daughters and provides new insight into the mechanism of DNA replication in stem cells.

  6. Malignancy without immortality? Cellular immortalization as a possible late event in melanoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Julia K; Mackenzie Ross, Alastair D; Kallenberg, David M; Milagre, Carla; Heung Chong, W; Chow, Jade; Hill, Lucy; Hoare, Stacey; Collinson, Rebecca S; Hossain, Mehnaz; Keith, W Nicol; Marais, Richard; Bennett, Dorothy C

    2011-06-01

    Cell senescence is a permanent growth arrest following extended proliferation. Cultured cancer cells including metastatic melanoma cells often appear immortal (proliferate indefinitely), while uncultured benign nevi (moles) show senescence markers. Here, with new explantation methods, we investigated which classes of primary pigmented lesions are typically immortal. Nevi yielded a few proliferating cells, consistent with most nevus cells being senescent. No nevus culture (0/28) appeared immortal. Some thin and thick melanoma cultures proved immortal under these conditions, but surprisingly few (4/37). All arrested cultures displayed three senescence markers in some cells: β-galactosidase, nuclear p16, and heterochromatic foci/aggregates. However, melanoma cultures also showed features of telomeric crisis (arrest because of ultrashort telomeres). Moreover, crisis markers including anaphase bridges were frequent in uncultured vertical growth-phase (VGP) melanomas. Conversely, all immortal melanoma cultures expressed telomerase reverse transcriptase and telomerase, showing aneuploidy. The findings suggest that primary melanomas are typically precrisis, with immortalization/telomere maintenance as a late event. 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Borges, immortality and the circular ruins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Catalina

    2002-06-01

    The author explores ideas surrounding immortality and death focusing on the interplay between their development in two stories by Borges ('The circular ruins' and 'The immortal') and their manifestation in a patient. With the help of Borges's stories, the author addresses the desperate necessity experienced by some individuals to search for immortality. This is not just an expression of the universal wish to live forever but, at a deeper level, arises from the impossibility of bearing the mental pain of experiencing ordinary human vulnerability and loss - death being the ultimate expression of such vulnerability. It is suggested that the relentless pursuit of immortality in such individuals expresses an omnipotent phantasy of ridding the self of the emotional pain and fear that arises through being alive. It leads to a denial of the emotional significance of passage of time, of separation and sexual differences. In actuality, the individual's state of not feeling approximates to a complete loss of human identity and emotional death, with no place for any meaningful others. The individual him/herself becomes a 'mere image', living in a delusional world peopled by him/herself and his/ her projections, and ending up trapped inside the circular ruins he/she has generated. The horror experienced at the stark awareness of the individual's emotional death and the wish to re-establish contact with the good internal objects that have been attacked sets in motion the long process of searching for the recovery of a sense of temporality (that would still include the wish for immortality) and, with it, a sense of identity.

  8. Immortalized mesenchymal stem cells: an alternative to primary mesenchymal stem cells in neuronal differentiation and neuroregeneration associated studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Min

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be induced to differentiate into neuronal cells under appropriate cellular conditions and transplanted in brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases animal models for neuroregeneration studies. In contrast to the embryonic stem cells (ESCs, MSCs are easily subject to aging and senescence because of their finite ability of self-renewal. MSCs senescence seriously affected theirs application prospects as a promising tool for cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In the present study, we established a reversible immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (IMSCs line by using SSR#69 retrovirus expressing simian virus 40 large T (SV40T antigen as an alternative to primary MSCs. Methods The retroviral vector SSR#69 expressing simian virus 40 large T (SV40T antigen was used to construct IMSCs. IMSCs were identified by flow cytometry to detect cell surface makers. To investigate proliferation and differentiation potential of IMSCs, cell growth curve determination and mesodermal trilineage differentiation tests were performed. Neuronal differentiation characteristics of IMSCs were detected in vitro. Before IMSCs transplantation, we excluded its tumorigenicity in nude mice firstly. The Morris water maze tests and shuttle box tests were performed five weeks after HIBD models received cells transplantation therapy. Results In this study, reversible IMSCs were constructed successfully and had the similar morphology and cell surface makers as primary MSCs. IMSCs possessed better ability of proliferation and anti-senescence compared with primary MSCs, while maintained multilineage differentiation capacity. Neural-like cells derived from IMSCs had similar expressions of neural-specific genes, protein expression patterns and resting membrane potential (RMP compared with their counterparts derived from primary MSCs. There was no bump formation in nude mice subcutaneously injected with IMSCs. IMSCs

  9. The application of normal, SV40 T-antigen-immortalised and tumour-derived oral keratinocytes, under serum-free conditions, to the study of the probability of cancer progression as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceder, Rebecca; Merne, Marina; Staab, Claudia A; Nilsson, Jan Anders; Höög, Jan-Olov; Dressler, Dirk; Engelhart, Karin; Grafström, Roland C

    2007-12-01

    In vitro models are currently not considered to be suitable replacements for animals in experiments to assess the multiple factors that underlie the development of cancer as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals. An evaluation was conducted on the potential use of normal keratinocytes, the SV40 T-antigen-immortalised keratinocyte cell line, SVpgC2a, and the carcinoma cell line, SqCC/Y1, alone and in combination, and under standardised serum-free culture conditions, to study oral cancer progression. In addition, features considered to be central to cancer development as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals, were analysed. Genomic expression, and enzymatic and functional data from the cell lines reflected many aspects of the transition of normal tissue epithelium, via dysplasia, to full malignancy. The composite cell line model develops aberrances in proliferation, terminal differentiation and apoptosis, in a similar manner to oral cancer progression in vivo. Transcript and protein profiling links aberrations in multiple gene ontologies, molecular networks and tumour biomarker genes (some proposed previously, and some new) in oral carcinoma development. Typical specific changes include the loss of tumour-suppressor p53 function and of sensitivity to retinoids. Environmental agents associated with the aetiology of oral cancer differ in their requirements for metabolic activation, and cause toxic effects to cells in both the normal and the transformed states. The results suggest that the model might be useful for studies on the sensitivity of cells to chemicals at different stages of cancer progression, including many aspects of the integrated roles of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Overall, the properties of the SVpgC2a and SqCC/Y1 cell lines, relative to normal epithelial cells in monolayer or organotypic culture, support their potential applicability to mechanistic studies on cancer risk factors, including, in particular, the definition of

  10. Sonicated and stirred copper oxide nanoparticles induce similar toxicity and pro-inflammatory response in N-hTERT keratinocytes and SZ95 sebocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Mejia, Jorge; Lucas, Stéphane; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    The potential toxic and pro-inflammatory effects of rod-shaped copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs; 10 ± 3 nm in thickness and 74 ± 17 nm in length) were studied on N-hTERT keratinocytes and SZ95 sebocytes and on reconstructed human epidermis. Non-sonicated and sonicated CuO NPs induced similar cellular toxicity. The toxic effect of CuO NPs (non-sonicated and sonicated) was more pronounced in keratinocytes than in sebocytes. Pro-oxidant effects of CuO NPs were demonstrated by showing increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and decrease of cellular glutathione. In addition, DNA-binding activities suggested that redox-sensitive transcription factors Nrf2 and NF-κB were implicated in the response of keratinocytes to CuO NPs. Transcriptomic analysis showed an increase in the abundance of transcript species coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins (e.g. IL-8 and IL-1α) and chemokines. In reconstituted human epidermis exposed topically to raw CuO NPs, no effect on the integrity, viability and inflammatory response was noticed.

  11. Immortality versus resurrection in the Christian tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nancey

    2011-10-01

    For those in contemporary society who believe in an afterlife, there are a number of views available. The most common may be based on belief in an immortal soul. However, the early Christian account was, instead, bodily resurrection. As Christianity moved throughout the Mediterranean world, apologists and theologians adapted their teaching on human nature and the afterlife to Greek and Roman philosophies. By the time of Augustine (d. 430), the doctrines of body-soul dualism and immortality of the soul were firmly entrenched in Christian teaching. The incorporation of the concept of an immortal soul into Christian accounts of life after death produced a hybrid account. The body dies, the soul (at least of those who were to be saved) travels to heaven. At the end of history, there would be a general resurrection, and the souls would be reunited with their bodies, although the bodies would be in a transformed, indestructible state. This hybrid account of life after death went largely uncontested until the twentieth century. In this essay, I describe this history and argue for a return to the early Christian view of humans as a unity, not a duality, and for belief in resurrection of the body as the appropriate expectation for eternal life. This would not only be truer to Christian sources, but, valuable, I believe, in focusing Christian attention on the need to care for the environment. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Achieving immortality in the C. elegans germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelick, Chris; Ahmed, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    Germline immortality is a topic that has intrigued theoretical biologists interested in aging for over a century. The germ cell lineage can be passed from one generation to the next, indefinitely. In contrast, somatic cells are typically only needed for a single generation and are then discarded. Germ cells may, therefore, harbor rejuvenation mechanisms that enable them to proliferate for eons. Such processes are thought to be either absent from or down-regulated in somatic cells, although cell non-autonomous forms of rejuvenation are formally possible. A thorough description of mechanisms that foster eternal youth in germ cells is lacking. The mysteries of germline immortality are being addressed in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by studying mutants that reproduce normally for several generations but eventually become sterile. The mortal germline mutants probably become sterile as a consequence of accumulating various forms of heritable cellular damage. Such mutants are abundant, indicating that several different biochemical pathways are required to rejuvenate the germline. Thus, forward genetics should help to define mechanisms that enable the germline to achieve immortality.

  13. Immortalized hepatocytes using human artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masahiro; Ito, Ryoutaro; Yoshihara, Daisuke; Ikeno, Masashi; Kamiya, Megumi; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Nagata, Hideo; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Naoya; Fox, Ira J; Okazaki, Tsuneko; Miyakama, Syuichi

    2008-01-01

    The shortage of organ donors has impeded the development of human hepatocyte transplantation. Immortalized hepatocytes could provide an unlimited supply of transplantable cells. To determine whether immortalized hepatocytes could provide global metabolic support in end-stage liver disease, rat hepatocyte clones were developed by transduction with the gene encoding the Simian virus 40 T antigen (SVT) using the human artificial minichromosome (HAC). The SVLT sequence was excised by FRT recombination. Following HAC infusion, the transduced hepatocytes express SVT, blasticidine resistance (BS), and the PGK promoter TK gene. Forty-six cell clones were obtained and at least partially characterized, as previously described, for albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (Dpp4), gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (Ggt), SVT, and beta-actin expression using RT-PCR. Clones were also assessed for albumin secretion into the culture medium using ELISA. All of the cell line secreted approximately 10 mg/dl of albumin, which is equivalent to the amount secreted by primary hepatocytes. In further experiments, this cell line will be used for transplantable cells or artificial organ using HAC. These results represent an important step toward the development of immortalized hepatocytes.

  14. ALA-PDT suppressing the cell growth and reducing the lipogenesis in human SZ95 sebocytes by mTOR signaling pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Jiang; Wang, Qianqian; Zouboulis, Christos C; Liu, Ye; Ma, Ying; Ma, Li; Ying, Jiayi; Zhang, Chengfeng; Xiang, Leihong

    2017-06-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid mediated -photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is known to be effective in treating acne vulgaris and other sebaceous gland-related diseases. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of ALA-PDT still remain undetermined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of ALA-PDT on the cell growth and lipogenesis of human SZ95 sebocytes. Human SZ95 sebocytes were treated with different concentration of ALA-PDT.CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity. Fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry were used to observe the secretion of lipids in SZ95 cells after Nile red staining. Western blotting was used to detect and analyze the protein expression level of P-p70 S6K/p70 S6K, P-4E-BP1/4E-BP1, SREBP-1, PPARγ, P-mTOR/mTOR, and P-Raptor/Raptor. Mean while, mTOR pathway activator IGF-1 and mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin were added to observe the interferences on the ALA-PDT treatment of SZ95 cells. ALA-PDT suppressed the cell growth and reduced the secretion of lipids in a dose-dependent manner in SZ95 cells. ALA-PDT reduced the protein levels of P-p70 S6K (T389), SREBP-1, PPARγ, P-mTOR and P-Raptor. IGF-1 had counter effects on ALA-PDT, and rapamycin enhanced the effects of ALA-PDT in SZ95 cells in suppressing the cell growth and reducing the secretion of lipids. ALA-PDT suppressed the cell growth in SZ95 cells by mTOR-p70 S6K(T389) signaling and reduced the lipogenesis in SZ95 cells by mTOR-SREBP-1/PPARγ signaling. Sebaceous glands atrophy and reduction of sebum secretion after ALA-PDT may be caused by the suppression of lipogenesis and cell growth in sebocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 in the augmentation of triacylglycerol excretion by Propionibacterium acnes in differentiated hamster sebocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Akimoto, Noriko; Kawamura, Mina; Nakase, Keisuke; Noguchi, Norihisa; Sato, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    An onset of acne, a common inflammatory skin disease, is associated with excess sebum production and secretion in sebaceous glands. Because Propionibacterium acnes has been reported to augment intracellular sebum accumulation in sebaceous glands in hamsters, it remains unclear whether P. acnes influences sebum secretion from differentiated sebocytes. Both P. acnes culture media (Acnes73-CM) and formalin-killed P. acnes (F-Acnes73) dose-dependently increased the extracellular levels of triacylglycerol (TG), a major sebum component, and Rhodamine 123, a substrate of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, from differentiated hamster sebocytes (DHS). In addition, the gene expression of the ABC subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) was dose-dependently augmented by adding Acnes73-CM and F-Acnes73 into DHS. Furthermore, the F-Acnes73-induced increase of TG excretion was suppressed by PSC833, a selective ABCB1 inhibitor. On the other hand, peptidoglycan (PGN), which is a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand in P. acnes, increased extracellular TG levels, transporter activity and ABCB1 mRNA expression in DHS. The PGN-augmented TG excretion was suppressed by PSC833. Thus, these results provide novel evidence that P. acnes facilitates sebum secretion due to the activation of ABCB1 concomitantly with the increased ABCB1 expression, which may result from the activation of the TLR2 pathway in DHS. Therefore, the ABCB1 inhibitor is likely to become a candidate as a possible therapeutic for the treatment of acne. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Senescence and immortality in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet; Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Bagislar, Sevgi; Senturk, Serif; Yuzugullu, Haluk

    2009-12-01

    Cellular senescence is a process leading to terminal growth arrest with characteristic morphological features. This process is mediated by telomere-dependent, oncogene-induced and ROS-induced pathways, but persistent DNA damage is the most common cause. Senescence arrest is mediated by p16(INK4a)- and p21(Cip1)-dependent pathways both leading to retinoblastoma protein (pRb) activation. p53 plays a relay role between DNA damage sensing and p21(Cip1) activation. pRb arrests the cell cycle by recruiting proliferation genes to facultative heterochromatin for permanent silencing. Replicative senescence that occurs in hepatocytes in culture and in liver cirrhosis is associated with lack of telomerase activity and results in telomere shortening. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells display inactivating mutations of p53 and epigenetic silencing of p16(INK4a). Moreover, they re-express telomerase reverse transcriptase required for telomere maintenance. Thus, senescence bypass and cellular immortality is likely to contribute significantly to HCC development. Oncogene-induced senescence in premalignant lesions and reversible immortality of cancer cells including HCC offer new potentials for tumor prevention and treatment.

  17. Cosmological immortality: how to eliminate aging on a universal scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The death of our universe is as certain as our individual death. Some cosmologists have elaborated models which would make the cosmos immortal. In this paper, I examine them as cosmological extrapolations of immortality narratives that civilizations have developed to face death anxiety. I first show why cosmological death should be a worry, then I briefly examine scenarios involving the notion of soul or resurrection on a cosmological scale. I discuss in how far an intelligent civilization could stay alive by engaging in stellar, galactic and universal rejuvenation. Finally, I argue that leaving a cosmological legacy via universe making is an inspiring and promising narrative to achieve cosmological immortality.

  18. Inhibition of Rat 5α-Reductase Activity and Testosterone-Induced Sebum Synthesis in Hamster Sebocytes by an Extract of Quercus acutissima Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Koseki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Bokusoku (BK is an extract from the Quercus cortex used in folk medicine for treatment of skin disorders and convergence, and is present in jumihaidokuto, a traditional Japanese medicine that is prescribed for purulent skin diseases like acne vulgaris. The excess of sebum production induced by androgen is involved in the development of acne. Our aim is to examine whether BK and its constituents inhibit testosterone metabolism and testosterone-induced sebum synthesis. Methods. Measurements of 5α-reductase activity and lipogenesis were performed using rat liver microsomes and hamster sebocytes, respectively. Results. BK dose-dependently reduced the conversion of testosterone to a more active androgen, dihydrotestosterone in a 5α-reductase enzymatic reaction. Twenty polyphenols in BK categorized as gallotannin, ellagitannin, and flavonoid were identified by LC-MS/MS. Nine polyphenols with gallate group, tetragalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose, eugeniin, 1-desgalloyl eugeniin, casuarinin, castalagin, stenophyllanin C, (−-epicatechin gallate, and (−-epigallocatechin gallate, inhibited testosterone metabolism. In particular, pentagalloyl glucose showed the strongest activity. BK and pentagalloyl glucose suppressed testosterone-induced lipogenesis, whereas they weakly inhibited the lipogenic action of insulin. Conclusions. BK inhibited androgen-related pathogenesis of acne, testosterone conversion, and sebum synthesis, partially through 5α-reductase inhibition, and has potential to be a useful agent in the therapeutic strategy of acne.

  19. Variation, "evolution", immortality and genetic instabilities in tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignold, L P

    2007-08-18

    The pathological characteristics of tumour cells often include variation of their histopathological features (i.e. "degrees of de-differentiation") between cases of the same tumour type and between different foci within individual tumours. Usually, only a few cell lines from tumours are immortal. Currently, somatic mutation, replicative infidelity of DNA and aneuploidy are suggested as alternative mechanisms of genomic disturbance underlying tumours. Nevertheless, apart from Hansemann's ideas of "anaplasia" and "de-differentiation" (proposed in the 1890s), and supposed "evolutionary themes" in cancer cell biology, little has been published concerning how histopathologic variation and immortality in tumour cells might arise. This paper reviews applications of the concepts of "variation" to tumours, including concepts of "evolution" and "cellular Darwinism". It is proposed that combinations of somatic mutation, DNA replicative infidelity and aneuploidy may explain the variabilities in tumours, and provide immortality in occasional tumour cells. A possible model involves (i) an initial somatic mutation causing reduced replicative fidelity of DNA, which could be variable in intensity, and thus give rise to variations between cases; (ii) a phase of replicative infidelity of DNA causing daughter cells lines to develop various abnormalities to different degrees, and hence provide for variation between areas of the same tumour. As a last event (iii) occasional asymmetric chromosomal distributions (aneuploidy) might "refresh" the ability of a daughter cell to replicate DNA faithfully causing them to become immortal. Thus extensively mutant and variable, hyperploid, and occasionally immortal cells might arise.

  20. Immortality in the Christian Physicalistic Theology: A Critical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ahmadizade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physicalistic Theology is a term that has no exact definition in theologian views. In the 20th century some of Christian thinkers on theology, like Nancy Murphy and Peter van Inwagen, by accepting a Physicalistic approach on human being, tried to analyze the Christian beliefs about human identity and his immortality. This approach today is called Physicalistic Theology. According to this approach, human is not but this physical body itself and so we can simply analyze the immortality problem. In this article we try to by an analytic and descriptive method, analyze the immortality of human according to the view of Physicalistic Theology. We will analyze the most important reasoning of Physicalistic Theology that is: no-interaction between the material and the immaterial, interaction between the person and the body, and the physicalism in Christian beliefs. One of the conclusions of this article is that according to Physicalistic view, the person that at some time has not been in the world, must exists any time to destroyed forever because the Christians believe to things that cannot justify rationally. The problem of immortality is one of these matters. Physicalistic Theology try to prove the immortality based on the miracles and the absolute power of God.

  1. Immortality of cell lines: challenges and advantages of establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Muhammad Irfan; Matin, Maryam M; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Ghasroldasht, Mohammad M

    2013-10-01

    Cellular immortality happens upon impairment of cell-cycle checkpoint pathways (p53/p16/pRb), reactivation or up-regulation of telomerase enzyme, or upregulation of some oncogenes or oncoproteins leading to a higher rate of cell division.There are also some other factors and mechanisms involved in immortalisation, which need to be discovered. Immortalisation of cells derived from different sources and establishment of immortal cell lines has proven useful in understanding the molecular pathways governing cell developmental cascades in eukaryotic, especially human, cells. After the breakthrough of achieving the immortal cells and understanding their critical importance in the field of molecular biology, intense efforts have been dedicated to establish cell lines useful for elucidating the functions of telomerase, developmental lineage of progenitors, self-renewal potency, cellular transformation, differentiation patterns and some bioprocesses, like odontogenesis. Meanwhile, discovering the exact mechanisms of immortality, a major challenge for science yet, is believed to open new gateways toward understanding and treatment of cancer in the long term. This review summarises the methods involved in establishing immortality, its advantages and the challenges still being faced in this field. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. In Vitro Endothelialization Test of Biomaterials Using Immortalized Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kono

    Full Text Available Functionalizing biomaterials with peptides or polymers that enhance recruitment of endothelial cells (ECs can reduce blood coagulation and thrombosis. To assess endothelialization of materials in vitro, primary ECs are generally used, although the characteristics of these cells vary among the donors and change with time in culture. Recently, primary cell lines immortalized by transduction of simian vacuolating virus 40 large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase have been developed. To determine whether immortalized ECs can substitute for primary ECs in material testing, we investigated endothelialization on biocompatible polymers using three lots of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and immortalized microvascular ECs, TIME-GFP. Attachment to and growth on polymer surfaces were comparable between cell types, but results were more consistent with TIME-GFP. Our findings indicate that TIME-GFP is more suitable for in vitro endothelialization testing of biomaterials.

  3. Molecular characterization of immortalized normal and dysplastic oral cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Christopher T D; Towle, Rebecca; Saini, Rajan; Garnis, Cathie

    2015-05-01

    Cell lines have been developed for modeling cancer and cancer progression. The molecular background of these cell lines is often unknown to those using them to model disease behaviors. As molecular alterations are the ultimate drivers of cell phenotypes, having an understanding of the molecular make-up of these systems is critical for understanding the disease biology modeled. Six immortalized normal, one immortalized dysplasia, one self-immortalized dysplasia, and two primary normal cell lines derived from oral tissues were analyzed for DNA copy number changes and changes in both mRNA and miRNA expression using SMRT-v.2 genome-wide tiling comparative genomic hybridization arrays, Agilent Whole Genome 4x44k expression arrays, and Exiqon V2.M-RT-PCR microRNA Human panels. DNA copy number alterations were detected in both normal and dysplastic immortalized cell lines-as well as in the single non-immortalized dysplastic cell line. These lines were found to have changes in expression of genes related to cell cycle control as well as alterations in miRNAs that are deregulated in clinical oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Immortal lines-whether normal or dysplastic-had increased disruption in expression relative to primary lines. All data are available as a public resource. Molecular profiling experiments have identified DNA, mRNA, and miRNA alterations for a panel of normal and dysplastic oral tissue cell lines. These data are a valuable resource to those modeling diseases of the oral mucosa, and give insight into the selection of model cell lines and the interpretation of data from those lines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Measuring an Individual's Investment in the Future: Symbolic Immortality, Sensation Seeking, and Psychic Numbness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Robert C.; Mister, Rena D.

    1988-01-01

    Operationalized Lifton's constructs of symbolic immortality and developed instrument to measure individual's needs for symbolic immortality in Lifton's five modes (biological, religious, nature, creative, experiential) in study which also examined age effects on needs for symbolic immortality and relation between sensation seeking and symbolic…

  5. Locus of Control and Level of Conflict as Correlates of Immortality Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, William

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the orientation of 14 male professors toward immortality as a psychological motive. Results showed a generally low conscious concern with immortality issues; however, respondents who have accepted some sort of immortality show a more internal locus of control and better adjustment. (JAC)

  6. TRANSPLANTATION AND POTENTIAL IMMORTALITY OF MAMMALIAN TISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Leo

    1926-01-01

    1. Serial transplantation of tumors made it possible in 1901 and following years to draw the conclusion that various mammalian tissues have potential immortality. Serial transplantations of normal tissues did not succeed at first, because the homoioreaction on the part of the lymphocytes and connective tissue of the host injures the transplant. 2. In continuation of these experiments we found that cartilage of the rat can be transplanted serially to other rats at least for a period of 3 years. At the end of that time great parts of the transplanted cartilage and perichondrium are alive. 3. Not only the cartilage of young rats can be homoiotransplanted, but also the cartilage of very old rats which are nearing the end of life. By using such animals we have been able to obtain cartilage and perichondrium approaching an age of 6 years which is almost double the average age of a rat. 4. We found that cartilage can be homoiotransplanted more readily than other tissues for the following reasons: (a) While in principle the homoioreaction towards cartilage is the same as against other tissues, cartilage elicits this reaction with less intensity; (b) cartilage is better able to resist the invasion of lymphocytes and connective tissue than the majority of other tissues; (c) a gradual adaptation between transplant and host seems to take place in the case of cartilage transplantation, as a result of which the lymphocytic reaction on the part of the host tissue decreases progressively the longer the cartilage is kept in the strange host. 5. At time of examination we not only found living transplanted cartilage tissue, but also perichondrial tissue, which in response to a stimulus apparently originating in the necrotic central cartilage, had been proliferating and replacing it. These results suggest that it may perhaps be possible under favorable conditions to keep cartilage alive indefinitely through serial transplantations. 6. At the same time these experiments permit the

  7. On Persons and Immortality Symposium on Pedro Tabensky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers Tabensky\\'s method of critical introspection, and in particular the conception of personhood that informs it. By interrogating the lives of pure hedonism, divinity and immortality from our already existing conception of personhood, Tabensky argues that such lives are incompatible with what it is to be a ...

  8. The French Academy: Arbitrator of Taste, Order, Genius--Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzash, Michael D.

    The French Academy is the oldest of the scholarly societies of France. Its ideals and preferences of order, genius, and immortality have influenced the schools, conservatories, universities, and archives and the intellectual and artistic tastes of the time. Its foundation was laid by nine lettered, well-educated laymen and ecclesiastics around…

  9. Symbolic Immortality in Ordinary Contexts: Impediments to the Nuclear Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Raymond L.

    1982-01-01

    Lifton's writings indicate that fear of nuclear holocaust has severely impaired and threatens to negate traditional modes of symbolic immortality in America. Lifton's research, however, has been limited to extreme contexts. Data were triangulated in four distinctive American contexts. Found substantial negative evidence of Lifton's suspicions in…

  10. Exploring the motifs of death and immortality | Maina | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    felt threatened by the eventuality of death, inculcating in them a fear so great that all possible strategies are engaged in the search for an avenue that would prepare them for this eventuality. A careful exploration of human activities surrounding the issues of death and immortality reveals an obsession with the expression of ...

  11. The Golden Bough: Literature and the Idea of Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    All works of literature reflect man's obsession with death and his creative attempts to evade or postpone it. Art cannot solve the problem, but within the limits of human capabilities, we come to art, whether as artists or audience, for our own small share in the "intimations of immortality." (Author/SJL)

  12. Free Will, Death, and Immortality: The Role of Narrative | Fischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I explore in a preliminary way the interconnections among narrative explanation, narrative value, free will, and immortality. I build on the fascinating and suggestive work of David Velleman. I offer the hypothesis that our acting freely is what gives our lives a distinctive kind of value--narrative value. Free Will, then ...

  13. Immortalization of human alveolar epithelial cells to investigate nanoparticle uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Sarah J; Thorley, Andrew J; Gorelik, Julia; Seckl, Michael J; O'Hare, Michael J; Arcaro, Alexandre; Korchev, Yuri; Goldstraw, Peter; Tetley, Teresa D

    2008-11-01

    Primary human alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells were immortalized by transduction with the catalytic subunit of telomerase and simian virus 40 large-tumor antigen. Characterization by immunochemical and morphologic methods demonstrated an AT1-like cell phenotype. Unlike primary AT2 cells, immortalized cells no longer expressed alkaline phosphatase, pro-surfactant protein C, and thyroid transcription factor-1, but expressed increased caveolin-1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Live cell imaging using scanning ion conductance microscopy showed that the cuboidal primary AT2 cells were approximately 15 microm and enriched with surface microvilli, while the immortal AT1 cells were attenuated more than 40 microm, resembling these cells in situ. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the attenuated morphology and showed endosomal vesicles in some immortal AT1 cells (but not primary AT2 cells) as found in situ. Particulate air pollution exacerbates cardiopulmonary disease. Interaction of ultrafine, nano-sized particles with the alveolar epithelium and/or translocation into the cardiovasculature may be a contributory factor. We hypothesized differential uptake of nanoparticles by AT1 and AT2 cells, depending on particle size and surface charge. Uptake of 50-nm and 1-microm fluorescent latex particles was investigated using confocal microscopy and scanning surface confocal microscopy of live cells. Fewer than 10% of primary AT2 cells internalized particles. In contrast, 75% immortal AT1 cells internalized negatively charged particles, while less than 55% of these cells internalized positively charged particles; charge, rather than size, mattered. The process was rapid: one-third of the total cell-associated negatively charged 50-nm particle fluorescence measured at 24 hours was internalized during the first hour. AT1 cells could be important in translocation of particles from the lung into the circulation.

  14. Koschei the immortal and anti-aging drugs.

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    Blagosklonny, M V

    2014-12-04

    In Slavic folklore, Koschei the Immortal was bony, thin and lean. Was his condition caused by severe calorie restriction (CR)? CR deactivates the target of rapamycin pathway and slows down aging. But the life-extending effect of severe CR is limited by starvation. What if Koschei's anti-aging formula included rapamycin? And was rapamycin (or another rapalog) combined with commonly available drugs such as metformin, aspirin, propranolol, angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  15. Stressed SIRT7: facing a crossroad of senescence and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Ping; Chen, Ruping

    2015-06-01

    SIRT7 with coenzyme NAD catalyzes protein de-acetylation. In stress response, SIRT7 regulates protein folding in mitochondria with unknown mechanisms. Decreases in SIRT7 entrain hematopoietic stem cell senescence, but increasing SIRT7 causes elevation of hematopoietic stem cell regenerative function. We discuss the recent findings on SIRT7 and its binding proteins, NRF1 and GABPβ1, in decision making between the choices of inducing cell aging and immortality. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. ["Life is short". Rejuvenation and immortality from a historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To be young and immortal: That is the dream of humanity. Medical and civilizing progress have led to a life expectancy unthinkable a few centuries ago. Physicians wonder where it will all end. And after all, does it make sense to live forever? A look back in history and literature can help to relativize (post) modern utopias. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Transcription profiles of non-immortalized breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland James F

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searches for differentially expressed genes in tumours have made extensive use of array technology. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Here we compare cultures of non-immortalized breast cancer cells, normal non-immortalized breast cells and immortalized normal and breast cancer cells to identify which elements of a defined set of well-known cancer-related genes are differentially expressed. Methods Cultures of cells from pleural effusions or ascitic fluids from breast cancer patients (MSSMs were used in addition to commercially-available normal breast epithelial cells (HMECs, established breast cancer cell lines (T-est and established normal breast cells (N-est. The Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 cDNA expression array was employed. The data obtained were analysed using widely-available statistical and clustering software and further validated through real-time PCR. Results According to Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM and AtlasImage software, 48 genes differed at least 2-fold in adjusted intensities between HMECs and MSSMs (p Conclusion The expression profiles of 1176 genes were determined in finite life-span cultures of metastatic breast cancer cells and of normal breast cells. Significant differences were detected between the finite life-span breast cancer cell cultures and the established breast cancer cell lines. These data suggest caution in extrapolating information from established lines for application to clinical cancer research.

  18. Role of cyclins in neuronal differentiation of immortalized hippocampal cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, W; Pestell, R; Rosner, M R

    1997-01-01

    The proto-oncogene cyclin D1 and the neuron-specific cyclins p35 and p39 are expressed during brain maturation. To investigate the role of these cyclins in neuronal differentiation, we used a conditionally immortalized rat hippocampal cell line, H19-7, that expresses cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 5 (cdk4 and -5). Cyclin D1, which activates cdk4 and binds but does not activate cdk5, was increased upon differentiation of the H19-7 cells. However, microinjection of either sense or antisense cyc...

  19. The pursuit of immortality: from the ego to the soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa; Miller, Kenneth; Haught, John; Murphy, Nancey

    2011-10-01

    Moderated by Lisa Miller from Newsweek, evolutionary biologist Kenneth Miller (Brown University) and theologians John Haught (Georgetown University) and Nancey Murphy (Fuller Theological Seminary) discuss the questions Are we immortal? Do our souls exist beyond our bodies? and What scientific evidence is there for mystical experience? from a cultural, historical, and scientific perspective. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred March 23, 2011, 7:00-8:15 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Towards Maturity in 1 Peter: Freedom, Holiness, Immortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Decock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth towards maturity is dependent on the presence of freedom, holiness and immortality. These are presented as divine qualities that are utterly lacking in human beings. However, while human beings are ignorant and weak, sinful and mortal the addressees of 1 Peter1 are reminded that they have also been begotten anew by the imperishable seed of God’s Word, the Good News of Jesus Christ in order to share immortal life. This article looks first at human beings who as God’s creatures are ‘flesh’, but are also enabled to acknowledge their ‘fleshly’ state, to appreciate (‘desire’ and ‘taste’ (2:2–3 the Gospel and to submit to God. The second part considers the saving role of Christ as the powerful yet rejected ‘stone’ placed and offered by God as the model and means to transcend the ‘flesh’ in the flesh (4:1–2. A final part focuses on the new birth and the growth process in which the fleshly desires and ways of living give way to a manner of life, which is a witness to God’s saving power.

  1. Dying To Teach: The Educator's Search for Immortality. Advances in Contemporary Educational Thought Series, Volume 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, David J.

    This book offers both an intellectual history and a sustained argument for the inescapability of education's immortality agenda. It seeks a Hegelian synthesis of common ideas about living in one's students by giving them something of oneself, developing the image of immortality as an a-temporal, mythic, meaning-making, relational enterprise.…

  2. Effects of hTERT immortalization on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikbale El-Ayachi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data relate to the differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and DPSC immortalized by constitutively expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT through both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages (i.e. to make bone producing and fat producing cells from these dental pulp stem cells. The data augment another study to characterize immortalized DPSC for the study of neurogenetic “Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders” [1]. Two copies of one typical control cell line (technical replicates were used in this study. The data represent the differentiation of primary DPSC into osteoblast cells approximately 60% more effectively than hTERT immortalized DPSC. Conversely, both primary and immortalized DPSC are poorly differentiated into adipocytes. The mRNA expression levels for both early and late adipogenic and osteogenic gene markers are shown.

  3. One-step immortalization of primary human airway epithelial cells capable of oncogenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan L; Lee, Liam C; Read, Abigail; Li, Qiuning; Yu, Bing; Lee, Chih-Shia; Luo, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The ability to transform normal human cells into cancer cells with the introduction of defined genetic alterations is a valuable method for understanding the mechanisms of oncogenesis. Easy establishment of immortalized but non-transformed human cells from various tissues would facilitate these genetic analyses. We report here a simple, one-step immortalization method that involves retroviral vector mediated co-expression of the human telomerase protein and a shRNA targeting the CDKN2A gene locus. We demonstrate that this method could successfully immortalize human small airway epithelial cells while maintaining their chromosomal stability. We further showed that these cells retain p53 activity and can be transformed by the KRAS oncogene. Our method simplifies the immortalization process and is broadly applicable for establishing immortalized epithelial cell lines from primary human tissues for cancer research.

  4. Aging and the germ line: where mortality and immortality meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Leanne

    2007-01-01

    Germ cells are highly specialized cells that form gametes, and they are the only cells within an organism that contribute genes to offspring. Germline stem cells (GSCs) sustain gamete production, both oogenesis (egg production) and spermatogenesis (sperm production), in many organisms. Since the genetic information contained within germ cells is passed from generation to generation, the germ line is often referred to as immortal. Therefore, it is possible that germ cells possess unique strategies to protect and transmit the genetic information contained within them indefinitely. However, aging often leads to a dramatic decrease in gamete production and fecundity. In addition, single gene mutations affecting longevity often have a converse effect on reproduction. Recent studies examining age-related changes in GSC number and activity, as well as changes to the stem cell microenvironment, provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the observed reduction in gametogenesis over the lifetime of an organism.

  5. Aging and immortality in a cell proliferation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, T; Blagoev, K B; Trugman, S A; Redner, S

    2007-10-07

    We investigate a model of cell division in which the length of telomeres within a cell regulates its proliferative potential. At each division, telomeres undergo a systematic length decrease as well as a superimposed fluctuation due to exchange of telomere DNA between the two daughter cells. A cell becomes senescent when one or more of its telomeres become shorter than a critical length. We map this telomere dynamics onto a biased branching-diffusion process with an absorbing boundary condition whenever any telomere reaches the critical length. Using first-passage ideas, we find a phase transition between finite lifetime and immortality (infinite proliferation) of the cell population as a function of the influence of telomere shortening, fluctuations, and cell division.

  6. Immortal objects: the objectification of women as terror management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Jamie L

    2013-01-01

    Philosophical theorizing, research on self-objectification, and the newest empirical research on the objectification of others converge to support the notion that the objectification of women entails rendering women, quite literally, as objects. This chapter begins with a review of this literature and then moves onto the question of why women are viewed as objects. The answer offered is informed by terror management theory, and suggests that the need to manage a fear of death creates a fundamental problem with the physical body, and such difficulties resonate especially in reaction to women's--menstruating, lactating, childbearing--bodies, and men's attraction to them. Evidence is presented to support this, and for the position that this situation plays a role in, not just expectations for women to be beautiful, but in the literal transformation of women into inanimate--immortal--objects.

  7. Application of spontaneously immortalized odontoblast cells in tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arany, Szilvia; Kawagoe, Masami; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2009-03-27

    Here, we report on the first attempt to bioengineer tooth using a spontaneously immortalized mesenchymal cell line. To assess the odontogenic potential of this cell line, odontoblast-lineage cells (OLC) were re-associated with competent dental epithelium isolated from E14.5 mice. A novel three-dimensional organ germ culture method was applied to nurture the constructs in vitro. Additionally, recombinants were transplanted under the kidney capsule in host animals for 2 weeks. Transplants developed into tooth tissues in one-third of the cases. OLC-derived GFP-positive cells could be identified in mineralizing tooth germs by immunohistochemistry. OLCs were capable of intercellular and cell-matrix communication, thus they eventually differentiated into functional odontoblasts. In summary, we managed to utilize OLCs for dental mesenchyme substitution in tooth regeneration experiments. Therefore, our spontaneously transformed cell line proved its potential for future complex, tooth developmental and bioengineering studies.

  8. Mycoplasma fermentans infection promotes immortalization of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shimin; Tsai, Shien; Wu, Timothy T; Li, Bingjie; Shih, James W-K; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2004-12-15

    Chronic infection or colonization by mycoplasma(s) could gradually and significantly alter many biologic properties of mammalian host cells in culture, including induction of malignant transformation. We examined effects of Mycoplasma fermentans infection on the continuing survival and immortality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors. Without specific supplemental growth factors, human PBMCs normally die rapidly, with few cells other than macrophages/monocytes surviving after 2 weeks in cultures. Only occasional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B lymphocytes would continue to proliferate and undergo spontaneous immortalization. Our present study revealed that infection of human PBMCs in culture with the incognitus and PG18 strains of M fermentans, but surprisingly not with some other strains tested in parallel, markedly enhanced the rate of EBV-positive B lymphocytes to undergo immortalization (74% vs 17%). Compared with spontaneously immortalized PBMCs, the PBMCs immortalized in cultures infected with the mycoplasmas often had prominent karyotype changes with chromosomal loss, gain, or translocations. Furthermore, many of these immortalized B lymphocytes were found to be monoclonal in nature. The in vitro findings would be of relevance to lymphoproliferative disorders that occurred in patients with immune suppression. The mycoplasma-mediated promotional effect in cell immortalization and its potential clinical implications warrant further study.

  9. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  10. Cytogenetic characterization and H-ras associated transformation of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larivee Siobhan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Immortalization is a key step in malignant transformation, but immortalization alone is insufficient for transformation. Human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC transformation is a complex process that requires additional genetic changes beyond immortalization and can be accomplished in vitro by accumulation of genetic changes and expression of H-ras. Methods HMEC were immortalized by serial passaging and transduction with the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase gene (hTERT. The immortalized cells were passaged in vitro and studied by a combination of G- banding and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY. H-ras transduced, hTERT immortalized cells were cloned in soft agar and injected into nude mice. Extensive analysis was performed on the tumors that developed in nude mice, including immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results Immortal HMEC alone were not tumorigenic in γ-irradiated nude mice and could not grow in soft agar. Late passage hTERT immortalized HMEC from a donor transduced with a retroviral vector containing the mutant, autoactive, human H-ras61L gene acquired anchorage independent growth properties and the capacity for tumorigenic growth in vivo. The tumors that developed in the nude mice were poorly differentiated epithelial carcinomas that continued to overexpress ras. These cells were resistant to doxorubicin mediated G1/S phase arrest but were sensitive to treatment with a farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Conclusion Some of the cytogenetic changes are similar to what is observed in premalignant and malignant breast lesions. Despite these changes, late passage immortal HMEC are not tumorigenic and could only be transformed with overexpression of a mutant H-ras oncogene.

  11. Facile synthesis of fluorescent dye labeled biocompatible polymers via immortal ring-opening polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yang; Liu, Xinli; Cui, Dongmei

    2012-05-11

    A highly efficient strategy for synthesizing "clean" fluorescent dye-labeled biocompatible polymers was established by employing a rare-earth metal catalyst via immortal ROP. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  12. The conserved mitochondrial gene distribution in relatives of Turritopsis nutricula, an immortal jellyfish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Devarapalli, Pratap; Kumavath, Ranjith N; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Turritopsis nutricula (T. nutricula) is the one of the known reported organisms that can revert its life cycle to the polyp stage even after becoming sexually mature, defining itself as the only immortal organism in the animal kingdom...

  13. Genome-wide transcriptional reorganization associated with senescence-to-immortality switch during human hepatocellular carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Gokhan; Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Bagislar, Sevgi; Konu, Ozlen; Yuzugullu, Haluk; Gursoy-Yuzugullu, Ozge; Ozturk, Nuri; Ozen, Cigdem; Ozdag, Hilal; Erdal, Esra; Karademir, Sedat; Sagol, Ozgul; Mizrak, Dilsa; Bozkaya, Hakan; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan; Ilk, Ozlem; Bilen, Biter; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Akar, Nejat; Ozturk, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a permanent proliferation arrest in response to cell stress such as DNA damage. It contributes strongly to tissue aging and serves as a major barrier against tumor development. Most tumor cells are believed to bypass the senescence barrier (become "immortal") by inactivating growth control genes such as TP53 and CDKN2A. They also reactivate telomerase reverse transcriptase. Senescence-to-immortality transition is accompanied by major phenotypic and biochemical changes mediated by genome-wide transcriptional modifications. This appears to happen during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with liver cirrhosis, however, the accompanying transcriptional changes are virtually unknown. We investigated genome-wide transcriptional changes related to the senescence-to-immortality switch during hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Initially, we performed transcriptome analysis of senescent and immortal clones of Huh7 HCC cell line, and identified genes with significant differential expression to establish a senescence-related gene list. Through the analysis of senescence-related gene expression in different liver tissues we showed that cirrhosis and HCC display expression patterns compatible with senescent and immortal phenotypes, respectively; dysplasia being a transitional state. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that cirrhosis/senescence-associated genes were preferentially expressed in non-tumor tissues, less malignant tumors, and differentiated or senescent cells. In contrast, HCC/immortality genes were up-regulated in tumor tissues, or more malignant tumors and progenitor cells. In HCC tumors and immortal cells genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, telomere extension and branched chain amino acid metabolism were up-regulated, whereas genes involved in cell signaling, as well as in drug, lipid, retinoid and glycolytic metabolism were down-regulated. Based on these distinctive gene expression features we developed a 15-gene

  14. Immortalized Cancer-associated Fibroblasts Promote Prostate Cancer Carcinogenesis, Proliferation and Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengqiang; Jiang, Yingjuan; Wan, Fengchun; Wu, Jitao; Gao, Zhenli; Liu, Dongfu

    2017-08-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are dominant components of the prostate cancer (PCa) stroma. However, the contrasting effects of CAFs and adjacent normal prostate fibroblasts (NPFs) are still poorly defined. The senescence of non-immortalized CAFs after subculture may limit the cell number and influence experimental results of in vitro studies. In this study, we immortalized CAFs to study their role in PCa carcinogenesis, proliferation, and invasion. We cultured and immortalized CAFs and NPFs, then compared their effect on epithelial malignant transformation by using in vitro co-culture, soft agar assay, and a mouse renal capsule xenograft model. We also compared their roles in PCa progression by using in vitro co-culture, cell viability assays, invasion assays, and a mouse xenograft model. For the mechanistic study, we screened a series of growth factors by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The CAFs and NPFs were successfully cultured, immortalized, and characterized. The CAFs were able to transform prostate epithelial cells into malignant cells, but NPFs were not. The CAFs were more active in promoting proliferation of and invasion by PCa cells, and in secreting higher levels of a series of growth factors. The immortalized CAFs were more supportive of PCa carcinogenesis and progression. Targeting CAFs might be a potential option for PCa therapy. Immortalized CAFs and NPFs will also be valuable resources for future experimental exploration. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Inducible immortality in hTERT-human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Samantha L; Wang, Miqi; Yamamoto, Akira; Malek, Farbod; Luu, Andrew; Kuo, Alfred C; Kim, Hubert T

    2012-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for tissue engineering and cell-based therapy because of their multipotentiality and availability in adult donors. However, in vitro expansion and differentiation of these cells is limited by replicative senescence. The proliferative capacity of hMSCs can be enhanced by ectopic expression of telomerase, allowing for long-term culture. However, hMSCs with constitutive telomerase expression demonstrate unregulated growth and even tumor formation. To address this problem, we used an inducible Tet-On gene expression system to create hMSCs in which ectopic telomerase expression can be induced selectively by the addition of doxycycline (i-hTERT hMSCs). i-hTERT hMSCs have inducible hTERT expression and telomerase activity, and are able to proliferate significantly longer than wild type hMSCs when hTERT expression is induced. They stop proliferating when hTERT expression is turned off and can be rescued when expression is re-induced. They retain multipotentiality in vitro even at an advanced age. We also used a selective inhibitor of telomere elongation to show that the mechanism driving immortalization of hMSCs by hTERT is dependent upon maintenance of telomere length. Thanks to their extended lifespan, preserved multipotentiality and controlled growth, i-hTERT hMSCs may prove to be a useful tool for the development and testing of novel stem cell therapies. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  16. The Piwi-piRNA pathway: road to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Ádám; Perczel, András; Ivics, Zoltán; Vellai, Tibor

    2017-10-01

    Despite its medical, social, and economic significance, understanding what primarily causes aging, that is, the mechanisms of the aging process, remains a fundamental and fascinating problem in biology. Accumulating evidence indicates that a small RNA-based gene regulatory machinery, the Piwi-piRNA pathway, represents a shared feature of nonaging (potentially immortal) biological systems, including the germline, somatic cancer stem cells, and certain 'lower' eukaryotic organisms like the planarian flatworm and freshwater hydra. The pathway primarily functions to repress the activity of mobile genetic elements, also called transposable elements (TEs) or 'jumping genes', which are capable of moving from one genomic locus to another, thereby causing insertional mutations. TEs become increasingly active and multiply in the genomes of somatic cells as the organism ages. These characteristics of TEs highlight their decisive mutagenic role in the progressive disintegration of genetic information, a molecular hallmark associated with aging. Hence, TE-mediated genomic instability may substantially contribute to the aging process. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urraca, Nora; Memon, Rawaha; El-Iyachi, Ikbale; Goorha, Sarita; Valdez, Colleen; Tran, Quynh T; Scroggs, Reese; Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo A; Donaldson, Martin; Bridges, Dave; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2015-11-01

    A major challenge to the study and treatment of neurogenetic syndromes is accessing live neurons for study from affected individuals. Although several sources of stem cells are currently available, acquiring these involve invasive procedures, may be difficult or expensive to generate and are limited in number. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are multipotent stem cells that reside deep the pulp of shed teeth. To investigate the characteristics of DPSCs that make them a valuable resource for translational research, we performed a set of viability, senescence, immortalization and gene expression studies on control DPSC and derived neurons. We investigated the basic transport conditions and maximum passage number for primary DPSCs. We immortalized control DPSCs using human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and evaluated neuronal differentiation potential and global gene expression changes by RNA-seq. We show that neurons from immortalized DPSCs share morphological and electrophysiological properties with non-immortalized DPSCs. We also show that differentiation of DPSCs into neurons significantly alters gene expression for 1305 transcripts. Here we show that these changes in gene expression are concurrent with changes in protein levels of the transcriptional repressor REST/NRSF, which is known to be involved in neuronal differentiation. Immortalization significantly altered the expression of 183 genes after neuronal differentiation, 94 of which also changed during differentiation. Our studies indicate that viable DPSCs can be obtained from teeth stored for ≥72 h, these can then be immortalized and still produce functional neurons for in vitro studies, but that constitutive hTERT immortalization is not be the best approach for long term use of patient derived DPSCs for the study of disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immortalized human myotonic dystrophy muscle cell lines to assess therapeutic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Arandel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 and type 2 (DM2 are autosomal dominant neuromuscular diseases caused by microsatellite expansions and belong to the family of RNA-dominant disorders. Availability of cellular models in which the DM mutation is expressed within its natural context is essential to facilitate efforts to identify new therapeutic compounds. Here, we generated immortalized DM1 and DM2 human muscle cell lines that display nuclear RNA aggregates of expanded repeats, a hallmark of myotonic dystrophy. Selected clones of DM1 and DM2 immortalized myoblasts behave as parental primary myoblasts with a reduced fusion capacity of immortalized DM1 myoblasts when compared with control and DM2 cells. Alternative splicing defects were observed in differentiated DM1 muscle cell lines, but not in DM2 lines. Splicing alterations did not result from differentiation delay because similar changes were found in immortalized DM1 transdifferentiated fibroblasts in which myogenic differentiation has been forced by overexpression of MYOD1. As a proof-of-concept, we show that antisense approaches alleviate disease-associated defects, and an RNA-seq analysis confirmed that the vast majority of mis-spliced events in immortalized DM1 muscle cells were affected by antisense treatment, with half of them significantly rescued in treated DM1 cells. Immortalized DM1 muscle cell lines displaying characteristic disease-associated molecular features such as nuclear RNA aggregates and splicing defects can be used as robust readouts for the screening of therapeutic compounds. Therefore, immortalized DM1 and DM2 muscle cell lines represent new models and tools to investigate molecular pathophysiological mechanisms and evaluate the in vitro effects of compounds on RNA toxicity associated with myotonic dystrophy mutations.

  19. Immortalized human myotonic dystrophy muscle cell lines to assess therapeutic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandel, Ludovic; Polay Espinoza, Micaela; Matloka, Magdalena; Bazinet, Audrey; De Dea Diniz, Damily; Naouar, Naïra; Rau, Frédérique; Jollet, Arnaud; Edom-Vovard, Frédérique; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Puymirat, Jack; Battail, Christophe; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Mouly, Vincent; Klein, Arnaud F; Furling, Denis

    2017-04-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are autosomal dominant neuromuscular diseases caused by microsatellite expansions and belong to the family of RNA-dominant disorders. Availability of cellular models in which the DM mutation is expressed within its natural context is essential to facilitate efforts to identify new therapeutic compounds. Here, we generated immortalized DM1 and DM2 human muscle cell lines that display nuclear RNA aggregates of expanded repeats, a hallmark of myotonic dystrophy. Selected clones of DM1 and DM2 immortalized myoblasts behave as parental primary myoblasts with a reduced fusion capacity of immortalized DM1 myoblasts when compared with control and DM2 cells. Alternative splicing defects were observed in differentiated DM1 muscle cell lines, but not in DM2 lines. Splicing alterations did not result from differentiation delay because similar changes were found in immortalized DM1 transdifferentiated fibroblasts in which myogenic differentiation has been forced by overexpression of MYOD1. As a proof-of-concept, we show that antisense approaches alleviate disease-associated defects, and an RNA-seq analysis confirmed that the vast majority of mis-spliced events in immortalized DM1 muscle cells were affected by antisense treatment, with half of them significantly rescued in treated DM1 cells. Immortalized DM1 muscle cell lines displaying characteristic disease-associated molecular features such as nuclear RNA aggregates and splicing defects can be used as robust readouts for the screening of therapeutic compounds. Therefore, immortalized DM1 and DM2 muscle cell lines represent new models and tools to investigate molecular pathophysiological mechanisms and evaluate the in vitro effects of compounds on RNA toxicity associated with myotonic dystrophy mutations. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Urraca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge to the study and treatment of neurogenetic syndromes is accessing live neurons for study from affected individuals. Although several sources of stem cells are currently available, acquiring these involve invasive procedures, may be difficult or expensive to generate and are limited in number. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are multipotent stem cells that reside deep the pulp of shed teeth. To investigate the characteristics of DPSCs that make them a valuable resource for translational research, we performed a set of viability, senescence, immortalization and gene expression studies on control DPSC and derived neurons. We investigated the basic transport conditions and maximum passage number for primary DPSCs. We immortalized control DPSCs using human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and evaluated neuronal differentiation potential and global gene expression changes by RNA-seq. We show that neurons from immortalized DPSCs share morphological and electrophysiological properties with non-immortalized DPSCs. We also show that differentiation of DPSCs into neurons significantly alters gene expression for 1305 transcripts. Here we show that these changes in gene expression are concurrent with changes in protein levels of the transcriptional repressor REST/NRSF, which is known to be involved in neuronal differentiation. Immortalization significantly altered the expression of 183 genes after neuronal differentiation, 94 of which also changed during differentiation. Our studies indicate that viable DPSCs can be obtained from teeth stored for ≥72 h, these can then be immortalized and still produce functional neurons for in vitro studies, but that constitutive hTERT immortalization is not be the best approach for long term use of patient derived DPSCs for the study of disease.

  1. A nuclear Argonaute promotes multigenerational epigenetic inheritance and germline immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Bethany A; Burkhart, Kirk B; Gu, Sam Guoping; Spracklin, George; Kershner, Aaron; Fritz, Heidi; Kimble, Judith; Fire, Andrew; Kennedy, Scott

    2012-09-20

    Epigenetic information is frequently erased near the start of each new generation. In some cases, however, epigenetic information can be transmitted from parent to progeny (multigenerational epigenetic inheritance). A particularly notable example of this type of epigenetic inheritance is double-stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. This RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) can be inherited for more than five generations. To understand this process, here we conduct a genetic screen for nematodes defective in transmitting RNAi silencing signals to future generations. This screen identified the heritable RNAi defective 1 (hrde-1) gene. hrde-1 encodes an Argonaute protein that associates with small interfering RNAs in the germ cells of progeny of animals exposed to double-stranded RNA. In the nuclei of these germ cells, HRDE-1 engages the nuclear RNAi defective pathway to direct the trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys 9 (H3K9me3) at RNAi-targeted genomic loci and promote RNAi inheritance. Under normal growth conditions, HRDE-1 associates with endogenously expressed short interfering RNAs, which direct nuclear gene silencing in germ cells. In hrde-1- or nuclear RNAi-deficient animals, germline silencing is lost over generational time. Concurrently, these animals exhibit steadily worsening defects in gamete formation and function that ultimately lead to sterility. These results establish that the Argonaute protein HRDE-1 directs gene-silencing events in germ-cell nuclei that drive multigenerational RNAi inheritance and promote immortality of the germ-cell lineage. We propose that C. elegans use the RNAi inheritance machinery to transmit epigenetic information, accrued by past generations, into future generations to regulate important biological processes.

  2. Aging in bacteria, immortality or not-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José M G

    2010-12-01

    Bacteria were traditionally thought to have a symmetrical binary fission without a clear distinction between soma and germ-line, being thus considered as immortal biological entities. Yet it has been recently described that bacteria also undergo replicative aging (RA). That is, they exhibit finite replicative abilities under good conditions to growth. The apparently initial indistinguishability of sibling cells after cytokinesis is broken. After division, the daughter cell that inherits the "old" pole present in the "mother cell" progressively exhibits a decline in its proliferative capacity with increasing cell pole age. This is a clear hallmark and phenotypic manifestation of a bona fide RA phenomenon in toto. While the exact molecular mechanism(s) underlying to this lost of replicative potential are not yet fully understood, the "old pole cell" is considered as an aging parent that in a repeatedly manner is able to produce rejuvenated offspring which inherit a resetting of the biological clock. On the order hand, bacteria exhibit in addition to this "mandatory" RA the dubbed conditional senescence (CS). CS is defined as a decline in cellular viability observed in arrested-growing bacteria populations, a phenomenon apparently not related to RA under growing active conditions. To understand bacterial aging, it is necessary to put it within the sociality-multicellularity framework. This is a new conceptual paradigm that expresses the natural reality of the bacterial world. From this more ecological perspective these bacterial aging phenomena probably should represent an insurance/bethedging anticipative survival strategy. This is underpinned in a self-generation of an appropriate level of populational phenotypic diversity. That is, bacterial aging could be considered a communitarian adaptive response to cope with different environmental stresses and threats. I have highlighted the necessity to construct an integrative conceptual framework to achieve a unified view

  3. The intrabody targeting of hTERT attenuates the immortality of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangying; Yang, Nan; Cai, Jianguo; Yang, Guimei; Liang, Shenghua; Ren, Daming

    2010-01-01

    hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) plays a key role in the process of cell immortalization. Overexpression of hTERT has been implicated in 85% of malignant tumors and offers a specific target for cancer therapy. In this paper, we describe an effective approach using a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) intrabody derived from monoclonal hybridoma directed against hTERT to attenuate the immortalization of human uterine cervix and hepatoma cells. The scFv we constructed had a high affinity to hTERT, and specifically neutralized over 70% of telomere synthesis activity, thereby inhibiting the viability and proliferation of the cancer cells. Our results indicate that this anti-hTERT intrabody is a promising tool to target hTERT and intervene in the immortalization process of cancer cells.

  4. Specific chromosomal imbalances in human papillomavirus-transfected cells during progression toward immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas-Toldo, Sabina; Dürst, Matthias; Lichter, Peter

    1997-01-01

    High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) known to be closely associated with cervical cancer, such as HPV16 and HPV18, have the potential to immortalize human epithelial cells in culture. Four lines of HPV-transfected keratinocytes were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization at different time points after transfection. A number of chromosomal imbalances was found to be highly characteristic for the cultures progressing toward immortality. Whereas several of these were new and previously not found as recurrent aberrations in cervical tumors, some were identical to chromosomal changes observed during cervical carcinogenesis. The data put new emphasis on the studied cell system as a relevant model for HPV-induced pathogenesis. PMID:9108068

  5. Dying is only human: the case death makes for the immortality of the person

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The claim of the present article is that human mortality makes a case for the discovery of the immortal nature of the person. Based on a clear distinction of the concepts of the human being and the person, human beings and persons are considered immortal insofar as both entities evidently do not qualify for a definition as living systems. On the one hand, human beings are presented as neither lifeless nor living systems. On the other hand, persons are introduced as lifeless systems and, as a ...

  6. Establishment of immortal normal and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast cell lines by introduction of the hTERT gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Fukami, Hiroko; Hayashi, Yuko; Kiyono, Tohru; Ishizaki, Kanji [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst.; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Hamaguchi, Michinari [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    To establish immortal human cells, we introduced the human catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene into skin fibroblast cells obtained from normal and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) individuals of Japanese origin. After hTERT introduction, these cells continue to grow beyond a population doubling number of 200 while maintaining their original radiosensitivity. Inductions of p53, phosphorylation of Serl5 in p53, and induction of p21 by X-ray irradiation in immortal cells derived from normal individual were not affected by the hTERT introduction. Both normal and AT immortal cells exhibited an apparent inhibition of growth as original primary cells when they reached confluence. Karyotype analysis has revealed that they are in a diploid range. These results suggest that cells immortalized by hTERT introduction retain their original characteristics except for immortalization, and that they may be useful for analyzing various effects of radiation on human cells. (author)

  7. Teaching from "The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks": Student Perspectives on Health Disparities and Medical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaano, Christian; Spigner, Clarence

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks" by Rebecca Skloot is an award-winning biography engaging its readers on important topics ranging from race, science and ethics to the social determinants of health. However, the multiple pedagogic impacts of this book on the public health classroom setting have yet to be comprehensively…

  8. Genetic Deletion of Nrf2 Promotes Immortalization and Decreases Life Span of Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Laura; Mercken, Evi M.; Ariza, Julia; Younts, Caitlin; González-Reyes, José A.; Alcaín, Francisco J.; Burón, Isabel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2–related factor-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor is one of the main regulators of intracellular redox balance and a sensor of oxidative and electrophilic stress. Low Nrf2 activity is usually associated with carcinogenesis, but Nrf2 is also considered as an oncogene because it increases survival of transformed cells. Because intracellular redox balance alterations are involved in both senescence and tumorigenesis, we investigated the impact of Nrf2 genetic deletion on cellular immortalization and life span of murine embryonic fibroblasts. We report that Nrf2 genetic deletion promotes immortalization due to an early loss of p53-dependent gene expression. However, compared with control cells, immortalized Nrf2−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibited decreased growth, lower cyclin E levels, and impaired expression of NQO1 and cytochrome b5 reductase. Moreover, SirT1 was also significantly reduced in immortalized Nrf2−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts, and these cells exhibited shorter life span. Our results underscore the dual role of Nrf2 in protection against carcinogenesis and in the delay of cellular aging. PMID:20974733

  9. Aging and longevity in the simplest animals and the quest for immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the examples of great longevity and potential immortality in the earliest animal types and contrast and compare these to humans and other higher animals. We start by discussing aging in single-celled organisms such as yeast and ciliates, and the idea of the immortal cell clone. Then we describe how these cell clones could become organized into colonies of different cell types that lead to multicellular animal life. We survey aging and longevity in all of the basal metazoan groups including ctenophores (comb jellies), sponges, placozoans, cnidarians (hydras, jellyfish, corals and sea anemones) and myxozoans. Then we move to the simplest bilaterian animals (with a head, three body cell layers, and bilateral symmetry), the two phyla of flatworms. A key determinant of longevity and immortality in most of these simple animals is the large numbers of pluripotent stem cells that underlie the remarkable abilities of these animals to regenerate and rejuvenate themselves. Finally, we discuss briefly the evolution of the higher bilaterians and how longevity was reduced and immortality lost due to attainment of greater body complexity and cell cycle strategies that protect these complex organisms from developing tumors. We also briefly consider how the evolution of multiple aging-related mechanisms/pathwayshinders our ability to understand and modify the aging process in higher organisms. PMID:24910306

  10. Differential In Vitro Immortalization Capacity of Eleven, Probable High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutze, Denise M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Bosch, Leontien; Kramer, Duco; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Steenbergen, Renske D. M.

    Epidemiological studies identified 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and 8 probable/possible hrHPV types that display different cancer risks. Functional studies on transforming properties of hrHPV are mainly limited to HPV16 and -18, which induce immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs)

  11. Highly controlled immortal polymerization of β-butyrolactone by a dinuclear indium catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cuiling; Yu, Insun; Mehrkhodavandi, Parisa

    2012-07-11

    An ethoxy-bridged dinuclear indium catalyst was used for the ring opening polymerization of the cyclic ester β-butyrolactone to form the biodegradable polyester poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). The catalyst shows remarkable activity and control during polymerization, allowing for formation of diblock polymers. Addition of high ratios of alcohols to the catalyst leads to fast chain transfer and immortal polymerization.

  12. Open-ended question: is immortality exclusively inherent to the germline?--A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepperdinger, Günter

    2009-01-01

    All somatic cells are subject to aging. Germline links generations, and thus, pluripotent germ cells are considered potentially immortal. The current understanding how the germline escapes this otherwise inevitable phenomenon is outlined in this article. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Immortality of Prejudice in Striving Ubuntu: Case Studies of Community Managed Schools in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    The immortality of prejudice after the school management transfer has not been judged. This makes communities to take responsibility for schools further by compelling the government to mandate amendments of Community Managed Schools (CMS) Directives. The purpose was to explore the CMS enduring Ubuntu against immorality of prejudice, through…

  14. Aging and longevity in the simplest animals and the quest for immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Ronald S; Mattson, Mark P; Yao, Pamela J

    2014-07-01

    Here we review the examples of great longevity and potential immortality in the earliest animal types and contrast and compare these to humans and other higher animals. We start by discussing aging in single-celled organisms such as yeast and ciliates, and the idea of the immortal cell clone. Then we describe how these cell clones could become organized into colonies of different cell types that lead to multicellular animal life. We survey aging and longevity in all of the basal metazoan groups including ctenophores (comb jellies), sponges, placozoans, cnidarians (hydras, jellyfish, corals and sea anemones) and myxozoans. Then we move to the simplest bilaterian animals (with a head, three body cell layers, and bilateral symmetry), the two phyla of flatworms. A key determinant of longevity and immortality in most of these simple animals is the large numbers of pluripotent stem cells that underlie the remarkable abilities of these animals to regenerate and rejuvenate themselves. Finally, we discuss briefly the evolution of the higher bilaterians and how longevity was reduced and immortality lost due to attainment of greater body complexity and cell cycle strategies that protect these complex organisms from developing tumors. We also briefly consider how the evolution of multiple aging-related mechanisms/pathways hinders our ability to understand and modify the aging process in higher organisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Functional analysis of a novel human serotonin transporter gene promoter in immortalized raphe cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, O V; Thomassen, M; Larsen, M B

    1999-01-01

    were found to possess the additional 379 bp fragment. The integrity of the promoter was furthermore confirmed by genomic Southern blotting. The promoter activity was analyzed by reporter gene assays in neuronal and non-neuronal serotonergic cell lines. In immortalized serotonergic raphe neurons, RN46A...

  16. Isolation and characterization of conditionally immortalized mouse glomerular endothelial cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, A.L.; Vlag, J. van der; Jacobs, C.W.M.; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Lensen, J.F.M.; Wijnhoven, T.J.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Berden, J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The culture and establishment of glomerular cell lines has proven to be an important tool for the understanding of glomerular cell functions in glomerular physiology and pathology. Especially, the recent establishment of a conditionally immortalized visceral epithelial cell line has

  17. MS-HRM assay identifies high levels of epigenetic heterogeneity in human immortalized cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnik, Milica; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Pournara, Angeliki; Vahter, Marie; Wallberg, Annika E

    2015-04-15

    Immortalized cell lines are widely used in genetic and epigenetic studies, from exploration of basic molecular pathways to evaluation of disease-specific cellular properties. They are also used in biotechnology, e.g., in drug toxicity tests and vaccine production. Cellular and genetic uniformity is the main feature of immortalized cell lines and it has been particularly advantageous in functional genomic research, which has in recent years been expanded to include epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Using the MS-HRM technique, we demonstrated heterogeneity in locus-specific methylation patterns in different cell cultures of four human cell lines: HEK293, HEK293T, LCL and DU145. Our results show that some human immortalized cell lines consist of cells that differ in the methylation status of specific loci, i.e., that they are epigenetically heterogeneous. We show that even two cultures of the same cell line obtained from different laboratories can differ in the methylation status of the specific loci. The results indicated that epigenetic uniformity of the cell lines cannot be assumed in experiments which utilize cell cultures and that the methylation status of the specific loci in the immortalized cell lines should be re-characterized and carefully profiled before epigenetic studies are performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R. (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.

  19. Immortalized endothelial cell lines for in vitro blood-brain barrier models: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Adhwa; Rasil, Alifah Nur'ain Haji Mat; Meyding-Lamade, Uta; Craemer, Eva Maria; Diah, Suwarni; Tuah, Ani Afiqah; Muharram, Siti Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial cells play the most important role in construction of the blood-brain barrier. Many studies have opted to use commercially available, easily transfected or immortalized endothelial cell lines as in vitro blood-brain barrier models. Numerous endothelial cell lines are available, but we do not currently have strong evidence for which cell lines are optimal for establishment of such models. This review aimed to investigate the application of immortalized endothelial cell lines as in vitro blood-brain barrier models. The databases used for this review were PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink. A narrative systematic review was conducted and identified 155 studies. As a result, 36 immortalized endothelial cell lines of human, mouse, rat, porcine and bovine origins were found for the establishment of in vitro blood-brain barrier and brain endothelium models. This review provides a summary of immortalized endothelial cell lines as a guideline for future studies and improvements in the establishment of in vitro blood-brain barrier models. It is important to establish a good and reproducible model that has the potential for multiple applications, in particular a model of such a complex compartment such as the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The People Paradox: Self-Esteem Striving, Immortality Ideologies, and Human Response to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis L. Dickinson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1973, Ernest Becker, a cultural anthropologist cross-trained in philosophy, sociology, and psychiatry, invoked consciousness of self and the inevitability of death as the primary sources of human anxiety and repression. He proposed that the psychological basis of cooperation, competition, and emotional and mental health is a tendency to hold tightly to anxiety-buffering cultural world views or "immortality projects" that serve as the basis for self-esteem and meaning. Although he focused mainly on social and political outcomes like war, torture, and genocide, he was increasingly aware that materialism, denial of nature, and immortality-striving efforts to control, rather than sanctify, the natural world were problems whose severity was increasing. In this paper I review Becker's ideas and suggest ways in which they illuminate human response to global climate change. Because immortality projects range from belief in technology and materialism to reverence for nature or belief in a celestial god, they act both as barriers to and facilitators of sustainable practices. I propose that Becker's cross-disciplinary "science of man," and the predictions it generates for proximate-level determinants of social behavior, add significantly to our understanding of and potential for managing the people paradox, i.e., that the very things that bring us symbolic immortality often conflict with our prospects for survival. Analysis of immortality projects as one of the proximate barriers to addressing climate change is both cautionary and hopeful, providing insights that should be included in the cross-disciplinary quest to uncover new pathways toward rational, social change.

  1. A block in lineage differentiation of immortal human mammary stem / progenitor cells by ectopically-expressed oncogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshan Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emerging evidence suggests a direct role of cancer stem cells (CSCs in the development of breast cancer. In vitro cellular models that recapitulate properties of CSCs are therefore highly desirable. We have previously shown that normal human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs immortalized with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT possess properties of mammary stem / progenitor cells. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we used this cell system to test the idea that other known hMEC-immortalizing oncogenes (RhoA, HPVE6, HPVE7, p53 mutant, and treatment with g-radiation, share with hTERT, the ability to maintain mammary stem / progenitor cells. Results: The results presented here demonstrate that similar to hMECs immortalized with hTERT, all hMEC cell lines immortalized using various oncogenic strategies express stem / progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, analyses using 2D and 3D culture assays demonstrate that all the immortal cell lines retain their ability to self-renew and to differentiate along the luminal lineage. Remarkably, the stem / progenitor cell lines generated using various oncogenic strategies exhibit a block in differentiation along the myoepithelial lineage, a trait that is retained on hTERT-immortalized stem / progenitors. The inability to differentiate along the myoepithelial lineage could be induced by ectopic mutant p53 expression in hTERT-immortalized hMEC. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that stem / progenitor cell characteristics of hMECs are maintained upon immortalization by using various cancer-relevant oncogenic strategies. Oncogene-immortalized hMECs show a block in their ability to differentiate along the myoepithelial lineage. Abrogation of the myoepithelial differentiation potential by a number of distinct oncogenic insults suggests a potential explanation for the predominance of luminal and rarity of myoepithelial breast cancers.

  2. p57KIP2 expression and loss of heterozygosity during immortal conversion of cultured human mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijjar, Tarlochan; Wigington, Don; Garbe, James C.; Waha, Andreas; Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    1999-08-01

    The authors have uncovered a novel role for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p57KIP2, during the immortalization of cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). HMEC immortalized following chemical carcinogen exposure initially expressed little or no telomerase activity, and their telomeres continued to shorten with passage. Cell populations whose mean terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length declined and exhibited slow heterogeneous growth, and contained many non-proliferative cells. These conditionally immortal HMEC cultures accumulated large quantities of p57 protein. With continued passage, the conditionally immortal cell populations very graduall2048nverted to a fully immortal phenotype of good uniform growth, expression of high levels of telomerase activity, and stabilization of telomere length. The fully immortal good growing HMEC did not accumulate p57 in G0 or during the cell cycle. DNA and RNA analysis of mass populations and individual subclones of conditionally immortal HMEC line 184A1 showed that continued growth of conditionally immortal cells with critically short telomeres was repeatedly accompanied by loss of the expressed p57 allele, and transient expression of the previously imprinted allele. Conditionally immortal 184A1 with mean TRF > 3 kb infected with retroviruses containing the p57 gene exhibited premature slow heterogeneous growth. Conversely, exogenous expression of hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in 184A1 with mean TRF > 3 kb prevented both the slow heterogeneous growth phase and accumulation of p57 in cycling populations. These data indicate that in HMEC which have overcome replicative senescence, p57 may provide an additional barrier against indefinite proliferation. Overcoming p57 mediated growth inhibition in these cells may be crucial for acquisition of the unlimited growth potential thought to be critical for malignant progression.

  3. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah and Allameh Tabataba’i on Immortality in Hell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janan Izadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Immortality of the people of hell and their eternal torment is one of the most important and complex debates, preoccupying religious scholars of different religions and sects. Each of them has taken a different way based on their intellectual principles of belief to solve this problem and the questions thereof, including how the immortality of the inhabitants of hell hellions and their eternal torment is consistent with the mercy and justice of God. How is it reasonable to endure infinite torment for limited and finite sins? Does a Merciful God, born a sinful slave forever in the fire of the hereafter? Or  is this not the case and He punishes the sinful people for a limited period of time, whether it is short or long, and then releases them from  torture and provides them with  comfort. There is a difference of opinions on these problems in the works of Ibn Qayyim Al- Jawziyyah Al-Ash͑ari and Allameh Tabataba’i, the Shiite philosopher and commentator.Ibn Qayyim addresses widely and systematically the issue of the immortality of the inhabitants of hell. In fact, he interprets immortality (khulūd as a long time, so that the long fire and scourge annihilate the evil from the souls that evil has mixed in their being.  In his viewpoint God has created human monotheist. If the monotheistic nature of the person is changed by vices, these vices and the corrupted nature can be changed by torment and fire. He quotes in his works the ideas of the believers in immortality in torment and criticizes and rebuts them. Stating so many arguments, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya tries to deny the immortality and eternality in torment. Interpreting the verses of The Holy Quran on immortality of the inhabitants of hell in torment, Allameh Tabataba’i strongly asserts the immortality principle. He relates the happiness and misery, and good and evil among human beings to the development and appearance of the carnal states and habits they gained in the earthly

  4. Milk as a symbol of immortality in the “Orphic” gold tablets from Thurii and Pelinna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Sundell Torjussen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an interpretation of the enigmatic “kid-in-milk” formula which appears in four of the “Orphic” gold tablets from Thurii and Pelinna. These tiny tablets accompanied the dead in their graves and contained texts of various lengths which were believed to help the deceased on his or her journey to the otherworld. Many see the tablets as Orphic texts, but this question has been highly debated during the last century. The four tablets in question, from two sites in southern Italy and Greece, tell how the deceased has suffered in life, but that he or she has attained immortality through initiation. The immortalization was referred to and summed up in the “kid-in-milk” formula, where, it is argued, milk was a direct reference to immortality. Thus milk in this eschatological context is a symbol of immortality which served as a focal point for both the text and the initates.

  5. Immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes by various human papillomavirus DNAs corresponds to their association with cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, C.D.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  6. A supporting role of Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank in life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong-feng; Duan, Zi-yuan

    2017-01-20

    A biorepository of human samples is essential to support the research of life science. Lymphoblastoid B cell line (LCL), which is easy to be prepared and can reproduce indefinitely, is a convenient form of sample preservation. LCLs are established from human B cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank has preserved human LCLs from different ethnic groups in China. As there are many studies on the nature of LCLs and public available resources with genome-wide data for LCLs, they have been widely applied in genetics, immunology, pharmacogenetics/genomics, regenerative medicine, cancer pathogenesis and immunotherapy, screening and generation of fully human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and study on EBV pathogenesis. Here, we review the characteristics of LCLs and their contributions to scientific research, and introduce preserved samples in Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank to the scientific community. We hope this bank can support more areas in the scientific research.

  7. Immortalization protocols used in cell culture models of human breast morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudjonsson, T; Villadsen, R; Rønnov-Jessen, L

    2004-01-01

    cells enter an irreversible proliferation-arrested state referred to as replicative senescence. To overcome this obstacle for continuous long-term studies, replicative senescence can be bypassed by treatment of cells with chemical agents such as benzopyrene, by radiation or by transfection with viral...... breast cells in culture and optimizing a relevant microenvironment, which may help to define the niche that regulates breast differentiation and morphogenesis. In contrast to the general property of cancer, normal human cells have a finite lifespan. After a defined number of population doublings, normal...... of the tissue of origin. In recent years, we have sought to establish immortalized primary breast cells, which retain crucial characteristics of their original in situ tissue pattern. This review discusses various approaches to immortalization of breast-derived epithelial and stromal cells and the application...

  8. Conjecture: Can continuous regeneration lead to immortality? Studies in the MRL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber-Katz, Ellen; Leferovich, John; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Clark, Lise

    2006-01-01

    A particular mouse strain, the MRL mouse, has been shown to have unique healing properties that show normal replacement of tissue without scarring. The serendipitous discovery that the MRL mouse has a profound capacity for regeneration in some ways rivaling the classic newt and axolotl species raises the possibility that humans, too, may have an innate regenerative ability. We propose this mouse as a model for continuous regeneration with possible life-extending properties. We will use the classical "immortal" organism, the hydra, for comparison and examine those key phenotypes that contribute to their immortality as they are expressed in the MRL mouse versus control mouse strains. The phenotypes to be examined include the rate of proliferation and the rate of cell death, which leads to a continual turnover in cells without an increase in mass.

  9. Ancestors in Borneo Societies. Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, Pascal Couderc & Kenneth Sillander, ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guerreiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume Ancestors in Borneo Societies, edited by P. Couderc and K. Sillander assembles a series of ethnographically grounded studies. This book, stemming for a panel organized at the 8th Borneo Research Council Biennal Conference in Kuching, Sarawak (July 2006, adresses important questions relating to the ancestor cult and generally the conceptualization of ancestry on the island. As the subtitle to the book indicates (Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, the contributions explo...

  10. Ancestors in Borneo Societies. Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, Pascal Couderc & Kenneth Sillander, ed.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Guerreiro

    2013-01-01

    The volume Ancestors in Borneo Societies, edited by P. Couderc and K. Sillander assembles a series of ethnographically grounded studies. This book, stemming for a panel organized at the 8th Borneo Research Council Biennal Conference in Kuching, Sarawak (July 2006), adresses important questions relating to the ancestor cult and generally the conceptualization of ancestry on the island. As the subtitle to the book indicates (Death, Transformation and Social Immortality), the contributions explo...

  11. A germline-centric view of cell fate commitment, reprogramming and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena; Ciosk, Rafal

    2013-02-01

    To ensure species continuity, the tantalising developmental plasticity of early embryonic cells, also called totipotency, must be transmitted to the offspring. This responsibility rests within the reproductive cell lineage: the germ line. At the recent EMBO/EMBL symposium 'Germline - Immortality through Totipotency', researchers discussed the mechanisms that establish and control totipotency, with an eye towards the mechanisms that may endow germ cells with the ability to propagate totipotency across generations.

  12. The conserved mitochondrial gene distribution in relatives of Turritopsis nutricula, an immortal jellyfish

    OpenAIRE

    Devarapalli, Pratap; Kumavath, Ranjith N.; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Turritopsis nutricula (T. nutricula) is the one of the known reported organisms that can revert its life cycle to the polyp stage even after becoming sexually mature, defining itself as the only immortal organism in the animal kingdom. Therefore, the animal is having prime importance in basic biological, aging, and biomedical researches. However, till date, the genome of this organism has not been sequenced and even there is no molecular phylogenetic study to reveal its close relatives. Here,...

  13. Derivation and osmotolerance characterization of three immortalized tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Gardell

    Full Text Available Fish cell cultures are becoming more widely used models for investigating molecular mechanisms of physiological response to environmental challenge. In this study, we derived two immortalized Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus cell lines from brain (OmB and lip epithelium (OmL, and compared them to a previously immortalized bulbus arteriosus (TmB cell line. The OmB and OmL cell lines were generated without or with Rho-associated kinase (ROCK inhibitor/3T3 feeder layer supplementation. Although both approaches were successful, ROCK inhibitor/feeder layer supplementation was found to offer the advantages of selecting for epithelial-like cell type and decreasing time to immortalization. After immortalization (≥ passage 5, we characterized the proteomes of the newly derived cell lines (OmB and OmL using LCMS and identified several unique cell markers for each line. Subsequently, osmotolerance for each of the three cell lines following acute exposure to elevated sodium chloride was evaluated. The acute maximum osmotolerance of these tilapia cell lines (>700 mOsm/kg was markedly higher than that of any other known vertebrate cell line, but was significantly higher in the epithelial-like OmL cell line. To validate the physiological relevance of these tilapia cell lines, we quantified the effects of acute hyperosmotic challenge (450 mOsm/kg and 700 mOsm/kg on the transcriptional regulation of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the compatible organic osmolyte, myo-inositol. Both enzymes were found to be robustly upregulated in all three tilapia cell lines. Therefore, the newly established tilapia cells lines represent valuable tools for studying molecular mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response of euryhaline fish.

  14. Three-dimensional culture system can induce expression of casein in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, MingMei; Sui, YangNan; Babekir, Haitham Mohammed; Zhao, GuoQi

    2017-05-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are not ideal models for long-term studies of lactation mechanisms because these cells in a monolayer culture system cannot be polarized to simulate the physiological functions in vitro. We investigate the effects of different culture models and karyotypes on casein expression in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. The immortalized cells' karyotypes were analyzed at passages 10, 20, 30 and 40 to detect the effects of chromosome stability. Western blotting examined that whether or not the immortalized cells at passages 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 could induce expression of casein in a 3D culture system. The proper polarization of the acinar structures was monitored. BMECs were successfully immortalized. The cell karyotype at passage 30 remained at 60 chromosomes and the average value was 57.1 ± 0.40 after passage 40. The polarized protein's levels were up-regulated in 3D culture compared to 2D culture. Expression of αs1, β and κ-casein could be detectable in a passage range in 3D culture. Expression of αs2-casein was undetectable in all experimental groups. However, all casein expressions were barely detectable in traditional 2D culture system. Therefore, 3D culture system is an important tool for the long-term study of lactation mechanisms in vitro. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Hopelessly mortal: The role of mortality salience, immortality and trait self-esteem in personal hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisman, Arnaud; Heflick, Nathan A

    2016-08-01

    Do people lose hope when thinking about death? Based on Terror Management Theory, we predicted that thoughts of death (i.e., mortality salience) would reduce personal hope for people low, but not high, in self-esteem, and that this reduction in hope would be ameliorated by promises of immortality. In Studies 1 and 2, mortality salience reduced personal hope for people low in self-esteem, but not for people high in self-esteem. In Study 3, mortality salience reduced hope for people low in self-esteem when they read an argument that there is no afterlife, but not when they read "evidence" supporting life after death. In Study 4, this effect was replicated with an essay affirming scientific medical advances that promise immortality. Together, these findings uniquely demonstrate that thoughts of mortality interact with trait self-esteem to cause changes in personal hope, and that literal immortality beliefs can aid psychological adjustment when thinking about death. Implications for understanding personal hope, trait self-esteem, afterlife beliefs and terror management are discussed.

  16. Hypothesis: a novel route for immortalization of epithelial cells by Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanning; Lu, Yong-Jie; Xue, Shao-An; Chen, Honglin; Wedderburn, Nina; Griffin, Beverly E

    2002-01-24

    Transfection of primate tissue explants with a specific sub-fragment (p31) of EBV DNA results in epithelial (but no other) cells proliferating indefinitely (becoming 'immortalized') without evidence of a 'growth crisis'. Molecular evidence supports integration of viral information into the host chromosome, and an early genotypic alteration involving specific amplification of a sub-component (IR1) of p31 DNA, followed by apparent loss of viral DNA from chromosomes, consistent with a 'hit and run' mechanism. However, analysis at the individual cell level during long-term culture, by FISH techniques, reveals chromosomal alterations, and viral sequences surviving within double minute (DM) bodies. Changing growth patterns occurring at different stages during propagation (>a year in culture) may be explained by sporadic reintegration of surviving viral DNA into the host chromosome. Notably, throughout culture, telomere lengths in chromosomal DNAs do not alter but rather retain the length observed in the primary cell populations. Introduction of a growth stimulating function of EBV, BARF1, into the immortalized, non-clonable epithelial cells under conditions which permit overexpression, allows clonal populations to be derived. Based on the data, mechanisms of immortalization, in the absence of a proven viral oncogene in p31 DNA, and possible genes involved, are considered.

  17. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR. Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types.

  18. Immortalized pathological human myoblasts: towards a universal tool for the study of neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamchaoui Kamel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigations into both the pathophysiology and therapeutic targets in muscle dystrophies have been hampered by the limited proliferative capacity of human myoblasts. Isolation of reliable and stable immortalized cell lines from patient biopsies is a powerful tool for investigating pathological mechanisms, including those associated with muscle aging, and for developing innovative gene-based, cell-based or pharmacological biotherapies. Methods Using transduction with both telomerase-expressing and cyclin-dependent kinase 4-expressing vectors, we were able to generate a battery of immortalized human muscle stem-cell lines from patients with various neuromuscular disorders. Results The immortalized human cell lines from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B had greatly increased proliferative capacity, and maintained their potential to differentiate both in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into regenerating muscle of immunodeficient mice. Conclusions Dystrophic cellular models are required as a supplement to animal models to assess cellular mechanisms, such as signaling defects, or to perform high-throughput screening for therapeutic molecules. These investigations have been conducted for many years on cells derived from animals, and would greatly benefit from having human cell models with prolonged proliferative capacity. Furthermore, the possibility to assess in vivo the regenerative capacity of these cells extends their potential use. The innovative cellular tools derived from several different neuromuscular diseases as described in this report will allow investigation of the pathophysiology of these disorders and assessment of new therapeutic strategies.

  19. Immortalized myeloid suppressor cells trigger apoptosis in antigen-activated T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolloni, E; Bronte, V; Mazzoni, A; Serafini, P; Cabrelle, A; Segal, D M; Young, H A; Zanovello, P

    2000-12-15

    We described a generalized suppression of CTL anamnestic responses that occurred in mice bearing large tumor nodules or immunized with powerful recombinant viral immunogens. Immune suppression entirely depended on GM-CSF-driven accumulation of CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+) myeloid suppressor cells (MSC) in secondary lymphoid organs. To further investigate the nature and properties of MSC, we immortalized CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+) cells isolated from the spleens of immunosuppressed mice, using a retrovirus encoding the v-myc and v-raf oncogenes. Immortalized cells expressed monocyte/macrophage markers (CD11b, F4/80, CD86, CD11c), but they differed from previously characterized macrophage lines in their capacities to inhibit T lymphocyte activation. Two MSC lines, MSC-1 and MSC-2, were selected based upon their abilities to inhibit Ag-specific proliferative and functional CTL responses. MSC-1 line was constitutively inhibitory, while suppressive functions of MSC-2 line were stimulated by exposure to the cytokine IL-4. Both MSC lines triggered the apoptotic cascade in Ag-activated T lymphocytes by a mechanism requiring cell-cell contact. Some well-known membrane molecules involved in the activation of apoptotic pathways (e.g., TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, Fas ligand, TNF-alpha) were ruled out as candidate effectors for the suppression mechanism. The immortalized myeloid lines represent a novel, useful tool to shed light on the molecules involved in the differentiation of myeloid-related suppressors as well as in the inhibitory pathway they use to control T lymphocyte activation.

  20. The use of hTERT-immortalized cells in tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem; Yu, Zentao

    2004-01-01

    The use of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized cells in tissue engineering protocols is a potentially important application of telomere biology. Several human cell types have been created that overexpress the hTERT gene with enhanced telomerase activity, extended life span...... and maintained or even improved functional activities. Furthermore, some studies have employed the telomerized cells in tissue engineering protocols with very good results. However, high telomerase activity allows extensive cell proliferation that may be associated with genomic instability and risk for cell...

  1. Absence of oncogenic transformation despite acquisition of cytogenetic aberrations in long-term cultured telomerase-immortalized human fetal hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Björn; Fuchs, Sigrid; Dierlamm, Judith; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Wege, Henning

    2007-10-18

    As a culture model to study hepatocarcinogenesis, telomerase-immortalized human fetal hepatocytes were monitored for karyotype changes evolving in long-term culture and development of functional defects in DNA damage response. G-banding revealed acquisition of characteristic karyotype abnormalities, e.g., trisomy 7 and monosomy X, in two independently immortalized and cultured populations after 80-100 population doublings. Interestingly, the detected aneuploidies resemble some of the genetic events observed in hepatocellular cancer. However, these genetic changes were not sufficient to induce oncogenic transformation reflected by absence of anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, long-term cultured telomerase-immortalized cells preserved p53 expression levels and effective p53-mediated damage response.

  2. Metabolic activation of diesel exhaust carcinogens in primary and immortalized human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucab, Jill E; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 50% of human tumors have a mutation in TP53. The pattern and spectra of TP53 mutations often differ between cancer types, perhaps due to different etiological factors. The Hupki (human TP53 knock-in) mouse embryo fibroblast (HUF) immortalization assay is useful for studying mutagenesis in the human TP53 gene by environmental carcinogens. Prior to initiating an immortalization assay, carcinogen treatment conditions must be optimized, which can require a large number of cells. As primary HUF cultures senesce within 2 weeks, restricting their use, we investigated whether immortalized HUFs retaining wild-type TP53 can be surrogates for primary HUFs in initial treatment optimization. DNA damage by eight compounds found in diesel exhaust, benzo[a]pyrene, 3-nitrobenzanthrone, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, 1,8-dinitropyrene, 6-nitrochrysene, and 3-nitrofluorene, was assessed by (32) P-postlabeling and the alkaline comet assay in primary HUFs and in an immortal HUF cell line J201. For most compounds, higher levels of DNA adducts accumulated in J201 cells than in primary HUFs. This difference was not reflected in the comet assay or by cell viability changes. Experiments in three additional immortal HUF cell lines (AAI49, U56, and E2-143) confirmed strong differences in DNA adduct levels compared with primary HUFs. However, these did not correlate with the protein expression of Nqo1 or Nat1/2, or with gene expression of Cyp1a1 or Cyp1b1. Our results show that using immortal HUFs as surrogates for primary HUFs in genotoxicity screening has limitations and that DNA adduct formation is the best measure of genotoxicity of the nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons tested in HUFs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Age and the means of bypassing stasis are determinants of the intrinsic subtypes of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular features, breast cancers are grouped into intrinsic subtypes that have different prognoses and therapeutic response profiles. With increasing age, breast cancer incidence increases, with hormone receptor-positive and other luminal-like subtype tumors comprising a majority of cases. It is not known at what stage of tumor progression subtype specification occurs, nor how the process of aging affects the intrinsic subtype. We examined subtype markers in immortalized human mammary epithelial cell lines established following exposure of primary cultured cell strains to a two-step immortalization protocol that targets the two main barriers to immortality: stasis (stress-associated senescence and replicative senescence. Cell lines derived from epithelial cells obtained from non-tumorous pre- and post-menopausal breast surgery tissues were compared. Additionally, comparisons were made between lines generated using two different genetic interventions to bypass stasis: transduction of either an shRNA that down-regulated p16INK4A, or overexpressed constitutive active cyclin D1/CDK2. In all cases, the replicative senescence barrier was bypassed by transduction of c-Myc. Cells from all resulting immortal lines exhibited normal karyotypes. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and gene expression analyses of lineage-specific markers were used to categorize the intrinsic subtypes of the immortalized lines. Bypassing stasis with p16 shRNA in young strains generated cell lines that were invariably basal-like, but the lines examined from older strains exhibited some luminal features such as keratin 19 and estrogen receptor expression. Overexpression of cyclin D1/CDK2 resulted in keratin 19 positive, luminal-like cell lines from both young and old strains, and the lines examined from older strains exhibited estrogen receptor expression. Thus age and the method of bypassing stasis are independent determinants of subtype in immortalized human

  4. Immortal Time Bias: A Frequently Unrecognized Threat to Validity in the Evaluation of Postoperative Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Henry S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of immortal time bias on observational cohort studies of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and the effectiveness of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias. Methods and Materials: First, we reviewed previous studies of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to determine how frequently this bias was considered. Second, we used SEER to select three tumor types (glioblastoma multiforme, Stage IA-IVM0 gastric adenocarcinoma, and Stage II-III rectal carcinoma) for which prospective trials demonstrated an improvement in survival associated with PORT. For each tumor type, we calculated conditional survivals and adjusted hazard ratios of PORT vs. postoperative observation cohorts while restricting the sample at sequential monthly landmarks. Results: Sixty-two percent of previous SEER publications evaluating PORT failed to use a landmark analysis. As expected, delivery of PORT for all three tumor types was associated with improved survival, with the largest associated benefit favoring PORT when all patients were included regardless of survival. Preselecting a cohort with a longer minimum survival sequentially diminished the apparent benefit of PORT. Conclusions: Although the majority of previous SEER articles do not correct for it, immortal time bias leads to altered estimates of PORT effectiveness, which are very sensitive to landmark selection. We suggest the routine use of sequential landmark analysis to account for this bias.

  5. Reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling restores germ cell immortality to Caenorhabditis elegans Piwi mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matt; Sarkies, Peter; Ikegami, Kohta; Doebley, Anna-Lisa; Goldstein, Leonard D; Mitchell, Jacinth; Sakaguchi, Aisa; Miska, Eric A; Ahmed, Shawn

    2014-05-08

    Defects in the Piwi/piRNA pathway lead to transposon desilencing and immediate sterility in many organisms. We found that the C. elegans Piwi mutant prg-1 became sterile after growth for many generations. This phenotype did not occur for RNAi mutants with strong transposon-silencing defects and was separable from the role of PRG-1 in transgene silencing. Brief periods of starvation extended the transgenerational lifespan of prg-1 mutants by stimulating the DAF-16/FOXO longevity transcription factor. Constitutive activation of DAF-16 via reduced daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 signaling immortalized prg-1 strains via RNAi proteins and histone H3 lysine 4 demethylases. In late-generation prg-1 mutants, desilencing of repetitive segments of the genome occurred, and silencing of repetitive loci was restored in prg-1; daf-2 mutants. This study reveals an unexpected interface between aging and transgenerational maintenance of germ cells, where somatic longevity is coupled to a genome-silencing pathway that promotes germ cell immortality in parallel to the Piwi/piRNA system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of cancer-initiating cells and immortalized cells with genomic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Ken-ichi; Atsumi, Yuko; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Teraoka, Hirobumi

    2015-01-01

    Cancers that develop after middle age usually exhibit genomic instability and multiple mutations. This is in direct contrast to pediatric tumors that usually develop as a result of specific chromosomal translocations and epigenetic aberrations. The development of genomic instability is associated with mutations that contribute to cellular immortalization and transformation. Cancer occurs when cancer-initiating cells (CICs), also called cancer stem cells, develop as a result of these mutations. In this paper, we explore how CICs develop as a result of genomic instability, including looking at which cancer suppression mechanisms are abrogated. A recent in vitro study revealed the existence of a CIC induction pathway in differentiating stem cells. Under aberrant differentiation conditions, cells become senescent and develop genomic instabilities that lead to the development of CICs. The resulting CICs contain a mutation in the alternative reading frame of CDKN2A (ARF)/p53 module, i.e., in either ARF or p53. We summarize recently established knowledge of CIC development and cellular immortality, explore the role of the ARF/p53 module in protecting cells from transformation, and describe a risk factor for genomic destabilization that increases during the process of normal cell growth and differentiation and is associated with the downregulation of histone H2AX to levels representative of growth arrest in normal cells. PMID:25815132

  7. Immortality and the base of multicellular life: Lessons from cnidarian stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hoang, Van Thanh; Mättner, Robert; Holstein, Thomas W

    2009-12-01

    Cnidarians are phylogenetically basal members of the animal kingdom (>600 million years old). Together with plants they share some remarkable features that cannot be found in higher animals. Cnidarians and plants exhibit an almost unlimited regeneration capacity and immortality. Immortality can be ascribed to the asexual mode of reproduction that requires cells with an unlimited self-renewal capacity. We propose that the basic properties of animal stem cells are tightly linked to this archaic mode of reproduction. The cnidarian stem cells can give rise to a number of differentiated cell types including neuronal and germ cells. The genomes of Hydra and Nematostella, representatives of two major cnidarian classes indicate a surprising complexity of both genomes, which is in the range of vertebrates. Recent work indicates that highly conserved signalling pathways control Hydra stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, the availability of genomic resources and novel technologies provide approaches to analyse these cells in vivo. Studies of stem cells in cnidarians will therefore open important insights into the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology. Their critical phylogenetic position at the base of the metazoan branch in the tree of life makes them an important link in unravelling the common mechanisms of stem cell biology between animals and plants.

  8. Activation of Holliday junction recognizing protein involved in the chromosomal stability and immortality of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Sato, Nagato; Hayama, Satoshi; Yamabuki, Takumi; Ito, Tomoo; Miyamoto, Masaki; Kondo, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Daigo, Yataro

    2007-09-15

    We identified a novel gene HJURP (Holliday junction-recognizing protein) whose activation seemed to play a pivotal role in the immortality of cancer cells. HJURP was considered a possible downstream target for ataxia telangiectasia mutated signaling, and its expression was increased by DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). HJURP was involved in the homologous recombination pathway in the DSB repair process through interaction with hMSH5 and NBS1, which is a part of the MRN protein complex. HJURP formed nuclear foci in cells at S phase and those subjected to DNA damage. In vitro assays implied that HJURP bound directly to the Holliday junction and rDNA arrays. Treatment of cancer cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against HJURP caused abnormal chromosomal fusions and led to genomic instability and senescence. In addition, HJURP overexpression was observed in a majority of lung cancers and was associated with poor prognosis as well. We suggest that HJURP is an indispensable factor for chromosomal stability in immortalized cancer cells and is a potential novel therapeutic target for the development of anticancer drugs.

  9. MRT-2 checkpoint protein is required for germline immortality and telomere replication in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S; Hodgkin, J

    2000-01-13

    The germ line is an immortal cell lineage that is passed indefinitely from one generation to the next. To identify the genes that are required for germline immortality, we isolated Caenorhabditis elegans mutants with mortal germ lines--worms that can reproduce for several healthy generations but eventually become sterile. One of these mortal germline (mrt) mutants, mrt-2, exhibits progressive telomere shortening and accumulates end-to-end chromosome fusions in later generations, indicating that the MRT-2 protein is required for telomere replication. In addition, the germ line of mrt-2 is hypersensitive to X-rays and to transposon activity. Therefore, mrt-2 has defects in responding both to damaged DNA and to normal double-strand breaks present at telomeres. mrt-2 encodes a homologue of a checkpoint gene that is required to sense DNA damage in yeast. These results indicate that telomeres may be identified as a type of DNA damage and then repaired by the telomere-replication enzyme telomerase.

  10. Transcriptome profile and cytogenetic analysis of immortalized neuronally restricted progenitor cells derived from the porcine olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we established and phenotypically characterized an immortalized porcine olfactory bulb neuroblast cell line, OBGF400 (Uebing-Czipura et al., 2008). To facilitate the future application of these cells in studies of neurological dysfunction and neuronal replacement therapies, a comprehensive...

  11. Stepwise DNA Methylation Changes Are Linked to Escape from Defined Proliferation Barriers and Mammary Epithelial Cell Immortalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Petr; Jensen, Taylor J.; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2009-04-20

    The timing and progression of DNA methylation changes during carcinogenesis are not completely understood. To develop a timeline of aberrant DNA methylation events during malignant transformation, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model of transformation. To acquire immortality and malignancy, the cultured finite lifespan HMEC must overcome two distinct proliferation barriers. The first barrier, stasis, is mediated by the retinoblastoma protein and can be overcome by loss of p16(INK4A) expression. HMEC that escape stasis and continue to proliferate become genomically unstable before encountering a second more stringent proliferation barrier, telomere dysfunction due to telomere attrition. Rare cells that acquire telomerase expression may escape this barrier, become immortal, and develop further malignant properties. Our analysis of HMEC transitioning from finite lifespan to malignantly transformed showed that aberrant DNA methylation changes occur in a stepwise fashion early in the transformation process. The first aberrant DNA methylation step coincides with overcoming stasis, and results in few to hundreds of changes, depending on how stasis was overcome. A second step coincides with immortalization and results in hundreds of additional DNA methylation changes regardless of the immortalization pathway. A majority of these DNA methylation changes are also found in malignant breast cancer cells. These results show that large-scale epigenetic remodeling occurs in the earliest steps of mammary carcinogenesis, temporally links DNA methylation changes and overcoming cellular proliferation barriers, and provides a bank of potential epigenetic biomarkers that mayprove useful in breast cancer risk assessment.

  12. A long-term hepatitis B viremia model generated by transplanting nontumorigenic immortalized human hepatocytes in Rag-2-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parashar, B; Moshage, H; Tanaka, KE; Engelhardt, D; Rabbani, E; Roy-Chowdhury, N; Roy-Chowdhury, J

    Development of new therapies for human hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a suitable small-animal model for HBV virus production in vivo. To develop a murine model for HBV production, we established an immortalized, cloned liver cell line by

  13. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  14. Original article Values and sense of symbolic immortality among non-religious adolescents in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Jaśkiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to determine the values (Schwartz’s ten basic values and sense of symbolic immortality among non-religious adolescents. Participants and procedure Participants were recruited from secondary schools in Gdansk and Gdynia. Results The results showed that non-religious adolescents achieved higher results in the natural mode, and lower in biological-creative and religious modes. They also scored higher on universalism and self-direction subscales of Schwartz’s ten basic values. The results are discussed in the light of humanistic personal ideology and terror management theory. Conclusions The cultural worldview that protects non-religious adolescents against death anxiety seems to be more rooted in humanistic and individualistic values.

  15. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Li-An [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi-an (China); Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); MacDougall, Mary [Department of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Donly, Kevin J. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Harris, Stephen [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: chens0@uthscsa.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-08-14

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  16. On the acoustic wave sensor response to immortalized hypothalamic neurons at the device-liquid interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Cheung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of a thickness shear mode biosensor to immortalized murine hypothalamic neurons (mHypoE-38 and -46 cells under a variety of conditions and stimuli is discussed. Cellular studies which lead to the production of detectable neuronal responses include neuronal deposition, adhesion and proliferation, alteration in the extent of specific cell-surface interactions, actin filament and microtubule cytoskeletal disruptions, effects of cell depolarization, inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump via ouabain, effects of neuronal synchronization and the effects ligand-receptor interaction (glucagon. In the presence of cells, fs shifts are largely influenced by the damping of the TSM resonator. The formation of cell-surface interactions and hence the increase in coupling and acoustic energy dissipation can be modeled as an additional resistor in the BVD model. Further sensor and cellular changes can be obtained by negating the effects of damping from fs via the use of Rm and θmax.

  17. Recovery of important physiological functions in 3D culture of immortal hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    to grow human liver cells in ‘3 dimensional’ cultures so that they behave very similar to the liver in our bodies. By growing the immortal hepatocytes in specially designed bioreactors they form small pieces of ‘pseudotissue’ which exhibit several of the functions seen in the adult liver. We have grown......It is widely expected that cells grown in 3D environments (in suspension, on scaffolds etc.) will be superior to growing cells in classical 2D culture flasks. These expectations include the belief that cells grown in 3D culture will possess physiological characteristics that resemble more closely...... and glycogen granules. In other words, the cells grown in the classical 2D growth conditions were proliferating rapidly and showing little sign of the differentiated phenotype that hepatocytes in liver tissue show. Conversely the same cells grown as spheroids were proliferating very slowly but were...

  18. Tissue distribution and engraftment of human mesenchymal stem cells immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, J F; Stenderup, K; Hansen, F D

    2005-01-01

    Engraftment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in peripheral tissues for replenishing of local stem cell function has been proposed as a therapeutic approach to degenerative diseases. We have previously reported the development of an immortalized human telomerase reverse transcriptase transduced MSC...... line (hMSC-TERT). In the present study, we co-transduced hMSC-TERT with enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, and studied tissue distribution, engraftment, and cell survival after intracardiac and intravenous injections in immunodeficient mice. The pattern of organ distribution suggested...... that infused cells were efficiently arrested in microvasculature during first-pass, but only for a fraction of the infused cells was arrest followed by vascular emigration and tissue engraftment. Few engrafted cells in lungs, heart, and kidney glomeruli remained after 4 weeks. These observations are consistent...

  19. Exome-wide Mutation Profile in Benzo[a]pyrene-derived Post-stasis and Immortal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Paul L.; Vrba, Lukas; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations are known to drive cancer progression and certain tumors have mutation signatures that reflect exposures to environmental carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has a known mutation signature and has proven capable of inducing changes to DNA sequence that drives normal pre-stasis human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) past a first tumor suppressor barrier (stasis) and towards immortality. We analyzed normal, pre-stasis HMEC, three independent BaP-derived post-stasis HMEC strains (184Aa, 184Be, 184Ce) and two of their immortal derivatives(184A1 and 184BE1) by whole exome sequencing. The independent post-stasis strains exhibited between 93 and 233 BaP-induced mutations in exons. Seventy percent of the mutations were C:G>A:T transversions, consistent with the known mutation spectrum of BaP. Mutations predicted to impact protein function occurred in several known and putative cancer drivers including p16, PLCG1, MED12, TAF1 in 184Aa; PIK3CG, HSP90AB1, WHSC1L1, LCP1 in 184Be and FANCA, LPP in 184Ce. Biological processes that typically harbor cancer driver mutations such as cell cycle, regulation of cell death and proliferation, RNA processing, chromatin modification and DNA repair were found to have mutations predicted to impact function in each of the post-stasis strains. Spontaneously immortalized HMEC lines derived from two of the BaP-derived post-stasis strains shared greater than 95% of their BaP-induced mutations with their precursor cells. These immortal HMEC had 10 or fewer additional point mutations relative to their post-stasis precursors, but acquired chromosomal anomalies during immortalization that arose independent of BaP. The results of this study indicate that acute exposures of HMEC to high dose BaP recapitulate mutation patterns of human tumors and can induce mutations in a number of cancer driver genes. PMID:25435355

  20. Time to Nadir PSA: Of Popes and PSA--The Immortality Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Skyler B; Jackson, William C; Murgic, Jure; Feng, Felix Y; Hamstra, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (nPSA) and time to nPSA (TnPSA) as prognostic variables for outcomes after definitive high-dose (>75 Gy) external beam radiation therapy (RT) without androgen deprivation therapy while correcting for immortal-time bias. nPSA and TnPSA were available for 410 patients. nPSA and TnPSA's impact on freedom from biochemical failure, freedom from metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific survival was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression. Outcomes were also evaluated relative to the time since achieving nPSA and not relative to the time of RT, given the intrinsic time bias in TnPSA. Median nPSA was 0.7 ng/mL (interquartile range: 0.4 to 1.1), with a median TnPSA of 25.0 months (IQR: 15.0 to 40.0). On univariate analysis both nPSA and TnPSA were predictive of all endpoints: freedom from biochemical failure, freedom from metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific survival, as categorical (all Pimmortal-time bias the benefit of long TnPSA was mostly lost. On Cox proportional hazards, a TnPSA12 months from the time of RT the TnPSA was no longer prognostic. For dose-escalated RT a lower nPSA is prognostic, but the benefit of a long TnPSA is largely an immortal-time bias and that a longer TnPSA is not in and of itself a significant favorable factor except as compared with those with the shortest TnPSA of <12 months.

  1. Comparative Toxicity of Preservatives on Immortalized Corneal and Conjunctival Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdoot, Michael; Marcus, Edward; Asbell, Penny A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Nearly all eye drops contain preservatives to decrease contamination. Nonpreservatives such as disodium-ethylene diamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) and phosphate-buffered saline are also regularly added as buffering agents. These components can add to the toxicity of eye drops and cause ocular surface disease. To evaluate the potential toxicity of these common components and their comparative effects on the ocular surface, a tissue culture model utilizing immortalized corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells was utilized. Methods Immortalized human conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells were grown. At confluency, medium was replaced with 100 μL of varying concentrations of preservatives: benzalkonium chloride (BAK), methyl paraben (MP), sodium perborate (SP), chlorobutanol (Cbl), and stabilized thimerosal (Thi); varying concentrations of buffer: EDTA; media (viable control); and formalin (dead control). After 1 h, solutions were replaced with 150 μL of MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide). After 4 h, solutions decanted, 100 μL of acid isopropanol added, and the optical density determined at 572 nm to evaluate cell viability. Results Conjunctival and corneal cell toxicity was seen with all preservatives. Depending upon concentration, BAK exhibited from 56% to 89% toxicity. In comparison, Cbl exhibited from 50% to 86%, MP from 30% to 76%, SP from 23% to 59%, and Thi from 70% to 95%. EDTA with minimal toxicity (from 6% to 59%) was indistinguishable from SP. Conclusions Generally, the order of decreasing toxicity at the most commonly used concentrations: Thi (0.0025%) > BAK (0.025%) > Cbl (0.25%) > MP (0.01%) > SP (0.0025%) ≈ EDTA (0.01%). Even at low concentration, these agents will cause some degree of ocular tissue damage. PMID:19284328

  2. Step-wise DNA methylation changes are linked to escape from defined proliferation barriers and mammary epithelial cell immortalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, P; Jensen, TJ; Garbe, JC; Stampfer, MR; Futscher, BW

    2009-01-01

    The timing and progression of DNA methylation changes during carcinogenesis are not completely understood. To develop a timeline of aberrant DNA methylation events during malignant transformation, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model of transformation. To acquire immortality and malignancy, the cultured finite lifespan HMEC must overcome two distinct proliferation barriers. The first barrier, stasis, is mediated by the retinoblastoma protein and can be overcome by loss of p16 INK4A expression. HMEC that escape stasis and continue to proliferate become genomically unstable before encountering a second more stringent proliferation barrier, telomere dysfunction due to telomere attrition. Rare cells that acquire telomerase expression may escape this barrier, become immortal, and develop further malignant properties. Our analysis of HMEC transitioning from finite lifespan to malignantly transformed showed that aberrant DNA methylation changes occur in a stepwise fashion early in the transformation process. The first aberrant DNA methylation step coincides with overcoming stasis, and results in few to hundreds of changes, depending upon how stasis was overcome. A second step coincides with immortalization, and results in hundreds of additional DNA methylation changes, regardless of the immortalization pathway. A majority of these DNA methylation changes are also found in malignant breast cancer cells. These results show that large-scale epigenetic remodeling occurs in the earliest steps of mammary carcinogenesis, temporally links DNA methylation changes and overcoming cellular proliferation barriers, and provides a bank of potential epigenetic biomarkers that may prove useful in breast cancer risk assessment. PMID:19509227

  3. HPV16 E7 protein and hTERT proteins defective for telomere maintenance cooperate to immortalize human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Miller

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wild-type human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT protein can functionally replace the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. In the current study, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERT-D868A, elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA, and telomere recruitment-defective hTERT (hTERT N+T also cooperate with E7 in mediating bypass of the senescence blockade and effecting cell immortalization. This suggests that hTERT has activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions that mediate transit across this restriction point. Since hTERT has been shown to have a role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies and discovered that E6, hTERT and mutant hTERT proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Most important, the E6 and hTERT proteins induced mRNA and protein levels of Bmi1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group (PcG complex 1. We show further that Bmi1 substitutes for E6 or hTERT in cell immortalization. Finally, tissue array studies demonstrated that expression of Bmi1 increased with the severity of cervical dysplasia, suggesting a potential role in the progression of cervical cancer. Together, these data demonstrate that hTERT has extra-telomeric activities that facilitate cell immortalization and that its induction of Bmi1 is one potential mechanism for mediating this activity.

  4. Establishment and characterization of a spontaneously immortalized trophoblast cell line (HPT-8) and its hepatitis B virus-expressing clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Weilu; Shao, Chen; Zhang, Jingxia; Men, Ke; Shao, Zhongjun; Yan, Yongping; Xu, Dezhong

    2011-08-01

    Most trophoblast cell lines currently available to study vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are immortalized by viral transformation. Our goal was to establish and characterize a spontaneously immortalized human first-trimester trophoblast cell line and its HBV-expressing clone. Chorionic villi of Asian human first-trimester placentae were digested with trypsin and collagenase I to obtain the primary trophoblast cell culture. A spontaneously immortalized trophoblast cell line (HPT-8) was analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, cell cycle analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. HPT-8 cells were stably transfected with the adr subtype of HBV (HPT-8-HBV) and characterized by PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We obtained a clonal derivative of a spontaneously immortalized primary cell clone (HPT-8). HPT-8 cells were epithelioid and polygonal, and formed multinucleate, giant cells. They exhibited microvilli, distinct desmosomes between adjacent cells, abundant endoplasm, lipid inclusions and glycogen granules, which are all characteristic of cytotrophoblasts. HPT-8 cells expressed cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 18, vimentin, cluster of differentiation antigen 9, epidermal growth factor receptor, stromal cell-derived factor 1 and placental alkaline phosphatase. They secreted prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and hCG, and were positive for HLA-G, a marker of extravillous trophoblasts. HPT-8-HBV cells were positive for HBV relaxed-circular, covalently closed circular DNA and pre-S sequence. HPT-8-HBV cells also produced and secreted HBV surface antigen and HBV e antigen. We established a trophoblast cell line, HPT-8 and its HBV-expressing clone which could be valuable in exploring the mechanism of HBV viral integration in human trophoblasts during intrauterine infection.

  5. Terror management theory and the impact of individual and collective mortality salience on symbolic and literal immortality beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Brent

    2009-01-01

    According to Terror Management Theory (TMT), many human behaviors, attitudes, and thoughts are the result of an attempt to reduce the uncomfortable feelings associated with the knowledge that human life is finite. Although many of TMT’s postulates have been supported by research, the assumption that an underlying desire for literal or symbolic immortality is partly responsible for mortality salience responses has received less research attention. Additionally, there has been little research i...

  6. Immortality, but not oncogenic transformation, of primary human cells leads to epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Katrina; Clouaire, Thomas; Bao, Xun X; Kemp, Sadie E; Xenophontos, Maria; de Las Heras, Jose Ignacio; Stancheva, Irina

    2014-04-01

    Tumourigenic transformation of normal cells into cancer typically involves several steps resulting in acquisition of unlimited growth potential, evasion of apoptosis and non-responsiveness to growth inhibitory signals. Both genetic and epigenetic changes can contribute to cancer development and progression. Given the vast genetic heterogeneity of human cancers and difficulty to monitor cancer-initiating events in vivo, the precise relationship between acquisition of genetic mutations and the temporal progression of epigenetic alterations in transformed cells is largely unclear. Here, we use an in vitro model system to investigate the contribution of cellular immortality and oncogenic transformation of primary human cells to epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation and gene expression. Our data demonstrate that extension of replicative life span of the cells is sufficient to induce accumulation of DNA methylation at gene promoters and large-scale changes in gene expression in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, continuous expression of cooperating oncogenes in immortalized cells, although essential for anchorage-independent growth and evasion of apoptosis, does not affect de novo DNA methylation at promoters and induces subtle expression changes. Taken together, these observations imply that cellular immortality promotes epigenetic adaptation to highly proliferative state, whereas transforming oncogenes confer additional properties to transformed human cells.

  7. Establishment of an ex vivo pulpitis model by co-culturing immortalized dental pulp cells and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonehiro, J; Yamashita, A; Yoshida, Y; Yoshizawa, S; Ohta, K; Kamata, N; Okihara, T; Nishimura, F

    2012-12-01

    To establish an ex vivo pulpitis model by co-culturing dental pulp cells with macrophages. As dental pulp cells, immortalized human dental pulp cells, named DP-1, were used, whilst as macrophage cell lines, the differentiated human monocytic cell line, THP-1, was used. In some experiments, primary dental pulp cells were isolated and used to confirm the results obtained in the experiments using immortalized cells. Co-culturing was performed using transwell systems. Inflammatory responses were evaluated by measuring cytokines produced by the cells. Co-culturing both cell types markedly up-regulated inflammatory cytokine production as compared with the cells cultured independently, suggesting that both cell types interact with each other to synergistically produce higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, both DP-1 and primary dental pulp cells appeared to produce molecules stimulating macrophages to produce tumour necrosis factor-α-. Co-culturing immortalized dental pulp cells and macrophages may be a new ex vivo model for studying the pathophysiology of reversible pulpitis. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  8. GSK3 inhibitor-BIO regulates proliferation of immortalized pancreatic mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small molecule 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitor, is a pharmacological agent known to maintain self-renewal in human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs. However, the precise role of GSK3 in immortalized pancreatic mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs growth and survival is not completely understood at present. RESULTS: To determine whether this molecule is involved in controlling the proliferation of iPMSCs, we examined the effect of BIO on iPMSCs. We found that the inactivation of GSK3 by BIO can robustly stimulate iPMSCs proliferation and mass formation as shown by QRT-PCR, western blotting, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU immunostaining assay and tunel assay. However, we did not find the related roles of BIO on β cell differentiation by immunostaining, QRT-PCR assay, glucose-stimulated insulin release and C-peptide content analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BIO plays a key role in the regulation of cell mass proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated state of iPMSCs.

  9. Myelinating cocultures of rodent stem cell line-derived neurons and immortalized Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Kawakami, Emiko; Endo, Kentaro; Misawa, Hidemi; Watabe, Kazuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Myelination is one of the most remarkable biological events in the neuron-glia interactions for the development of the mammalian nervous system. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell-to-cell interactions in myelin synthesis in vitro, establishment of the myelinating system in cocultures of continuous neuronal and glial cell lines are desirable. In the present study, we performed co-culture experiments using rat neural stem cell-derived neurons or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived motoneurons with immortalized rat IFRS1 Schwann cells to establish myelinating cultures between these cell lines. Differentiated neurons derived from an adult rat neural stem cell line 1464R or motoneurons derived from a mouse ES cell line NCH4.3, were mixed with IFRS1 Schwann cells, plated, and maintained in serum-free F12 medium with B27 supplement, ascorbic acid, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Myelin formation was demonstrated by electron microscopy at 4 weeks in cocultures of 1464R-derived neurons or NCH4.3-derived motoneurons with IFRS1 Schwann cells. These in vitro coculture systems utilizing the rodent stable stem and Schwann cell lines can be useful in studies of peripheral nerve development and regeneration. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  10. Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci using immortalized F2 populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian Wen

    Full Text Available Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci (iQTLs is helpful for understanding the effects of genomic imprinting on complex traits in animals and plants. At present, the experimental designs and corresponding statistical methods having been proposed for iQTL mapping are all based on temporary populations including F2 and BC1, which can be used only once and suffer some other shortcomings respectively. In this paper, we propose a framework for iQTL mapping, including methods of interval mapping (IM and composite interval mapping (CIM based on conventional low-density genetic maps and point mapping (PM and composite point mapping (CPM based on ultrahigh-density genetic maps, using an immortalized F2 (imF2 population generated by random crosses between recombinant inbred lines or doubled haploid lines. We demonstrate by simulations that imF2 populations are very desirable and the proposed statistical methods (especially CIM and CPM are very powerful for iQTL mapping, with which the imprinting effects as well as the additive and dominance effects of iQTLs can be unbiasedly estimated.

  11. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  12. Shadows of the susceptible-infectious-susceptible immortality transition in small networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter

    2015-07-01

    Much of the research on the behavior of the SIS model on networks has concerned the infinite size limit; in particular the phase transition between a state where outbreaks can reach a finite fraction of the population, and a state where only a finite number would be infected. For finite networks, there is also a dynamic transition—the immortality transition—when the per-contact transmission probability λ reaches 1. If λ <1 , the probability that an outbreak will survive by an observation time t tends to zero as t →∞ ; if λ =1 , this probability is 1. We show that treating λ =1 as a critical point predicts the λ dependence of the survival probability also for more moderate λ values. The exponent, however, depends on the underlying network. This fact could, by measuring how a vertex's deletion changes the exponent, be used to evaluate the role of a vertex in the outbreak. Our work also confirms an extremely clear separation between the early die-off (from the outbreak failing to take hold in the population) and the later extinctions (corresponding to rare stochastic events of several consecutive transmission events failing to occur).

  13. Traceless Targeting and Isolation of Gene-Edited Immortalized Keratinocytes from Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex Patients

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    Magomet Aushev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS is a blistering skin disease caused by dominant-negative mutations in either KRT5 or KRT14, resulting in impairment of keratin filament structure and epidermal fragility. Currently, nearly 200 mutations distributed across the entire length of these genes are known to cause EBS. Genome editing using programmable nucleases enables the development of ex vivo gene therapies for dominant-negative genetic diseases. A clinically feasible strategy involves the disruption of the mutant allele while leaving the wild-type allele unaffected. Our aim was to develop a traceless approach to efficiently disrupt KRT5 alleles using TALENs displaying unbiased monoallelic disruption events and devise a strategy that allows for subsequent screening and isolation of correctly modified keratinocyte clones without the need for selection markers. Here we report on TALENs that efficiently disrupt the KRT5 locus in immortalized patient-derived EBS keratinocytes. Inactivation of the mutant allele using a TALEN working at sub-optimal levels resulted in restoration of intermediate filament architecture. This approach can be used for the functional inactivation of any mutant keratin allele regardless of the position of the mutation within the gene and is furthermore applicable to the treatment of other inherited skin disorders.

  14. The conserved mitochondrial gene distribution in relatives of Turritopsis nutricula, an immortal jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarapalli, Pratap; Kumavath, Ranjith N; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-01-01

    Turritopsis nutricula (T. nutricula) is the one of the known reported organisms that can revert its life cycle to the polyp stage even after becoming sexually mature, defining itself as the only immortal organism in the animal kingdom. Therefore, the animal is having prime importance in basic biological, aging, and biomedical researches. However, till date, the genome of this organism has not been sequenced and even there is no molecular phylogenetic study to reveal its close relatives. Here, using phylogenetic analysis based on available 16s rRNA gene and protein sequences of Cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (COI or COX1) of T. nutricula, we have predicted the closest relatives of the organism. While we found Nemopsis bachei could be closest organism based on COX1 gene sequence; T. dohrnii may be designated as the closest taxon to T. nutricula based on rRNA. Moreover, we have figured out four species that showed similar root distance based on COX1 protein sequence.

  15. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    Full Text Available Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  16. Biodentine induces immortalized murine pulp cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells and stimulates biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Marjorie; Sautier, Jean Michel; Berdal, Ariane; Simon, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Faussés, France), a new tricalcium silicate-based cement, has recently been commercialized and advertised as a bioactive material. Its clinical application and physical properties have been widely described, but, so far, its bioactivity and biological effect on pulp cells have not been clearly shown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effect of Biodentine on immortalized murine pulp cells (OD-21). OD-21 cells were cultured with or without Biodentine. Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) colorimetric assay after 2, 3, and 5 days of stimulation. The expression of several biomolecular markers was analyzed to screen differentiation pathways, both on a gene level with Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and on a protein level by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. Alizarin red staining was used to assess and quantify biomineralization. The expression patterns of several genes confirmed the differentiation of OD-21 cells into odontoblasts during the period of cell culture. Our results suggest that Biodentine is bioactive because it increased OD-21 cell proliferation and biomineralization in comparison with controls. Because of its bioactivity, Biodentine can be considered as a suitable material for clinical indications of dentin-pulp complex regeneration, such as direct pulp capping. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of surface charge of immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell monolayer on transport of charged solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Li, Guanglei; Gil, Eun Seok; Lowe, Tao Lu; Fu, Bingmei M

    2010-04-01

    Charge carried by the surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) of the cerebral endothelium has been shown to significantly modulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to charged solutes in vivo. The cultured monolayer of bEnd3, an immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell line, is becoming a popular in vitro BBB model due to its easy growth and maintenance of many BBB characteristics over repeated passages. To test whether the SGL of bEnd3 monolayer carries similar charge as that in the intact BBB and quantify this charge, which can be characterized by the SGL thickness (L(f)) and charge density (C(mf)), we measured the solute permeability of bEnd3 monolayer to neutral solutes and to solutes with similar size but opposite charges: negatively charged alpha-lactalbumin (-11) and positively charged ribonuclease (+3). Combining the measured permeability data with a transport model across the cell monolayer, we predicted the L(f) and the C(mf) of bEnd3 monolayer, which is approximately 160 nm and approximately 25 mEq/L, respectively. We also investigated whether orosomucoid, a plasma glycoprotein modulating the charge of the intact BBB, alters the charge of bEnd3 monolayer. We found that 1 mg/mL orosomucoid would increase SGL charge density of bEnd3 monolayer to approximately 2-fold of its control value.

  18. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Valentina; Jacca, Sarah; Sassu, Elena L; Stellari, Fabio F; van Santen, Vicky L; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs) was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  19. GSK3 Inhibitor-BIO Regulates Proliferation of Immortalized Pancreatic Mesenchymal Stem Cells (iPMSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Chu, Yuankui; Lv, Xiao; Qiu, Pubin; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Huiru; Li, Dan; Peng, Sha; Dou, Zhongying; Hua, Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    Background The small molecule 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO), a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor, is a pharmacological agent known to maintain self-renewal in human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the precise role of GSK3 in immortalized pancreatic mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs) growth and survival is not completely understood at present. Results To determine whether this molecule is involved in controlling the proliferation of iPMSCs, we examined the effect of BIO on iPMSCs. We found that the inactivation of GSK3 by BIO can robustly stimulate iPMSCs proliferation and mass formation as shown by QRT-PCR, western blotting, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining assay and tunel assay. However, we did not find the related roles of BIO on β cell differentiation by immunostaining, QRT-PCR assay, glucose-stimulated insulin release and C-peptide content analysis. Conclusions These results suggest that BIO plays a key role in the regulation of cell mass proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated state of iPMSCs. PMID:22384031

  20. Parabens enable suspension growth of MCF-10A immortalized, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Sugandha; Darbre, Philippa D

    2013-05-01

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are used extensively as preservatives in consumer products, and intact esters have been measured in several human tissues. Concerns of a potential link between parabens and breast cancer have been raised, but mechanistic studies have centred on their oestrogenic activity and little attention has been paid to any carcinogenic properties. In the present study, we report that parabens can induce anchorage-independent growth of MCF-10A immortalized but non-transformed human breast epithelial cells, a property closely related to transformation and a predictor of tumour growth in vivo. In semi-solid methocel suspension culture, MCF-10A cells produced very few colonies and only of a small size but the addition of 5 × 10(-4) M methylparaben, 10(-5) M n-propylparaben or 10(-5) M n-butylparaben resulted in a greater number of colonies per dish (P paraben concentrations in human breast tissue samples from 40 mastectomies (Barr et al., 2012) showed that 22/40 of the patients had at least one of the parabens at the site of the primary tumour at or above these concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that parabens can induce a transformed phenotype in human breast epithelial cells in vitro, and further investigation is now justified into a potential link between parabens and breast carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Generation and Characterization of the First Immortalized Alpaca Cell Line Suitable for Diagnostic and Immunization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Valentina; Jacca, Sarah; Sassu, Elena L.; Stellari, Fabio F.; van Santen, Vicky L.; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs) was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry. PMID:25140515

  2. Rat embryonic fibroblasts immortalized by MRPS18-2 protein are target for NK-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Pangigadde, Pradeepa N; Darekar, Suhas; Dissen, Erik; Kashuba, Elena

    2017-09-12

    Overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs). The derived cells (18IM) expressed embryonic stem cell markers. Noteworthy, genes encoding the COX family proteins were up-regulated significantly. It is known that the COX family proteins are involved in the regulation of immune response. In the present work we demonstrate that 18IM cells behave like stem cells when subjected to directed differentiation in vitro. However, unlike stem cells, 18IM cells do not develop tumors in vivo, in SCID mice. This phenomenon is observed due to the strong natural killer (NK) cell immunogenicity. 18IM cells were better recognized by NK cells, compared with primary REFs, as was shown by a standard NK killing assay. Our data explain asymmetry in behavior of stem-like cells in vivo and in vitro, and this support the notion that stem and/or cancer-initiating cells are preferred targets for NK-cells. Concluding, the S18-2 protein is a putative target for cancer vaccines.

  3. Immortalization of different precursors of glial cells with a targeted and temperature-sensitive oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, R; Le Bert, M; Borde, I; Galiana, E; Evrard, C; Rouget, P

    1994-09-01

    Different types of glial precursor cell lines were obtained after stable transfection of brain cells with the pJC-SVLTtsA vector carrying the tsA58 simian virus 40 large T (SVLT) gene driven by the promoter of a gliotropic strain of JC papovavirus. The immortalized cells were conditional for growth: they expressed the SVLT antigen and proliferated at 34 degrees C, but their growth was either reduced or arrested when they were shifted to 39 degrees C. The differentiation characteristics of four representative lines were more extensively studied. The CR15 and CM8 lines displayed properties of bipotential glial progenitors: they were able to express oligodendrocyte markers at both temperatures, but could differentiate into astrocytes only at 39 degrees C. In contrast, the CR19 and CM3r lines corresponded to more committed oligodendrocyte precursors: they expressed various oligodendroglial markers but they could not synthesize the glial fibrillary acidic protein. More particularly, the CM3r mouse cells displayed a typical oligodendrocyte progenitor morphology and expressed the proteolipid protein mRNA.

  4. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  5. Effects of ALA-PDT on HPV16-immortalized cervical epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S X; Ren, X Y; Pan, Y L; Guan, D D; Liu, S; Zou, X Y; Shi, C G; Li, Y Z; Zhang, Y Z

    2017-01-01

    Current treatments for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) type are mainly surgical interventions. However, such treatments are associated with adverse side effects and pose risks for future pregnancies. In order to reduce the requirement for excisional procedures, an effective and noninvasive therapy is needed for women at reproductive age. ALA-PDT has proved to be effective in the treatment of HPV-associated disease in several clinical investigations. In this study, the anti-proliferative effect of ALA-PDT was investigated in HPV16-immortalized cervical epithelial H8 cells. CCK-8 assay was used to measure cytotoxicity in H8 cells. The IC50 of ALA-PDT on H8 cells was about 120.75 ± 1.18 µM. We have now evaluated the mechanism by which ALA-PDT induces cell death. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed a significant dose-dependent induction of apoptosis by ALA-PDT in H8 cells, associated with accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, ALA-PDT down-regulates expression of HPV E6/E7 oncogene as well as up-regulate tumor suppressor RbAp48 protein. Together, our data provides a basis for understanding and developing ALA-PDT as a cure for HPV infection-associated diseases and prevention of cervical cancer.

  6. C60 Fullerene Localization and Membrane Interactions in RAW 264.7 Immortalized Mouse Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, K. A.; Elvati, P.; Parsonage, T. L.; Dews, A.; Jarvis, J. A.; Ray, M.; Schneider, B.; Smith, P. J. S.; Williamson, P. T. F.; Violi, A.; Philbert, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    There continues to be a significant increase in the number and complexity of hydrophobic nanomaterials that are engineered for a variety of commercial purposes making human exposure a significant health concern. This study uses a combination of biophysical, biochemical and computational methods to probe potential mechanisms for uptake of C60 nanoparticles into various compartments of living immune cells. Cultures of RAW 264.7 immortalized murine macrophage were used as a canonical model of immune-competent cells that are likely to provide the first line of defense following inhalation. Modes of entry studied were endocytosis/pinocytosis and passive permeation of cellular membranes. The evidence suggests marginal uptake of C60 clusters is achieved through endocytosis/pinocytosis, and that passive diffusion into membranes provides a significant source of biologically-available nanomaterial. Computational modeling of both a single molecule and a small cluster of fullerenes predicts that low concentrations of fullerenes enter the membrane individually and produce limited perturbation; however, at higher concentrations the clusters in the membrane causes deformation of the membrane. These findings are bolstered by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of model membranes that reveal deformation of the cell membrane upon exposure to high concentrations of fullerenes. The atomistic and NMR models fail to explain escape of the particle out of biological membranes, but are limited to idealized systems that do not completely recapitulate the complexity of cell membranes. The surprising contribution of passive modes of cellular entry provides new avenues for toxicological research that go beyond the pharmacological inhibition of bulk transport systems such as pinocytosis. PMID:26866469

  7. [SOUND CONTACTS] Transcendence and immortality in Busoni’s "Doktor Faust"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella DiGiulio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The categorization of the many musical and literary works inspired by the Faust legend is based on their two possible conclusions: Faust ends up in hell or is redeemed and attaints heaven. Busoni’s work is often categorized in terms of the redemptive form. I will analyze a third possibility: during the last part of the nineteenth century, philosophers conceptualized that man’s feelings of unhappiness came from his confinement into an eternal recurrence and that life doesn’t end with the death. Scholars tend to ignore the links between Doktor Faust and these philosophical thoughts because of Busoni’s explicit denial of such intentions. And yet Busoni wrote that an opera is the highest form of artistic expression, where music gives words to the unspoken. Therefore I will argue that Busoni characterizes Doktor Faust as a hybridization of the new philosophical theories with literature and music. Busoni’s depiction of the main character in this opera may not be intentional, but the composer summed up all the qualities of Nietzsche’s Übermensch, D’Annunzio’s Superuomo, and Pascoli’s fanciullino in Faust. Faust discovers his own transcendent power, which is independent from the material universe and yet belongs to nature’s laws that are beyond God and the evil. Doktor Faust’s attainment of immortality does not pray for divine redemption and wins out over everything: in this opera, Faust is neither redeemed nor damned. Faust becomes aware that death is nothing but the means that lead to rebirth: “ich, Faust, ein ewiger Wille”.

  8. A nuclear Argonaute promotes multi-generational epigenetic inheritance and germline immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Bethany; Burkhart, Kirk; Gu, Sam Guoping; Spracklin, George; Kershner, Aaron; Fritz, Heidi; Kimble, Judith; Fire, Andrew; Kennedy, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic information is frequently erased near the start of each new generation (1). In some cases, however, epigenetic information can be transmitted from parent to progeny (epigenetic inheritance) (2). A particularly striking example of epigenetic inheritance is dsRNA-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) in C. elegans, which can be inherited for more than five generations (3–8). To understand this process we conducted a genetic screen for animals defective for transmitting RNAi silencing signals to future generations. This screen identified the gene heritable RNAi defective (hrde)-1. hrde-1 encodes an Argonaute (Ago) that associates with small interfering (si)RNAs in germ cells of the progeny of animals exposed to dsRNA. In nuclei of these germ cells, HRDE-1 engages the Nrde nuclear RNAi pathway to direct H3K9me3 at RNAi targeted genomic loci and promote RNAi inheritance. Under normal growth conditions, HRDE-1 associates with endogenously expressed siRNAs, which direct nuclear gene silencing in germ cells. In hrde-1 or nuclear RNAi deficient animals, germline silencing is lost over generational time. Concurrently, these animals exhibit steadily worsening defects in gamete formation and function that ultimately lead to sterility. These results establish that the Ago HRDE-1 directs gene-silencing events in germ cell nuclei, which drive multi-generational RNAi inheritance and promote immortality of the germ cell lineage. We propose that C. elegans uses the RNAi inheritance machinery to transmit epigenetic information, accrued by past generations, into future generations to regulate important biological processes. PMID:22810588

  9. Arsenic compromises conducting airway epithelial barrier properties in primary mouse and immortalized human cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Sherwood

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM and submicromolar (0.8 μM arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-. We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway.

  10. Accumulation and altered localization of telomere-associated protein TRF2 in immortally transformed and tumor-derived human breast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijjar, Tarlochan; Bassett, Ekaterina; Garbe, James; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Stampfer, Martha R.; Gilley, David; Yaswen, Paul

    2004-12-23

    We have used cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and breast tumor-derived lines to gain information on defects that occur during breast cancer progression. HMEC immortalized by a variety of agents (the chemical carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene, oncogenes c-myc and ZNF217, and/or dominant negative p53 genetic suppressor element GSE22) displayed marked up regulation (10-15 fold) of the telomere binding protein, TRF2. Up-regulation of TRF2 protein was apparently due to differences in post-transcriptional regulation, as mRNA levels remained comparable in finite life span and immortal HMEC. TRF2 protein was not up-regulated by the oncogenic agents alone in the absence of immortalization, nor by expression of exogenously introduced hTERT genes. We found TRF2 levels to be at least 2-fold higher than in control cells in 11/15 breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that elevated TRF2 levels are a frequent occurrence during the transformation of breast tumor cells in vivo. The dispersed distribution of TRF2 throughout the nuclei in some immortalized and tumor-derived cells indicated that not all the TRF2 was associated with telomeres in these cells. The process responsible for accumulation of TRF2 in immortalized HMEC and breast tumor-derived cell lines may promote tumorigenesis by contributing to the cells ability to maintain an indefinite life span.

  11. RNA polymerase II stalling promotes nucleosome occlusion and pTEFb recruitment to drive immortalization by Epstein-Barr virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Palermo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV immortalizes resting B-cells and is a key etiologic agent in the development of numerous cancers. The essential EBV-encoded protein EBNA 2 activates the viral C promoter (Cp producing a message of ~120 kb that is differentially spliced to encode all EBNAs required for immortalization. We have previously shown that EBNA 2-activated transcription is dependent on the activity of the RNA polymerase II (pol II C-terminal domain (CTD kinase pTEFb (CDK9/cyclin T1. We now demonstrate that Cp, in contrast to two shorter EBNA 2-activated viral genes (LMP 1 and 2A, displays high levels of promoter-proximally stalled pol II despite being constitutively active. Consistent with pol II stalling, we detect considerable pausing complex (NELF/DSIF association with Cp. Significantly, we observe substantial Cp-specific pTEFb recruitment that stimulates high-level pol II CTD serine 2 phosphorylation at distal regions (up to +75 kb, promoting elongation. We reveal that Cp-specific pol II accumulation is directed by DNA sequences unfavourable for nucleosome assembly that increase TBP access and pol II recruitment. Stalled pol II then maintains Cp nucleosome depletion. Our data indicate that pTEFb is recruited to Cp by the bromodomain protein Brd4, with polymerase stalling facilitating stable association of pTEFb. The Brd4 inhibitor JQ1 and the pTEFb inhibitors DRB and Flavopiridol significantly reduce Cp, but not LMP1 transcript production indicating that Brd4 and pTEFb are required for Cp transcription. Taken together our data indicate that pol II stalling at Cp promotes transcription of essential immortalizing genes during EBV infection by (i preventing promoter-proximal nucleosome assembly and ii necessitating the recruitment of pTEFb thereby maintaining serine 2 CTD phosphorylation at distal regions.

  12. Production and Functional Characterization of Murine Osteoclasts Differentiated from ER-Hoxb8-Immortalized Myeloid Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zach

    Full Text Available In vitro differentiation into functional osteoclasts is routinely achieved by incubation of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, or primary as well as cryopreserved spleen and bone marrow-derived cells with soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Additionally, osteoclasts can be derived from co-cultures with osteoblasts or by direct administration of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand to RAW 264.7 macrophage lineage cells. However, despite their benefits for osteoclast-associated research, these different methods have several drawbacks with respect to differentiation yields, time and animal consumption, storage life of progenitor cells or the limited potential for genetic manipulation of osteoclast precursors. In the present study, we therefore established a novel protocol for the differentiation of osteoclasts from murine ER-Hoxb8-immortalized myeloid stem cells. We isolated and immortalized bone marrow cells from wild type and genetically manipulated mouse lines, optimized protocols for osteoclast differentiation and compared these cells to osteoclasts derived from conventional sources. In vitro generated ER-Hoxb8 osteoclasts displayed typical osteoclast characteristics such as multi-nucleation, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining of supernatants and cells, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption activity. Furthermore, the osteoclast differentiation time course was traced on a gene expression level. Increased expression of osteoclast-specific genes and decreased expression of stem cell marker genes during differentiation of osteoclasts from ER-Hoxb8-immortalized myeloid progenitor cells were detected by gene array and confirmed by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR approaches. In summary, we established a novel method for the quantitative production of murine bona fide osteoclasts from ER-Hoxb8 stem cells generated from

  13. Artichoke compound cynarin differentially affects the survival, growth and stress response of normal, immortalized and cancerous human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezer, Ceren; Yücecan, Sevinç; Rattan, Suresh Inder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cynarin (CYN) is the main derivative of caffeoylquinic acid, found in leaves and heads of artichoke. Potential health-beneficial effects of CYN include as being choloretic-cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, and antioxidative. We have tested the effects of various doses...... of CYN on the proliferative potential, survival, morphology, and stress response (SR) markers haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) in normal human skin fibroblasts (FSF-1), telomerase-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSC) and cervical cancer cells, HeLa. Effects of CYN...

  14. Regulation of hTERT Expression and Function in Newly Immortalized p53(+) Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    human mammary epithelial cell types by human papilloma virus 16 e6 or e7. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:3687-91. 54. Shay JW, Pereira-Smith OM, Wright...Liu X-L, Chu Q, Gao Q, Band V. Immortalization of distinct human mammary epithelial cell types by human papilloma virus 16 e6 or e7. Proc Nat Acad...molecular genetics of glioma development. Cancer Res 2003; 63:4854-61. 41. Foster SA, Galloway DA. Human papillomavirus type 16 e7 alleviates a

  15. Human conditionally immortalized neural stem cells improve locomotor function after spinal cord injury in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A growing number of studies have highlighted the potential of stem cell and more-differentiated neural cell transplantation as intriguing therapeutic approaches for neural repair after spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods A conditionally immortalized neural stem cell line derived from human fetal spinal cord tissue (SPC-01) was used to treat a balloon-induced SCI. SPC-01 cells were implanted into the lesion 1 week after SCI. To determine the feasibility of tracking transplanted stem cells, a portion of the SPC-01 cells was labeled with poly-L-lysine-coated superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles, and the animals grafted with labeled cells underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Functional recovery was evaluated by using the BBB and plantar tests, and lesion morphology, endogenous axonal sprouting and graft survival, and differentiation were analyzed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to evaluate the effect of transplanted SPC-01 cells on endogenous regenerative processes. Results Transplanted animals displayed significant motor and sensory improvement 2 months after SCI, when the cells robustly survived in the lesion and partially filled the lesion cavity. qPCR revealed the increased expression of rat and human neurotrophin and motor neuron genes. The grafted cells were immunohistologically positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); however, we found 25% of the cells to be positive for Nkx6.1, an early motor neuron marker. Spared white matter and the robust sprouting of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43)+ axons were found in the host tissue. Four months after SCI, the grafted cells matured into Islet2+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ neurons, and the graft was grown through with endogenous neurons. Grafted cells labeled with poly-L-lysine-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles before transplantation were detected in the lesion on T2-weighted images as hypointense spots that correlated with histologic staining for

  16. Conditionally immortalized stem cell lines from human spinal cord retain regional identity and generate functional V2a interneurons and motorneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Graham; Romanyuk, Nataliya; Amemori, Takashi; Jendelova, Pavla; Forostyak, Oksana; Jeffries, Aaron R; Perfect, Leo; Thuret, Sandrine; Dayanithi, Govindan; Sykova, Eva; Price, Jack

    2013-06-07

    The use of immortalized neural stem cells either as models of neural development in vitro or as cellular therapies in central nervous system (CNS) disorders has been controversial. This controversy has centered on the capacity of immortalized cells to retain characteristic features of the progenitor cells resident in the tissue of origin from which they were derived, and the potential for tumorogenicity as a result of immortalization. Here, we report the generation of conditionally immortalized neural stem cell lines from human fetal spinal cord tissue, which addresses these issues. Clonal neural stem cell lines were derived from 10-week-old human fetal spinal cord and conditionally immortalized with an inducible form of cMyc. The derived lines were karyotyped, transcriptionally profiled by microarray, and assessed against a panel of spinal cord progenitor markers with immunocytochemistry. In addition, the lines were differentiated and assessed for the presence of neuronal fate markers and functional calcium channels. Finally, a clonal line expressing eGFP was grafted into lesioned rat spinal cord and assessed for survival, differentiation characteristics, and tumorogenicity. We demonstrate that these clonal lines (a) retain a clear transcriptional signature of ventral spinal cord progenitors and a normal karyotype after extensive propagation in vitro, (b) differentiate into relevant ventral neuronal subtypes with functional T-, L-, N-, and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels and spontaneous calcium oscillations, and (c) stably engraft into lesioned rat spinal cord without tumorogenicity. We propose that these cells represent a useful tool both for the in vitro study of differentiation into ventral spinal cord neuronal subtypes, and for examining the potential of conditionally immortalized neural stem cells to facilitate functional recovery after spinal cord injury or disease.

  17. Immortal Ring-Opening Polymerization of rac-Lactide Using Polymeric Alcohol as Initiator to Prepare Graft Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a small molecular protic initiator, immortal ring-opening polymerization (ROP of lactide (LA is a highly efficient strategy to synthesize polylactide in a controllable manner, while using polymeric alcohol as an initiator has been less investigated. A series of polymeric alcohols (PS–OH composed of styrene and 4.3%–18% hydroxyl functional styrene (diethyl(hydroxy(4-vinylphenylmethylphosphonate, St–OH were synthesized through reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT polymerization. Using PS–OH as an initiator, the immortal ROP of rac-LA was catalyzed by dibutylmagnesium (MgnBu2 under various ratios of monomer to hydroxyl group within PS–OH to generate polystyrene-g-polylactide (PS–g–PLA copolymers with different graft lengths. After thermal annealing at 115 °C, the PLA domain aggregated to nanospheres among the PS continuum. The size of the nanospheres, varying from 130.1 to 224.2 nm, was related to the graft density and length of PS–g–PLA. Nanoporous films were afforded through chemical etching of the PLA component.

  18. TP53-dependent chromosome instability is associated with transient reductions in telomere length in immortal telomerase-positive cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J. L.; Jordan, R.; Liber, H.; Murnane, J. P.; Evans, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Telomere shortening in telomerase-negative somatic cells leads to the activation of the TP53 protein and the elimination of potentially unstable cells. We examined the effect of TP53 gene expression on both telomere metabolism and chromosome stability in immortal, telomerase-positive cell lines. Telomere length, telomerase activity, and chromosome instability were measured in multiple clones isolated from three related human B-lymphoblast cell lines that vary in TP53 expression; TK6 cells express wild-type TP53, WTK1 cells overexpress a mutant form of TP53, and NH32 cells express no TP53 protein. Clonal variations in both telomere length and chromosome stability were observed, and shorter telomeres were associated with higher levels of chromosome instability. The shortest telomeres were found in WTK1- and NH32-derived cells, and these cells had 5- to 10-fold higher levels of chromosome instability. The primary marker of instability was the presence of dicentric chromosomes. Aneuploidy and other stable chromosome alterations were also found in clones showing high levels of dicentrics. Polyploidy was found only in WTK1-derived cells. Both telomere length and chromosome instability fluctuated in the different cell populations with time in culture, presumably as unstable cells and cells with short telomeres were eliminated from the growing population. Our results suggest that transient reductions in telomere lengths may be common in immortal cell lines and that these alterations in telomere metabolism can have a profound effect on chromosome stability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans RSD-2 and RSD-6 promote germ cell immortality by maintaining small interfering RNA populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Aisa; Sarkies, Peter; Simon, Matt; Doebley, Anna-Lisa; Goldstein, Leonard D; Hedges, Ashley; Ikegami, Kohta; Alvares, Stacy M; Yang, Liwei; LaRocque, Jeannine R; Hall, Julie; Miska, Eric A; Ahmed, Shawn

    2014-10-14

    Germ cells are maintained in a pristine non-aging state as they proliferate over generations. Here, we show that a novel function of the Caenorhabditis elegans RNA interference proteins RNAi spreading defective (RSD)-2 and RSD-6 is to promote germ cell immortality at high temperature. rsd mutants cultured at high temperatures became progressively sterile and displayed loss of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target spermatogenesis genes, simple repeats, and transposons. Desilencing of spermatogenesis genes occurred in late-generation rsd mutants, although defective spermatogenesis was insufficient to explain the majority of sterility. Increased expression of repetitive loci occurred in both germ and somatic cells of late-generation rsd mutant adults, suggesting that desilencing of many heterochromatic segments of the genome contributes to sterility. Nuclear RNAi defective (NRDE)-2 promotes nuclear silencing in response to exogenous double-stranded RNA, and our data imply that RSD-2, RSD-6, and NRDE-2 function in a common transgenerational nuclear silencing pathway that responds to endogenous siRNAs. We propose that RSD-2 and RSD-6 promote germ cell immortality at stressful temperatures by maintaining transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of endogenous siRNA populations that promote genome silencing.

  20. Long-chain fatty acids increase cellular dopamine in an immortalized cell line (MN9D) derived from mouse mesencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Alfred; Won, Lisa; Bubula, Nancy; Hessefort, Suzanne; Kurutz, Josh W; Reddy, Giridher A; Gross, Martin

    2005-03-07

    The lysate of an immortalized monoclonal cell line derived from the striatum (X61) contains a dopaminergic stimulatory activity that is capable of increasing the dopamine content of an immortalized mouse mesencephalic cell line (MN9D) which expresses a dopaminergic phenotype. Purification of an isoamyl alcohol extract of this lysate and subsequent identification by NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that the dopaminergic stimulatory activity contained within the lysate was a mixture of 80-90% cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid) and 10-20% cis-11-octadecenoic acid (cis-vaccenic acid). The effect of oleic acid on MN9D dopamine is a prolonged event. MN9D dopamine increases linearly over a 48 h period suggesting the induction of an increased dopaminergic phenotype in these dividing cells. The ability to increase MN9D dopamine by oleic and cis-vaccenic acids is shared by a number of other long-chain fatty acids including arachidonic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitoleic, and cis-13-octadecenoic acid. The possibility that oleic or other relatively innocuous fatty acids might affect dopaminergic function in primary neurons is intriguing with respect to possible therapeutic approaches to the treatment of dopaminergic cell loss and the motor sequelae of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Krása a nesmrteľnosť. O plodení u Platóna a Shakespeara (Beauty and Immortality. On Procreation in Plato and Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vydra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two moments referred in this essay: (1 A human being, which desires for immortality, desires for to be alive in his child or in an artwork. (2 Full human being’s desire is related for beauty. Is a beauty the same thing as immortality? How looks the relation between them? Shakespeare’s Sonnets begin with the challenge to his friend to procreate the offspring, because this is a way for immortality of the friend’s beauty. And if it is not a child, than verse refused him before the death or the Lethe. Similarly, Plato’s Socrates says in Symposium about his meeting with Diotima of Mantineia. She told him the oration on real Beauty without accidents. To see real Beauty means to be immortal, likewise the gods. Thus, could be a human being immortal?

  2. Determination of Acute Lethal and Chronic Lethal Thresholds of Valproic Acid using 3D Spheroids Constructed from the Immortal Human Hepatocyte Cell Line Hepg2/C3A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fey, S. J.; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    describe here a culture system based on 3D spheroid culture of immortal hepatocytes which can determine the toxicity of valproic acid (or structurally or functionally related molecules) in vitro. The spheroids were used to follow changes in ATP production, glucose uptake and adenylate kinase following...

  3. Death anxiety and symbolic immortality in relatives at risk for familial amyloid polyneuropathy type I (FAP I, ATTR V30M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paula I; Figueiredo, Eurico; Gomes, Inês; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    This study is an investigation of the impact of familial amyloid polyneuropathy type I (FAP I, ATTR V30M) on death anxiety and symbolic immortality. Templer and Drolet's scales were administered to 524 individuals: (1) 84 relatives at risk, (2) 92 relatives not at risk for FAP I; and (3) a control group (n = 348) with no known hereditary disease in their families. At-risk relatives had, on average, a higher score for death anxiety and a lower score for symbolic immortality, than either those not-at-risk or controls. There were no significant differences in scores on either measure for those not-at-risk versus controls. Being at risk increases death anxiety and threatens the sense of symbolic immortality and psychosocial wellbeing. This may be true for other serious hereditary disorders as well. Genetic counsellors should become familiar with these concepts, feel comfortable initiating discussions about death with their patients, and be able to identify and reinforce their patients' and family members' sense of symbolic immortality.

  4. Perspectives on Immortality and Eternal Life in the Book of Wisdom and the Gospel of John: A Conceptual Analysis Based on Metaphorical Structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentin, R.I.

    2016-01-01

    The similarities between the Fourth Gospel and wisdom literature have been addressed by many scholars. This study is also intended to continue along this line by looking at the particular link between the Wisdom of Solomon and the Gospel of John with a specific focus on the concepts of immortality

  5. Species-specific functions of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2 reveal dual roles for initiation and maintenance of B cell immortalization.

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    Janine Mühe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and related lymphocryptoviruses (LCV from non-human primates infect B cells, transform their growth to facilitate life-long viral persistence in the host, and contribute to B cell oncogenesis. Co-evolution of LCV with their primate hosts has led to species-specificity so that LCVs preferentially immortalize B cells from their natural host in vitro. We investigated whether the master regulator of transcription, EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2, is involved in LCV species-specificity. Using recombinant EBVs, we show that EBNA2 orthologues of LCV isolated from chimpanzees, baboons, cynomolgus or rhesus macaques cannot replace EBV EBNA2 for the immortalization of human B cells. Thus, LCV species-specificity is functionally linked to viral proteins expressed during latent, growth-transforming infection. In addition, we identified three independent domains within EBNA2 that act through species-specific mechanisms. Importantly, the EBNA2 orthologues and species-specific EBNA2 domains separate unique roles for EBNA2 in the initiation of B cell immortalization from those responsible for maintaining the immortalized state. Investigating LCV species-specificity provides a novel approach to identify critical steps underlying EBV-induced B cell growth transformation, persistent infection, and oncogenesis.

  6. Immortalization of T-Cells Is Accompanied by Gradual Changes in CpG Methylation Resulting in a Profile Resembling a Subset of T-Cell Leukemias

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    Sofie Degerman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously described gene expression changes during spontaneous immortalization of T-cells, thereby identifying cellular processes important for cell growth crisis escape and unlimited proliferation. Here, we analyze the same model to investigate the role of genome-wide methylation in the immortalization process at different time points pre-crisis and post-crisis using high-resolution arrays. We show that over time in culture there is an overall accumulation of methylation alterations, with preferential increased methylation close to transcription start sites (TSSs, islands, and shore regions. Methylation and gene expression alterations did not correlate for the majority of genes, but for the fraction that correlated, gain of methylation close to TSS was associated with decreased gene expression. Interestingly, the pattern of CpG site methylation observed in immortal T-cell cultures was similar to clinical T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL samples classified as CpG island methylator phenotype positive. These sites were highly overrepresented by polycomb target genes and involved in developmental, cell adhesion, and cell signaling processes. The presence of non-random methylation events in in vitro immortalized T-cell cultures and diagnostic T-ALL samples indicates altered methylation of CpG sites with a possible role in malignant hematopoiesis.

  7. Low p16INK4a Expression in Early Passage Human Prostate Basal Epithelial Cells Enables Immortalization by Telomerase Expression Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mindy Kim; Principessa, Lorenzo; Antony, Lizamma; Meeker, Alan K; Isaacs, John T

    2017-03-01

    There are two principal senescence barriers that must be overcome to successfully immortalize primary human epithelial cells in culture, stress-induced senescence, and replicative senescence. The p16INK4a /retinoblastoma protein (p16/Rb) pathway mediates stress-induced senescence, and is generally upregulated by primary epithelial cells in response to the artificial conditions from tissue culture. Replicative senescence is associated with telomere loss. Following each round of cell division, telomeres progressively shorten. Once telomeres shorten to a critical length, the DNA damage response pathway is activated, and the tumor suppressor p53 pathway triggers replicative senescence. Exogenous expression of telomerase in normal human epithelial cells extends the replicative capacity of cells, and in some cases, immortalizes cells. However reliable immortalization of epithelial cells usually requires telomerase activity coupled with inactivation of the p16/Rb pathway. A lentiviral vector, pLOX-TERT-iresTK (Addgene #12245), containing a CMV promoter upstream of a bicistronic coding cassette that includes loxP sites flanking the catalytic subunit of human telomerase gene (TERT) and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase gene (HSV1-tk) was used to transduce normal prostate basal epithelial cells (PrECs) initiated in cell culture from prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomies. Transduction of early (i.e., 7) passage PrECs were unsuccessful. Late passage PrECs, which acquired elevated p16, were unable to overcome the senescence barrier. Immortalized PrECs (TERT-PrECs) retained a normal male karyotype and low p16 expression. Additionally, TERT-PrECs were non-tumorigenic when inoculated into intact male immunodeficient NSG mice. The present studies document that early passage human PrECs have sufficiently low p16 to permit immortalization by TERT expression alone. TERT-PrECs developed using this transduction approach provides an appropriate and

  8. Integration of ALV intoCTDSPLandCTDSPL2genes in B-cell lymphomas promotes cell immortalization, migration and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Shelby; Flynn, Alyssa; Malhotra, Sanandan; Balagopal, Vidya; Beemon, Karen L

    2017-08-22

    Avian leukosis virus induces tumors in chickens by integrating into the genome and altering expression of nearby genes. Thus, ALV can be used as an insertional mutagenesis tool to identify novel genes involved in tumorigenesis. Deep sequencing analysis of viral integration sites has identified CTDSPL and CTDSPL2 as common integration sites in ALV-induced B-cell lymphomas, suggesting a potential role in driving oncogenesis. We show that in tumors with integrations in these genes, the viral promoter is driving the expression of a truncated fusion transcript. Overexpression in cultured chick embryo fibroblasts reveals that CTDSPL and CTDSPL2 have oncogenic properties, including promoting cell migration. We also show that CTDSPL2 has a previously uncharacterized role in protecting cells from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Further, the truncated viral fusion transcripts of both CTDSPL and CTDSPL2 promote immortalization in primary cell culture.

  9. MicroRNA-4739 regulates osteogenic and adipocytic differentiation of immortalized human bone marrow stromal cells via targeting LRP3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, Mona; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Alajez, Nehad M

    2017-01-01

    3 (LRP3) in regulating the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of immortalized hBMSCs. Gene expression profiling revealed significantly higher LRP3 levels in the highly osteogenic hBMSC clone imCL1 than in the less osteogenic clone imCL2, as well as a significant upregulation of LRP3 during......Understanding the regulatory networks underlying lineage differentiation and fate determination of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) is a prerequisite for their therapeutic use. The goal of the current study was to unravel the novel role of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein...... the osteogenic induction of the imCL1 clone. Data from functional and gene expression assays demonstrated the role of LRP3 as a molecular switch promoting hBMSC lineage differentiation into osteoblasts and inhibiting differentiation into adipocytes. Interestingly, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling identified...

  10. Myth about immortality in the contemporary pop culture: A case study about Toše Proeski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the intersection of death and ideology in the sphere of popular culture, as exemplified by the afterlife destiny of Toše Proeski, a Macedonian pop singer whose huge popularity continued even after his death. His sudden, untimely death in his twenties had exploded as huge news, preoccupying all sorts of media. What I am interested in this paper is what has happened afterwards. In which way his popularity and his afterlife continue? Can we identify some kind of pop hero cult here, and is it possible to recognize common elements, or even a pattern according to which (newborn stars develop an afterlife destiny? Can we use this opportunity to discuss immortality myths? Do pop stars get monuments or are these reserved just for national heroes?

  11. Man should not let death attain the dominion of his thoughts: An Essay on Subjectivity, Self-Preservation and Immortality

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    Kasper Lysemose

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality seems to have no place in the theories on subjectivity in Kant and Husserl. It is suggested that this entente cordiale is an expression of the shared principle at the heart of their philosophy, i.e. the principle of selfpreservation. Self-preservation is a principle that in a certain sense excludes mortality. It is argued that the primary sense of this exclusion is not theoretical but practical. Kant and Husserl are both endorsing the imperative that man should not let death attain the dominion of his thoughts (cf. Mann 1976, 600. The positive correlate to this is to be found in the demand that man should think of himself as if he was immortal. With special regard to Husserl the predicament that accompanies his relentless attempt to fulfill this demand is described as a sluice through which anthropology threatens to flow into the phenomenological enterprise.

  12. A telomerase immortalized human proximal tubule cell line with a truncation mutation (Q4004X in polycystin-1.

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    Brittney-Shea Herbert

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is associated with a variety of cellular phenotypes in renal epithelial cells. Cystic epithelia are secretory as opposed to absorptive, have higher proliferation rates in cell culture and have some characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. In this communication we describe a telomerase immortalized cell line that expresses proximal tubule markers and is derived from renal cysts of an ADPKD kidney. These cells have a single detectable truncating mutation (Q4004X in polycystin-1. These cells make normal appearing but shorter cilia and fail to assemble polycystin-1 in the cilia, and less uncleaved polycystin-1 in membrane fractions. This cell line has been maintained in continuous passage for over 35 passages without going into senescence. Nephron segment specific markers suggest a proximal tubule origin for these cells and the cell line will be useful to study mechanistic details of cyst formation in proximal tubule cells.

  13. Sensitive Tumorigenic Potential Evaluation of Adult Human Multipotent Neural Cells Immortalized by hTERT Gene Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee Hang; Nam, Hyun; Jeong, Da Eun; Kim, Sung Soo; Song, Hye Jin; Pyeon, Hee Jang; Kang, Kyeongjin; Hong, Seung-Cheol; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells and therapeutic genes are emerging as a new therapeutic approach to treat various neurodegenerative diseases with few effective treatment options. However, potential formation of tumors by stem cells has hampered their clinical application. Moreover, adequate preclinical platforms to precisely test tumorigenic potential of stem cells are controversial. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of various animal models for in vivo stem cell tumorigenicity testing to identify the most sensitive platform. Then, tumorigenic potential of adult human multipotent neural cells (ahMNCs) immortalized by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene was examined as a stem cell model with therapeutic genes. When human glioblastoma (GBM) cells were injected into adult (4-6-week-old) Balb/c-nu, adult NOD/SCID, adult NOG, or neonate (1-2-week-old) NOG mice, the neonate NOG mice showed significantly faster tumorigenesis than that of the other groups regardless of intracranial or subcutaneous injection route. Two kinds of ahMNCs (682TL and 779TL) were primary cultured from surgical samples of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the ahMNCs were immortalized by lentiviral hTERT gene delivery (hTERT-682TL and hTERT-779TL), they did not form any detectable masses, even in the most sensitive neonate NOG mouse platform. Moreover, the hTERT-ahMNCs had no gross chromosomal abnormalities on a karyotype analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that neonate NOG mice could be a sensitive animal platform to test tumorigenic potential of stem cell therapeutics and that ahMNCs could be a genetically stable stem cell source with little tumorigenic activity to develop regenerative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Upregulation of the Cell-Cycle Regulator RGC-32 in Epstein-Barr Virus-Immortalized Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Sandra N.; Wood, C. David; Gunnell, Andrea; Webb, Helen M.; Khasnis, Sarika; Schepers, Aloys; West, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human tumours of lymphoid and epithelial origin. The virus infects and immortalizes B cells establishing a persistent latent infection characterized by varying patterns of EBV latent gene expression (latency 0, I, II and III). The CDK1 activator, Response Gene to Complement-32 (RGC-32, C13ORF15), is overexpressed in colon, breast and ovarian cancer tissues and we have detected selective high-level RGC-32 protein expression in EBV-immortalized latency III cells. Significantly, we show that overexpression of RGC-32 in B cells is sufficient to disrupt G2 cell-cycle arrest consistent with activation of CDK1, implicating RGC-32 in the EBV transformation process. Surprisingly, RGC-32 mRNA is expressed at high levels in latency I Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells and in some EBV-negative BL cell-lines, although RGC-32 protein expression is not detectable. We show that RGC-32 mRNA expression is elevated in latency I cells due to transcriptional activation by high levels of the differentially expressed RUNX1c transcription factor. We found that proteosomal degradation or blocked cytoplasmic export of the RGC-32 message were not responsible for the lack of RGC-32 protein expression in latency I cells. Significantly, analysis of the ribosomal association of the RGC-32 mRNA in latency I and latency III cells revealed that RGC-32 transcripts were associated with multiple ribosomes in both cell-types implicating post-initiation translational repression mechanisms in the block to RGC-32 protein production in latency I cells. In summary, our results are the first to demonstrate RGC-32 protein upregulation in cells transformed by a human tumour virus and to identify post-initiation translational mechanisms as an expression control point for this key cell-cycle regulator. PMID:22163048

  15. Contributions of differential p53 expression in the spontaneous immortalization of a chicken embryo fibroblast cell line

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    Kim Hyunggee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was carried out to determine whether the p53 pathway played a role in the spontaneous immortalization of the SC-2 chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cell line that has been in continuous culture for over three years. Results The SC-2 cell line emerged from an extended crisis period with a considerably slower growth rate than primary CEF cells. The phenotype of the SC-2 cells changed dramatically at about passage 80, appearing smaller than at earlier passages (e.g., passage 43 and possessing a small, compact morphology. This morphological change coincided with an increase in growth rate. Passage 43 SC-2 cells expressed undetectable levels of p53 mRNA, but by passage 95, the levels were elevated compared to primary passage 6 CEF cells and similar to levels in senescent CEF cells. However, the high level of p53 mRNA detected in passage 95 SC-2 cells did not correlate to functional protein activity. The expression levels of the p53-regulated p21WAF1 gene were significantly decreased in all SC-2 passages that were analyzed. Examination of the Rb pathway revealed that E2F-1 and p15INK4b expression fluctuated with increasing passages, with levels higher in passage 95 SC-2 cells compared to primary passage 6 CEF cells. Conclusion The present study suggests that altered expression of genes involved in the p53 and Rb pathways, specifically, p53 and p21WAF1, may have contributed to the immortalization of the SC-2 CEF cell line.

  16. Inactivation of p16INK4a, with retention of pRB and p53/p21cip1 function, in human MRC5 fibroblasts that overcome a telomere-independent crisis during immortalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa M; James, Alexander; Schuller, Christine E; Brce, Jesena; Lock, Richard B; Mackenzie, Karen L

    2004-10-15

    Recent investigations, including our own, have shown that specific strains of fibroblasts expressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) have an extended lifespan, but are not immortal. We previously demonstrated that hTERT-transduced MRC5 fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC5hTERTs) bypassed senescence but eventually succumbed to a second mortality barrier (crisis). In the present study, 67 MRC5hTERT clones were established by limiting dilution of a mass culture. Whereas 39/67 clones had an extended lifespan, all 39 extended lifespan clones underwent crisis. 11 of 39 clones escaped crisis and were immortalized. There was no apparent relationship between the fate of clones at crisis and the level of telomerase activity. Telomeres were hyperextended in the majority of the clones analyzed. There was no difference in telomere length of pre-crisis compared with post-crisis and immortal clones, indicating that hyperextended telomeres were conducive for immortalization and confirming that crisis was independent of telomere length. Immortalization of MRC5hTERT cells was associated with repression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a and up-regulation of pRB. However, the regulation of pRB phosphorylation and the response of the p53/p21cip1/waf1 pathway were normal in immortal cells subject to genotoxic stress. Overexpression of oncogenic ras failed to de-repress p16INK4a in immortal cells. Furthermore, expression of ras enforced senescent-like growth arrest in p16INK4a-positive, but not p16INK4a-negative MRC5hTERT cells. Immortal cells expressing ras formed small, infrequent colonies in soft agarose, but were non-tumorigenic. Overall, these results implicate the inactivation of p16INK4a as a critical event for overcoming telomere-independent crisis, immortalizing MRC5 fibroblasts and overcoming ras-induced premature senescence.

  17. A mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on expression of the SV40 large T antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Brugge, Petra J; Ta, Van B T; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W

    2009-01-01

    leukemia (CLL). Although B-cell development was unperturbed in young mice, aging mice showed accumulation of a monoclonal B-cell population in which the targeted IgH allele was in germline configuration and the wild-type IgH allele had a productive V(D)J recombination. These leukemic B cells were Ig...

  18. Characterization of a novel telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line, St-T1b

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    Brosens Jan J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated differentiation of the endometrial compartments in the second half of the menstrual cycle is a prerequisite for the establishment of pregnancy. Endometrial stromal cells (ESC decidualize under the influence of ovarian progesterone to accommodate implantation of the blastocyst and support establishment of the placenta. Studies into the mechanisms of decidualization are often hampered by the lack of primary ESC. Here we describe a novel immortalized human ESC line. Methods Primary ESC were immortalized by the transduction of telomerase. The resultant cell line, termed St-T1b, was characterized for its morphological and biochemical properties by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Its progestational response was tested using progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate with and without 8-Br-cAMP, an established inducer of decidualization in vitro. Results St-T1b were positive for the fibroblast markers vimentin and CD90 and negative for the epithelial marker cytokeratin-7. They acquired a decidual phenotype indistinguishable from primary ESC in response to cAMP stimulation. The decidual response was characterized by transcriptional activation of marker genes, such as PRL, IGFBP1, and FOXO1, and enhanced protein levels of the tumor suppressor p53 and the metastasis suppressor KAI1 (CD82. Progestins alone had no effect on St-T1b cells, but medroxyprogesterone acetate greatly enhanced the cAMP-stimulated expression of IGFBP-1 after 3 and 7 days. Progesterone, albeit more weakly, also augmented the cAMP-induced IGFBP-1 production but only after 7 days of treatment. The cell line remained stable in continuous culture for more than 150 passages. Conclusion St-T1b express the appropriate phenotypic ESC markers and their decidual response closely mimics that of primary cultures. Decidualization is efficiently induced by cAMP analog and enhanced by medroxyprogesterone acetate, and, to a lesser extent, by natural

  19. The combined effects of irradiation and herpes simplex virus type 1 infection on an immortal gingival cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral mucosa is frequently exposed to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and irradiation due to dental radiography. During radiotherapy for oral cancer, the surrounding clinically normal tissues are also irradiated. This prompted us to study the effects of HSV-1 infection and irradiation on viability and apoptosis of oral epithelial cells. Methods Immortal gingival keratinocyte (HMK) cells were infected with HSV-1 at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) and irradiated with 2 Gy 24 hours post infection. The cells were then harvested at 24, 72 and 144 hours post irradiation for viability assays and qRT-PCR analyses for the apoptosis-related genes caspases 3, 8, and 9, bcl-2, NFκB1, and viral gene VP16. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for statistical calculations. Results Irradiation improved the cell viability at 144 hours post irradiation (P = 0.05), which was further improved by HSV-1 infection at MOI of 0.00001 (P = 0.05). Simultaneously, the combined effects of infection at MOI of 0.0001 and irradiation resulted in upregulation in NFκB1 (P = 0.05). The combined effects of irradiation and HSV infection also significantly downregulated the expression of caspases 3, 8, and 9 at 144 hours (P = 0.05) whereas caspase 3 and 8 significantly upregulated in non-irradiated, HSV-infected cells as compared to uninfected controls (P = 0.05). Infection with 0.0001 MOI downregulated bcl-2 in non-irradiated cells but was upregulated by 27% after irradiation when compared to non-irradiated infected cells (P = 0.05). Irradiation had no effect on HSV-1 shedding or HSV gene expression at 144 hours. Conclusions HSV-1 infection may improve the viability of immortal cells after irradiation. The effect might be related to inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:25005804

  20. β-adrenergic receptor activation in immortalized human urothelial cells stimulates inflammatory responses by PKA-independent mechanisms

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    Porter James E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis (IC is a debilitating disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder, yet specific cellular mechanisms of inflammation in IC are largely unknown. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that β-adrenergic receptor (AR signaling is increased in the inflamed urothelium, however the precise effects of these urothelial cell signals have not been studied. In order to better elucidate the AR signaling mechanisms of inflammation associated with IC, we have examined the effects of β-AR stimulation in an immortalized human urothelial cell line (UROtsa. For these studies, UROtsa cells were treated with effective concentrations of the selective β-AR agonist isoproterenol, in the absence or presence of selective inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA. Cell lysates were analyzed by radioimmunoassay for generation of cAMP or by Western blotting for induction of protein products associated with inflammatory responses. Results Radioligand binding demonstrated the presence of β-ARs on human urothelial UROtsa cell membranes. Stimulating UROtsa cells with isoproterenol led to concentration-dependent increases of cAMP production that could be inhibited by pretreatment with a blocking concentration of the selective β-AR antagonist propranolol. In addition, isoproterenol activation of these same cells led to significant increases in the amount of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and the induced form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 when compared to control. Moreover, preincubation of UROtsa cells with the selective PKA inhibitors H-89 or Rp-cAMPs did not diminish this isoproterenol mediated phosphorylation of ERK or production of iNOS and COX-2. Conclusion Functional β-ARs expressed on human urothelial UROtsa cell membranes increase the generation of cAMP and production of protein products associated with inflammation when activated by the selective

  1. Short-term inhibition of TERT induces telomere length-independent cell cycle arrest and apoptotic response in EBV-immortalized and transformed B cells

    OpenAIRE

    Celeghin, Andrea; Giunco, Silvia; Freguja, Riccardo; Zangrossi, Manuela; Nalio, Silvia; Dolcetti, Riccardo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Besides its canonical role in stabilizing telomeres, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) may promote tumorigenesis through extra-telomeric functions. The possible therapeutic effects of BIBR1532 (BIBR), a powerful TERT inhibitor, have been evaluated in different cellular backgrounds, but no data are currently available regarding Epstein?Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell malignancies. Our aim was to characterize the biological effects of TERT inhibition by BIBR on EBV-immortalized lymphoblast...

  2. Large-scale analysis of protein expression changes in human keratinocytes immortalized by human papilloma virus type 16 E6 and E7 oncogenes

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    Arnouk Hilal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with high-risk type human papilloma viruses (HPVs is associated with cervical carcinomas and with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Viral E6 and E7 oncogenes cooperate to achieve cell immortalization by a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. Here, human keratinocytes were immortalized by long-term expression of HPV type 16 E6 or E7 oncoproteins, or both. Proteomic profiling was used to compare expression levels for 741 discrete protein features. Results Six replicate measurements were performed for each group using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. The median within-group coefficient of variation was 19–21%. Significance of between-group differences was tested based on Significance Analysis of Microarray and fold change. Expression of 170 (23% of the protein features changed significantly in immortalized cells compared to primary keratinocytes. Most of these changes were qualitatively similar in cells immortalized by E6, E7, or E6/7 expression, indicating convergence on a common phenotype, but fifteen proteins (~2% were outliers in this regulatory pattern. Ten demonstrated opposite regulation in E6- and E7-expressing cells, including the cell cycle regulator p16INK4a; the carbohydrate binding protein Galectin-7; two differentially migrating forms of the intermediate filament protein Cytokeratin-7; HSPA1A (Hsp70-1; and five unidentified proteins. Five others had a pattern of expression that suggested cooperativity between the co-expressed oncoproteins. Two of these were identified as forms of the small heat shock protein HSPB1 (Hsp27. Conclusion This large-scale analysis provides a framework for understanding the cooperation between E6 and E7 oncoproteins in HPV-driven carcinogenesis.

  3. A kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) gene reporter in a mouse artificial chromosome: the responsiveness to cisplatin toxicity in immortalized mouse kidney S3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokura, Kenji; Kuromi, Yasushi; Endo, Takeshi; Anzai, Naohiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-10-01

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) has been validated as a urinary biomarker for acute and chronic renal damage. The expression of Kim-1 mRNA is also activated by acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin in rodents and humans. To date, the measurement of Kim-1 expression has not fully allowed the detection of in vitro cisplatin nephrotoxicity in immortalized culture cells, such as human kidney-2 cells and immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells. We measured the augmentation of Kim-1 mRNA expression after the addition of cisplatin using immortalized S3 cells established from the kidneys of transgenic mice harboring temperature-sensitive large T antigen from Simian virus 40. A mouse Kim-1 gene luciferase reporter in conjunction with an Hprt gene reporter detected cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in S3 cells. These two reporter genes were contained in a mouse artificial chromosome, and two luciferases that emitted different wavelengths were used to monitor the respective gene expression. However, the Kim-1 reporter gene failed to respond to cisplatin in A9 fibroblast cells that contained the same reporter mouse artificial chromosome, suggesting cell type-specificity for activation of the reporter. We report the feasibility of measuring in vitro cisplatin nephrotoxicity using a Kim-1 reporter gene in S3 cells. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Gene Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Feeder & basic fibroblast growth factor-free culture of human embryonic stem cells: Role of conditioned medium from immortalized human feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Pooja; Sharma, Shilpa; Airan, Balram; Mohanty, Sujata

    2016-12-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are commonly maintained on inactivated feeder cells, in the medium supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). However, limited availability of feeder cells in culture, and the high cost of growth factors limit their use in scalable expansion of hESC cultures for clinical application. Here, we describe an efficient and cost-effective feeder and bFGF-free culture of hESCs using conditioned medium (CM) from immortalized feeder cells. KIND-1 hESC cell line was cultured in CM, collected from primary mouse embryonic fibroblast, human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) and immortalized HFF (I-HFF). Pluripotency of KIND-1 hESC cell line was confirmed by expression of genes, proteins and cell surface markers. In culture, these cells retained normal morphology, expressed all cell surface markers, could differentiate to embryoid bodies upon culture in vitro. Furthermore, I-HFF feeder cells without supplementation of bFGF released ample amount of endogenous bFGF to maintain stemness of hESC cells. The study results described the use of CM from immortalized feeder cells as a consistent source and an efficient, inexpensive feeder-free culture system for the maintenance of hESCs. Moreover, it was possible to maintain hESCs without exogenous supplementation of bFGF. Thus, the study could be extended to scalable expansion of hESC cultures for therapeutic purposes.

  5. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

    2013-09-01

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-β. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-β treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-β-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethanol and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, NNK, contribute to signaling in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Minoo D F; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Cekanova, Maria; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2006-07-01

    Smoking is a well-documented risk factor for pancreatic cancer. The tobacco-specific nitrosamine, NNK (4-[methylnitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanone), significantly induces pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in laboratory rodents. Recent observations suggest that ethanol enhances the tumorigenic effects of smoking. Ethanol consumption is associated with the development of chronic pancreatitis, also considered a predisposing factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Because the precise role of ethanol in pancreatic carcinogenesis is not known, this study sought to elucidate the cumulative effects of ethanol and NNK on particular signal transduction pathways that might play a role in cell proliferation in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. The HPDE6-c7 cells are developed from pancreatic duct epithelial cells, which are the putative cells of origin of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cell proliferation assays, Western blot, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate assays were used to demonstrate the effects of ethanol and NNK treatments on these cells. Ethanol cotreatments enhanced the NNK-induced proliferation of these cells. This response was inhibited by the adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A, mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44), and epidermal growth factor receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cotreatments of NNK and ethanol also increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation, cAMP response element-binding family of proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and protein kinase A activation. These findings suggest a potential role for these pathways contributing to the development of smoking- and alcohol-related pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  7. A contemplation in negation and emphasizes of outstanding philosophers of Tehran philosophy school in immortality of subject in substantial movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad khosravi farsani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agha Ali and Jelveh ,two of outstanding of Tehran philosophy school, have reconsidered Sandra's opinions in two opposite sides. Agha Ali is the claimant of negation and ambiguity in most of Sandra's opinions while emphasizing on transcendent theosophy foundations ,and he tries to make these ambiguities clear .However , Jelveh follows Avicenna's way and has the idea of criticizing Sandra .This article has chosen the problem Of immortality of subject in substantial movement between all debates of these two philosophers of the same age.in this essay we are going to survey Agha Ali's claims in his new explantation in one hand ,and survey and criticize the new explanation of Jelveh in negation Of substantial movement .One of the consequences of surveying and criticizing these two philosophers is that we recognize Agha Ali has succeeded in making Sadra's opinions clear by presenting a new explanation of substantial movement subject. However ,Jelveh has merged Sadra's opinions with Avicenna's instead of debilitating Sadra's opinions and stabilizing Avicenna's opinions.

  8. MRG-1, an autosome-associated protein, silences X-linked genes and protects germline immortality in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Takasaki, Teruaki; Liu, Zheng; Habara, Yasuaki; Nishiwaki, Kiyoji; Nakayama, Jun-Ichi; Inoue, Kunio; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Strome, Susan

    2007-02-01

    MRG15, a mammalian protein related to the mortality factor MORF4, is required for cell proliferation and embryo survival. Our genetic analysis has revealed that the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog MRG-1 serves similar roles. Maternal MRG-1 promotes embryo survival and is required for proliferation and immortality of the primordial germ cells (PGCs). As expected of a chromodomain protein, MRG-1 associates with chromatin. Unexpectedly, it is concentrated on the autosomes and not detectable on the X chromosomes. This association is not dependent on the autosome-enriched protein MES-4. Focusing on possible roles of MRG-1 in regulating gene expression, we determined that MRG-1 is required to maintain repression in the maternal germ line of transgenes on extrachromosomal arrays, and of several X-linked genes previously shown to depend on MES-4 for repression. MRG-1 is not required for PGCs to acquire transcriptional competence or for the turn-on of expression of several PGC-expressed genes (pgl-1, glh-1, glh-4 and nos-1). By contrast to this result in PGCs, MRG-1 is required for ectopic expression of those germline genes in somatic cells lacking the NuRD complex component MEP-1. We discuss how an autosome-enriched protein might repress genes on the X chromosome, promote PGC proliferation and survival, and influence the germ versus soma distinction.

  9. Effects of reverse transcriptase inhibitors on telomere length and telomerase activity in two immortalized human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahl, C; Blackburn, E H

    1996-01-01

    The ribonucleoprotein telomerase, a specialized cellular reverse transcriptase, synthesizes one strand of the telomeric DNA of eukaryotes. We analyzed telomere maintenance in two immortalized human cell lines: the B-cell line JY616 and the T-cell line Jurkat E6-1, and determined whether known inhibitors of retroviral reverse transcriptases could perturb telomere lengths and growth rates of these cells in culture. Dideoxyguanosine (ddG) caused reproducible, progressive telomere shortening over several weeks of passaging, after which the telomeres stabilized and remained short. However, the prolonged passaging in ddG caused no observable effects on cell population doubling rates or morphology. Azidothymidine (AZT) caused progressive telomere shortening in some but not all T- and B-cell cultures. Telomerase activity was present in both cell lines and was inhibited in vitro by ddGTP and AZT triphosphate. Prolonged passaging in arabinofuranyl-guanosine, dideoxyinosine (ddI), dideoxyadenosine (ddA), didehydrothymidine (d4T), or phosphonoformic acid (foscarnet) did not cause reproducible telomere shortening or decreased cell growth rates or viabilities. Combining AZT, foscarnet, and/or arabinofuranyl-guanosine with ddG did not significantly augment the effects of ddG alone. Strikingly, with or without inhibitors, telomere lengths were often highly unstable in both cell lines and varied between parallel cell cultures. We propose that telomere lengths in these T- and B-cell lines are determined by both telomerase and telomerase-independent mechanisms.

  10. Unique inhibition of bile salt-induced apoptosis by lecithins and cytoprotective bile salts in immortalized mouse cholangiocytes.

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    Komichi, Daisuke; Tazuma, Susumu; Nishioka, Tomoji; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Une, Mizuho; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2003-12-01

    Bile duct epithelium is physiologically exposed to high concentrations of bile salts, suggesting the presence of a cytoprotective mechanism(s). The aim of this study was to clarify whether bile salts cause bile duct cell damage and to elucidate the mechanism(s) providing protection against such an action of bile salts. Immortalized mouse cholangiocytes were incubated with taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), taurodeoxycholate, and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC), followed by flow-cytometric analysis and caspase activity assay to evaluate the induction of apoptosis. GCDC time-dependently induced caspase 3 (3.4-fold)- and caspase 9 (1.4-fold)-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocytes, but this was inhibited by lecithins and TUDC. Further, expression of cholangiocyte bile salt transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter [Asbt] and multidrug resistance protein 3 [Mrp3]) was examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, and cholangiocyte bile salt uptake was determined using radiolabeled bile salts. Expression of cholangiocyte Asbt and Mrp3 was increased by bile salts, whereas lecithins interestingly reduced bile salt uptake to inhibit cholangiocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, bile salts themselves cause cholangiocyte apoptosis when absorbed by and retained inside the cell, but this is inhibited by washing out cytotoxic bile salts according to Mrp3, a rescue exporting molecule. Biliary lecithin is seemingly another cytoprotective player against cytotoxic bile salts, reducing their uptake, and this is associated with a reduced expression of Mrp3.

  11. Efficient transfer of HTLV-1 tax gene in various primary and immortalized cells using a flap lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Leveau, Christelle; Mordelet, Elodie; Delebecque, Frédéric; Gessain, Antoine; Charneau, Pierre; Ozden, Simona

    2002-08-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes two major diseases: adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In order to understand the involvement of Tax protein in HTLV-1 pathogenesis, we constructed a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector containing the central DNA flap sequence and either the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the HTLV-1 tax genes. Using these vectors, GFP and tax genes were introduced in several primary and immortalized cells of endothelial, lymphoid, astrocytic or macrophagic origin. As assessed by GFP expression, up to 100% efficiency of transduction was obtained for all cell types tested. Tax expression was detected by Western blot and immuno-fluorescence in the transduced cells. After transduction, the Tax transcriptional activity was confirmed by the transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR-lacZ or HTLV-1 LTR-GFP reporter genes. Increased CD25 and HLA DR expression was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes transduced with the Tax vector. These results indicate that both pathways of Tax transactivation, CREB (viral LTR) and NF-kappa B (CD25 and HLA DR), are functional after transduction by TRIP Tax vector. Therefore, this vector provides a useful tool for investigating the role of the Tax viral protein in the pathogenesis of diseases linked to HTLV-1 infection.

  12. Functional significance of thermosensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channel 8 (TRPM8) expression in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Stefan; Mertens, Charlotte; Valtink, Monika; Reinach, Peter S; Székely, Violeta Castelo; Slavi, Nefeli; Garreis, Fabian; Abdelmessih, Suzette; Türker, Ersal; Fels, Gabriele; Pleyer, Uwe

    2013-11-01

    Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) maintain appropriate tissue hydration and transparency by eliciting net ion transport coupled to fluid egress from the stroma into the anterior chamber. Such activity offsets tissue swelling caused by stromal imbibition of fluid. As corneal endothelial (HCE) transport function is modulated by temperature changes, we probed for thermosensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) functional activity in immortalized human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC-12) and freshly isolated human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) as a control. This channel is either activated upon lowering to 28 °C or by menthol, eucalyptol and icilin. RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) verified TRPM8 gene expression. Ca(2+) transients induced by either menthol (500 μmol/l), eucalyptol (3 mmol/l), or icilin (2-60 μmol/l) were identified using cell fluorescence imaging. The TRP channel blocker lanthanum III chloride (La(3+), 100 μmol/l) as well as the TRPM8 blockers BCTC (10 μmol/l) and capsazepine (CPZ, 10 μmol/l) suppressed icilin-induced Ca(2+) increases. In and outward currents induced by application of menthol (500 μmol/l) or icilin (50 μmol/l) were detected using the planar patch-clamp technique. A thermal transition from room temperature to ≈ 18 °C led to Ca(2+) increases that were inhibited by a TRPM8 blocker BCTC (10 μmol/l). Other thermosensitive TRP pathways whose heterogeneous Ca(2+) response patterns are suggestive of other Ca(2+) handling pathways were also detected upon strong cooling (≈10 °C). Taken together, functional TRPM8 expression in HCEC-12 and freshly dissociated HCEC suggests that HCE function can adapt to thermal variations through activation of this channel subtype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishment of c-myc-immortalized Kupffer cell line from a C57BL/6 mouse strain

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    Hiroshi Kitani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated in several mammalian species, a novel procedure to obtain liver-macrophages (Kupffer cells in sufficient numbers and purity using a mixed primary culture of hepatocytes. In this study, we applied this method to the C57BL/6 mouse liver and established an immortalized Kupffer cell line from this mouse strain. The hepatocytes from the C57BL/6 adult mouse liver were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and cultured in T25 culture flasks. Similar to our previous studies, the mouse hepatocytes progressively changed their morphology into a fibroblastic appearance after a few days of culture. After 7–10 days of culture, Kupffer-like cells, which were contaminants in the hepatocyte fraction at the start of the culture, actively proliferated on the mixed fibroblastic cell sheet. At this stage, a retroviral vector containing the human c-myc oncogene and neomycin resistance gene was introduced into the mixed culture. Gentle shaking of the culture flask, followed by the transfer and brief incubation of the culture supernatant, resulted in a quick and selective adhesion of Kupffer cells to a plastic dish surface. After selection with G418 and cloning by limiting dilutions, a clonal cell line (KUP5 was established. KUP5 cells displayed typical macrophage morphology and were stably passaged at 4–5 days intervals for more than 5 months, with a population doubling time of 19 h. KUP5 cells are immunocytochemically positive for mouse macrophage markers, such as Mac-1, F4/80. KUP5 cells exhibited substantial phagocytosis of polystyrene microbeads and the release of inflammatory cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Taken together, KUP5 cells provide a useful means to study the function of Kupffer cells in vitro.

  14. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brucella suis vaccine strain S2-infected immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell lines induce non-apoptotic ER-stress.

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    Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, Pengfei; Yin, Yanlong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lei, Lanjie; Zhou, Xudong; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Aihua

    2015-05-01

    Brucella, which is regarded as an intracellular pathogen responsible for a zoonotic disease called brucellosis, survives and proliferates within several types of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Brucella infects not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, inducing abortion and infertility. Therefore, the interaction between uterine cells and Brucella is important for understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we describe the Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 (B.suis.S2) infection and replication in the immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell line hTERT-EECs and the induced cellular and molecular response modulation in vitro. We found that B.suis S2 was able to infect and replicate to high titers and inhibit the proliferation of EECs and induce non-apoptotic pathways, as determined by B.suis.S2 detection using MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and flow cytometry. We explored the evidence of non-apoptotic pathways using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and by western blot analysis. Finally, we discovered the over-expression of GRP78, ATF4, ATF6, PERK, eIF2α, CHOP, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) but not IRE1, xbp-1, and caspase-3 in B.suis.S2 (HK)-attacked and B.suis.S2-infected cells, suggesting that the molecular mechanism of ER stress sensor activation by B.suis.S2 is basically concomitant with that by B.suis.S2 (HK) and that ER stress, especially the PERK pathway, plays an important role in the process of B.suis.S2 infecting EEC, which may, in part, explain the role of the uterus in the pathogenesis of B.suis.S2.

  16. Beta blockers and cancer prognosis - The role of immortal time bias: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberpals, Janick; Jansen, Lina; Carr, Prudence R; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    Findings from experimental and observational studies have suggested beneficial effects of beta blocker (BB) use on cancer survival. Nevertheless, results have been inconclusive and there have been concerns that the observed associations might have resulted from immortal time bias (ITB). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize existing evidence, paying particular attention to this potential source of bias. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science. Studies investigating the association between BB use and overall or cancer-specific survival were included. Summary estimates were derived from meta-analyses using random effects models. The potential influence of ITB was investigated. We identified 30 eligible studies including 88,026 cancer patients in total. We deemed 11 studies to be at high or unclear risk of ITB. Including all studies in the meta-analysis, BB users had a significantly better overall (hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.97) and cancer-specific (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.88) survival. Excluding the studies deemed to be prone to ITB resulted in HRs (95% CIs) of 1.00 (0.93-1.07) and 0.90 (0.83-0.98), respectively. Analyses on cancer site and BB type did not show beneficial associations besides overall survival among melanoma patients. However, melanoma-specific survival was not improved. We found no clinically meaningful evidence for an association between BB use and survival after excluding studies with a possible ITB. Our results support suggestions that the proposed beneficial effect of BBs on cancer survival might be based on ITB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-invasive in vivo molecular imaging of intra-articularly transplanted immortalized bone marrow stem cells for osteoarthritis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bou-Yue; Chiou, Chi-Sheng; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Yu, Sung-Hsun; Deng, Yue-Hua; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Chiang, Han-Sun; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Chen, Wei-Hong; Deng, Win-Ping

    2017-11-14

    Pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by progressive loss of articular cartilage in the knee-joints. To impart regenerative ability in lowly metabolizing chondrocytes, the bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) has recently been recognized as a superior alternative treatment for OA. However, study of primary BMSCs-mediated chondrogenesis is difficult due to progressive cellular aging and replicative senescence. To obtain a therapeutic cell population for OA, BMSCs were immortalized by human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 E6/E7 along with mCherry luciferase (mCL), a gene marker for non-invasive imaging, and designated as iBMSCs-mCL. Next, their cell morphology, population doubling time (PDT) and colony forming ability (CFU) were evaluated. Furthermore, pluripotency and immunophenotypic markers were investigated. To deduce therapeutic ability, iBMSCs-mCL were intra-articularly injected into right knee of anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT)-OA mice model and tracked through non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Cell morphology of iBMSCs-mCL was similar to parental BMSCs. PDT and CFU ability of iBMSCs-mCLs were significantly increased. Pluripotency and immunophenotypic markers were highly expressed in iBMSC-mCL. Long-term survival and tri-lineage differentiation particularly chondrogenic potential of iBMSCs-mCL were also demonstrated in vitro and then in vivo which was monitored through non-invasive imaging. Intensive bioluminescent signals in iBMSCs-mCL administered knee-joint indicated a marked in vivo survival and proliferation of iBMSCs-mCL. Immunohistochemical staining for type II collagen (IHC of Col II) and alcian blue & safranin o staining of proteoglycans also corroborated cartilage regeneration by iBMSCs-mCL. Conclusively, iBMSCs-mCL maintains stemness and in vivo cartilage regeneration potential suggesting a promising avenue for development of OA therapeutics.

  18. Side Population Cells From an Immortalized Human Liver Epithelial Cell Line Exhibit Hepatic Stem-Like Cell Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Takayoshi; Yamazaki, Taisuke; Enosawa, Shin

    2012-01-01

    The existence of hepatic stem cells in human livers is controversial. We investigated whether the side population (SP) cells derived from an immortalized human liver epithelial cell line THLE-5b possess the properties of hepatic stem-like cells. SP cells derived from THLE-5b were isolated using flow cytometry and were assayed for the expression of phenotypic markers by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. THLE-5b SP cells retained the capacity to generate both SP and non-SP cells, showed a capacity for self-renewal, and were more efficient in colony formation than non-SP cells. Neither the SP nor the non-SP cells formed tumors when transplanted into athymic nude mice or severe combined immunodeficient mice. The expression level of stem cell-associated markers such as an ATP-binding cassette membrane transporter, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, c-kit, Thy-1, and octomer binding transcription factor 4 was higher in SP cells than in non-SP cells. When cultivated as rotation-mediated aggregates, the expression of liver-specific genes including tryptophan oxygenase and CYP3A4 was up-regulated in SP cells, suggesting that THLE-5b SP cells have the ability to differentiate into a hepatocyte phenotype. One of the clonal cell lines derived from the SP cells expressed stem cell-associated markers. These results indicate that SP cells derived from THLE-5b possess hepatic stem-like cell properties and suggest that THLE-5b can be used as a model of normal human liver progenitor or stem cell line.

  19. Inhibition of chronic prostate inflammation by hyaluronic acid through an immortalized human prostate stromal cell line model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Liu

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is the most common urologic disease among elderly men. A well-established in vitro cell model is required to determine the therapeutic mechanism of BPH inflammation. In this study, we attempted to establish an immortalized human prostate stromal cell line by transfecting with HPV-16 E6/E7 and designated as ihPSC. No significant difference was found in fibroblast-like morphology between primary hPSC and ihPSC. The ihPSC possessed a significantly higher cell proliferation rate than primary hPSC. The prostate-specific markers and proteins including cytoskeleton (α-SMA and vimentin and smooth muscle (calponin, especially the androgen receptor (AR were also examined in ihPSC, almost identical to the primary hPSC. To create an in vitro model featuring chronic prostatic inflammation, ihPSC was stimulated with IFN-γ+IL-17 and then treated with the high molecular weight hyaluronic acid hylan G-F 20 as an alternative strategy for inhibiting BPH inflammation. Hylan G-F 20 could dose-dependently diminish the inflammation-induced proliferation in ihPSC. The enhanced expressions of inflammatory molecules including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2, inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 were all abolished by hylan G-F 20. For inflammatory signaling, hylan G-F 20 can also diminish the IFN-γ+IL-17-increased expression of iNOS and p65 in ihPSC. These findings suggest that ihPSC could provide a mechanism-based platform for investigating prostate inflammation. The hylan G-F 20 showed strong anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing inflammatory cytokines and signalings in the ihPSC, indicating its therapeutic potentials in BPH treatment in the future.

  20. Persistent Exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis Promotes Proliferative and Invasion Capabilities, and Tumorigenic Properties of Human Immortalized Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fengxue; Liu, Junchao; Guo, Yan; Li, Chen; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhao, Haijiao; Pan, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies revealed a significant association between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of periodontal disease. As a keystone pathogen of periodontitis, P. gingivalis is known not only to damage local periodontal tissues, but also to evade the host immune system and eventually affect systemic health. However, its role in OSCC has yet to be defined. To explore the underlying effect of chronic P. gingivalis infection on OSCC and to identify relevant biomarkers as promising targets for therapy and prevention, we established a novel model by exposing human immortalized oral epithelial cells (HIOECs) to P. gingivalis at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) for 5-23 weeks. The P. gingivalis infected HIOECs were monitored for tumor biological alteration by proliferation, wound healing, transwell invasion, and gelatin zymography assays. Microarray and proteomic analyses were performed on HIOECs infected with P. gingivalis for 15 weeks, and some selected data were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and (or) western blot on cells infected for 15 and 23 weeks. Persistent exposure to P. gingivalis caused cell morphological changes, increased proliferation ability with higher S phase fraction in the cell cycle, and promoted cell migratory and invasive properties. In combining results of bioinformatics analyses and validation assays, tumor-related genes such as NNMT, FLI1, GAS6, lncRNA CCAT1, PDCD1LG2, and CD274 may be considered as the key regulators in tumor-like transformation in response to long-time exposure of P. gingivalis. In addition, some useful clinical biomarkers and novel proteins were also presented. In conclusion, P. gingivalis could promote tumorigenic properties of HIOECs, indicating that chronic P. gingivalis infection may be considered as a potential risk factor for oral cancer. The key regulators detected from the present model might be used in monitoring the development of OSCC with

  1. Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kläs Juliane

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two rodent choroid plexus (CP epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ formation. Methods For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional activity of transporters and TJ formation was measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER and visualized by electron microscopy. Results The expression of known ATP-binding cassette (Abc transporter and solute carrier (Slc genes in CP was confirmed by qPCR. Primary cells and cell lines showed similar, but overall lower expression of Abc transporters and absent Slc expression when compared to intact tissue. Consistent with this Mrp1, Mrp4 and P-gp protein levels were higher in intact CP compared to cell lines. Functionality of P-gp and Mrp1 was confirmed by Calcein-AM and CMFDA uptake assays and studies using [3H]bis-POM-PMEA as a substrate indicated Mrp4 function. Cell lines showed low or absent TJ protein expression. After treatment of cell lines with corticosteroids, RNA expression of claudin1, 2 and 11 and occludin was elevated, as well as claudin1 and occludin protein expression. TJ formation was further investigated by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and only rarely observed. Increases in TJ particles with steroid treatment were not accompanied by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER. Conclusion Taken together, immortalized cell lines may be a tool to study transport processes mediated by P-gp, Mrp1 or Mrp4, but overall expression of transport proteins and TJ formation do not reflect the situation in intact CP tissue.

  2. Identification and characterization of EBV genomes in spontaneously immortalized human peripheral blood B lymphocytes by NGS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted genomic sequencing to identify Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) genomes in 2 human peripheral blood B lymphocytes that underwent spontaneous immortalization promoted by mycoplasma infections in culture, using the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) Illumina MiSeq platform. The purpose of this study was to examine if rapid detection and characterization of a viral agent could be effectively achieved by HTS using a platform that has become readily available in general biology laboratories. Results Raw read sequences, averaging 175 bps in length, were mapped with DNA databases of human, bacteria, fungi and virus genomes using the CLC Genomics Workbench bioinformatics tool. Overall 37,757 out of 49,520,834 total reads in one lymphocyte line (# K4413-Mi) and 28,178 out of 45,335,960 reads in the other lymphocyte line (# K4123-Mi) were identified as EBV sequences. The two EBV genomes with estimated 35.22-fold and 31.06-fold sequence coverage respectively, designated K4413-Mi EBV and K4123-Mi EBV (GenBank accession number KC440852 and KC440851 respectively), are characteristic of type-1 EBV. Conclusions Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis among K4413-Mi EBV, K4123-Mi EBV and the EBV genomes previously reported to GenBank as well as the NA12878 EBV genome assembled from database of the 1000 Genome Project showed that these 2 EBVs are most closely related to B95-8, an EBV previously isolated from a patient with infectious mononucleosis and WT-EBV. They are less similar to EBVs associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from Hong Kong and China as well as the Akata strain of a case of Burkitt’s lymphoma from Japan. They are most different from type 2 EBV found in Western African Burkitt’s lymphoma. PMID:24252203

  3. Balancing Benefits and Risks of Immortal Data: Participants' Views of Open Consent in the Personal Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Oscar A; Brody, Julia Green; Brown, Phil; Ramirez-Andreotta, Mónica D; Perovich, Laura; Matz, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    An individual's health, genetic, or environmental-exposure data, placed in an online repository, creates a valuable shared resource that can accelerate biomedical research and even open opportunities for crowd-sourcing discoveries by members of the public. But these data become "immortalized" in ways that may create lasting risk as well as benefit. Once shared on the Internet, the data are difficult or impossible to redact, and identities may be revealed by a process called data linkage, in which online data sets are matched to each other. Reidentification (re-ID), the process of associating an individual's name with data that were considered deidentified, poses risks such as insurance or employment discrimination, social stigma, and breach of the promises often made in informed-consent documents. At the same time, re-ID poses risks to researchers and indeed to the future of science, should re-ID end up undermining the trust and participation of potential research participants. The ethical challenges of online data sharing are heightened as so-called big data becomes an increasingly important research tool and driver of new research structures. Big data is shifting research to include large numbers of researchers and institutions as well as large numbers of participants providing diverse types of data, so the participants' consent relationship is no longer with a person or even a research institution. In addition, consent is further transformed because big data analysis often begins with descriptive inquiry and generation of a hypothesis, and the research questions cannot be clearly defined at the outset and may be unforeseeable over the long term. In this article, we consider how expanded data sharing poses new challenges, illustrated by genomics and the transition to new models of consent. We draw on the experiences of participants in an open data platform-the Personal Genome Project-to allow study participants to contribute their voices to inform ethical consent

  4. Enabling a robust scalable manufacturing process for therapeutic exosomes through oncogenic immortalization of human ESC-derived MSCs

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    Choo Andre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes or secreted bi-lipid vesicles from human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs have been shown to reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in animal models. However, as hESC-MSCs are not infinitely expansible, large scale production of these exosomes would require replenishment of hESC-MSC through derivation from hESCs and incur recurring costs for testing and validation of each new batch. Our aim was therefore to investigate if MYC immortalization of hESC-MSC would circumvent this constraint without compromising the production of therapeutically efficacious exosomes. Methods The hESC-MSCs were transfected by lentivirus carrying a MYC gene. The transformed cells were analyzed for MYC transgene integration, transcript and protein levels, and surface markers, rate of cell cycling, telomerase activity, karyotype, genome-wide gene expression and differentiation potential. The exosomes were isolated by HPLC fractionation and tested in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, and infarct sizes were further assessed by using Evans' blue dye injection and TTC staining. Results MYC-transformed MSCs largely resembled the parental hESC-MSCs with major differences being reduced plastic adherence, faster growth, failure to senesce, increased MYC protein expression, and loss of in vitro adipogenic potential that technically rendered the transformed cells as non-MSCs. Unexpectedly, exosomes from MYC-transformed MSCs were able to reduce relative infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury indicating that the capacity for producing therapeutic exosomes was preserved. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that MYC transformation is a practical strategy in ensuring an infinite supply of cells for the production of exosomes in the milligram range as either therapeutic agents or delivery vehicles. In addition, the increased proliferative rate by MYC transformation reduces the time

  5. Establishment of Immortalized Mouse Bmp2 Knock-Out Dental Papilla Mesenchymal Cells Necessary for Study of Odontoblastic Differentiation and Odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian; Wang, Feng; Donly, Kevin J; Wan, Chunyan; Luo, Daoshu; Harris, Stephen E; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2015-11-01

    Bmp2 is essential for dentin formation. Bmp2 cKO mice exhibited similar phenotype to dentinogenesis imperfecta, showing dental pulp exposure, hypomineralized dentin, and delayed odontoblast differentiation. As it is relatively difficult to obtain lot of primary Bmp2 cKO dental papilla mesenchymal cells and to maintain a long-term culture of these primary cells, availability of immortalized deleted Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchymal cells is critical for studying the underlying mechanism of Bmp2 signal in odontogenesis. In this study, our goal was to generate an immortalized deleted Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchymal (iBmp2(ko/ko)dp) cell line by introducing Cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 dental papilla mesenchymal (iBmp2(fx/fx)dp) cells. iBmp2(ko/ko)dp cells were confirmed by GFP and PCR. The deleted Bmp2 cells exhibited slow cell proliferation rate and cell growth was arrested in G2 phase. Expression of tooth-related marker genes and cell differentiation were decreased in the deleted cells. Importantly, extracellular matrix remodeling was impaired in the iBmp2(ko/ko)dp cells as reflected by the decreased Mmp-9 expression. In addition, with exogenous Bmp2 induction, these cell differentiation and mineralization were rescued as well as extracellular matrix remodeling was enhanced. Therefore, we for the first time described establishment of iBmp(ko/ko) cells that are useful for study of mechanisms in regulating dental papilla mesenchymal cell lineages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, T.; Zhao, Ling-jun; Chinnadurai, G., E-mail: chinnag@slu.edu

    2013-09-01

    Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP–E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP–E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. - Highlights: • Adenovirus E1A C-terminal region suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation. • This E1A region binds with FOXK, DYRK1/HAN11 and CtBP cellular protein complexes. • We found that E1A–CtBP interaction suppresses immortalization and transformation. • The interaction enhances viral replication in human cells.

  7. 3-Iodothyronamine increases transient receptor potential melastatin channel 8 (TRPM8) activity in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Alexander; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Reinach, Peter S; Köhrle, Josef; Dhandapani, Priyavathi; Huimann, Philipp; Ljubojevic, Nina; Grötzinger, Carsten; Mergler, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    3-Iodothyronamine (3T1AM) is an endogenous thyroid hormone metabolite that interacts with the human trace amine-associated receptor 1 (hTAAR1), a G-protein-coupled receptor, to induce numerous physiological responses including dose-dependent body temperature lowering in rodents. 3T1AM also directly activates cold-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channels in human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjEC) at constant temperature as well as reducing rises in IL-6 release induced by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation by capsaicin (CAP). Here, we describe that 3T1AM-induced TRPM8 activation suppresses through crosstalk TRPV1 activation in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). RT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining identified TRPM8 gene and protein expression. Increases in Ca(2+) influx induced by the TRPM8 agonists either 3T1AM (0.1-10 μM), menthol (500 μM), icilin (15-60 μM) or temperature lowering (either 17°C) were all blocked by 10-20 μM BCTC, a mixed TRPV1/TRPM8 antagonist. BCTC blocked 3T1AM-induced recombinant TRPM8 activation of Ca(2+) transients in an osteosarcoma heterologous expression system. The effects of BCTC in HCEC were attributable to selective TRPM8 inhibition since whole-cell patch-clamp currents underlying Ca(2+) rises induced by 20 μM CAP were BCTC insensitive. On the other hand, Ca(2+) transients induced by activating TRPV1 with either CAP or a hyperosmolar medium were suppressed during exposure to either 1 μM 3T1AM or 15 μM icilin. All of these modulatory effects on intracellular Ca(2+) regulation induced by the aforementioned agents were attributable to changes in underlying inward and outward current. Taken together, TRPM8 activation by 3T1AM markedly attenuates and even eliminates hyperosmolar and CAP induced TRPV1 activation through crosstalk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Soma, food of the immortals according to the Bower Manuscript (Kashmir, 6th century A.D.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2014-08-08

    Food is medicine and vice versa. In Hindu and Ayurvedic medicine, and among human cultures of the Indian subcontinent in general, the perception of the food-medicine continuum is especially well established. The preparation of the exhilarating, gold-coloured Soma, Amrita or Ambrosia, the elixir and food of the 'immortals'-the Hindu pantheon-by the ancient Indo-Aryans, is described in the Rigveda in poetic hymns. Different theories regarding the botanical identity of Soma circulate, but no pharmacologically and historically convincing theory exists to date. We intend to contribute to the botanical, chemical and pharmacological characterisation of Soma through an analysis of two historical Amrita recipes recorded in the Bower Manuscript. The recipes are referred therein as panaceas (clarified butter) and also as a medicine to treat nervous diseases (oil), while no exhilarating properties are mentioned. Notwithstanding this, we hypothesise, that these recipes are related to the ca. 1800 years older Rigvedic Soma. We suppose that the psychoactive Soma ingredient(s) are among the components, possibly in smaller proportions, of the Amrita recipes preserved in the Bower Manuscript. The Bower Manuscript is a medical treatise recorded in the 6th century A.D. in Sanskrit on birch bark leaves, probably by Buddhist monks, and unearthed towards the end of the 19th century in Chinese Turkestan. We analysed two Amrita recipes from the Bower Manuscript, which was translated by Rudolf Hoernle into English during the early 20th century. A database search with the updated Latin binomials of the herbal ingredients was used to gather quantitative phytochemical and pharmacological information. Together, both Amrita recipes contain around 100 herbal ingredients. Psychoactive alkaloid containing species still important in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Thai medicine and mentioned in the recipe for 'Amrita-Prâsa clarified butter' and 'Amrita Oil' are: Tinospora cordifolia (Amrita, Guduchi), three

  9. Expression of a TGF-{beta} regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in normal and immortalized airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, L.A.; Bloomfield, C.; Johnson, N.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelial cells, including lung cancers are frequently resistant to factors that regulate growth and differentiation in normal in normal cells. Once such factor is transforming growth factor-{Beta} (TGF-{Beta}). Escape from the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta} is thought to be a key step in the transformation of airway epithelial cells. most lung cancer cell lines require serum for growth. In contrast, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects of TGF-{Beta}. The recent identification of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, which is regulated by TGF-{Beta}, suggests a mechanism by which TGF-{Beta} mediates growth arrest in NHBE cells. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if p15{sup INK4B} is induced by TGF-{Beta} in NHBE cells or immortalized bronchial epithelial (R.1) cells and if that induction corresponds to a G1/S cell-cycle arrest; (2) to determine the temporal relationship between p15{sup INK4B} induction, cell-cycle arrest, and the phosphorylation state of the pRB because it is thought that p15{sup INK4B} acts indirectly by preventing phosphorylation of the RB gene product. In this study, expression of p15{sup INK4B} was examined in NHBE cells and R.1 cells at different time intervals following TGF-{Beta} treatment. The expression of this kinase inhibitor and its relationship to the cell and the pRb phosphorylation state were examined in cells that were both sensitive (NHBE) and resistant (R.1) to the effects of TGF-{Beta}. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, is involved in airway epithelial cell differentiation and that loss or reduction of expression plays a role in the resistance of transformed or neoplastic cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta}.

  10. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2.1 Cell culture. RLE-6TN epithelial cells (ATCC Rockville, MD, USA) have been immortalized by transfection of rat alveolar type II cells with SV40 DNA (Driscoll et al 1995). Cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified .... candidate because it is bound to desferrioxamine with a stability constant near 1031. The hint that ...

  11. Perennial roots to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. [Senescence and cellular immortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentesaux, C; Riou, J-F

    2010-11-01

    Senescence was originally described from the observation of the limited ability of normal cells to grow in culture, and may be generated by telomere erosion, accumulation of DNA damages, oxidative stress and modulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Senescence corresponds to a cellular response aiming to control tumor progression by limiting cell proliferation and thus constitutes an anticancer barrier. Senescence is observed in pre-malignant tumor stages and disappears from malignant tumors. Agents used in standard chemotherapy also have the potential to induce senescence, which may partly explain their therapeutic activities. It is possible to restore senescence in tumors using targeted therapies that triggers telomere dysfunction or reactivates suppressor genes functions, which are essential for the onset of senescence.

  13. Natural selection and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Antoine

    2009-08-01

    Genomes replicate while the host cells reproduce. I explore the reproduction/replication dialogue, based on a deep analysis of bacterial genomes, in relation to ageing. Making young structures from aged ones implies creating information. I revisit Information Theory, showing that the laws of physics permit de novo creation of information, provided an energy-dependent process preserving functional entities makes room for entities accumulating information. I identify explicit functions involved in the process and characterise some of their genes. I suggest that the energy source necessary to establish reproduction while replication is temporarily stopped could be the ubiquitous polyphosphates. Finally, I show that rather than maintain and repair the original individual, organisms tend to metamorphose into young ones, sometimes totally, sometimes progressively. This permits living systems to accumulate information over generations, but has the drawback, in multicellular organisms, to open the door for immortalisation, leading to cancer.

  14. Generation and evaluation of a human corneal model cell system for ophthalmologic issues using the HPV16 E6/E7 oncogenes as uniform immortalization platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Simon; Steinberg, Thorsten; Beck, David; Tomakidi, Pascal; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Reinhard, Thomas; Eberwein, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at employing the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6/E7 gene platform, to create a uniform authentic in vitro model cell system of the human cornea for ophthalmologic issues and here especially for prospective biomaterial evaluations for therapeutic regenerative approaches. Therefore, HPV16 E6/E7 genes were employed as uniform platform to immortalize primary human corneal keratinocytes (IHCK), fibroblasts (IHCF), and endothelial (IHCE) cells. qPCR revealed that E6/E7 mRNA transcription persisted at rising passages and FISH detection of the chromosome portfolio 1, 8, 10 and 18 showed fairly the disomic cytogenetic status. Hot spot passages proved oscillation of aneuploidies in the entire passage spectrum under study, while hot spot aneuploidies annotated prevalence for distinct chromosomes. Though IIF revealed general endurance, tissue-innate corneal biomarkers were modulated, i.e. expressed in a temporal-confluence, temporal-spatial or passage-dependent manner. In summary, by the fairly normal chromosomal status, and expression of tissue-innate biomarkers, we created for the first time a uniform authentic in vitro model cell system of the human cornea, by application of the HPV16 E6/E7 immortalization platform only. This system renders a precious tool for prospective iterative in vitro studies on issues such as corneal tissue homeostasis, pharmaceutical generics, and/or evaluation of new biomaterials for clinical corneal applications. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Malvidin and cyanidin derivatives from açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) counteract UV-A-induced oxidative stress in immortalized fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Illiano, Anna; Del Giudice, Rita; Raiola, Assunta; Amoresano, Angela; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Piccoli, Renata; Monti, Daria Maria

    2017-07-01

    UV-A radiations are known to induce cellular oxidative stress, leading to premature skin aging. Consumption of açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius) is known to have many health benefits due to its high level of antioxidants. Herein, we analyzed the ability of phenolic compounds extracted from this fruit to attenuate UV-A-induced oxidative stress in immortalized fibroblast. A methanol/water açai extract was fractionated by HPLC and each fraction tested for anti-oxidant stress activity. Immortalized fibroblasts were pre-incubated with açai fractions and then exposed to UV-A radiations. Açai extract was found to be able to strongly protect cells from oxidative stress. In particular, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, GSH depletion, lipid peroxidation and no increase in the phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in the oxidative stress pathway was observed in cells pre-incubated with the extract and then irradiated by UV-A. Mass spectrometry analyses of HPLC fractionated extract led us to the identification of malvidin and cyanidin derivatives as the most active molecules able to counteract the negative effects induced by UV-A irradiation. Our results indicate, for the first time, that açai fruit is a valuable natural source for malvidin and cyanidin to be used as anti-stress molecules and represent good candidates for dietary intervention in the prevention of age related skin damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicity evaluation of chlorinated organic compounds using immortalized rat hepatocytes; Fushika rat kansaibo wo mochiita yuki enso kagobutsu no dokusei hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, H.; Nakajima, M.; Yonemoto, J. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-10

    Chlorinated organic compounds has high priority for toxicity screening among environmental hazardous chemicals. In the present study, we used immortalized rat hepatocytes as a liver model in vitro to evaluate the toxicity of nine chlorinated organic compounds. Toxicity of nine chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated to cellular viability of immortalized rat hapatocytes. The potency of the toxicity based on 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was in the following order: triclocalban>triclosan>3,4-dichloroaniline>2,5-diclorophenol> 2,5-dichloroanisole>p-dichlorobenzene> p-chloroaniline>o-dichlorobenzene=tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate. The rank order of cytotoxic potency of nine chemicals was compared with toxicity information using animals. The rank order of cytotoxic potency did not relative to the order referenced mean lethal dose (LD50) as an index of acute toxicity of rats or mice. However, the rank order of cytotoxic potency relatively correlated non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) under the exposure duration adjusted for chronic toxicity in vivo. These data suggests that the origin of testing cell had better to make match target organ of toxic chemicals for extrapolation from data of bioassay in vitro to in vivo. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Panel of Single- and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: In Vitro Effects on Normal Syrian Hamster Embryo and Immortalized V79 Hamster Lung Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Darne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs belong to a specific class of nanomaterials with unique properties. Because of their anticipated use in a wide range of industrial applications, their toxicity is of increasing concern. In order to determine whether specific physicochemical characteristics of CNTs are responsible for their toxicological effects, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of eight CNTs representative of each of the commonly encountered classes: single- SW-, double- DW-, and multiwalled (MW CNTs, purified and raw. In addition, because most previous studies of CNT toxicity were conducted on immortalized cell lines, we decided to compare results obtained from V79 cells, an established cell line, with results from SHE (Syrian hamster embryo cells, an easy-to-handle normal cell model. After 24 hours of treatment, MWCNTs were generally found to be more cytotoxic than SW- or DWCNTs. MWCNTs also provoked more genotoxic effects. No correlation could be found between CNT genotoxicity and metal impurities, length, surface area, or induction of cellular oxidative stress, but genotoxicity was seen to increase with CNT width. The toxicity observed for some CNTs leads us to suggest that they might also act by interfering with the cell cycle, but no significant differences were observed between normal and immortalized cells.

  18. Determination of acute lethal and chronic lethal dose thresholds of valproic acid using 3D spheroids constructed from the immortal human hepatocyte cell line HepG2/C3A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fey, S. J.; Wrzesinski, K.

    2013-01-01

    describe here a culture system based on 3D spheroid culture of immortal hepatocytes which can determine the toxicity of valproic acid (or structurally or functionally related molecules) in vitro. The spheroids were used to follow changes in ATP production, glucose uptake and adenylate kinase following...

  19. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E 7 proteins alter NF-kB in cultured cervical epithelial cells and inhibition of NF-kB promotes cell growth and immortalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermark, Erik R.; Deluca, Krysta A.; Gardner, Courtney R.; Marker, Daniel F.; Schreiner, Cynthia N.; Strickland, David A.; Wilton, Katelynn M. [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States); Mondal, Sumona [Department of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States); Woodworth, Craig D., E-mail: woodworth@clarkson.edu [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates important biological functions including cell growth, survival and the immune response. We found that Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 and E6/E7 proteins inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-inducible NF-kB activity in human epithelial cells cultured from the cervical transformation zone, the anatomic region where most cervical cancers develop. In contrast, HPV-16 E6 regulated NF-kB in a cell type- and cell growth-dependent manner. NF-kB influenced immortalization of cervical cells by HPV16. Inhibition of NF-kB by an IkB alpha repressor mutant increased colony formation and immortalization by HPV-16. In contrast, activation of NF-kB by constitutive expression of p65 inhibited proliferation and immortalization. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-kB by HPV-16 E6/E7 contributes to immortalization of cells from the cervical transformation zone.

  20. Detailed cost-benefit analysis of potential impairment countermeasures. Research in the framework of the European research programme IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing) Deliverable P2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlakveld, W. Wesemann, P. Devillers, E. Elvik, R. & Veisten, K.

    2005-01-01

    Almost all kinds of driver impairments increase accident risks. This study forms part of the European IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods Of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing) project. The study provides a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of several possible policies of impairment

  1. Lack of the p42 form of C/EBPα leads to spontaneous immortalization and lineage infidelity of committed myeloid progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel B; Frank, Anne-Katrine; Bagger, Frederik O

    2013-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) develops via a multistep process involving several genetic and epigenetic events, which ultimately leads to the formation of a heterogeneous population of malignant cells, of which only a small subpopulation termed the leukemia initiating cell (LIC) is able to sustain...... the leukemia. The identity of the LIC is highly diverse and ranges from populations resembling hematopoietic stem cells or multipotent progenitors (MPPs) to more committed myeloid progenitors, and the question still remains whether this is a direct consequence of which cells are targets of the final...... transforming events. In this study, we use premalignant cells from a Cebpa mutant AML model, in which the LIC population resembles granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), to show that premalignant GMPs undergo spontaneous immortalization with a high clonal frequency when cultured in vitro, suggesting...

  2. Immortal time bias in pharmacoepidemiological studies on cancer patient survival: empirical illustration for beta-blocker use in four cancers with different prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberpals, Janick; Jansen, Lina; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Kuiper, Josephina G; Aarts, Mieke J; Vissers, Pauline A J; Brenner, Hermann

    2017-11-01

    Immortal time bias (ITB) is still seen frequently in medical literature. However, not much is known about this bias in the field of cancer (pharmaco-)epidemiology. In context of a hypothetical beneficial beta-blocker use among cancer patients, we aimed to demonstrate the magnitude of ITB among 9876 prostate, colorectal, lung and pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2011, which were selected from a database linkage of the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the PHARMO Database Network. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals from three ITB scenarios, defining exposure at a defined point after diagnosis (model 1), at any point after diagnosis (model 2) and as multiple exposures after diagnosis (model 3), were calculated to investigate the association between beta-blockers and cancer prognosis using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results were compared to unbiased estimates derived from the Mantel-Byar model. Ignoring ITB led to substantial smaller HRs for beta-blocker use proposing a significant protective association in all cancer types [e.g. HR 0.18 (0.07-0.43) for pancreatic cancer in model 1], whereas estimates derived from the Mantel-Byar model were mainly suggesting no association [e.g. HR 1.10 (0.84-1.44)]. The magnitude of bias was consistently larger among cancer types with worse prognosis [overall median HR differences between all scenarios in model 1 and Mantel-Byar model of 0.56 (prostate), 0.72 (colorectal), 0.77 (lung) and 0.85 (pancreas)]. In conclusion, ITB led to spurious beneficial associations of beta-blocker use among cancer patients. The magnitude of ITB depends on the duration of excluded immortal time and the prognosis of each cancer.

  3. Differential regulation of iron chelator-induced IL-8 synthesis via MAP kinase and NF-κB in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Suk-Keun

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-8 (IL-8 is a cytokine that plays an important role in tumor progression in a variety of cancer types; however, its regulation is not well understood in oral cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the expression and mechanism of IL-8 in which it is involved by treating immortalized (IHOK and malignant human oral keratinocytes (HN12 cells with deferoxamine (DFO. Methods IL-8 production was measured by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays was used to determine NF-κB binding activity. Phosphorylation and degradation of the I-κB were analyized by Western blot. Results IHOK cells incubated with DFO showed increased expression of IL-8 mRNA, as well as higher release of the IL-8 protein. The up-regulation of DFO-induced IL-8 expression was higher in IHOK cells than in HN12 cells and was concentration-dependent. DFO acted additively with IL-1β to strongly up-regulate IL-8 in IHOK cells but not in HN12 cells. Accordingly, selective p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors for both kinases abolished DFO-induced IL-8 expression in both IHOK and HN12 cells. Furthermore, DFO induced the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB, and activation of NF-κB. The IL-8 inducing effects of DFO were mediated by a nitric oxide donor (S-nitrosoglutathione, and by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-κB, as well as by wortmannin, which inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent activation of NAD(PH oxidase. Conclusion This results demonstrate that DFO-induced IL-8 acts via multiple signaling pathways in immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes, and that the control of IL-8 may be an important target for immunotheraphy against human oral premalignant lesions.

  4. Establishment of an immortalized human extravillous trophoblast cell line by retroviral infection of E6/E7/hTERT and its transcriptional profile during hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Aikou; Nikaido, Takashi; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Rie; Umehara, Nagayoshi; Sugiura, Kentaro; Saito, Misato; Kiyono, Tohru; Tanaka, Tadao

    2009-02-01

    Investigation into the function of human trophoblasts has been largely restricted by a lack of suitable cell models. We aimed to produce normal human trophoblast cell lines with a long lifespan and to provide an ideal in vitro cell model. Primary human trophoblast cells were derived from a placenta that had undergone elective abortion at the 7th week of gestation. The cells were immortalized by infection with retroviral expression vectors containing the type 16 human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 in combination with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Characterization of the cell line was performed by immunocytochemistry using a panel of antibodies, Western blotting, real-time RT-PCR, an invasion assay, gelatin zymography, karyotype analysis and a nude mouse assay. Gene expression profiles under hypoxia (1% O2, 1 h) and subsequent reoxygenation (20% O2, 6 h) were analyzed using cDNA microarray. Immunocytochemistry revealed an extravillous trophoblastic phenotype by positive staining for hCGbeta, cytokeratin 7, HLA-G and CD9. A transwell insert invasion assay showed the invasiveness of this cell line and gelatin zymography detected the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Karyotype analysis exhibited an almost normal chromosomal number which ranged from 46 to 48 and the cells showed no tumorigenecity in a nude mouse assay. Forty-three genes showing reversible up- or down-regulation during hypoxia were detected using an oligonucleotide array. This newly immortalized cell line, HChEpC1b, is a useful model for the study of extravillous trophoblast function.

  5. Conditionally immortalized human proximal tubular epithelial cells isolated from the urine of a healthy subject express functional calcium-sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mise, Annarita; Tamma, Grazia; Ranieri, Marianna; Svelto, Maria; Heuvel, Bert van den; Levtchenko, Elena N; Valenti, Giovanna

    2015-06-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which plays an essential role in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis. Here we show that conditionally immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cell line (ciPTEC) obtained by immortalizing and subcloning cells exfoliated in the urine of a healthy subject expresses functional endogenous CaSR. Immunolocalization studies of polarized ciPTEC revealed the apical localization of the receptor. By Western blotting of ciPTEC lysates, both monomeric and dimeric forms of CaSR at 130 and ∼250 kDa, respectively, were detected. Functional studies indicated that both external calcium and the positive CaSR allosteric modulator, NPS-R568, induced a significant increase in cytosolic calcium, proving a high sensitivity of the endogenous receptor to its agonists. Calcium depletion from the endoplasmic reticulum using cyclopiazonic acid abolished the increase in cytosolic calcium elicited by NPS-R568, confirming calcium exit from intracellular stores. Activation of CaSR by NPS-R significantly reduced the increase in cAMP elicited by forskolin (FK), a direct activator of adenylate cyclase, further confirming the functional expression of the receptor in this cell line. CaSR expressed in ciPTEC was found to interact with Gq as a downstream effector, which in turn can cause release of calcium from intracellular stores via phospholipase C activation. We conclude that human proximal tubular ciPTEC express functional CaSR and respond to its activation with a release of calcium from intracellular stores. These cell lines represent a valuable tool for research into the disorder associated with gain or loss of function of the CaSR by producing cell lines from patients. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, P.K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Ludewig, G., E-mail: Gabriele-ludewig@uiowa.edu [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and

  7. Type I interferon reaction to viral infection in interferon-competent, immortalized cell lines from the African fruit bat Eidolon helvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne E Biesold

    Full Text Available Bats harbor several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses including Rabies, Marburg, and henipaviruses, without overt clinical symptoms in the animals. It has been suspected that bats might have evolved particularly effective mechanisms to suppress viral replication. Here, we investigated interferon (IFN response, -induction, -secretion and -signaling in epithelial-like cells of the relevant and abundant African fruit bat species, Eidolon helvum (E. helvum. Immortalized cell lines were generated; their potential to induce and react on IFN was confirmed, and biological assays were adapted to application in bat cell cultures, enabling comparison of landmark IFN properties with that of common mammalian cell lines. E. helvum cells were fully capable of reacting to viral and artificial IFN stimuli. E. helvum cells showed highest IFN mRNA induction, highly productive IFN protein secretion, and evidence of efficient IFN stimulated gene induction. In an Alphavirus infection model, O'nyong-nyong virus exhibited strong IFN induction but evaded the IFN response by translational rather than transcriptional shutoff, similar to other Alphavirus infections. These novel IFN-competent cell lines will allow comparative research on zoonotic, bat-borne viruses in order to model mechanisms of viral maintenance and emergence in bat reservoirs.

  8. Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Rajkumar, V; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have been the target for cancer therapy for several years but there is still a dearth of information on potent compounds that may protect normal cells and selectively destroy cancerous cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on WRL-68 (normal human hepatic cells), MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte cells) lines by XTT assay. Prior to cytotoxicity testing, the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for detecting the presence of compounds with therapeutic potential. Their relative antioxidant properties were evaluated using the reducing power and DPPH* radical scavenging assay. Since most of the observed chemo-preventive potential invariably correlated with the amount of total phenolics present in the extract, their levels were quantified and identified by HPLC analysis. Correlation studies indicated a strong and significant (PAnnona muricata. Isolation of the active metabolites from the extract is in prospect.

  9. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37) on immortalized gingival fibroblasts infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and irradiated with 625-nm LED light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiSun; Kim, SangWoo; Lim, WonBong; Choi, HongRan; Kim, OkJoon

    2015-11-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis causes chronic inflammatory diseases (periodontal diseases) that destroy the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Antimicrobial peptides are crucial components of the host defense response required to maintain cellular homeostasis during microbial invasion. Because light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation influences the host defense response against bacterial infections, we investigated its effect on immortalized gingival fibroblasts (IGFs) infected with P. gingivalis. IGFs were incubated with P. gingivalis following LED irradiation at 425, 525, and 625 nm. The dark 1 group comprised noninfected, nonirradiated IGFs, and the dark 2 group comprised nonirradiated IGFs infected with P. gingivalis. These groups served as controls. Infected cells and controls were assayed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and were subjected to RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses to determine the levels of expression of antimicrobial peptides. LED irradiation enhanced the bactericidal effects of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in cells infected with P. gingivalis. Irradiation at 625 nm decreased inflammatory responses involving the release of prostaglandin E2 induced by ROS in P. gingivalis-infected IGFs. LED irradiation at 625 nm induces an anti-inflammatory response that elicits the production of antimicrobial peptides, providing an efficacious method of treatment for periodontal diseases.

  10. Differential response of primary and immortalized CD4+ T cells to Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced cytokines determines the effect on HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy N Dobson-Belaire

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of gonococcal co-infection on immortalized versus primary CD4(+ T cells the Jurkat cell line or freshly isolated human CD4(+ T cells were infected with the HIV-1 X4 strain NL4-3. These cells were exposed to whole gonococci, supernatants from gonococcal-infected PBMCs, or N. gonorrhoeae-induced cytokines at varying levels. Supernatants from gonococcal-infected PBMCs stimulated HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells while effectively inhibiting HIV-1 replication in primary CD4(+ T cells. ELISA-based analyses revealed that the gonococcal-induced supernatants contained high levels of proinflammatory cytokines that promote HIV-1 replication, as well as the HIV-inhibitory IFNα. While all the T cells responded to the HIV-stimulatory cytokines, albeit to differing degrees, the Jurkat cells were refractory to IFNα. Combined, these results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae elicits immune-modulating cytokines that both activate and inhibit HIV-production; the outcome of co-infection depending upon the balance between these opposing signals.

  11. Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of zinc ions and eugenol during setting of ZOE in immortalized human oral keratinocytes grown as three-dimensional spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of ZOE cement during setting in two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) cultures of immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOKs) with determining the extract components responsible for these effects. Extracts of mixed ZOE at different stages of setting were analyzed by a digital pH meter, ICP-MS, and GC-MS. Serial concentrations of extract and their mixture of ZnCl2, ZnSO4·H2O, and eugenol liquid were added to the 2D and 3D IHOK cultures to determine the half maximal effective concentration in investigating the cause of cytotoxicity by means of WST assay and to investigate mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines by RT-PCR. Zn(2+) and eugenol (4-19 ppm) were detected in the extracts. In the early setting stage, significant cytotoxicity was observed in the 2D and 3D IHOK cultures (Peugenol was not detectable under 100 ppm. Along with the lower levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expressions in the extract, treatment of the 2D IHOKs with Zn(2+) alone and treatment of the 3D IHOKs with Zn(2+) plus eugenol resulted in significantly lower expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 (Peugenol. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects differed between the 2D and 3D IHOK cultures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT1–7 Cells for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1–7 cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, aluminum, zinc, or the antagonist of estrogen receptor (tamoxifen. Among tests of various essential oils, we found that H2O2-induced neuronal death was attenuated by the essential oils of damask rose, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, kabosu, mandarin, myrrh, and neroli. Damask rose oil had protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity, while geranium and rosemary oil showed protective activity against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, geranium oil and ginger oil enhanced the neurotoxicity of tamoxifen. Our in vitro assay system could be useful for the neuropharmacological and endocrine pharmacological studies of essential oils.

  13. Lack of the p42 form of C/EBPα leads to spontaneous immortalization and lineage infidelity of committed myeloid progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mikkel B; Frank, Anne-Katrine; Bagger, Frederik O; Rapin, Nicolas; Vikesaa, Jonas; Porse, Bo T

    2013-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) develops via a multistep process involving several genetic and epigenetic events, which ultimately leads to the formation of a heterogeneous population of malignant cells, of which only a small subpopulation termed the leukemia initiating cell (LIC) is able to sustain the leukemia. The identity of the LIC is highly diverse and ranges from populations resembling hematopoietic stem cells or multipotent progenitors (MPPs) to more committed myeloid progenitors, and the question still remains whether this is a direct consequence of which cells are targets of the final transforming events. In this study, we use premalignant cells from a Cebpa mutant AML model, in which the LIC population resembles granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), to show that premalignant GMPs undergo spontaneous immortalization with a high clonal frequency when cultured in vitro, suggesting that these cells constitute the target of the final transforming events. Furthermore, we show that premalignant GMPs are characterized by a distinct T cell gene expression signature correlating with an increased potential for differentiation toward the T cell lineage. These findings have implications for our understanding of the transcriptional wiring in premalignant myeloid progenitors and how this contributes to the development of AML. Copyright © 2013 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Symbiotic Plant Peptides Eliminate Candida albicans Both In Vitro and in an Epithelial Infection Model and Inhibit the Proliferation of Immortalized Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Ördögh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of multidrug-resistant microbes now emerging necessitates the identification of novel antimicrobial agents. Plants produce a great variety of antimicrobial peptides including hundreds of small, nodule-specific cysteine-rich NCR peptides that, in the legume Medicago truncatula, govern the differentiation of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria and, in vitro, can display potent antibacterial activities. In this study, the potential candidacidal activity of 19 NCR peptides was investigated. Cationic NCR peptides having an isoelectric point above 9 were efficient in killing Candida albicans, one of the most common fungal pathogens of humans. None of the tested NCR peptides were toxic for immortalized human epithelial cells at concentrations that effectively killed the fungus; however, at higher concentrations, some of them inhibited the division of the cells. Furthermore, the cationic peptides successfully inhibited C. albicans induced human epithelial cell death in an in vitro coculture model. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cationic NCR peptides in the treatment of candidiasis.

  15. HIV-1 gp120 neurotoxicity proximally and at a distance from the point of exposure: protection by rSV40 delivery of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Agrawal, Lokesh; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2009-06-01

    Toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) for substantia nigra (SN) neurons may contribute to the Parkinsonian manifestations often seen in HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). We studied the neurotoxicity of gp120 for dopaminergic neurons and potential neuroprotection by antioxidant gene delivery. Rats were injected stereotaxically into their caudate-putamen (CP); CP and (substantia nigra) SN neuron loss was quantified. The area of neuron loss extended several millimeters from the injection site, approximately 35% of the CP area. SN neurons, outside of this area of direct neurotoxicity, were also severely affected. Dopaminergic SN neurons (expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, TH, in the SN and dopamine transporter, DAT, in the CP) were mostly affected: intra-CP gp120 caused approximately 50% DAT+ SN neuron loss. Prior intra-CP gene delivery of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) protected SN neurons from intra-CP gp120. Thus, SN dopaminergic neurons are highly sensitive to HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity, and antioxidant gene delivery, even at a distance, is protective.

  16. Efficient eradication of subcutaneous but not of autochthonous gastric tumors by adoptive T cell transfer in an SV40 T antigen mouse model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourquin, Carole; von der Borch, Philip; Zoglmeier, Christine; Anz, David; Sandholzer, Nadja; Suhartha, Nina; Wurzenberger, Cornelia; Denzel, Angela; Kammerer, Robert; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Endres, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    .... In wild-type mice, a dendritic cell vaccine loaded with irradiated tumor cells combined with CpG oligonucleotides induced efficient cytotoxic T cell and memory responses against mGC3 s.c. tumors...

  17. The AT-rich tract of the SV40 ori core: negative synergism and specific recognition by single stranded and duplex DNA binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Ivo; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    1992-01-01

    The cellular oncogene c-myc encodes a nuclear protein that is considered to play a role in cell proliferation. In this report, the region upstream from the transcriptional promoter of the c-myc gene was examined for regulatory activity on its expression during cell cycle. Plasmids which contain the upstream region of human c-myc gene linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were transfected to rat 3Y1 cells together with pSV2Hg (containing the hygromycin resistance...

  18. 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D-mediated orchestration of anticancer, transcript-level effects in the immortalized, non-transformed prostate epithelial cell line, RWPE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton Steve K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among US men. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high vitamin D status protects men from prostate cancer and the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH2D has anti-cancer effects in cultured prostate cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms and the gene targets for vitamin D-mediated prostate cancer prevention are unknown. Results We examined the effect of 1,25(OH2D (+/- 100 nM, 6, 24, 48 h on the transcript profile of proliferating RWPE1 cells, an immortalized, non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cell line that is growth arrested by 1,25(OH2D (Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0, n = 4/treatment per time and dose. Our analysis revealed many transcript level changes at a 5% false detection rate: 6 h, 1571 (61% up, 24 h, 1816 (60% up, 48 h, 3566 (38% up. 288 transcripts were regulated similarly at all time points (182 up, 80 down and many of the promoters for these transcripts contained putative vitamin D response elements. Functional analysis by pathway or Gene Set Analysis revealed early suppression of WNT, Notch, NF-kB, and IGF1 signaling. Transcripts related to inflammation were suppressed at 6 h (e.g. IL-1 pathway and suppression of proinflammatory pathways continued at later time points (e.g. IL-17 and IL-6 pathways. There was also evidence for induction of anti-angiogenic pathways and induction of transcripts for protection from oxidative stress or maintenance of cell redox homeostasis at 6 h. Conclusions Our data reveal of large number of potential new, direct vitamin D target genes relevant to prostate cancer prevention. In addition, our data suggests that rather than having a single strong regulatory effect, vitamin D orchestrates a pattern of changes within prostate epithelial cells that limit or slow carcinogenesis.

  19. Stable expression of neurogenin 1 induces LGR5, a novel stem cell marker, in an immortalized human neural stem cell line HB1.F3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Obayashi, Shinya; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Wakana, Taeko; Kim, Seung U

    2010-04-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties serve as an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. To efficiently induce neuronal lineage cells from NSC for neuron replacement therapy, we should clarify the intrinsic genetic programs involved in a time- and place-specific regulation of human NSC differentiation. Recently, we established an immortalized human NSC clone HB1.F3 to provide an unlimited NSC source applicable to genetic manipulation for cell-based therapy. To investigate a role of neurogenin 1 (Ngn1), a proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, in human NSC differentiation, we established a clone derived from F3 stably overexpressing Ngn1. Genome-wide gene expression profiling identified 250 upregulated genes and 338 downregulated genes in Ngn1-overexpressing F3 cells (F3-Ngn1) versus wild-type F3 cells (F3-WT). Notably, leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a novel stem cell marker, showed an 167-fold increase in F3-Ngn1, although transient overexpression of Ngn1 did not induce upregulation of LGR5, suggesting that LGR5 is not a direct transcriptional target of Ngn1. KeyMolnet, a bioinformatics tool for analyzing molecular relations on a comprehensive knowledgebase, suggests that the molecular network of differentially expressed genes involves the complex interaction of networks regulated by multiple transcription factors. Gene ontology (GO) terms of development and morphogenesis are enriched in upregulated genes, while those of extracellular matrix and adhesion are enriched in downregulated genes. These results suggest that stable expression of a single gene Ngn1 in F3 cells induces not simply neurogenic but multifunctional changes that potentially affect the differentiation of human NSC via a reorganization of complex gene regulatory networks.

  20. Low-Dose Methylmercury-Induced Genes Regulate Mitochondrial Biogenesis via miR-25 in Immortalized Human Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells

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    Xinjin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential organelles and important targets for environmental pollutants. The detection of mitochondrial biogenesis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and p53 levels following low-dose methylmercury (MeHg exposure could expand our understanding of underlying mechanisms. Here, the sensitivity of immortalized human neural progenitor cells (ihNPCs upon exposure to MeHg was investigated. We found that MeHg altered cell viability and the number of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU-positive cells. We also observed that low-dose MeHg exposure increased the mRNA expression of cell cycle regulators. We observed that MeHg induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, mRNA levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gammacoactivator-1α (PGC-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM and p53-controlled ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2 were significantly elevated, which were correlated with the increase of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number at a concentration as low as 10 nM. Moreover, we examined the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs known as regulatory miRNAs of p53 (i.e., miR-30d, miR-1285, miR-25. We found that the expression of these miRNAs was significantly downregulated upon MeHg treatment. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-25 resulted in significantly reducted p53 protein levels and decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis regulation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MeHg could induce developmental neurotoxicity in ihNPCs through altering mitochondrial functions and the expression of miRNA.

  1. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-2 within the immature rat ovary and its role in regulating mitosis and apoptosis of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Daniel; Liu, Xiufang; Pru, Cindy; Pru, James K; Peluso, John J

    2014-08-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (Pgrmc2) mRNA was detected in the immature rat ovary. By 48 h after eCG, Pgrmc2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% and were maintained at 48 h post-hCG. Immunohistochemical studies detected PGRMC2 in oocytes and ovarian surface epithelial, interstitial, thecal, granulosa, and luteal cells. PGRMC2 was also present in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells, localizing to the cytoplasm of interphase cells and apparently to the mitotic spindle of cells in metaphase. Interestingly, PGRMC2 levels appeared to decrease during the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Moreover, overexpression of PGRMC2 suppressed entry into the cell cycle, possibly by binding the p58 form of cyclin dependent kinase 11b. Conversely, Pgrmc2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment increased the percentage of cells in G1 and M stage but did not increase the number of cells, which was likely due to an increase in apoptosis. Depleting PGRMC2 did not inhibit cellular (3)H-progesterone binding, but attenuated the ability of progesterone to suppress mitosis and apoptosis. Taken together these studies suggest that PGRMC2 affects granulosa cell mitosis by acting at two specific stages of the cell cycle. First, PGRMC2 regulates the progression from the G0 into the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Second, PGRMC2 appears to localize to the mitotic spindle, where it likely promotes the final stages of mitosis. Finally, siRNA knockdown studies indicate that PGRMC2 is required for progesterone to slow the rate of granulosa cell mitosis and apoptosis. These findings support a role for PGRMC2 in ovarian follicle development. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Wnt activation of immortalized brain endothelial cells as a tool for generating a standardized model of the blood brain barrier in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paolinelli

    Full Text Available Reproducing the characteristics and the functional responses of the blood-brain barrier (BBB in vitro represents an important task for the research community, and would be a critical biotechnological breakthrough. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries provide strong demand for inexpensive and easy-to-handle in vitro BBB models to screen novel drug candidates. Recently, it was shown that canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for the induction of the BBB properties in the neonatal brain microvasculature in vivo. In the present study, following on from earlier observations, we have developed a novel model of the BBB in vitro that may be suitable for large scale screening assays. This model is based on immortalized endothelial cell lines derived from murine and human brain, with no need for co-culture with astrocytes. To maintain the BBB endothelial cell properties, the cell lines are cultured in the presence of Wnt3a or drugs that stabilize β-catenin, or they are infected with a transcriptionally active form of β-catenin. Upon these treatments, the cell lines maintain expression of BBB-specific markers, which results in elevated transendothelial electrical resistance and reduced cell permeability. Importantly, these properties are retained for several passages in culture, and they can be reproduced and maintained in different laboratories over time. We conclude that the brain-derived endothelial cell lines that we have investigated gain their specialized characteristics upon activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. This model may be thus suitable to test the BBB permeability to chemicals or large molecular weight proteins, transmigration of inflammatory cells, treatments with cytokines, and genetic manipulation.

  3. Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke extract induces hypomethylation at the RUNX3 and IGF2-H19 loci in immortalized human urothelial cells.

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    Li-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is the single most important epidemiological risk factor for bladder cancer but it is not known whether exposure of urothelial cells to the systemic soluble contents of cigarette smoke is directly causative to bladder cancer and the associated epigenetic changes such as tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation. We undertook this study to investigate if long-term treatment of human urothelial cells with cigarette smoke extract (CSE results in tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation, a phenotype that was previously associated with long-term constant CSE treatment of airway epithelial cells. We chronically treated an immortalized human urothelial cell line UROtsa with CSE using a cyclic daily regimen but the cells were cultured in CSE-free medium between daily treatments. Bisulfite sequencing and real-time PCR array-based methylation profiling were employed to evaluate methylation changes at tumor suppressor gene loci in the chronically CSE-treated cells versus the passage-matched untreated control cells. The RUNX3 tumor suppressor gene promoter was hypomethylated with a significant increase in proportion of the completely unmethylated haplotype after the long-term CSE treatment; whereas RUNX3 promoter hypermethylation was previously reported for bladder cancers of smokers. Hypomethylation induced by the long-term CSE treatment was also observed for the IGF2-H19 locus. The methylation status at the PRSS8/prostasin and 16 additional loci however, was unaffected by the chronic CSE treatment. Transient CSE treatment over 1 daily regimen resulted in transcriptional down-regulation of RUNX3 and H19, but only the H19 transcription was down-regulated in the chronically CSE-treated urothelial cells. Transcription of a key enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR was greatly reduced by the long-term CSE treatment, potentially serving as a mechanism for the hypomethylation phenotype via a reduced supply of methyl donor

  4. Linoleic acid and stearic acid elicit opposite effects on AgRP expression and secretion via TLR4-dependent signaling pathways in immortalized hypothalamic N38 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songbo; Xiang, Nana; Yang, Liusong; Zhu, Canjun; Zhu, Xiaotong; Wang, Lina; Gao, Ping; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang; Shu, Gang; Jiang, Qingyan

    2016-03-18

    The regulation of food intake is a promising way to combat obesity. It has been implicated that various fatty acids exert different effects on food intake and body weight. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of linoleic acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA) on agouti-related protein (AgRP) expression and secretion in immortalized mouse hypothalamic N38 cells and to explore the likely underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that LA inhibited, while SA stimulated AgRP expression and secretion of N38 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, LA suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), phosphorylation levels of JNK and IKKα/β, suggesting the inhibition of TLR4-dependent inflammation pathway. However, the above mentioned inhibitory effects of LA were eliminated by TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, SA promoted TLR4 protein expression and activated TLR4-dependent inflammation pathway, with elevated ratio of p-JNK/JNK. While TLR4 siRNA reversed the stimulatory effects of SA on AgRP expression and TLR4-dependent inflammation. Moreover, we found that TLR4 was also involved in LA-enhanced and SA-impaired leptin/insulin signal pathways in N38 cells. In conclusion, our findings indicated that LA elicited inhibitory while SA exerted stimulatory effects on AgRP expression and secretion via TLR4-dependent inflammation and leptin/insulin pathways in N38 cells. These data provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying fatty acids-regulated food intake and suggested the potential role of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids such as LA in reducing food intake and treating obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of capsaicin, an active component of chili pepper, on pathogenic chlamydial growth (Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae) in immortal human epithelial HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kazuya; Matsuo, Junji; Okubo, Torahiko; Nakamura, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Capsaicin, a component of chili pepper, which can stimulate actin remodeling via capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) and anti-inflammatory effects via PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) and LXRα (liver X receptor α), is a potential candidate to control chlamydial growth in host cells. We examined whether capsaicin could inhibit C. trachomatis growth in immortal human epithelial HeLa cells. Inclusion forming unit and quantitative PCR assays showed that capsaicin significantly inhibited bacterial growth in cells in a dose-dependent manner, even in the presence of cycloheximide, a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. Confocal microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed an obvious decrease in bacterial numbers to inclusions bodies formed in the cells. Although capsaicin can stimulate the apoptosis of cells, no increase in cleaved PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), an apoptotic indicator, was observed at a working concentration. All of the drugs tested (capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist; 5CPPSS-50, an LXRα inhibitor; and T0070907, a PPARγ inhibitor) had no effect on chlamydial inhibition in the presence of capsaicin. In addition, we also confirmed that capsaicin inhibited Chlamydia pneumoniae growth, indicating a phenomena not specific to C. trachomatis. Thus, we conclude that capsaicin can block chlamydial growth without the requirement of host cell protein synthesis, but by another, yet to be defined, mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Downregulation of Bit1 expression promotes growth, anoikis resistance, and transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells via Erk activation-dependent suppression of E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Gray, Selena; Pham, Tri; Delgardo, Mychael; Nguyen, An; Do, Stephen; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Biliran, Hector

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bit1 protein exerts tumor-suppressive function in NSCLC through induction of anoikis and inhibition of EMT. Having this dual tumor suppressive effect, its downregulation in the established human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line resulted in potentiation of tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. However, the exact role of Bit1 in regulating malignant growth and transformation of human lung epithelial cells, which are origin of most forms of human lung cancers, has not been examined. To this end, we have downregulated the endogenous Bit1 expression in the immortalized non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Knockdown of Bit1 enhanced the growth and anoikis insensitivity of BEAS-2B cells. In line with their acquired anoikis resistance, the Bit1 knockdown BEAS-2B cells exhibited enhanced anchorage-independent growth in vitro but failed to form tumors in vivo. The loss of Bit1-induced transformed phenotypes was in part attributable to the repression of E-cadherin expression since forced exogenous E-cadherin expression attenuated the malignant phenotypes of the Bit1 knockdown cells. Importantly, we show that the loss of Bit1 expression in BEAS-2B cells resulted in increased Erk activation, which functions upstream to promote TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin. These collective findings indicate that loss of Bit1 expression contributes to the acquisition of malignant phenotype of human lung epithelial cells via Erk activation-induced suppression of E-cadherin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphorylation of STAT proteins by recombinant human IL-6 in immortalized human chondrocyte cell lines, T/C28a2 and C28/I2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meszaros EC

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evan C Meszaros,1 Charles J Malemud1,2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatic Diseases, 2Department of Anatomy, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Two immortalized human juvenile chondrocyte cell lines, T/C28a2 and C28/I2, were employed to determine the extent to which recombinant human (rh IL-6, a known cytokine activator of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT pathway in many cell types, caused STAT proteins to be phosphorylated. The results showed that STAT3 was constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of rhIL-6 in T/C28a2 chondrocytes. However, C28/I2 chondrocytes treated with rhIL-6 caused STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 to be phosphorylated without altering total unphosphorylated STAT proteins. STAT3 phosphorylation in response to rhIL-6 in T/C28a and C28/I2 chondrocytes was efficiently blocked by the JAK3-selective inhibitor WHI-P131 (Janex-1 and by soluble IL-6 receptor-α (sIL-6R. However, the combination of rhIL-6 and ruxolitinib, a JAK1/JAK2-selective inhibitor, was a less effective inhibitor of STAT protein activation. These findings showed that rhIL-6 activated STAT proteins in the C28/I2 chondrocyte cell line. STAT protein phosphorylation could be blocked by a JAK3-selective inhibitor or by the combination of rhIL-6 and sIL-6R. Keywords: chondrocyte cell lines, cytokine, human, signal transduction

  8. Stable phenotype and function of immortalized Lin-Sca-1+ cardiac progenitor cells in long-term culture: a step closer to standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Ana G; Nascimento, Diana S; Forte, Giancarlo; Valente, Mariana; Resende, Tatiana P; Pagliari, Stefania; Abreu, Cláudia; Carvalho, Isabel; Di Nardo, Paolo; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua

    2014-05-01

    Putative cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been identified in the myocardium and are regarded as promising candidates for cardiac cell-based therapies. Although two distinct populations of CPCs reached the clinical setting, more detailed studies are required to portray the optimal cell type and therapeutic setting to drive robust cell engraftment and cardiomyogenesis after injury. Owing to the scarcity of the CPCs and the need for reproducibility, the generation of faithful cellular models would facilitate this scrutiny. Here, we evaluate whether immortalized Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CPCs (iCPC(Sca-1)) represent their native-cell counterpart, thereby constituting a robust in vitro model system for standardized investigation in the cardiac field. iCPC(Sca-1) were established in vitro as plastic adherent cells endowed with robust self-renewal capacity while preserving a stable phenotype in long-term culture. iCPC(Sca-1) differentiated into cardiomyocytic-, endothelial-, and smooth muscle-like cells when subjected to appropriate stimuli. The cell line consistently displayed features of Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CPCs in vitro, as well as in vivo after intramyocardial delivery in the onset of myocardial infarction (MI). Transplanted iCPC(Sca-1) significantly attenuated the functional and anatomical alterations caused by MI while promoting neovascularization. iCPC(Sca-1) are further shown to engraft, establish functional connections, and differentiate in loco into cardiomyocyte- and vasculature-like cells. These data validate iCPC(Sca-1) as an in vitro model system for Lin(-)Sca-1(+) progenitors and for systematic dissection of mechanisms underlying CPC subsets engraftment/differentiation in vivo. Moreover, iCPC(Sca-1) can be regarded as a ready-to-use CPCs source for pre-clinical bioengineering studies toward the development of novel strategies for restoration of the damaged myocardium.

  9. C-terminal cleavage of DeltaNp63alpha is associated with TSA-induced apoptosis in immortalized corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Danielle M; Ho, Su-Inn; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2010-08-01

    In the central human corneal epithelium, loss of DeltaNp63 occurs in all surface epithelial cells preparing to undergo desquamation, suggesting a potential role for DeltaNp63 isoforms in mediating surface cell apoptotic shedding. In this study, the authors investigated a role for DeltaNp63 isoforms in caspase-mediated apoptosis in a telomerase-immortalized corneal epithelial cell line. For in vitro studies, hTCEpi cells were cultured in KGM-2 serum-free culture media containing 0.15 mM calcium. To assess dynamic protein interactions among individual DeltaNp63 isoforms, DeltaNp63-EGFP expression plasmids were transiently expressed in hTCEpi cells and evaluated by FRAP. Trichostatin-A (TSA; 3.31 muM) was used to induce cell death as measured by caspase activity. Cleavage and loss of endogenous DeltaNp63alpha, DeltaNp63-EGFP expression plasmids, and p53 were assessed after treatment with TSA and siRNA. Transient expression of DeltaNp63-EGFP alpha and beta isoforms resulted in the formation of a smaller isoform similar in size to DeltaNp63gamma-EGFP. FRAP demonstrated that DeltaNp63alpha-EGFP has greater immobile fraction than beta or gamma. TSA induced caspase-mediated apoptotic pathways; caspase induction was accompanied by a decrease in endogenous DeltaNp63alpha and p53. TSA upregulated DeltaNp63-EGFP plasmid expression; this was accompanied by a selective increase in cleavage of DeltaNp63alpha-EGFP. siRNA knockdown of DeltaNp63alpha correlated with a reduction in p53 independently of TSA. DeltaNp63alpha is the dominant active isoform in corneal epithelial cell nuclei. Loss of DeltaNp63alpha occurs during apoptotic signaling by cleavage at the C terminus. The corresponding loss of p53 suggests that a significant relationship appears to exist between these two regulatory proteins.

  10. Transplantation of Immortalized CD34+ and CD34- Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improve Cardiac Function and Mitigate Systemic Pro-Inflammatory Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Joo, Hyung-Joon; Hong, Soon-Jun; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various cell lineages and they are easily obtainable from patients, which makes them a promising candidate for cell therapy. However, a drawback is their limited life span during in vitro culture. Therefore, hTERT-immortalized CD34+ and CD34- mouse ADSC lines (mADSCshTERT) tagged with GFP were established. We evaluated the proliferation capacity, multi-differentiation potential, and secretory profiles of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT in vitro, as well as their effects on cardiac function and systemic inflammation following transplantation into a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to assess whether these cells could be used as a novel cell source for regeneration therapy in the cardiovascular field. CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT demonstrated phenotypic characteristics and multi-differentiation potentials similar to those of primary mADSCs. CD34+ mADSCshTERT exhibited a higher proliferation ability compared to CD34- mADSCshTERT, whereas CD34- mADSCshTERT showed a higher osteogenic differentiation potential compared to CD34+ mADSCshTERT. Primary mADSCs, CD34+, and CD34- mADSCshTERT primarily secreted EGF, TGF-β1, IGF-1, IGF-2, MCP-1, and HGFR. CD34+ mADSCshTERT had higher secretion of VEGF and SDF-1 compared to CD34- mADSCshTERT. IL-6 secretion was severely reduced in both CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT compared to primary mADSCs. Transplantation of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT significantly improved the left ventricular ejection fraction and reduced infarct size compared to AMI-induced rats after 28 days. At 28 days after transplantation, engraftment of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT was confirmed by positive Y chromosome staining, and differentiation of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT into endothelial cells was found in the infarcted myocardium. Significant decreases were observed in circulating IL-6 levels in CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT groups compared to the AMI-induced control group

  11. A Polyphenol-Enriched Fraction of Rose Oil Distillation Wastewater Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Migration and TNF-α-Induced VEGF Secretion in Human Immortalized Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Jonas; Rusanov, Krasimir; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2016-07-01

    Water steam distillation of rose flowers separates the essential oil from the polyphenol-containing rose oil distillation wastewater. Recently, a strategy was developed to separate rose oil distillation wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol-enriched fraction [RF20-(SP-207)]. The objective of the present study was to investigate RF20-(SP-207) and fraction F(IV), augmented in quercetin and ellagic acid, for possible antiproliferative effects in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) since rose petals are known to contain compounds with potential antiproliferative activity.RF20-(SP-207) revealed dose-dependent antiproliferative activity (IC50 of 9.78 µg/mL). In a nontoxic concentration of 10 µg/mL, this effect was stronger than that of the two positive controls LY294002 (10 µM, PI3 K-inhibitor, 30 % inhibition) and NVP-BEZ235 (100 nM, dual PI3 K/mTOR inhibitor, 30 % inhibition) and clearly exceeded the antiproliferative action of quercetin (50 µM, 25 % inhibition) and ellagic acid (1 µM, 15 % inhibition). Time-lapse microscopy detected a significant impairment of cell migration of RF20-(SP-207) and F(IV). At concentrations of 10 µg/mL of both, extract and fraction, cell migration was strongly suppressed (51 % and 28 % gap closure, respectively, compared to 95 % gap closure 24 hours after control treatment). The suppression of cell migration was comparable to the positive controls LY294002, NVP-BEZ235, and quercetin. Furthermore, basal and TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-secretion was significantly reduced by RF20-(SP-207) and F(IV) at 10 µg/mL (44 % vs. untreated control).In conclusion, RF20-(SP-207) showed promising antiproliferative and antimigratory effects and could be developed as a supportive, therapy against hyperproliferation-involved skin diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Effects of epiplakin-knockdown in cultured corneal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kokado, Masahide; Okada, Yuka; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Osamu; Saika, Shizuya

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate effects of knockdown of epiplakin gene expression on the homeostasis of cultured corneal epithelial cell line. We previously reported acceleration of corneal epithelial wound healing in an epiplakin-null mouse. Methods Gene expression of epiplakin was knockdowned by employing siRNA transfection in SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line. Protein expression of E-cadherin, keratin 6 and vimentin was examined by western blotting. Cell migration and prolifer...

  13. Husserl, the Monad and Immortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    provides identity of self for “spirits”, that is, mindful beings. “An immaterial being cannot be stripped of all perception of its past existence. It retains impressions of everything which has happened to it, and even has presentiments of everything that will happen to it … . It is this continuity and interconnection of perceptions.

  14. The immortality of Ms Jones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    When I began my medical student clinical rotations, I quickly became overwhelmed by feelings of inadequacy. While the doctors around me conjured appropriate diagnoses and treatment approaches, I fumbled with the only tools I possessed: my time and a smile. It was only when I met the patient Ms Jones that I came to understand the potential impact of these simple tools. My encouragement became part of her recovery process. She gave me the confidence to construct this ability of comforting patients into a small platform of confidence from which I could safely venture to educate patients or suggest treatments to residents. It could be something that I could reliably fall back on in times of doubt and something I could pass along to other people I met. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  15. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllosi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Bíró, Tamás

    2011-06-01

    The pilosebaceous unit of the human skin consists of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Within this "mini-organ", the sebaceous gland has been neglected by the researchers of the field for several decades. Actually, it was labeled as a reminiscence of human development ("a living fossil with a past but no future"), and was thought to solely act as a producer of sebum, a lipid-enriched oily substance which protects our skin (and hence the body) against various insults. However, due to emerging research activities of the past two decades, it has now become evident that the sebaceous gland is not only a "passive" cutaneous "relic" to establish the physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, but it rather functions as an "active" neuro-immuno-endocrine cutaneous organ. This review summarizes recent findings of sebaceous gland research by mainly focusing on newly discovered physiological functions, novel regulatory mechanisms, key events in the pathology of the gland, and future directions in both experimental and clinical dermatology.

  16. The prevalence and relative risk of drink and drug driving in the Netherlands: a case-control study in the Tilburg police district : research in the framework of the European research programme IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Houwing, S.

    2005-01-01

    Drink and drug driving can have an impact on the driving performance and accident risk. This epidemiological study, which forms part of the European project IMMORTAL, investigates the prevalence of eight defined drug groups, including alcohol, among drivers in the Tilburg police district. To examine

  17. Expression of the small T antigen of Lymphotropic Papovavirus is sufficient to transform primary mouse embryo fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Tushar; Robles, Maria Teresa Sáenz [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Schowalter, Rachel M.; Buck, Christopher B. [Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-4263 (United States); Pipas, James M., E-mail: pipas@pitt.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Polyomaviruses induce cell proliferation and transformation through different oncoproteins encoded within the early region (ER): large T antigen (LT), small T antigen (sT) and, in some cases, additional components. Each virus utilizes different mechanisms to achieve transformation. For instance, the LTs of Simian virus 40 (SV40), BK and/or JC virus can induce transformation; but Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) requires expression of sT. Lymphotropic Papovavirus (LPV) is closely related to Human Polyomavirus 9 (HuPyV9) and, under similar conditions, mice expressing LPV.ER exhibit higher rates of tumor formation than mice expressing SV40.ER. We have investigated the contributions of individual LPV.ER components to cell transformation. In contrast to SV40, LPV.ER transforms mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but expression of LPV LT is insufficient to transform MEFs. Furthermore, LPV sT induces immortalization and transformation of MEFs. Thus, in the case of LPV, sT is the main mediator of oncogenesis. - Highlights: • Characterization of early region products from the Lymphotropic Polyomavirus (LPV). • On its own, sT immortalizes and transforms mouse primary cells, and is able to block p53 activation. • Combined LT and sT expression induces a greater rate of proliferation than either LT or sT alone.

  18. Cultivation and Immortalization of Human B-Cells Producing a Human Monoclonal IgM Antibody Binding to MDA-LDL: Further Evidence for Formation of Atherogenic MDA-LDL Adducts in Humans In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Tatzber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oLDL is firmly believed to play an important role in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis, and malonic dialdehyde (MDA is one of the major lipid peroxidation breakdown products involved in this process. In recent decades, antibodies against MDA-LDL have been detected in human and animal sera. In our study, human B-cells from the peripheral blood of a healthy female donor were fused with the SP2/0 mouse myeloma cell line. Antibody-producing hybridomas were detected by MDA-LDL-IgG/IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and Cu++-oxidized LDL IgG/IgM (oLAb ELISA. Cells with supernatants emitting positive signals for antibodies were then cloned and after sufficient multiplication frozen and stored under liquid nitrogen. Due to the loss of antibody-producing ability, we established an MDA-LDL-IgM-producing cell line by recloning. This allowed isolation and immortalization of several human B-cells. The human donor had not been immunized with MDA-modified proteins, thus obviously producing MDA-LDL antibodies in vivo. Furthermore, using these antibodies for in vitro experiments, we were able to demonstrate that MDA epitopes are among the epitopes generated during Cu++-LDL oxidation as well. Finally, these antibodies compete in ELISA and cell culture experiments with MDA as a challenging toxin or ligand.

  19. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and morphological changes in response to the tumour promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate in primary human tumour cells, established and transformed cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rance, A J; Thönnes, M; Issinger, O G

    1985-01-01

    was about 4-6-fold. Established and transformed cell lines showed enhanced S6 phosphorylation which was not further stimulated by the addition of TPA. These findings indicated that the influence of TPA on the metabolic pathway, that finally leads to the phosphorylation of protein S6 in cells with a limited...... lifespan (fibroblasts, primary human tumour cells) can be mimicked by unknown steps also associated with immortalization (establishment function) and the transformed state of the tumour cells. Another interesting observation were morphological changes of the established and SV40-transformed cells which......The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in fibroblasts, primary human tumour cells, established and SV40-transformed human cell lines was compared after the addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). In fibroblasts and primary tumour cell cultures, stimulation of S6 phosphorylation...

  20. Effects of simvastatin on CAT-1-mediated arginine transport and NO level under high glucose conditions in conditionally immortalized rat inner blood-retinal barrier cell lines (TR-iBRB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Temdara; Kang, Young-Sook

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia causes the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier by impairing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Statins have many pleiotropic effects such as improving endothelial barrier permeability and increasing eNOS mRNA stability. The objective of this study was to determine effect of simvastatin on l-arginine transport and NO production under high-glucose conditions in conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB). Changes in l-arginine transport uptake and, expression levels of cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) and eNOS mRNA were investigated after pre-treatment with simvastatin and NOS inhibitors (l-NMMA and l-NAME) under high-glucose conditions using TR-iBRB, an in vitro model of iBRB. The NO level released from TR-iBRB cells was examined using Griess reagents. Under high glucose conditions, [3H]l-arginine uptake was decreased in TR-iBRB cells. Simvastatin pretreatment elevated [3H]l-arginine uptake, the expression levels of CAT-1 and eNOS mRNA, and NO production under high-glucose conditions. Moreover, the co-treatment with simvastatin and NOS inhibitors reduced [3H]l-arginine uptake compared to pretreatment with simvastatin alone. Our results suggest that, in the presence of high-glucose levels, increased l-arginine uptake due to simvastatin treatment was associated with increased CAT-1 and eNOS mRNA levels, leading to higher NO production in TR-iBRB cells. Thus, simvastatin might be a good modulator for diabetic retinopathy therapy by increasing of the l-arginine uptake and improving endothelial function in retinal capillary endothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuronal protein gene product 9.5 (IEF SSP 6104) is expressed in cultured human MRC-5 fibroblasts of normal origin and is strongly down-regulated in their SV40 transformed counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vandekerckhove, J

    1991-01-01

    of proteins recovered from 2D gels we have identified PGP 9.5 UCH-L1 as polypeptide IEF SSP 6104 (Mr = 27,000, pI = 5.49) in the comprehensive 2D gel cellular protein database of human embryonal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts [(1989) Electrophoresis 10, 76 115; (1990) Electrophoresis 11, 1072 1113]. This protein...

  2. Activation of p53, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of estrogen receptor beta are associated with the anti-growth effects of combination of ovarian hormones and retinoids in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Schneider Sallie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A full-term pregnancy has been associated with reduced risk for developing breast cancer. In rodent models, the protective effect of pregnancy can be mimicked with a defined regimen of estrogen and progesterone combination (E/P. However, the effects of pregnancy levels of E/P in humans and their underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the growth inhibitory effects of pregnancy levels of E/P and both natural and synthetic retinoids in an immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line, 76N TERT cell line. Results We observed that cell growth was modestly inhibited by E/P, 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA or all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, and strongly inhibited by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide (HPR. The growth inhibitory effects of retinoids were further increased in the presence of E/P, suggesting their effects are additive. In addition, our results showed that both E/P and retinoid treatments resulted in increased RARE and p53 gene activity. We further demonstrated that p53 and p21 protein expression were induced following the E/P and retinoid treatments. Furthermore, we demonstrated that while the telomerase activity was moderately inhibited by E/P, 9-cis RA and ATRA, it was almost completely abolished by HPR treatment. These inhibitions on telomerase activity by retinoids were potentiated by co-treatment with E/P, and correlated well with their observed growth inhibitory effects. Finally, this study provides the first evidence that estrogen receptor beta is up-regulated in response to E/P and retinoid treatments. Conclusion Taken together, our studies show that part of the anti-growth effects of E/P and retinoids is p53 dependent, and involve activation of p53 and subsequent induction of p21 expression. Inhibition of telomerase activity and up-regulation of estrogen receptor beta are also associated with the E/P- and retinoid-mediated growth inhibition. Our studies also demonstrate that

  3. The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skloot, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. She was a poor Southern tobacco farmer, yet her cells--taken without her knowledge--became one of the most important tools in medicine...

  4. Cellular reprogramming in pursuit of immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, M Azim

    2012-12-07

    The discovery that phenotypic diversity among differentiated cells results from epigenetic and not genetic differences, and can be reset to restore pluripotency, promises revolutionary advances in medicine. I discuss how this and related seminal discoveries have brought us to an exciting future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell culture from sponges: pluripotency and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caralt, Sònia; Uriz, María J; Wijffels, René H

    2007-10-01

    Sponges are a source of compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications. In this article, methods of sponge cell culture for production of these bioactive compounds are reviewed, and new approaches for overcoming the problem of metabolite supply are examined. The use of embryos is proposed as a new source of sponge material for cell culture. Stem cells are present in high amounts in embryos and are more versatile and resistant to infections than adult cells. Additionally, genetic engineering and cellular research on apoptotic mechanisms are promising new fields that might help to improve cell survival in sponge-cell lines. We propose that one topic for future research should be how to reduce apoptosis, which appears to be very high in sponge cell cultures.

  6. Diffused Knowledge Immortalizes Itself The LOCKSS Program

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Victoria A

    2003-01-01

    The LOCKSS model, 'Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe,' creates low-cost, persistent digital 'caches' of authoritative versions of http-delivered content. The LOCKSS software enables institutions to locally collect, store, preserve and archive authorized content, thus safeguarding their community's access to that content. The current version of LOCKSS software is restricted to electronic journals. Accuracy and completeness of LOCKSS caches are assured through a peer-to-peer polling and reputation system (operated through LCAP, LOCKSS' communication protocol), which is both robust and secure. LOCKSS replicas cooperate to detect and repair preservation failures. LOCKSS is designed to run on inexpensive hardware and to require almost no technical administration. The software has been under development since 1999 and is distributed as open source.

  7. Microteaching: From Infant Death to Immortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian K.

    A general introduction to the concept of microteaching and its development is presented, and the generally accepted format and the skills practiced for microteaching are described. Aspects of microteaching commonly perceived as favorable and unfavorable are addressed, and a review of current research is provided and followed by a discussion of the…

  8. Suicide, Immortality, and the Method of Embarrassments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, David

    1976-01-01

    This paper, presented at Self-Destruction and Self-Creation, at Duquesne University (April, 1969) explains that the suicide, reacting to his experience of "being in question" (Heidegger), kills himself to arrogate death to his will. He allows the possibility that if he wished it, he could live forever and usurp death. (Author)

  9. Telomere--the twilight to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Samarth; Acharya, Sourya; Rajput, Devendra; Vagha, S; Grover, Shobha

    2010-09-01

    Besides forming a very important component of the chromosome, the telomeres have extremely significant modes of action and functions, right from maintaining a basic infrastructure and integrity of the chromosome vis a vis the other chromosomes, telomeres are responsible for the cell divisions and replicative senescence of the cell. The number of mitotic divisions which a cell will go through in its life span while passing through the cell cycle is governed inturn by these telomeres, the crux of the entire functioning of these chromosomal components suggests that they are the ticking clocks of the cell and when they diminish or are worn out so does the cell reach it's senility at the fag end of it's replicative life--resulting fate being--the cell is sent to it's grave yard (the final destination). Clinical implications include--regulation of cell life spans, regulating the cell's replicative behavior and it's utility in forming cells which usually are impossible to divide or replicate, telomeres regulate the cloning process,the telomeres play a major role in predicting the fate of a neoplastic cell and finally enhancing the life span of a single cell, the organ, the body as a whole by enzymes which expand the telomeres--the telomerase.

  10. Stem cells' exodus: a journey to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting

    2013-01-28

    Stem cell niches provide a regulatory microenvironment that retains stem cells and promotes self-renewal. Recently in Developmental Cell, Rinkevich et al. (2013) showed that cell islands (CIs) of Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial chordate, provide niches for maintaining cycling stem cells that migrate from degenerated CIs to newly formed buds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aging and immortality in unicellular species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael

    2017-10-01

    It has been historically thought that in conditions that permit growth, most unicellular species do not to age. This was particularly thought to be the case for symmetrically dividing species, as such species lack a clear distinction between the soma and the germline. Despite this, studies of the symmetrically dividing species Escherichia coli and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have recently started to challenge this notion. They indicate that E. coli and S. pombe do age, but only when subjected to environmental stress. If true, this suggests that aging may be widespread among microbial species in general, and that studying aging in microbes may inform other long-standing questions in aging. This review examines the recent evidence for and against replicative aging in symmetrically dividing unicellular organisms, the mechanisms that underlie aging, why aging evolved in these species, and how microbial aging fits into the context of other questions in aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. the woman and her immortal cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the effects of radiation and toxic substances, gene mapping, evaluation of effects of zero gravity on cells in space, and many other scientific pursuits. Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883 – 1970) was a German physiological chemist, educated at Berlin and. Heidelberg. He was engaged in cancer research and won the Nobel Prize ...

  13. The Immortal Ant and the Expanding Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we consider, via a specific modelling example, the educational benefits to be gained from running mathematical activities with our sixth-form and undergraduate students that, in modern parlance, might be termed "rich tasks". The idea for this modelling activity arose while the author was reading a popular-science book on cosmology…

  14. Establishment of a human conjunctival epithelial cell line lacking the functional TACSTD2 gene (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Koji; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko

    2012-12-01

    To report the establishment of a human conjunctival epithelial cell line lacking the functional tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) gene to be used as an in vitro model of gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD), a rare disease in which the corneal epithelial barrier function is significantly compromized by the loss of function mutation of the TACSTD2 gene. A small piece of conjunctival tissue was obtained from a GDLD patient. The conjunctival epithelial cells were enzymatically separated and dissociated from the tissue and immortalized by the lentiviral introduction of the SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genes. Population doubling, protein expression, and transepithelial resistance (TER) analyses were performed to assess the appropriateness of the established cell line as an in vitro model for GDLD. The life span of the established cell line was found to be significantly elongated compared to nontransfected conjunctival epithelial cells. The SV40 large T antigen and hTERT genes were stably expressed in the established cell line. The protein expression level of the tight junction-related proteins was significantly low compared to the immortalized normal conjunctival epithelial cell line. TER of the established cell line was found to be significantly low compared to the immortalized normal conjunctival epithelial cell line. Our conjunctival epithelial cell line was successfully immortalized and well mimicked several features of GDLD corneas. This cell line may be useful for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of GDLD and for the development of novel treatments for GDLD.

  15. p53: key conductor of all anti-acne therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2017-09-19

    This review based on translational research predicts that the transcription factor p53 is the key effector of all anti-acne therapies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) enhance p53 expression. Tetracyclines and macrolides via inhibiting p450 enzymes attenuate ATRA degradation, thereby increase p53. Benzoyl peroxide and hydrogen peroxide elicit oxidative stress, which upregulates p53. Azelaic acid leads to mitochondrial damage associated with increased release of reactive oxygen species inducing p53. p53 inhibits the expression of androgen receptor and IGF-1 receptor, and induces the expression of IGF binding protein 3. p53 induces FoxO1, FoxO3, p21 and sestrin 1, sestrin 2, and tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), the key inducer of isotretinoin-mediated sebocyte apoptosis explaining isotretinoin's sebum-suppressive effect. Anti-androgens attenuate the expression of miRNA-125b, a key negative regulator of p53. It can thus be concluded that all anti-acne therapies have a common mode of action, i.e., upregulation of the guardian of the genome p53. Immortalized p53-inactivated sebocyte cultures are unfortunate models for studying acne pathogenesis and treatment.

  16. Sensitivity of bladder cancer cells to curcumin and its derivatives depends on the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul J; Han, Zhiyong; Sindhwani, Puneet; Hurst, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    Because the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents depends upon the supporting extracellular matrix (ECM), the response in vivo may not be reproduced in 2-dimensional cell culture. The dose-response to curcumin and two derivatives by bladder cancer cells grown on both normal (SISgel) and cancer-derived ECM (Matrigel) and on plastic were contrasted. Cells grown on Matrigel were resistant to curcumins, but cells growing on SISgel, which mimic cancer cells suppressed by normal ECM, were nearly as sensitive as cells grown on plastic. SV40-immortalized urothelial cells, which are models for premalignant cells, were the most sensitive, but even aggressive cell lines were nearly as sensitive when grown on SISgel as on plastic. Curcumin response depends highly on the supporting ECM, and cells grown on plastic poorly models cells growing on natural ECM. Curcumin could prove an effective chemopreventive for bladder cancer recurrence when administered intravesically post-therapy.

  17. The Effects of Orbital Spaceflight on Human Osteoblastic Cell Physiology and Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the proposed study is to establish whether changes in gravitational loading have a direct effect on osteoblasts to regulate TGF-6 expression. The effects of spaceflight and reloading on TGF-B MRNA and peptide levels will be studied in a newly developed line of immortalized human fetal osteoblasts (HFOB) transfected with an SV-40 temperature dependent mutant to generate proliferating, undifferentiated hFOB cells at 33-34 C and a non-proliferating, differentiated HFOB cells at 37-39'C. Unlike previous cell culture models, HFOB cells have unlimited proliferative capacity yet can be precisely regulated to differentiate into mature cells which express mature osteoblast function. If isolated osteoblasts respond to changes in mechanical loading in a manner similar to their response in animals, the cell system could provide a powerful model to investigate the signal transduction pathway for gravitational loading.

  18. Effects of epiplakin-knockdown in cultured corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokado, Masahide; Okada, Yuka; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Osamu; Saika, Shizuya

    2016-05-20

    To investigate effects of knockdown of epiplakin gene expression on the homeostasis of cultured corneal epithelial cell line. We previously reported acceleration of corneal epithelial wound healing in an epiplakin-null mouse. Gene expression of epiplakin was knockdowned by employing siRNA transfection in SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line. Protein expression of E-cadherin, keratin 6 and vimentin was examined by western blotting. Cell migration and proliferation were examined by using scratch assay and Alamar blue assay, respectively. Scratch assay and Alamar blue assay showed migration and proliferation of the cells was accelerated by epiplakin knockdown. siRNA-knockdown of epiplakin suppressed protein expression of E-cadherin, keratin 6 and vimentin. Decreased expression of E-cadherin, keratin 6 and vimentin might be included in the mechanisms of cell migration acceleration in the absence of epiplakin. The mechanism of cell proliferation stimulation by epiplakin knockdown is to be investigated.

  19. Mystify me:Coke, terror and the symbolic immortality boost

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, James; Jacobi, Erik

    2016-01-01

    A panel on “Marketing as Mystification” convened at the 2011 Academy of Marketing conference in Liverpool. Ideas from the Liverpool event were supplemented by commentaries from selected other authors. Each commentary explores the aspects of “mystification” observable in marketing discourses and practices. In what follows, Laufer interprets marketing mystification as modern form of sophism, Dholakia and Firat discuss mystifying ways that inequality is marketed, Varman analyzes the perversion a...

  20. Phenoptosis in arthropods and immortality of social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsev, V M

    2014-10-01

    In general, there are no drastic differences in phenoptosis patterns in plant and animal organisms. However, there are some specific features characteristic for insects and other arthropods: 1) their development includes metamorphosis with different biochemical laws at consecutive developmental stages; 2) arthropods can reduce or stop development and aging when in a state of diapause or temporal cold immobility; 3) their life cycle often correlates with seasonal changes of surroundings; 4) polymorphism is widespread - conspecifics differ by their lifespans and phenoptosis features; 5) lifespan-related sexual dimorphism is common; 6) significant situational plasticity of life cycle organization is an important feature; for example, the German wasp (Paravespula germanica) is obligatorily univoltine in the temperate zone, while in tropical regions its lifespan increases and leads to repeated reproduction; 7) life cycles of closely related species may differ significantly, for example, in contrast to German wasp, some tropical hornets (Vespa) have only one reproduction period. Surprisingly, many insect species have been shown to be subjected to gradual aging and phenoptosis, like the highest mammals. However, queens of social insects and some long-lived arachnids can apparently be considered non-aging organisms. In some species, lifespan is limited to one season, while others live much longer or shorter. Cases of one-time reproduction are rather rare. Aphagia is common in insects (over 10,000 species). Cannibalism is an important mortality factor in insects as well as in spiders. In social insects, which exist only in colonies (families), the lifetime of a colony can be virtually unlimited. However, in case of some species the developmental cycle and death of a colony after its completion are predetermined. Most likely, natural selection in insects does not lengthen individual lifespan, but favors increase in reproduction efficiency based on fast succession of generations leading to increased evolvability.

  1. Mortalizing Morality and Immortalizing Immorality in the Campaign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best preventive measure of HIV/AIDS with regard to sex as a means of contracting the disease is abstinence for the unmarried and faithfulness for the married. However, the high level of sexual liberty (be it homosexual or heterosexual), has degenerated into promiscuity and abuse, a deplorably embarrassing situation.

  2. Immortalized Parkinson's disease lymphocytes have enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Annesley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In combination with studies of post-mortem Parkinson's disease (PD brains, pharmacological and genetic models of PD have suggested that two fundamental interacting cellular processes are impaired – proteostasis and mitochondrial respiration. We have re-examined the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphoblasts isolated from individuals with idiopathic PD and an age-matched control group. As previously reported for various PD cell types, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by PD lymphoblasts was significantly elevated. However, this was not due to an impairment of mitochondrial respiration, as is often assumed. Instead, basal mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis are dramatically elevated in PD lymphoblasts. The mitochondrial mass, genome copy number and membrane potential were unaltered, but the expression of indicative respiratory complex proteins was also elevated. This explains the increased oxygen consumption rates by each of the respiratory complexes in experimentally uncoupled mitochondria of iPD cells. However, it was not attributable to increased activity of the stress- and energy-sensing protein kinase AMPK, a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and activity. The respiratory differences between iPD and control cells were sufficiently dramatic as to provide a potentially sensitive and reliable biomarker of the disease state, unaffected by disease duration (time since diagnosis or clinical severity. Lymphoblasts from control and PD individuals thus occupy two distinct, quasi-stable steady states; a ‘normal’ and a ‘hyperactive’ state characterized by two different metabolic rates. The apparent stability of the ‘hyperactive’ state in patient-derived lymphoblasts in the face of patient ageing, ongoing disease and mounting disease severity suggests an early, permanent switch to an alternative metabolic steady state. With its associated, elevated ROS production, the ‘hyperactive’ state might not cause pathology to cells that are rapidly turned over, but brain cells might accumulate long-term damage leading ultimately to neurodegeneration and the loss of mitochondrial function observed post-mortem. Whether the ‘hyperactive’ state in lymphoblasts is a biomarker specifically of PD or more generally of neurodegenerative disease remains to be determined.

  3. Commentary. A picture of Mitf in melanoma immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goding, C R

    2011-05-19

    The Mitf gene has a key role in melanocytes and melanoma by regulating cell cycle progression, survival and differentiation. Two papers in this issue of Oncogene (Cheli et al., 2011; Strub et al., 2011) reveal that low-Mitf cells can initiate tumors with high efficiency, and that Mitf blocks senescence by regulating genes implicated in S-phase progression and mitosis.

  4. Telomerase-independent paths to immortality in predictable cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of cancers commandeer the activity of telomerase - the remarkable enzyme responsible for prolonging cellular lifespan by maintaining the length of telomeres at the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase is only normally active in embryonic and highly proliferative somatic cells. Thus, targeting telomerase is an attractive anti-cancer therapeutic rationale currently under investigation in various phases of clinical development. However, previous reports suggest that an average of 10-15% of all cancers lose the functional activity of telomerase and most of these turn to an Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres pathway (ALT). ALT-positive tumours will therefore not respond to anti-telomerase therapies and there is a real possibility that such drugs would be toxic to normal telomerase-utilising cells and ultimately select for resistant cells that activate an ALT mechanism. ALT exploits certain DNA damage response (DDR) components to counteract telomere shortening and rapid trimming. ALT has been reported in many cancer subtypes including sarcoma, gastric carcinoma, central nervous system malignancies, subtypes of kidney (Wilm's Tumour) and bladder carcinoma, mesothelioma, malignant melanoma and germ cell testicular cancers to name but a few. A recent heroic study that analysed ALT in over six thousand tumour samples supports this historical spread, although only reporting an approximate 4% prevalence. This review highlights the various methods of ALT detection, unravels several molecular ALT models thought to promote telomere maintenance and elongation, spotlights the DDR components known to facilitate these and explores why certain tissues are more likely to subvert DDR away from its usually protective functions, resulting in a predictive pattern of prevalence in specific cancer subsets.

  5. Tumor viruses and replicative immortality--avoiding the telomere hurdle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinsong; Kamranvar, Siamak Akbari; Masucci, Maria G

    2014-06-01

    Tumor viruses promote cell proliferation in order to gain access to an environment suitable for persistence and replication. The expression of viral products that promote growth transformation is often accompanied by the induction of multiple signs of telomere dysfunction, including telomere shortening, damage of telomeric DNA and chromosome instability. Long-term survival and progression to full malignancy require the bypassing of senescence programs that are triggered by the damaged telomeres. Here we review different strategies by which tumor viruses interfere with telomere homeostasis during cell transformation. This frequently involves the activation of telomerase, which assures both the integrity and functionality of telomeres. In addition, recent evidence suggests that oncogenic viruses may activate a recombination-based mechanism for telomere elongation known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). This error-prone strategy promotes genomic instability and could play an important role in viral oncogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fusion and regenerative therapies: is immortality really recessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sethe, Sebastian

    2007-12-01

    Harnessing cellular fusion as a potential tool for regenerative therapy has been under tentative investigation for decades. A look back the history of fusion experiments in gerontology reveals that whereas some studies indicate that aging-related changes are conserved in fused cells, others have demonstrated that fusion can be used as a tool to revoke cellular senescence and induce tissue regeneration. Recent findings about the role of fusion processes in tissue homeostasis, replenishment, and repair link insights from fusion studies of previous decades with modern developments in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. We suggest that age-associated loss of regenerative capacity is associated with a decline of effectiveness in stem cell fusion. We project how studies into the fusion of stem cells with tissue cells, or the fusion between activator stem cells and patient cells might help in the development of applications that "rejuvenate" certain target cells, thereby strategically reinstating a regeneration cascade. The outlook is concluded with a discussion of the next research milestones and the potential hazards of fusion therapies.

  7. Understanding TERT Promoter Mutations: A Common Path to Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert J A; Rube, H Tomas; Xavier-Magalhães, Ana; Costa, Bruno M; Mancini, Andrew; Song, Jun S; Costello, Joseph F

    2016-04-01

    Telomerase (TERT) activation is a fundamental step in tumorigenesis. By maintaining telomere length, telomerase relieves a main barrier on cellular lifespan, enabling limitless proliferation driven by oncogenes. The recently discovered, highly recurrent mutations in the promoter of TERT are found in over 50 cancer types, and are the most common mutation in many cancers. Transcriptional activation of TERT, via promoter mutation or other mechanisms, is the rate-limiting step in production of active telomerase. Although TERT is expressed in stem cells, it is naturally silenced upon differentiation. Thus, the presence of TERT promoter mutations may shed light on whether a particular tumor arose from a stem cell or more differentiated cell type. It is becoming clear that TERT mutations occur early during cellular transformation, and activate the TERT promoter by recruiting transcription factors that do not normally regulate TERT gene expression. This review highlights the fundamental and widespread role of TERT promoter mutations in tumorigenesis, including recent progress on their mechanism of transcriptional activation. These somatic promoter mutations, along with germline variation in the TERT locus also appear to have significant value as biomarkers of patient outcome. Understanding the precise molecular mechanism of TERT activation by promoter mutation and germline variation may inspire novel cancer cell-specific targeted therapies for a large number of cancer patients. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Illusions of Immortality: The Confrontation of Adolescence and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Health, Albany.

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a potent and a present danger for teenagers, casting a dark shadow over their lives now and in the future. A small, but significant, number of teenagers will develop Human Immune Virus (HIV)-related illness before they turn 20; a far greater number will become infected with the virus during…

  9. Solace and Immortality: Bereaved Parents' Continuing Bond with Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Considers death of child and bereaved parents. Examines nature of solace, reviews literature on inner representation of the dead, examines ways parents find solace connected with interaction with inner representation, explores shared inner representation as significant element in social support, discusses solace in terms of psychosocial meaning of…

  10. In Search of Rationality in Human Longevity and Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Gopal C

    2016-01-01

    The human body is machine-like, but self-moving, self-regulating, and self-adjusting, governed by willpower and intelligence. Aging of the body is basically a maintenance problem and so it could perhaps be postponed by thorough and frequent maintenance. Aging brings on a cascade of ills and health problems leading to deterioration of physical, mental, emotional, and social dimensions of life. This paper deals with solution of the problem philosophically in the light of Indian scriptures without entering into traditional bioethical issues. With a meaningful reason for existence, life can be extended. Examining the scientific perspectives on aging, some common manipulations for its extension are discussed. These are calorie restriction, vitamin and antioxidant treatment, exercise and hormonal interventions, etc. Finally, the question of longevity is explored through pursuance of eternal value-based activity and spirituality in the tradition of Indian heritage.

  11. Immortality? It's a subchapter in solid-state physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Many physicists will have dreamt of discovering a successful theory of quantum gravity or revolutionizing our understanding of the cosmos. Few, however, will ever see those dreams realized. How, then, do they find fulfilment in their careers? Put another way: how would they like to be remembered by their colleagues? That was the question that Joseph Hermanowicz, a sociologist at the University of Georgia in the US, put to 60 physicists chosen at random from six US universities of varying prestige.

  12. Exploring the motifs of death and immortality | Maina | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Perennial Roots to Immortality1,2[C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. PMID:24563283

  14. Educating for Immortality: Spinoza and the Pedagogy of Gradual Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbeck, Johan

    2015-01-01

    This article begins with the question: What is it to live? It is argued that, from a Spinozistic perspective, to live is not an either/or kind of matter. Rather, it is something that inevitably comes in degrees. The idea is that through good education and proper training a person can learn to increase his or her degree of existence by acquiring…

  15. Complementation Screening in Mammalian Cells: Application to Cell Immortalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hannon, Gregory J

    1999-01-01

    .... Thus far, we have used this system to identify genes that regulate telomerase, to elucidate potential mechanisms of TGF-b-resistance in human breast tumors, to isolate genes that confer resistance...

  16. Protein composition of catalytically active human telomerase from immortal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Scott B; Graham, Mark E; Lovrecz, George O

    2007-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex that adds 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats onto the ends of human chromosomes, providing a telomere maintenance mechanism for approximately 90% of human cancers. We have purified human telomerase approximately 10(8)-fold, with the final elution dependent...... on the enzyme's ability to catalyze nucleotide addition onto a DNA oligonucleotide of telomeric sequence, thereby providing specificity for catalytically active telomerase. Mass spectrometric sequencing of the protein components and molecular size determination indicated an enzyme composition of two molecules...... each of telomerase reverse transcriptase, telomerase RNA, and dyskerin....

  17. Marker-Based Estimation of Heritability in Immortal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijer, Willem; Boer, Martin P.; Malosetti, Marcos; Flood, Pádraic J.; Engel, Bas; Kooke, Rik; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Heritability is a central parameter in quantitative genetics, from both an evolutionary and a breeding perspective. For plant traits heritability is traditionally estimated by comparing within- and between-genotype variability. This approach estimates broad-sense heritability and does not account for different genetic relatedness. With the availability of high-density markers there is growing interest in marker-based estimates of narrow-sense heritability, using mixed models in which genetic relatedness is estimated from genetic markers. Such estimates have received much attention in human genetics but are rarely reported for plant traits. A major obstacle is that current methodology and software assume a single phenotypic value per genotype, hence requiring genotypic means. An alternative that we propose here is to use mixed models at the individual plant or plot level. Using statistical arguments, simulations, and real data we investigate the feasibility of both approaches and how these affect genomic prediction with the best linear unbiased predictor and genome-wide association studies. Heritability estimates obtained from genotypic means had very large standard errors and were sometimes biologically unrealistic. Mixed models at the individual plant or plot level produced more realistic estimates, and for simulated traits standard errors were up to 13 times smaller. Genomic prediction was also improved by using these mixed models, with up to a 49% increase in accuracy. For genome-wide association studies on simulated traits, the use of individual plant data gave almost no increase in power. The new methodology is applicable to any complex trait where multiple replicates of individual genotypes can be scored. This includes important agronomic crops, as well as bacteria and fungi. PMID:25527288

  18. Karma or Immortality: Can Religion Influence Space-Time Mappings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Cao, Yu

    2018-01-09

    People implicitly associate the "past" and "future" with "front" and "back" in their minds according to their cultural attitudes toward time. As the temporal focus hypothesis (TFH) proposes, future-oriented people tend to think about time according to the future-in-front mapping, whereas past-oriented people tend to think about time according to the past-in-front mapping (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache, & Casasanto, 2014). Whereas previous studies have demonstrated that culture exerts an important influence on people's implicit spatializations of time, we focus specifically on religion, a prominent layer of culture, as potential additional influence on space-time mappings. In Experiment 1 and 2, we observed a difference between the two religious groups, with Buddhists being more past-focused and more frequently conceptualizing the past as ahead of them and the future as behind them, and Taoists more future-focused and exhibiting the opposite space-time mapping. In Experiment 3, we administered a religion prime, in which Buddhists were randomly assigned to visualize the picture of the Buddhas of the Past (Buddha Dipamkara) or the Future (Buddha Maitreya). Results showed that the pictorial icon of Dipamkara increased participants' tendency to conceptualize the past as in front of them. In contrast, the pictorial icon of Maitreya caused a dramatic increase in the rate of future-in-front responses. In Experiment 4, the causal effect of religion on implicit space-time mappings was replicated in atheists. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence for the hypothesized causal role of religion for temporal focus in determining space-time mappings. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Establishment and characterization of a human primary prostate carcinoma cell line, HH870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, Senthamil R; Cornforth, Andrew N; Rao, Nagesh P; Reid, Yvonne A; Schiltz, Patric M; Liao, Ray P; Price, David T; Heinemann, F Scott; Dillman, Robert O

    2005-04-01

    Development of new therapeutic modalities for human prostate carcinoma has been impeded by a lack of adequate in vitro and in vivo models. Most in vitro studies have been carried out using a limited number of human prostate cancer cell lines that are mostly derived from metastatic tumors sites or are immortalized. Characterization of the prostate cancer cell line, HH870, included description of morphology, determination of doubling time, response to androgens, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblotting of proteins known to be associated with prostate carcinoma, karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), DNA profiling, and growth as xenograft in athymic rodents. HH870 expresses various epithelial marker antigens that correlate with known basic immunostaining profiles of prostate adenocarcinoma, although the cell line does not express PSA, PSMA, or PAP. HH870 exhibits complex chromosomal abnormalities and harbors no immortalizing HPV, BKV, JCV, and SV40 DNA. We report the successful establishment and characterization of a new long-term primary human prostate tumor cell line HH870. Copyright (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The 55 kDa regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A plays a role in the activation of the HPV16 long control region in human cells with a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P. H.; Smits, H. L.; Minnaar, R. P.; Hemmings, B. A.; Mayer-Jaekel, R. E.; Schuurman, R.; van der Noordaa, J.; ter Schegget, J.

    1992-01-01

    Previous results indicated that SV40 small t is essential for SV40-induced transformation of diploid cells but dispensable for the transformation of cells with a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 11 (del-11 cells). From these results we concluded that del-11 cells contain a cellular 'SV40

  1. Virus-Specific Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Simian Virus 40-Exposed Hamster Cells: Correlation with S and T Antigens 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur S.; Oxman, Michael N.; Henry, Patrick H.; Levin, Myron J.; Diamandopoulos, George T.; Enders, John F.

    1970-01-01

    Several homologous hamster embryonic cell lines, transformed in association with simian virus (SV) 40 infection, were examined for the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) complementary to SV40 ribonucleic acid (RNA) made in vitro. The methods employed permitted the detection of 10−5 μg of viral DNA in 100 μg of cellular DNA, corresponding to one-fifth of an SV40 DNA molecule per cell. Those lines which contained both the SV40 surface (S) and tumor (T) antigens also contained DNA complementary to SV40 RNA synthesized in vitro. In contrast, neither of two lines which contained S, but not T, antigen contained detectable DNA complementary to SV40 RNA. These findings suggest that the production of S antigen does not depend upon the persistence of SV40 DNA in transformed cells. PMID:4322872

  2. Virus-specific deoxyribonucleic acid in simian virus 40-exposed hamster cells: correlation with S and T antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A S; Oxman, M N; Henry, P H; Levin, M J; Diamandopoulos, G T; Enders, J F

    1970-08-01

    Several homologous hamster embryonic cell lines, transformed in association with simian virus (SV) 40 infection, were examined for the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) complementary to SV40 ribonucleic acid (RNA) made in vitro. The methods employed permitted the detection of 10(-5) mug of viral DNA in 100 mug of cellular DNA, corresponding to one-fifth of an SV40 DNA molecule per cell. Those lines which contained both the SV40 surface (S) and tumor (T) antigens also contained DNA complementary to SV40 RNA synthesized in vitro. In contrast, neither of two lines which contained S, but not T, antigen contained detectable DNA complementary to SV40 RNA. These findings suggest that the production of S antigen does not depend upon the persistence of SV40 DNA in transformed cells.

  3. Induction of iPS cells and of cancer stem cells: the stem cell or reprogramming hypothesis of cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosko, James E

    2014-01-01

    This article as designed to examine whether the "stoichiometric" or "elite models" of the origin of the "induced pluripotent stem" (iPS) cells fits some experiment facts from the developmental biology of adult stem cells and from the field of cancer research. In brief, since the evidence presented to support the stoichiometric model failed to recognize the factual existence of adult organ specific stem cells, the model has not been rigorously tested. In addition, the demonstration of a subset of cells (MUSE cells) in normal primary in vitro cultures of human fibroblasts (the usual source of iPS cells) seems to be the origin of the iPS cells. Moreover, from the field of carcinogenesis, the "stem cell" versus "de-differentiation" or "reprogramming" hypotheses were examined. Again, using the role of glycolysis, known to be associated with the Warburg effect in cancer cells, a list of experiments showing that (a) normal stem cells, which have few mitochondria, metabolize via glycolysis; (b) the stem cells are targets for "initiation" or "immortalization" or the blockage of differentiation and apoptosis of the stem cells by "immortalizing viruses"; (c) Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), when expressed, is associated with glycolysis and therefore, must be expressed in normal adult stem cells, as well as in cancer cells; and (d) p53, depleted or rendered dysfunctional by SV40 Large T antigen, is associated with the reduction of mitochondrial function and mass and is associated with the Warburg effect. Together, these observations from the iPS and "cancer stem cell" fields support the idea that both iPS cells and cancer stem cell are derived from adult organ-specific stem cells that do not restore or switch their metabolism of glucose from oxidative metabolism to glycolysis but, rather, in both cases, the adult stem cell, which metabolizes by glycolysis, is prevented from differentiation or from metabolizing by oxidative phosphorylation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals

  4. A new glucocerebrosidase-deficient neuronal cell model provides a tool to probe pathophysiology and therapeutics for Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbroek, Wendy; Nguyen, Matthew; Siebert, Marina; Lindstrom, Taylor; Burnett, Robert A; Aflaki, Elma; Jung, Olive; Tamargo, Rafael; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Acosta, Walter; Hendrix, An; Behre, Bahafta; Tayebi, Nahid; Fujiwara, Hideji; Sidhu, Rohini; Renvoise, Benoit; Ginns, Edward I; Dutra, Amalia; Pak, Evgenia; Cramer, Carole; Ory, Daniel S; Pavan, William J; Sidransky, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Glucocerebrosidase is a lysosomal hydrolase involved in the breakdown of glucosylceramide. Gaucher disease, a recessive lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene GBA1 Dysfunctional glucocerebrosidase leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glycosylsphingosine in various cell types and organs. Mutations in GBA1 are also a common genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease and related synucleinopathies. In recent years, research on the pathophysiology of Gaucher disease, the molecular link between Gaucher and Parkinson disease, and novel therapeutics, have accelerated the need for relevant cell models with GBA1 mutations. Although induced pluripotent stem cells, primary rodent neurons, and transfected neuroblastoma cell lines have been used to study the effect of glucocerebrosidase deficiency on neuronal function, these models have limitations because of challenges in culturing and propagating the cells, low yield, and the introduction of exogenous mutant GBA1 To address some of these difficulties, we established a high yield, easy-to-culture mouse neuronal cell model with nearly complete glucocerebrosidase deficiency representative of Gaucher disease. We successfully immortalized cortical neurons from embryonic null allele gba(-/-) mice and the control littermate (gba(+/+)) by infecting differentiated primary cortical neurons in culture with an EF1α-SV40T lentivirus. Immortalized gba(-/-) neurons lack glucocerebrosidase protein and enzyme activity, and exhibit a dramatic increase in glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine accumulation, enlarged lysosomes, and an impaired ATP-dependent calcium-influx response; these phenotypical characteristics were absent in gba(+/+) neurons. This null allele gba(-/-) mouse neuronal model provides a much-needed tool to study the pathophysiology of Gaucher disease and to evaluate new therapies. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. A new glucocerebrosidase-deficient neuronal cell model provides a tool to probe pathophysiology and therapeutics for Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Westbroek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucocerebrosidase is a lysosomal hydrolase involved in the breakdown of glucosylceramide. Gaucher disease, a recessive lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene GBA1. Dysfunctional glucocerebrosidase leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glycosylsphingosine in various cell types and organs. Mutations in GBA1 are also a common genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease and related synucleinopathies. In recent years, research on the pathophysiology of Gaucher disease, the molecular link between Gaucher and Parkinson disease, and novel therapeutics, have accelerated the need for relevant cell models with GBA1 mutations. Although induced pluripotent stem cells, primary rodent neurons, and transfected neuroblastoma cell lines have been used to study the effect of glucocerebrosidase deficiency on neuronal function, these models have limitations because of challenges in culturing and propagating the cells, low yield, and the introduction of exogenous mutant GBA1. To address some of these difficulties, we established a high yield, easy-to-culture mouse neuronal cell model with nearly complete glucocerebrosidase deficiency representative of Gaucher disease. We successfully immortalized cortical neurons from embryonic null allele gba−/− mice and the control littermate (gba+/+ by infecting differentiated primary cortical neurons in culture with an EF1α-SV40T lentivirus. Immortalized gba−/− neurons lack glucocerebrosidase protein and enzyme activity, and exhibit a dramatic increase in glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine accumulation, enlarged lysosomes, and an impaired ATP-dependent calcium-influx response; these phenotypical characteristics were absent in gba+/+ neurons. This null allele gba−/− mouse neuronal model provides a much-needed tool to study the pathophysiology of Gaucher disease and to evaluate new therapies.

  6. TERRA Expression Levels Do Not Correlate With Telomere Length and Radiation Sensitivity in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eSmirnova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding telomeric RNA molecules (TERRA that seem to play a role in the maintenance of telomere stability. In human cells, CpG island promoters drive TERRA transcription and are regulated by methylation. It was suggested that the amount of TERRA may be related to telomere length. To test this hypothesis we measured telomere length and TERRA levels in single clones isolated from five human cell lines: HeLa (cervical carcinoma, BRC-230 (breast cancer, AKG and GK2 (gastric cancers and GM847 (SV40 immortalized skin fibroblasts. We observed great clonal heterogeneity both in TRF (Terminal Restriction Fragment length and in TERRA levels. However, these two parameters did not correlate with each other. Moreover, cell survival to γ-rays did not show a significant variation among the clones, suggesting that, in this cellular system, the intra-population variability in telomere length and TERRA levels does not influence sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This conclusion was supported by the observation that in a cell line in which telomeres were greatly elongated by the ectopic expression of telomerase, TERRA expression levels and radiation sensitivity were similar to the parental HeLa cell line.

  7. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Feng

    Full Text Available Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI and B(aP compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery.

  8. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenqiang; Guo, Juanjuan; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery.

  9. Electrophysiological characterization of volume-activated chloride currents in mouse cholangiocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biyi; Nicol, Grant; Cho, Won Kyoo

    2004-12-01

    Recent electrophysiological and radioisotope efflux studies have demonstrated various Cl(-) channels in cholangiocytes including volume-activated Cl(-) channels (VACC). Because VACCs play prominent roles in many vital cellular functions and physiology in cholangiocytes, we have examined their electrophysiological characteristics in mouse cholangiocytes to provide an important framework for studying in the future. The present study is to characterize VACCs expressed in the mouse bile duct cell (MBDC) line, conditionally immortalized by SV40 virus. Conventional whole cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study the electrophysiological characteristics of VACC in MBDC. When the MBDCs were exposed to hypotonic solution, they exhibited an outwardly rectified current, which was significantly inhibited by replacing chloride in the bath solution with gluconate or glutamate and by administration of classic chloride channel inhibitors 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate, glybenclamide, DIDS, and tamoxifen. These inhibitory effects were reversible with washing them out from the bath solution. Moreover, the ion selectivity of the volume-activated channel to different anions indicates that it is more permeable to SCN(-) > I(-) >/= Cl(-) > F(-) >/= acetate >/= glutamate >/= gluconate. These electrophysiological characteristics demonstrate that the volume-activated current observed is a VACC. In addition, the VACC in MBDC has electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of the VACC in human cholangiocarcinoma cell line. The present study is the first to characterize the VACC in mouse cholangiocyte and will provide an important framework for further studies to examine and understand the role of the VACC in biliary secretion and ion-transport physiology.

  10. Genetic characteristics of the human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Weiskirchen

    Full Text Available The human hepatic cell line LX-2 has been described as tool to study mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis and the testing of antifibrotic compounds. It was originally generated by immortalisation with the Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 (SV40 transforming (T antigen and subsequent propagation in low serum conditions. Although this immortalized line is used in an increasing number of studies, detailed genetic characterisation has been lacking. We here have performed genetic characterisation of the LX-2 cell line and established a single-locus short tandem repeat (STR profile for the cell line and characterized the LX-2 karyotype by several cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Spectral karyotyping (SKY revealed a complex karyotype with a set of aberrations consistently present in the metaphases analyses which might serve as cytogenetic markers. In addition, various subclonal and single cell aberrations were detected. Our study provides criteria for genetic authentication of LX-2 and offers insights into the genotype changes which might underlie part of its phenotypic features.

  11. TERRA Expression Levels Do Not Correlate with Telomere Length and Radiation Sensitivity in Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Alexandra; Gamba, Riccardo; Khoriauli, Lela; Vitelli, Valerio; Nergadze, Solomon G; Giulotto, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) molecules that seem to play a role in the maintenance of telomere stability. In human cells, CpG-island promoters drive TERRA transcription and are regulated by methylation. It was suggested that the amount of TERRA may be related to telomere length. To test this hypothesis we measured telomere length and TERRA levels in single clones isolated from five human cell lines: HeLa (cervical carcinoma), BRC-230 (breast cancer), AKG and GK2 (gastric cancers), and GM847 (SV40 immortalized skin fibroblasts). However, these two parameters did not correlate with each other. Moreover, cell survival to γ-rays did not show a significant variation among the clones, suggesting that, in this cellular system, the intra-population variability in telomere length and TERRA levels does not influence sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This conclusion was supported by the observation that in a cell line in which telomeres were greatly elongated by the ectopic expression of telomerase, TERRA expression levels and radiation sensitivity were similar to the parental HeLa cell line.

  12. Glucose metabolite glyoxal induces senescence in telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various by-products of the cellular metabolism, such as reactive carbonyl species (RCS are potentially harmful to cells and tissues, and play a role in many physiological and pathological processes. Among various RCS is the highly reactive dicarbonyl glyoxal (GO, which is a natural physiological metabolite produced by the auto-oxidation of glucose, and can form covalent adducts known as advanced glycation endproducts (AGE. We have previously reported that GO accelerates ageing and causes premature senescence in normal human skin fibroblasts. Results Using a bone marrow-derived telomerase-immortalised mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-TERT we have observed that an exposure of cells to 0.75 mM and 1 mM GO induces irreversible cellular senescence within 3 days. Induction of senescence in hMSC-TERT was demonstrated by a variety of markers, including characteristic cell morphology and enlargement, vacuolisation, multinucleation, induction of senescence associated β-galactosidase, cell cycle arrest, and increased levels of a cell cycle inhibitor p16. These changes were accompanied by increased extent of DNA breaks as measured by the comet assay, and increased levels of the AGE product, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML. Furthermore, the in vitro differentiation potential of hMSC-TERT to become functional osteoblasts was highly reduced in GO-treated stem cells, as determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and mineralized matrix (MM formation. Conclusions The results of our study imply that an imbalanced glucose metabolism can reduce the functioning ability of stem cells in vivo both during ageing and during stem cell-based therapeutic interventions.

  13. Characterization of lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive adipocytes differentiated from immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prawitt, Janne; Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    sensitivity as measured by insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein was also independent of rosiglitazone. In addition to commonly used adipogenic markers, we investigated further PPARgamma-stimulated proteins with a role in lipid metabolism. We observed an increase of lipoprotein...... receptor (VLDLR, LRP1) and apolipoprotein E expression during differentiation. Despite this increased expression, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoproteins was decreased in differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that these proteins may have an additional function in adipose tissue beyond lipoprotein...

  14. Glucose metabolite glyoxal induces senescence in telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Asbjørn; Kassem, Moustapha; Rattan, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    -immortalised mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-TERT we have observed that an exposure of cells to 0.75 mM and 1 mM GO induces irreversible cellular senescence within 3 days. Induction of senescence in hMSC-TERT was demonstrated by a variety of markers, including characteristic cell morphology and enlargement, vacuolisation......, multinucleation, induction of senescence associated beta-galactosidase, cell cycle arrest, and increased levels of a cell cycle inhibitor p16. These changes were accompanied by increased extent of DNA breaks as measured by the comet assay, and increased levels of the AGE product, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML......Background Various by-products of the cellular metabolism, such as reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are potentially harmful to cells and tissues, and play a role in many physiological and pathological processes. Among various RCS is the highly reactive dicarbonyl glyoxal (GO), which is a natural...

  15. In fatal pursuit of immortal fame: Peer competition and early mortality of music composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Kavetsos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the impact of peer competition on longevity using a unique historical data set of 144 prominent music composers born in the 19th century. We approximate for peer competition measuring (a) the number or (b) the share of composers located in the same area and time, (c) the time spent in one of the main cities for classical music, and (d) the quality of fellow composers. These measures suggest that composers' longevity is reduced, if they located in agglomerations with a larger group of peers or of a higher quality. The point estimates imply that, all else equal, a one percent increase in the number of composers reduces composer longevity by ∼ 7.2 weeks. Our analysis showed that the utilized concentration measures are stronger than the personal factors in determining longevity, indicating that individuals' backgrounds have minimal impact on mitigating the effect of experienced peer pressure. The negative externality of peer competition is experienced in all cities, fairly independent of their population size. Our results are reaffirmed using an instrumental variable approach and are consistent throughout a range of robustness tests. In addition to the widely known economic benefits associated with competition, these findings suggest that significant negative welfare externalities exist as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Revitalising the public open spaces in the CDB of Pietermaritzburg to immortalize a great place

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndaba, DN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , amongst other things, relax, learn, exercise, enjoy nature and socialise with others. Their design and quality is important in creating cohesive societies because they welcome people from different cultures, incomes and age groups. They provide...

  17. Transplantations and Cloning of an Immortal Cell Line from Rat SCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-31

    of SCN peptides in colonies was examined using rabbit polyclonal antisera against arginine vasopressin (AVP; Arnel Products), gastrin releasing...examined for expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), somatostatin (SMT) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP...Reichlin, S. (1989). Thyroid hormone regulates vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) mRNA levels in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Endocrinology 125

  18. Tumorigenic Heterogeneity in Cancer Stem Cells Evolved from Long-term Cultures of Telomerase-Immortalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Abdallah, Basem M; Guldberg, Per

    2005-01-01

    tumorigenicity correlated with good viability plus capillary morphogenesis on serum starvation and high cyclin D1 expression. Thus, hMSC-TERT20 clones represent cancer stem cells with hierarchical tumorigenicity, providing new models to explore the stem cell hypothesis for cancer....... or if the stem cell origin allowed most cells to behave as cancer stem cells. Cultures of the hMSC-TERT20 strain at population doubling 440 were highly clonogenic (94%). From 110 single-cell clones expanded by 20 population doublings, 6 underwent detailed comparison. Like the parental population, each clone had...... approximately 1.2 days doubling time with loss of contact inhibition. All retained 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D(3)-induced expression of osteoblastic markers: collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. All shared INK4a/ARF gene locus deletion and epigenetic silencing of the DBCCR1 tumor suppressor gene...

  19. Activism as a Heroic Quest for Symbolic Immortality: An Existential Perspective on Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elad-Strenger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Excellent research exists on the conditions that generate political and social activism. Yet a central issue has remained perplexing: how does the personal need to stand out as unique and heroic interact with the concern for the positive image of the group, and the desire to protect and bolster its status, goals and shared values, in propelling collective action? Inspired by existential theory and research, this paper proposes an existential perspective on activism that identifies the human desire for a sense of meaning and significance as an important motivation underlying individuals' choice to engage in collective action. This study outlines an integrative model of collective action, combining insights from existential psychology with insights from the social identity perspective, to bridge together needs and concerns associated with both personal identity and group identity into a single model of collective action through the concept of death-anxiety buffering mechanisms. This model suggests that collective action is an effective means to satisfy existential needs through bolstering and protecting group interests and values on the one hand, and realizing the activist's heroism project on the other. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyano-Suárez, Nuria; del Nogal-Avila, María; Mora, Inés; Sosa, Patricia; López-Ongil, Susana; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruíz-Torres, María Piedad

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx) for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression. PMID:26583057

  1. Glucose Oxidase Induces Cellular Senescence in Immortal Renal Cells through ILK by Downregulating Klotho Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Troyano-Suárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence can be prematurely induced by oxidative stress involved in aging. In this work, we were searching for novel intermediaries in oxidative stress-induced senescence, focusing our interest on integrin-linked kinase (ILK, a scaffold protein at cell-extracellular matrix (ECM adhesion sites, and on the Klotho gene. Cultured renal cells were treated with glucose oxidase (GOx for long time periods. GOx induced senescence, increasing senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of p16. In parallel, GOx increased ILK protein expression and activity. Ectopic overexpression of ILK in cells increased p16 expression, even in the absence of GOx, whereas downregulation of ILK inhibited the increase in p16 due to oxidative stress. Additionally, GOx reduced Klotho gene expression and cells overexpressing Klotho protein did not undergo senescence after GOx addition. We demonstrated a direct link between ILK and Klotho since silencing ILK expression in cells and mice increases Klotho expression and reduces p53 and p16 expression in renal cortex. In conclusion, oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in kidney cells by increasing ILK protein expression and activity, which in turn reduces Klotho expression. We hereby present ILK as a novel downregulator of Klotho gene expression.

  2. The "Immortal" Boilermaker: Exploring the Forgotten History of Harry Guyer Leslie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As Purdue University grows, the school’s rich history is sometimes neglected in lieu of developments in present-day interests and needs. Often, the only remaining evidence of community events and distinguished, local individuals are memorials, archive collections, and rarely seen documents. Many communities have access to such documents; however, as the available access to these collections slowly becomes unrecognized, so does the history and remembrance of the individuals and events. The purpose of this research was to determine the source of a small, tarnished trophy in Orlando Itin’s sports memorabilia collection in Bruno’s Pizza Restaurant. This trophy stands as one of the unrecognized items of living history in West Lafayette, Indiana, which spurred the research and development of a further question: how can community historians discover the concealed facts of their local history? Throughout this research, personal interviews and careful searches were conducted through Purdue University’s Virginia Kelly Karnes Archives and Special Collections Research Center, local collections, online databases, and academic journals to recollect the memory of the recipient of the forgotten trophy, former Indiana Governor Harry Guyer Leslie. Leslie was not only a Purdue graduate, but a survivor of the infamous 1903 Purdue Wreck. He made numerous contributions to the University and overcame adversity to become governor of Indiana, but his memory and contributions to the University and state are barely documented. This article explores not only Governor Leslie’s history, but also examines the methods community historians can use to conduct their own local research.

  3. The epigenetics of germ-line immortality: lessons from an elegant model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Hirofumi; Kelly, William G

    2010-08-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to help regulate the unique transcription program that is established in germ cell development. During the germline cycle of many organisms, the epigenome undergoes waves of extensive resetting events, while a part of epigenetic modification remains faithful to specific loci. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these events, how loci are selected for, or avoid, reprogramming, or even why these events are required. In particular, although the significance of genomic imprinting phenomena involving DNA methylation in mammals is now well accepted, the role of histone modification as a transgenerational epigenetic mechanism has been the subject of debate. Such epigenetic mechanisms may help regulate transcription programs and/or the pluripotent status conferred on germ cells, and contribute to germ line continuity across generations. Recent studies provide new evidence for heritability of histone modifications through germ line cells and its potential effects on transcription regulation both in the soma and germ line of subsequent generations. Unraveling transgenerational epigenetic mechanisms involving highly conserved histone modifications in elegant model systems will accelerate the generation of new paradigms and inspire research in a wide variety of fields, including basic developmental studies and clinical stem cell research.

  4. The Transition Towards Immortality: Non-linear Autocatalytic Growth of Citations to Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosovsky, Michael; Solomon, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    We discuss microscopic mechanisms of complex network growth, with the special emphasis of how these mechanisms can be evaluated from the measurements on real networks. As an example we consider the network of citations to scientific papers. Contrary to common belief that its growth is determined by the linear preferential attachment, our microscopic measurements show that it is driven by the nonlinear autocatalytic growth. This invalidates the scale-free hypothesis for the citation network. The nonlinearity is responsible for a dramatic dynamical phase transition: while the citation lifetime of majority of papers is 6-10 years, the highly-cited papers have practically infinite lifetime.

  5. Cellular immortality in brain tumours: an integration of the cancer stem cell paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ruman; Heath, Rachel; Grundy, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Brain tumours are a diverse group of neoplasms that continue to present a formidable challenge in our attempt to achieve curable intervention. Our conceptual framework of human brain cancer has been redrawn in the current decade. There is a gathering acceptance that brain tumour formation is a phenotypic outcome of dysregulated neurogenesis, with tumours viewed as abnormally differentiated neural tissue. In relation, there is accumulating evidence that brain tumours, similar to leukaemia and many solid tumours, are organized as a developmental hierarchy which is maintained by a small fraction of cells endowed with many shared properties of tissue stem cells. Proof that neurogenesis persists throughout adult life, compliments this concept. Although the cancer cell of origin is unclear, the proliferative zones that harbour stem cells in the embryonic, post-natal and adult brain are attractive candidates within which tumour-initiation may ensue. Dysregulated, unlimited proliferation and an ability to bypass senescence are acquired capabilities of cancerous cells. These abilities in part require the establishment of a telomere maintenance mechanism for counteracting the shortening of chromosomal termini. A strategy based upon the synthesis of telomeric repeat sequences by the ribonucleoprotein telomerase, is prevalent in approximately 90% of human tumours studied, including the majority of brain tumours. This review will provide a developmental perspective with respect to normal (neurogenesis) and aberrant (tumourigenesis) cellular turnover, differentiation and function. Within this context our current knowledge of brain tumour telomere/telomerase biology will be discussed with respect to both its developmental and therapeutic relevance to the hierarchical model of brain tumourigenesis presented by the cancer stem cell paradigm.

  6. BETA-ADRENOBLOCKERS IN XXI CENTURY: EPOCH END OR IMMORTALITY BEGINNING? A VIEW OF ORDINARY CARDIOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Malaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of β-blockers (BB for treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases is discussed. Results of the basic clinical trials with BB (LIFE, ASCOT, etc. are analyzed. The role of sympathetic system in different stages of cardiovascular continuum as well as forecast of BB clinical efficacy is surveyed. Author presents a review of data about selective β1-blocker, metoprolol succinate (Betalok ZОК, in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Male and female Drosophila germline stem cells: two versions of immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Margaret T; Spradling, Allan C

    2007-04-20

    Drosophila male and female germline stem cells (GSCs) are sustained by niches and regulatory pathways whose common principles serve as models for understanding mammalian stem cells. Despite striking cellular and genetic similarities that suggest a common evolutionary origin, however, male and female GSCs also display important differences. Comparing these two stem cells and their niches in detail is likely to reveal how a common heritage has been adapted to the differing requirements of male and female gamete production.

  8. hERG1 potassium channel in cancer cells: a tool to reprogram immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Saverio

    2016-10-01

    It has been well established that changes in ion fluxes across cellular membranes as a function of time is fundamental in maintaining cellular homeostasis of every living cell. Consequently, dysregulation of ion channels activity is a critical event in pathological conditions of several tissues, including cancer. Nevertheless, the role of ion channels in cancer biology is still not well understood and very little is known about the possible therapeutic opportunities offered by the use of the vast collection of drugs that target ion channels. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in understanding the role of the voltage-gated hERG1 potassium channel in cancer and on the effects of pharmacologic manipulation of the hERG1 in cancer cells aiming to provide insights into the biochemical signaling and cellular processes that are altered by using these drugs.

  9. Three steps to the immortality of cancer cells: senescence, polyploidy and self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Cragg, Mark S

    2013-09-11

    Metastatic cancer is rarely cured by current DNA damaging treatments, apparently due to the development of resistance. However, recent data indicates that tumour cells can elicit the opposing processes of senescence and stemness in response to these treatments, the biological significance and molecular regulation of which is currently poorly understood. Although cellular senescence is typically considered a terminal cell fate, it was recently shown to be reversible in a small population of polyploid cancer cells induced after DNA damage. Overcoming genotoxic insults is associated with reversible polyploidy, which itself is associated with the induction of a stemness phenotype, thereby providing a framework linking these separate phenomena. In keeping with this suggestion, senescence and autophagy are clearly intimately involved in the emergence of self-renewal potential in the surviving cells that result from de-polyploidisation. Moreover, subsequent analysis indicates that senescence may paradoxically be actually required to rejuvenate cancer cells after genotoxic treatments. We propose that genotoxic resistance is thereby afforded through a programmed life-cycle-like process which intimately unites senescence, polyploidy and stemness.

  10. Multifunctional nanoscale platforms for targeting of the cancer cell immortality spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Venkataramanan; Warnock, Kenneth; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2010-01-18

    In the post-genomic era, "omics" platforms and cancer systems biology are greatly advancing our knowledge of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of cancer. In this article, we begin by outlining the factors governing the development of cancer (tumorigenesis) and use this framework to motivate the need for systems-approaches to cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. We review recent efforts to tap into the remarkable potential of nanotechnology for (i) systems-surveillance (or "sensing") of the molecular signatures of tumorigenesis, and (ii) spatiotemporally-regulated delivery (or "targeting") of combination therapeutics to cancer cells. Specifically, we highlight the salient role of polymeric biomaterials and describe the physicochemical characteristics that render them attractive for the design of such nanoscale platforms. We conclude with discussions on the emerging role of macromolecular biophysics and computational nanotechnology in engineering spatiotemporally-regulated anti-cancer systems. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mortality and immortality: the Nobel Prize as an experiment into the effect of status upon longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rablen, Matthew D; Oswald, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    It has been known for centuries that the rich and famous have longer lives than the poor and ordinary. Causality, however, remains trenchantly debated. The ideal experiment would be one in which extra status could somehow be dropped upon a sub-sample of individuals while those in a control group of comparable individuals received none. This paper attempts to formulate a test in that spirit. It collects 19th-century birth data on science Nobel Prize winners. Correcting for potential biases, we estimate that winning the Prize, compared to merely being nominated, is associated with between 1 and 2 years of extra longevity.

  12. Husserl, the Monad and Immortality | MacDonald | Indo-Pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  13. Social egg freezing: the prospect of reproductive 'immortality' or a dangerous delusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gillian M

    2011-09-01

    Until recently there was little to offer young women with cancer facing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery and the probability of premature menopause and sterility. The first 'frozen egg' baby was born in 1986, but success rates were so low that egg freezing was neglected. Three technological developments in assisted reproduction treatment (intracytoplasmic sperm injection, dehydro-cryoprotectants and vitrification) have transformed this picture and now young women with frozen eggs have the same probability of a live birth per embryo transfer as women undergoing conventional IVF. For many women it is not cancer but the passage of time that denies them a chance of motherhood. Social, educational and financial pressures often lead them to delay starting a family until their late thirties, by which time the chance of success is compromised by low fecundity rates and an increased risk of miscarriage if they become pregnant. Donor eggs are not an option for many because of supply constraints and ethical concerns. Freezing a woman's eggs at age 30 literally 'freezes in time' her fertility potential and gives her the chance of a healthy pregnancy at a time of her choosing. The role of oocyte cryopreservation in the context of social egg freezing is discussed. Until recently there was little we could offer young women with cancer facing the chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery that could save their lives and the certainty of premature menopause and sterility. The first frozen-egg baby was born in 1986, but the success rate (100 eggs to produce one baby) was so low that egg freezing was neglected for years. Three technological developments in assisted reproduction treatment (intracytoplasmic sperm injection, dehydro-cryoprotectants and vitrification) have transformed this picture and now young women who have cryopreserved eggs can be offered the same chance of a live birth per embryo transfer as women undergoing conventional IVF treatment. For many women today it is not cancer but the simple passage of time that robs them of their chance of motherhood. Social, educational, emotional and financial pressures often lead them to delay trying to start a family until their late thirties, by which time the chance of success is very low. Women at age 40 face a 40% chance of miscarriage if they can get pregnant at all and by the age of 45, the risk of miscarriage is 75%. Donor eggs are not an option for many because of supply constraints and ethical and cultural concerns. Freezing a woman's eggs at age 30 literally 'freezes in time' her fertility potential and gives her the chance of a healthy pregnancy at a time of her choosing. This paper discusses the role of oocyte cryopreservation in the context of social egg freezing. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 'From death, lead me to immortality' - mantra of ageing skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Amarjit; Mastana, Sarabjit; Myers, Fiona; Lewis, Mark Peter

    2013-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is a post-mitotic tissue maintained by repair and regeneration through a population of stem cell-like satellite cells. Following muscle injury, satellite cell proliferation is mediated by local signals ensuring sufficient progeny for tissue repair. Age-related changes in satellite cells as well as to the local and systemic environment potentially impact on the capacity of satellite cells to generate sufficient progeny in an ageing organism resulting in diminished regeneration. 'Rejuvenation' of satellite cell progeny and regenerative capacity by environmental stimuli effectors suggest that a subset of age-dependent satellite cell changes may be reversible. Epigenetic regulation of satellite stem cells that include DNA methylation and histone modifications which regulate gene expression are potential mechanisms for such reversible changes and have been shown to control organismal longevity. The area of health and ageing that is likely to benefit soonest from advances in the biology of adult stem cells is the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which epigenetic modifications regulate satellite stem cell function and will require an increased understanding of stem-cell biology, the environment of the aged tissue and the interaction between the two.

  15. Reversal of informational entropy and the acquisition of germ-like immortality by somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Marios

    2014-01-01

    We live within an increasingly technological, information-laden environment for the first time in human evolution. This subjects us (and will continue to subject us in an accelerating fashion) to an unremitting exposure to 'meaningful information that requires action'. Directly dependent upon this new environment are novel evolutionary pressures, which can modify existing resource allocation mechanisms and may eventually favour the survival of somatic cells (particularly neurons) at the expense of germ line cells. In this theoretical paper I argue that persistent, structured information-sharing in both virtual and real domains, leads to increased biological complexity and functionality, which reflects upon human survival characteristics. Certain biological immortalisation mechanisms currently employed by germ cells may thus need to be downgraded in order to enable somatic cells to manage these new energy demands placed by our modern environment. Relevant concepts from a variety of disciplines such as the evolution of complex adaptive systems, information theory, digital hyper-connectivity, and cell immortalisation will be reviewed. Using logical, though sometimes speculative arguments, I will attempt to describe a new biology. A biology not driven by sex and reproduction but by information and somatic longevity.

  16. A C. elegans LSD1 demethylase contributes to germline immortality by reprogramming epigenetic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David J; Edwards, T Matthew; Reinke, Valerie; Kelly, William G

    2009-04-17

    Epigenetic information undergoes extensive reprogramming in the germline between generations. This reprogramming may be essential to establish a developmental ground state in the zygote. We show that mutants in spr-5, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the H3K4me2 demethylase LSD1/KDM1, exhibit progressive sterility over many generations. This sterility correlates with the misregulation of spermatogenesis-expressed genes and transgenerational accumulation of the histone modification dimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me2). This suggests that H3K4me2 can serve as a stable epigenetic memory, and that erasure of H3K4me2 by LSD/KDM1 in the germline prevents the inappropriate transmission of this epigenetic memory from one generation to the next. Thus, our results provide direct mechanistic insights into the processes that are required for epigenetic reprogramming between generations.

  17. Slugging their way to immortality: driving mammary epithelial cells into a stem cell-like state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soady, Kelly; Smalley, Matthew J

    2012-09-10

    Delineating the molecular factors that define and maintain the mammary stem cell state is vital for understanding normal development and tumourigenesis. A recent study by Guo and colleagues identifies two master transcriptional regulators of mammary stem cells, Slug and Sox9, ectopic expression of which confers stem cell attributes on differentiated mammary epithelial cells. Slug and Sox9 expression was also shown to determine in vivo metastatic potential of human breast cancer cell lines. Understanding these factors in the context of normal lineage differentiation is an important step toward elucidating the mammary epithelial cell hierarchy and the origins of cancer stem cells.

  18. Immortalization of human CD8+ T cell clones by ectopic expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijberg, E.; Ruizendaal, J. J.; Snijders, P. J.; Kueter, E. W.; Walboomers, J. M.; Spits, H.

    2000-01-01

    Replicative senescence of T cells is correlated with erosion of telomere ends. Telomerase plays a key role in maintaining telomere length. Therefore, it is thought that telomerase regulates the life span of T cells. To test this hypothesis, we have over-expressed human telomerase reverse

  19. Transient exposure to proteins SOX2, Oct-4, and NANOG immortalizes exhausted tumor-infiltrating CTLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadurihauck, Anjuli; Li, Lei [Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, MD (United States); Li, Qianqian; Wang, Jianjun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University, Detroit, 48201 (United States); Xiao, Zhengguo, E-mail: xiao0028@umd.edu [Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, MD (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Adoptive cell transfer therapy (ACT) is one of the most promising immunotherapies against cancer, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) expanded in vitro. Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (TICTLs) play a prominent role in cancer control. TILs terminally differentiate in response to immunosuppressive environments within tumors, and thus are slow to expand and challenging to maintain both in vitro and in patients. To reverse this exhaustion, we utilize a nuclear protein delivery system that exposes TICTLs to the SOX2, Oct-4, and NANOG (SON) proteins. Unlike activated naïve CTLs (effector CTLs), TICTLs respond favorably to SON treatment, exhibiting steady proliferation and extended survivability independent of cytokine and antigen stimulation. Though TICTLs treated with SON (STICTLs) still express T cell receptors as well as other critical downstream components, they are unresponsive to antigen challenge, suggesting that SON treatment regresses TICTLs into a state similar to that of an early double negative T cell. Our findings indicate the TICTL response to SON proteins is unique when compared to effector CTLs, suggesting TICTLs may be sensitive to regulation by other lineage-specific transcription factors and opening a promising new avenue into cancer immunotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report on lineage reprogramming of TILs using protein stem cell transcription factors delivered directly to the nucleus. -- Highlights: •TICTLs are sensitive to reprogramming by proteins of stem cell transcription factors, but effector CTLs were not. •TICTLs are regressed back to an early double negative T cell stage. •TCR signaling is deregulated by these transcription factors.

  20. Strategic Misstep: ’Immortal’ Robotic Warfare, Inviting Combat to Suburban America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    locations of those combatants.59 Predator “ Porn ” – Immoral, or Just “Freaking Cool” Air Force RPA combatant operators and those around them will likely...accessed February 4, 2010). Predator “feeds” have been renamed in military circles to Predator “ porn ”. For reference see Mockenhaupt, “We’ve Seen the

  1. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus-hemolysin A on calcium signalling in immortalized human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichstaedt, Stefanie; Gäbler, Karoline; Below, Sabine; Müller, Christian; Kohler, Christian; Engelmann, Susanne; Hildebrandt, Petra; Völker, Uwe; Hecker, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Part of the innate defence of bronchial epithelia against bacterial colonization is secretion of salt and water which generally depends on coordinated actions of receptor-mediated cAMP- and calcium signalling. The hypothesis that Staphylococcus aureus-virulence factors interfere with endogenous signals in host cells was tested by measuring agonist-mediated changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in S9 cells upon pre-incubation with bacterial secretory products. S9 cells responded to mAChR-activation with calcium release from intracellular stores and capacitative calcium influx. Treatment of cells with culture supernatants of S. aureus (COL) or with recombinant alpha-hemolysin (Hla) resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in [Ca(2+)](i). High concentrations of Hla (2000 ng/ml) resulted in elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by accelerated calcium influx. A general Hla-mediated permeabilization of S9 cell membranes to small molecules, however, did not occur. Lower concentrations of Hla (200 ng/ml) induced a reduction in [Ca(2+)](i)-levels during the sustained plateau phase of receptor-mediated calcium signalling which was abolished by pre-incubation of cells with carboxyeosin, an inhibitor of the plasma membrane calcium-ATPase. This indicates that low concentrations of Hla change calcium signalling by accelerating pump-driven extrusion of Ca(2+) ions. In vivo, such a mechanism may result in attenuation of calcium-mediated cellular defence functions and facilitation of bacterial adherence to the bronchial epithelium.

  2. Resveratrol Prevents EBV Transformation and Inhibits the Outgrowth of EBV-Immortalized Human B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, J. Luis; Takami, Akiyoshi; Trung, Ly Quoc; Kato, Shunichi; Nakao, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Background Epstein Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease is an increasing complication in patients with immunosuppressive conditions. Although the current therapies for this disorder are effective, they are also associated with significant toxicity. In an attempt to identify newer therapeutic agents, this study investigated the effects of Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, on the EBV transformation of human B cells. Methodology/Principal Findings This study demonstrates that resveratrol prevents EBV transformation in human B cells. These effects are mediated by specific cytotoxic activities of resveratrol against EBV-infected B cells that are associated with the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and survivin. This occurs as a consequence of the inhibition of EBV-induced NFκB and STAT-3 signaling pathways and a resveratrol-induced decrease in the expression of the oncogenic viral product LMP1 in EBV-infected B cells. In addition, resveratrol decreased the expression of miR-155 and miR-34a in EBV-infected B cells, blocked the expression of the anti-apoptotic viral gene BHRF1, and thus interrupted events that are critical for EBV transformation and the survival of EBV-transformed cells. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that resveratrol may therefore be a potentially effective therapeutic alternative for preventing EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases in immune compromised patients. PMID:23251493

  3. Determination of Drug Toxicity Using 3D Spheroids Constructed From an Immortal Human Hepatocyte Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fey, S. J.; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    that a precise dose can be provided in a manner similar to in vivo studies. This avoided correction of the actual dose given based on a protein determination after treatment (when some cells may have lysed). Conversion of published in vitro LC50 data (mM) for six common drugs (acetaminophen, amiodarone......, diclofenac, metformin, phenformin, and valproic acid) to LD50 data (mg compound/mg cellular protein) showed that the variation in LD50 values was generally less than that suggested by the original LC50 data. Toxicological analysis of these six compounds in 3D spheroid culture (either published or presented...

  4. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls. The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1 "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2 "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3 "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  5. Isolation and Immortalization of MIP-GFP Neurons From the Hypothalamus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zi Chen; Wheeler, Michael B; Belsham, Denise D

    2014-01-01

    The mouse insulin I promoter (MIP) construct was developed to eliminate the promoter activity detected with the rat insulin II promoter in specific hypothalamic neurons that may have unintended effects on glucose and energy...

  6. Retinoids irreversibly inhibit in vitro growth of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponi, F; Cariati, R; Zancai, P; De Paoli, P; Rizzo, S; Tedeschi, R M; Pivetta, B; De Vita, S; Boiocchi, M; Dolcetti, R

    1996-10-15

    Natural and synthetic retinoids have proved to be effective in the treatment and prevention of various human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effect of retinoids on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), since these cells closely resemble those that give rise to EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders in the immunosuppressed host. All six compounds tested inhibited LCL proliferation with no significant direct cytotoxicity, but 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-RA, and all-trans-RA (ATRA) were markedly more efficacious than Ro40-8757, Ro13-6298, and etretinate. The antiproliferative action of the three most effective compounds was confirmed in a large panel of LCLs, thus appearing as a generalized phenomenon in these cells. LCL growth was irreversibly inhibited even after 2 days of treatment at drug concentrations corresponding to therapeutically achievable plasma levels. Retinoid-treated cells showed a marked downregulation of CD71 and a decreased S-phase compartment with a parallel accumulation in Gzero/ G1 phases. These cell cycle perturbations were associated with the upregulation of p27 Kip1, a nuclear protein that controls entrance and progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting several cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Unlike what is observed in other systems, the antiproliferative effect exerted by retinoids on LCLs was not due to the acquisition of a terminally differentiated status. In fact, retinoid-induced modifications of cell morphology, phenotype (downregulation of CD19, HLA-DR, and s-Ig, and increased expression of CD38 and c-Ig), and IgM production were late events, highly heterogeneous, and often slightly relevant, being therefore only partially indicative of a drug-related differentiative process. Moreover, EBV-encoded EBV nuclear antigen-2 and latent membrane protein-1 proteins were inconstantly downregulated by retinoids, indicating that their growth-inhibitory effect is not mediated by a direct modulation of viral latent antigen expression. The strong antiproliferative activity exerted by retinoids in our experimental model indicates that these compounds may represent a useful tool in the medical management of EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders of immunosuppressed patients.

  7. MLL-AF9-mediated immortalization of human hematopoietic cells along different lineages changes during ontogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horton, S J; Jaques, J; Woolthuis, C; van Dijk, J; Mesuraca, M; Huls, G; Morrone, G; Vellenga, E; Schuringa, J J

    The MLL-AF9 fusion gene is associated with aggressive leukemias of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineage in infants, whereas in adults, this translocation is mainly associated with acute myeloid leukemia. These observations suggest that differences exist between fetal and adult tissues in terms of

  8. Belief in the Immortality of the Human Soul and a Future Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is a reflection on ancient Basotho's conception of death. For ancient Basotho, death pertains to animals and other animate things, not humans. They believe in a future life. It is argued that it is unfair to regard a belief on the resurrection as meaningless simply because it does not pass either the verifiability criterion ...

  9. The Question Concerning the Aims of Moral Education: Meillassoux's Ethic of Immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Sevket Benhur

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the thesis that moral education is best served through education for irreligious thinking will be put forward. At stake here is the acknowledgment of a disquieting kernel at the deepest level of thinking that is usually glossed over or sedated. I will attempt to confront and articulate this kernel and discuss its repercussions for…

  10. Husserl, the Monad and Immortality | MacDonald | Indo-Pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... activities, including the mundane ego's birth and death in time; it is always in a process of becoming, and so it can never be in a state of only “having-been”, that is, dead: and hence the primal ego's enduring cannot itself ever come to an end. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 7, Edition 2 September 2007 ...

  11. From ether theory to ether theology: Oliver Lodge and the physics of immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Courtenay Grean

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of physicist Oliver Lodge's religio-scientific worldview, beginning with his reticent attraction to metaphysics in the early 1880s to the full formulation of his "ether theology" in the late 1890s. Lodge undertook the study of psychical phenomena such as telepathy, telekinesis, and "ectoplasm" to further his scientific investigations of the ether, speculating that electrical and psychical manifestations were linked phenomena that described the deeper underlying structures of the universe, beneath and beyond matter. For Lodge, to fully understand the ether was to force from the universe an ultimate Revelation, and psychical research, as the most modern and probatory science, was poised to replace religion as the means of that disclosure. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MORC-1 Integrates Nuclear RNAi and Transgenerational Chromatin Architecture to Promote Germline Immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Natasha E; Yang, Danny X; Feng, Suhua; Kalinava, Natallia; Brown, Kristen C; Khanikar, Jayshree; Freeberg, Mallory A; Snyder, Martha J; Csankovszki, Györgyi; Chan, Raymond C; Gu, Sam G; Montgomery, Taiowa A; Jacobsen, Steven E; Kim, John K

    2017-05-22

    Germline-expressed endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) transmit multigenerational epigenetic information to ensure fertility in subsequent generations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, nuclear RNAi ensures robust inheritance of endo-siRNAs and deposition of repressive H3K9me3 marks at target loci. How target silencing is maintained in subsequent generations is poorly understood. We discovered that morc-1 is essential for transgenerational fertility and acts as an effector of endo-siRNAs. Unexpectedly, morc-1 is dispensable for siRNA inheritance but is required for target silencing and maintenance of siRNA-dependent chromatin organization. A forward genetic screen identified mutations in met-1, which encodes an H3K36 methyltransferase, as potent suppressors of morc-1(-) and nuclear RNAi mutant phenotypes. Further analysis of nuclear RNAi and morc-1(-) mutants revealed a progressive, met-1-dependent enrichment of H3K36me3, suggesting that robust fertility requires repression of MET-1 activity at nuclear RNAi targets. Without MORC-1 and nuclear RNAi, MET-1-mediated encroachment of euchromatin leads to detrimental decondensation of germline chromatin and germline mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The block of adipocyte differentiation by a C-terminally truncated, but not by full-length, simian virus 40 large tumor antigen is dependent on an intact retinoblastoma susceptibility protein family binding domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, C; Chatterjee, S.; Cherington, V

    1996-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) can promote cell transformation and suppress differentiation. It does this partly by targeting tumor suppressors such as p53 and members of the retinoblastoma susceptibility protein (Rb) family. This work concentrates on mechanisms by which SV40 large tumor antigen (SVLT) suppresses adipocyte differentiation. We created cell lines derived from murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes expressing different versions of SV40 early-region sequences. SVLT-expressing cells failed to exhibi...

  14. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies against simian virus 40 in healthy pregnant women in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy.Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples.Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123 and 12.7% (14/110, respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods.SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines.

  15. Naturally arising strains of polyomaviruses with severely attenuated microRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun Jung; Burke, James M; Kincaid, Rodney P; Azarm, Kristopher D; Mireles, Noel; Butel, Janet S; Sullivan, Christopher S

    2014-11-01

    Several different polyomaviruses (PyVs) encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate viral as well as host gene expression. However, the functions of polyomaviral miRNAs, particularly during in vivo infection, remain poorly understood. Here we identify rare naturally arising PyVs that are severely attenuated or null for miRNA expression. We identify hypomorphic or null strains for miRNA expression from rhesus macaque simian virus 40 (SV40) and human JC virus. These strains were isolated from immunocompromised hosts and derive from insertions or deletions in the viral DNA that preserve the amino acid reading frame of opposing-strand large T antigen gene. Characterization of the SV40 miRNA hypomorph, K661, shows that it is inhibited at the early miRNA biogenesis step of Drosha-mediated processing. Despite having a nonrearranged enhancer, which a previous study has shown renders some PyVs more susceptible to the autoregulatory activities of the miRNA, restoring miRNA expression to K661 has little effect on virus growth in either immortalized or primary monkey kidney cells. Thus, in addition to any effect of accompanying genomic elements, these results suggest that the cellular context also determines susceptibility to PyV miRNA-mediated effects. Combined, these results demonstrate that polyomaviruses lacking miRNAs can arise infrequently and that the functional importance of polyomaviral miRNAs is context dependent, consistent with an activity connected to the immune status of the host. Diverse virus families encode miRNAs, yet much remains unknown about viral miRNA function and contribution to the infectious cycle. Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are small DNA viruses, long known to be important as etiological agents of rare diseases and valuable models of DNA virus infection. Here, in immunosuppressed hosts, we uncover rare naturally arising variants of different PyVs that have lost the ability to express miRNAs. This represents some of the only known natural viruses to have lost

  16. Explicit targeting of transformed cells by VSV in ovarian epithelial tumor-bearing Wv mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo-chichi, Callinice D; Yeasky, Toni M; Heiber, Joshua F; Wang, Ying; Barber, Glen N; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2010-02-01

    Current treatment options for epithelial ovarian cancer are limited and therapeutic development for recurrent and drug-resistant ovarian cancer is an urgent agenda. We investigated the potential use of genetically engineered Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) to treat ovarian cancer patients who fail to respond to available therapies. Specifically, we examined the toxicity to hosts and specificity of targeting ovarian tumors using a Wv ovarian tumor model. We first tested recombinant VSV for oncolytic activity in a panel of human ovarian epithelial cancer, immortalized, and primary ovarian surface epithelial cells in culture. Then, we tested VSV oncolytic therapy using the immune competent Wv mice that develop tubular adenomas, benign tumor lesions derived from ovarian surface epithelial cells. The expression of GFP encoded by the recombinant VSV genome was detected in about 5% of primary ovarian surface epithelial cells (3 lines) up to 30 days without significantly altering the growth pattern of the cells, suggesting the lack of toxicity to the normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. However, VSV-GFP was detected in the majority (around 90%) of cells that are either "immortalized" by SV40 antigen expression or cancer lines. Some variation in killing time courses was observed, but all the transformed cell lines were killed within 3 days. We found that regardless of the inoculation route (intra bursal, IP, or IV), VSV specifically infected and replicated in the in situ ovarian tumors in the Wv mice without significant activity in any other organs and tissues, and showed no detectable toxicity. The epithelial tumor lesions were greatly reduced in VSV-targeted ovarian tumors in the Wv mice. VSV oncolytic activity depends on a cell autonomous property distinguishing primary and transformed cells. The efficient oncolytic activity of VSV for the "immortalized" non-tumorigenic ovarian surface epithelial cells suggests that the selective specificity extends from pre

  17. Origin of Androgen-Insensitive Poorly Differentiated Tumors in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy J. Huss

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Following castration, the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP model demonstrates rapid development of SV40-Tag-driven poorly differentiated tumors that express neuroendocrine cell markers. The cell population dynamics within the prostates of castrated TRAMP mice were characterized by analyzing the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd and the expression of SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and androgen receptor (AR. Fourteen days postcastration, the remaining epithelial cells and adenocarcinoma cells were nonproliferative and lacked detectable SV40-Tag or synaptophysin expression. In contrast, morphologically distinct intraglandular foci were identified which expressed SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and Ki67, but that lacked AR expression. These proliferative SV40-Tag and synaptophysin-expressing intraglandular foci were associated with the rare BrdUrd-retaining cells. These foci expanded rapidly in the postcastration prostate environment, in contrast to the AR- and SV40-Tag-expressing adenocarcinoma cells that lost SV40-Tag expression and underwent apoptosis after castration. Intraglandular foci of synaptophysin-expressing cells were also observed in the prostates of intact TRAMP mice at a comparable frequency; however, they did not progress to rapidly expanding tumors until much later in the life of the mice. This suggests that the foci of neuroendocrine-like cells that express SV40-Tag and synaptophysin, but lack AR, arise independent of androgen-deprivation and represent the source of the poorly differentiated tumors that are the lethal phenotype in the TRAMP model.

  18. Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.; Lednicky, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus of rhesus macaque origin, was discovered in 1960 as a contaminant of polio vaccines that were distributed to millions of people from 1955 through early 1963. SV40 is a potent DNA tumor virus that induces tumors in rodents and transforms many types of cells in culture, including those of human origin. This virus has been a favored laboratory model for mechanistic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and of cellular transformation. The viral replication protein, named large T antigen (T-ag), is also the viral oncoprotein. There is a single serotype of SV40, but multiple strains of virus exist that are distinguishable by nucleotide differences in the regulatory region of the viral genome and in the part of the T-ag gene that encodes the protein's carboxyl terminus. Natural infections in monkeys by SV40 are usually benign but may become pathogenic in immunocompromised animals, and multiple tissues can be infected. SV40 can replicate in certain types of simian and human cells. SV40-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated polio vaccines. SV40 DNA has been identified in some normal human tissues, and there are accumulating reports of detection of SV40 DNA and/or T-ag in a variety of human tumors. This review presents aspects of replication and cell transformation by SV40 and considers their implications for human infections and disease pathogenesis by the virus. Critical assessment of virologic and epidemiologic data suggests a probable causative role for SV40 in certain human cancers, but additional studies are necessary to prove etiology.

  19. Interaction between Simian Virus 40 Major Capsid Protein VP1 and Cell Surface Ganglioside GM1 Triggers Vacuole Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Motamedi, Nasim; Magaldi, Thomas G; Gee, Gretchen V; Atwood, Walter J; DiMaio, Daniel

    2016-03-22

    Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus that has served as an important model to understand many aspects of biology, induces dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization late during productive infection of monkey host cells. Although this activity led to the discovery of the virus in 1960, the mechanism of vacuolization is still not known. Pentamers of the major SV40 capsid protein VP1 bind to the ganglioside GM1, which serves as the cellular receptor for the virus. In this report, we show that binding of VP1 to cell surface GM1 plays a key role in SV40 infection-induced vacuolization. We previously showed that SV40 VP1 mutants defective for GM1 binding fail to induce vacuolization, even though they replicate efficiently. Here, we show that interfering with GM1-VP1 binding by knockdown of GM1 after infection is established abrogates vacuolization by wild-type SV40. Vacuole formation during permissive infection requires efficient virus release, and conditioned medium harvested late during SV40 infection rapidly induces vacuoles in a VP1- and GM1-dependent fashion. Furthermore, vacuolization can also be induced by a nonreplicating SV40 pseudovirus in a GM1-dependent manner, and a mutation in BK pseudovirus VP1 that generates GM1 binding confers vacuole-inducing activity. Vacuolization can also be triggered by purified pentamers of wild-type SV40 VP1, but not by GM1 binding-defective pentamers or by intracellular expression of VP1. These results demonstrate that SV40 infection-induced vacuolization is caused by the binding of released progeny viruses to GM1, thereby identifying the molecular trigger for the activity that led to the discovery of SV40. The DNA tumor virus SV40 was discovered more than a half century ago as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccine stocks, because it caused dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization of permissive host cells. Although SV40 played a historically important role in the development of molecular and cellular biology, restriction mapping, molecular

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Apoptosis by Gugulipid Extract of Ayurvedic Medicine Plant Commiphora mukul in Human Prostate Cancer Cells Is Regulated by c-Jun N-Terminal KinaseS⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2011-01-01

    Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC50 of ∼1 μM (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis. PMID:21115635

  1. Reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis by gugulipid extract of Ayurvedic medicine plant Commiphora mukul in human prostate cancer cells is regulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V

    2011-03-01

    Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ∼1 μM (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G(0)/G(1)-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis.

  2. Smad2 overexpression enhances adhesion of gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Shimoe, Masayuki; Tomikawa, Kazuya; Ugawa, Yuki; Kochi, Shinsuke; Ideguchi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2016-11-01

    Gingival epithelial cells play an important role in preventing the initiation of periodontitis, by their hemidesmosomal adhesion to the tooth root surface. Adhesion requires integrin-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that are intricately regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. However, the mechanisms underlying the interplay between adhesion molecules and TGF-β, especially the respective roles of Smad2 and Smad3, remain elusive. In this study, we examined the effects of Smad overexpression on gingival epithelial cell adhesion and expression profiles of integrin and ECM-related genes. Human gingival epithelial cells immortalized by the SV40 T-antigen were transfected with Smad2- and Smad3-overexpression vectors. A cell adhesion assay involving fluorescence detection of attached cells was performed using the ArrayScan imaging system. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the kinetics of integrin and ECM gene expression. In vitro and in vivo localization of adhesion molecules was examined by immunofluorescence analysis. By using SB431542, a specific inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor, Smad2/3 signaling was confirmed to be dominant in TGF-β1-induced cell adhesion. The Smad2-transfectant demonstrated higher potency for cell adhesion and integrin expression (α2, α5, β4, and β6) than the Smad3-transfectant, whereas little or no change in ECM expression was observed in either transfectant. Moreover, the gingival epithelium of transgenic mice that overexpressed Smad2 driven by the keratin 14 promoter showed increased integrin α2 expression. These findings indicate the crucial role of Smad2 in increased adhesion of gingival epithelial cells via upregulation of integrin α2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ketamine-induced bladder fibrosis involves epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition mediated by transforming growth factor-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junpeng; Chen, Yang; Gu, Di; Zhang, Guihao; Chen, Jiawei; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Bladder wall fibrosis is a major complication of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC), but the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of ketamine-induced fibrosis in association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups, which received saline, ketamine, ketamine combined with a TGF-β receptor inhibitor (SB-505124) for 16 wk, or 12 wk of ketamine and 4 wk of abstinence. In addition, the profibrotic effect of ketamine was confirmed in SV-40 immortalized human uroepithelial (SV-HUC-1) cells. The ketamine-treated rats displayed voiding dysfunction and decreased bladder compliance. Bladder fibrosis was accompanied by the appearance of a certain number of cells expressing both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, indicating that epithelial cells might undergo EMT upon ketamine administration. Meanwhile, the expression level of TGF-β1 was significantly upregulated in the urothelium of bladders in ketamine-treated rats. Treatment of SV-HUC-1 cells with ketamine increased the expression of TGF-β1 and EMT-inducing transcription factors, resulting in the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin. Administration of SB-505124 inhibited EMT and fibrosis both in vitro and vivo. In addition, withdrawal from ketamine did not lead to recovery of bladder urinary function or decreased fibrosis. Taken together, our study shows for the first time that EMT might contribute to bladder fibrosis in KC. TGF-β1 may have an important role in bladder fibrogenesis via an EMT mechanism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Matrilysin cleavage of corneal collagen type XVIII NC1 domain and generation of a 28-kDa fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H C; Chang, J H; Jain, S; Gabison, E E; Kure, T; Kato, T; Fukai, N; Azar, D T

    2001-10-01

    To localize endostatin and collagen type XVIII in human corneas and to characterize the enzymatic action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the cleavage of collagen type XVIII and generation of endostatin in the cornea. Anti-endostatin and anti-hinge antibodies were generated using peptide fragments corresponding to the endostatin region and the adjacent nonendostatin hinge region of collagen XVIII noncollagenous (NC)1 domain, respectively. Confocal immunostaining was performed to localize collagen XVIII in human corneas. SV40-immortalized corneal epithelial cells were immunoprecipitated and incubated with active MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, or -9, and Western blot analysis was performed to study collagen XVIII cleavage. Incubation with MMP-7 was performed at various concentrations (0, 2, 4, and 6 microg/ml) and time intervals (0, 1, 5, and 12 hours). Purified recombinant NC1 fragment of collagen XVIII was also digested with MMP-7, and the cleavage product was sequenced. Collagen XVIII was immunolocalized to the human corneal epithelium, epithelial basement membrane, and Descemet membrane. Western blot analysis demonstrated a 180- to 200-kDa band corresponding to collagen XVIII. MMP-7 (but not MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9) cleaved corneal epithelium-derived collagen XVIII to generate a 28-kDa endostatin-spanning fragment in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. MMP-7 cleaved purified recombinant 34-kDa NC1 fragment of collagen XVIII in the hinge region to generate a 28-kDa fragment. Collagen XVIII is present in human cornea. MMP-7 cleaves the collagen XVIII NC1 domain to generate a 28-kDa fragment in the cornea.

  5. TGF-β1 downregulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production through Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Leung, Peter C K; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2014-11-01

    Regulation of progesterone production in granulosa cells is important for normal reproductive functions. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is recognized as the key regulatory protein involved in the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis. TGF-β1 protein is detected in human follicular fluid, and TGF-β1 and its receptors are expressed in human granulosa cells. However, the functional role of TGF-β1 in the regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells. SVOG cells are human granulosa cells that were obtained from women undergoing in vitro fertilization and immortalized with SV40 large T antigen. SVOG cells were used to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production at an academic research center. Levels of mRNA and protein were examined by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The accumulation levels of progesterone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGF-β1 treatment downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production were abolished by the inhibition of TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with TGF-β1 activated the Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The inhibition of the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the TGF-β1-induced downregulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. TGF-β1 downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production by activating the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

  6. Liver myofibroblasts of murine origins express mesothelin: Identification of novel rat mesothelin splice variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Fausther

    Full Text Available Liver myofibroblasts are specialized effector cells that drive hepatic fibrosis, a hallmark process of chronic liver diseases, leading to progressive scar formation and organ failure. Liver myofibroblasts are increasingly recognized as heterogeneous with regards to their origin, phenotype, and functions. For instance, liver myofibroblasts express cell markers that are universally represented such as, ItgαV and Pdgfrβ, or restricted to a given subpopulation such as, Lrat exclusively expressed in hepatic stellate cells, and Gpm6a in mesothelial cells. To study liver myofibroblasts in vitro, we have previously generated and characterized a SV40-immortalized polyclonal rat activated portal fibroblast cell line called RGF-N2 expressing multiple mesothelin mRNA transcripts. Mesothelin, a cell-surface molecule expressed in normal mesothelial cells and overexpressed in several cancers such as, mesothelioma and cholangiocarcinoma, was recently identified as a key regulator of portal myofibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis progression in the setting of chronic cholestatic liver disease. Here, we identify novel mesothelin splice variants expressed in rat activated portal fibroblasts. RGF-N2 portal fibroblast cDNA was used as template for insertion of hemagglutinin tag consensus sequence into the complete open reading frame of rat mesothelin variant coding sequences by extension PCR. Purified amplicons were subsequently cloned into an expression vector for in vitro translation and transfection in monkey COS7 fibroblasts, before characterization of fusion proteins by immunoblot and immunofluorescence. We show that rat activated portal fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, and cholangiocarcinoma cells express wild-type mesothelin and additional splice variants, while mouse activated hepatic stellate cells appear to only express wild-type mesothelin. Notably, rat mesothelin splice variants differ from the wild-type isoform by their protein properties and

  7. Efficient and simple approach to in vitro culture of primary epithelial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Karolina; Popeda, Marta; Peciak, Joanna; Rosiak, Kamila; Smolarz, Maciej; Treda, Cezary; Rieske, Piotr; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Ksiazkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Primary cancer cells constitute a favourable testing platform for in vitro research in oncology field as they reflect tumour state more accurately than the most commonly employed stable cell lines. Unfortunately, due to limited availability of material and difficulties with protocols validation, primary models are rarely implemented into laboratory practice.We have compared protocols for primary cultures, differing in media components and plate coatings. In terms of culture establishment, application of Geltrex® coating demonstrated equal efficiency to feeder layer (83% compared with 72% successfully established breast and 80% compared with 80% prostate tumour specimens), yet it was substantially less complicated and easier to validate. Both Geltrex® coating and tissue-specific primary cell medium were permanently required to successfully maintain primary epithelial prostate cancer cells (PEPCs) in culture. In case of primary epithelial breast cancer cells (PEBCs), collagen I coating enabled to obtain comparable number of passages to Geltrex® coating (P=0.438). Commercial primary cell media demonstrated lower efficiency than tissue-specific ones (PEPCs-5 compared with 8 and PEBCs-6 compared with 9 passages). Interestingly, both analysed tumour types were unsusceptible to induction of culture lifespan extension when transduced with SV40LT, BMI-1 or hEST2 genes, commonly applied as potential immortalizing agents.In conclusion, the approach based on extracellular matrix reconstitution and tissue-specific primary cell media is easy to validate and provides in vitro expansion sufficient for analytical purposes (approximately 8 passages). Therefore, it may facilitate implementation of hardly available experimental models for a variety of analyses. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Regulation of hTERT Expression and Function in Newly Immortalized p53(+) Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    cells cultured from normal tissues is virtually nonexistent. Thus the senescence barrier responsible for enforcing stringent mortality in cultured...Stemmer-Rachamimov AO, Shaw J, Roy JE, Koh J, Louis DN. Immunohistochemical survey of p16ink4a expression in normal human adult and infant tissues...changes. Nature 2001, 409:633-637. 8. Nonet G, Stampfer MR, Chin K, Gray JW, Collins CC, Yaswen P: The ZNF217 gene amplified in breast cancers

  9. HPV16-E2 protein modifies self-renewal and differentiation rate in progenitor cells of human immortalized keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Catzín, Victoria; Reveles-Espinoza, Alicia-María; Sánchez-Ramos, Janet; Cruz-Cadena, Raúl; Lemus-Hernández, Diana; Garrido, Efraín

    2017-04-03

    Cervical cancer is the fourth cause of death worldwide by cancer in women and is a disease associated to persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly from two high-risk types HPV16 and 18. The virus initiates its replicative cycle infecting cells located in the basal layer of the epithelium, where a small population of epithelial stem cells is located performing important functions of renewal and maintenance of the tissue. Viral E2 gene is one of the first expressed after infection and plays relevant roles in the replicative cycle of the virus, modifying fundamental processes in the infected cells. Thus, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of hierarchic subpopulations in HaCaT cell line and evaluate the effect of HPV16-E2 expression, on their biological processes. HaCaT-HPV16-E2 cells were generated by transduction of HaCaT cell line with a lentiviral vector. The α6-integrin-CD71 expression profile was established by immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis. After sorting, cell subpopulations were analyzed in biological assays for self-renewal, clonogenicity and expression of stemness factors (RT-qPCR). We identified in HaCaT cell line three different subpopulations that correspond to early differentiated cells (α6-integrindim), transitory amplifying cells (α6-integrinbri/CD71bri) and progenitor cells (α6-integrinbri/CD71dim). The last subpopulation showed stem cell characteristics, such as self-renewal ability, clonogenicity and expression of the well-known stem cell factors SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG, suggesting they are stem-like cells. Interestingly, the expression of HPV16-E2 in HaCaT cells changed its α6-integrin-CD71 immunophenotype modifying the relative abundance of the cell subpopulations, reducing significantly the percentage of α6-integrinbri/CD71dim cells. Moreover, the expression of the stem cell markers was also modified, increasing the expression of SOX2 and NANOG, but decreasing notably the expression of OCT4. Our data demonstrated the presence of a small subpopulation with epithelial "progenitor cells" characteristics in the HaCaT cell line, and that HPV16-E2 expression on these cells induces early differentiation.

  10. Immortalizing the Complexity of Cancer Metastasis Genetic Features of Lethal Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Obtained from Rapid Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embuscado, Erlinda E.; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; de Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G. Steven; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and one patient with metastatic colon cancer have undergone a rapid autopsy in association with the GICRMDP. The average time interval achieved for these 21 patients was 8.0 hours, with more than 500 individual samples of matched high quality primary and metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues, peritoneal/pleural fluid and blood obtained so far. For the first four patients in which the autopsy was performed in <6 hours, we have successfully xenografted the primary tumor and/or two to four independent matched metastases from a variety of target organ sites, with a take rate of almost 60% for the first 26 xenografted tumors attempted. In an initial survey of KRAS2, TP53 and DPC4 genetic status in lethal metastatic pancreatic cancers, activating KRAS2 mutations were detected in 82% of cases and inactivating TP53 mutations in 55% of cases, consistent with rates of genetic alteration of these genes in early stage pancreatic cancers. However, DPC4 inactivation was found in 75% of patients analyzed, suggesting that genetic inactivation of the DPC4 tumor suppressor gene continues to be selected for with growth at the primary site and metastatic spread to other organs. The invaluable tissue resources generated by the success of the GICRMDP will provide an unparalleled resource for study of metastatic pancreatic cancer and of the metastatic process in general. PMID:15846069

  11. Immortalizing the complexity of cancer metastasis: genetic features of lethal metastatic pancreatic cancer obtained from rapid autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embuscado, Erlinda E; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; de Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G Steven; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A

    2005-05-01

    The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and one patient with metastatic colon cancer have undergone a rapid autopsy in association with the GICRMDP. The average time interval achieved for these 21 patients was 8.0 hours, with more than 500 individual samples of matched high quality primary and metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues, peritoneal/pleural fluid and blood obtained so far. For the first four patients in which the autopsy was performed in <6 hours, we have successfully xenografted the primary tumor and/or two to four independent matched metastases from a variety of target organ sites, with a take rate of almost 60% for the first 26 xenografted tumors attempted. In an initial survey of KRAS2, TP53 and DPC4 genetic status in lethal metastatic pancreatic cancers, activating KRAS2 mutations were detected in 82% of cases and inactivating TP53 mutations in 55% of cases, consistent with rates of genetic alteration of these genes in early stage pancreatic cancers. However, DPC4 inactivation was found in 75% of patients analyzed, suggesting that genetic inactivation of the DPC4 tumor suppressor gene continues to be selected for with growth at the primary site and metastatic spread to other organs. The invaluable tissue resources generated by the success of the GICRMDP will provide an unparalleled resource for study of metastatic pancreatic cancer and of the metastatic process in general.

  12. Investigation of the in vitro therapeutic efficacy of nilotinib in immortalized human NF2-null vestibular schwannoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Sabha

    Full Text Available Vestibular schwannomas (VS are a common posterior fossa brain tumor, and though benign can cause significant morbidity, particularly loss of hearing, tinnitus, vertigo and facial paralysis. The current treatment options for VS include microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery or close surveillance monitoring, with each treatment option carrying associated complications and morbidities. Most importantly, none of these options can definitively reverse hearing loss or tinnitus. Identification of a novel medical therapy, through the use of targeted molecular inhibition, is therefore a highly desirable treatment strategy that may minimize complications arising from both tumor and treatment and more importantly be suitable for patients whose options are limited with respect to surgical or radiosurgical interventions. In this study we chose to examine the effect of Nilotinib on VS. Nilotinib (Tasigna® is a second-generation receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitor with a target profile similar to that of imatinib (Gleevec®, but increased potency, decreased toxicity and greater cellular and tissue penetration. Nilotinib targets not only the BCR-ABL oncoprotein, but also platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF receptor signalling. In this preclinical study, the human NF2-null schwannoma cell line HEI-193 subjected to nilotinib inhibition demonstrated decreased viability, proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, and increased apoptosis. A daily dose of nilotinib for 5 days inhibited HEI-I93 proliferation at a clinically-relevant concentration in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50 3-5 µmol/L in PDGF-stimulated cells. These anti-tumorigenic effects of nilotinib were correlated to inhibited activation of PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β and major downstream signalling pathways. These experiments support a therapeutic potential for Nilotinib in VS.

  13. Development of a Full-Thickness Human Skin Equivalent In Vitro Model Derived from TERT-Immortalized Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, C.M.A.; van Lier, A.; Roffel, S.; Kramer, D.; Scheper, R.J.; Gibbs, S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, human skin equivalents (HSEs) used for in vitro assays (e.g., for wound healing) make use of primary human skin cells. Limitations of primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts include availability of donor skin and donor variation. The use of physiologically relevant cell lines could solve

  14. Isolation and characterization of exosome from human embryonic stem cell-derived c-myc-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Padmanabhan, Jayanthi; Choo, Andre; De Kleijn, Dominique P V; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently the cell type of choice in many cell therapy trials. The number of therapeutic applications for MSCs registered as product IND submissions with the FDA and initiation of registered clinical trials has increased substantially in recent years, in particular

  15. The proteome speciation of an immortalized cystic fibrosis cell line: New perspectives on the pathophysiology of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Michele; Landi, Claudia; Gagliardi, Assunta; Breslin, Loretta; Armini, Alessandro; Brunetti, Jlenia; Pini, Alessandro; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca

    2018-01-06

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a recessively inherited disease caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR has a pivotal role in the onset of CF, and several proteins are involved in its homeostasis. To study CFTR interactors at protein species level, we used a functional proteomics approach combining 2D-DIGE, mass spectrometry and enrichment analysis. A human bronchial epithelial cell line with cystic fibrosis (CFBE41o-) and the control (16HBE14o-) were used for the comparison. 73 differentially abundant spots were identified and some validated by western-blot. Enrichment analysis highlighted molecular pathways in which ezrin, HSP70, endoplasmin and lamin A/C, in addition to CFTR, were considered central hubs in CFTR homeostasis. These proteins acquire different functions through post-translational modifications, emphasizing the importance of studying the CF proteome at protein species level. Moreover, serpin H1, prelamin A/C, protein-SET and cystatin-B were associated to CF, demonstrating the importance of heat shock response, cross-talk between the cytoskeleton and signal transduction, chronic inflammation and alteration of CFTR gating in the pathophysiology of the disease. These results open new perspectives for the understanding of the proteostasis network, characteristic of CF pathology, and could provide a springboard for new therapeutic strategies. Homeostasis of CFTR is a dynamic process managed by multiple proteostatic pathways. The used gel-based proteomic approach and enrichment analysis pointed out protein species variations among Human Bronchial (16HBE14o-) and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial cell lines (CFBE41o-) and specific molecular mechanisms involved in CF. In particular, we have highlighted HSP70 (HSP7C), HSP90 (endoplasmin), ERM proteins (ezrin), and lamin-A/C as central hubs of the functional analysis. Moreover, for the first time we consider serpin H1, lamin A/C, protein-SET and cystatin-B important player in CF, affecting acute exacerbation, cytoskeleton reorganization, CFTR gating and chronic inflammation in CF. Due to the presence of different spots corresponding to the same protein, we focalize our attention on the idea that a "protein species discourse" is mandatory to well-define functional roles of proteins. Our approach has permitted to pay attention to the molecular mechanisms which regulate pathways directly or indirectly involved with CFTR defects: heat shock response, cross-talk between cytoskeleton and signal transduction, chronic inflammation and alteration of CFTR gating. Our data could open new perspectives into the understanding of CF, identifying potential targets for drug treatments in order to alleviate Δ508CFTR membrane instability and consequently increase life expectancy for CF patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Combination of immortalization and inducible death strategies to generate a human mesenchymal stromal cell line with controlled survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bourgine

    2014-03-01

    By combining the opposite concepts of ‘induced-life’ and ‘inducible-death’, we generated a hMSCs line with defined properties and allowing for temporally controlled survival. The cell line represents a relevant tool for medical discovery in regenerative medicine and a potential means to address availability, standardization and safety requirements in cell & gene therapy. The concept of a hTERT-iCasp9 combination, here explored in the context of hMSCs, could be extended to other types of progenitor/stem cells.

  17. Brucella suis vaccine strain S2-infected immortalized caprine endometrial epithelial cell lines induce non-apoptotic ER-stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangguo; Lin, Pengfei; Yin, Yanlong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lei, Lanjie; Zhou, Xudong; Jin, Yaping; WANG, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Brucella, which is regarded as an intracellular pathogen responsible for a zoonotic disease called brucellosis, survives and proliferates within several types of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Brucella infects not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, inducing abortion and infertility. Therefore, the interaction between uterine cells and Brucella is important for understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we describe the Brucella...

  18. Death, rejuvenation and immortality in film: On Golden Pond (1981), Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) and Cocoon (1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2011-06-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the developmental tasks of late adulthood with the help of three Hollywood movies. These tasks include: (i) struggling to maintain physical integrity, (ii) handling the "wound of mortality", (iii) maintaining activity and sexuality, and (iv) becoming wise. Among other challenges faced by an individual during this phase of life are loss of love objects, illness and possible compromise of mental functions, de-cathexis of material possessions and coming to terms with one's approaching death. All sorts of healthy and unhealthy psychosocial maneuvers come to the surface as a result of these stresses. This paper illustrates these dilemmas and their potential solutions via a discussion of three movies.

  19. On the immortality of television sets: "function" in the human genome according to the evolution-free gospel of ENCODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, Dan; Zheng, Yichen; Price, Nicholas; Azevedo, Ricardo B R; Zufall, Rebecca A; Elhaik, Eran

    2013-01-01

    A recent slew of ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Consortium publications, specifically the article signed by all Consortium members, put forward the idea that more than 80% of the human genome is functional. This claim flies in the face of current estimates according to which the fraction of the genome that is evolutionarily conserved through purifying selection is less than 10%. Thus, according to the ENCODE Consortium, a biological function can be maintained indefinitely without selection, which implies that at least 80 - 10 = 70% of the genome is perfectly invulnerable to deleterious mutations, either because no mutation can ever occur in these "functional" regions or because no mutation in these regions can ever be deleterious. This absurd conclusion was reached through various means, chiefly by employing the seldom used "causal role" definition of biological function and then applying it inconsistently to different biochemical properties, by committing a logical fallacy known as "affirming the consequent," by failing to appreciate the crucial difference between "junk DNA" and "garbage DNA," by using analytical methods that yield biased errors and inflate estimates of functionality, by favoring statistical sensitivity over specificity, and by emphasizing statistical significance rather than the magnitude of the effect. Here, we detail the many logical and methodological transgressions involved in assigning functionality to almost every nucleotide in the human genome. The ENCODE results were predicted by one of its authors to necessitate the rewriting of textbooks. We agree, many textbooks dealing with marketing, mass-media hype, and public relations may well have to be rewritten.

  20. Uncoupling of pathways that promote postmitotic life span and apoptosis from replicative immortality of Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shawn

    2006-12-01

    A dichotomy exists between germ and somatic cells in most organisms, such that somatic cell lineages proliferate for a single generation, whereas the germ cell lineage has the capacity to proliferate from one generation to the next, indefinitely. Several theories have been proposed to explain the unlimited replicative life span of germ cells, including the elimination of damaged germ cells by apoptosis or expression of high levels of gene products that prevent aging in somatic cells. These theories were tested in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by examining the consequences of eliminating either apoptosis or the daf-16, daf-18 or sir-2.1 genes that promote longevity of postmitotic somatic cells. However, germ cells of strains deficient for these activities displayed an unlimited proliferative capacity. Thus, C. elegans germ cells retain their youthful character via alternative pathways that prevent or eliminate damage that accumulates as a consequence of cell proliferation.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome and evolutionary analysis of Turritopsis dohrnii, the "immortal" jellyfish with a reversible life-cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenkova, A A; Grigorenko, A P; Tyazhelova, T V; Andreeva, T V; Gusev, F E; Manakhov, A D; Goltsov, A Yu; Piraino, S; Miglietta, M P; Rogaev, E I

    2017-02-01

    Turritopsis dohrnii (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina, Anthoathecata) is the only known metazoan that is capable of reversing its life cycle via morph rejuvenation from the adult medusa stage to the juvenile polyp stage. Here, we present a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of T. dohrnii, which harbors genes for 13 proteins, two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs. The T. dohrnii mt genome is characterized by typical features of species in the Hydroidolina subclass, such as a high A+T content (71.5%), reversed transcriptional orientation for the large rRNA subunit gene, and paucity of CGN codons. An incomplete complementary duplicate of the cox1 gene was found at the 5' end of the T. dohrnii mt chromosome, as were variable repeat regions flanking the chromosome. We identified species-specific variations (nad5, nad6, cob, and cox1 genes) and putative selective constraints (atp8, nad1, nad2, and nad5 genes) in the mt genes of T. dohrnii, and predicted alterations in tertiary structures of respiratory chain proteins (NADH4, NADH5, and COX1 proteins) of T. dohrnii. Based on comparative analyses of available hydrozoan mt genomes, we also determined the taxonomic relationships of T. dohrnii, recovering Filifera IV as a paraphyletic taxon, and assessed intraspecific diversity of various Hydrozoa species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell lines for studies of transport processes across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Kläs Juliane; Wolburg Hartwig; Terasaki Tetsuya; Fricker Gert; Reichel Valeska

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Two rodent choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines, Z310 and TR-CSFB, were compared with primary rat CP epithelial cells and intact CP tissue with respect to transport protein expression, function and tight junction (TJ) formation. Methods For expression profiles of transporters and TJ proteins, qPCR and western blot analysis were used. Uptake assays were performed to study the functional activity of transporters and TJ formation was measured by trans-epithelial electric...

  3. Accumulation and Transport of Roxarsone, Arsenobetaine, and Inorganic Arsenic Using the Human Immortalized Caco-2 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Leslie, Elaine M; Le, X Chris

    2016-11-23

    Roxarsone (Rox), an organoarsenic compound, served as a feed additive in the poultry industry for more than 60 years. Residual amounts of Rox present in chicken meat could give rise to potential human exposure to Rox. However, studies on the bioavailability of Rox in humans are scarce. We report here the accumulation and transepithelial transport of Rox using the human colon-derived adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) model. The cellular accumulation and transepithelial passage of Rox in Caco-2 cells were evaluated and compared to those of arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (AsIII), and arsenate (AsV). When Caco-2 cells were exposed to 3 μM Rox, AsB, and AsIII separately for 24 h, the maximum accumulation was reached at 12 h. After 24-h exposure, the accumulated Rox was 6-20 times less than AsB and AsIII. The permeability of Rox from the apical to basolateral side of Caco-2 monolayers was similar to AsV but less than AsIII and AsB. The results of lower bioavailability of Rox are consistent with previous observations of relatively lower amounts of Rox retained in the breast meat of Rox-fed chickens. These data provide useful information for assessing human exposure to and intestinal bioavailability of Roxarsone.

  4. Establishment of Myotis myotis cell lines--model for investigation of host-pathogen interaction in a natural host for emerging viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui He

    Full Text Available Bats are found to be the natural reservoirs for many emerging viruses. In most cases, severe clinical signs caused by such virus infections are normally not seen in bats. This indicates differences in the virus-host interactions and underlines the necessity to develop natural host related models to study these phenomena. Due to the strict protection of European bat species, immortalized cell lines are the only alternative to investigate the innate anti-virus immune mechanisms. Here, we report about the establishment and functional characterization of Myotis myotis derived cell lines from different tissues: brain (MmBr, tonsil (MmTo, peritoneal cavity (MmPca, nasal epithelium (MmNep and nervus olfactorius (MmNol after immortalization by SV 40 large T antigen. The usefulness of these cell lines to study antiviral responses has been confirmed by analysis of their susceptibility to lyssavirus infection and the mRNA patterns of immune-relevant genes after poly I:C stimulation. Performed experiments indicated varying susceptibility to lyssavirus infection with MmBr being considerably less susceptible than the other cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated a strong activation of interferon mediated antiviral response in MmBr contributing to its resistance. The pattern recognition receptors: RIG-I and MDA5 were highly up-regulated during rabies virus infection in MmBr, suggesting their involvement in promotion of antiviral responses. The presence of CD14 and CD68 in MmBr suggested MmBr cells are microglia-like cells which play a key role in host defense against infections in the central nervous system (CNS. Thus the expression pattern of MmBr combined with the observed limitation of lyssavirus replication underpin a protective mechanism of the CNS controlling the lyssavirus infection. Overall, the established cell lines are important tools to analyze antiviral innate immunity in M. myotis against neurotropic virus infections and present a valuable

  5. Simian virus 40, poliovirus vaccines, and human cancer: research progress versus media and public interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.

  6. Two conditional tsA mutant simian virus 40 T antigens display marked differences in thermal inactivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Reynisdóttir, I; Prives, C

    1992-01-01

    We have characterized the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin-containing DNA (ori-DNA) replication functions of two SV40 conditional mutant T antigens: tsA438 A-V (tsA58) and tsA357 R-K (tsA30). Both tsA mutant T antigens, immunopurified from recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells, mediated replication of SV40 ori-DNA in vitro to similar extents as did wild-type T antigen in reactions at 33 degrees C. However, at 41 degrees C, the restrictive temperature, while tsA438 T antigen still generat...

  7. Experiment list: SRX020508 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  8. Experiment list: SRX368947 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  9. Experiment list: SRX368969 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  10. Experiment list: SRX256891 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  11. Experiment list: SRX368978 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  12. Experiment list: SRX873869 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  13. Experiment list: SRX275507 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  14. Experiment list: SRX368976 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  15. Experiment list: SRX368974 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  16. Experiment list: SRX351411 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  17. Experiment list: SRX368977 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  18. Experiment list: SRX275501 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  19. Experiment list: SRX368970 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  20. Experiment list: SRX368975 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  1. Experiment list: SRX188787 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  2. Experiment list: SRX368972 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  3. Experiment list: SRX275505 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th WI-38 cells or in CF tests against SV40, RSV or adenoviruses, mycoplasma conta...lly 2T) in 1964 from a moderately differentiated sarcoma, viruses were not detected during co-cultivation wi

  4. Characterization of an In Vitro Human Breast Epithelial Organoid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    BRL, Gaithersburg, MD) (M13SV1 derived from the primary HBEC, HME13) or with a plasmid carrying an origin-defective SV40 genome expressing a wild...modified 5/28/99) Both Type I and Type II HBECs were transfected with an origin- defective SV40 genome expressing the wild type large T-antigen (PRNS-1...isothiocyanates (in cruciferous vegetables), organosulfur compounds (diallyl disulfide in Allium sp), monoterpenes (D-limonene in citrus fruit oils) and

  5. The scale of substratum topographic features modulates proliferation of corneal epithelial cells and corneal fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Liliensiek, S.J.; Campbell, S.; Nealey, P. F.; Murphy, C J

    2006-01-01

    The cornea is a complex tissue composed of different cell types, including corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes. Each of these cell types are directly exposed to rich nanoscale topography from the basement membrane or surrounding extracellular matrix. Nanoscale topography has been shown to influence cell behaviors, including orientation, alignment, differentiation, migration, and proliferation. We investigated whether proliferation of SV40-transformed human corneal epithelial cells (SV40-...

  6. Stowaways in the history of science: the case of simian virus 40 and clinical research on federal prisoners at the US National Institutes of Health, 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Laura; Campbell, Nancy D

    2014-12-01

    In 1960, J. Anthony Morris, a molecular biologist at the US National Institutes of Health conducted one of the only non-therapeutic clinical studies of the cancer virus SV40. Morris and his research team aimed to determine whether SV40 was a serious harm to human health, since many scientists at the time suspected that SV40 caused cancer in humans based on evidence from in vivo animal studies and experiments with human tissue. Morris found that SV40 had no significant effect but his claim has remained controversial among scientists and policymakers through the present day--both on scientific and ethical grounds. Why did Morris only conduct one clinical study on the cancer-causing potential of SV40 in healthy humans? We use the case to explain how empirical evidence and ethical imperatives are, paradoxically, often dependent on each other and mutually exclusive in clinical research, which leaves answers to scientific and ethical questions unsettled. This paper serves two goals: first, it documents a unique--and uniquely important--study of clinical research on SV40. Second, it introduces the concept of "the stowaway," which is a special type of contaminant that changes the past in the present moment. In the history of science, stowaways are misfortunes that nonetheless afford research that otherwise would have been impossible specifically by creating new pasts. This case (Morris' study) and concept (the stowaway) bring together history of science and philosophy of history for productive dialog. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantum dot-induced viral capsid assembling in dissociation buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ding; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Feng; Men, Dong; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Wei, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Viruses encapsulating inorganic nanoparticles are a novel type of nanostructure with applications in biomedicine and biosensors. However, the encapsulation and assembly mechanisms of these hybridized virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs) are still unknown. In this article, it was found that quantum dots (QDs) can induce simian virus 40 (SV40) capsid assembly in dissociation buffer, where viral capsids should be disassembled. The analysis of the transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction experimental results showed that the SV40 major capsid protein 1 (VP1) can be assembled into ≈25 nm capsids in the dissociation buffer when QDs are present and that the QDs are encapsulated in the SV40 capsids. Moreover, it was determined that there is a strong affinity between QDs and the SV40 VP1 proteins (KD = 2.19E-10 M), which should play an important role in QD encapsulation in the SV40 viral capsids. This study provides a new understanding of the assembly mechanism of SV40 virus-based nanoparticles with QDs, which may help in the design and construction of other similar virus-based nanoparticles. PMID:23776332

  8. Neoplastic transformation of human thyroid epithelial cells by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zdenko

    Neoplastic transformation of human thyroid epithelial cells has been investigated following exposure to ionizing radiation in vitro. The effects of radiation type, irradiation regime, and postirradiation passaging were examined using a human thyroid epithelial cell line, designated HToriS, which was previously immortalized with SV40 genome. Exponentially growing HToriS cells were irradiated with graded doses of 137 Cs gamma- and 238pu alpha-irradiation. Cells were irradiated with either a single or multiple doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy gamma-radiation, or single doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 1.5 Gy gamma-radiation. Following passaging, the cells were transplanted into the athymic nude mice, and the animals were screened for tumour formation. Statistically significant increases in tumour incidence were obtained with both gamma- and alpha-irradiation and with both single and multiple irradiation regimes as compared with the un-irradiated group. Regardless of radiation type and or radiation regime there appears to be a trend, with increasing doses of radiation, in which tumour incidence increases and reaches a maximum, after which the tumour incidence decreases. Tumours were characterized by histopathological examination as undifferentiated carcinomas. Investigation of expression time following irradiation demonstrated that post-irradiation passaging, generally regarded as a critical step for expression of radiation-induced DNA damage, was not a prerequisite for the neoplastic conversion of irradiated cells with this system. Cell lines were established from the tumours and their identification and characterization carried out. All cell lines established were determined to be derived from the parent HTori3 cells by DNA fingerprinting, karyotype analysis, cytokeratin staining, and SV40 large T-antigen staining. Tumorigenicity of the cell lines was confirmed by retransplantation. Comparison of the morphology in vitro showed that the tumour cell lines retained the

  9. Direct single-molecule observations of local denaturation of a DNA double helix under a negative supercoil state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shunsuke; Motooka, Shinya; Usui, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Shohei; Miyata, Hidefumi; Kurita, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Takeshi; Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Mizuno, Akira; Oshige, Masahiko; Katsura, Shinji

    2015-03-17

    Effects of a negative supercoil on the local denaturation of the DNA double helix were studied at the single-molecule level. The local denaturation in λDNA and λDNA containing the SV40 origin of DNA replication (SV40ori-λDNA) was directly observed by staining single-stranded DNA regions with a fusion protein comprising the ssDNA binding domain of a 70-kDa subunit of replication protein A and an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (RPA-YFP) followed by staining the double-stranded DNA regions with YOYO-1. The local denaturation of λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA under a negative supercoil state was observed as single bright spots at the single-stranded regions. When negative supercoil densities were gradually increased to 0, -0.045, and -0.095 for λDNA and 0, -0.047, and -0.1 for SV40ori-λDNA, single bright spots at the single-stranded regions were frequently induced under higher negative supercoil densities of -0.095 for λDNA and -0.1 for SV40ori-λDNA. However, single bright spots of the single-stranded regions were rarely observed below a negative supercoil density of -0.045 and -0.047 for λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA, respectively. The probability of occurrence of the local denaturation increased with negative superhelicity for both λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA.

  10. NPR-B natriuretic peptide receptors in human corneal epithelium: mRNA, immunohistochemistochemical, protein, and biochemical pharmacology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoli, Parvaneh; Sharif, Najam A; Sule, Anupam; Dimitrijevich, Slobodan D

    2010-07-07

    To demonstrate the presence of natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) in primary human corneal epithelial cells (p-CEPI), SV40-immortalized CEPI cells (CEPI-17-CL4) and in human corneal epithelium, and to define the pharmacology of natriuretic peptide (NP)-induced cGMP accumulation. NPR presence was shown by RT-PCR, western blot analysis, and indirect immunofluoresence. cGMP accumulation was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. p-CEPI and CEPI-17-CL4 cells expressed mRNAs for NPR-A and NPR-B. Proteins for both NPRs were present in these cells and in human corneal epithelium. C-type NP (CNP), atrial NP (ANP) and brain NP (BNP) stimulated the accumulation of cGMP in a concentration-dependent manner in p-CEPI cells (potency; EC(50s)): CNP (1-53 amino acids) EC(50)=24+/-5 nM; CNP fragment (32-53 amino acids) EC(50)=51+/-8 nM; ANP (1-28 amino acids) EC(50)=>10 microM; BNP (32 amino acids) EC(50)>10 microM (all n=3-4). While the NPs were generally more potent in the CEPI-17-CL4 cells than in p-CEPI cells (n=4-9; p<0.01), the rank order of potency of the peptides was essentially the same in both cell types. Effects of CNP fragment in p-CEPI and CEPI-17-CL4 cells were potently blocked by HS-142-1, an NPR-B receptor subtype-selective antagonist (K(i)=0.25+/-0.05 microM in CEPI-CL4-17; K(i)=0.44+/-0.09 microM in p-CEPIs; n=6-7) but less so by an NPR-A receptor antagonist, isatin (K(i)=5.3-7.8 microM, n=3-7). Our studies showed the presence of NPR-A and NPR-B (mRNAs and protein) in p-CEPI and CEPI-17-CL4 cells and in human corneal epithelial tissue. However, detailed pharmacological studies revealed NPR-B to be the predominant functionally active receptor in both cell-types whose activation leads to the generation of cGMP. While the physiologic role(s) of the NP system in corneal function remains to be delineated, our multidisciplinary findings pave the way for such future investigations.

  11. Malignant transformation of human colon epithelial cells by benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiolepoxides as well as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Uta; Fuchs, Judith Iris; Teubner, Wera; Steinberg, Pablo

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) ingested with food have repeatedly been suggested to be involved in the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells. In order to test this hypothesis, HCEC cells (SV40 large T antigen-immortalized human colon epithelial cells) were incubated with a racemic mixture of benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiol epoxides (B[c]PhDE), extremely potent carcinogenic PAH metabolites in vivo, or with 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), the N-hydroxylated metabolite of the most abundant HCA in cooked meat. First, it was shown that HCEC cells express sulfotransferase 1A1, which is needed to metabolize N-OH-PhIP to the corresponding N-sulfonyloxy derivative, the direct precursor molecule of genotoxic nitrenium ions. Thereafter, exponentially growing HCEC cells were exposed five times to 0.1 microg (0.37 nmol) B[c]PhDE/ml for 30 min or 0.72 microg (3 nmol) N-OH-PhIP/ml for 24 h. Chemically treated HCEC cells showed an enhanced saturation density and grew faster than the corresponding solvent-treated cell cultures. After five treatment cycles, HCEC(B[c]PhDE) as well as HCEC(N-OH-PhIP) cells lost cell-cell contact inhibition and started piling up and forming foci in the culture flasks. Furthermore, HCEC(B[c]PhDE) and HCEC(N-OH-PhIP) cells were injected i.m. into SCID mice. Within 6 weeks after injection, eight animals out of eight injected with HCEC(B[c]PhDE) or HCEC(N-OH-PhIP) cells developed tumors at the site of injection, thus demonstrating the high tumorigenic potential of the HCEC(B[c]PhDE) and HCEC(N-OH-PhIP) cell cultures. Taken together, we show for the first time that the abovementioned active PAH metabolites as well as N-OH-PhIP are indeed able to malignantly transform human colon epithelial cells in vitro.

  12. Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1, 2, 4 and 5) expression in human corneal cell culture models and animal corneal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Jessica; Reichl, Stephan

    2014-07-07

    Preclinical studies addressing the transcorneal absorption of ophthalmic drugs are mainly performed using ex vivo animal corneas and in vitro corneal cell culture models, leaving open the question of transferability to humans in an in vivo situation. While passive drug absorption through corneal tissue is well understood, little is known about the expression of transporter proteins and active drug transport in human and animal corneas as well as corneal cell culture models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct an expression analysis of four multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP1, 2, 4 and 5) in various in vitro and ex vivo corneal models, leading to a better understanding of the comparability of different corneal models regarding drug absorption and transferability to humans. Two well-established in vitro human corneal models, the HCE-T epithelial model and the more organotypic Hemicornea construct, both of which are based on the SV40 immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line HCE-T, were analyzed, as were excised rabbit and porcine cornea. Specimens of abraded epithelia from human donor corneas were also tested. MRP mRNA expression was determined via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression was examined using Western blot experiments and immunohistochemistry. The functional activity of the MRP efflux transporter was detected in transport assays using specific marker and inhibitor substances. The functional expression of all of the tested MRP transporters was detected in the HCE-T epithelial model. Hemicornea constructs displayed a similar expression pattern for MRP1, 4 and 5, whereas no MRP2 protein expression or activity was detected. However, excised animal corneas exhibited different expression profiles. In porcine cornea, no functional expression of MRP1, 2, or 5 was observed, and we failed to detect MRP4 expression in rabbit cornea. The results suggest that MRP1, 2, 4, and 5 are expressed in the human corneal

  13. Isolation of vascular smooth muscle cell cultures with altered responsiveness to the antiproliferative effect of heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleb, B L; Hardenbrook, M; Cherington, V; Castellot, J J

    1996-05-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia in the arterial wall is an important component of both atherogenesis and post-vascular surgical restenosis. One naturally-occurring group of molecules which can suppress SMC proliferation in animal models and in cell culture systems are the complex carbohydrates of the heparan sulfate class, including heparin. In this communication, we have used retrovirus vectors to introduce several oncogenes into SMC: SV40 Large T antigen (SVLT), polyoma virus Large T antigen (PyLT), v-myc, and adenovirus E1a. We analyzed a total of 11 cultures. A combination of Western blot analysis, immunoprecipitation, and indirect immunofluorescence confirmed the expression of the infected oncogenic protein in each culture we isolated. All four oncogenes permitted the maintenance of a normal SMC phenotype, as assessed by the general morphology of cells in the light microscope and the presence of SMC-specific alpha-actin in an immunofluorescence assay. Doubling times in infected cells ranged from 20 to 33 hr, and final cell densities in infected cultures ranged from 4 x 10(4) to 5 x 10(5) cells per cm2. By comparison, the parent line had a doubling time of 30 hr and reached a final cell density of 1 x 10(5) cells per cm2. Despite the differences sometimes observed in these proliferation parameters, neither one was strongly correlated with heparin responsiveness. PyLT, v-myc, and E1a all produced SMC cultures or lines which retained sensitivity to the antiproliferative activity of heparin (ED50 = 50 micrograms/ml). In contrast, SVLT expression yielded SMC lines which were highly resistant to heparin (ED50 > 300 micrograms/ml). These results suggest that altered responsiveness to heparin is dependent upon which oncogenic protein is being expressed in the cells. The availability of cloned, immortal SMC lines with a wide range of heparin responsiveness should aid in the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism of action of this potentially

  14. Cytogenetic damage, oncogenic transformation and p53 induction in human epithelial cells in response to irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Mark

    mutant conformation in all the above cells lines and two other control lines HOS (a human osteosarcoma cell line) and H Tori-3 (SV40 immortalised thyroid epithelial cells).

  15. Maintenance of differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene despite [corrected] extensive proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Burns, Jorge S

    2005-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a population of stem cells that are capable of differentiation into multiple lineages. However, these cells exhibit senescence-associated growth arrest and phenotypic changes during long-term in vitro culture. We have recently demonstrated...... that overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in hMSC reconstitutes telomerase activity and extends life span of the cells [Nat. Biotechnol. 20 (2002) 592]. In the present study, we have performed extensive characterization of three independent cell lines derived from the parental h......MSC-TERT cell line based on different plating densities during expansion in culture: 1:2 (hMSC-TERT2), 1:4 (hMSC-TERT4), and 1:20 (hMSC-TERT20). The 3 cell lines exhibited differences in morphology and growth rates but they all maintained the characteristics of self-renewing stem cells and the ability...

  16. Writing That's Worth Reading: A Practical Guide For Writers Of Medical Articles Part One: How to Love Librarians and Become Immortal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, M

    1980-03-01

    Family practice is an expanding field which is beginning to produce its own literature. In order to make the job of writing an article easier, the author needs a method of organizing material and a checklist of things to remember when submitting the article for publication. This series of articles will cover the process of writing from rough notes to finished product, and will conclude with a description of the review process-what happens to an article after submission.

  17. hTERT inhibition triggers Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle and apoptosis in immortalized and transformed B cells: a basis for new therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunco, Silvia; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Keppel, Sonia; Celeghin, Andrea; Indraccolo, Stefano; Dal Col, Jessica; Mastorci, Katy; De Rossi, Anita

    2013-04-15

    Induction of viral lytic cycle, which induces death of host cells, may constitute a useful adjunct to current therapeutic regimens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven malignancies. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), essential for the oncogenic process, may modulate the switch from latent to lytic infection. The possible therapeutic role of hTERT inhibition combined with antiviral drugs was investigated. EBV-negative BL41 and convertant EBV-positive BL41/B95.8 Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) were infected with retroviral vector encoding short hairpin RNA (shRNA) anti-hTERT and cultured with or without the prodrug ganciclovir. The effects on EBV lytic replication, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were characterized. hTERT silencing by shRNA induced the expression of BZLF1, EA-D, and gp350 EBV lytic proteins and triggered a complete lytic cycle. This effect was associated with downregulation of BATF, a negative regulator of BZLF1 transcription. hTERT silencing also resulted in antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. In particular, hTERT inhibition induced an accumulation of cells in the S-phase, an effect likely due to the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1, an AKT1-dependent substrate, which results in a decreased availability of proteins needed for cell-cycle progression. Besides inducing cell death through activation of complete EBV lytic replication, hTERT inhibition triggered AKT1/FOXO3/NOXA-dependent apoptosis in EBV-positive and -negative Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Finally, ganciclovir enhanced the apoptotic effect induced by hTERT inhibition in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphomas and LCLs. These results suggest that combination of antiviral drugs with strategies able to inhibit hTERT expression may result in therapeutically relevant effects in patients with EBV-related malignancies.

  18. Unsterblicher Robin Hood--Eine literaturdidaktische Betrachtung und Wertung von zwoelf Lektueretexten (Immortal Robin Hood--A Pedagogical Consideration and Evaluation of Twelve Reading Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Examines 12 reading texts about Robin Hood, with regard to their content, suitability for various age levels, and language difficulty. The texts are found to be best suited for grades 5 and 6. An evaluation of each text is included. (IFS/WGA)

  19. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Selected Natural Compounds Contained in a Dietary Supplement on Two Human Immortalized Keratinocyte Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fasano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several advantages may derive from the use of dietary supplements containing multiple natural antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory agents. At present, however, there is scarce information on the properties and potential of combined supplements. To fill the gap, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities exerted by a combination of seven natural components (coenzyme Q10, krill oil, lipoic acid, resveratrol, grape seed oil, α-tocopherol, and selenium contained in a dietary supplement used for the prevention of skin disorders were investigated in vitro. Each component was administered, alone or in combination, to human keratinocytes, and the inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species production and lipid peroxidation as well as the ability to reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion and to modulate Nuclear Factor-κB pathway was evaluated. The combination exhibited high antioxidant activity and in specific conditions the combination’s efficiency was higher than that of the most powerful components administered individually. Moreover, the combination showed remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. It reduced more efficiently than each component the secretion of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, a crucial cytokine for the development of chronic inflammation in skin, and inhibited Nuclear Factor-κB molecular pathway. Overall, our findings suggest that the combined formulation may have the potential to powerfully inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation at skin level.

  20. Inefficiency in macromolecular transport of SCS-based microcapsules affects viability of primary human mesenchymal stem cells but not of immortalized cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Nogués, Clara; Horan, Jason; Thompson, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Microcapsules made of sodium cellulose sulphate (SCS) and poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (pDADMAC) have been employed to encapsulate a wide range of established cell lines for several applications. However, little is known about the encapsulation of primary cells including human mesenchy......Microcapsules made of sodium cellulose sulphate (SCS) and poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (pDADMAC) have been employed to encapsulate a wide range of established cell lines for several applications. However, little is known about the encapsulation of primary cells including human...... cells and compared their behavior and in vitro angiogenic potential. We found that, although both cell types were able to secret angiogenic factors such as VEGF, there was a marked reduction of primary hMSC viability compared to hMSC-TERT cells when cultured in these microcapsules. Moreover......, this applied to other primary cell cultures such as primary human fibroblasts but not to other cell lines such as human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that the microcapsule membrane had a molecular weight cut-off below a critical size, which caused impairment in the diffusion of essential...