WorldWideScience

Sample records for sv topaz infections

  1. Fanconi anemia patients are more susceptible to infection with tumor virus SV40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a recessive DNA repair disease characterized by a high predisposition to developing neoplasms. DNA tumor polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 transforms FA fibroblasts at high efficiency suggesting that FA patients could be highly susceptible to SV40 infection. To test this hypothesis, the large tumor (LT antigen of SV40, BKV, JCV and Merkel Cell (MC polyomaviruses were tested in blood samples from 89 FA patients and from 82 of their parents. Two control groups consisting of 47 no-FA patients affected by other genetic bone marrow failure diseases and 91 healthy subjects were also evaluated. Although JCV, BKV and MC were not found in any of the FA samples, the prevalence and viral load of SV40 were higher in FA patients (25%; mean viral load: 1.1×10(2 copies/10(5cells as compared with healthy individuals (4.3%; mean viral load: 0.8×10(1 copies/10(5cells and genetic controls (0% (p<0.005. A marked age-dependent frequency of SV40 was found in FA with respect to healthy subjects suggesting that, although acquired early in life, the virus can widespread more easily in specific groups of population. From the analysis of family pedigrees, 60% of the parents of SV40-positive probands were positive for the virus compared to 2% of the parents of the SV40-negative probands (p<0.005. It is worthy of note that the relative frequency of SV40-positive relatives detected in this study was the highest ever reported, showing that asymptomatic FA carriers are also more susceptible to SV40. In conclusion, we favor the hypothesis that SV40 spread could be facilitated by individuals who are genetically more susceptible to infection, such as FA patients. The increased susceptibility to SV40 infection seems to be associated with a specific defect of the immune system which supports a potential interplay of SV40 with an underlying genetic alteration that increases the risk of malignancies.

  2. In situ study of SV40 virus DNA in lytic infection by mild loosening of nucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvion-Dutilleul, F; Pedron, J; Lange, M

    1980-11-01

    We have studied SV40 (simian virus40) nucleoprotein in permissively infected monkey kidney cell cultures (CV1) by a procedure which does not require the isolation of the SV40 chromosomes. Treatment of the cells by a low ionic strenght medium containing Photo flo produces a mild loosening of nucleoproteins, and permits the in situ study in ultrathin sections of virus components and their relationships with host cell chromatin. RNP and DNP could be distinguished by uranyl-EDTA-lead staining (for RNP) and by DNase digestion. SV40 DNA was observed as circular molecules, either free or connected with either RNP fibrils or virus capsids. These three aspects were interpreted, respectively, as viral minichromosomes, transcription of virus genome and partially encapsidated virus DNA. During encapsidation a few virus particles appear to be bound to host chromatin. Many, if not all, seemingly mature viruses, singly or in small linear clusters, are also aligned on host chromatin. Some of these observations were corroborated by the Miller spreading technique. They are consistent with a role for the host cell chromatin in the production of nuclear viruses.

  3. Data on Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona infection in Meat Workers in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pittavino

    2017-08-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted in four sheep slaughtering abattoirs in New Zealand (NZ (Dreyfus et al., 2015 [1]. Sera were collected twice a year from 384 meat workers and tested by Microscopic Agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona (Pomona infection, one of the most common Leptospira serovars in humans in NZ. This article provides an extended analysis of the data, illustrating the different steps of a multivariable (i.e. generalized linear model and especially a multivariate tool based on additive Bayesian networks (ABN modelling.

  4. Sigma Virus (DMelSV Incidence in Lines of Drosophila melanogaster Selected for Survival following Infection with Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L. Bentz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response of Drosophila melanogaster is complex and involves both specific and general responses to parasites. In this study we tested for cross-immunity for bacteria and viruses by scoring the incidence of infection with the vertically transmitted Sigma virus (DMelSV in the progeny of a cross between females transmitting DMelSV at high frequencies and males from lines subjected to three selection regimes related to resistance to Bacillus cereus. There was no significant difference in transmission of DMelSV among selection regimes, though results suggest that the B. cereus selected lines had lower rates of infection by DMelSV. We found a significant difference in viral infection with respect to the sex of the progeny, with males consistently less likely to be infected than females. Given a finite energy budget, flies that have experienced immune system challenge may show alterations in other life history traits. Later eclosing progeny were also less likely to be infected than earlier eclosing progeny, indicating a relationship with development time. Finally, there was a significant interaction between the timing of collection and the sex of the progeny, such that later eclosing males were the most resistant group. Increased development time is sometimes associated with increased energy acquisition; from this perspective, increased development time may be associated with acquiring sufficient resources for effective resistance.

  5. SV40 Infection of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Wharton's Jelly Drives the Production of Inflammatory and Tumoral Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolina; Campisciano, Giuseppina; Zanotta, Nunzia; Valencic, Erica; Delbue, Serena; Bella, Ramona; Comar, Manola

    2017-11-01

    The Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJSCs) are a source of cells with high potentiality for the treatment of human immunological disorders. Footprints of the oncogenic viruses Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and JC Virus (JCPyV) have been recently detected in human WJSCs specimens. The aim of this study is to evaluate if WJSCs can be efficiently infected by these Polyomaviruses and if they can potentially exert tumoral activity. Cell culture experiments indicated that WJSCs could sustain both SV40 and JCPyV infections. A transient and lytic replication was observed for JCPyV, while SV40 persistently infected WJSCs over a long period of time, releasing a viral progeny at low titer without evident cytopathic effect (CPE). Considering the association between SV40 and human tumors and the reported ability of the oncogenic viruses to drive the host innate immune response to cell transformation, the expression profile of a large panel of immune mediators was evaluated in supernatants by the Bioplex platform. RANTES, IL-3, MIG, and IL-12p40, involved in chronic inflammation, cells differentiation, and transformation, were constantly measured at high concentration comparing to control. These findings represent a new aspect of SV40 biological activity in the humans, highlighting its interaction with specific host cellular pathways. In view of these results, it seems to be increasingly urgent to consider Polyomaviruses in the management of WJSCs for their safely use as promising therapeutic source. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 3060-3066, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  7. A topaz international program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Frank V.; Wyant, Francis J.; Mulder, Daniel; McCarson, T. D.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    1995-01-01

    Five years ago, during the 8th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems, in Albuquerque, NM, Academician Nikolai Nikolaevich Ponomarev-Stepnoi, First Deputy Director of the Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, proposed the sale of the Soviety Union's TOPAZ II technology to the United States. This proposal, made at great personal risk, was initially viewed with much skepticism by most Americans attending that conference since the Cold War was still in full swing. There were, however, a few visionaries, some would say fanatics, that set about to make this sale possible. Even these visionaries did not anticipate the collapse of the Soviet Union or the subsequent efforts by the U.S. and other Western powers to help the Newly Independent States transition to a market economy. Little did these visionaries know that the formation of the ``TOPAZ II Program,'' using former military space power technology of the Soviet Union, would become the preeminent example of technology cooperation between two former adversaries. A unique teaming arrangement formed in New Mexico, called the New Mexico Strategic Alliance and consisting of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, and Los Alamos Nationalo Laboratory, was a key ingredient in making this program a success. A brief summary of some of the highlights of this technology partnership is given to explain how international patnerships of this type can enable commercialization and technology transfer.

  8. Startup control of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Astrin, Cal D.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution isunlimited. The Russian designed and manufactured TOPAZ-II Thermionic Nuclear Space Reactor has been supplied to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization for study as part of the TOPAZ International Program. A Preliminary Nuclear Safety Assessment investigated the readiness to use the TOPAZ-II in support of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Mission (NEPSTP). Among the anticipated system modifications required for launching the TOPAZ-II sy...

  9. Risk perspectives for Topaz 2 flight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, A. C., Jr.; Haskin, F. E.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a preliminary estimate of the nuclear-related public health risk presented by launching and operating the Russian Topaz 2 space reactor as part of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). This risk is then compared to the risks from the operation of commercial nuclear power reactors and previously planned and/or launched space nuclear power missions. For the current mission profile, the initial estimate of the risk posed by launching and operating Topaz 2 is significantly less (at least two orders of magnitude) than that estimated for prior space nuclear missions. Even allowing for the large uncertainties in this estimate, it does not appear that the NEPSTP mission will present a significant health risk to the public.

  10. Topaz II Nuclear Powered SAR Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Feuerstein, M.; Agrawal, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.1994-4688 The AA4871 Spacecraft Design course is the capstone class for the M.S. in Astronautics at the Naval Postgraduate School. Thc design team integrated a Topaz If nuclear power system with an EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar to design a low Earth orbit, three axis stabilized satellite flying in a gravity gradient stable orientation. The SAR is a high resolution, electronically stecrable, Earth scie...

  11. Design of fast neutron channels for topaz irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Nader M.A., E-mail: mnader73@yahoo.com; Gaheen, M.A.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • This work aims to design fast neutron irradiation channels for topaz irradiation. • The irradiation boxes are shielded using a martial contains B-10. • Calculations of neutron flux and heat generation were carried out using the MCNPX code and the effect on the reactor reactivity has been considered. • Experimentally, the worker exposure has been reduced to less than one-tenth and a decrease of 12 months in the release time of the treated topaz has been achieved. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to design fast neutron irradiation channels for topaz irradiation at Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) by shielding the aluminum boxes, used for topaz irradiation, with B{sub 4}C (boron carbide) or manufacturing the irradiation boxes from aluminum contains boron. This in turn suppresses the thermal neutrons inside the box resulting in reduction of the residual radioactivity in topaz which decreases the worker exposure and release time. Simulation of the fast irradiation channels using the code: MCNPX showed that the thermal neutron component can be suppressed to less than one-tenth. ETRR-2 has many irradiation positions. The fast neutron flux distributions along the irradiation positions and the required irradiation times were calculated. The limiting conditions for safe operation of movable experiments are considered in the selection of the irradiation positions. That is the change in reactor reactivity due to the B-10 shield is below the reactivity limit for safe irradiation experiments. Heat generated during irradiation in topaz and in the material that contains boron was considered, as well. Experimentally, the worker exposure has been reduced to less than one-tenth and a decrease of 12 months in the release time of the irradiated topaz has been achieved. Also adequate cooling of the shielded box during irradiation has been demonstrated.

  12. Assessment of chicken protection against Campylobacter jejuni infection by immunization with avirulent Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium strain producing Campylobacter CjaD/Pal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łaniewski P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pawel Laniewski,1 Malgorzata Lis,2 Agnieszka Wyszynska,1 Pawel Majewski,3 Renata Godlewska,1 Elzbieta Katarzyna Jagusztyn-Krynicka11Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Biowet Pulawy Ltd, Pulawy, Poland; 3Department of Vertebrate Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen, causing gastroenteritis worldwide. Chickens are considered to be one of the most common sources of human C. jejuni infection in developed countries. Campylobacter CjaD/Pal protein (annotated as Cj0113 in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 is a highly immunogenic, membrane-located antigen, conserved among different strains, with the potential to provide broad protection against C. jejuni colonization. The present study examines the immunogenicity and the general efficacy of avirulent S. enterica sv. Typhimurium Δcrp Δcya expressing C. jejuni CjaD as a chicken vaccine against Campylobacter colonization. The high copy number plasmid pYA3341 Asd+ was used as a cloning vector. Here, 1- and 14-day old chickens were orally immunized with a delivery vector strain, expressing C. jejuni CjaD. Two weeks later, they were challenged with a wild-type C. jejuni strain isolated from chicken carcasses. This schedule of immunization induced significant levels of serum-specific IgG as well as mucosal intestinal sIgA as measured by ELISA tests using Campylobacter membrane proteins as a coating antigen. Nevertheless, protection experiments did not result in significant reduction of colonization of vaccinated birds relative to nonvaccinated birds.Keywords: Campylobacter, cjaD, immunization, Pal

  13. TOPAZ II Signal Characterization Measurements Performed at TSET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Francis J.; Taylor, James; Frisch, Carl; Logothetis, John

    1994-07-01

    The Russian TOPAZ II Space Nuclear Power System, designated as V-71, has recently been tested on the BAIKAL electric-heater test stand at the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) facility in Albuquerque, NM. During these tests, members of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) team took advantage of the opportunity afforded by these operations to make measurements in order to characterize the noise levels and attributes in support of a possible flight experiment. The measurements taken were related to electrical ``noise'' on the TOPAZ II sensor lines. The purpose was to characterize any noise during TOPAZ II operation in order to verify the accuracy of measured data and evaluate the significance of signal interference associated with the noise.

  14. Risk Perspectives for Potential TOPAZ II Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Arthur C.; Haskin, F. Eric

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a preliminary estimate of the nuclear-related public health risk presented by the potential space applications of the Russian TOPAZ II space reactor as part of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). This risk is then compared to the risks from the operation of commercial nuclear power reactors and previously planned and/or launched space nuclear power missions. For the proposed mission profile, the initial estimate of the risk posed by launching and operating TOPAZ II is significantly less (at least two orders of magnitude) than that estimated for prior space nuclear missions. Even allowing for the large uncertainties in this estimate, it does not appear that the proposed NEPSTP mission will present a significant health risk to the public.

  15. TOPAZ II Anti-Criticality Device Rapid Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Donald R.; Otting, William D.

    1994-07-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) has been working on a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Project (NEPSTP) using an existing Russian Topaz II reactor system to power the NEPSTP satellite. Safety investigations have shown that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the United States with some modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A ``fuel-out'' water subcriticality concept was selected by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as the baseline concept. A fuel-out anti-criticality device (ACD) conceptual design was developed by Rockwell. The concept functions to hold the fuel from the four centermost thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) outside the reactor during launch and reliably inserts the fuel into the reactor once the operational orbit is achieved. A four-tenths scale ACD rapid prototype model, fabricated from the CATIA solids design model, clearly shows in three dimensions the relative size and spatial relationship of the ACD components.

  16. TOPAZ1, a novel germ cell-specific expressed gene conserved during evolution across vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Baillet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We had previously reported that the Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH approach was relevant for the isolation of new mammalian genes involved in oogenesis and early follicle development. Some of these transcripts might be potential new oocyte and granulosa cell markers. We have now characterized one of them, named TOPAZ1 for the Testis and Ovary-specific PAZ domain gene. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sheep and mouse TOPAZ1 mRNA have 4,803 bp and 4,962 bp open reading frames (20 exons, respectively, and encode putative TOPAZ1 proteins containing 1,600 and 1653 amino acids. They possess PAZ and CCCH domains. In sheep, TOPAZ1 mRNA is preferentially expressed in females during fetal life with a peak during prophase I of meiosis, and in males during adulthood. In the mouse, Topaz1 is a germ cell-specific gene. TOPAZ1 protein is highly conserved in vertebrates and specifically expressed in mouse and sheep gonads. It is localized in the cytoplasm of germ cells from the sheep fetal ovary and mouse adult testis. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel PAZ-domain protein that is abundantly expressed in the gonads during germ cell meiosis. The expression pattern of TOPAZ1, and its high degree of conservation, suggests that it may play an important role in germ cell development. Further characterization of TOPAZ1 may elucidate the mechanisms involved in gametogenesis, and particularly in the RNA silencing process in the germ line.

  17. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

  18. SvSXP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, Daniel K.; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Strongylus vulgaris, the most pathogenic of the large strongyles, is known for its extensive migration in the mesenteric arterial system. The lifecycle of S. vulgaris is characterised by a long prepatent period where the migrating larvae...... are virtually undetectable as there currently is no test available for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Presence of S. vulgaris larvae in the arterial system causes endarteritis and thrombosis with a risk of non-strangulating intestinal infarctions. Emergence of anthelmintic resistance among...

  19. Program on the TOPAZ-2 system preparation for flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V. P.; Ogloblin, B. G.; Lutov, Ye. I.; Luppov, A. N.; Shalaev, A. I.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The TOPAZ-2 nuclear power system (NPS) preparation for flight tests has been carried out according to the ``Integrated Experimental Development Program'' (IEDP). This program involves independent ground tests of the system assemblies and reactor assembly units as well as comprehensive tests of components of prototype systems with simulation of transportation conditions, pre-launch procedures, orbit injection and space environment. Besides that, IEDP included investigation and experimental development work directed toward a series of individual system characteristics: neutron-physical, radiation resistance of materials and TFE's, hermeticity, etc.

  20. Luminescence spectra of lead tungstate, spodumene and topaz crystals Thermoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, V

    2002-01-01

    A detailed set of thermoluminescence, cathodoluminescence and radioluminescence (TL, CLTL and RLTL) data of lead tungstate, Spodumene and Topaz have been reported for the first time over a wide temperature range from 25 to 500K. Lead tungstate (PbWO sub 4), a widely known scintillating material, gives TL glow peaks which are related to complex defect centres. Doping of this crystal with trivalent rare earth ions (La sup 3 sup + , Y sup 3 sup +) reduces the slow component of the emission thereby making it more suitable for its applications. The pentavalent dopants on the other hand, enhance the green emission and quench the blue emission at temperatures 100K. The origin and the irradiation temperature definitely have an effect on the spectrum. No strong relationship could be derived from the dose dependence data. Two less studied minerals, Spodumene and Topaz have also been investigated with the luminescence techniques. The glow peak near 250degC is thought to have originated from Mn sup 2 sup + centres. As th...

  1. Conceptual design of the Topaz II anticriticality device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, D.; Bultman, D.; Potter, R.C.; Sanchez, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Skobelev, V.E. [CDBMB, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    The Topaz II Flight Safety team requires that the hardware for the Rusian-built reactor be modified to ensure that the reactor remains subcritical in the event of an inadvertent accident in which the reactor is submersed in wet sand or water. In April 1993, the American Flight safety team chose the fuel-out anticriticality device as the baseline for the hardware design. We describe the initial stages of the hardware design; show how the mechanism works; and describe its function, the functional and operational requirements, and the difficult design problems encountered. Also described, are the initial interactions between the Russian and American design teams. Because the effort is to add an American modification to a Russian flight reactor, this project has required unusual technical cooperation and consultation with the Russian design team.

  2. Gamma ray evaluation of fast neutron irradiated on topaz from Sri Lanka by HPGe gamma ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsook, K.; Kaewwiset, W.; Limsuwan, P.; Naemchanthara, K.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radionuclide concentrations of London blue topaz after fast neutron irradiation. The London blue topaz was obtained from Sri Lanka which classified into dark and light colors in the shape of an oval and rectangle with small, medium and large size. The optical property and radionuclide concentrations of London blue topaz have been examine by UV-Visible spectroscopy and HPGe gamma ray spectrometry, respectively. The UV-absorption spectra of topaz was taken in the range of 300 to 800 nm at room temperature. The results showed that the absorption peak of topaz was observed with only broad peaks in the range of 550 to 700 nm and 630 nm that correlated to the O - center in hydroxyl sites which substitutes for fluorine in topaz structure. The radioactivity of dark and light colors in the shape of an oval and rectangle London blue topaz was in the range of 1.437 ± 0.014 to 21.551 ± 0.037 nCi/g (oval dark), 2.958 ± 0.031 to 6.748 ± 0.054 nCi/g (oval light) and 2.350 ± 0.014 to 43.952 ± 0.088 nCi/g (rectangle dark), 1.442 ± 0.023 to 6.748 ± 0.054 nCi/g (rectangle light), respectively. The decay rates of 46Sc, 182Ta and 54Mn isotopes created by irradiation showed that the decay time of the radioactive element depended on the size of the topaz so increased with decreasing the size of topaz. Moreover, the size of topaz also affect the absorption coefficient. This study is applied to predict time of residue dose of topaz for enhancement colorless topaz by neutron radiation treatment.

  3. Oltar sv. Wolfganga u Vukovoju

    OpenAIRE

    Repanić Braun, Mirjana; Škarić, Ksenija; Wolff Zubović, Martina; Cavalli Ladašić, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Od 2004. do 2010. godine u Hrvatskom restauratorskom zavodu restauriran je oltar sv. Wolfganga iz kapele u Vukovoju, jedinstveni primjer bogato kićenog manirističkog oltara iz sredine 17. stoljeća u kontinentalnoj Hrvatskoj koji je u neznatno preinačenom stanju sačuvan na izvornom mjestu. Oltar se tradicionalno datira u 1650. godinu, zahvaljujući natpisu ispod slike s drugoga kata. Konzervatorsko-restauratorska istraživanja pokazala su da taj natpis ne pripada polikromiji 17. stoljeća, već je...

  4. 78 FR 14847 - Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as a National Securities... registration as a national securities exchange under Section 6 of the Exchange Act.\\1\\ On December 19, 2012... whether to grant Topaz Exchange's request to be registered as a national securities exchange. The...

  5. Color Dependence on Thickness in Topaz Crystal from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Bonventi Jr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that crystals of topaz from the Eastern Brazilian Pegmatite Province may turn blue by the irradiation with 60Co gamma rays followed by heat treatment. Also, it is known that the sensation of color changes with the thickness of these crystals. The dependence of the color, given by 1931 CIE chromaticity coordinates, with the thickness of the crystal was analyzed. The absorbance used in the calculation of these coordinates was given by the sum of Gaussian lines. The parameters of these lines were determined through the decomposition of the optical absorption spectra in the ultraviolet and visible regions. The decomposition revealed several lines, whose assignment was made considering studies in spodumene and beryl crystals and highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations. The transmittance becomes very narrow with increasing thickness, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates converge to the borderline of the CIE Chromaticity Diagram at the wavelength of maximum transmittance. Furthermore, the purity of color increases with increasing thickness, and the dominant wavelength reaches the wavelength of maximum transmittance.

  6. Effective atomic numbers of blue topaz at different gamma-rays energies obtained from Compton scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschareon, S., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Limkitjaroenporn, P., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Kaewkhao, J., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000, Thailand and Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000 (Thailand)

    2014-03-24

    Topaz occurs in a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, brown, pink-to-violet and blue. All of these color differences are due to color centers. In order to improve the color of natural colorless topaz, the most commonly used is irradiated with x- or gamma-rays, indicated that attenuation parameters is important to enhancements by irradiation. In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients of blue topaz were measured at the different energy of γ-rays using the Compton scattering technique. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The mass attenuation coefficients increase with the decrease in gamma rays energies. This may be attributed to the higher photon interaction probability of blue topaz at lower energy. This result is a first report of mass attenuation coefficient of blue topaz at different gamma rays energies.

  7. 'Topaz-2' thermionic space nuclear power system and the perspective of its development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir P.; Ogloblin, Boris G.; Luppov, Alexei N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Usov, Veniamin A.; Nikolaev, Iurii V.; Wetch, Joseph R.

    Attention is given to Topaz-2, a 5-6 kWe space nuclear power system with a lifetime of not less than 3 yr and operating on the basis of single-cell thermionic fuel elements. Topaz-2 can be used as the source of electricity for communication and information satellites, arcjet propulsion units, and lunar and Martian bases. It can also operate in combination with the Stirling engine. If fast reactors are developed, electrical power levels of 100-300 kWe can be obtained.

  8. Biologic properties of viable deletion mutants of simian virus 40 (SV40) rescued from the cells of an SV40-induced hamster lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, G T; Carmichael, G

    1983-12-01

    A lymphocytic leukemia induced by the oncogenic DNA simian virus 40 (SV40) in an inbred LSH/SsLak Syrian golden hamster was evoked to produce infectious SV40 by fusion of the leukemia cells with grivet monkey kidney (GMK) cells and by exposure of the leukemia cells to the chemical inducers mitomycin C and cycloheximide. Plaque-purified viable substrains of the rescued SV40 when studied by restriction endonuclease digestion of viral DNA were found to contain small deletions within the Hind III restriction fragment C. These deletions lay near the viral origin of DNA replication. Ten plaque-purified substrains of the rescued virus identified by immunofluorescence as being SV40 were found, when compared to the wild-type SV40, to replicate slowly and to form small plaques. Although these substrains transformed NIH/3T3 cells as efficiently as the wild-type SV40 in tissue culture, they were generally less oncogenic in vivo--7 of the 10 failed to induce tumors. The 3 oncogenic SV40-rescued substrains were not found to exhibit "lymphocytotropism," i.e., the capacity to infect and neoplastically transform preferentially hamster lymphocytes. Thus the hamster lymphocytic leukemia originally induced by the wild-type SV40 was most likely a chance-stochastic event rather than the result of tropism-determinism mediated by the virus, as is usually the case with leukemogenic RNA viruses.

  9. Archaeomagnetic SV curve for Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ech-chakrouni, Souad; Hus, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    Archaeomagnetic secular variation curves have been established for different countries in Europe, especially when different archeological sites are more or less uniformly distributed in time are available. The disadvantage in that case is that data had to be relocated to a single reference site. The proximity of the reference locality Paris to Belgium makes that we used the French archaeomagnetic SV curve for the last three millennia up to the present for archaeomagnetic dating undated baked structures. In total, 85 baked structures have been examined, unearthed in 24 archaeological sites of the territory of Belgium. The ChRM of each sample was obtained by principal component analysis for at least three demagnetisation steps (Kirschvink 1980). Except for some outliers, the ChRM directions are very coherent with a high confidence factor (α95Belgium with Uccle as reference locality, where the first measurement of the geomagnetic field was done in 1895. This curve would include all the available reference data in a radius of about 500 km around Uccle. Keywords: secular variation, archaeomagnetic dating, Belgium.

  10. 78 FR 78457 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... express their true prices to buy and sell options for the benefit of all market participants. B. Self... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

  11. 78 FR 58359 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is...

  12. 78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ..., Opinion, and Order of the Commission July 26, 2013. I. Introduction On July 3, 2012, Topaz Exchange, LLC... Exchange is structured as a Delaware limited liability company ] (``LLC''), and is a wholly-owned... directors, including three Non-Industry Directors),\\45\\ a Finance and Audit Committee (consisting of between...

  13. Simvastatin (SV) metabolites in mouse tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, C.A.; Vickers, S. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., West Point, PA (United States))

    1990-02-26

    SV, a semisynthetic analog of lovastatin, is hydrolyzed in vivo to its hydroxy acid (SVA), a potent inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HR). Thus SV lowers plasma cholesterol. SV is a substrate for mixed function oxidases whereas SVA undergoes lactonization and {beta}-oxidation. Male CD-1 mice were dosed orally with a combination of ({sup 14}C)SV and ({sup 3}H)SVA at 25 mg/kg of each, bled and killed at 0.5, 2 and 4 hours. Labeled SV, SVA, 6{prime}exomethylene SV (I), 6{prime}CH{sub 2}OH-SV (II), 6{prime}COOH-SV (III) and a {beta}-oxidized metabolite (IV) were assayed in liver, bile, kidneys, testes and plasma by RIDA. Levels of potential and active HR inhibitors in liver were 10 to 40 fold higher than in other tissues. II and III, in which the configuration at 6{prime} is inverted, may be 2 metabolites of I. Metabolites I-III are inhibitors of HR in their hydroxy acid forms. Qualitatively ({sup 14}C)SV and ({sup 3}H)SVA were metabolized similarly (consistent with their proposed interconversion). However {sup 3}H-SVA, I-III (including hydroxy acid forms) achieved higher concentrations than corresponding {sup 14}C compounds (except in gall bladder bile). Major radioactive metabolites in liver were II-IV (including hydroxy acid forms). These metabolites have also been reported in rat tissues. In bile a large fraction of either label was unidentified polar metabolites. The presence of IV indicated that mice (like rats) are not good models for SV metabolism in man.

  14. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sakov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003–2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and the sea-ice variability in the Arctic. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates – a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in-situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  15. Columnar structure of SV40 minichromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward N Trifonov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Like the sequence of the strongest 601 clone nucleosome of Lowary and Widom, the SV40 genome sequence contains tracks of YR dinucleotides separated by small integers of the 10.4n base series (10, 11, 21 and 30 bases. The tracks, however, substantially exceed the nucleosome DNA size and, thus, correspond to more extended structure - columnar chromatin. The micrococcal nuclease digests of the SV40 chromatin do not show uniquely positioned individual nucleosomes. This confirms the columnar structure of the minichromosome, as well as earlier electron microscopy studies.

  16. Novootkriveni autograf Filipa de Diversija iz 1455. godine: poslanice sv. Jeronima, sv. Augustina i drugih

    OpenAIRE

    Janeković-Römer, Zdenka

    2010-01-01

    Novotkriveni autograf Filipa de Diversi, kodeks u koji je prepisivao poslanice Sv. Jeronima, Sv. Augustina i drugih, donosi važne nove biografske i bibliografske podatke o njemu. Saznajemo da je 1455. godine još bio živ i boravio u Veneciji. Obiman kodeks (278 folija) sačuvan je u knjižnici earla od Leicestera, Holkham Hall u Engleskoj. Članak donosi popis svih poslanica prepisanih u kodeks, s bibliografskim podacima.

  17. Luminescence spectra of lead tungstate, spodumene and topaz crystals[Thermoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, Vasuki

    2002-07-01

    A detailed set of thermoluminescence, cathodoluminescence and radioluminescence (TL, CLTL and RLTL) data of lead tungstate, Spodumene and Topaz have been reported for the first time over a wide temperature range from 25 to 500K. Lead tungstate (PbWO{sub 4}), a widely known scintillating material, gives TL glow peaks which are related to complex defect centres. Doping of this crystal with trivalent rare earth ions (La{sup 3+}, Y{sup 3+}) reduces the slow component of the emission thereby making it more suitable for its applications. The pentavalent dopants on the other hand, enhance the green emission and quench the blue emission at temperatures 100K. The origin and the irradiation temperature definitely have an effect on the spectrum. No strong relationship could be derived from the dose dependence data. Two less studied minerals, Spodumene and Topaz have also been investigated with the luminescence techniques. The glow peak near 250degC is thought to have originated from Mn{sup 2+} centres. As there are no ESR data available, the assignment of defect centres is rather difficult. Cr{sup +} acts as the quencher in green spodumene. Topaz had the same treatment as the other two sets of samples and the defect centre characterisation looks complex as each coloured sample gave different patterns of glow peaks. Cathodoluminescence whilst heating (CLTL) of all these samples showed some unusual features in the form of a luminescence intensity step which is believed to have originated from the presence of ice. Water, in nanoparticle size quantities, is present as a contaminant in the lattice and undergoes a phase transition at 170K from hexagonal to cubic structures. This phase change influences the luminescence efficiency of the host material and is reflected in the spectrum as a discontinuity in intensity. (author)

  18. In vitro and in vivo Functional Characterization of Gutless Recombinant SV40-derived CFTR Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian; Strayer, Marlene S; Sirninger, Jeffery; Braag, Sofia; Branco, Francisco; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Flotte, Terence R.; Strayer, David S.

    2009-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory failure caused by progressive airway obstruction and tissue damage is primarily a result of the aberrant inflammatory responses to lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite considerable improvement in patient survival, conventional therapies are mainly supportive. Recent progress towards gene therapy for CF has been encouraging; however, several factors such as immune response and transduced cell turnover remain as potential limitations to CF gene therapy. As alternative gene therapy vectors for CF we examined the feasibility of using SV40-derived vectors (rSV40s) which may circumvent some of these obstacles. To accommodate the large CFTR cDNA, we removed not only SV40 Tag genes, but also all capsid genes. We therefore tested whether “gutless” rSV40s could be packaged and were able to express a functional human CFTR cDNA. Results from our in vitro analysis determined that rSV40-CFTR was able to successfully result in the expression of CFTR protein which localized to the plasma membrane and restored channel function to CFTR deficient cells. Similarly in vivo experiments delivering rSV40-CFTR to the lungs of Cftr−/− mice resulted in a reduction of the pathology associated with intra-tracheal pseudomona aeruginosa challenge. rSV40-CFTR treated mice had had less weight loss when compared to control treated mice as well as demonstrably reduced lung inflammation as evidence by histology and reduced inflammatory cytokines in the BAL. The reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels led to an evident decrease in neutrophil influx to the airways. These results indicate that further study of the application of rSV40-CFTR to CF gene therapy is warranted. PMID:19890354

  19. Design and Performance of the UO2 Fuel for the Topaz-II Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, Carl W.; Degaltsev, Yuri; Gontar, Alexander; Rakitskaya, Elena

    1994-07-01

    The Russian Topaz-II space reactor system is being modified for use for the United States - Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Project (NEPSTP). The nuclear reactor fuel consists of annular UO2 fuel pellets with 17 mm diameter and 9 mm height. The fuel is fabricated to high purity and high density (96% theoretical density). The reactor core contains 37 single-cell thermionic fuel elements (TFEs), each with approximately 40 fuel pellets. The fuel pellets are contained within an emitter tube of single crystal Mo-3%Nb with a tungsten coating on the outer surface to enhance thermionic emission. The fuel has evolved through an ongoing development program to provide low swelling and very high mechanical strength. Extensive irradiation testing, chemical compatibility testing, and vibration testing were conducted in Russia to verify the performance and lifetime capabilities of the fuel and TFE. This paper summarizes the fuel design, fuel development, and performance testing of the UO2 fuel for the TOPAZ-II reactor.

  20. 77 FR 48138 - Topaz Solar Farms LLC; High Plains Ranch II, LLC; Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Rippey Wind Energy LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...-000; EG12-68-000; EG12-69-000] Topaz Solar Farms LLC; High Plains Ranch II, LLC; Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Pacific Wind, LLC; Colorado Highlands Wind, LLC; Shooting Star Wind... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal...

  1. Reentry safety for the Topaz II Space Reactor: Issues and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, L.W.; Trost, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the reentry safety analyses conducted for the TOPAZ II Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP). Scoping calculations were performed on the reentry aerothermal breakup and ground footprint of reactor core debris. The calculations were used to assess the risks associated with radiologically cold reentry accidents and to determine if constraints should be placed on the core configuration for such accidents. Three risk factors were considered: inadvertent criticality upon reentry impact, atmospheric dispersal of U-235 fuel, and the Special Nuclear Material Safeguards risks. Results indicate that the risks associated with cold reentry are very low regardless of the core configuration. Core configuration constraints were therefore not established for radiologically cold reentry accidents.

  2. UNA CLASE A MEDIAS: LAS REPRESENTACIONES SATÍRICAS DE LOS GRUPOS MEDIOS CHILENOS EN TOPAZE (1931-1970)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Cornejo Cancino

    2007-01-01

    Por medio de la sátira, la revista de humor político Topaze mostró el revés del proceso de consolidación de la clase media en el Chile de mediados del siglo XX. Más que cambio de ideales, de principios o de mentalidad de quienes debían conducir el país, las caricaturas y textos satíricos indican que hubo solo un recambio de personas. Y estas al poco tiempo terminaron siendo tanto o más "acaballeradas" que los propios caballeros que venían a reemplazar. Topaze se centró en los partidos polític...

  3. UNA CLASE A MEDIAS: LAS REPRESENTACIONES SATÍRICAS DE LOS GRUPOS MEDIOS CHILENOS EN TOPAZE (1931-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Cornejo Cancino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de la sátira, la revista de humor político Topaze mostró el revés del proceso de consolidación de la clase media en el Chile de mediados del siglo XX. Más que cambio de ideales, de principios o de mentalidad de quienes debían conducir el país, las caricaturas y textos satíricos indican que hubo solo un recambio de personas. Y estas al poco tiempo terminaron siendo tanto o más "acaballeradas" que los propios caballeros que venían a reemplazar. Topaze se centró en los partidos políticos que mayor protagonismo tuvieron en este proceso. Mostró lo ridículo de sus pretensiones de igualarse con la elite, el arribismo de sus dirigentes, la inoperan-cia de sus militantes y las pequeneces de quienes solo pretendían servirse del erarioThe political magazine Topaze used satire to uncover another side to the sonsolidation of middle class society in mid-twentieth century Chile. More than registering simple changes of ideals and mentalities of people who led the country, cartoons and satire texts revealed that there was something else besides new characters in Chilean politics. New politicians ended up being even more "gentlemen-acting" than those "gentlemen" they replaced. Topaze magazine, focused its attention on the main political parties and showed the ridiculous pretensions of politicians who tried to equate themselves with the elites. The periodical also uncovered the ambitious intentions of political leaders, the inoperative behavior of their followers and the presence of minor quarrels that involved people who wanted to benefit from public funds

  4. Inclusions in topaz from miarolitic pegmatites of the Volodarsk-Volynski Massif (Ukraine)--a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumańska-Słowik, Magdalena; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Natkaniec-Nowak, Lucyna

    2013-05-15

    The differently coloured (colourless, brown-pinkish and blue-pinkish) crystals of topaz from granitic pegmatites of Volodarsk-Volynsky Massif (VVM) have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman microspectroscopy (RS) methods. Topaz (287, 522, 855, 929 cm(-1)), goethite (390 cm(-1)), pyrite (377-379 cm(-1)), marcasite (397 and 331 cm(-1)) and monazite (460 and 970-1070 cm(-1)) were identified as mineral inclusions in analysed crystals. On the basis of RS spectra some of this inclusions contain also organic matter, represented by carbonaceous matter (D-band at ca. 1320-1340 cm(-1) and G-band at ca. 1590-1600 cm(-1)) and liquid simple hydrocarbons consisting of aliphatic and aromatic groups (1240, 1325 and 1420 cm(-1)). Other solid phases found the host topaz, i.e. quartz, orthoclase, very rare minerals (micas) as lepidolite, zinnwaldite and also beryl and rutile, were identified with SEM-EDS analyses. All these mineral inclusions have been formed by post-magmatic, fluid-induced processes, extended from pegmatite to hydrothermal stages of magma crystallization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isothermal annealing of a 620 nm optical absorption band in Brazilian topaz crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isotani, Sadao, E-mail: sisotani@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Matsuoka, Masao [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Albuquerque, Antonio Roberto Pereira Leite [University Federal of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    Isothermal decay behaviors, observed at 515, 523, 562, and 693 K, for an optical absorption band at 620 nm in gamma-irradiated Brazilian blue topaz were analyzed using a kinetic model consisting of O{sup −} bound small polarons adjacent to recombination centers (electron traps). The kinetic equations obtained on the basis of this model were solved using the method of Runge–Kutta and the fit parameters describing these defects were determined with a grid optimization method. Two activation energies of 0.52±0.08 and 0.88±0.13 eV, corresponding to two different structural configurations of the O{sup −} polarons, explained well the isothermal decay curves using first-order kinetics expected from the kinetic model. On the other hand, thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra measured at various temperatures showed a single band at 400 nm in the temperature range of 373–553 K in which the 620 nm optical absorption band decreased in intensity. Monochromatic TL glow curve data at 400 nm extracted from the TL emission spectra observed were found to be explained reasonably by using the knowledge obtained from the isothermal decay analysis. This suggests that two different structural configurations of O{sup −} polarons are responsible for the 620 nm optical absorption band and that the thermal annealing of the polarons causes the 400 nm TL emission band.

  6. Determination of elastic constants of a single-crystal topaz and their temperature dependence via sphere resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sema, Fumie; Watanabe, Tohru

    2017-10-01

    Water and halogens in ocean floor sediments transported by a descending slab might play important roles in geodynamic processes. Imaging subducted sediments through seismological observations requires a thorough understanding of elastic properties of sediment origin hydrous minerals. Topaz is a sediment origin hydrous mineral, which is formed at the depth of 250-350 km on a cold subducting slab. We determined elastic constants and their temperature derivatives of a natural single-crystal of topaz (Al1.97SiO4(F1.56, OH0.42)) at the temperature from 271.5 to 312.7 °K by using the sphere-resonance method. Elastic constants at an ambient temperature (T = 291.9 °K) are C11 = 281.21(1) GPa, C22 = 346.23(9) GPa, C33 = 294.99(9) GPa, C44 = 108.49(1) GPa, C55 = 132.47(1) GPa, C66 = 130.32(1) GPa, C12 = 121.48(3) GPa, C13 = 80.94(3) GPa and C23 = 81.77(2) GPa. Since our sample [Al2SiO4(F1.56,OH0.42)] was relatively rich in fluorine, only small differences in elastic constants can be seen between our sample and fluorine end member. Elastic constants of OH-rich topaz should be experimentally investigated to understand the influence of F-OH substitution on elasticity of topaz. All the elastic constants decrease linearly with increasing temperature. The temperature derivatives are dC11/dT = -0.014(3) GPa/°K, dC22/dT = -0.010(7) GPa/°K, dC33/dT = -0.021(5) GPa/°K, dC44/dT = -0.011(1) GPa/°K, dC55/dT = -0.016(2) GPa/°K, dC66/dT = -0.0101(2) GPa/°K, dC12/dT = -0.0041(6) GPa/°K, dC13/dT = -0.001(2) GPa/°K and dC23/dT = -0.002(1) GPa/°K. The isotropic seismic velocities in topaz are distinctly higher than those in olivine at 10 GPa and 300-1400 °K. There should be a strong velocity contrast between the overlying mantle and the thin sediment-origin layer at the depth around 300 km. A seismological technique like the receiver function technique should be applied to detect a thin layer of topaz in a cold subduction zone.

  7. Petrography and geochemistry of the topaz-bearing granite stocks in Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi, western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Lukkari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi granite stocks at the western margin of the Wiborg rapakivi batholith are multiphase rapakivi granite intrusions in which the most evolved phase is topaz-bearing granite. The Artjärvi stock is composed of porphyritic and even-grained biotite granite and even-grained topaz granite, and the Sääskjärvi stock comprises even-grained biotite granite and porphyritic topazgranite. The granites are metaluminous to peraluminous A-type granites, showing within-plate (WPG geochemical characteristics. The topaz granites from the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks are petrographically and geochemically similar to other topaz-bearing rapakivi granites in Finland. The anomalous geochemistry of the topaz granite is essentially magmatic; postmagmatic reactions have only slightly modified its composition. Greisen veins, some of which are mineralized, are widely found associated with the Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks.The most characteristic feature of the Artjärvi granite stock is a stockscheider at the roof contact of the topaz granite. The stockscheider is composed of schlieren layering and pegmatite layers parallel to the contact. The most probable mechanism for the formation of the schlieren layering is velocity-gradient sorting parallel to the flow, which led to accumulation of mafic minerals along the upper contact of the topaz granite. Cooling and contraction of the topaz granite formed fractures parallel to the roof contact and the residual pegmatite magmas were injected along the fractures forming pegmatite layers. Textures like graphic intergrowths, aplitic groundmass and fan-shaped alkali feldspar crystals associated with the Artjärvi porphyritic biotite granite and pegmatite indicatecrystallization from undercooled magma. Miarolitic cavities found in the porphyritic biotite granite and topaz granite indicate at least local volatile saturation.

  8. Preparação de mulita a partir do mineral topázio Preparation of mullite from topaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Monteiro

    2004-12-01

    thermodynamically stable in the binary system Al2O3 - SiO2, in the weight range from 70.5 to 74.0% of Al2O3. However mullite metastable in the range from 74 to 83.6% of Al2O3 can be obtained. Due to its excellent physical and mechanical properties at high temperatures such as high melting point, low thermal expansion, good resistance to fracture and to thermal shock, high creep resistance, thermal stability, low density and low dielectric constant, it has become widely used in ceramic bodies. However, the mineral mullite is rare and almost nonexistent in the nature. To better assist to a growing market, synthetic mullites are produced, by mixtures of powders of Al2O3 and SiO2 in molecular scale, by using sol-gel technique, or by the calcination of minerals that contains silica and alumina in their structures, so called alumino silicates. Usually these minerals contain impurities, and as consequence, they produce mullite accompanied by a glassy phase. In this work showed that the topaz is another alternative to obtaining a pure and cheap mullite through the calcination of the topaz Al2SiO4 [Fx(OH1-x]2 . Colorless topaz and imperial topaz were used for the mullite production. The colorless topaz doesn't have commercial or gemological value, it is quite abundant. For the imperial topaz it was used drosses of its extraction. The yield in the calcination was high, around 80%, and it was obtained at a temperature not very high, around 1300ºC, producing a very pure mullite without glassy phase. The microstructure of the obtained mullite was of needle type (mulitte whiskers and high porosity. These two features are intrinsic properties that are associated to the topaz decomposition. This study showed that the topaz may be an inexpensive source for obtaining mullite of high quality.

  9. Preliminary paragenetic interpretation of the Quaternary topaz rhyolite lava domes of the Blackfoot volcanic field, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochridge, W. K., Jr.; McCurry, M. O.; Goldsby, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Quaternary topaz rhyolite lava domes of the bimodal, basalt-dominated Blackfoot volcanic field (BVF), SE Idaho occur in three clusters. We refer to these as the China Hat lava dome field (southernmost; ~ 57 ka), and the 1.4 to 1.5 Ma Sheep Island and White Mountain (northernmost) lava dome fields. The rhyolites and surrounding, more voluminous basalt lavas closely resemble coeval Quaternary rocks erupted to the north along the Eastern Snake River Plain segment of the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic track. However rhyolites in BVF are distinguished by having more evolved Sr- and Nd-isotopic ratios, as well as having phenocryst assemblages that includes hydrous phases (biotite and hornblende), thorite, and vapor-phase topaz. This study seeks to improve our understanding of the unique conditions of magma evolution that led to these differences. We focus on textural features of major and accessory phenocrysts as a basis for inferring paragenesis for rhyolites from the China Hat lava dome field. Preliminary work indicates that there are three sequentially formed populations of textures among magmatic phases: 1. population of anhedral quartz and plagioclase; 2. population of euhedral grains that includes quartz, sandine, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, Fe-Ti oxides, zircon and apatite; 3. boxy cellular (skeletal?) sanidine and quartz. We speculate that the first population are resorbed antecrysts, the second formed prior to eruption as autocrysts (at or near equilibrium?), and the third formed soon before or during eruption.

  10. Transgenic Mouse Models of SV40-Induced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Amanda L; Colvin, Emily K

    2016-01-01

    The SV40 viral oncogene has been used since the 1970s as a reliable and reproducible method to generate transgenic mouse models. This seminal discovery has taught us an immense amount about how tumorigenesis occurs, and its success has led to the evolution of many mouse models of cancer. Despite the development of more modern and targeted approaches for developing genetically engineered mouse models of cancer, SV40-induced mouse models still remain frequently used today. This review discusses a number of cancer types in which SV40 mouse models of cancer have been developed and highlights their relevance and importance to preclinical research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cyclic variations of the period and luminosity of SV Camelopardalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoori, D.

    2016-06-01

    New standardized V-band light curves (LCs) for the eclipsing binary SV Cam have been modeled using the PHOEBE program (v. 0.31a). Absolute parameters of the stellar components were then determined, enabling them to be positioned on the mass-radius diagram. Analysis of eclipse minima timing data (O-C diagrams) indicated two cyclic periods of 48.0 and 23.3 yr. These cyclic variations of the orbital period are interpreted in terms of motion of a third body around the system and magnetic activity cycle modulating the orbital period of SV Cam via the Applegate (1992) mechanism. The use of the Applegate model for SV Cam has been checked by examining the long term brightness variation and calculating some important parameters of this system. The results of these calculations favor the modulation of the orbital period by the Applegate mechanism.

  12. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs) kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs) and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  13. SV40 Utilizes ATM Kinase Activity to Prevent Non-homologous End Joining of Broken Viral DNA Replication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PKcs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PKcs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5′ to 3′ end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication. PMID:25474690

  14. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  15. Loss of the SV2-like protein SVOP produces no apparent deficits in laboratory mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yao

    Full Text Available Neurons express two families of transporter-like proteins - Synaptic Vesicle protein 2 (SV2A, B, and C and SV2-related proteins (SVOP and SVOPL. Both families share structural similarity with the Major Facilitator (MF family of transporters. SV2 is present in all neurons and endocrine cells, consistent with it playing a key role in regulated exocytosis. Like SV2, SVOP is expressed in all brain regions, with highest levels in cerebellum, hindbrain and pineal gland. Furthermore, SVOP is expressed earlier in development than SV2 and is one of the neuronal proteins whose expression declines most during aging. Although SV2 is essential for survival, it is not required for development. Because significant levels of neurotransmission remain in the absence of SV2 it has been proposed that SVOP performs a function similar to that of SV2 that mitigates the phenotype of SV2 knockout mice. To test this, we generated SVOP knockout mice and SVOP/SV2A/SV2B triple knockout mice. Mice lacking SVOP are viable, fertile and phenotypically normal. Measures of neurotransmission and behaviors dependent on the cerebellum and pineal gland revealed no measurable phenotype. SVOP/SV2A/SV2B triple knockout mice did not display a phenotype more severe than mice harboring the SV2A/SV2B gene deletions. These findings support the interpretation that SVOP performs a unique, though subtle, function that is not necessary for survival under normal conditions.

  16. ER Operations Installation of Three FLUTe Soil-Vapor Monitoring Wells (MWL-SV03 MWL-SV04 and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This installation report describes the May through July 2014 drilling activities performed for the installation of three multi-port soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), which is located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). SNL/NM is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration. The MWL is designated as Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 76 and is located in Technical Area (TA) III (Figure 1-1). The locations of the three soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) are shown in Figure 1-2

  17. Shorter intervals at peak SV vs.V̇O2max may yield high SV with less physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Ozkaya, Ozgur; Balci, Gorkem Aybars; Yapicioglu, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether greater and sustainable stroke volume (SV) responses may be obtained by exercise intensities corresponding to peak SV (SVpeak) vs. maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), and short vs. long intervals (SI vs. LI). Nine moderate- to well-trained male athletes competing at regional level specialists of cyclist, track and field volunteered to take part in the study (VO2max: 59.7 ± 7.4 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)). Following familiarisation sessions, VO2max was determined, and then SVpeak was evaluated using exercise intensities at 40%-100% of VO2max by nitrous-oxide rebreathing (N2ORB) method. Then each separate participant exercised wattages corresponding to individual VO2max and SVpeak during both SI (SIVO2max and SI(SVpeak)) and LI (LIVO2max and LI(SVpeak)) workouts on a cycle ergometer. Main results showed that both SIVO2max and SI(SVpeak) yielded greater SV responses than LIVO2max and LI(SVpeak) (p ≤ 0.05). Mean SV responses were greater in LI(SVpeak) than in LIVO2max (p ≤ 0.05), but there was no statistical difference between SI(SVpeak) and SIVO2max. However, there was significantly less physiological stress based on VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and rate of perceived exhaustion in SVpeak than in [Formula: see text] intensities (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, SV responses at exercise phases increased in the early stages and remain stable until the end of SIVO2max and SI(SVpeak) workouts (p > 0.05), while they were gradually decreasing in LIVO2max and LI(SVpeak) sessions (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, if the aim of a training session is to improve SVpeak with less physiological stress, SI(SVpeak) seems a better alternative than other modalities tested in the present study.

  18. SV40 Assembly In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Oppenheim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid is a T = 7d icosahedral lattice ∼45 nm in diameter surrounding the ∼5 kb circular minichromosome. The outer shell is composed of 360 monomers of the major capsid protein VP1, tightly bound in 72 pentamers. VP1 is a jellyroll β-barrel, with extending N- and C-terminal arms. The N-terminal arms bind DNA and face the interior of the capsid. The flexible C-arms tie together the 72 pentamers in three distinct kinds of interactions, thus facilitating the formation of a T = 7 icosahedron from identical pentameric building blocks. Assembly in vivo was shown to occur by addition of capsomers around the DNA. We apply a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches to study SV40 assembly. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest the following model: one or two capsomers bind at a high affinity to ses, the viral DNA encapsidation signal, forming the nucleation centre for assembly. Next, multiple capsomers attach concomitantly, at lower affinity, around the minichromosome. This increases their local concentration facilitating rapid, cooperative assembly reaction. Formation of the icosahedron proceeds either by gradual addition of single pentamers to the growing shell or by concerted assembly of pentamer clusters.

  19. Virus-specific nucleic acids in SV40-exposed hamster embryo cell lines: correlation with S and T antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M J; Oxman, M N; Diamandopoulos, G T; Levine, A S; Henry, P H; Enders, J F

    1969-02-01

    A number of homologous SV40-exposed hamster embryonic cell lines were examined for the presence of RNA complementary to SV40 DNA. Only those lines containing the SV40 T antigen were found to have such virus-specific RNA. In lines containing the SV40 S antigen, but not the SV40 T antigen, virus-specific RNA was not detected. These findings suggest that the S antigen is not coded for directly by the SV40 genome.

  20. VIRUS-SPECIFIC NUCLEIC ACIDS IN SV40-EXPOSED HAMSTER EMBRYO CELL LINES: CORRELATION WITH S AND T ANTIGENS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Myron J.; Oxman, Michael N.; Diamandopoulos, George Th.; Levine, Arthur S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Enders, John F.

    1969-01-01

    A number of homologous SV40-exposed hamster embryonic cell lines were examined for the presence of RNA complementary to SV40 DNA. Only those lines containing the SV40 T antigen were found to have such virus-specific RNA. In lines containing the SV40 S antigen, but not the SV40 T antigen, virus-specific RNA was not detected. These findings suggest that the S antigen is not coded for directly by the SV40 genome. PMID:4307716

  1. Levetiracetam reverses synaptic deficits produced by overexpression of SV2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nowack

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam is an FDA-approved drug used to treat epilepsy and other disorders of the nervous system. Although it is known that levetiracetam binds the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, how drug binding affects synaptic functioning remains unknown. Here we report that levetiracetam reverses the effects of excess SV2A in autaptic hippocampal neurons. Expression of an SV2A-EGFP fusion protein produced a ∼1.5-fold increase in synaptic levels of SV2, and resulted in reduced synaptic release probability. The overexpression phenotype parallels that seen in neurons from SV2 knockout mice, which experience severe seizures. Overexpression of SV2A also increased synaptic levels of the calcium-sensor protein synaptotagmin, an SV2-binding protein whose stability and trafficking are regulated by SV2. Treatment with levetiracetam rescued normal neurotransmission and restored normal levels of SV2 and synaptotagmin at the synapse. These results indicate that changes in SV2 expression in either direction impact neurotransmission, and suggest that levetiracetam may modulate SV2 protein interactions.

  2. TOPAZ0 2.0 a Program for Computing Deconvoluted and Realistic Observables around the $Z^{0}$ Peak

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G; Passarino, G; Piccinini, Fulvio

    1996-01-01

    The program {\\tt TOPAZ0} is designed for computing Z^0 parameters, de-convoluted and QED-dressed cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries of e^+ e^- annihilation into fermion pairs and of Bhabha scattering around the Z^0 peak, over both a completely inclusive experimental set-up and a realistic one, i.e. with cuts on acollinearity, energy or invariant mass and angular acceptance of the outgoing fermions. The new version, 2.0, offers the possibility of imposing different experimental cuts on cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries in a single run, and includes radiative corrections whose effect can become relevant in view of the present and foreseen experimental accuracy. Moreover, an additional option is included, which allows an estimate of the theoretical uncertainty due to unknown higher-order effects, both of electroweak and QCD origin. With respect to the version 1.0, the code is available in the form of {\\tt SUBROUTINE}, in order to render more viable the use of the program for aims not p...

  3. Development of 4.5 kW SPT T-160 for Joint Tests with NPP TOPAZ-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, Anatoly; Petrosov, Valery A.; Vasin, Anatoly L.; Baranov, Vladimir L.; Rebrov, Serdei G.; Wetch, Joseph R.; Wong, See-Pok

    1994-07-01

    The electric thruster T-160 is related to a low thrust rocket engines group which can be used on spacecrafts for their orbit correction and parameters change. T-160 flight tests are supposed to be conducted together with the TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) as a part of the NEPSTP program. The thruster T-160 is a Hall-type plasma accelerator with the closed electron drift. Plasma is accelerated in crossed magnetic and electric fields in an accelerating channel made of insulating material. Gaseous xenon is used as a propellant for the thruster, electric power supply of 4-4.5 kW is required for its operation. The cathode-neutralizer emission element is made of porous tungsten saturated with barium salts. The thruster T-160 is equipped with a flow control unit ensuring propellant coming to the cathode and gas distributing anode, and a power processing unit and can be delivered with a propellant storage and supply system, thus forming a complete propulsion system set.

  4. OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE FEATURES OF THE SV. TRI KRALJA TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Deković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the features of the operation and maintenance of tunnels on the Zagreb-Macelj motorway. When it comes to the operation and maintenance of a series of six tunnels on the Zagreb-Macelj motorway, Sv. Tri Kralja Tunnel is the most challenging structure on the motorway, where it is necessary to provide an adequate level of safety and operability. Tunnel operation is ensured by the concession model of public - private partnership, which is applied to the Zagreb – Macelj motorway. Features of the tunnel infrastructure maintenance are emphasized, as well as importance of the extraordinary maintenance of the tunnel infrastructure. The goal of the tunnel operation and maintenance is to ensure undisturbed and safe traffic flow through the tunnels, by keeping the tunnel in normal functional conditions.

  5. Formation pathway, structural characterization and optimum processing parameters of synthetic topaz – Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(OH,F){sub 2} – by CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Vázquez, E., E-mail: evatrujillo87@gmail.com; Pech-Canul, M.I., E-mail: martin.pech@cinvestav.edu.mx

    2015-10-15

    A novel synthesis route for topaz (Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(OH,F){sub 2}) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} as solid precursor was developed. Synthesis tests were conducted with and without a flow of nitrogen, positioning the Al(OH){sub 3} substrate at 0° and 90° with respect to the gas flow direction, at 700 and 750 °C, for 60 and 90 min, respectively. It was found that topaz is synthesized through two pathways, directly and indirectly, involving a series of endothermic and exothermic, heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between Al(OH){sub 3} and SiF{sub 4}(g). Analytical structural determination confirmed existence of orthorhombic polycrystals with lattice parameters of a =4.6558 Å, b=8.8451 Å and c=8.4069 Å. According to ANOVA, while temperature, time and interaction of substrate angular position with atmosphere (P×A) are the parameters that most significantly influence the variability in the amount of topaz formed – equivalent contributions of 31% – topaz lattice parameters are mostly impacted by the same factors (T, t, P, A), but without the interaction factor. The projected amount of topaz is in good agreement with that obtained in confirmation tests under optimal conditions: Al(OH){sub 3} substrate compact placed at 0°, treated at 750 °C for 90 min in the absence of N{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Topaz synthesis as a unique phase by CVD, using solid precursor Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} is feasible. • Two pathways, a series of endothermic/exothermic, heterogeneous/homogeneous reactions. • Crystal structure, orthorhombic polycrystals: a =4.6558 Å, b=8.8451 Å, c=8.4069 Å. • Anova: amount of topaz formed and lattice parameters are impacted by same factors. • Projection of topaz quantity in good agreement with those from confirmation tests.

  6. Polio vaccines, SV40 and human tumours, an update on false positive and false negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmishad, A G; Bocchetta, M; Pass, H I; Carbone, M

    2006-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been detected in different human tumours in numerous laboratories. The detection of SV40 in human tumours has been linked to the administration of SV40-contaminated polio vaccines from 1954 until 1963. Many of these reports linked SV40 to human mesothelioma. Some studies have failed to detect SV40 in human tumours and this has caused a controversy. Here we review the current literature. Moreover, we present evidence showing how differences in the sensitivities of methodologies can lead to a very different interpretation of the same study. The same 20 mesothelioma specimens all tested negative, 2/20 tested positive or 7/20 tested positive for SV40 Tag by simply changing the detection method on the same immuno-precipitation/western blot membranes. These results provide a simple explanation for some of the apparent discordant results reported in the literature.

  7. Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided TOPAZ Radiofrequency Coblation: A Novel Coaxial Technique for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Plantar Fasciitis-Our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amit; Best, Alistair J; Rennie, Winston J

    2016-06-01

    Various therapeutic options are available for treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Studies using TOPAZ coblation (ArthroCare, Sunnyvale, CA) have had good early results. The current coblation technique involves a surgical incision or breach of the highly specialized plantar fat pad, which can be associated with risks. We describe a novel technique of ultrasound-guided percutaneous coblation with a lateral heel approach. Advantages include precise targeting of the plantar fascia by direct dynamic visualization of the coblation tip, a true percutaneous approach with a needle skin puncture (plantar fat pad by using a lateral heel approach. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. SV-AUTOPILOT: optimized, automated construction of structural variation discovery and benchmarking pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Yi; Marschall, Tobias; Paudel, Yogesh; Falquet, Laurent; Mei, Hailiang; Schönhuth, Alexander; Maoz Moss, Tiffanie Yael

    2015-03-25

    Many tools exist to predict structural variants (SVs), utilizing a variety of algorithms. However, they have largely been developed and tested on human germline or somatic (e.g. cancer) variation. It seems appropriate to exploit this wealth of technology available for humans also for other species. Objectives of this work included: a) Creating an automated, standardized pipeline for SV prediction. b) Identifying the best tool(s) for SV prediction through benchmarking. c) Providing a statistically sound method for merging SV calls. The SV-AUTOPILOT meta-tool platform is an automated pipeline for standardization of SV prediction and SV tool development in paired-end next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. SV-AUTOPILOT comes in the form of a virtual machine, which includes all datasets, tools and algorithms presented here. The virtual machine easily allows one to add, replace and update genomes, SV callers and post-processing routines and therefore provides an easy, out-of-the-box environment for complex SV discovery tasks. SV-AUTOPILOT was used to make a direct comparison between 7 popular SV tools on the Arabidopsis thaliana genome using the Landsberg (Ler) ecotype as a standardized dataset. Recall and precision measurements suggest that Pindel and Clever were the most adaptable to this dataset across all size ranges while Delly performed well for SVs larger than 250 nucleotides. A novel, statistically-sound merging process, which can control the false discovery rate, reduced the false positive rate on the Arabidopsis benchmark dataset used here by >60%. SV-AUTOPILOT provides a meta-tool platform for future SV tool development and the benchmarking of tools on other genomes using a standardized pipeline. It optimizes detection of SVs in non-human genomes using statistically robust merging. The benchmarking in this study has demonstrated the power of 7 different SV tools for analyzing different size classes and types of structural variants. The optional merge

  9. Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph SV/GTO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbets, Dennis

    1999-03-01

    Contract number NAS5-30433, known at Ball Aerospace as the GHRS SV/GTO project, supported our participation in the post-launch activities of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The period of performance was December 1988 through December 1998. The contract supported the involvement of Dr Dennis Ebbets in the work of the GHRS Investigation Definition Team, and several of the Ball people in the documentation and publication of results. Three main categories of tasks were covered by this contract; in-orbit calibration of the GHRS, guaranteed time observations, and education and public outreach. The nature and accomplishments of these tasks are described in the report. This summary makes many references to publications in the scientific and technical literature. Appendix A is extracted from a complete bibliography, and lists those papers that are directly related to work performed under this GHRS contract. The tasks related to the in-orbit calibration of the GHRS were by far the largest responsibility during the first six years of the project. During this period Dr. Ebbets was responsible for the definition of calibration requirements, design of experiments, preparation of observing proposals, tracking their implementation and execution, and coordinating the analysis and publication of the results. Prior to the launch of HST in 1990 the observing proposals were developed in cooperation with the scientists on the GHRS DDT, engineers at Ball Aerospace, the operations staff at the STScI, and project coordinators at GSFC.

  10. Serologic-based investigation of leptospirosis in a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) indicating the presence of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael W; Smythe, Lee; Dohnt, Michael; Symonds, Meegan; Slack, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) are one of the most abundant large macropodids sharing the landscape with humans. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence of Leptospira carriage within this species and the role that they may partake in the transmission of this disease in Australia. The sera of 87 free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos, captured in the Warragamba Catchment Area, Sydney, Australia, from June 2004 to November 2006, were screened against a reference panel of 22 Leptospira serovars using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Leptospiral antibodies were detected in 47% (41 of 87) of serum samples collected. Leptospira weilii Topaz, a newly emergent serovar in Australia, was detected in all seropositive kangaroos (41 of 41; 100%). The sex and tail-fat body condition index of kangaroos appeared to have no significant effect on the exposure to the disease. This serologic-based study is the first reported for L. weilii serovar Topaz in New South Wales, to our knowledge, having previously been isolated only in humans and two other animal species (bovine and long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta]) in Western Australia and Queensland. The potential role of eastern grey kangaroos in the maintenance and zoonotic spread of the disease to livestock and humans is discussed.

  11. PHB2_MOUSE Prohibitin-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Phb2 PE=1 SV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandra Feijoo Bandin

    P16858|G3P_MOUSE. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase OS=Mus musculus GN=Gapdh PE=1 SV=2 sp|P19783|COX41_MOUSE. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, mitochondrial OS=Mus musculus GN=Cox4i1 PE=1 SV=2.

  12. Botulinum neurotoxin D uses synaptic vesicle protein SV2 and gangliosides as receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Peng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs include seven bacterial toxins (BoNT/A-G that target presynaptic terminals and act as proteases cleaving proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Here we identified synaptic vesicle protein SV2 as the protein receptor for BoNT/D. BoNT/D enters cultured hippocampal neurons via synaptic vesicle recycling and can bind SV2 in brain detergent extracts. BoNT/D failed to bind and enter neurons lacking SV2, which can be rescued by expressing one of the three SV2 isoforms (SV2A/B/C. Localization of SV2 on plasma membranes mediated BoNT/D binding in both neurons and HEK293 cells. Furthermore, chimeric receptors containing the binding sites for BoNT/A and E, two other BoNTs that use SV2 as receptors, failed to mediate the entry of BoNT/D suggesting that BoNT/D binds SV2 via a mechanism distinct from BoNT/A and E. Finally, we demonstrated that gangliosides are essential for the binding and entry of BoNT/D into neurons and for its toxicity in vivo, supporting a double-receptor model for this toxin.

  13. Reflection of quasi-P and quasi-SV waves at the free and rigid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The propagation of plane waves in fibre-reinforced media is discussed. The expressions of phase velocities of quasi-P (qP) and quasi-SV (qSV) waves propagating in plane symmetry are obtained in terms of propagation vectors. We have established a relation from which the displacement vector can be obtained in terms of ...

  14. Reflection of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The governing equations for generalized thermodiffusion in an elastic solid are solved. There exists three kinds of dilatational waves and a Shear Vertical (SV) wave in a two-dimensional model of the solid. The reflection phenomena of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid with thermodiffusion is considered.

  15. Reflection of quasi-P and quasi-SV waves at the free and rigid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    waves reflected on free and rigid boundaries due to incident qP and qSV waves are also obtained and presented graphically. Keywords. Reflection of waves; quasi-P waves; quasi-SV waves; quasi-SH waves; fibre-reinforced media; reflection coefficients. 1. Introduction. Fibre-reinforced composite materials have become ...

  16. An investigation of the occurrence of sv40 antibodies in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four of the samples were from the healthy population group and the remaining 1 (1/64) was from the patient group. An SV40 antibody-blocking assay and a Western blot were used as additional confirmation for the SV40 antibodies, whereas the Western blot assay developed a single common band on all 5 samples.

  17. Spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, P. P.; Hilditch, R. W.; Edwin, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocities of the primary components of the two RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa are presented, for the first time for XY UMa. Neither secondary component could be detected. A change of 5.0 + or - 13 km/sec in the systemic velocity of SV Cam is found over 40 years, which lends some support to the current model of SV Cam being a triple system. If the masses of the G3 V primary components of both systems are assumed to be 1 solar mass, then the secondaries are 0.7 (SV Cam) and 0.6 (XY UMa) solar masses; all four stars are main sequence objects with SV Cam being rather more evolved than XY UMa.

  18. Spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainger, P.P.; Hilditch, R.W.; Edwin, R.P. (Saint Andrews Univ. (UK). Observatory)

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocities of the primary components of the two RS CVn-type binary systems SV Cam and XY UMa are presented, for the first time for XY UMa. Neither secondary component could be detected. A change of 5.0+-1.3km s{sup -1} in the systemic velocity of SV Cam is found over 40 years which lends some support to the current model of SV Cam being a triple system. If the masses of the G3 V primary components of both systems are assumed to be one solar mass, then the secondaries are 0.7 (SV CAM) and 0.6 (XY UMa) solar masses; all four stars are main sequence objects with SV Cam being rather more evolved than XY UMa. (author).

  19. SV40 DNA amplification and reintegration in surviving hamster cells after 60Co gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke-Huhle, C; Pech, M; Herrlich, P

    1990-10-01

    SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells were exposed to 60Co gamma-irradiation and the fate of the integrated SV40 sequences was pursued over a period of 20 days following radiation exposure. As shown by colony hybridization, integrated SV40 sequences were amplified in surviving and non-surviving cells. At later times, however, clonal sublines of surviving cells grown for 20-30 cell generations after irradiation had lost most of their amplified SV40 copies but showed altered restriction fragment patterns indicating reintegration of SV40 sequences at new sites of the hamster genome. This suggests that 60Co gamma-irradiation can generate mutations by inducing over-replication of chromosome segments that are then substrates of enzymatic rearrangements.

  20. Immunochemical analysis of the expression of SV2C in mouse, macaque and human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Amy R; Hoffman, Carlie A; Stout, Kristen A; Ozawa, Minagi; Dhamsania, Rohan K; Miller, Gary W

    2017-12-21

    The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) is an undercharacterized protein with enriched expression in phylogenetically old brain regions. Its precise role within the brain is unclear, though various lines of evidence suggest that SV2C is involved in the function of synaptic vesicles through the regulation of vesicular trafficking, calcium-induced exocytosis, or synaptotagmin function. SV2C has been linked to multiple neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and psychiatric conditions. SV2C is expressed in various cell types-primarily dopaminergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic cells. In mice, it is most highly expressed in nuclei within the basal ganglia, though it is unknown if this pattern of expression is consistent across species. Here, we use a custom SV2C-specific antiserum to describe localization within the brain of mouse, nonhuman primate, and human, including cell-type localization. We found that the immunoreactivity with this antiserum is consistent with previously-published antibodies, and confirmed localization of SV2C in the basal ganglia of rodent, rhesus macaque, and human. We observed strongest expression of SV2C in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, dorsal striatum, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens of each species. Further, we demonstrate colocalization between SV2C and markers of dopaminergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurons within these brain regions. SV2C has been increasingly linked to dopamine and basal ganglia function. These antisera will be an important resource moving forward in our understanding of the role of SV2C in vesicle dynamics and neurological disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporally resolved parametric assessment of Z-magnetization recovery (TOPAZ): Dynamic myocardial T1 mapping using a cine steady-state look-locker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Sebastian; Shenoy, Chetan; Rieger, Benedikt; Schad, Lothar R; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Akçakaya, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    To develop and evaluate a cardiac phase-resolved myocardial T1 mapping sequence. The proposed method for temporally resolved parametric assessment of Z-magnetization recovery (TOPAZ) is based on contiguous fast low-angle shot imaging readout after magnetization inversion from the pulsed steady state. Thereby, segmented k-space data are acquired over multiple heartbeats, before reaching steady state. This results in sampling of the inversion-recovery curve for each heart phase at multiple points separated by an R-R interval. Joint T1 and B1+ estimation is performed for reconstruction of cardiac phase-resolved T1 and B1+ maps. Sequence parameters are optimized using numerical simulations. Phantom and in vivo imaging are performed to compare the proposed sequence to a spin-echo reference and saturation pulse prepared heart rate-independent inversion-recovery (SAPPHIRE) T1 mapping sequence in terms of accuracy and precision. In phantom, TOPAZ T1 values with integrated B1+ correction are in good agreement with spin-echo T1 values (normalized root mean square error = 4.2%) and consistent across the cardiac cycle (coefficient of variation = 1.4 ± 0.78%) and different heart rates (coefficient of variation = 1.2 ± 1.9%). In vivo imaging shows no significant difference in TOPAZ T1 times between the cardiac phases (analysis of variance: P = 0.14, coefficient of variation = 3.2 ± 0.8%), but underestimation compared with SAPPHIRE (T1 time ± precision: 1431 ± 56 ms versus 1569 ± 65 ms). In vivo precision is comparable to SAPPHIRE T1 mapping until middiastole (P > 0.07), but deteriorates in the later phases. The proposed sequence allows cardiac phase-resolved T1 mapping with integrated B1+ assessment at a temporal resolution of 40 ms. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Individual and Institutional Predictors of IPV/SV Screening in College Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Melissa A; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Katz, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) are significant public health issues for women, particularly for college women. IPV and SV have been associated with numerous adverse health consequences and involvement in unhealthy behaviors. Given the health risks and high rates of IPV/SV among college women, it is important to understand and promote screening in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine college women's experiences with IPV/SV screening at college health centers and identify individual and institutional characteristics associated with screening. Random samples of female undergraduate college students from five colleges in the northeast United States were recruited to participate in an anonymous online survey in January 2015. Inclusion criteria included at least one visit to the college health center during the preceding fall semester. Participants were questioned regarding demographics and whether they were screened or asked about IPV/SV at the college health center. A total of 873 women met the inclusion criteria and completed surveys. Only 10.2% of the college women in the study reported that they were screened for IPV/SV at their most recent visit to the college health center. Participants from public colleges/universities were 3 times more likely than others to report screening, whereas participants from urban college/university campuses were more than twice as likely as others to report screening. College women who went to the college health center for a gynecological or sexual health reason were nearly 4 times as likely as other women to report being screened for IPV/SV. Low rates of IPV/SV screening at college health centers represent missed opportunities. Further research across more numerous and diverse college sites is needed to understand the factors that promote or inhibit IPV/SV screening in college health centers to develop interventions to facilitate routine screening practices.

  3. Illusory double epenthesis in the [s_V] context among Japanese listeners: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies showed that English listeners tend to hear an [s_V] segment with [_] a silent gap as [sCV], where [C] is an epenthetic stop consonant such as [t]. The present study found that Japanese listeners, whose native language disallows [CCV] but allows [CVCV], often perceive [s_V] as [sVCV]. It is suggested that such illusory double-epenthetic percepts are generated via a two-step process, i.e., the vowel of [s_V] triggers an epenthetic consonant before it, and the initial consonant [s] and the newly generated epenthetic consonant [C] sequentially aligned induce a vowel epenthesis [V] between them.

  4. GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex sensitivity in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice on a 129/Sv background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Groenink, L.; Oosting, R.S.; Gugten, J. van der; Maes, R.A.A.; Olivier, B.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout (1AKO) mice on a mixed Swiss Websterx129/Sv (SWx129/Sv) and a pure 129/Sv genetic background suggest a differential gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor complex sensitivity in both strains, independent from the anxious phenotype. To

  5. Highly accurate P-SV complete synthetic seismograms using modified DSM operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Geller, Robert J.; Cummins, Phil R.

    In previous papers [Cummins et al., 1994ab] (hereafter referred to as DSMI and DSMII respectively), we presented accurate methods for computing complete synthetic seismograms for SH and P-SV respectively in a spherical earth model. The SH calculations used computationally efficient modified matrix operators, but the P-SV synthetics were computationally intensive. Geller and Takeuchi [1995] (hereafter referred to as GT95) presented a general theory for deriving modified operators and gave the explicit form of the modified operators for the P-SV case in cylindrical or cartesian coordinates. In this paper we extend GT95's results to derive modified operators for the P-SV case in spherical coordinates. The use of the modified operators reduces the CPU time by a factor of about 5 without a loss of accuracy. 10 CPU min on a SPARC-20 workstation with one CPU are required to compute a profile of synthetic seismograms from DC to 20 sec period.

  6. Når børn lærer at svømme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    DVD'en giver svømmeinstruktøren indblik i og viden om, hvordan børn lærer at svømme. DVD'en indeholder kapitler om Kroppen i vand, Vandbasis, Butterfly, Rygcrawl, Brystsvømning, Crawl, Livredning og Aktivitetsjustering. I hvert kapitel tages der udgangspunkt i begyndersvømmerens typiske bevægelser...

  7. Fatal SV40-associated pneumonia and nephropathy following renal allotransplantation in rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M; Mulvihill, M S; Williams, K D; Collins, B H; Kirk, A D

    2018-02-01

    Recrudescence of latent and dormant viruses may lead to overwhelming viremia in immunosuppressed hosts. In immunocompromised hosts, Simian virus 40 (SV40) reactivation is known to cause nephritis and demyelinating central nervous system disease. Here, we report SV40 viremia leading to fatal interstitial pneumonia in an immunosuppressed host following renal allotransplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    whether BMPs maintain their osteoinductive capability in infected human wounds. The authors are aware of only one series describing the use of BMP in an...et al. Osteogenic protein-1 induces bone formation in the presence of bacterial infection in a rat intramuscular osteoinduction model. J Orthop Trauma

  9. Temperature-sensitive SV40-immortalized rat middle ear epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Katsuhiro; Kim, Youngki; Paparella, Michael M; Lin, Jizhen

    2004-12-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of middle ear epithelial cells are essential in both normal and diseased middle ears. The normal situation involves physiologic growth and renewal of the epithelium, and the diseased situation involves pathological changes of the epithelium such as mucous cell metaplasia and ciliated cell proliferation in otitis media. In this study, we used a temperature-sensitive large T antigen (the SV40 mutant) to transduce and immortalize the primary culture of middle ear epithelial cells. SV40-immortalized middle ear epithelial cells have been cultured for more than 50 passages and are stable morphologically. Their nonimmortalized parent cells died at the second passage. Immortalized middle ear epithelial cells carrying the SV40 mutant show a monolayer, cobblestonelike morphology. The cell line expresses characteristic middle ear mucosal molecules such as mucins, keratins, and collagens. It also responds to temperature changes; namely, cells proliferate at 33 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is active, and differentiate at 39 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is inactive. Therefore, we conclude that a temperature-sensitive middle ear epithelial cell line has successfully been established.

  10. Dynamic VaR Measurement of Gold Market with SV-T-MN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available VaR (Value at Risk in the gold market was measured and predicted by combining stochastic volatility (SV model with extreme value theory. Firstly, for the fat tail and volatility persistence characteristics in gold market return series, the gold price return volatility was modeled by SV-T-MN (SV-T with Mixture-of-Normal distribution model based on state space. Secondly, future sample volatility prediction was realized by using approximate filtering algorithm. Finally, extreme value theory based on generalized Pareto distribution was applied to measure dynamic risk value (VaR of gold market return. Through the proposed model on the price of gold, empirical analysis was investigated; the results show that presented combined model can measure and predict Value at Risk of the gold market reasonably and effectively and enable investors to further understand the extreme risk of gold market and take coping strategies actively.

  11. Kvinder indlagt med svær præeklampsi efterlyser sammenhæng

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenshøj, Jette; Aagaard, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Præeklampsi rammer 2-5 % af alle gravide i Danmark. Sygdommen kan udvikle sig alvorligt og eneste behandling er forløsning af det ofte præmature barn. Kvinder med svær præeklampsi gennemlever psykologisk stress, og de er samtidig i risiko for en efterfødselsreaktion. Formålet med studiet er......, at undersøge kvinders oplevelse og vurdering af den stress, der kan være forbundet med indlæggelse med svær præeklampsi. Studiet er baseret på interview med tre kvinder efter indlæggelse med svær præeklampsi. Benner og Wrubels forståelse af stress er anvendt som teoretisk ramme for udarbejdelse af...

  12. Solid state fermentation and production of rifamycin SV using Amycolatopsis mediterranei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagavalli, M; Ponamgi, S P D; Girijashankar, V; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2015-01-01

    Production of Rifamycin SV from cheaper agro-industrial by-products using mutant strain of Amycolatopsis mediterranei OVA5-E7 in solid state fermentation (SSF) was optimized. Among the agro-based substrates used, ragi bran was found suitable for maximizing the yield of Rifamycin SV (1310 mg 100 g(-1) ds). The yield can be further enhanced to 19·7 g Kg(-1) of dry substrate by supplementing the substrate with deoiled cotton cake (10% w/w) using optimized fermentation parameters such as maintaining 80% moisture, pH 7·0, 30°C incubation temperature, inoculum 25% v/w and carrying the solid state fermenting for 9 days. Manipulating these seven specifications, the end product yield achieved in our experimentation was 20 g of Rifamycin SV Kg(-1) ds. Eventually, an overall 5-fold improvement in Rifamycin SV production was achieved. Antibiotics such as rifamycin are broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs used in large-scale worldwide as human medicine towards controlling diseases. Amycolatopsis mediterranei strain which produces this antibiotic was earlier used in submerged fermentation yielded lower amounts of rifamycin. By employing cheaper agro-industrial by-products, we produced upto 20 g rifamycin SV per Kg dry substrate used under optimized solid state fermentation conditions. Keeping in view, the role of rifamycin in meeting the medical demands of world's increasing population; we successfully used an improved strain on cheaper substrates with optimized fermentation parameters and achieved a 5-fold improvement in rifamycin SV production. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the neonatal period to school age.' In Saudi Arabia, the rate of 5.3 per cent was reported' while in Nigeria,. Okafor et a1,7 found the prevalence rate .... the multiplication of the organisms in the urine, resulting in lalse diagnosis of urinary tract infection. This over-diagnosis ofl ITI may account for the high prevalence rate ...

  14. Reflection of P and SV waves at the free surface of a monoclinic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 4. Reflection of and SV waves at the free surface of a monoclinic elastic half- ... the variation of the reflection coefficients with the angle of incidence. The present analysis corrects some fundamental errors appearing in recent papers on the subject.

  15. A very late viral protein triggers the lytic release of SV40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniels

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available How nonenveloped viruses such as simian virus 40 (SV40 trigger the lytic release of their progeny is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that SV40 expresses a novel later protein termed VP4 that triggers the timely lytic release of its progeny. Like VP3, VP4 synthesis initiates from a downstream AUG start codon within the VP2 transcript and localizes to the nucleus. However, VP4 expression occurs approximately 24 h later at a time that coincides with cell lysis, and it is not incorporated into mature virions. Mutation of the VP4 initiation codon from the SV40 genome delayed lysis by 2 d and reduced infectious particle release. Furthermore, the co-expression of VP4 and VP3, but not their individual expression, recapitulated cell lysis in bacteria. Thus, SV40 regulates its life cycle by the later temporal expression of VP4, which results in cell lysis and enables the 50-nm virus to exit the cell. This study also demonstrates how viruses can generate multiple proteins with diverse functions and localizations from a single reading frame.

  16. Ikona Bogorodice s Djetetom iz crkve Sv. Nikole na Prijekom u Dubrovniku

    OpenAIRE

    Demori Staničić, Zoraida

    2013-01-01

    Ikona Bogorodice s Djetetom iz crkve sv. Nikole na Prijekom u Dubrovniku, nakon provedenog konzervatorsko-restauratorskog zahvata, na temelju stilske analize povezuje se s poznatom „Bogorodicom benediktinki“ iz Zadra i datira u isto vrijeme oko 1300. godine. Analizira se ikonografija ikone te otvara problem utjecaja slikarstva istočnog Mediterana na slikarstvo Dalmacije u XIII. stoljeću.

  17. Reply to Comments on Measuring marine iron(III) complexes by CLE-AdSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2005-01-01

    The interpretation of CLE-AdSV based iron(iii) speciation data for marine waters has been called into question in light of the kinetic features of the measurement. The implications of the re-think may have consequences for understanding iron biogeochemistry and its impact on ecosystem functioning.

  18. Reflection of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reflection phenomena of P and SV waves from free surface of an elastic solid with thermodiffusion is considered. The boundary conditions are solved to obtain a system of four non- homogeneous equations for reflection coefficients. These reflection coefficients are found to depend upon the angle of incidence of P and ...

  19. Influence of Genetic Background on Hematologic and Histopathologic Alterations during Acute Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in 129/SvEv and C57BL/6J Mice Lacking Type I and Type II Interferon Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Jennifer L; Discipulo, Marielle L; Koehne, Amanda L; Moorhead, Kaitlin A; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-03-01

    The role of host type I IFN signaling and its interaction with other immune pathways during bacterial infections is incompletely understood. Type II IFN signaling plays a key role during numerous bacterial infections including granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. The function of combined type I and type II IFN signaling and their potential synergism during GA and similar tick-borne diseases is a topic of current research investigation. The goal of this study was to evaluate 2 mouse models of absent type I/type II IFN signaling in experimental A. phagocytophilum infection to determine the effects of background strain. Mice lacking both type I and type II IFN receptor signaling (IFNAR-/-/IFNGR-/-) on either the 129/SvEv or C57BL/6J genetic background were evaluated at days 0, 6, 8, and 12 of infection. Pathogen burden in multiple organs was largely similar between strains of infected mice, with few significant differences. Background strain influenced the immune response to infection. Mice of the 129/SvEv strain developed more severe hematologic abnormalities, particularly more severe leukocytosis with marked neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, throughout acute infection. Histopathologic changes occurred in infected mice of both strains and varied in severity by organ. 129/SvEv mice developed more severe pathologic changes in spleen and bone marrow, whereas C57BL/6J mice developed more severe renal pathology. This work highlights the importance of mouse background strain in dictating pathophysiologic response to infection and informs future work regarding the loss of type I and type II IFN signaling on the immune response during GA.

  20. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    lost by diuresis in early convalescence (1). Severe retention of body water, especially during central nervous system infection, has now been widely...adrenocortical production of glucocorticoid and ketosteroid hormones often declines into a subnormal range. The labile pool of body nitrogen is...may not become apparent until early convalescence when postfebrile diuresis causes excessive fluid to be excreted. (3) Protein requirements ’- Despite

  1. SV3R : un framework pour la gestion de la variabilité des services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutaina Chakir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and expansion of the development paradigm based on service-oriented approaches have been behind the elaboration of new models and methods that aim at facilitating the reuse of services within multiples context of use. This requires providing systematically services with several possible realizations. Among the promising approaches that achieve this objective is the management of variability which has been widely adopted by the software engineering disciplines and whose objective is to facilitate the adaptation or the configuration of software artifacts in a systematic way. Hence, in this work we provide a framework for the development (for and by reuse of services supporting variability, called “SV3R” (Service Variability Representation and Resolution for Reuse. This paper introduces at first the concept of variability. Afterwards, it presents some related work, before giving an overview of the framework SV3R and describing

  2. Validation of the portuguese version of the tampa scale for kinesiophobia heart (TSK-SV heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lima de Melo Ghisi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: It has been shown that kinesiophobia has a negative influence on the outcomes of cardiac rehabilitation and consequently is important for the clinical setting. Objective: The objective of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and psychometrically validate the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia Heart (TSK-SV Heart to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods: The Portuguese version was tested in 300 patients in cardiac rehabilitation. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha, and criterion validity was assessed with respect to patients’ education, income, duration of cardiac rehabilitation, and sex. Results: After intraclass correlation coefficient analysis, one item was excluded. All four areas were considered internally consistent (α >0.7. Significant differences between mean total scores and income (p 37. Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese version of TSK-SV Heart demonstrated sufficient reliability, consistency and validity, supporting its use in future studies.

  3. Cretaceous Gross Spitzkoppe and Klein Spitzkoppe stocks in Namibia: Topaz-bearing A-type granites related to continental rifting and mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, I.; Frindt, S.; Kandara, J.

    2007-08-01

    The anorogenic Damaraland intrusive complexes in Namibia belong to the bimodal Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province and comprise mafic, silicic and alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks that were emplaced into the Neoproterozoic Damara orogenic belt at 124 to 137 Ma. The magmatism was related to the Tristan mantle plume and continental rifting that led to separation of South America from Africa. Silicic plutonic rocks are found in the Gross Spitzkoppe, Klein Spitzkoppe, Erongo, Brandberg, Messum, Cape Cross, and Paresis complexes. The Gross Spitzkoppe and Klein Spitzkoppe stocks consist of texturally distinct types of topaz-bearing biotite (siderophyllite-annite) granites with columbite, zircon, magnetite, and monazite as typical heavy accessory minerals. A bimodal magmatic association is indicated by synplutonic mafic dikes and magmatic mafic inclusions. The stocks have rims of layered aplite-pegmatite stockscheiders against the country rocks. Miarolitic cavities and pegmatite-lined druses with gem-quality topaz and beryl indicate vapor saturation, and hydrothermal activity has locally produced wolframite-bearing greisen. The Spitzkoppe granites are highly evolved, marginally peraluminous (A/CNK 0.95 to 1.09) and characterized by high SiO 2 (74.4 to 78.6 wt.%), Na 2O + K 2O (7.6 to 8.8 wt.%, with K 2O prevailing over Na 2O), F, Rb, and Ga, as well as low MgO, Ba, and Sr. The small but clear differences in REE patterns [(La/Yb) N in Gross Spitzkoppe 2.5 to 7.7 with mean at 4.4, in Klein Spitzkoppe 0.6 to 1.6 with mean at 0.9, more pronounced negative (Eu/Eu *) N anomaly in Klein Spitzkoppe] show that the granites of the Klein Spitzkoppe stock are slightly more evolved than those of the Gross Spitzkoppe stock. Overall, the granites exhibit A-type and within plate characteristics. Available O, Nd and Sr isotope data suggest that the silicic rocks of the anorogenic Damaraland complexes have mixed sources, with plume-related mantle magmas and two types of lower

  4. Pre-eruptive conditions of the Hideaway Park topaz rhyolite: Insights into metal source and evolution of magma parental to the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Todorov, Todor I.; Roberge, Julie; Burgisser, Alain; Adams, David T.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hideaway Park tuff is the only preserved extrusive volcanic unit related to the Red Mountain intrusive complex, which produced the world-class Henderson porphyry Mo deposit. Located within the Colorado Mineral Belt, USA, Henderson is the second largest Climax-type Mo deposit in the world, and is therefore an excellent location to investigate magmatic processes leading to Climax-type Mo mineralization. We combine an extensive dataset of major element, volatile, and trace element abundances in quartz-hosted melt inclusions and pumice matrix glass with major element geochemistry from phenocrysts to reconstruct the pre-eruptive conditions and the source and evolution of metals within the magma. Melt inclusions are slightly peraluminous topaz rhyolitic in composition and are volatile-charged (≤6 wt % H2O, ≤600 ppm CO2, ∼0·3–1·0 wt % F, ∼2300–3500 ppm Cl) and metal-rich (∼7–24 ppm Mo, ∼4–14 ppm W, ∼21–52 ppm Pb, ∼28–2700 ppm Zn, pressures of ≤300 MPa (≤8 km depth), with little to no crystallization upon shallow ascent and eruption. Filter pressing, crystal settling, magma recharge and mixing of less evolved rhyolite melt, and volatile exsolution were important processes during magma evolution; the low estimated viscosities (∼105–1010 Pa s) of these H2O- and F-rich melts probably enhanced these processes. A noteworthy discrepancy between the metal contents in the pumice matrix glass and in the melt inclusions suggests that after quartz crystallization ceased upon shallow magma ascent and eruption, the Hideaway Park magma exsolved an aqueous fluid into which Mo, Bi, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cs, and Y strongly partitioned. Given that the Henderson deposit contains anomalous abundances of not only Mo, but also W, Pb, Zn, Cu, Bi, Ag, and Mn, we suggest that these metals were sourced from similar fluids exsolved from unerupted portions of the same magmatic system. Trace element ratios imply that Mo was sourced deep, from

  5. Vectors bicistronically linking a gene of interest to the SV40 large T antigen in combination with the SV40 origin of replication enhance transient protein expression and luciferase reporter activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The Simian Virus large T antigen (SVLT) induces replication of plasmids bearing the SV40 origin of replication (SV40 ori) within mammalian cells. The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is an element that allows for the co-translation of proteins from one polycistronic mRNA. Through the combination of these elements, IRES-dependent co-expression of a protein of interest and the SVLT, either constitutive or regulated, on plasmids bearing the SV40 ori generates a positive feedback loop, result...

  6. Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale-shopping version (YBOCS-SV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Black, Donald W; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-08-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV) is considered the gold standard in the assessment of shopping severity. It is designed to assess cognitions and behaviors relating to compulsive buying behavior. The present study aims to assess the validity of the Brazilian version of this scale. For the study, composed the sample 610 participants: 588 subjects of a general population and 22 compulsive buyers. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the relations and the correlation between the YBOCS-SV, the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS), was assessed using Pearson coefficient, for study of convergent and divergent validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to assess internal consistency. The results show good to excellent psychometric parameters for the YBOCS-SV in its Brazilian version. With regard to correlations, the YBOCS-SV is inversely and proportionally correlated with CBS and the RCBS, indicating that the YBOCS-SV is an excellent instrument for screening compulsive buying. The YBOCS-SV presented high alpha coefficient of Cronbach's alpha (0.92), demonstrating good reliability. The Brazilian version of the YBOCS-SV is indicated to diagnose compulsive buying disorder, and likely use for the purposes intended in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PAN substitutions A37S, A37S/I61T and A37S/V63I attenuate the replication of H7N7 influenza A virus by impairing the polymerase and endonuclease activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Yuan, Shuofeng; Ye, Zi-Wei; Singh, Kailash; Li, Cun; Shuai, Huiping; Fai, Ng; Chow, Billy K C; Chu, Hin; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2017-03-01

    Substitutions in the PA N-terminus (PAN) of influenza A viruses are associated with viral pathogenicity. During our previous study, which identified PAN-V63I and -A37S/I61T/V63I/V100A substitutions as virulence determinants, we observed a severe decrease in virus growth and transcription/replication capacity posed by PAN-A37S/V100A substitution. To further delineate the significance of substitutions at these positions, we generated mutant H7N7 viruses bearing the substitutions PAN-A37S, -A37S/I61T, -A37S/V63I, -V100A, -I61T/V100A and -V63I/V100A by reverse genetics. Our results showed that all mutant viruses except PAN-V100A showed a significantly reduced growth capability in infected cells. At the same time, the PAN-A37S, -A37S/I61T and -A37S/V63I mutant viruses displayed decreased viral transcription and replication by diminishing virus RNA synthesis activity. Biochemical assays indicated that the substitutions PAN-A37S, -A37S/I61T and -A37S/V63I suppressed the polymerase and endonuclease activities when compared with those of the wild-type. Together, our results demonstrated that the PAN-A37S, -A37S/I61T and -A37S/V63I substitutions contributed to a decreased pathogenicity of avian H7N7 influenza A virus.

  8. Discovery of heterocyclic nonacetamide synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) ligands with single-digit nanomolar potency: opening avenues towards the first SV2A positron emission tomography (PET) ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Joël; Archen, Laurence; Bollu, Véronique; Carré, Stéphane; Evrard, Yves; Jnoff, Eric; Kenda, Benoît; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Michel, Philippe; Montel, Florian; Moureau, Florence; Price, Nathalie; Quesnel, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Valade, Anne; Provins, Laurent

    2014-04-01

    The role of the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) protein, target of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam, is still mostly unknown. Considering its potential to provide in vivo functional insights into the role of SV2A in epileptic patients, the development of an SV2A positron emission tomography (PET) tracer has been undertaken. Using a 3D pharmacophore model based on close analogues of levetiracetam, we report the rationale design of three heterocyclic non-acetamide lead compounds, UCB-A, UCB-H and UCB-J, the first single-digit nanomolar SV2A ligands with suitable properties for development as PET tracers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Positive regulatory role of sound vibration treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bosung; Ghosh, Ritesh; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Jeon, Junhyun; Kim, Jonggeun; Park, Soo-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Han, Kyung-Hwan; Bae, Dong-Won; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-05-30

    Sound vibration (SV), a mechanical stimulus, can trigger various molecular and physiological changes in plants like gene expression, hormonal modulation, induced antioxidant activity and calcium spiking. It also alters the seed germination and growth of plants. In this study, we investigated the effects of SV on the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea infection. The microarray analysis was performed on infected Arabidopsis plants pre-exposed to SV of 1000 Hertz with 100 decibels. Broadly, the transcriptomic analysis revealed up-regulation of several defense and SA-responsive and/or signaling genes. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of selected genes also validated the induction of SA-mediated response in the infected Arabidopsis plants pre-exposed to SV. Corroboratively, hormonal analysis identified the increased concentration of salicylic acid (SA) in the SV-treated plants after pathogen inoculation. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA) level in the SV-treated plants remained stable but lower than control plants during the infection. Based on these findings, we propose that SV treatment invigorates the plant defense system by regulating the SA-mediated priming effect, consequently promoting the SV-induced resistance in Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

  10. RELJEFI S PRIKAZIMA HERAKLOVIH DJELA U CRKVI SV. KAJA U SOLINU

    OpenAIRE

    Jeličić-Radonić, Jasna

    2005-01-01

    U crkvi sv. Kaja u Solinu nalazi se rimski "sarkofag" s prikazom Heraklovih djela, izvorno isklesan u litici unutar male spilje. Spomenik u obliku sanduka u neposrednoj blizini zapadne salonitanske nekropole bio je presudan da se u dosadašnjoj literaturi protumači kao antički sarkofag. Budući da je podzemni potok izvirao u spilji, a voda se skupljala u kamenom recipijentu s Heraklovim reljefima, odakle je otjecala, autorica prepoznaje Heraklovo svetište u prirodi. Tradicija o posvećenoj vodi ...

  11. Reflection of P and SV waves at the free surface of a monoclinic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging)1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    d2/d3 = V/(ρc2 − U)=(ρc2 − Z)/V. (12). Therefore, ρc2 satisfies the quadratic equation ρ2c4 − (U + Z)ρc2 + (UZ − V 2)=0,. (13a) with solutions. 2ρc2(p2,p3)=(U + Z) ± [(U − Z)2 + 4V 2]1/2. (13b). The upper sign in equation (13b) is for qP waves and the lower sign is for qSV waves. Eliminating ρc2 from the two equations in (12),.

  12. CCD Photometry of Field RR Lyrae Stars. I. Period Changes of SV ERI and XX and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myung Joo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available CCD time series photometry was performed for two Oosterhoff type II± field RR Lyrae stars, SV Eri and XX And, to construct light curves in B and V bands. The maximum light times from our observations were combined with those in the literature to construct phase shift diagrams, from which we determined the period change rates β. We obtained large positive period change rates for these stars, which are expected from current evolutionary models if these stars are evolving rapidly from blue to red toward the end of core helium burning phase.

  13. Estimating surface reflectance from Himawari-8/AHI reflectance channels Using 6SV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-sang; Choi, Sungwon; Seo, Minji; Seong, Noh-hun; Han, Kyung-soo

    2017-04-01

    TOA (Top Of Atmospheric) reflectance observed by satellite is modified by the influence of atmosphere such as absorbing and scattering by molecular and gasses. Removing TOA reflectance attenuation which is caused by the atmospheric is essential. surface reflectance with compensated atmospheric effects used as important input data for land product such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Land Surface Albedo (LSA) and etc. In this study, we Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum Vector (6SV) Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) for atmospheric correction and estimating surface reflectance from Himawari-8/Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) reflectance channels. 6SV has the advantage that it has high accuracy by performing the atmospheric correction by dividing the width of the satellite channel by 2.5 nm, but it is slow to use in the operation. So, we use LUT approach to reduce the computation time and avoid the intensive calculation required for retrieving surface reflectance. Estimated surface reflectance data were compared with PROBA-V S1 data to evaluate the accuracy. As a result Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and bias were about 0.05 and -0.02. It is considered that this error is due to the difference of angle component and Spectral Response Function (SRF) of each channel.

  14. Aplikace svítivých diod v osvětlovací technice

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Bakalářská práce pojednává o základních principech LED zdrojů a jejich napájení, charakteristice těchto zdrojů ve vztahu k aplikaci ve svítidlech, dále pak o možnostech aplikace\\break v praxi a ekonomickému přínosu LED technologie. K tomuto tématu je čerpáno z převážně internetových zdrojů a to proto, že výrobci a distributoři osvětlovací techniky na bázi LED jako jsou například firmy Osram, Siteco, Philips, Bergquist, Cree, LEDfield a další poskytují na svých internetových stránkách dostateč...

  15. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Douaud

    Full Text Available Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans.

  16. Vectors bicistronically linking a gene of interest to the SV40 large T antigen in combination with the SV40 origin of replication enhance transient protein expression and luciferase reporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    The simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) induces replication of plasmids bearing the SV40 origin of replication (SV40 ori) within mammalian cells. The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is an element that allows for the cotranslation of proteins from one polycistronic mRNA. Through the combination of these elements, IRES-dependent coexpression of a protein of interest and the SVLT, either constitutive or regulated, on plasmids bearing the SV40 ori generates a positive feedback loop, resulting in enhanced expression. A vector linking red fluorescent protein (RFP) to the IRES-SVLT element enhances fluorescence ~10-fold over that demonstrated from a vector lacking this element. In transfection-resistant CV-1 cells, the RFP-IRES-SVLT vector substantially increases the number of cells expressing detectable levels of RFP. Furthermore, inclusion of the IRES-SVLT/SV40 ori elements in standard luciferase-based reporter gene constructs and associated effectors results in marked increases in luminescent output and sensitivity, using the β-catenin/TCF pathway and the mammalian two-hybrid assay as models. Ultimately, vector systems combining these well-established elements (IRES-SVLT/SV40 ori) will increase the utility of transient transfection for the production of recombinant proteins, the use of transfection-resistant cell lines, and the effectiveness of luciferase-based high-throughput screening assays.

  17. Transformation of SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cells by 3-methylcholanthrene increases IFN- and Large T Antigen-induced transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easton Marilyn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Virus 40 (SV40 immortalization followed by treatment of cells with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC has been used to elicit tumors in athymic mice. 3-MC carcinogenesis has been thoroughly studied, however gene-level interactions between 3-MC and SV40 that could have produced the observed tumors have not been explored. The commercially-available human uroepithelial cell lines were either SV40-immortalized (HUC or SV40-immortalized and then 3-MC-transformed (HUC-TC. Results To characterize the SV40 - 3MC interaction, we compared human gene expression in these cell lines using a human cancer array and confirmed selected changes by RT-PCR. Many viral Large T Antigen (Tag expression-related changes occurred in HUC-TC, and it is concluded that SV40 and 3-MC may act synergistically to transform cells. Changes noted in IFP 9-27, 2'-5' OAS, IF 56, MxA and MxAB were typical of those that occur in response to viral exposure and are part of the innate immune response. Because interferon is crucial to innate immune host defenses and many gene changes were interferon-related, we explored cellular growth responses to exogenous IFN-γ and found that treatment impeded growth in tumor, but not immortalized HUC on days 4 - 7. Cellular metabolism however, was inhibited in both cell types. We conclude that IFN-γ metabolic responses were functional in both cell lines, but IFN-γ anti-proliferative responses functioned only in tumor cells. Conclusions Synergism of SV40 with 3-MC or other environmental carcinogens may be of concern as SV40 is now endemic in 2-5.9% of the U.S. population. In addition, SV40-immortalization is a generally-accepted method used in many research materials, but the possibility of off-target effects in studies carried out using these cells has not been considered. We hope that our work will stimulate further study of this important phenomenon.

  18. Age-related changes in the motricity of the inbred mice strains 129/sv and C57BL/6j.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Najet; Jamon, Marc

    2007-02-12

    The development of motor skills was studied at different stages in the life of the mouse, focusing on three key aspects of motor development: early rhythmic motor activities prior to the acquisition of quadruped locomotion, motor skills in young adults, and the effect of aging on motor skills. The age-related development pattern was analysed and compared in two strains of major importance for genomic studies (C57Bl6/j and 129/sv). Early rhythmic air-stepping activities by l-dopa injected mice showed similar overall development in both strains; differences were observed with greater beating frequency and less inter-limb coordination in 129/sv, suggesting that 129/sv had a different maturation process. Performance on the rotarod by young adult C57Bl6/j gradually improved between 1 and 3 months, but then declined with age; performance on the treadmill also declined with an age-related increase in fatigability. Overall performance by 129/sv mice was lower than C57Bl6/j, and the age-related pattern of change was different, with 129/sv having relatively stable performance over time. Inter-strain differences and their possible causes, in particular the role of dopaminergic pathways, are discussed together with repercussions affecting mutant phenotyping procedures.

  19. The adaptation of limb kinematics to increasing walking speeds in freely moving mice 129/Sv and C57BL/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Nadjet; Jamon, Marc

    2009-07-19

    The kinematics of locomotion was analyzed in two strains of great importance for the creation of mutated mice (C56BL/6 and 129/Sv). Different behavioral situations were used to trigger sequences of movement covering the whole range of velocities in the mice, and the variations of kinematic parameters were analyzed in relation with velocity. Both stride frequency and stride length contributed to the moving speed, but stride frequency was found to be the main contributor to the speed increase. A trot-gallop transition was detected at speed about 70 cm/s, in relation with a sharp shift in limb coordination. The results of this study were consistent with pieces of information previously published concerning the gait analyses of other strains, and provided an integrative view of the basic motor pattern of mice. On the other hand some qualitative differences were found in the movement characteristics of the two strains. The stride frequency showed a higher contribution to speed in 129/Sv than in C57BL/6. In addition, 129/Sv showed a phase shift in the forelimb and hindlimb, and a different position of the foot during the stance time that revealed a different gait and body position during walking. Overall, 129/Sv moved at a slower speed than C57BL/6 in any behavioral situation. This difference was related to a basal lower level of motor activity. The possibility that an alteration in the dopamine circuit was responsible for the different movement pattern in 129/Sv is discussed.

  20. Cytopathic effect of Human cosavirus (HCoSV) on primary cell cultures of human embryonic lung MRC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Dorra; Touzi, Henda; Meddeb, Zina; Triki, Henda

    2014-10-01

    Human cosaviruses (HCoSVs) are newly discovered viruses in Picornaviridae family. Until now, most published studies reported HCoSV detection using molecular techniques and genetic characterization of the virus. Nevertheless, no laboratory has yet reported the replication of these viruses in cultured cell lines. In the present work, the propagation of HCoSV strains isolated from human fecal specimens in MRC5 cell line and their induced cytopathic effects (CPE) was studied. The first sign of virus growth was observed 24-48h after inoculation. The cells rounded up and clumped together rapidly; empty areas became visible and, on the third day of CPE, a remarkable decrease in live cells was observed. This represents the first report on in vitro model of HCoSV replication which opens up opportunities for future investigations of these new viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the interaction of SV2A with racetams using homology modelling, molecular dynamics and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Lee

    Full Text Available The putative Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS transporter, SV2A, is the target for levetiracetam (LEV, which is a successful anti-epileptic drug. Furthermore, SV2A knock out mice display a severe seizure phenotype and die after a few weeks. Despite this, the mode of action of LEV is not known at the molecular level. It would be extremely desirable to understand this more fully in order to aid the design of improved anti-epileptic compounds. Since there is no structure for SV2A, homology modelling can provide insight into the ligand-binding site. However, it is not a trivial process to build such models, since SV2A has low sequence identity to those MFS transporters whose structures are known. A further level of complexity is added by the fact that it is not known which conformational state of the receptor LEV binds to, as multiple conformational states have been inferred by tomography and ligand binding assays or indeed, if binding is exclusive to a single state. Here, we explore models of both the inward and outward facing conformational states of SV2A (according to the alternating access mechanism for MFS transporters. We use a sequence conservation analysis to help guide the homology modelling process and generate the models, which we assess further with Molecular Dynamics (MD. By comparing the MD results in conjunction with docking and simulation of a LEV-analogue used in radioligand binding assays, we were able to suggest further residues that line the binding pocket. These were confirmed experimentally. In particular, mutation of D670 leads to a complete loss of binding. The results shed light on the way LEV analogues may interact with SV2A and may help with the on-going design of improved anti-epileptic compounds.

  2. Discovery and development of SV2A PET tracers: Potential for imaging synaptic density and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Joel; Provins, Laurent; Valade, Anne

    2017-11-01

    Imaging synaptic density in vivo has promise for numerous research and clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Recent developments in the field of PET, such as SV2A human imaging with the novel tracers UCB-A, UCB-H and UCB-J, may help in realizing this potential and bring significant benefit for the patients suffering from these diseases. This review provides an overview of the most recent progress in the field of SV2A PET imaging, its potential for use as a biomarker of synaptic density and the future development areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.; Lednicky, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus of rhesus macaque origin, was discovered in 1960 as a contaminant of polio vaccines that were distributed to millions of people from 1955 through early 1963. SV40 is a potent DNA tumor virus that induces tumors in rodents and transforms many types of cells in culture, including those of human origin. This virus has been a favored laboratory model for mechanistic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and of cellular transformation. The viral replication protein, named large T antigen (T-ag), is also the viral oncoprotein. There is a single serotype of SV40, but multiple strains of virus exist that are distinguishable by nucleotide differences in the regulatory region of the viral genome and in the part of the T-ag gene that encodes the protein's carboxyl terminus. Natural infections in monkeys by SV40 are usually benign but may become pathogenic in immunocompromised animals, and multiple tissues can be infected. SV40 can replicate in certain types of simian and human cells. SV40-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated polio vaccines. SV40 DNA has been identified in some normal human tissues, and there are accumulating reports of detection of SV40 DNA and/or T-ag in a variety of human tumors. This review presents aspects of replication and cell transformation by SV40 and considers their implications for human infections and disease pathogenesis by the virus. Critical assessment of virologic and epidemiologic data suggests a probable causative role for SV40 in certain human cancers, but additional studies are necessary to prove etiology.

  4. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Masaaki [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Morikawa, Katsuma [Department of Biological Information, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Suda, Tatsuya [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Ohno, Naohito [Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Matsushita, Sho [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Allergy Center, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Akatsuka, Toshitaka [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: handa.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Solutions Research Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Matsui, Masanori, E-mail: mmatsui@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties.

  5. Generation of a Vero-Based Packaging Cell Line to Produce SV40 Gene Delivery Vectors for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel G. Toscano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication-defective (RD recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen. SuperVero cells produce similar numbers of SV40 vector particles compared to the currently used packaging cell lines, albeit in the absence of contaminating RC SV40 particles. Our unique SV40 vector platform named SVac paves the way to clinically test a whole new generation of SV40-based therapeutics for a broad range of important diseases.

  6. Use of 2sv-technology for thermal utilisation of biomass according to biomass regulation; Einsatz der 2sv-Technologie zur thermischen Verwertung von Biomasse gemaess der Biomasseverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, R. [Mitteldeutsche Feuerungs- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Mallon, J. [Ingitec GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Scheidig, K.

    2001-07-01

    The 2sv-procedure represents an economic alternative to energetic utilisation of biomass and to thermal utilisation of waste. Core piece of the new plant technology is the 2sv-reactor. The speciality of the process is the melting gasification of the used materials with technical oxygen. The metallurgic process technology that is well-known and proved from shaft furnaces is used and thus temperatures of up to 2000 degrees Celsius are reached in a reducing atmosphere. The generated fuel gas has the characteristics of synthesis gas. It is not only suitable for electric current generation in dual purpose power plants but also for the substitution of primary energy carriers in furnace plants. The company MFU GmbH Leipzig-Holzhausen delivers 2vs-plants in modular design for processing capacities of 10, 20 and 30 kt/a. (orig.) [German] Das 2sv-Verfahren stellt eine wirtschaftliche Alternative zur energetischen Nutzung von Biomassen wie auch zur thermischen Abfallverwertung dar. Herzstueck der neuen Anlagentechnik ist der 2sv-Reaktor. Die Besonderheiten des Prozesses bestehen in der Schmelzvergasung der Einsatzstoffe unter Einsatz von technischem Sauerstoff. Unter Nutzung der vom Schachtofen bekannten und bewaehrten metallurgischen Verfahrenstechnik werden dabei Temperaturen bis 2000 C in reduzierender Atmosphaere erreicht. Das erzeugte Brenngas besitzt Synthesegasqualitaet. Es ist sowohl zur Stromerzeugung im BHKW als auch zur Substitution von Primaerenergietraegern in Feuerungsanlagen geeignet. Die MFU GmbH Leipzig-Holzhausen liefert komplette 2sv-Anlagen in Modulbauweise fuer Verarbeitungskapazitaeten von 10, 30 und 50 kt/a. (orig.)

  7. One-mSv CT colonography: Effect of different iterative reconstruction algorithms on radiologists' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cheong-Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Yu, Mi Hye; Lee, Eun Sun; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on image noise and radiologists' performance at ultra-low dose CT colonography (CTC) in human subjects. This retrospective study had institutional review board approval, with waiver of the need to obtain informed consent. CTC and subsequent colonoscopy were performed at the same day in 28 patients. CTC was scanned at the supine/prone positions using 120/100kVp and fixed 10mAs, and reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based IR (Veo) algorithms. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and effective radiation doses were recorded. Image noise was compared among the three datasets using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Per-polyp sensitivity and figure-of-merits were compared among the datasets using the McNemar test and jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis, respectively, by one novice and one expert reviewer in CTC. Mean SSDE and effective radiation dose of CTC were 1.732mGy and 1.002mSv, respectively. Mean image noise at supine/prone position datasets was significantly lowest with Veo (17.2/13.3), followed by ASIR (52.4/38.9) and FBP (69.9/50.8) (Preconstruction (81.0%, 64.3%), followed by ASIR (73.8%, 54.8%) and FBP (57.1%, 50.0%) with statistical significance between Veo and FBP for reader 1 (P=0.002). JAFROC analysis revealed that the figure-of-merit for the detection of polyps was highest with Veo (0.917, 0.786), followed by ASIR (0.881, 0.750) and FBP (0.750, 0.746) with statistical significances between Veo or ASIR and FBP for reader 1 (P<0.05). One-mSv CTC was not feasible using the standard FBP algorithm. However, diagnostic performance expressed as per-polyp sensitivity and figures-of-merit can be improved with the application of IR algorithms, particularly Veo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycosylated SV2 and Gangliosides as Dual Receptors for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zhuji; Chen, Chen; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R.; (MCW)

    2010-02-22

    Botulinum neurotoxin causes rapid flaccid paralysis through the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The seven BoNT serotypes (A-G) have been proposed to bind motor neurons via ganglioside-protein dual receptors. To date, the structure-function properties of BoNT/F host receptor interactions have not been resolved. Here, we report the crystal structures of the receptor binding domains (HCR) of BoNT/A and BoNT/F and the characterization of the dual receptors for BoNT/F. The overall polypeptide fold of HCR/A is essentially identical to the receptor binding domain of the BoNT/A holotoxin, and the structure of HCR/F is very similar to that of HCR/A, except for two regions implicated in neuronal binding. Solid phase array analysis identified two HCR/F binding glycans: ganglioside GD1a and oligosaccharides containing an N-acetyllactosamine core. Using affinity chromatography, HCR/F bound native synaptic vesicle glycoproteins as part of a protein complex. Deglycosylation of glycoproteins using {alpha}(1-3,4)-fucosidase, endo-{beta}-galactosidase, and PNGase F disrupted the interaction with HCR/F, while the binding of HCR/B to its cognate receptor, synaptotagmin I, was unaffected. These data indicate that the HCR/F binds synaptic vesicle glycoproteins through the keratan sulfate moiety of SV2. The interaction of HCR/F with gangliosides was also investigated. HCR/F bound specifically to gangliosides that contain {alpha}2,3-linked sialic acid on the terminal galactose of a neutral saccharide core (binding order GT1b = GD1a GM3; no binding to GD1b and GM1a). Mutations within the putative ganglioside binding pocket of HCR/F decreased binding to gangliosides, synaptic vesicle protein complexes, and primary rat hippocampal neurons. Thus, BoNT/F neuronal discrimination involves the recognition of ganglioside and protein (glycosylated SV2) carbohydrate moieties, providing a structural basis for the high affinity and specificity of BoNT/F for neurons.

  9. Identification of potential drug targets in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium using metabolic modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Hassan B.; Fell, David A.; Rossell, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium is an established model organism for Gram-negative, intracellular pathogens. Owing to the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics among this group of pathogens, new approaches to identify suitable target proteins are required. Based on the genome sequence of ...

  10. Musikterapi med børn med svær autisme - en litteraturgennemgang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Holck

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Faglitteratur om musikterapi med børn med autisme er omfattende og indeholder såvel kvalitative case-beskrivelser som kvantitative forskningsundersøgelser. I artiklen gennemgås faglitteraturen systematisk med henblik på at specifi cere musikterapiens effekt og virkemåder i forhold til denne målgruppe. Vægten ligger på børn med svær autisme, men litteratur om voksne højtfungerende personer med autisme inddrages også. Forskningslitteraturen viser, at det især er inden for områderne koncentration, visuel opmærksomhed, respons og initiativ, samt brug af stemme og tur-tagning, at musikterapi har en effekt. Case-litteraturen begrunder denne effekt med musikkens evne til at være redundant, anvendelse af imitation og responsfremmende teknikker (overraskelse etc., fælles opbyggede samspilsformer, samt det temporale-interaktive element i improvisatorisk musikterapi. Ud fra en interaktionsteoretisk indfaldsvinkel sammenkobles effekten endvidere med, at den musikalske interaktion hjælper musikterapeuten til at fastholde et dynamisk udtryk, hvilket er afgørende i forhold til en klientgruppe, der ofte giver ´flad´ eller stærkt afvigende feedback.

  11. A human corneal equivalent constructed from SV40-immortalised corneal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Tykhonova, Svitlana; Belge, Gazanfer; Bednarz, Jürgen; Diehl, Horst A; Engelke, Maria

    2005-02-01

    Within the last decade, extensive research in the field of tissue and organ engineering has focused on the development of in vitro models of the cornea. The use of organotypic, three-dimensional corneal equivalents has several advantages over simple monolayer cultures. The aim of this study was to develop a corneal equivalent model composed of the same cell types as in the natural human tissue, but by using immortalised cell lines to ensure reproducibility and to minimise product variation. We report our success in the establishment of an SV40-immortalised human corneal keratocyte cell line (designated HCK). A collagen matrix, built up with these cells, displayed the morphological characteristics of the human stromal tissue and served as a biomatrix for the immortalised human corneal epithelial and endothelial cells. Histological cross-sections of the whole-cornea equivalents resemble human corneas in tissue structure. This organotypic in vitro model may serve as a research tool for the ophthalmic science community, as well as a model system for testing for eye irritancy and drug efficacy.

  12. SV40-transformed human corneal keratocytes: optimisation of serum-free culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Anna Katharina; Lombardi-Borgia, Simone; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Seeber, Judith; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Engelke, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the replacement of animal experiments in eye irritation testing, we have established a multilay ered cornea model comprising the co-culture of all three corneal cell types. It was the objective of this study to optimise serum-free culture conditions to preserve both growth and phenotype of an SV40-immortalised human corneal keratocyte cell line (HCK). Our results revealed that HCK continue to proliferate in both monolayer cultures as well as after seeding in a collagen matrix and resemble primary corneal keratocytes in morphology and functional characteristics under defined serum-free conditions. Furthermore, HCK were shown to transform into activated corneal fibroblast phenotypes in response to serum and TGF(beta)1. In summary, HCK cells mimic their in vivo (primary) precursors, both in sustaining the quiescent keratocyte phenotype (serum-starved conditions) and in responding to growth factor stimulation. Hence, this cell line may provide a useful tool to study the toxicity and wound healing response of corneal keratocytes in vitro.

  13. DYNAMIC INFLUENCE CAUSED BY CLOSE BLASTING ON PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SUPPORT SYSTEM IN TUNNEL "SV. ROK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Ester

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available At the construction site of the road tunnel Sv. Rok, the second, left tunnels tube is being constructed parallel to the unfinished right tunnel. The part of right tunnel tube is supported with primary support system according to NAMT, the second part is supported complete with concrete. Distance between axes of the tunnel tubes is approximately 35 m. Drifting of the left tube is being done by blasting. A potential problem of damaging the surrounding rock and support system was recognized. It is well known that the ground vibration particle velocity due to a blast is a measure of damage on the nearby construction. The three component seismographs were used to measure ground oscillation velocities in the right tunnel tube. Total of 30 measurements were executed and 720 values were processed (including all three component oscillation velocities. Maximum ground oscillation velocity recorded was 232.061 mm/s. This paper brings conclusion derived from monitoring data achieved at close proximity to the blasting area, damage level criteria for the rock mass and support system and discusses how these results could assist further development in the control of blasting technique.

  14. Abrogation of p53-mediated transactivation by SV40 large T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, K; Minowa, A; Sugasawa, K; Takano, T; Hanaoka, F

    1993-03-01

    p53 is known to bind specifically to the 44-bp human DNA sequence in an immunoprecipitation assay. We show here that the transcription of the reporter CAT gene linked with the herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) promoter containing the 44-base sequence is enhanced by mouse wild-type but not mutant-type p53 in F9 and p53-null Saos-2 cells. The p53-mediated transactivation was dramatically abrogated by introduction of SV40 large T antigen (SVLT) in Saos-2 cells in which p53 was clearly associated with SVLT. Furthermore, the p53-SVLT complex did not bind to the 44-base sequence at all. Thus, SVLT sequesters the transactivation function of the wild-type p53 by inhibiting the binding of p53 to the 44-base sequence. This is good evidence to show 'loss of functions' in the product of a tumor-suppressor oncogene by a dominant oncogene product at a molecular level.

  15. Replication of pSV2-gpt in COS-1 cells: stability of plasmid DNA in the presence and absence of biochemical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L C; Breitman, M L

    1985-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that COS-1 cell lines transformed by pSV2-gpt and maintained under biochemical selection replicate multiple copies of extrachromosomal plasmid DNA (1). We have now examined the replication and stability of this DNA in a representative cell line. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that intense replication of pSV2-gpt occurs in only a small subpopulation of cells and results from bursts of plasmid replication that occur periodically and spontaneously in the cell population. This suggests that COS-1 cells are only semipermissive for pSV2-gpt replication. No correlation was observed between levels of pSV2-gpt replication and the presence or absence of biochemical selection for the Gpt marker. However, growth of cells under nonselective conditions led to a rapid and progressive loss of pSV2-gpt DNA. This loss correlated with segregation of Gpt- revertants that lacked detectable plasmid sequences. Hence, maintenance of pSV2-gpt in the cell line was dependent on continuous biochemical selection. Stable replication of pSV2-gpt could be observed as late as four months after transfection, suggesting that this system might be useful for propagation of cloned DNA in COS-1 cells for extended periods of time. However, by nine months, extensive rearrangements of pSV2-gpt sequences were detected, indicating ultimate instability of the plasmid in the host cells.

  16. SARS-CoV-Encoded Small RNAs Contribute to Infection-Associated Lung Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucía; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Fernandez-Delgado, Raúl; tenOever, Benjamin Robert; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2017-03-08

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes lethal disease in humans, which is characterized by exacerbated inflammatory response and extensive lung pathology. To address the relevance of small non-coding RNAs in SARS-CoV pathology, we deep sequenced RNAs from the lungs of infected mice and discovered three 18-22 nt small viral RNAs (svRNAs). The three svRNAs were derived from the nsp3 (svRNA-nsp3.1 and -nsp3.2) and N (svRNA-N) genomic regions of SARS-CoV. Biogenesis of CoV svRNAs was RNase III, cell type, and host species independent, but it was dependent on the extent of viral replication. Antagomir-mediated inhibition of svRNA-N significantly reduced in vivo lung pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Taken together, these data indicate that svRNAs contribute to SARS-CoV pathogenesis and highlight the potential of svRNA-N antagomirs as antivirals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Definition and evolution of a new symbiovar, sv. rigiduloides, among Ensifer meliloti efficiently nodulating Medicago species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubry-Rangin, Cécile; Béna, Gilles; Cleyet-Marel, Jean-Claude; Brunel, Brigitte

    2013-10-01

    Understanding functional diversity is one of the main goals of microbial ecology, and definition of new bacterial ecotypes contributes significantly to this objective. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria provide a good system for investigation of ecotypes/biovars/symbiovars, as they present different specific associations with several host plants. This specific symbiosis is reflected both in the nodulation and fixation efficiency and in genetic characters of the bacteria, and several biovars have already been described in the bacterial species Ensifer meliloti. In the present study, the species affiliation of E. meliloti strains trapped from nodules sampled from Medicago rigiduloïdes roots was analyzed using housekeeping recA genes and DNA-DNA hybridization. The genetic diversity of these isolates was also investigated using several symbiotic markers: nodulation (nodA, nodB, nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) genes, as well as the performance of phenotypic tests of nodulation capacity and nitrogen fixation efficiency. These analyses led to the proposal of a new bacterial symbiovar, E. meliloti sv. rigiduloides, that fixed nitrogen efficiently on M. rigiduloïdes, but not on Medicago truncatula. Using phylogenetic reconstructions, including the different described symbiovars, several hypotheses of lateral gene transfer and gene loss are proposed to explain the emergence of symbiovars within this species. The widespread geographical distribution of this symbiovar around the Mediterranean Basin, in contrast to restriction of M. rigiduloïdes to Eastern European countries, suggests that these isolates might also be associated with other plant species. The description of a new symbiovar within E. meliloti confirms the need for accurate bacterial ecological classification, especially for analysis of bacterial populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Når det er svært at være ung i DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik

    Når det er svært at være ung i DK – viden og råd om unges trivsel og mistrivsel er afslutningen på et større forskningsprojekt om unges trivsel og mistrivsel. Hæftet præsenterer forskningsprojektets hovedkonklusioner og giver desuden en række råd og ideer til, hvordan voksne kan hjælpe unge med...... at håndtere mistrivsel. Hæftet er udarbejdet af forskerne Jens Christian Nielsen og Niels Ulrik Sørensen fra Center for Ungdomsforskning. Det er den sidste publikation i forskningsprojektet Når det er svært at være ung i DK, der fra 2008-2011 har belyst unges trivsel og mistrivsel. Projektet bygger både på en...

  19. Når det er svært at være ung i DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Grubb, Ane

    I rapporten Når det er svært at være ung i DK – unges beretninger om mistrivsel og ungdomsliv præsenteres resultaterne af et kvalitativt studie af mistrivsel og ungdomsliv blandt 15-24-årige unge i Danmark. Studiet bygger på dybdegående interviews med 33 unge fra forskellige dele af landet, der...... fortæller om deres erfaringer med diverse mistrivselsformer, som ensomhed, selvskadende adfærd og mobning, og om deres besvær med at håndtere de krav, udfordringer og muligheder, der i øvrigt præger det moderne ungdomsliv. Studiet indgår i det treårige forskningsprojekt Når det er svært at være ung i DK...

  20. MOĆI SV. IVANA – TROGIRSKI PALADIJ ZALOŽEN U ZADRU (FILIGRAN U RIZNICAMA DALMATINSKIH KATEDRALA)

    OpenAIRE

    Belamarić, Joško

    2000-01-01

    Koncem 14. stoljeća Trogirani bijahu prisiljeni založiti moćnik ruke svog zaštitnika u Zadar. Već 1399. odlučuju se ne samo otkupiti svoj moćnik i restaurirati ga, nego po izvornoj ruci naručiti novu u zadarskog zlatara Emerika Krenjića, koju on zbog smrti u lipnju 1400. nije dovršio. Izvorna ruka sv. Ivana Trogirskoga, koju je trebao kopirati, bila je remek-djelo mletačkog zlatarstva iz 1270-ih godina. Daju se i novi prijedlozi za datiranje filigrana na moćnicima ruku i glave sv. Vlaha u Dub...

  1. Konstrukce genderové identity v seriálu Dokonalý svět

    OpenAIRE

    Mlynářová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the instruments of gender stereotypes reproduction and gender identity construction in Czech TV series Dokonalý svět. Is the media content gendered? With which instruments of gender stereotypes reproduction and gender identity construction is TV viewer confronted and on which levels? I use the theory of social construction of reality, the theory of the lenses of gender or the characters and narrative structure of the TV series (soup opera) to come to a conclusion. The thes...

  2. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Når det er svært at være ung i DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Ozmec, Martha Nina

    det er svært at være ung i DK, som Center for Ungdomsforskning udfører med støtte fra Egmont Fonden. Rapporten bygger på telefoninterviews med 3.481 unge, der udgør et repræsentativt udsnit af alle 15-24-årige unge i Danmark. I rapporten forfølges de unges trivsel og mistrivsel gennem to spor: 1) Et...

  4. Branching ratios, CP asymmetries and polarizations of B → ψ(2S)V decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui, Zhou [North China University of Science and Technology, College of Sciences, Tangshan (China); Li, Ya; Xiao, Zhen-Jun [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-09-15

    We analyze the non-leptonic decays B/B{sub s} → ψ(2S)V with V = (ρ, ω, K*, φ) by employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach. Here the branching ratios, the CP asymmetries and the complete set of polarization observables are investigated systematically. Besides the traditional contributions from the factorizable and non-factorizable diagrams at the leading order, the next-to-leading order (NLO) vertex corrections could also provide considerable contributions. The pQCD predictions for the branching ratios of the B{sub (s)} → ψ(2S)K*, ψ(2S)φ decays are consistent with the measured values within errors. As for B → ψ(2S)ρ, ψ(2S)ω decays, the branching ratios can reach the order of 10{sup -5} and could be measured in the LHCb and Belle-II experiments. The numerical results show that the direct CP asymmetries of the considered decays are very small. Thus the observation of any large direct CP asymmetry for these decays will be a signal for new physics. The mixing-induced CP asymmetries in the neutral modes are very close to sin 2β{sub (s)}, which suggests that these channels can give a cross-check on the measurement of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) angle β and β{sub s}. We find that the longitudinal polarization fractions f{sub 0} are suppressed to ∝ 50% due to the large non-factorizable contributions. The magnitudes and phases of the two transverse amplitudes A {sub parallel} and A {sub perpendicular} {sub to} are roughly equal, which is an indication for the approximate light-quark helicity conservation in these decays. The overall polarization observables of B → ψ(2S)K{sup *0} and B{sub s} → ψ(2S)φ channels are also in good agreement with the experimental measurements as reported by LHCb and BaBar. Other results can also be tested by the LHCb and Belle-II experiments. (orig.)

  5. Subcellular localization of SV2 and other secretory vesicle components in PC12 cells by an efficient method of preembedding EM immunocytochemistry for cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, V A; Ploug, Thorkil; Tao-Cheng, J H

    1996-01-01

    substantially improved the efficiency of the preembedding EM ICC procedures for cell cultures. The advantages and related caveats of this method are discussed. SV2 was distinctly localized on dusters of synaptic vesicles and large dense-cored vesicles (LDCV). The distribution of SV2 on these two types...... membranes. Furthermore, whereas SV2 is localized on the membranes of the LDCVs, chromogranin A, an acidic protein in secretory granules, is clearly in the core of the LDCVs. This is the first demonstration of these two antigens in such dose (approximately 20 nm) yet distinct compartments within a single...

  6. Tidlig identifikation og behandling af kredsløbssvigt ved svær sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; White, Jonathan; Perner, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a leading cause of death characterised by infection-induced endothelial and cardiac dysfunction leading to hypovolaemia, maldistribution of flow, tissue ischaemia and organ failure. A clinical approach with focus on cardiovascular diagnostics and rational goal-directed therapy...

  7. The Role of Liver Segment-to-Spleen Volume Ratio in the Staging of Hepatic Fibrosis in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Eyal; Raskin, Stephen P; Amitai, Michal M; Kleinbaum, Yeruham; Veitsman, Ella; Weiss, Peretz; Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Berdichevski, Tania; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2017-04-01

    Accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is crucial for the management of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To evaluate the performance of liver segment-to-spleen volume ratio in predicting the severity of liver fibrosis. Sixty-four consecutive HCV patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and were divided into three groups based on their hepatic fibrosis stage evaluated by shear-wave elastography (SWE): non-advanced (F0-F1, n=29), advanced (F2, n=19) and severe fibrosis (F3-F4, n=16). Using semi-automated liver segmentation software, we calculated the following liver segments and spleen volumes for each participant: total liver volume (TLV), caudate lobe (CV), left lateral segment (LLV), left medial segment (LMV), right lobe (RV) and spleen (SV), a well as their ratios: CV/SV, RV/SV, LLV/SV, LMV/SV and TLV/SV. RV/SV was found to discriminate between patients with non-advanced and advanced fibrosis (P = 0.001), whereas SV, CV, RV, TLV/SV, LMV/SV and RV/SV discriminated between patients with advanced and severe fibrosis (P fibrosis and advanced from severe fibrosis with sensitivities of 72.2% and 92.7%, specificities of 72.7% and 77.8%, and with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.797 and 0.847, respectively (P ≤ 0.002). RV/SV may be used for the assessment and monitoring of liver fibrosis in HCV patients prior to the administration of antiviral therapy, considering SWE as the reference method.

  8. Tidlig identifikation og behandling af kredsløbssvigt ved svær sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; White, Jonathan; Perner, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a leading cause of death characterised by infection-induced endothelial and cardiac dysfunction leading to hypovolaemia, maldistribution of flow, tissue ischaemia and organ failure. A clinical approach with focus on cardiovascular diagnostics and rational goal-directed therapy...... is likely to reduce the high mortality. The treatment involves focus control, broad-spectrum antibiotics, target-oriented fluid therapy and vasopressor and inotropic agents guided by frequent reassessments of the patient's response to treatment....

  9. Effects of Enrichment and Litter Parity on Reproductive Performance and Behavior in BALB/c and 129/Sv Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Julia W; Moy, Sheryl S; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Fletcher, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of adding species-appropriate environmental enrichment items to breeding cages of BALB/cAnNCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice. The 3 enrichment conditions were: 1) cotton nesting material; 2) nesting material plus a paper shelter and rolled paper bedding; and 3) an igloo dome with an exercise wheel in addition to the shelter-group enrichments. We measured litter size, litter survival to weaning age, average pup weight at 21 d, and the interlitter interval to evaluate reproductive performance. A random subset of the first- or second-litter offspring from each enrichment condition and strain was assessed in multiple behavioral tests. Enrichment significantly affected anxiety-like behavior and sociability, with the direction of change dependent on strain and sex. Litter parity had greater effects on some reproductive parameters than did the enrichment condition, and this effect was not solely due to a difference between the first compared with subsequent litters. The significant effects of litter parity on the number of pups born and weaned, female pup weight, and interlitter interval were dependent on the enrichment condition in BALB/c but not 129/Sv mice. Offspring from the first or second litter were included in a generational component to investigate whether enrichment effects on reproduction persist in adult offspring after transfer to a different facility for breeding. Natal cage enrichment had no effect on any reproductive parameter in the transferred mice. Overall, additional enrichment beyond nesting material had a beneficial effect on the interlitter interval in BALB/c mice and on the number of pups weaned in 129/Sv mice. PMID:27423144

  10. Observational Constraints on Terpene Oxidation with and without Anthropogenic Influence in the Amazon using Speciated Measurements from SV-TAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Viegas, J.; Springston, S. R.; Wurm, F.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Machado, L.; Longo, K.; Oliveira, M. B.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the Amazon forest represent the largest regional source of organic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. These BVOC emissions dominantly consist of volatile and semi-volatile terpenoid compounds that undergo chemical transformations in the atmosphere to form oxygenated condensable gases and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, the oxidation pathways of these compounds are still not well understood, and are expected to differ significantly between "pristine" conditions, as is common in Amazonia, and polluted conditions caused by emissions from growing cities. Our focus is to elucidate how anthropogenic emissions influence BVOC chemistry and BSOA formation through speciated measurements of their oxidation products. We have deployed the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) at the rural T3 site located west of the urban center of Manaus, Brazil as part of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014 field campaign to measure hourly concentrations of semi-volatile BVOCs and their oxidation products during the wet and dry seasons. Primary BVOC concentrations measured by the SV-TAG include sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, which have rarely been speciated with high time-resolution. We observe sesquiterpenes to be anti-correlated with ozone, indicative of sesquiterpene oxidation playing a major role in the regional oxidant budget. The role of sesquiterpenes in atmospheric SOA formation are of interest due to their high aerosol yields and high reactivity with ozone, relative to more commonly measured BVOCs (e.g. monoterpenes). We explore relative concentrations of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes and their roles as precursors to SOA formation by combining SV-TAG measurements with those from an additional suite of VOC and particle measurements deployed in the Amazon. We also report the first ever hourly observations of the gas-particle partitioning of speciated terpene oxidation products in the Amazon

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of an SV40-Transformed Human Fibroblast (MRC5CVI) and Its Untransformed Counterpart (MRC-5) in Response to UVB Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Wei Chang; Chaang-Ray Chen; Chao-Ying Huang; Wun-Yi Shu; Chi-Shiun Chiang; Ji-Hong Hong; Hsu, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) transforms cells through the suppression of tumor-suppressive responses by large T and small t antigens; studies on the effects of these two oncoproteins have greatly improved our knowledge of tumorigenesis. Large T antigen promotes cellular transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previous studies have shown that not all of the tumor-suppressive responses were inactivated in SV40-transformed cells; however, the underlying cause ...

  12. A bacteriophage-related chimeric marine virus infecting abalone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhuang

    Full Text Available Marine viruses shape microbial communities with the most genetic diversity in the sea by multiple genetic exchanges and infect multiple marine organisms. Here we provide proof from experimental infection that abalone shriveling syndrome-associated virus (AbSV can cause abalone shriveling syndrome. This malady produces histological necrosis and abnormally modified macromolecules (hemocyanin and ferritin. The AbSV genome is a 34.952-kilobase circular double-stranded DNA, containing putative genes with similarity to bacteriophages, eukaryotic viruses, bacteria and endosymbionts. Of the 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs, eight ORF-encoded proteins have identifiable functional homologues. The 4 ORF products correspond to a predicted terminase large subunit and an endonuclease in bacteriophage, and both an integrase and an exonuclease from bacteria. The other four proteins are homologous to an endosymbiont-derived helicase, primase, single-stranded binding (SSB protein, and thymidylate kinase, individually. Additionally, AbSV exhibits a common gene arrangement similar to the majority of bacteriophages. Unique to AbSV, the viral genome also contains genes associated with bacterial outer membrane proteins and may lack the structural protein-encoding ORFs. Genomic characterization of AbSV indicates that it may represent a transitional form of microbial evolution from viruses to bacteria.

  13. Sjælden immundefekt bag svær atopisk dermatitis i barnealderen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Marquart, Hanne V; Laub, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    Two children are presented with autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome caused by a mutation in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene (DOCK8). The manifestations are typically severe atopic dermatitis, food allergies, elevated serum IgE concentration, viral skin infections and risk of malignancies....... DOCK8 deficiency was first reported in 2009, following the death of the oldest sibling. The youngest sibling was cured after allogenic stem cell transplantation. This case report illustrates the need of awareness of primary immunodeficiency in children with atypical manifestation of atopic dermatitis...

  14. Korrekt behandling af akut akillesseneruptur - det svære valg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Ganestam, Ann; Madsen, Bjørn Lindegård

    2015-01-01

    to an increased risk of re-rupture and operative treatment to an increased risk of other complications such as adhesions, infection and nerve injury. When a non-operative treatment protocol is chosen it is paramount that sufficient expertise is present to guide the treatment and rehabilitation.......Treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture in Denmark has changed from being predominantly operative to being non-operative treatment over the past five years. However, no clear evidence is found in the literature in favour of one treatment modality over another. Non-operative treatment leads...

  15. Numerical Study on Dynamic Response of a Horizontal Layered-Structure Rock Slope under a Normally Incident Sv Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifa Zhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several post-earthquake investigations have indicated that the slope structure plays a leading role in the stability of rock slopes under dynamic loads. In this paper, the dynamic response of a horizontal layered-structure rock slope under harmonic Sv wave is studied by making use of the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua method (FLAC. The suitability of FLAC for studying wave transmission across rock joints is validated through comparison with analytical solutions. After parametric studies on Sv wave transmission across the horizontal layered-structure rock slope, it is found that the acceleration amplification coefficient η, which is defined as the ratio of the acceleration at the monitoring point to the value at the toe, wavily increases with an increase of the height along the slope surface. Meanwhile, the fluctuation weakens with normalized joint stiffness K increasing and enhances with normalized joint spacing ξ increasing. The acceleration amplification coefficient of the slope crest ηcrest does not monotonously increase with the increase of ξ, but decreases with the increase of K. Additionally, ηcrest is more sensitive to ξ compared to K. From the contour figures, it can also be found that the contour figures of η take on rhythm, and the effects of ξ on the acceleration amplification coefficient are more obvious compared to the effects on K.

  16. Olipski fragment gotičkoga srebrnog ophodnog križa s prikazom Sv. Stošije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Kovačević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available U župnom uredu u Olibu prije nekoliko je godina pronađen zanimljiv srebrni fragment s prikazom svetice. Slijedom usporedbe sa srodnim liturgijskim predmetima utvrđuje se da je riječ o fragmentu ophodnoga križa s prikazom svetice zaštitnice olipske župe, sv. Stošije, koji je nekada bio pričvršćen u središtu njegova reversa, te se određuje njegova datacija u konac 14. st. Ikonografska je identifikacija prikazanoga lika, osim logikom mjesta nalaza, učvršćena i ikonografskom analizom prikaza sv. Stošije u romaničkoj i gotičkoj umjetnosti na području Zadra nastalih tijekom toga višestoljetnoga razdoblja, napose u zlatarstvu, te je na taj način utvrđen i svojevrstan evolutivni pomak u prikazivanju svetice koja je ujedno i zaštitnica Zadarske nadbiskupije.

  17. Dissociation of DNA damage and mitochondrial injury caused by hydrogen peroxide in SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since lung epithelial cells are constantly being exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs, the alveolar surface is a major site of oxidative stress, and each cell type may respond differently to oxidative stress. We compared the extent of oxidative DNA damage with that of mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells at the single cell level. Result DNA damage and mitochondrial injury were measured after oxidative stress in the SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cell line challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Single cell analysis of DNA damage was determined by assessing the number of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG positive cells, a marker of DNA modification, and the length of a comet tail. Mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm, was determined using JC-1. A 1 h pulse of H2O2 induced small amounts of apoptosis (3%. 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the length of the comet tail increased within 1 h of exposure to H2O2. The number of cells with reduced ΔΨm increased after the addition of H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In spite of a continual loss of ΔΨm, DNA fragmentation was reduced 2 h after exposure to H2O2. Conclusion The data suggest that SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to oxidative stress, showing that DNA damage can be dissociated from mitochondrial injury.

  18. The structure of SV40 large T hexameric helicase in complex with AT-rich origin DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Dahai; Wang, Damian; Li, Shu-Xing; Chen, Xiaojiang S

    2016-12-06

    DNA replication is a fundamental biological process. The initial step in eukaryotic DNA replication is the assembly of the pre-initiation complex, including the formation of two head-to-head hexameric helicases around the replication origin. How these hexameric helicases interact with their origin dsDNA remains unknown. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of the SV40 Large-T Antigen (LT) hexameric helicase bound to its origin dsDNA. The structure shows that the six subunits form a near-planar ring that interacts with the origin, so that each subunit makes unique contacts with the DNA. The origin dsDNA inside the narrower AAA+ domain channel shows partial melting due to the compression of the two phosphate backbones, forcing Watson-Crick base-pairs within the duplex to flip outward. This structure provides the first snapshot of a hexameric helicase binding to origin dsDNA, and suggests a possible mechanism of origin melting by LT during SV40 replication in eukaryotic cells.

  19. Dedicated sub 0.1 mSv 3DCT using MBIR in children with suspected craniosynostosis: quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Caroline W.; Hulstaert, Tine L.; Belsack, Dries; Buls, Nico; Gompel, Gert van; Nieboer, Koenraad H.; Verhelle, Filip; Maeseneer, Michel de; Mey, Johan de [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Buyl, Ronald [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-03-15

    To retrospectively compare image quality of a lowered dose CT protocol to a standard CT protocol in children with suspicion of craniosynostosis. Forty-eight patients (age 0- 35 months), who presented with a cranial deformity underwent cranial 3D CT to assess sutural patency: between 2009 - 2010, 24 patients were imaged with a standard protocol (CTDIvol 32.18 mGy), from 2011-2012, 24 underwent a low dose protocol (0.94 mGy) combined with iterative reconstruction. Image quality was evaluated by both expert reading and objective analysis. Differences were assessed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, interreader agreement by Cohen's Kappa test. Effective dose of the low dose protocol was 0.08 mSv, corresponding to a reduction of 97 %. Image quality was similar in both groups in terms of overall diagnostic acceptability, objective noise measurements, subjective cranial bone edge sharpness and presence of artefacts. For objective sharpness of cranial bone-brain interface and subjective perception of noise, the images of the low dose protocol were superior. For all evaluated structures, interreader agreement was moderate to almost perfect. In the diagnosis of craniosynostosis in children with cranial deformities, a dedicated sub 0.1 mSv cranial 3DCT protocol can be used without loss in image quality. (orig.)

  20. LOXL3-sv2, a novel variant of human lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LOXL3), functions as an amine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chankyu; Kim, Youngho

    2017-03-01

    Human lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LOXL3) functions as a copper-dependent amine oxidase toward collagen and elastin. The LOXL3 protein contains four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains in the N-terminus in addition to the C-terminal characteristic domains of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family, such as a copper-binding domain, a cytokine receptor‑like domain and residues for the lysyl-tyrosyl quinone cofactor. Using BLASTN searches, we identified a novel variant of LOXL3 (termed LOXL3-sv2), which lacked the sequences corresponding to exons 4 and 5 of LOXL3. The LOXL3-sv2 mRNA is at least 2,398 bp in length, encoding a 608 amino acid-long polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 67.4 kDa. The deletion of exons 4 and 5 do not change the open-reading frame of LOXL3 but results in deletion of the SRCR domain 2. The recombinant LOXL3-sv2 protein showed a β-aminopropionitrile-inhibitable amine oxidase activity toward collagen type I. In RT-PCR analysis, LOXL3-sv2 was detected in all human tissues tested, along with LOXL3 and LOXL3-sv1, a previously identified variant of LOXL3. These findings indicate that the human LOXL3 gene encodes at least three variants, LOXL3, LOXL3-sv1 and LOXL3-sv2, all of which function as amine oxidases.

  1. Strain differences in arsenic-induced oxidative lesion via arsenic biomethylation between C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruirui; Wu, Xiafang; Wang, Huihui; Fang, Xin; Li, Yongfang; Gao, Lanyue; Sun, Guifan; Pi, Jingbo; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2017-03-01

    Arsenic is a common environmental and occupational toxicant with dramatic species differences in its susceptibility and metabolism. Mouse strain variability may provide a better understanding of the arsenic pathological profile but is largely unknown. Here we investigated oxidative lesion induced by acute arsenic exposure in the two frequently used mouse strains C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ in classical gene targeting technique. A dose of 5 mg/kg body weight arsenic led to a significant alteration of blood glutathione towards oxidized redox potential and increased hepatic malondialdehyde content in C57BL/6J mice, but not in 129X1/SvJ mice. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes were induced by arsenic in transcription in both strains and many were higher in C57BL/6J than 129X1/SvJ mice. Arsenic profiles in the liver, blood and urine and transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in arsenic biomethylation all indicate a higher arsenic methylation capacity, which contributes to a faster hepatic arsenic excretion, in 129X1/SvJ mice than C57BL/6J mice. Taken together, C57BL/6J mice are more susceptible to oxidative hepatic injury compared with 129X1/SvJ mice after acute arsenic exposure, which is closely associated with arsenic methylation pattern of the two strains.

  2. Comparative transcriptome profiling of an SV40-transformed human fibroblast (MRC5CVI and its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5 in response to UVB irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chang

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 transforms cells through the suppression of tumor-suppressive responses by large T and small t antigens; studies on the effects of these two oncoproteins have greatly improved our knowledge of tumorigenesis. Large T antigen promotes cellular transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previous studies have shown that not all of the tumor-suppressive responses were inactivated in SV40-transformed cells; however, the underlying cause is not fully studied. In this study, we investigated the UVB-responsive transcriptome of an SV40-transformed fibroblast (MRC5CVI and that of its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5. We found that, in response to UVB irradiation, MRC-5 and MRC5CVI commonly up-regulated the expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes. MRC-5 up-regulated the expressions of chromosome condensation, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic genes, but MRC5CVI did not. Further cell death assays indicated that MRC5CVI was more sensitive than MRC-5 to UVB-induced cell death with increased caspase-3 activation; combining with the transcriptomic results suggested that MRC5CVI may undergo UVB-induced cell death through mechanisms other than transcriptional regulation. Our study provides a further understanding of the effects of SV40 transformation on cellular stress responses, and emphasizes the value of SV40-transformed cells in the researches of sensitizing neoplastic cells to radiations.

  3. Equilibrium Investment Strategy for DC Pension Plan with Inflation and Stochastic Income under Heston’s SV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyun Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a portfolio selection problem for a defined contribution (DC pension plan under the mean-variance criteria. We take into account the inflation risk and assume that the salary income process of the pension plan member is stochastic. Furthermore, the financial market consists of a risk-free asset, an inflation-linked bond, and a risky asset with Heston’s stochastic volatility (SV. Under the framework of game theory, we derive two extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations systems and give the corresponding verification theorems in both the periods of accumulation and distribution of the DC pension plan. The explicit expressions of the equilibrium investment strategies, corresponding equilibrium value functions, and the efficient frontiers are also obtained. Finally, some numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis are presented to verify our theoretical results.

  4. Reproducibility of semi-automatic coronary plaque quantification in coronary CT angiography with sub-mSv radiation dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvrehus, Kristian Altern; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Marwan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    or response to medical therapies. The reproducibility from repeated assessment of such quantitative measurements from low-radiation dose coronary CTA has not been previously assessed. Purpose: To evaluate the interscan, interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility for coronary plaque volume assessment...... using semi-automatic plaque analyses algorithm in low radiation dose coronary CTA. Methods: In 50 consecutive patients undergoing two 128-slice dual source CT scans within 12 days with a mean radiation dose of 0.7 mSv per coronary CTA, the interscan, interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility.......6% and +/- 32.1%, respectively. Conclusion: A semi-automatic plaque assessment algorithm in repeated low radiation dose coronary CTA allows for high reproducibility of coronary plaque characterization and quantification measures. (C) 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc...

  5. Inhibition of multidrug resistance by SV40 pseudovirion delivery of an antigene peptide nucleic acid (PNA in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Macadangdang

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA is known to bind with extraordinarily high affinity and sequence-specificity to complementary nucleic acid sequences and can be used to suppress gene expression. However, effective delivery into cells is a major obstacle to the development of PNA for gene therapy applications. Here, we present a novel method for the in vitro delivery of antigene PNA to cells. By using a nucleocapsid protein derived from Simian virus 40, we have been able to package PNA into pseudovirions, facilitating the delivery of the packaged PNA into cells. We demonstrate that this system can be used effectively to suppress gene expression associated with multidrug resistance in cancer cells, as shown by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and cell viability under chemotherapy. The combination of PNA with the SV40-based delivery system is a method for suppressing a gene of interest that could be broadly applied to numerous targets.

  6. Diversity of methane-producing microbial community structure with 16S-V3 rDNA PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of 16S-V3 rDNA PCR-DGGE was utilized to study the diversity of methane-producing microbial community structure under different methane-producing microbial community structure. Results showed that community structure of the methanogens under different environmental condition was significantly different. The number of bands about community under extreme condition was less than normal conditions, but the main bands were obvious. The sequence analysis showed that the predominant strains mainly were uncultured bacteria that could not be identified in the level of species .Z2 was Clostridia, Z8 was Clostridiales, D5 was Eubacteriaceae, and D8 was Flavobacteriaceae. This study laid some extent foundation for future research about establishing a methane-producing bacterial system with high gas yield in winter.

  7. Napájecí zdroj pro kyslíkovodíkovou svářečku

    OpenAIRE

    Kalus, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá problematikou návrhu napájecího zdroje elektrolyzéru pro plynovou svářečku na bázi vodíku a kyslíku. Hlavní náplní práce je návrh tohoto zdroje, který bude realizován jako spínaný. Což vede k menším rozměrům a hmotnosti. Práce obsahuje návrh DPS a naměřené parametry zdroje. Master´s thesis deals with design of oxy-hydrogen generator power supply for gas welder. Main topic of this thesis is a design of switching mode power supply, which leads to smaller dimensions ...

  8. Cellular ras gene activity is required for full neoplastic transformation by the large tumor antigen of SV40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, L; Brownell, H L; Corbley, M J; Wood, K W; Wang, D; Haliotis, T

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the role of the cellular ras gene product in neoplastic transformation by the SV40 large tumor antigen (SVLT), murine C3H10T1/2 cells were rendered deficient in Ras activity by transfection with inducible or constitutive antisense ras gene constructs or through the introduction of the dominant-negative mutant, ras(asn17). Consistent with previous results, SVLT-induced morphological transformation was unaffected by the down-regulation of c-ras gene product activity. On the other hand, colony formation in soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice were drastically reduced in c-Ras-deficient cells. In addition, SVLT expression in C3H10T1/2 cells led to increased c-Ras activity, as determined by an increase in the Ras-bound GTP/GTP + GDP ratio. These results suggest that c-Ras is required for full neoplastic transformation by SVLT.

  9. DJ-1, an oncogene and causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease, is essential for SV40 transformation in mouse fibroblasts through up-regulation of c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Chul; Kitaura, Hirotake; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2010-09-24

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a tumor virus and its early gene product large T-antigen (LT) is responsible for the transforming activity of SV40. Parkinson's disease causative gene DJ-1 is also a ras-dependent oncogene, but the mechanism of its oncogene function is still not known. In this study, we found that there were no transformed foci when fibroblasts from DJ-1-knockout mice were transfected with LT. We also found that DJ-1 directly bound to LT and that the expression level of c-Myc in transformed cells was parallel to that of DJ-1. These findings indicate that DJ-1 is essential for SV40 transformation. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of amastigote-like forms in the valve of Phlebotomus papatasi infected with Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Añez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A massive and homogeneous amount of amastigote-like forms was detected in the stomodeal valve (SV and the thoracic mid-gut (TMG of Leishmania major-infected Phlebotomus papatasi, which received a second blood meal 13 to 21 days post-infection on healthy anaesthetized hamsters. After re-feeding, the infected sand flies were dissected out to examine the morphology of the parasite in SV, TMG and the abdominal mid-gut (AMG. Different promastigote forms were seen in the infected flies. Among these included typical promastigotes (nectomonads and haptomonads, paramastigotes, metacyclic promastigotes and, in some samples, the here-reported amastigote-like forms. The Leishmania amastigote-like forms were detected in the SV of sand flies with 14, 18 and 21 days of infection as well as in the TMG at 13 and 18 days post-infection. However, the amastigote-like forms were not detected in the AMG. Factors such as the acidic pH predominating the TMG and the SV, as well as the temperature of the ingested blood, among others, are suggested as contributing to the transformation of the typical promastigotes into the amastigote-like forms. The significance of this finding is discussed and the possible biological advantage for transmission of Leishmania is considered.

  11. Maestro di Pico i iluminacije u inkunabuli De Civitate Dei (Nicolas Jenson, Venecija, 1475.) u samostanu Sv. Duje u Kraju na Pašmanu

    OpenAIRE

    Goja, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    U franjevačkom samostanu Sv. Duje u Kraju na otoku Pašmanu čuva se inkunabula „O državi Božjoj“ (De Civitate Dei) Sv. Aurelija Augustina koju je 1475. godine u Veneciji tiskao Nicolas Jenson. Inkunabula je na f. 17 (kako je naknadno označena paginacija grafitnom olovkom, tj. stranici incipita – liber primus) kao i na više drugih stranica ukrašena lijepim višebojnim iluminacijama renesansnih stilskih karakteristika izrađenih temperom, zlatnim listićima, zlatnim prahom, sepijom, tintom i akvare...

  12. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate hCAR-SV

  13. Níveis de sensibilidade de enterobactérias, em particular Salmonella typhi, a rifamicina S.V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone R. Suassuna

    1969-04-01

    Full Text Available Em face à predominante eliminação biliar da rifamicina S.V. atingindo concentrações muitas vêzes superiores aos níveis séricos obtidos com as doses terapêuticas, e pelo possível interêsse dessa verificação para o tratamento dos portadores biliares crônicos de Salmonella typhi determinou-se a concentração mínima inibitória de 165 estirpes de enterobactérias, incluindo 77 amostras de S. typhi. Foi verificado que a maioria das cepas de Escherichia coli, Shigella e Proteus mirabilis correspondiam a uma concentração inibitória mínima entre 33 a 65 μg/ml. Entre 65 e 128 μg/ml foram determinadas as concetrações inibitórias mínimas da maioria das outras espécies de Proteus, de Providencia e de Klebsiella. Para Salmonella e Enterobacter o limite mínino de sensibilidade foi, em regra, igual ou superior a 128 μg/ml. Diferenças mais acentuadas de comportamento entre as enterobactérias foram observadas quanto à ação bactericida da rifamicidas S.V. De uma maneira geral, para E. coli e Shigella, as concentrações inibitórias mínimas já referidas. Para as espécies de Proteus e Providencia houve variação maior de comportamento, mas tendência a que o efeito bactericidas fôsse encontrado em concentrações que correspondiam a 4 vêzes as bacteriostáticas para as mesmas espécies. Finalmente, de modo pouco feliz para os propósitos visados, em Salmonella, com a inclusão de S. typhi, não foi atingido um efeito bactericida, com as mais altas concentrações usadas as quais corresponderam em média a 6 vêzes as concentrações bacteriostáticas para esse gênero.

  14. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 downregulates dexamethasone-induced tetranectin gene expression during the in vitro mineralization of the human osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iba, K; Sawada, N; Chiba, H

    1995-01-01

    treatment as evidenced by Northern blotting. When transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) was added together with dexamethasone to the SV-HFO cell cultures, the mineralization process was markedly suppressed and the expression of tetra nectin and alkaline phosphatase was downregulated in a dose...

  15. Ambtscriminaliteit aangegeven? : Een onderzoek naar het opvolgen van en kennis over de wettelijke verplichting tot aangifte van artikel 162 Sv misdrijven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries Robbé, E. de; Cornelissens, A.; Ferwerda, H.

    2008-01-01

    Dit is een onderzoek naar de werking van de aangifteplicht bij ambtscriminaliteit (art 162 Sv). Het gaat dan bijvoorbeeld om het aannemen van steekpenningen en misdrijven waarbij ambtenaren een bijzondere ambtsplicht schenden. De aangifteplicht raakt de klokkenluidersregeling en maakt onderdeel uit

  16. An Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Adapted Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) among Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study adapted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) into Turkish and investigated the validity and reliability of the adapted instrument. Twenty-five bilingual experts agreed on the language validity, and 49 Turkish language experts agreed on the conformity and understandability of the scale's items. Thirty-two subject…

  17. Evaluation of the Reference Numerical Parameters of the Monthly Method in ISO 13790 Considering S/V Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Kwak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the accuracy of the numerical parameters in the application of the quasi steady-state calculation method. The aim of this study is to derive the reference numerical parameters of the ISO 13790 monthly method by reflecting the surface-to-volume (S/V ratio and the characteristics of the structures. The calculation process was established, and the parameters necessary to derive the reference numerical parameters were calculated based on the input data prepared for the established calculation processes. The reference numerical parameters were then derived through regression analyses of the calculated parameters and the time constant. The parameters obtained from an apartment building and the parameters of the international standard were both applied to the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP and EnergyPlus programs, and the results were analyzed in order to evaluate the validity of the results. The analysis revealed that the calculation results based on the parameters derived from this study yielded lower error rates than those based on the default parameters in ISO 13790. However, the differences were shown to be negligible in the case of high heat capacity.

  18. [Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate on the physical and behavioral development of 129SV mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenkova, O V; Aleksandrova, E A; Zarayskaya, I Yu

    2015-01-01

    Sodium valproate is a widely used antiepileptic drug at high dosage levels, but it has been shown to produce a variety of toxic side-effects when used during perinatal period. These effects include increased risk of congenital anomalies and autism. For this reason, valproate is commonly employed in animal model of autism. Sodium valproate has multiple molecular targets including histone deacetylases. Therefore valproate can be utilized as a tool for the modulation of epigenetic modifications of the genome via inhibition of histone deacetylases. It is known that administration of sodium valproate at a dose of 50 mg/kg during early postnatal period leads to increase of the histone H3 acetylation level in the brain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of multiple valproate injections from 3rd to 6th postnatal day (50 mg/kg s.c.) on physical and sensorimotor development of 129Sv mice. The standard battery of tests was used. Our results show that valproate have no negative effect on physical development, sensorimotor function, and social behavior. The obtained results support the applicability of sodium valproate in our dosing schedule for further experimental modulation of histone acetulation level in the developing brain.

  19. Spectral variability of /s/ in sV and sCV sequences produced by adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Benjamin

    2002-05-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that both children and adults produce /s/ with greater spectral variability in /sp/ sequences than /st/ sequences, when these sequences are embedded in the medial position of CVCCVC nonwords [B. Munson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1203-1206 (2001)]. The current study examined whether this result could be replicated when /s/ is embedded in syllable-onset clusters, with a variety of following consonants and vowels. Adults and children aged 3-7 were recorded producing multiple tokens of sV and sCV nonwords, where the vowel was either /i/, /opena/, or /u/, and the consonant was either /p/, /t/, /w/, or /l/. For each token, the spectral mean of non-overlapping 10-ms windows of frication noise was calculated. Nonlinear regressions of the form y=aebx were used to predict the spectral mean of each portion of frication noise from its position in the fricative. The resulting measure of model fit, R2, was used as an index of within-speaker variability. For each participant, separate R2 values were calculated for /s/ in each of the 15 phonetic contexts. Analyses will address the influence of age, consonant context, and vowel context on spectral variability.

  20. Immortalization of Porcine 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1-Transgenic Liver Cells Using SV40 Large T Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Kang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is a steroid hormone essential to the maintenance of homeostasis that is released in response to stress and low blood glucose concentration. Cortisol is converted from cortisone by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1. It has been reported that too much cortisol or overexpression of HSD11B1 induces obesity and the insulin resistance that accompanies metabolic syndrome in rodent adipose tissue. In our previous study, HSD11B1-transgenic (TG fibroblasts were established, and a porcine model was generated by SCNT using those fibroblasts. Hepatocytes overexpressing HSD11B1 were obtained from livers of this porcine model and cultured in vitro. However, the primary hepatocytes were found to have a short life span or low proliferation rate. To overcome these problems, the SV40 large T antigen was transduced into primary HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes, and those cells were immortalized. Immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes showed restored morphology, more rapid proliferation rate, and more expression of HSD11B1 than primary hepatocytes. As well, these cells kept the hepatic characteristics such as gluconeogenic response to cortisone and increased expression of hepatic makers. The immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes may be useful for studying traits and potential therapeutic drugs for treatment of metabolic disorders induced by overexpression of HSD11B1.

  1. Immortalization of Porcine 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1-Transgenic Liver Cells Using SV40 Large T Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Young; Choi, Young-Kwon; Jeong, Yeon Ik; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-12-05

    Cortisol is a steroid hormone essential to the maintenance of homeostasis that is released in response to stress and low blood glucose concentration. Cortisol is converted from cortisone by 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1). It has been reported that too much cortisol or overexpression of HSD11B1 induces obesity and the insulin resistance that accompanies metabolic syndrome in rodent adipose tissue. In our previous study, HSD11B1-transgenic (TG) fibroblasts were established, and a porcine model was generated by SCNT using those fibroblasts. Hepatocytes overexpressing HSD11B1 were obtained from livers of this porcine model and cultured in vitro. However, the primary hepatocytes were found to have a short life span or low proliferation rate. To overcome these problems, the SV40 large T antigen was transduced into primary HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes, and those cells were immortalized. Immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes showed restored morphology, more rapid proliferation rate, and more expression of HSD11B1 than primary hepatocytes. As well, these cells kept the hepatic characteristics such as gluconeogenic response to cortisone and increased expression of hepatic makers. The immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes may be useful for studying traits and potential therapeutic drugs for treatment of metabolic disorders induced by overexpression of HSD11B1.

  2. StralSV: assessment of sequence variability within similar 3D structures and application to polio RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A; Lang, D; Kostova, T; Andino, R; Zhou, C

    2010-11-29

    Most of the currently used methods for protein function prediction rely on sequence-based comparisons between a query protein and those for which a functional annotation is provided. A serious limitation of sequence similarity-based approaches for identifying residue conservation among proteins is the low confidence in assigning residue-residue correspondences among proteins when the level of sequence identity between the compared proteins is poor. Multiple sequence alignment methods are more satisfactory - still, they cannot provide reliable results at low levels of sequence identity. Our goal in the current work was to develop an algorithm that could overcome these difficulties and facilitate the identification of structurally (and possibly functionally) relevant residue-residue correspondences between compared protein structures. Here we present StralSV, a new algorithm for detecting closely related structure fragments and quantifying residue frequency from tight local structure alignments. We apply StralSV in a study of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus and demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to determine regions of the protein that are relatively unique or that shared structural similarity with structures that are distantly related. By quantifying residue frequencies among many residue-residue pairs extracted from local alignments, one can infer potential structural or functional importance of specific residues that are determined to be highly conserved or that deviate from a consensus. We further demonstrate that considerable detailed structural and phylogenetic information can be derived from StralSV analyses. StralSV is a new structure-based algorithm for identifying and aligning structure fragments that have similarity to a reference protein. StralSV analysis can be used to quantify residue-residue correspondences and identify residues that may be of particular structural or functional importance, as well as unusual or unexpected

  3. The Prognostic Role and Relationship between E2F1 and SV40 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of Egyptian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab M. Samaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of lymphomas worldwide. The pathogenesis of lymphomas is not yet well understood. SV40 induces malignant transformation by the large T-antigen (L-TAG and promotes transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb. L-TAG can bind pRb promoting the activation of the E2F1 transcription factor, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase and leading to cell transformation. This immunohistochemical study was conducted to assess the prognostic role and relationship of SV40 L-TAG and E2F1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL of Egyptian patients. This retrospective study was conducted on 105 tissue specimens including 20 follicular hyperplasia and 85 DLBCL cases. SV40 L-TAG was identified in 3/85 (4% of DLBCL. High Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI and apoptotic count were associated with high E2F1 expression (p<0.001 for all. No significant association was reached between E2F1 and SV40. E2F1 expression proved to be the most and first independent prognostic factor on overall survival of DLBCL patients (HR = 5.79, 95% CI = 2.3–14.6, and p<0.001. Upregulation of E2F1 has been implicated in oncogenesis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response but is not seemingly to have a relationship with the accused SV40.

  4. Differences in memory development among C57BL/6NCrl, 129S2/SvPasCrl, and FVB/NCrl mice after delay and trace fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Amelia; Borchelt, David; Golde, Todd; Janus, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Fear-conditioning testing paradigms have been used to study differences in memory formation between inbred mouse strains, including numerous mouse models of human diseases. In this study, we characterized the conditioned fear memory of 3 inbred strains: C57BL/6NCrl, 129S2/SvPasCrl, and FVB/NCrl, obtained from Charles River Laboratories. We used 2 training paradigms: delay conditioning, in which an unconditional stimulus coterminates with the presentation of a conditional stimulus, and trace conditioning, in which the conditional and unconditional stimuli are separated by a trace interval. In each paradigm, we evaluated the recent (3 d) and remote (25 d) memory of the mice by using a longitudinal design. Our results showed that both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice developed strong and long-lasting context and tone memories in both paradigms, but FVB/NCrl mice showed a weaker but nevertheless consistent tone memory after delay training. Tone memory in the FVB strain was stronger in male than female mice. The remote tone memory of 129S2/SvPasCrl mice diminished after delay training but was stable and stronger than that of C57BL/6NCrl mice after trace training. In conclusion, both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice showed reliable and long-lasting fear memory after delay or trace training, with 129 mice showing particularly strong tone memory after trace conditioning. The FVB/NCrl strain, especially male mice, showed reliable tone fear memory after delay training. Our findings confirm that both C57BL/6NCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice develop strong context and tone memory in delay and trace fear-conditioning paradigms.

  5. SV-AUTOPILOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, Wai Yi; Marschall, Tobias; Paudel, Yogesh; Falquet, Laurent; Mei, Hailiang; Schönhuth, Alexander; Maoz Moss, Tiffanie Yael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many tools exist to predict structural variants (SVs), utilizing a variety of algorithms. However, they have largely been developed and tested on human germline or somatic (e.g. cancer) variation. It seems appropriate to exploit this wealth of technology available for humans also for

  6. SV Ganesan Srinivasan Natarajan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The anions consist of a ring of five MoO6 distorted octahedra with four edge connections and one corner connection. The phosphate groups cap the pentamolybdate ring anion on either side. The anion is stabilized by strong hydrogen bonds involving the hydrogen atoms of the amine molecules and the oxygen atoms of the ...

  7. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of 14C-brivaracetam, a novel SV2A ligand, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargentini-Maier, Maria Laura; Espié, Pascal; Coquette, Alain; Stockis, Armel

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the human absorption, disposition, and mass balance of (14)C-brivaracetam, a novel high affinity SV2A ligand with potent anticonvulsant activity. Six healthy male subjects received a single p.o. dose of (14)C-brivaracetam (150 mg, 82 microCi, or 3.03 MBq). Serial blood and complete urine and feces were collected until 144 h postdose. Expired air samples were obtained until 24 h. Brivaracetam was rapidly absorbed, with C(max) of 4 mug/ml occurring within 1.5 h of dosing. Unchanged brivaracetam amounted to 90% of the total plasma radioactivity, suggesting a modest first-pass effect. Plasma protein binding of radioactivity was low (17.5%). Urinary excretion exceeded 90% after 2 days, and the final mass balance reached 96.8% of the radioactivity in urine and 0.7% in feces. Only 8.6% of the radioactive dose was recovered in urine as unchanged brivaracetam, the remainder being identified as non-cytochrome P450 (P450)- and P450-dependent biotransformation products resulting from hydrolysis of the amide moiety (M9, 34.2%), hydroxylation of the n-propyl side chain (M1b, 15.9%), and a combination of these two pathways leading to the hydroxy acid (M4b, 15.2%). Minor amounts of taurine and glucuronic acid conjugates and other oxidized derivatives were also identified. Brivaracetam is completely absorbed, is weakly bound to plasma proteins, extensively biotransformed through several metabolic pathways, and eliminated renally.

  8. Proinflammatory Effect of High Glucose Concentrations on HMrSV5 Cells via the Autocrine Effect of HMGB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yuening; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Zhihuang; Lin, Yuli; He, Rui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Xuguang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peritoneal fibrosis, in which inflammation and apoptosis play crucial pathogenic roles, is a severe complication associated with the treatment of kidney failure with peritoneal dialysis (PD) using a glucose-based dialysate. Mesothelial cells (MCs) take part in the inflammatory processes by producing various cytokines and chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). The apoptosis of MCs induced by high glucose levels also contributes to complications of PD. High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory factor that has repeatedly been proven to be related to the occurrence of peritoneal dysfunction. Aim: In this study, we aimed to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of endogenous HMGB1 in high-glucose-induced MC injury. Methods: The human peritoneal MC line, HMrSV5 was cultured in high-glucose medium and incubated with recombinant HMGB1. Cellular expression of HMGB1 was blocked using HMGB1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Apoptosis and production of inflammatory factors as well as the potential intermediary signaling pathways were examined. Results: The major findings of these analyses were: (1) MCs secreted HMGB1 from the nucleus during exposure to high glucose levels; HMGB1 acted in an autocrine fashion on the MCs to promote the production of MCP-1 and IL-8; (2) HMGB1 had little effect on high-glucose-induced apoptosis of the MCs; and (3) HMGB1-mediated MCP-1 and IL-8 production depended on the activation of MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, endogenous HMGB1 plays an important role in the inflammatory reaction induced by high glucose on MCs via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, but it seems to have little effect on high-glucose-induced apoptosis.

  9. Proinflammatory Effect of High Glucose Concentrations on HMrSV5 Cells via the Autocrine Effect of HMGB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuening Chu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peritoneal fibrosis, in which inflammation and apoptosis play crucial pathogenic roles, is a severe complication associated with the treatment of kidney failure with peritoneal dialysis (PD using a glucose-based dialysate. Mesothelial cells (MCs take part in the inflammatory processes by producing various cytokines and chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and interleukin 8 (IL-8. The apoptosis of MCs induced by high glucose levels also contributes to complications of PD. High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1 is an inflammatory factor that has repeatedly been proven to be related to the occurrence of peritoneal dysfunction.Aim: In this study, we aimed to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of endogenous HMGB1 in high-glucose-induced MC injury.Methods: The human peritoneal MC line, HMrSV5 was cultured in high-glucose medium and incubated with recombinant HMGB1. Cellular expression of HMGB1 was blocked using HMGB1 small interfering RNA (siRNA. Apoptosis and production of inflammatory factors as well as the potential intermediary signaling pathways were examined.Results: The major findings of these analyses were: (1 MCs secreted HMGB1 from the nucleus during exposure to high glucose levels; HMGB1 acted in an autocrine fashion on the MCs to promote the production of MCP-1 and IL-8; (2 HMGB1 had little effect on high-glucose-induced apoptosis of the MCs; and (3 HMGB1-mediated MCP-1 and IL-8 production depended on the activation of MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, endogenous HMGB1 plays an important role in the inflammatory reaction induced by high glucose on MCs via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, but it seems to have little effect on high-glucose-induced apoptosis.

  10. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1......Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity...

  11. STX140, but not paclitaxel, inhibits mammary tumour initiation and progression in C3(1/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Meyer-Losic

    Full Text Available Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer models, a rat model of peripheral neuropathy, and through pharmacological testing. Three different in vivo mouse models of breast cancer were used; the metastatic 4T1 orthotopic model, the C3(1/SV40 T-Ag model, and the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. To determine TIX and pharmacological profile of STX140, a comprehensive dosing regime was performed in mice bearing MDA-MD-231 xenografts. Finally, peripheral neuropathy was examined using a rat plantar thermal hyperalgesia model. In the 4T1 metastatic model, STX140 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and lung metastases. All C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice in the control and paclitaxel treated groups developed palpable mammary cancer. STX140 blocked 47% of tumors developing and significantly inhibited growth of tumors that did develop. STX140 treatment caused a significant (P<0.001 survival advantage for animals in early and late intervention groups. Conversely, in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice, paclitaxel failed to inhibit tumor growth and did not increase survival time. Furthermore, paclitaxel, but not STX140, induced significant peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. These results show that STX140 has a greater anti-cancer efficacy, TIX, and reduced neurotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice and therefore may be of significant benefit to patients with breast cancer.

  12. Piecu svēto kalnu nozīme Ķīnas tradicionālajā pasaules skatījumā

    OpenAIRE

    Līviņš, Rolands

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Piecu svēto kalnu nozīme Ķīnas tradicionālajā pasaules skatījumā” mērķis ir apskatīt Ķīnas Piecus svēto kalnus – vujue, to izcelsmi un nozīmi ķīniešu pasaules skatījumā. Darba gaitā ir apskatīta vujue kalnu sistēmas izveide, kas balstās uz piecu elementu teoriju. Kā arī tiek aplūkoti ar šiem kalniem un piecu elementu teoriju sasaistītie aspekti – daoistu meditāciju alas un nemirstības ideja. Darba izstrādes gaitā noskaidrots kādu lomu ieņem Pieci svētie kalni un kad tāda kaln...

  13. Development, pilot testing and psychometric validation of a short version of the coronary artery disease education questionnaire: The CADE-Q SV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Sandison, Nicole; Oh, Paul

    2016-03-01

    To develop, pilot test and psychometrically validate a shorter version of the coronary artery disease education questionnaire (CADE-Q), called CADE-Q SV. Based on previous versions of the CADE-Q, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) experts developed 20 items divided into 5 knowledge domains to comprise the first version of the CADE-Q SV. To establish content validity, they were reviewed by an expert panel (N=12). Refined items were pilot-tested in 20 patients, in which clarity was provided. A final version was generated and psychometrically-tested in 132CR patients. Test-retest reliability was assessed via the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and criterion validity with regard to patients' education and duration in CR. All ICC coefficients meet the minimum recommended standard. All domains were considered internally consistent (α>0.7). Criterion validity was supported by significant differences in mean scores by educational level (pCADE-Q SV was demonstrated to have good reliability and validity. This is a short, quick and appropriate tool for application in clinical and research settings, assessing patients' knowledge during CR and as part of education programming. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Arginine-rich cross-linking peptides with different SV40 nuclear localization signal content as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, Mariia; Egorova, Anna; Slita, Anna; Maretina, Marianna; Baranov, Vladislav; Kiselev, Anton

    2017-11-01

    The major barriers for intracellular DNA transportation by cationic polymers are their toxicity, poor endosomal escape and inefficient nuclear uptake. Therefore, we designed novel modular peptide-based carriers modified with SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS). Core peptide consists of arginine, histidine and cysteine residues for DNA condensation, endosomal escape promotion and interpeptide cross-linking, respectively. We investigated three polyplexes with different NLS content (10 mol%, 50 mol% and 90 mol% of SV40 NLS) as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery. All carriers tested were able to condense DNA, to protect it from DNAase I and were not toxic to the cells. We observed that cell cycle arrest by hydroxyurea did not affect transfection efficacy of NLS-modified carriers which we confirmed using quantitative confocal microscopy analysis. Overall, peptide carrier modified with 90 mol% of SV40 NLS provided efficient transfection and nuclear uptake in non-dividing cells. Thus, incorporation of NLS into arginine-rich cross-linking peptides is an adequate approach to the development of efficient intranuclear gene delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GENETIC BASIS OF MURINE ANTIBACTERIAL DEFENSE TO STREPTOCOCCAL LUNG INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of genetic background and toll-like receptor 2 on antibacterial defense to streptococcal infection, eight genetically diverse strains of mice (A/J, DBA/2J, CAST/Ei, FVB/NJ, BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, 129/SvImJ, and C3H/HeJ) and tlr2-deficient mice (C57BL/6

  16. Individual external doses below the lowest reference level of 1 mSv per year five years after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident among all children in Soma City, Fukushima: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Murakami, Michio; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Leppold, Claire; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, little information has been available on individual doses from external exposure among residents living in radioactively contaminated areas near the nuclear plant; in the present study we evaluated yearly changes in the doses from external exposure after the accident and the effects of decontamination on external exposure. This study considered all children less than 16 years of age in Soma City, Fukushima who participated in annual voluntary external exposure screening programs during the five years after the accident (n = 5,363). In total, 14,405 screening results were collected. The median participant age was eight years. The geometric mean levels of annual additional doses from external exposure attributable to the Fukushima accident, decreased each year: 0.60 mSv (range: not detectable (ND)-4.29 mSv), 0.37 mSv (range: ND-3.61 mSv), 0.22 mSv (range: ND-1.44 mSv), 0.20 mSv (range: ND-1.87 mSv), and 0.17 mSv (range: ND-0.85 mSv) in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The proportion of residents with annual additional doses from external exposure of more than 1 mSv dropped from 15.6% in 2011 to zero in 2015. Doses from external exposure decreased more rapidly than those estimated from only physical decay, even in areas without decontamination (which were halved in 395 days from November 15, 2011), presumably due to the weathering effects. While the ratios of geometric mean doses immediately after decontamination to before were slightly lower than those during the same time in areas without decontamination, annual additional doses reduced by decontamination were small (0.04-0.24 mSv in the year of immediately after decontamination was completed). The results of this study showed that the levels of external exposure among Soma residents less than 16 years of age decreased during the five years after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Decontamination had only limited and

  17. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staph is short for Staphylococcus, a type of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including Skin infections Pneumonia ...

  18. Complementary person-supervisor fit : an investigation of supplies-values (S-V) fit, leader-member exchange (LMX) and work outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marstand, A.F.; Martin, R.; Epitropaki, O.

    2016-01-01

    By applying the supplies-values (S-V) fit approach from the complementary person-environment (P-E) fit literature to the leader-employee perspective, and drawing upon social exchange theory, we examine how fulfillment of different work values is related to Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and work outcomes. First, polynomial regression analyses combined with response surface analysis of data collected at two time points (N = 316) showed that LMX (Time 2) was higher the more the leader fulfills th...

  19. Brivaracetam, a selective high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) ligand with preclinical evidence of high brain permeability and fast onset of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jean-Marie; Hannestad, Jonas; Holden, Daniel; Kervyn, Sophie; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Tytgat, Dominique; Huang, Yiyun; Chanteux, Hugues; Staelens, Ludovicus; Matagne, Alain; Mathy, François-Xavier; Mercier, Joël; Stockis, Armel; Carson, Richard E; Klitgaard, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Rapid distribution to the brain is a prerequisite for antiepileptic drugs used for treatment of acute seizures. The preclinical studies described here investigated the high-affinity synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) antiepileptic drug brivara-cetam (BRV) for its rate of brain penetration and its onset of action. BRV was compared with levetiracetam (LEV). In vitro permeation studies were performed using Caco-2 cells. Plasma and brain levels were measured over time after single oral dosing to audiogenic mice and were correlated with anticonvulsant activity. Tissue distribution was investigated after single dosing to rat (BRV and LEV) and dog (LEV only). Positron emission tomography (PET) displacement studies were performed in rhesus monkeys using the SV2A PET tracer [11C]UCB-J. The time course of PET tracer displacement was measured following single intravenous (IV) dosing with LEV or BRV. Rodent distribution data and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling were used to compute blood-brain barrier permeability (permeability surface area product, PS) values and then predict brain kinetics in man. In rodents, BRV consistently showed a faster entry into the brain than LEV; this correlated with a faster onset of action against seizures in audiogenic susceptible mice. The higher permeability of BRV was also demonstrated in human cells in vitro. PBPK modeling predicted that, following IV dosing to human subjects, BRV might distribute to the brain within a few minutes compared with approximately 1 h for LEV (PS of 0.315 and 0.015 ml/min/g for BRV and LEV, respectively). These data were supported by a nonhuman primate PET study showing faster SV2A occupancy by BRV compared with LEV. These preclinical data demonstrate that BRV has rapid brain entry and fast brain SV2A occupancy, consistent with the fast onset of action in the audiogenic seizure mice assay. The potential benefit of BRV for treatment of acute seizures remains to be confirmed in clinical

  20. Dynamic Study on the 400 kV 60 km Kyndbyværket – Asnæsværket Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo

    lines. The PhD project focuses on the 400 kV 60 km Kyndbyværket – Asnæsværket line, which will feed power to Copenhagen, the Danish capital. The PhD project addresses major problems and potential countermeasures related to the installation and operation of a long cable line, through: (1) Insulation...... coordination study (2) Derivation of theoretical formulas of sequence currents (3) Identification of dominant frequency components contained in the overvoltage (4) Analysis on the statistical distribution of energization overvoltages (5) Protection study...

  1. Hypothalamic neurosecretory and circadian vasopressinergic neuronal systems in the blind cone-rod homeobox knock out mouse (Crx(-/-) ) and the 129sv wild type mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Møller, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) is both a neuroendocrine hormone located in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons of the hypothalamus of mammals but also a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the parvocellular suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is the endogenous clock of the brain and exhibits a prominent...... circadian AVP-rhythm. We have in this study of the brown 129sv mouse and the visual blind cone-rod homeobox gene knock out mouse (Crx(-/-) ) with degeneration of the retinal rods and cones, but a preserved non-image forming optic system, studied the temporal Avp-expression in both the neurosecretory...

  2. The AT-rich tract of the SV40 ori core: negative synergism and specific recognition by single stranded and duplex DNA binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Ivo; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    1992-01-01

    The cellular oncogene c-myc encodes a nuclear protein that is considered to play a role in cell proliferation. In this report, the region upstream from the transcriptional promoter of the c-myc gene was examined for regulatory activity on its expression during cell cycle. Plasmids which contain the upstream region of human c-myc gene linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were transfected to rat 3Y1 cells together with pSV2Hg (containing the hygromycin resistance...

  3. Response to ethanol induced ataxia between C57BL/6J and 129X1/SvJ mouse strains using a treadmill based assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Stephen T.; Pulst, Stefan M.

    2012-01-01

    More sensitive assays of mouse motor ataxia may provide a better understanding of the pathological profile. Treadmill gait analysis using ventral imaging allows for unhindered access to the ambulating mouse. In contrast to genetic mutations or exogenous brain injury, ethanol (EtOH) allows for the detection of dose dependent changes in motor behavior, which can be used to assess an assay’s detection sensitivity. EtOH induced ataxia was assessed in C57BL/6J (B6) and 129X1/SvJ (129) mice using t...

  4. Projekt uređenja knjižnice samostana sv. Frane u Zadru (izvještaj od 13. prosinca 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Uređenje knjižnice samostana sv. Frane u Zadru zajednički je projekt samostana sv. Frane i Odjela za knjižničarstvo Sveučilišta u Zadru. Kratkoročni je cilj projekta čišćenje i inventarizacija iznimno vrijednog fonda te knjižnice koji se procjenjuje na više od 40 000 svezaka, a sastoji se od stotinjak inkunabula, deset koralnih oslikanih kodeksa te mnogobrojnih klasičnih, moralnih, teoloških i prirodoznanstvenih djela. Pretpostavlja se da knjižnica u samostanu djeluje od njegova osnutka u 13. stoljeću, otkada je prikupljana i građa današnjeg fonda knjižnice. Dugoročni plan uređenja podrazumijeva izradu projekta uređenja knjižnice (arhitektonski i građevinski dio, stručnu obradu, zaštitu, izradu mrežno dostupnog kataloga, digitalizaciju odabranih primjeraka knjižnične građe i naposljetku otvaranje knjižnice javnosti.

  5. Hyper production of alkali stable xylanase in lesser duration by Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using wheat bran under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Kumar, Davender; Kumar, Lalit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2011-10-01

    High level production of an extracellular cellulase-poor alkali stable xylanase has been conceded from newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S under solid state fermentation using wheat bran as a substrate. Optimization of the fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme production to 73,000 ± 1,000 IU/g dry substrate, which was 13.8-fold higher than unoptimized conditions (5,300 IU/g). The enzyme titre was highest after 48 h of incubation at 30°C with 1:3 ratios of substrate to moistening agent using wheat bran as a carbon source. The enzyme could be produced in significant levels by using either tap water or distilled water alone as a moistening agent. An elevated production of xylanase by B. pumilus SV-85S in the presence of wheat bran, a cheap and easily available agro-residue, in shorter duration would apparently reduce the enzyme cost substantially. The enzyme was completely stable over a broad pH (5-11) range and retained 52% of its activity at a temperature of 70°C for 30 min. The desired characteristics of this enzyme together with economic production would be important for its application in paper and pulp industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for many cases of Brain and spinal cord infection (meningitis) Lung infection (pneumonia) Infection of the bloodstream (bacteremia) Joint infection ( ... other illnesses or health conditions such as HIV infection, certain cancers (eg, leukemia, ... or kidney disease. Last Updated 11/21/2015 ...

  7. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...

  8. Photometric activity of UX Ori stars and related objects in the near infrared and visual. BF Ori, CQ Tau, WW Vul, and SV Cep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Grinin, V. P.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskaja, A. N.; Demidova, T. V.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed the activity of four UX Ori stars in the near-IR ( JHKL) and visual ( V) using the results of long-term photometric observations. For comparison, we also obtained IR ( JHKLM) photometric observations of two visually quiet young stars of close spectral types (AB Aur and HD 190073). For the photometrically most active UX Ori stars BF Ori, CQ Tau, and WW Vul, the Algol-like declines of brightness in the visual, which are due to sporadic enhancements of the circumstellar extinction, are also observed (with decreasing amplitude) in the IR bands. A strict correlation between the V and J brightness variations is observed for all the stars except for SV Cep. For some of the UX Ori stars, a strong correlation between the visual and IR activity is observed up to L, where the main contribution to the emission is made by circumstellar dust. In the case of SV Cep, the visual variability is not correlated with the variability of the IR fluxes. On one occasion, a clear anti-correlation was even observed: a shallow, but prolonged decrease of the visual brightness was accompanied by an increase in the IR fluxes. This indicates that circumstellar clouds themselves can become powerful sources of IR emission. Our results provide evidence that the photometric activity of UX Ori stars is a consequence of instability of the deepest layers of their gas-dust accretion disks. In some cases (SV Cep), fluctuations of the density in this region are global, in the sense that they occur along a significant part of the circle marking the inner boundary of the dust disk. It is interesting that AB Aur, which is the quietest in the visual, appeared to be the most active in the IR. In contrast to UX Ori stars, the amplitude of its brightness variations increases from the J to the M band. It follows from analysis of the IR colors of this star that their variability cannot be described by models in which the variable IR emission has a temperature close to the sublimation temperature of

  9. Ethical Issues Related to the Promotion of a "100 mSv Threshold Assumption" in Japan after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident in 2011: Background and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshihide; Lindahl, Lena; Tokinobu, Akiko

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the debates in Japan regarding the 100 mSv threshold assumption and ethical issues related to it, and explores the background to distorted risk information and absence of risk communication in Japan. Then we seek proper risk communication based on scientific evidence. On March 11, 2011 an accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Since then a number of misunderstandings have become common in Japan as a result of public statements by the Japanese and local governments that have no basis in medical science or are contradictory to medical science. Consequently, not only the population of Fukushima Prefecture, but also others, have been subjected to unnecessary exposure to radiation, against the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. The number of cases of thyroid cancer has increased by one or two orders of magnitude since the accident in Fukushima. However, the population has hardly been given any correct information from the central and local governments, medical societies, and media. The center of this problem is a statement on radiation-induced cancer (including thyroid cancer) made by the Japanese Government and Japanese medical academic societies indicating that "exposure of less than 100 mSv gives rise to no excess risk of cancer, and even if there is some resulting cancer it will be impossible to detect it" (this will be referred to as "the 100 mSv threshold assumption" from now onward). They have been saying this since April 2011 and have made no effort to correct it. Many Japanese began to notice this but correct information on radiation protection has reached only one part of the population. Risk communication should be based on scientific evidence, and providing it as information for the public is a key element. In Japan, governments and academic societies tried to communicate with the public without doing it. Ethical problems after the accident in Fukushima

  10. Suitability of digital elevation models generated by uav photogrammetry for slope stability assessment (case study of landslide in Svätý Anton, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnák Miloš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the accuracy of photogrammetrically-derived digital elevation models (DEMs from UAV is essential in many geoscience disciplines. The suitability of different DEM devised for slope stability assessment was evaluated in the example of the landslide in Svätý Anton village in Slovakia. Aerial data was acquired during a one-day field campaign in autumn 2014. The point cloud from 218 images (54,607,748 points was manually classified into 7 different classes for filtering vegetation cover and buildings. Assessment of vertical differences between the UAV derived elevation model and real terrain surface was based on comparison of control points targeted by GPS (337 points and unclassified and ground classified point cloud for raster elevation models with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cm pixel resolution.

  11. CT coronary angiography at an ultra-low radiation dose (<0.1 mSv): feasible and viable in times of constraint on healthcare costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo [Erasmus Medical Center University, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Giovanni XXIII Clinic, Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Monastier di Treviso (Italy); Maffei, Erica; Arcadi, Teresa [Giovanni XXIII Clinic, Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Monastier di Treviso (Italy); Catalano, Onofrio [IRCCS, SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Midiri, Massimo [University of Palermo, Department of Radiology, Palermo (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has reached very high standards both in terms of diagnostic performance and radiation dose reduction. This commentary follows a report on CTCA using less than 0.1 mSv in selected patients. This is an extraordinary accomplishment, both for technology and for medicine. The difficult task is now to implement this tool in clinical practice so it can play the best possible role. CTCA can improve diagnostic pathways, can save money for healthcare systems and could even improve pharmacological therapy. All of this may happen, but it will require the combined effort of all the experienced operators in this field, including the referring clinicians. In times of financial constraint, CTCA may also help to restrict ineffective medical expenses. (orig.)

  12. Maestro di Pico i iluminacije u inkunabuli De Civitate Dei (Nicolas Jenson, Venecija, 1475. u samostanu Sv. Duje u Kraju na Pašmanu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Goja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available U franjevačkom samostanu Sv. Duje u Kraju na otoku Pašmanu čuva se inkunabula „O državi Božjoj“ (De Civitate Dei Sv. Aurelija Augustina koju je 1475. godine u Veneciji tiskao Nicolas Jenson. Inkunabula je na f. 17 (kako je naknadno označena paginacija grafitnom olovkom, tj. stranici incipita – liber primus kao i na više drugih stranica ukrašena lijepim višebojnim iluminacijama renesansnih stilskih karakteristika izrađenih temperom, zlatnim listićima, zlatnim prahom, sepijom, tintom i akvarelom. Iluminacije f. 17 sastoje se od dva fitomorfna inicijala, dekorativnog okvira i slobodnih figurativnih prizora tj. minijatura, dok su pojedine druge stranice ukrašene fitomorfnim i brojnim inicijala tipa littera notabilior visine dva retka izrađenima u crvenoj ili plavoj boji. Dekorativni ornamentirani okvir zaključen trolistima ispunjava gornju i lijevu marginu početne stranice. Osnovu dekoracije čini traka sastavljena od pet tankih linija koja se spiralno povija i tvori kružnice koje su ispunjene cvjetovima, listovima i bobicama u plavoj i zelenoj boji i boji ciklame te stiliziranim zlatnim cvjetovima čička (lat. Arctium lappa; pojedini autori nazivaju ove ukrasne motive bottoni dorati ili gold dots. U gornjem lijevom uglu okvira naslikan je češljugar. Na mjestu gdje započinje tekst lijevog stupca naslikan je unutar pravokutnog polja na zlatnoj pozadini inicijal „I“ sastavljen od fitomorfnih motiva plave, zelene i boje ciklame s osjenčanjima u različitim nijansama. Unutar dekorativnog okvira, na sredini visine inicijala, nalazi se medaljon unutar kojeg je naslikano poprsje Sv. Aurelija Augustina. Dekorativni ornamentirani okvir koji ispunjava gornju marginu ukrašen je na isti način kao i onaj uz desnu ali skromnije. Ime tiskara dodatno je naznačeno tako da je sa gornje i donje strane okvira ukrašeno sa po jednim stiliziranim zlatnim cvijetom čička sa gornje i češljugovine (lat. Dipsacus fullonum sa donje strane

  13. Sub-milliSievert (sub-mSv) CT colonography: a prospective comparison of image quality and polyp conspicuity at reduced-dose versus standard-dose imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Pooler, B.D.; Kitchin, Douglas R.; Kim, David H.; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Pickhardt, Perry J. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Sciences Center, Departments of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Tang, Jie [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Sciences Center, Departments of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    To prospectively compare reduced-dose (RD) CT colonography (CTC) with standard-dose (SD) imaging using several reconstruction algorithms. Following SD supine CTC, 40 patients (mean age, 57.3 years; 17 M/23 F; mean BMI, 27.2) underwent an additional RD supine examination (targeted dose reduction, 70-90 %). DLP, CTDI{sub vol}, effective dose, and SSDE were compared. Several reconstruction algorithms were applied to RD series. SD-FBP served as reference standard. Objective image noise, subjective image quality and polyp conspicuity were assessed. Mean CTDI{sub vol} and effective dose for RD series was 0.89 mGy (median 0.65) and 0.6 mSv (median 0.44), compared with 3.8 mGy (median 3.1) and 2.8 mSv (median 2.3) for SD series, respectively. Mean dose reduction was 78 %. Mean image noise was significantly reduced on RD-PICCS (24.3 ± 19HU) and RD-MBIR (19 ± 18HU) compared with RD-FBP (90 ± 33), RD-ASIR (72 ± 27) and SD-FBP (47 ± 14 HU). 2D image quality score was higher with RD-PICCS, RD-MBIR, and SD-FBP (2.7 ± 0.4/2.8 ± 0.4/2.9 ± 0.6) compared with RD-FBP (1.5 ± 0.4) and RD-ASIR (1.8 ± 0.44). A similar trend was seen with 3D image quality scores. Polyp conspicuity scores were similar between SD-FBP/RD-PICCS/RD-MBIR (3.5 ± 0.6/3.2 ± 0.8/3.3 ± 0.6). Sub-milliSievert CTC performed with iterative reconstruction techniques demonstrate decreased image quality compared to SD, but improved image quality compared to RD images reconstructed with FBP. (orig.)

  14. A Multi-component Matched Filter Cluster Confirmation Tool for eROSITA: Initial Application to the RASS and DES-SV Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.; et al.

    2017-06-20

    We describe a multi-component matched filter cluster confirmation tool (MCMF) designed for the study of large X-ray source catalogs produced by the upcoming X-ray all-sky survey mission eROSITA. We apply the method to confirm a sample of 88 clusters with redshifts $0.05SV) dataset. In our pilot study, we examine all X-ray sources, regardless of their extent. Our method employs a multi-color red sequence (RS) algorithm that incorporates the X-ray count rate and peak position in determining the region of interest for followup and extracts the positionally and color weighted optical richness $\\lambda_{\\mathrm{MCMF}}$ as a function of redshift for each source. Peaks in the $\\lambda_{\\mathrm{MCMF}}$-redshift distribution are identified and used to extract photometric redshifts, richness and uncertainties. The significances of all optical counterparts are characterized using the distribution of richnesses defined along random lines of sight. These significances are used to extract cluster catalogs and to estimate the contamination by random superpositions of unassociated optical systems. The delivered photometric redshift accuracy is $\\delta z / (1+z)=0.010$. We find a well defined X-ray luminosity-$\\lambda_{\\mathrm{MCMF}}$ relation with an intrinsic scatter of $\\delta \\ln(\\lambda_\\mathrm{MCMF}| L_\\mathrm{x})=0.21$. Matching our catalog with the DES-SV redMaPPer catalog yields good agreement in redshift and richness estimates; comparing our catalog with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected clusters shows no inconsistencies. SPT clusters in our dataset are consistent with the high mass extension of the RASS based $\\lambda_{\\mathrm{MCMF}}$-mass relation

  15. Diurnal expression of proteins in the retina of the blind cone-rod homeobox (Crx-/- ) mouse and the 129/Sv mouse: a proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Ludvigsen, Maja; Honoré, Bent; Vorum, Henrik

    2017-11-01

    The vertebrate retina contains a circadian clock participating in adaptations to day and night vision. This peripheral clock is independent of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The retinal clock is located in several cell types, including the photoreceptors. To investigate the role of the circadian clock of the photoreceptor cells in regulation of retinal protein rhythms, we analysed diurnal protein expression in the photoreceptor-deficient cone-rod homeobox knockout mouse (Crx-/- ) and the 129/Sv mouse. 2D gels were made from retinal homogenates of 129/Sv and Crx-/- mice killed at midday and midnight. Stained gels were analysed by use of PDQuest 2D gel analysis software. After trypsin digestion of differential expressed spots, the proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS using a nano-liquid chromatograph connected to a Q-TOF Premier mass spectrometer. These data were used to search the SWISS-PROT database. Both the retinae of the control and the Crx-/- mice exhibited diurnal proteins rhythms. As expected, proteins involved in phototransduction were not detected in the Crx-/- mouse; in this phenotype, however, proteins from spots showing diurnal rhythms were specifically identified as enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, Krebs cycle, and mitochondrial enzymes. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005556. We show diurnal protein rhythms in the retina of a mouse lacking the rods and cones. The diurnal protein rhythms in this genotype, lacking the circadian clock of the photoreceptors, might be caused by a circadian clock in other retinal cell types or a direct light input to the retina. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Postnatal training of 129/Sv mice confirms the long-term influence of early exercising on the motor properties of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Najet; Jamon, Marc

    2016-09-01

    A previous study showed that motor experiences during critical periods of development durably affect the motor properties of adult C57BL/6J mice. However, dependence on early environmental features may vary with the genetic profile. To evaluate the contribution of the genetic background on external influences to motricity, we performed the same experiment in a 129/Sv mouse strain that show a strongly different motor profile. Mice were subjected to endurance training (enriched environment or forced treadmill), hypergravity (chronic centrifugation), or simulated microgravity (hindlimb unloading) between postnatal days 10 and 30. They were then returned to standard housing until testing at the age of nine months. The endurance-trained mice showed a fast-slow shift in the deep zone of the tibialis. In addition, mice reared in the enriched environment showed a modified gait and body posture, and improved performance on the rotarod, whereas forced treadmill training did not affect motor output. Hypergravity induced a fast-slow shift in the superficial zone of the tibialis, with no consequence on motor output. Hindlimb unloading provoked an increased percentage of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis and a shift in the soleus muscle. When compared with similarly reared C57BL/6J mice, 129/Sv mice showed qualitative differences attributable to the lower efficiency of early training due to their lower basal motor activity level. Nevertheless, the results are essentially consistent in both strains, and support the hypothesis that early motor experience influences the muscle phenotype and motor output. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis), and a number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related ... cases clear up in 7 to 10 days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in ...

  18. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... reactive arthritis or Guillain-Barre syndrome. To prevent Campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  19. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all children in the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  20. Improving the validity of peripheral venous blood gas analysis as an estimate of arterial blood gas by correcting the venous values with SvO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoël, Fabien; Govciyan, Sandra; El Omri, Mouna; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Levraut, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral venous blood gas (pVBG) analysis in replacement of arterial blood gas (ABG) is limited by the unpredictable differences between arterial and venous values, especially for PCO2 and pH (ΔPCO2 and ΔpH). We hypothesized that, using the theoretical relationship linking SvO2 and blood flow, we could diminish the effect of local circulatory conditions on ΔPCO2 and ΔpH and thereby increase pVBG validity. This was a prospective cross-sectional study performed in emergency patients requiring a blood gas analysis in which ABG and pVBG were performed simultaneously. The data of 50 randomly selected patients (model group) were used for developing two equations to correct PvCO2 and pHv according to the peripheral SvO2 (SpvO2) level. The formulas derived were PvCO2cor = PvCO2 - 0.30 × (75 - SpvO2), and pHvcor = pHv + 0.001 × (75 - SpvO2). The validity of the corrected values was then tested on the remaining population (validation group). There were 281 patients included in the study, mainly for dyspnea. ΔPCO2 and ΔpH were strongly correlated with SpvO2 (r(2) = 0.62 and r(2) = 0.53, respectively, p 45 mm Hg (AUC ROC = 0.96 ± 0.01 vs. 0.89 ± 0.02, p 7.45 (AUC = 0.91 ± 0.02 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, p < 0.001). The variability of ΔPCO2 and ΔpH is significantly lowered when the venous values are corrected according to the SpvO2 value, and pVBG is therefore more accurate and valid for detecting an arterial abnormality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Staph Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Staph Infections What's in ... en español Infecciones por estafilococo What Is a Staph Infection? Staph is the shortened name for Staphylococcus ( ...

  2. A Susceptible Mouse Model for Zika Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D Dowall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen which has recently spread beyond Africa and into Pacific and South American regions. Despite first being detected in 1947, very little information is known about the virus, and its spread has been associated with increases in Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly. There are currently no known vaccines or antivirals against ZIKV infection. Progress in assessing interventions will require the development of animal models to test efficacies; however, there are only limited reports on in vivo studies. The only susceptible murine models have involved intracerebral inoculations or juvenile animals, which do not replicate natural infection. Our report has studied the effect of ZIKV infection in type-I interferon receptor deficient (A129 mice and the parent strain (129Sv/Ev after subcutaneous challenge in the lower leg to mimic a mosquito bite. A129 mice developed severe symptoms with widespread viral RNA detection in the blood, brain, spleen, liver and ovaries. Histological changes were also striking in these animals. 129Sv/Ev mice developed no clinical symptoms or histological changes, despite viral RNA being detectable in the blood, spleen and ovaries, albeit at lower levels than those seen in A129 mice. Our results identify A129 mice as being highly susceptible to ZIKV and thus A129 mice represent a suitable, and urgently required, small animal model for the testing of vaccines and antivirals.

  3. A Susceptible Mouse Model for Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Graham, Victoria A; Rayner, Emma; Atkinson, Barry; Hall, Graham; Watson, Robert J; Bosworth, Andrew; Bonney, Laura C; Kitchen, Samantha; Hewson, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen which has recently spread beyond Africa and into Pacific and South American regions. Despite first being detected in 1947, very little information is known about the virus, and its spread has been associated with increases in Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly. There are currently no known vaccines or antivirals against ZIKV infection. Progress in assessing interventions will require the development of animal models to test efficacies; however, there are only limited reports on in vivo studies. The only susceptible murine models have involved intracerebral inoculations or juvenile animals, which do not replicate natural infection. Our report has studied the effect of ZIKV infection in type-I interferon receptor deficient (A129) mice and the parent strain (129Sv/Ev) after subcutaneous challenge in the lower leg to mimic a mosquito bite. A129 mice developed severe symptoms with widespread viral RNA detection in the blood, brain, spleen, liver and ovaries. Histological changes were also striking in these animals. 129Sv/Ev mice developed no clinical symptoms or histological changes, despite viral RNA being detectable in the blood, spleen and ovaries, albeit at lower levels than those seen in A129 mice. Our results identify A129 mice as being highly susceptible to ZIKV and thus A129 mice represent a suitable, and urgently required, small animal model for the testing of vaccines and antivirals.

  4. Returning Home to the Advaitic Self: Svāmī Rāma Tīrtha and His American Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A recurring theme in the Advaita Vedānta traditions is the necessity of empirical purification through means such as the cultivation of virtues, the study of the Vedas, and so on, even though the transcendental self has never been subject to any form of bondage. The traditions seek to mitigate this paradox by employing the vocabulary of a shift across the ‘levels’ of truth—while the worldly self is, empirically speaking, moving towards the goal of realization, from the transcendental perspective, the self never loses its eternal nature. We will explore how Svāmī Rāma Tīrtha (1873–1906 addressed this theme of the recovery of one’s essential self in his lectures to some American audiences between 1902 and 1904. Drawing on some of the vocabularies of Swami Vivekananda, who had presented a ‘Practical Vedānta’ to Western audiences in the late 1890s, Rāma Tīrtha developed an Advaitic form of self-realization that is practically engaged with the world and, according to him, is the spiritual quest of humanity across all boundaries.

  5. First molecular data and the phylogenetic position of the millipede-like centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Vahtera

    Full Text Available Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882, is a rare, superficially millipede-like centipede known only from Borneo and the Philippines. It is unique within the order Scolopendromorpha for its slow gait, robust tergites, and highly modified gizzard and mandible morphology. Not much is known about the biology of the species but it has been speculated to be arboreal with a possibly vegetarian diet. Until now its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Otostigminae has been based only on morphological characters, being variably ranked as a monotypic tribe (Arrhabdotini or classified with the Southeast Asian genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934. The first molecular data for E. octosulcatum sourced from a newly collected specimen from Sarawak were analysed with and without morphology. Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistoma with species of Otostigmus. A position of Edentistoma within Otostigmini (rather than being its sister group as predicted by the Arrhabdotini hypothesis is consistently retrieved under different analytical conditions, but support values within the subfamily remain low for most nodes. The species exhibits strong pushing behaviour, suggestive of burrowing habits. Evidence against a suggested vegetarian diet is provided by observation of E. octosulcatum feeding on millipedes in the genus Trachelomegalus.

  6. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  7. [Nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Graf, Jürgen; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated for the year 2006 that around 500,000 to 600,000 nosocomial infections occurred in Germany and that among these 10,000 to 15,000 patients died of the infection. Nosocomial infections in general lengthen the duration of hospitalisation by on average 4 days - with associated extra costs of 4000 to 20,000 Euro per case. About a third of all infections acquired in hospital are considered to be avoidable. However, the classification of an infection as nosocomial does not automatically mean that a causal relationship exists between a medical intervention and the occurrence of the infection. Also a nosocomial infection is not a synonym for medical or nursing errors. The first epidemiological report of the EU emphasises the health-political and health-economical significance of nosocomial infections and classifies the increasing number of infections acquired in hospitals as a most important danger - even higher than the threats of pandemic influenza and HIV. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  8. Kontextus(ok a grammatikalizációs jelentésváltozás irodalmában

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Nagy C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jelen írás a történeti pragmatika, ezen belül a grammatikalizációs jelentésváltozással foglalkozó kutatások kontextusfogalmának feltárását tűzi ki célul. E kutatási terület két kontextustipológiájának (Heine 2002 és Diewald 2002 feltételezett kontextustípusai közül a kritikus kontextus (Diewald 2002 jellegzetességeinek alapos feltárása alapján az a konklúzió vonható le, hogy a kontextus kifejezés a vizsgált kutatási terület szakirodalmában nem mindig az értelmezés kontextusaként értendő. Egyrészt, a kontextus fogalma a grammatikalizációs jelentésváltozás szakirodalmában szűkebb fogalom az értelmezés kontextusánál, abban csupán a folyamatot előmozdító kontextuális tényezők kapnak szerepet. Másrészt, a történeti kutató értelmezési kontextusában több kontextuális tényező és másképp játszik/játszhat szerepet, mint a mindennapi nyelvhasználatban a megnyilatkozások értelmezése során. Harmadrészt, a kontextusnak a történeti kutatásban használatos fogalma a nyelvi megértésben szerepet játszó kontextus és a módszertani értelemben vett kontextus vonásainak keveredését mutatja. The present paper aims to discuss the notion of context as it appears in historical pragmatics, and, especially, in research concerning semantic change in grammaticalization. It presents the context types provided in Heine (2002 and Diewald (2002, which are supposed to be important in semantic change in grammaticalization. After discussing the characteristics of critical context, proposed in Diewald’s (2002 typology, the paper highlights why the expression context as used in grammaticalization literature cannot be understood as the context of online utterance interpretation. First, this notion of context is narrower than the context of online language processing in the sense that it contains only those contextual features which are important in semantic change. Second, the context

  9. Sensitivity of clear-sky direct radiative effect of the aerosol to micro-physical properties by using 6SV radiative transfer model: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Cristiana; Tirelli, Cecilia; Manzo, Ciro; Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Curci, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    The aerosol micro-physical properties are crucial to analyze their radiative impact on the Earth's radiation budget [IPCC, 2007]. The 6SV model, last generation of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code [Kotchenova et al., 2007; Vermote et al., 1997] has been used to perform physically-based atmospheric correction of hyperspectral airborne and aircraft remote sensing data [Vermote et al., 2009; Bassani et al. 2010; Tirelli et al., 2014]. The atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data has been shown to be sensitive to the aerosol micro-physical properties, as reported in Bassani et al., 2012. The role of the aerosol micro-physical properties on the accuracy of the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data acquired over water and land targets is investigated within the framework of CLAM-PHYM (Coasts and Lake Assessment and Monitoring by PRISMA HYperspectral Mission) and PRIMES (Synergistic use of PRISMA products with high resolution meteo-chemical simulations and their validation on ground and from satellite) projects, both funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI). In this work, the results of the radiative field of the Earth/Atmosphere coupled system simulated by using 6SV during the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data are presented. The analysis of the clear-sky direct radiative effect is performed considering the aerosol micro-physical properties used to define the aerosol model during the atmospheric correction process. In particular, the AERONET [Holben et al., 1998] and FLEXAOD [Curci et al., 2014] micro-physical properties are used for each image to evaluate the contribution of the size distribution and refractive index of the aerosol type on the surface reflectance and on the direct radiative forcing. The results highlight the potential of the hyperspectral remote sensing data for atmospheric studies as well as for environmental studies. Currently, the future hyperspectral missions, such as the

  10. Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNFα/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H₄R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H₄R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H₄R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H₄R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-α with nuclear factor-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H₄R internalization was inhibited by MβCD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H₄R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H₄R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H₄R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H₄R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H₄R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular.

  11. Quantitative trait loci for sensitivity to ethanol intoxication in a C57BL/6J×129S1/SvImJ inbred mouse cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesler, Elissa J; Plitt, Aaron; Fisher, Daniel; Hurd, Benita; Lederle, Lauren; Bubier, Jason A; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Holmes, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Individual variation in sensitivity to acute ethanol (EtOH) challenge is associated with alcohol drinking and is a predictor of alcohol abuse. Previous studies have shown that the C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (S1) inbred mouse strains differ in responses on certain measures of acute EtOH intoxication. To gain insight into genetic factors contributing to these differences, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of measures of EtOH-induced ataxia (accelerating rotarod), hypothermia, and loss of righting reflex (LORR) duration in a B6×S1 F2 population. We confirmed that S1 showed greater EtOH-induced hypothermia (specifically at a high dose) and longer LORR compared to B6. QTL analysis revealed several additive and interacting loci for various phenotypes, as well as examples of genotype interactions with sex. QTLs for different EtOH phenotypes were largely non-overlapping, suggesting separable genetic influences on these behaviors. The most compelling main-effect QTLs were for hypothermia on chromosome 16 and for LORR on chromosomes 4 and 6. Several QTLs overlapped with loci repeatedly linked to EtOH drinking in previous mouse studies. The architecture of the traits we examined was complex but clearly amenable to dissection in future studies. Using integrative genomics strategies, plausible functional and positional candidates may be found. Uncovering candidate genes associated with variation in these phenotypes in this population could ultimately shed light on genetic factors underlying sensitivity to EtOH intoxication and risk for alcoholism in humans.

  12. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simvastatin and intracellular pH regulation by the Na+/H+ antiport of SV40-virus-transformed human MRC5 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Ng, L L

    1993-06-01

    1. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase by simvastatin leads to inhibition of both cell growth and Na+/H+ antiport activity. The effect of simvastatin on intracellular pH and Na+/H+ antiport activity was therefore studied on an adherent cell line, the SV40-virus-transformed MRC5 human fibroblast. 2. Simvastatin led to a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular pH, attributed to a reduction in Na+/H+ exchange, together with a rounding of cell shape. Mevalonate (1 mmol/l) prevented these effects of simvastatin, and when added after inhibition of the antiport by simvastatin, reversed these changes within 1-2h. 3. The phenomenon of mevalonate reversal of antiport inhibition by simvastatin was not sensitive to cycloheximide, indicating its post-translational nature. This was also consistent with the short period of incubation with mevalonate leading to reversal of antiport inhibition (1-2 h). These changes in intracellular pH regulation were not due to alterations in cell cholesterol content. 4. A variety of inhibitors of post-translational processes, such as N-linked glycosylation (tunicamycin), phosphorylation (staurosporine), isoprenylation (farnesol, limonene), and of pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins or calmodulin (W7), had no effect on the reversal by mevalonate of simvastatin-induced changes in Na+/H+ antiport activity. 5. N-Ethylmaleimide (50 mumol/l for 5 min) prevented mevalonate reversing the effects of simvastatin, suggesting the importance of thiol groups in the phenomenon of reversal of the inhibition of Na+/H+ antiport activity by simvastatin. Furthermore, concurrent incubation of simvastatin-treated cells with dithiothreitol (1 mmol/l) and N-ethylmaleimide restored the ability of mevalonate to reverse the inhibitory effects of simvastatin on Na+H+ antiport activity.

  14. Geophysical fingerprints of shallow cultural structures from microgravity and GPR measurements in the Church of St. George, Svätý Jur, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panisova, Jaroslava; Murín, Igor; Pašteka, Roman; Haličková, Jana; Brunčák, Peter; Pohánka, Vladimír; Papčo, Juraj; Milo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Recording of the historic edifice using the state-of-the-art geodetic and geophysical techniques brings easier visualisation in form of a three-dimensional (3D) model, thus allowing better understanding of its historical construction by the public and non-experts. We have applied this approach at the Church of St. George, one of the most significant religious buildings in south-western Slovakia, which dominates a silhouette of the town Svätý Jur. The geodetic survey allowed to record the actual state of the church. The church exterior was surveyed using a total station. Due to the intricate shape of the interior components of the church, it was decided to use a terrestrial laser scanner to generate the point cloud data, which were processed into floor plan, elevations, sectional 2D drawings and 3D model. The geophysical survey was carried out in the interior of the church in order to identify potential subsurface anthropogenic structures. Microgravity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were selected as the most effective geophysical tools for such task. In microgravity data processing we focused on the calculation and removal of the gravitational effects of the building masses. The main negative gravity anomalies of interest in the nave, which also have been confirmed by GPR measurements, are interpreted as medieval crypts. Another very important outcome of the geophysical survey is the discovery of the west wall foundations of the oldest Romanesque construction. From each geophysical data acquired we derived 3D polygonal models, which are compared to achieve more realistic picture of the subsurface structures. Verification of these structures by means of archaeological excavation has not been carried out yet.

  15. Social investigation and long-term recognition memory performance in 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and their hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hädicke

    Full Text Available When tested for their behavioural performance, the mixed genetic background of transgenic mice is a critical, but often ignored, issue. Such issues can arise because of the significant differences in defined behavioural parameters between embryonic stem cell donor and recipient strains. In this context, the commonly used stem cell donor strain '129' shows 'deficits' in different paradigms for learning and long-term memory. We investigated the long-term social recognition memory performance and the investigative behaviour in commercially available 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and two F1-hybrids (129S1/SvImJ×C57BL/6JOlaHsd by using the social discrimination procedure and its modification, the volatile fraction cage (VFC. Our data revealed an unimpaired olfactory long-term recognition memory not only in female and male 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice but also in the two hybrid lines (129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd when the full 'olfactory signature' of the 'to-be-recognized' conspecific was presented. Under these conditions we also failed to detect differences in the long-term recognition memory between male and female mice of the tested strains and revealed that the oestrus cycle did not affect the performance in this memory task. The performance in the VFC, based only on the volatile components of the 'olfactory signature' of the 'to-be-recognized' conspecific, was similar to that observed under direct exposure except that females of one F1 hybrid group failed to show an intact long-term memory. Thus, the social discrimination procedure allowing direct access between the experimental subject and the stimulus animal(s is highly suitable to investigate the impact of genetic manipulations on long-term memory in male and female mice of the strain 129S1/SvImJ, C57BL/6JOlaHsd and 129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd hybrids.

  16. Streptococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) Group B strep can cause blood infections, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns. A screening test during ... or already have health problems. Strep B can cause urinary tract infections, blood ... and pneumonia in adults. Antibiotics are used to treat strep ...

  17. Purification and characterization of two high molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases (P-III SVMPs), named SV-PAD-2 and HR-Ele-1, from the venom of Protobothrops elegans (Sakishima-habu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Etsuko; Takahashi, Hidenobu

    2015-09-01

    We herein identified two high molecular mass metalloproteinases, named SV-PAD-2 and HR-Ele-1, in the venom of Protobothrops elegans. HR-Ele-1 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) regard under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and the molecular mass of this protease was approximately 60 kDa under reducing conditions. On the other hand, the molecular masses of SV-PAD-2 on SDS-PAGE were 110 kDa under the non-reducing condition and 52 kDa under the reducing condition. These SVMPs exhibited fibrinogenolytic and enzymatic activities against synthetic substrates for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the insulin B-chain, and were both inhibited by EDTA. SV-PAD-2 inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with IC50 values of 240 nM and 185 nM, respectively. HR-Ele-1 exhibited hemorrhagic activity, and its minimum hemorrhagic dose (MHD) was 0.05 μg in the guinea pig. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Faraona dievišķās varas manifestācija Ozīrisa un Hora svētkos 1872.-30.g.p.m.ē

    OpenAIRE

    Andrejauska, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Faraona dievišķās varas manifestācija Ozīrisa un Hora svētkos 1872. - 30. g.p.m.ē.” mērķis ir apskatīt konkrēto svētku ceremonijas ar faraona klātbūtni un izpētīt, kā caur rituāliem tiek leģitimēta dievišķā vara. Senās Ēģiptes valdniekam piemita dievišķa vara, ko noteiktā laikā bija nepieciešams atjaunot, stiprināt, leģitimēt. Tas bija iespējams Ozīrisa un Hora svētku ceremonijās, kuru laikā faraons veica ar Ozīrisa mitoloģiju saistītus rituālus. Pētījuma gaitā noskaidrots, ...

  19. Nail infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, K T; Bonar, P L

    1989-04-01

    Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect.

  20. Solvent effect on the fluorescence quenching of biologically active carboxamide by aniline and carbon tetrachloride in different solvents using S-V plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, N.R. [Department of Physics, B V B College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Melavanki, R.M., E-mail: melavanki73@gmail.com [Department of Physics, M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560054, Karnataka (India); Kapatkar, S.B. [Department of Physics, B V B College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Chandrasekhar, K. [Department of Physics, Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot 587101, Karnataka (India); Ayachit, N.H. [Department of Physics, B V B College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Umapathy, Siva [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India)

    2012-03-15

    The fluorescence quenching studies of carboxamide namely (E)-N-(3-Chlorophenyl)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylideneamino)-4,5,6,7 tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide [ENCTTTC] by aniline and carbon tetrachloride in six different solvents namely toluene, cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane and n-pentane have been carried out at room temperature with a view to understand the quenching mechanisms. The Stern-Volmer (S-V) plots have been found to be non-linear with a positive deviation for all the solvents studied. In order to interpret these results we have invoked the ground state complex formation and sphere of action static quenching models. Using these models various quenching rate parameters have been determined. The magnitudes of these parameters suggest that sphere of action static quenching model agrees well with the experimental results. Hence the positive deviation is attributed to the static and dynamic quenching. Further, with the use of Finite Sink approximation model, it was possible to check these bimolecular reactions as diffusion-limited and to estimate independently distance parameter R Prime and mutual diffusion coefficient D. Finally an effort has been made to correlate the values of R Prime and D with the values of the encounter distance R and the mutual coefficient D determined using the Edward's empirical relation and Stokes Einstein relation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stern-Volmer plots show positive deviation, indicating efficient fluorescence quenching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Static quenching constant 'V' and kinetic distance 'r' are in agreement with literature values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Values of k{sub q} are greater than 4{pi}N Prime R Prime D, which is expected result for diffusion limited reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finite sink approximation model is valid in recovering the parameters D and R Prime (R). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quenching reaction is diffusion

  1. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tapeworm (Taenia solium) is greater in areas of Latin America, China, sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia where ... as well as seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus or dementia. Death can occur in severe cases of infection. Organ ...

  2. Norovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you experience severe vomiting, bloody stools, abdominal pain or dehydration. Causes Noroviruses are highly contagious and are shed in the feces of infected humans and animals. Methods of transmission include: Eating contaminated food Drinking ...

  3. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Runny nose MRSA infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  4. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vomiting Pinworm infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  6. Norovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get it if you touch a contaminated surface. Norovirus can be serious, especially for young children and older adults. The most common symptoms of norovirus infection are Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Stomach pain ...

  7. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... on the face and neck, sometimes after a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction ...

  8. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your hands before touching other people and before handling food. (Anyone with a diarrhea should not prepare food ... should be kept away from other kids. Proper handling, storage, and preparation of food can also help prevent Shigella infections. Cold foods ...

  9. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection of the paronychium (pay-roh-NIK-ee-um), which is the area around the fingernail ( ... term?) for single-character wildcard matching. For example, pa?ent would give you results for parent, patent, ...

  10. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the most common Campylobacter species associated with diarrhea . Common ways that a child can get the ... and Symptoms Illness caused by Campylobacter infections includes diarrhea, stomach pain, and fever. Blood may be present ...

  11. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  12. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of chicken spleen in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qinghua; Sandford, Erin E; Zhang, Xiquan; Nolan, Lisa K; Lamont, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) leads to economic losses in poultry production and is also a threat to human health. The goal of this study was to characterize the chicken spleen transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to APEC infection using Solexa sequencing. We obtained 14422935, 14104324, and 14954692 Solexa read pairs for non-challenged (NC), challenged-mild pathology (MD), and challenged-severe pathology (SV), respectively. A total of 148197 contigs and 98461 unigenes were assembled, of which 134949 contigs and 91890 unigenes match the chicken genome. In total, 12272 annotated unigenes take part in biological processes (11664), cellular components (11927), and molecular functions (11963). Summing three specific contrasts, 13650 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were found in NC Vs. MD (6844), NC Vs. SV (7764), and MD Vs. SV (2320). Some unigenes (e.g. CD148, CD45 and LCK) were involved in crucial pathways, such as the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway and microbial metabolism in diverse environments. This study facilitates understanding of the genetic architecture of the chicken spleen transcriptome, and has identified candidate genes for host response to APEC infection.

  13. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of chicken spleen in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Nie

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC leads to economic losses in poultry production and is also a threat to human health. The goal of this study was to characterize the chicken spleen transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to APEC infection using Solexa sequencing. We obtained 14422935, 14104324, and 14954692 Solexa read pairs for non-challenged (NC, challenged-mild pathology (MD, and challenged-severe pathology (SV, respectively. A total of 148197 contigs and 98461 unigenes were assembled, of which 134949 contigs and 91890 unigenes match the chicken genome. In total, 12272 annotated unigenes take part in biological processes (11664, cellular components (11927, and molecular functions (11963. Summing three specific contrasts, 13650 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were found in NC Vs. MD (6844, NC Vs. SV (7764, and MD Vs. SV (2320. Some unigenes (e.g. CD148, CD45 and LCK were involved in crucial pathways, such as the T cell receptor (TCR signaling pathway and microbial metabolism in diverse environments. This study facilitates understanding of the genetic architecture of the chicken spleen transcriptome, and has identified candidate genes for host response to APEC infection.

  14. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  15. Image quality of ultra-low radiation exposure coronary CT angiography with an effective dose <0.1 mSv using high-pitch spiral acquisition and raw data-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Achenbach, Stephan; Hecker, Franziska; Rixe, Johannes [University of Giessen, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Layritz, Christian; Eisentopf, Jasmin; Pflederer, Tobias; Gauss, Soeren; Kalender, Willi; Daniel, Werner G.; Lell, Michael; Ropers, Dieter [University of Erlangen, Departments of Cardiology and Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    We evaluated the potential of prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition with low tube voltage and current in combination with iterative reconstruction to achieve coronary CT angiography with sufficient image quality at an effective dose below 0.1 mSv. Contrast-enhanced coronary dual source CT angiography (2 x 128 x 0.6 mm, 80 kV, 50 mAs) in prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition mode was performed in 21 consecutive individuals (body weight <100 kg, heart rate {<=}60/min). Images were reconstructed with raw data-based filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Image quality was assessed on a 4-point scale (1 = no artefacts, 4 = unevaluable). Mean effective dose was 0.06 {+-} 0.01 mSv. Image noise was significantly reduced in IR (128.9 {+-} 46.6 vs. 158.2 {+-} 44.7 HU). The mean image quality score was lower for IR (1.9 {+-} 1.1 vs. 2.2 {+-} 1.0, P < 0.0001). Of 292 coronary segments, 55 in FBP and 40 in IR (P = 0.12) were graded ''unevaluable''. In patients with a body weight {<=}75 kg, both in FBP and in IR, the rates of fully evaluable segments were significantly higher in comparison to patients >75 kg. Coronary CT angiography with an estimated effective dose <0.1 mSv may provide sufficient image quality in selected patients through the combination of high-pitch spiral acquisition and raw data-based iterative reconstruction. (orig.)

  16. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...

  17. Fusarium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  18. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have a partner who has a sexually transmitted disease. Pregnant women should get a test when they go to ... partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted disease Men who have ... of chlamydia? In women, an untreated infection can spread to your uterus ...

  19. Protozoan Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    respond poorly to antimicrobial therapy. Organisms closely related to Leishmania include Trypanosoma cruzi , which causes American trypanosomiasis...1978). Trypanosoma cruzi also does not 22. Protozoan Infections 689 inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, but escapes from the parasitophorous vacuole to...y from solution. Approximately one-third of antileishmanial activity remains, however, when lymphokine preparations are treated with anti -IFN (Nacy et

  20. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  1. Experiential meaning potential in the Topaz Energy logo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian Mosbæk

    2017-01-01

    Based on the premise that corporate logos are all pervasive in the semiotic landscapes of the post-industrial, globalized world order, the article contends that there is an increasing need for understanding how logos make meaning thus constraining human behaviour. The article argues that conventi......Based on the premise that corporate logos are all pervasive in the semiotic landscapes of the post-industrial, globalized world order, the article contends that there is an increasing need for understanding how logos make meaning thus constraining human behaviour. The article argues...

  2. The MRC-5 human embryonal lung fibroblast two-dimensional gel cellular protein database: quantitative identification of polypeptides whose relative abundance differs between quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Dejgaard, K; Madsen, Peder

    1990-01-01

    (1323 with isoelectric focusing and 572 with nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis) are recorded in this database, containing quantitative and qualitative data on the relative abundance of cellular proteins synthesized by quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed MRC-5 fibroblasts. Of the 592......A new version of the MRC-5 two-dimensional gel cellular protein database (Celis et al., Electrophoresis 1989, 10, 76-115) is presented. Gels were scanned with a Molecular Dynamics laser scanner and processed by the PDQUEST II software. A total of 1895 [35S]methionine-labeled cellular polypeptides...

  3. The diagnosis of fasciolosis in feces of sheep by means of a PCR and its application in the detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks naturally infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, D; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Martínez-Valladares, M

    2013-10-18

    The aim of this study was to develop a PCR for the diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection in feces of sheep based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. Detection of infection was possible from the second week post-infection in experimentally infected sheep by amplification of a 292bp fragment. This PCR was employed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in naturally infected sheep flocks, and results were compared with techniques such as the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the copro-antigen reduction test (CRT). The FECRT was carried out in two flocks, Santillan de la Vega (SV) and Corullón (CR), with sheep treated with albendazole (ABZ), clorsulon (CL), or triclabendazole (TCBZ). Feces were collected from individuals on days 0, 7, 15, and 30 post-treatment (pt). The FECRT showed adult F. hepatica to be resistant to ABZ and CL in both flocks. All parasite stages in the SV flock were susceptible to TCBZ, while in the CR flock, adult flukes showed resistance and immature forms were susceptible to the treatment. To compare FECRT and the PCR results, we calculated the percent of positive sheep on day 1 pt. In both flocks, the percent positive sheep was consistently higher by PCR than by sedimentation, confirming that the PCR is a more sensitive method of diagnosing infection and therefore to detect the resistance in infected animals. The CRT was carried out in the SV flock using a sandwich ELISA kit. The percent of sheep found positive by PCR was higher than with ELISA. Comparison of FECRT, CRT, and PCR for the detection of AR showed PCR to be the most sensitive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 10-12 gadus vecu pusaudžu emociju un jūtu attīstīšana Svētdienas skolas nodarbībās

    OpenAIRE

    Rubene, Inga

    2007-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „ 7-10 gadus vecu bērnu jūtu un emociju attīstīšana Svētdienas skolās”. Šīs tēmas nozīmi raksturo apstāklis, ka arvien biežāk nākas sastapties ar bērniem un pusaudžiem, kuru uztverē un domāšanā redzams emocionālais un jūtu deficīts. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izveidot Svētdienas skolas nodarbību metodiskos ieteikumus bērnu emociju un jūtu attīstīšanai jaunākajā skolas vecumā. Pētījumā īstenoti šādi pamatuzdevumi - iepazīties ar zinātnisko literatūru par jaunāko skolas v...

  6. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  7. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal discharge with a cottage cheese appearance Complicated yeast infection You might have a complicated yeast infection ... have an uncomplicated or a complicated infection. Uncomplicated yeast infection For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent ...

  8. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  9. Bypass of a site-specific cis-Syn thymine dimer in an SV40 vector during in vitro replication by HeLa and XPV cell-free extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensch-Simon, I; Burgers, P M; Taylor, J S

    1998-06-02

    The key step in skin cancer induction by UV light is thought to be the mutagenic DNA synthesis past a DNA photoproduct in a proto-oncogene or tumor suppressor gene. To investigate this critical step, we have constructed an SV40 vector containing a cis-syn thymine dimer, the major DNA photoproduct induced by UVB light, within an AseI site at a location that would initially be replicated by leading strand synthesis. When the dimer-containing SV40 vector was incubated with cell-free HeLa extracts in the presence of TAg, and then digested with AseI, a 2325 bp fragment corresponding to inhibition of cleavage at the dimer site was observed, suggesting that the dimer had terminated synthesis and/or had been bypassed. When the reaction was limited to one round of replication and the products of restriction enzyme digestion were examined by denaturing gel electrophoresis, bands corresponding to both termination and bypass were observed in roughly a one-to-one ratio. Whereas increasing the dNTP concentration from 10 microM to 1 mM increased the ratio of bypass to termination from 0.6 to 2.6, it had no effect on the site of termination, which occurred exclusively one nucleotide before the dimer. Experiments in which dGTP was held constant at 25 microM and various combinations of the remaining nucleotides were raised from 25 microM to 1 mM showed substantial increases in the bypass-to-termination ratio, with the greatest effect seen for raising all three nucleotides to 1 mM. Replication by primary fibroblast XPV extracts was also investigated and found to be greatly stimulated by rhRPA, whereas the stimulatory effect for HeLa cell extracts was variable. In the presence of rhRPA, the XPV extracts were also found to bypass the cis-syn dimer, which contrasts with a recent report that could not detect dimer bypass in SV40 transformed XPV extracts in the absence of added replication factors [Cordeiro-Stone, M., et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13945-13954].

  10. Escherichia coli Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvana, Sejal; Krilov, Leonard R

    2015-04-01

    Virulent strains of Escherichia coli are responsible for most diarrheal infections, meningitis, septicemia, and urinary tract infections in children worldwide. Clinicians must learn to recognize, treat, and prevent these infections. After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology of E coli infections. 2. Recognize the clinical features of E coli infections, including the O157: H7 strain. 3. Appropriately treat children with various types of E coli infections. 4. Understand ways to prevent E coli infections.

  11. Monkeypoxvirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, S R

    2000-04-01

    During and after the smallpox eradication campaign, human cases of monkeypox appeared in West and Central Africa, as isolated cases or as small epidemics. Since inter-human transmission has never or only very exceptionally been documented, monkeypox does not represent a serious threat to humans. The virus reservoir is among tree squirrels living in the tropical rain forests of Africa and humans are infected by hunting, killing and skinning these animals. However, the modernization of society lessens human contact with the virus reservoir. Since the eradication of smallpox, stocks of variola virus have been maintained; whether these stocks should now be destroyed is a political question, which is seriously compromised by mistrust between countries.

  12. Arenavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  13. Low-Dose (2-mSv) CT in Adolescents and Young Adults With Suspected Appendicitis: Advantages of Additional Review of Thin Sections Using Multiplanar Sliding-Slab Averaging Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Jin; Kim, Bohyoung; Ko, Yousun; Cho, Kyung Eun; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Dong Hwan; Song, Hyunjoo; Lee, Kyoung Ho

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the advantages of additional multiplanar sliding-slab averaging review of 2-mm-thick (thin) sections over stack review of 5-mm-thick (thick) sections in difficult cases of 2-mSv CT in adolescents and young adults with suspected appendicitis. We included 149 patients (mean age, 28.0 years; 61 male patients and 88 female patients) for whom the initial CT reports were inconclusive for the diagnosis of appendicitis. Five independent radiologists retrospectively reviewed the thick sections in the stack mode and then the thin sections using sliding-slab averaging. In each review, they rated the likelihood of appendicitis and the appendix visualization using 5- and 3-point Likert scales, respectively. Diagnostic performance and confidence were compared between the two reviews using ROC analysis, McNemar tests, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The pooled AUCs were 0.90 and 0.93 for the stack and sliding-slab averaging reviews, respectively (90% CI for the difference, 0.002-0.06; p = 0.087). For the individual readers, the sliding-slab averaging review tended to increase the AUC (range, 0.86-0.93 for stack vs 0.87-0.97 for sliding-slab averaging review), improve the confidence in diagnosing (mean score, 3.6-4.7 vs 3.9-4.7) or ruling out (1.6-2.1 vs 1.5-1.9) appendicitis, reduce indeterminate interpretations (0-15% vs 0-11%), and enhance the normal appendix visualization (1.1-1.7 vs 1.1-1.9), although the differences were not always statistically significant. Sliding-slab averaging review of thin sections is helpful when the diagnosis of appendicitis is difficult at 2-mSv CT in adolescents and young adults.

  14. Hantavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  15. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections Print A ... Last? Can Salmonella Infections Be Prevented? What Is Salmonella ? Salmonella is a kind of bacteria , with many ...

  16. Metabolic Imaging of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawal, Ismaheel; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas; Ankrah, Alfred; Vorster, Mariza; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Govender, Thavendran; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic imaging has come to occupy a prominent place in the diagnosis and management of microbial infection. Molecular probes available for infection imaging have undergone a rapid evolution starting with nonspecific agents that accumulate similarly in infection, sterile inflammation, and

  17. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria infection Overview Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly ...

  18. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...

  19. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  20. Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org editorial staff Home Diseases and Conditions Group B Strep Infection Condition Group B Strep Infection Share Print Group B Strep Infection Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. ...

  1. Infective endocarditis epidemiology over five decades: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Slipczuk

    Full Text Available AIMS: To Assess changes in infective endocarditis (IE epidemiology over the last 5 decades. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched the published literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception until December 2011. DATA FROM: Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA were also included. Criteria for inclusion in this systematic review included studies with reported IE microbiology, IE definition, description of population studied, and time frame. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed manuscript quality. One hundred sixty studies (27,083 patients met inclusion criteria. Among hospital-based studies (n=142; 23,606 patients staphylococcal IE percentage increased over time, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS increasing over each of the last 5 decades (p<0.001 and Staphylococcus aureus (SA in the last decade (21% to 30%; p<0.05. Streptococcus viridans (SV and culture negative (CN IE frequency decreased over time (p<0.001, while enterococcal IE increased in the last decade (p<0.01. Patient age and male predominance increased over time as well. In subgroup analysis, SA frequency increased in North America, but not the rest of the world. This was due, in part, to an increase in intravenous drug abuse IE in North America (p<0.001. Among population-based studies (n=18; 3,477 patients no significant changes were found. CONCLUSION: Important changes occurred in IE epidemiology over the last half-century, especially in the last decade. Staphylococcal and enterococcal IE percentage increased while SV and CN IE decreased. Moreover, mean age at diagnosis increased together with male:female ratio. These changes should be considered at the time of decision-making in treatment of and prophylaxis for IE.

  2. Illumination of parainfluenza virus infection and transmission in living animals reveals a tissue-specific dichotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal W Burke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The parainfluenza viruses (PIVs are highly contagious respiratory paramyxoviruses and a leading cause of lower respiratory tract (LRT disease. Since no vaccines or antivirals exist, non-pharmaceutical interventions are the only means of control for these pathogens. Here we used bioluminescence imaging to visualize the spatial and temporal progression of murine PIV1 (Sendai virus infection in living mice after intranasal inoculation or exposure by contact. A non-attenuated luciferase reporter virus (rSeV-luc(M-F* that expressed high levels of luciferase yet was phenotypically similar to wild-type Sendai virus in vitro and in vivo was generated to allow visualization. After direct intranasal inoculation, we unexpectedly observed that the upper respiratory tract (URT and trachea supported robust infection under conditions that result in little infection or pathology in the lungs including a low inoculum of virus, an attenuated virus, and strains of mice genetically resistant to lung infection. The high permissivity of the URT and trachea to infection resulted in 100% transmission to naïve contact recipients, even after low-dose (70 PFU inoculation of genetically resistant BALB/c donor mice. The timing of transmission was consistent with the timing of high viral titers in the URT and trachea of donor animals but was independent of the levels of infection in the lungs of donors. The data therefore reveals a disconnect between transmissibility, which is associated with infection in the URT, and pathogenesis, which arises from infection in the lungs and the immune response. Natural infection after transmission was universally robust in the URT and trachea yet limited in the lungs, inducing protective immunity without weight loss even in genetically susceptible 129/SvJ mice. Overall, these results reveal a dichotomy between PIV infection in the URT and trachea versus the lungs and define a new model for studies of pathogenesis, development of live

  3. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  4. Shewanella putrefaciens infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Constant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.

  5. Postoperative pelvic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Constance; Faro, Sebastian

    2008-12-01

    Infectious morbidity affecting the postoperative course has long been a concern for obstetricians and gynecologists. The incidence of postoperative infections approaches 38%. The third most common nosocomial infection is surgical site infection. The realm of postoperative infections includes obstetric and gynecologic sources. An understanding of the basic fundamentals of the vaginal flora and addressing host and surgical risk factors can aid in prevention of postoperative infections, which result in significant morbidity and mortality.

  6. Tirdzniecības stratēģiju izvēle atkarībā no valūtu pāra svārstību intensitātes

    OpenAIRE

    Proskurovs, Vladlens

    2010-01-01

    Darba autors izvirzīja mērķi izanalizēt noteiktu indikatoru efektivitāti tirdzniecībā ar valūtas pāriem atkarībā no svārstību intensitātes pakāpes, lai piedāvātu optimālu stratēģiju individuālam investoram, kas vēlas darboties FOREX tirgū. Šim nolūkam, pirmkārt, tika apskatīta FOREX tirgus vēsture, būtība un dalībnieki; otrkārt, izpētīti divi galvenie tirgus analīzes veidi; treškārt, aprakstīts tāds tirgus indikators kā slīdošie vidējie, ar kuras palīdzību ir izveidotas tirdzniecības stratēģi...

  7. Návrh nového řešení těsnění nastavovacího šroubu světlometu

    OpenAIRE

    Lysa, Bohuslav

    2008-01-01

    Bakalářská práce zabývající se problematikou těsnění nastavovacího šroubu světlometu. Obsahuje analýzu uložení těsnícího O-kroužku a analýzu zajištění nastavovacího šroubu v pracovní pozici. Na základě analýzy je vypracován nový návrh rozměrového uložení těsnícího O-kroužku, a nový návrh zajištění nastavovacího šroubu. Vybrané části analýzy byly ověřeny výpočtovými simulacemi MKP v programu SimDesigner využívající 3D modely zpracované v CAD systému Catia v5. Součástí práce je studie provedite...

  8. Světový trh kakaa

    OpenAIRE

    Voglová, Karolína

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the global cocoa market. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the global cocoa market and indentify the future prospects of this market. The first chapter deals with the general charakteristics of this commodity, i.e. the history of cocoa growing, types of cocoa, cocoa cultivation and cocoa producing areas, and it is processed by using the methods of synthesis and comparison. Another chapter is the analysis of the global cocoa market, which presents the greates...

  9. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  10. Så faldt Damokles-sværdet!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    En i udlandet stærkt kritiseret russisk lov om registrering af NGOer, herunder selvangivelse som "udenlandske agent" hvis man modtager støtte fra udlandet, er nu sat i fuld gang, trods kritik bl.a. af den tyske kansler Angela Merkel...

  11. Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental Infection of Sheep using Infective Larvae (L3) harvested from the Faeces of Naturally Infected Swayne's Hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei ) at Senkele Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary, Ethiopia.

  12. Primary scab control using a "during-infection" spray timing and the effect on fruit quality and yield in organic apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in Europe depends to a great extent on the use of copper fungicides for scab control (Venturia inaequalis. The objective of this 6-year study (2003-2008 conducted in Belgium was to determine measures for reducing the use of copper fungicides in organic apple production. The effectiveness of a 'during-infection' spray strategy using wettable sulphur (with or without copper, lime sulphur, potassium bicarbonate, silicon and five natural plant extracts (orange peel, soapbark, tea seed, quinoa seed and grapefruit seed for controlling primary scab was investigated in a split-plot field experiment. Four apple cultivars that express a gradient of partial scab resistance were included: a high scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pinova', a medium scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pirouette' and two old cultivars expressing low to very low scab susceptibility (cvs. 'Reinette Hernaut' and 'Reinette des Capucins'. Apart from these cultivars, four monogenic Vf scab-resistant cultivars (cvs. 'Initial', 'Topaz', 'Zvatava' and 'JN 20/33/58' were also included in the experimental orchard. In order to reduce the amount of fungicide required, two strategies were used: a specific spray timing involving spraying during the infection processes, before fungal penetration, determined by the RIMpro software warning system, and a tunnel sprayer machine for optimal treatment applications. Depending on the year, a total of 8-12 applications were made annually. Under field conditions that were highly conducive disease, low rates of elemental sulphur (≤ 40 kg.ha-1 per year combined with low rates of copper (≤ 2.1 kg.ha-1 per year provided the best scab control and reduced scab severity on the leaves and fruits by 85-100%, depending on the year and cultivar, compared with the untreated control. In most cases, the lime sulphur spray treatment, which used more elemental sulphur but did not use copper, provided a similar level of scab control to the

  13. Learn About Cronobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Learn About Cronobacter Infection Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... but infections in young infants can be deadly. Learn what steps you can take to protect your ...

  14. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  15. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  16. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux ( ...

  17. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000449.htm Staph infections - hospital To use the sharing features on ... can also spread from one person to another. Staph Infections in the Hospital Staph germs are mostly ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections ... begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, ...

  19. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Infections Print A A A en español Infecciones vaginales por hongos What Are Vaginal Yeast Infections? ... keep the amount in a person's body under control. But yeast in the vagina can sometimes "overgrow" ...

  20. Clostridium difficile infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geller, Stephen A; Campos, Fernando P. F. de

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element...

  1. Infection and esophageal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al‐Haddad, Sahar; El‐Zimaity, Hala; Hafezi‐Bakhtiari, Sara; Rajendra, Shanmugarajah; Streutker, Catherine J; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on infection and cancer, and includes commentaries on the influence of bacterial infections on mucin expression and cancer risk...

  2. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body When you hear ... of Chlamydia bacteria. Another species, called Chlamydia (or Chlamydophila ) pneumoniae, causes respiratory illnesses. These lung infections are spread ...

  3. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. Infants in childcare settings can become infected with ... than 2 weeks, however, are a sign of chronic diarrhea. Call your doctor if you think that you ...

  4. Diabetic foot infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bader, MS

    2008-01-01

    .... Diabetic foot infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci, are the most common pathogens in previously untreated mild and moderate infection...

  5. Breast infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most breast infections occur in breastfeeding women when bacteria enters the breast through cracks in the nipple. In severe infections, abscesses may occur. Antibiotics may be indicated for treatment.

  6. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infection. How Is Listeriosis Treated? Healthy kids, teens, and adults with a Listeria infection typically don' ... November 2017 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Staying Healthy During Pregnancy Why Is Hand Washing ...

  7. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  8. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Influenza HIV Infection Philip J. Peters, John T. Brooks INFECTIOUS AGENT ... skin (see Chapter 8, Health Care Workers ). EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV infection occurs worldwide. As of the end of 2014, ...

  9. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK? What's the best way to treat a yeast infection during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. You can safely treat a yeast infection during pregnancy with various over-the-counter ...

  10. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  11. Host genetic background influences the response to the opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection altering cell-mediated immunity and bacterial replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura De Simone

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical site infections. The clinical outcome of P. aeruginosa infections may be extremely variable among individuals at risk and patients affected by cystic fibrosis. However, risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection remain largely unknown. To identify and track the host factors influencing P. aeruginosa lung infections, inbred immunocompetent mouse strains were screened in a pneumonia model system. A/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cAnNCrl, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2J, and 129S2/SvPasCRL mice were infected with P. aeruginosa clinical strain and monitored for body weight and mortality up to seven days. The most deviant survival phenotypes were observed for A/J, 129S2/SvPasCRL and DBA/2J showing high susceptibility while BALB/cAnNCrl and C3H/HeOuJ showing more resistance to P. aeruginosa infection. Next, one of the most susceptible and resistant mouse strains were characterized for their deviant clinical and immunological phenotype by scoring bacterial count, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines and chemokines profile and lung pathology in an early time course. Susceptible A/J mice showed significantly higher bacterial burden, higher cytokines and chemokines levels but lower leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophils, when compared to C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice. Pathologic scores showed lower inflammatory severity, reduced intraluminal and interstitial inflammation extent, bronchial and parenchymal involvement and diminished alveolar damage in the lungs of A/J when compared to C3H/HeOuJ. Our findings indicate that during an early phase of infection a prompt inflammatory response in the airways set the conditions for a non-permissive environment to P. aeruginosa replication and lock the spread to other organs. Host gene(s may have a role in the reduction of cell-mediated immunity playing a critical role in

  12. Mineralogical controls on antimony and arsenic mobility during tetrahedrite-tennantite weathering at historic mine sites Špania Dolina-Piesky and Lubietová-Svätodušná, Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor,; #269; inová rAdková, AnežkA; Jamieson, Heather; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Majzlan, Juraj; Števko, Martin; Chovan, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The legacy of copper (Cu) mining at Špania Dolina-Piesky and Lubietová-Svätodušná (central Slovakia) is waste rock and soil, surface waters, and groundwaters contaminated with antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), Cu, and other metals. Copper ore is hosted in chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and sulfosalt solid-solution tetrahedrite-tennantite {Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13–Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13} that show wide-spread oxidation characteristic by olive-green color secondary minerals. Tetrahedrite-tennantite can be a significant source of As and Sb contamination. Synchrotron-based μ-XRD, μ-XRF, and μ-XANES combined with electron microprobe analyses have been used to determine the mineralogy, chemical composition, element distribution, and Sb speciation in tetrahedrite-tennantite oxidation products in waste rock. Our results show that the mobility of Sb is limited by the formation of oxidation products such as tripuhyite and roméite group mineral containing 36.54 wt% Sb for samples where the primary mineral chemical composition is close to tetrahedrite end-member. Antimony K-edge μ-XANES spectra of these oxidation products indicate that the predominant Sb oxidation state is 5+. Arsenic and Cu are also hosted by amorphous phases containing 6.23 wt% Sb on average and these are intergrown with tripuhyite and roméite. Antimony in this environment is not very mobile, meaning it is not easily released from solid phases to water, especially compared to As, Cu, and S. For samples where the primary sulfosalt is close to tennantite composition, the oxidation products associated with tennantite relicts contain 2.43 wt% Sb and are amorphous. The variable solubility of the secondary minerals that have been identified is expected to influence mobility of Sb and As in near-surface environment.

  13. The application of normal, SV40 T-antigen-immortalised and tumour-derived oral keratinocytes, under serum-free conditions, to the study of the probability of cancer progression as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceder, Rebecca; Merne, Marina; Staab, Claudia A; Nilsson, Jan Anders; Höög, Jan-Olov; Dressler, Dirk; Engelhart, Karin; Grafström, Roland C

    2007-12-01

    In vitro models are currently not considered to be suitable replacements for animals in experiments to assess the multiple factors that underlie the development of cancer as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals. An evaluation was conducted on the potential use of normal keratinocytes, the SV40 T-antigen-immortalised keratinocyte cell line, SVpgC2a, and the carcinoma cell line, SqCC/Y1, alone and in combination, and under standardised serum-free culture conditions, to study oral cancer progression. In addition, features considered to be central to cancer development as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals, were analysed. Genomic expression, and enzymatic and functional data from the cell lines reflected many aspects of the transition of normal tissue epithelium, via dysplasia, to full malignancy. The composite cell line model develops aberrances in proliferation, terminal differentiation and apoptosis, in a similar manner to oral cancer progression in vivo. Transcript and protein profiling links aberrations in multiple gene ontologies, molecular networks and tumour biomarker genes (some proposed previously, and some new) in oral carcinoma development. Typical specific changes include the loss of tumour-suppressor p53 function and of sensitivity to retinoids. Environmental agents associated with the aetiology of oral cancer differ in their requirements for metabolic activation, and cause toxic effects to cells in both the normal and the transformed states. The results suggest that the model might be useful for studies on the sensitivity of cells to chemicals at different stages of cancer progression, including many aspects of the integrated roles of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Overall, the properties of the SVpgC2a and SqCC/Y1 cell lines, relative to normal epithelial cells in monolayer or organotypic culture, support their potential applicability to mechanistic studies on cancer risk factors, including, in particular, the definition of

  14. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  15. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organ space SSI. • Infection occurs within 30 days if no implant, or within a year if implant and the infection seems to be related to the operation and infection occurs in any anatomical site ... Diagnosis of an organ/space SSI made by the surgeon or ..... selected projects ”enlist the best academic researchers and industry to.

  16. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F

    1993-08-01

    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  17. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Old traumatic wounds with retained devitalized tissue and those that involve existing clinical infection or perforated viscera. This definition suggests that the organisms that caused the post-operative infection had been present at the start of the procedure. * Garner JS and Simmons. Table II: National nosocomial Infections ...

  18. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with En...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  19. Diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather Sports 5 Ideas for Eco-Friendly Celebrations Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Urinary Tract Infections Print ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  1. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by ... common bacterial infections? If so, these recurrent infections may be a sign of an immunodeficiency disorder. The ...

  2. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence...... of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...

  3. Histopathological observation of immunized rhesus macaques with plague vaccines after subcutaneous infection of Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Tian

    Full Text Available In our previous study, complete protection was observed in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques immunized with SV1 (20 µg F1 and 10 µg rV270 and SV2 (200 µg F1 and 100 µg rV270 subunit vaccines and with EV76 live attenuated vaccine against subcutaneous challenge with 6×10(6 CFU of Y. pestis. In the present study, we investigated whether the vaccines can effectively protect immunized animals from any pathologic changes using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, the glomerular basement membranes (GBMs of the immunized animals and control animals were checked by electron microscopy. The results show no signs of histopathological lesions in the lungs, livers, kidneys, lymph nodes, spleens and hearts of the immunized animals at Day 14 after the challenge, whereas pathological alterations were seen in the corresponding tissues of the control animals. Giemsa staining, ultrastructural examination, and immunohistochemical staining revealed bacteria in some of the organs of the control animals, whereas no bacterium was observed among the immunized animals. Ultrastructural observation revealed that no glomerular immune deposits on the GBM. These observations suggest that the vaccines can effectively protect animals from any pathologic changes and eliminate Y. pestis from the immunized animals. The control animals died from multi-organ lesions specifically caused by the Y. pestis infection. We also found that subcutaneous infection of animals with Y. pestis results in bubonic plague, followed by pneumonic and septicemic plagues. The histopathologic features of plague in rhesus macaques closely resemble those of rodent and human plagues. Thus, Chinese-origin rhesus macaques serve as useful models in studying Y. pestis pathogenesis, host response and the efficacy of new medical countermeasures against plague.

  4. [Deep neck infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible.

  5. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  6. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  7. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    D'Oronzio, U; Arlettaz, R.; Hagmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical details of 50 infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified in a prospective study are reported. The mean birthweight, gestational age, and head circumference of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection were not significantly different from those of controls. Three (6%) had symptoms at birth--two neurological and one pneumonitis. In the first four months of life transient hepatosplenomegaly occurred in two infected children and six suffered interstitial pneum...

  8. Infections in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Sampathkumar, Priya

    2017-12-01

    Neurointensive care (NICU) patients experience complex infectious disease challenges. Central nervous system (CNS) infections are difficult to diagnose and treat, and post-neurosurgical patients are vulnerable to a unique set of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) in addition to those typical of critically ill patients. The purpose of this review is to summarize the approach to suspected infection in the NICU and discuss management of several infectious syndromes in the NICU setting.

  9. [Infection and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatz, A; Boecker, M; Schuppe, H-C; Diemer, Th; Wagenlehner, F

    2016-07-01

    Infections in the urogenital tract are accepted causes of male infertility. Epidemiologic data indicate 6-10 % of all males undergoing andrological work-up for infertility having an infectious etiology. This review gives a comprehensive overview on the most important urogenital tract infections (prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, male accessory gland infection-MAGI) and the impact on fertility. In males suffering infertility, evidence is also presented regarding an infectious etiology.

  10. Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.

  11. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  12. Listeria Placental Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Véázquez-Boland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting listeriosis, which can potentially lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital neonatal infections. While other systemic bacterial infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes at comparable frequencies, L. monocytogenes has particular notoriety because fetal complications largely occur in the absence of overt illness in the mother, delaying medical intervention. Here, we briefly review the pathophysiology and mechanisms of maternofetal listeriosis, discussed in light of a recent mBio report on Listeria transplacental infection in a nonhuman primate model.

  13. HIV infections in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  14. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove

    1995-01-01

    patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...... frequently than the others. We discuss the symptoms and diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess and suggest a proposal for prophylactic and diagnostic guidelines for epidural catheter-related infections. Comment in: J Hosp Infect. 1997 Mar;35(3):245....

  15. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  16. Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433

  17. Neonatal rotavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffejee, I E

    1991-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infections in newborns differ from those in older infants; the majority of RV infections that occur in neonates are mild or asymptomatic. Generally, fewer than one-third of RV-infected neonates have diarrhea, although rates have reached 77% in some hospital nursery populations. Cases with severe diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, bowel perforation, and death have been reported, but such cases are very rare. Infection usually occurs during the first week of life and generally invokes a mucosal antibody response without a concomitant serologic antibody response. Neonatal RV infections appear to incite an immune response that affords significant protection against severe RV-associated diarrhea, although not necessarily against a symptomatic RV infection later in life. Strains that cause neonatal infections differ from those that infect older infants; the outer-capsid protein VP4 is highly conserved in "nursery" RV strains, a property that probably plays a key role in their attenuated virulence. Immaturity of proteolytic enzymes in the neonatal gut and presence of secretory anti-RV IgA and trypsin inhibitors in breast milk are other factors that could account for the asymptomatic nature of RV infections in newborns. Natural "nursery" strains of RV are currently being evaluated as vaccine candidates.

  18. Epidemiology of anaerobic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatko, S I

    1983-01-01

    The clinical importance of the anaerobic organisms, especially the toxicogenic Clostridia and some of the nonsporulating anaerobes, has been recognized for some time. Only within the last 20 years, however, owing to improved methodology, have gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, anaerobic cocci, and streptococci been commonly recognized and encountered in clinical infections. Today, anaerobic organisms are common isolates from infections involving intra-abdominal sites, the female genital tract, soft tissue, and oral areas and from major infections involving the lung, brain, and head and neck. Most of these infections are polymicrobial--involving both anaerobic and facultative or aerobic organisms. In some instances, it is difficult to ascertain what role is played by what organisms. No doubt, synergism is present in many cases. Because anaerobes are prevalent normal flora of the body, almost all anaerobic infections are of endogenous origin. Many of these anaerobes are opportunists; given the appropriate set of conditions, they will penetrate tissue and cause infection. Many have been associated with wound infection subsequent to bowel surgery or trauma, tubo-ovarian abscess, perirectal abscess, subphrenic abscess, postabortal sepsis, appendicitis, and many other infectious conditions. This article reviews the distribution of anaerobes in infected hospitalized patients and their relation to infection over a 5-year period.

  19. Ambiguous Role of Interleukin-12 in Yersinia enterocolitica Infection in Susceptible and Resistant Mouse Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Erwin; Schmitt, Edgar; Bielfeldt, Claudia; Noll, Annette; Schulte, Ralf; Autenrieth, Ingo B.

    1998-01-01

    Endogenous interleukin-12 (IL-12) mediates protection against Yersinia enterocolitica in C57BL/6 mice by triggering gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in NK and CD4+ T cells. Administration of exogenous IL-12 confers protection against yersiniae in Yersinia-susceptible BALB/c mice but exacerbates yersiniosis in resistant C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we wanted to dissect the different mechanisms exerted by IL-12 during Yersinia infections by using different models of Yersinia-resistant and -susceptible mice, including resistant C57BL/6 mice, susceptible BALB/c mice, intermediate-susceptible wild-type 129/Sv mice, 129/Sv IFN-γ-receptor-deficient (IFN-γR−/−) mice and C57BL/6 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor p55 chain-deficient (TNFR p55−/−) mice. IFN-γR−/− mice turned out to be highly susceptible to infection by Y. enterocolitica compared with IFN-γR+/+ mice. Administration of IL-12 was protective in IFN-γR+/+ mice but not in IFN-γR−/− mice, suggesting that IFN-γR-induced mechanisms are essential for IL-12-induced resistance against yersiniae. BALB/c mice could be rendered Yersinia resistant by administration of anti-CD4 antibodies or by administration of IL-12. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice could be rendered more resistant by administration of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Furthermore, IL-12-triggered toxic effects in C57BL/6 mice were abrogated by coadministration of TGF-β. While administration of IL-12 alone increased TNF-α levels, administration of TGF-β or TGF-β plus IL-12 decreased both TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in Yersinia-infected C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, IL-12 did not induce toxicity in Yersinia-infected TNFR p55−/− mice, suggesting that TNF-α accounts for IL-12-induced toxicity. Taken together, IL-12 may induce different effector mechanisms in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice resulting either in protection or exacerbation. These results are important for understanding the critical balance of proinflammatory and regulatory

  20. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of infection-causing bacteria than the previous vaccine, the PCV7. If your child already has begun PCV7 vaccination, consult your physician ... infections than children who aren’t vaccinated. The vaccine is strongly ... and can help keep your child from catching a cold or the flu. Avoid ...

  1. E. Coli Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out if you have E. coli in your intestines. The culture has to be taken in the first 48 hours after the bloody diarrhea starts. PreventionHow can I keep from getting E. coli infection?You can help prevent this infection by handling ...

  2. Imaging spinal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Jay; Gibbs, Wende N.

    2016-01-01

    Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral ...

  3. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Complications of untreated/improperly treated sexually transmitted infections include male and female infertility, abortions, ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, lower abdominal pain and cervical cancer2. Sexually transmitted infections rank among the five top diseases for which Nigerians seek medical attention, and the major ...

  4. Surgical wound infection - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007645.htm Surgical wound infection - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... the organ and space where you had surgery Treatment Antibiotics are used to treat most wound infections. Sometimes, you also may need surgery to ...

  5. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... younger than 5 years, they are a leading cause of pneumonia in school-aged children and young adults. Community- ... be given for more serious symptoms associated with pneumonia and ear infections. What Is the Prognosis? This infection often causes wheezing in children with asthma or reactive airways. ...

  6. Urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2013-07-01

    The urinary tract is a common source for life-threatening infections. Most patients with sepsis or septic shock from a urinary source have complicated urinary tract infection. This article explains the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Effective management, appropriate collection of microbiology specimens, prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy, source control, and supportive therapy are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Nidal A; Bakri, Faris G

    2006-05-01

    Diabetic foot infection DFI is simply defined as suspected or documented infection of the tissues that comprise the foot of a diabetic patient. Diabetic foot infection is often caused by introduction of an infection into the otherwise sterile soft tissues of the foot through a minor skin break down. Diabetic foot infection may be mild usually restricted to the uppermost layers of the skin, moderate extending down to the soft tissues of the foot or severe infection associated with systemic toxicity or metabolic instability. The paper reviews the types of DFI, pathophysiology, microbiology of DFI, relevant anatomy of the foot, clinical evaluation, measures of severity of DFI, the role of radiological investigations, and the role of early surgical intervention in the prevention of progressive foot infection and limb salvage. It is concluded that the diagnosis of DFI should be suspected at an early stage based on the presence of local signs of inflammation with or without systemic signs of toxicity or metabolic instability. Optimal treatment of DFI requires a multimodality approach directed at controlling hyperglycemia, administration of systemic antibiotics, and local wound management to prevent the spread and dissemination of infection.

  8. Pulmonary infections after tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauser Jabeen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.

  9. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sera was Western blot analysis positive. The over- all prevalence of mv infection in this study was. 2/1553 participants (0,13%). These results dem.on- strate not only that mv infection and the potential for its transmission are present in the Republic of. Bophuthatswana but that they call for energetic and well-targeted control ...

  10. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  11. [Infection by human cytomegalovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Navarro Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus infection is very high worldwide. Following primary infection, the virus remains latent, being able to cause recurrences either by reinfection with a new strain or by reactivation of the replication of the latent virus. The most severe disease is seen in congenital infection and in immunosuppressed patients, in whom the virus act as an opportunistic pathogen. Serological techniques are the methods of choice in primary infection and to determine the immune status against CMV in organ donor and receptor. Although well-standardized studies are lacking, the recent commercial availability of methods that measure cellular immune response are promising to predict the risk of CMV disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Molecular assays, that have gradually been substituting viral culture and/or antigen detection, are the most widely used methods for the diagnosis and control of CMV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Genitourinary infection in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Julka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known to increase the risk of infection and the commonest amongst them are the ones involving the genitourinary tract. The infections in a diabetic patient are unique in that they are recurrent, more severe, requiring hospitalization, and also have higher mortality than nondiabetics. Some infections are exclusively found in diabetics like the emphysematous pyelonephritis while others have their natural history complicated due to hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may lead to albuminuria and urinary tract infection and may need to be treated in diabetics. Not just this certain organisms have a predilection for the genitourinary tract of the diabetic patient. All of the above makes the diabetic patient vulnerable to infections and therefore early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory.

  13. Infection control in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S R

    1991-08-01

    The risk of transmission of infection within the dental workplace is low, but recent data have indicated that human immunodeficiency virus transmission between dentist and patient can occur, and that while nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus is now less likely, a small but significant number of staff may be at risk of hepatitis C virus and varicella zoster virus infection during dental treatment. Despite these continued risks, shortcomings remain in cross-infection control in the dental workplace. Dental clinicians still fail to take adequate steps to minimize nosocomial infection, inconsistently using appropriate methods of sterilization and not providing ancillary staff with suitable protective clothing. Similarly, although vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, a substantial number of clinicians are reluctant to treat hepatitis B virus- or human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Cross-infection control procedures continue to be modified. Of importance, it has been confirmed that protective rubber gloves cannot be reused, as micropunctures develop during rewashing. Sharps injuries are common in dental practice, but there are still no effective measures to prevent postinjury human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Instrument sterilization is generally safe and effective, but the contamination of dental unit water supplies remains to be overcome, and while impressions can be placed in disinfectants for up to 1 hour without significant dimensional change, it is not known if infectious agents within the impression material are inactivated by this procedure.

  14. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  15. Zebrafish and Streptococcal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralahti, A; Rämet, M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcal bacteria are a versatile group of gram-positive bacteria capable of infecting several host organisms, including humans and fish. Streptococcal species are common colonizers of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause some of the most common life-threatening, invasive infections in humans and aquaculture. With its unique characteristics and efficient tools for genetic and imaging applications, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful vertebrate model for infectious diseases. Several zebrafish models introduced so far have shown that zebrafish are suitable models for both zoonotic and human-specific infections. Recently, several zebrafish models mimicking human streptococcal infections have also been developed. These models show great potential in providing novel information about the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses associated with human streptococcal infections. Here, we review the zebrafish infection models for the most relevant streptococcal species: the human-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the zoonotic Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The recent success and the future potential of these models for the study of host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal infections are also discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  16. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  17. Hajj-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon-Rousseau, A; Piednoir, E; Cattoir, V; de La Blanchardière, A

    2016-10-01

    The Hajj is the largest annual mass gathering event in the world, thus favoring the transmission of various infections: 183 different nationalities, high temperatures, coincidence with the start of the flu season in the Northern hemisphere, a long barefoot walk, tent-type accommodation, communal toilet facilities, absence of food control, and sharing of razors. Infections are the first cause of hospital admission, which often occurs in the home country of pilgrims. Literature review on PubMed from 1952 to November 2015 on the epidemiology and prevention of infections contracted during the Hajj, using the keywords "Hajj" and "infections". Respiratory tract infections, ENT infections, influenza, pyogenic pneumonia, whooping cough, and tuberculosis are most frequently observed during the Hajj. Outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis have been reported in pilgrims and their contacts. Waterborne infections such as gastroenteritis and hepatitis A are common, despite the improvement of health conditions. Pyoderma and furuncles are also frequently observed. Recently, dengue fever, Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever have emerged but no case of MERS-coronavirus, appeared in Saudi Arabia in 2012, have yet been observed during the 2012-2014 Hajj. Prevention is based on compulsory meningococcal vaccination, vaccination against seasonal influenza and pneumococcal infections for pilgrims at high risk of contracting the infection, and on vaccination against hepatitis A. Updating immunization for diphtheria/tetanus/poliomyelitis/pertussis and measles/mumps is also crucial and pilgrims must comply with hygiene precautions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. O’Connell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.

  19. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  20. Superficial Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Pujalte, George G A; Reese, Stephanie T

    2015-12-01

    Superficial fungal infections grow in dark and moist areas and invade various parts of the body. These infections are easily treatable in immunocompetent individuals. In immunosuppressed individuals, the presentation can be quite severe, requiring use of more potent antifungal agents. The treatment for these conditions consists of topical antifungal agents, creams, and oral systemic medications. The use of prednisone can alter the appearance of superficial fungal infections, making them difficult to diagnose. It is important for primary care providers to become adept at understanding the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis techniques, and treatment options available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  2. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    .... The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies...

  3. Super-infections and relapses occur in chronic norovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julianne R; Roy, Sunando; Tutill, Helena; Williams, Rachel; Breuer, Judith

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus causes chronic infections in immunocompromised patients with considerable associated morbidity. It is not known whether chronic infections involve super- or re-infections or relapses. To retrospectively investigate whether longitudinal sampling in chronically infected patients demonstrates persistent infection with the same virus, or super- or re-infection. Norovirus full genomes were generated from 86 longitudinal samples from 25 paediatric patients. Consensus sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis and genotyping. Super-infections occurred in 17% of chronically infected patients who were continuously PCR positive; including two with mixed norovirus infections. The median duration of infection was 107days longer in those with super-infections; however this was not statistically significant. A third of patients with interrupted norovirus shedding continued to be infected with the same virus despite up to 2 months of PCR negative stools, classified as a relapse. The majority (67%) of patients with interrupted shedding were re-infected with a different genotype. Chronically infected patients who are continuously PCR positive are most likely to remain infected with the same virus; however super-infections do occur leading to mixed infection. Patients with interrupted shedding are likely to represent re-infection with a different genotype, however relapsing infections also occur. Our findings have implications for infection control as immunosuppressed patients remain susceptible to new norovirus infections despite current or recent infection and may continue to be infectious after norovirus is undetectable in stool. The relevance to children without co-morbidities remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 13C and 15N CP/MAS, 1H-15N SCT CP/MAS and FTIR spectroscopy as tools for qualitative detection of the presence of zwitterionic and non-ionic forms of ansa-macrolide 3-formylrifamycin SV and its derivatives in solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Piotr; Pyta, Krystian; Klich, Katarzyna; Schilf, Wojciech; Kamieński, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    (13)C, (15)N CP/MAS, including (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(15)N short contact time CP/MAS experiments, and FTIR methods were applied for detailed structural characterization of ansa-macrolides as 3-formylrifamycin SV (1) and its derivatives (2-6) in crystal and in powder forms. Although HPLC chromatograms for 2/CH3 OH and 2/CH3 CCl3 were the same for rifampicin crystals dissolved in respective solvents, the UV-vis data recorded for them were different in 300-375 nm region. Detailed solid state (13)C and (15)N CP/MAS NMR and FTIR studies revealed that rifampicin (2), in contrast to 3-formylrifamycin SV (1) and its amino derivatives (3-6), can occur in pure non-ionic or zwitterionic forms in crystal and in pure these forms or a mixture of them in a powder. Multinuclear CP/MAS and FTIR studies demonstrated also that 3-6 derivatives were present exclusively in pure zwitterionic forms, both in powder and in crystal. On the basis of the solid state NMR and FTIR studies, two conformers of 3-formylrifamycin SV were detected in powder form due to the different orientations of carbonyl group of amide moiety. The PM6 molecular modeling at the semi-empirical level of theory, allowed visualization the most energetically favorable non-ionic and zwitterionic forms of 1-6 antibiotics, strongly stabilized via intramolecular H-bonds. FTIR studies indicated that the originally adopted forms of these type antibiotics in crystal or in powder are stable in standard laboratory conditions in time. The results presented point to the fact that because of a possible presence of two forms of rifampicin (compound 2), quantification of the content of this antibiotic in relevant pharmaceuticals needs caution. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Listeria Placental Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Boland, José A; Krypotou, Emilia; Scortti, Mariela

    2017-06-27

    The Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection. Pregnant women are at risk of contracting listeriosis, which can potentially lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital neonatal infections. While other systemic bacterial infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes at comparable frequencies, L. monocytogenes has particular notoriety because fetal complications largely occur in the absence of overt illness in the mother, delaying medical intervention. Here, we briefly review the pathophysiology and mechanisms of maternofetal listeriosis, discussed in light of a recent mBio report on Listeria transplacental infection in a nonhuman primate model. Copyright © 2017 Vázquez-Boland et al.

  6. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  7. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  8. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  9. SIDA et Infections Opportunistes

    OpenAIRE

    GHAFFOUR, Mohammed El-Amine; GHOMARI, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Le sida ou syndrome d'immunodépression acquise, révélé en 1983, est la conséquence grave de l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (HIV), responsable d'une diminution de l'immunité cellulaire qui est source d'infections opportunistes. L'amélioration des fonctions immunitaires sous multi thérapie antirétrovirale a permis de réduire de façon importante la prévalence de ces infections. L'infection par le VIII réalise actuellement une pandémie, dont la transmission ...

  10. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  11. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic"

  12. Urticaria and infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedi Bettina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p

  13. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  14. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  15. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Video) Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...

  17. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...

  18. Prevent Infections in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles 10 Tips for Preventing Infections Before and During Pregnancy Language: ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  19. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. (2013). Sexually transmitted infections among U.S. women and men: Prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008 . Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(3): 187–193. Centers for Disease Control ...

  20. Immunity Against Klebsiella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rukavina

    2005-01-01

    different plasma concentrations for all cytokines. The greatest difference was detected 24 hours after infection, with a higher production in the unprotected group. We concluded that a reduced cytokine production is partially responsible for the survival of protected animals.

  1. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by A haemolyticum and one associated with a streptococcal organism. Antibacterials, typically erythromycin, can be used to treat this infection. The symptoms quickly clear up when taking these medicines, although the disease is likely to get better on its own ...

  2. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  3. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  4. Coxsackievirus Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a serious infection, including myocarditis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In ... feel more comfortable. Because antibiotics only work against bacteria, they can't be used to fight a ...

  5. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  6. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  7. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  8. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wash your hands. This is the simplest and best way to prevent most kinds of infection. Wash your ... supply is likely to be unsafe, drink and brush your teeth with bottled water that you open yourself. Don' ...

  9. An Infected Mediastinal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Lawson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a 43-year-old patient who had a mediastinal mass that became infected after a transbronchial needle aspirate biopsy. A paraspinal, extrapleural window with a saline-lidocaine mixture was created that allowed the placement of a percutaneous drainage catheter into the infected lesion. This procedure resulted in an excellent clinical outcome, and obviated the need for a thoracotomy and more invasive surgical management.

  10. Immunomodulation of Helicobacter Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori leads to a chronic infection in humans that is associated with gastric inflammation and a vigorous immune response. Despite the humoral and cellular responses that can be detected in both human and animal models of helicobacter infection, the immune response fails to eliminate the organism. Eradication failure may be due to the niche in which H pylori confines itself, well away from direct contact with elements of the immune system. Alternatively, the general tendency of t...

  11. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Agnese Latino; Daniela De Maria; Andrea Caneparo; Claudia Rosso; Gianfranco De Intinis; Anna Maria Calì; Pierangelo Clerici; Marco Cusini; Ivano Dal Conte; Tiziano Maggino; Enrico Magliano; Alfonso Panuccio; Roberto Pozzoli; Mario Rassu; Barbara Suligoi

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more c...

  12. Clostridium difficile infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, WK; Lyras, D.; Lacy, DB; Wilcox, MH; Kuijper, EJ

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of infla...

  13. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  14. Metabolic Effects of Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    about the tions of glucagon, insulin, glucocorticoids , cate- mechanisms that regulate the rates of lipid re- cholamines, and growth hormone increase...from an acute period of fever may be followed energy-generating responses during infection. In by diuresis in early convalescence, contrast, several...common in infections of the central nervous sys- The adrenal glucocorticoid hormones serve a tern and may occur during severe generalized central but

  15. Parasitic lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi

    2009-05-01

    Global climate change and population explosion leading to changes in natural ecosystem and travel across the continents have resulted in an increase in the transmission of parasites to human beings. This review focuses on recent advancements in parasitic lung infections. Invasive parasitic diseases including lung infections are increasingly being reported in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes. A recombinant kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania donovani has been validated with ELISA using urine samples for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pyruvate kinase deficiency has been shown to provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Intravenous artesunate is an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. The best way to protect from malaria is the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets. Biennial treatment with praziquantel has been found to be cost-effective treatment for control of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Pulmonary paragonimiasis can be diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary nodules. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection can mimic accelerated idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Migratory nodular shadows with halos are important chest computed tomographic findings in human toxocariasis. Patients with immunodeficiency syndromes (HIV infection, organ transplantation and immunosuppressive drugs, including corticosteroids) should be evaluated for early detection of parasitic lung infections.

  16. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Nosocomial infections: surgical site infection in UCH Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HAI was 3.0%, Surgical Site Infection was the second most prevalent HAI. Surgical Site Infection was responsible for 27.9% of the nosocomial infections recorded. The ratio of Gram Positive to Gram Negative organisms was 1:2.3. Bacterial agents of Surgical Site Infection were Staphylococcus aureus ...

  18. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  19. Intraspecies Competition for Niches in the Distal Gut Dictate Transmission during Persistent Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lilian H.; Monack, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to be transmitted, a pathogen must first successfully colonize and multiply within a host. Ecological principles can be applied to study host-pathogen interactions to predict transmission dynamics. Little is known about the population biology of Salmonella during persistent infection. To define Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium population structure in this context, 129SvJ mice were oral gavaged with a mixture of eight wild-type isogenic tagged Salmonella (WITS) strains. Distinct subpopulations arose within intestinal and systemic tissues after 35 days, and clonal expansion of the cecal and colonic subpopulation was responsible for increases in Salmonella fecal shedding. A co-infection system utilizing differentially marked isogenic strains was developed in which each mouse received one strain orally and the other systemically by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Co-infections demonstrated that the intestinal subpopulation exerted intraspecies priority effects by excluding systemic S. Typhimurium from colonizing an extracellular niche within the cecum and colon. Importantly, the systemic strain was excluded from these distal gut sites and was not transmitted to naïve hosts. In addition, S. Typhimurium required hydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates acquisition of hydrogen from the gut microbiota, during the first week of infection to exert priority effects in the gut. Thus, early inhibitory priority effects are facilitated by the acquisition of nutrients, which allow S. Typhimurium to successfully compete for a nutritional niche in the distal gut. We also show that intraspecies colonization resistance is maintained by Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands SPI1 and SPI2 during persistent distal gut infection. Thus, important virulence effectors not only modulate interactions with host cells, but are crucial for Salmonella colonization of an extracellular intestinal niche and thereby also shape intraspecies dynamics. We conclude that priority effects and

  20. Coordinated Regulation of Virulence during Systemic Infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyunjin; McDermott, Jason E.; Porwollik, Steffen; Mcclelland, Michael; Heffron, Fred

    2009-02-20

    Salmonella must respond to a myriad of environmental cues during infection of a mouse and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner to subvert the host defense mechanisms but these regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 84 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella typhimurium virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal (i.p.), and intragastric (i.g.) infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in SvJ129 mice). Overall 36 regulators were identified that were less virulent in at least one assay, and of those, 15 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection in an acute infection model. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint we focused on these 15 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for each of these 15 regulators from strains grown under four different environmental conditions. These results as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 15 regulators control a specific set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that, for these 7 genes, the response regulator SsrB and the marR type regulator SlyA co-regulate in a regulatory cascade by integrating multiple signals.

  1. Coordinated regulation of virulence during systemic infection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjin Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To cause a systemic infection, Salmonella must respond to many environmental cues during mouse infection and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner, but the regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 83 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella enteriditis Typhimurium (STM virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal [i.p.], and intragastric [i.g.] infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in 129X1/SvJ mice. Overall, 35 regulators were identified whose absence attenuated virulence in at least one assay, and of those, 14 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection, the most stringent virulence assay. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint, we focused on these 14 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for deletions of each of these 14 regulators grown under four different environmental conditions. These results, as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles, were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 14 regulators control the same set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2. These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that the response regulator SsrB and the MarR type regulator, SlyA, are the terminal regulators in a cascade that integrates multiple signals. Furthermore, experiments to demonstrate epistatic relationships showed that SsrB can replace SlyA and, in some cases, SlyA can replace SsrB for expression of SPI-2 encoded

  2. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  3. Transgenerational effect of infection in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

    2015-03-01

    Transgenerational effects of infection have a huge potential to influence the prevalence and intensity of infections in vectors and, by extension, disease epidemiology. These transgenerational effects may increase the fitness of offspring through the transfer of protective immune factors. Alternatively, however, infected mothers may transfer the costs of infection to their offspring. Although transgenerational immune protection has been described in a dozen invertebrate species, we still lack a complete picture of the incidence and importance of transgenerational effects of infection in most invertebrate groups. The existence of transgenerational infection effects in mosquito vectors is of particular interest because of their potential for influencing parasite prevalence and intensity and, by extension, disease transmission. Here we present what we believe to be the first study on transgenerational infection effects in a mosquito vector infected with malaria parasites. The aim of this experiment was to quantify both the benefits and the costs of having an infected mother. We find no evidence of transgenerational protection in response to a Plasmodium infection. Having an infected mother does, however, entail considerable fecundity costs for the offspring: fecundity loss is three times higher in infected offspring issued from infected mothers than in infected offspring issued from uninfected mothers. We discuss the implications of our results and we call for more studies looking at transgenerational effects of infection in disease vectors. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Infected nonunion of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  5. Infected nonunion of tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Milind Madhav

    2017-01-01

    Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced membrane technique is an

  6. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

  7. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  8. Urticaria and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence.

  9. Immunomodulation of Helicobacter Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Croitoru

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori leads to a chronic infection in humans that is associated with gastric inflammation and a vigorous immune response. Despite the humoral and cellular responses that can be detected in both human and animal models of helicobacter infection, the immune response fails to eliminate the organism. Eradication failure may be due to the niche in which H pylori confines itself, well away from direct contact with elements of the immune system. Alternatively, the general tendency of the intestinal immune response to down- regulate reactivity to noninvasive luminal bacteria also may contribute to the failure to eliminate helicobacter infection. Results of vaccine studies in mouse models indicate that modulating the helper T cell response from a T helper cell type 1 to a T helper cell type 2 response likely is required for the prevention and elimination of helicobacter infection. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune response controls bacterial infections will allow for the design of novel strategies of immune modulation and the development of vaccines for both the treatment and prevention of H pylori.

  10. [Infection control in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeyuki

    2010-01-01

    Infection control committee as the central decision-making and infection control team (ICT) for carrying out all aspects of infection control are important for hospital infection control. Standard precautions are used for all patients and apply to all body fluids except for sweat, whether or not they contain visible blood. Transmission-based precautions involve airborne, droplet, contact vector-borne and common vehicle precautions. Airborne precautions are for tuberculosis, varicella and measles. Small particles (precautions are for influenza, rubella, pertussis, and so on. Transmission via large droplet (transmissions are for blood-borne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C virus and HIV, bacterial infections via percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure, and so on. Vaccinations for measles, rubella, varicella, mumps, influenza and hepatitis B virus to health-care workers are important. Influenza virus is mainly transmitted via droplet and contact, but also via airborne transmission in the aerosol-generating procedures such as intubation and suctioning. WHO declared a public health emergency in April 2009. A novel influenza has spread rapidly across the globe, and it will be necessary to prepare for the outbreak in this autumn and winter.

  11. Infection control for norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, L.; Park, G. W.; Vega, E.; Hall, A.; Parashar, U.; Vinjé, J.; Lopman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are notoriously difficult to prevent and control, owing to their low infectious dose, high shedding titre, and environmental stability. The virus can spread through multiple transmission routes, of which person-to-person and foodborne are the most important. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. In this article, we review the epidemiology and virology of noroviruses, and prevention and control guidelines, with a focus on the principles of disinfection and decontamination. Outbreak management relies on sound infection control principles, including hand hygiene, limiting exposure to infectious individuals, and thorough environmental decontamination. Ideally, all infection control recommendations would rely on empirical evidence, but a number of challenges, including the inability to culture noroviruses in the laboratory and the challenges of outbreak management in complex environments, has made it difficult to garner clear evidence of efficacy in certain areas of infection control. New experimental data on cultivable surrogates for human norovirus and on environmental survivability and relative resistance to commonly used disinfectants are providing new insights for further refinining disinfection practices. Finally, clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, which may shift the current infection control principles to more targeted interventions. PMID:24813073

  12. [Atherosclerosis and infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, K

    2006-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is guided by chronicle inflammation process. In the last decades of the 20th century, studies considering infection another possible risk factor of atherosclerosis development were written. Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromas gingivalis, some viruses but most frequently Chlamydia pneumonie are infection agens mentioned in these studies. Some of them emphasize also combined infections caused by more pathogenic factors having influence on vascular inflammation. Serological, epidemiological, histological and imunological studies show the pathogenic influence of acute or chronic infections. Many studies selected makrolid antibiotics as treatment in patients with ischaemic heart disease. However, existing experience with antibiotics did not bring clear results. These studies have mentioned the fact antibiotics have not been indicated as treatment in patients with acute or chronic vascular system infliction by atherosclerosis. Since the experimental and clinical research of influence of inflammations on the development of atherosclerosis moved forward a lot, no exact evidence of this complicated pathogenic mechanism was given. It will obviously take some time to confirm whether the relation between infections and artherosclerosis is causal, i.e. initiating the pathogenic process, accelerating it or keeping it alive.

  13. The Biophysics of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes involved in infection has grown enormously in the past decade due in part to emerging methods of biophysics. This new insight has been enabled through advances in interdisciplinary experimental technologies and theoretical methods at the cutting-edge interface of the life and physical sciences. For example, this has involved several state-of-the-art biophysical tools used in conjunction with molecular and cell biology approaches, which enable investigation of infection in living cells. There are also new, emerging interfacial science tools which enable significant improvements to the resolution of quantitative measurements both in space and time. These include single-molecule biophysics methods and super-resolution microscopy approaches. These new technological tools in particular have underpinned much new understanding of dynamic processes of infection at a molecular length scale. Also, there are many valuable advances made recently in theoretical approaches of biophysics which enable advances in predictive modelling to generate new understanding of infection. Here, I discuss these advances, and take stock on our knowledge of the biophysics of infection and discuss where future advances may lead.

  14. Surgical infection in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakins, J L

    1996-12-01

    The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.

  15. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  16. Enterococcal infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karina M

    2006-07-01

    From relative obscurity, enterococci have become a leading cause of nosocomial infection. This has been attributed, in part, to the growth in susceptible host populations, increased use of intravascular devices, prolonged hospital stay, and widespread antibiotics use. Furthermore, the facility with which enterococci acquire resistance characteristics coupled with their capacity to survive in the environment renders them uniquely suited as nosocomial opportunists and have resulted in global dissemination of resistant strains. Debate continues as to whether most serious infections arise from a person's indigenous flora or dissemination of virulent clones. Enterococci are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. Classically associated with endocarditis and wound and urinary tract infections, increasingly they are a cause of nosocomial bacteremia. The rise in incidence of serious enterococcal infection has been particularly evident in neonatal, paediatric intensive care, and haematology/oncology units. Spread of resistant phenotypes has posed a difficult therapeutic challenge. We have been rescued, albeit perhaps only temporarily, by the addition of newer agents, such as linezolid, to the therapeutic armamentarium. However, there is no room for complacency. Linezolid resistance already has been reported. Efforts must continue to focus on prevention of the emergence and dissemination of resistance through policies of rational antibiotic use, infection control and education.

  17. Orthopaedic biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoodley, Paul; Ehrlich, Garth D; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Baratz, Mark E; Altman, Daniel T; Sotereanos, Nicholas G; Costerton, John William; Demeo, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    A recent paradigm shift in microbiology affects orthopaedic surgery and most other medical and dental disciplines because more than 65% of bacterial infections treated by clinicians in the developed world are now known to be caused by organisms growing in biofilms. These slime-enclosed communities of bacteria are inherently resistant to host defenses and to conventional antibacterial therapy, and these device-related and other chronic bacterial infections are unaffected by the vaccines and antibiotics that have virtually eliminated acute infections caused by planktonic (floating) bacteria. We examine the lessons that can be learned, within this biofilm paradigm, by the study of problems (e.g. non-culturability) shared by all biofilm infections and by the study of new therapeutic options aimed specifically at sessile bacteria in biofilms. Orthopaedic surgery has deduced some of the therapeutic strategies based on assiduous attention to patient outcomes, but much can still be learned by attention to modern research in related disciplines in medicine and dentistry. These perceptions will lead to practical improvements in the detection, management, and treatment of infections in orthopaedic surgery.

  18. Epidemiology of coronavirus respiratory infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, D; Flowers, D; Clarke, J R; Valman, H B; MacNaughton, M R

    1983-01-01

    Human coronaviruses were found by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in upper respiratory tract secretions taken during 30% of 108 acute respiratory infections experienced by 30 children under age 6 years with recurrent respiratory infections (index group), and during 29% of 51 acute infections experienced by their siblings. Lower respiratory tract infection--predominantly wheezy bronchitis--occurred in 30% of the index children's coronavirus positive infections but in none of their siblings' ...

  19. Positive regulatory role of sound vibration treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bosung Choi; Ritesh Ghosh; Mayank Anand Gururani; Gnanendra Shanmugam; Junhyun Jeon; Jonggeun Kim; Soo-Chul Park; Mi-Jeong Jeong; Kyung-Hwan Han; Dong-Won Bae; Hanhong Bae

    2017-01-01

    Sound vibration (SV), a mechanical stimulus, can trigger various molecular and physiological changes in plants like gene expression, hormonal modulation, induced antioxidant activity and calcium spiking...

  20. Thrombocytopenia and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Acquired thrombocytopenia recognizes a myriad of causes. Among these, infectious diseases play a relevant role since a low platelet count is commonplace along with other abnormal laboratory data. Areas covered: This narrative review, after a brief presentation of the possible pathogenic mechanisms, is focused on the most prevalent infections associated with thrombocytopenia, namely those attributable to hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Helicobacter pylori. Expert commentary: An underlying HCV or HIV infection should always be suspected in patients at risk who present with isolated thrombocytopenia. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori is advisable in infected patients with secondary immune thrombocytopenia, because this will increase the platelet count in a substantial number of cases, thus avoiding more aggressive and prolonged treatments.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  2. Infections after keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Chodosh, James

    2016-07-01

    The purpose is to provide an overview of the recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of microbial keratitis and endophthalmitis after keratoprosthesis implantation. The addition of vancomycin daily to a fluoroquinolone in the postoperative management of keratoprosthesis patients successfully reduced the number of cases of bacterial keratitis and endophthalmitis with an increased number of fungal infections now documented both in the United States and abroad. Compliance with the regimen of a fluoroquinolone and vancomycin daily for life after keratoprosthesis implantation should be stressed with the patient. Further research is needed to investigate whether intermittent use of 5% povidone-iodine and frequent replacement of the bandage contact lens could reduce fungal infection after keratoprosthesis surgery. Future advancements in the Boston keratoprosthesis design and/or postoperative management are needed to further reduce infection after keratoprosthesis placement.

  3. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  4. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  5. Immunopathology of Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pablo C; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2013-04-01

    In spite of the protean nature of the disease, inflammation is a hallmark of brucellosis and affected tissues usually exhibit inflammatory infiltrates. As Brucella lacks exotoxins, exoproteases or cytolysins, pathological findings in brucellosis probably arise from inflammation-driven processes. The cellular and molecular bases of immunopathological phenomena probably involved in Brucella pathogenesis have been unraveled in the last few years. Brucella-infected osteoblasts, either alone or in synergy with infected macrophages, produce cytokines, chemokines and matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), and similar phenomena are mounted by fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The released cytokines promote the secretion of MMPs and induce osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, these phenomena may contribute to the bone loss and cartilage degradation usually observed in brucellar arthritis and osteomyelitis. Proinflammatory cytokines may be also involved in the pathogenesis of neurobrucellosis. B. abortus and its lipoproteins elicit an inflammatory response in the CNS of mice, leading to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis. Heat-killed bacteria (HKBA) and the L-Omp19 lipoprotein elicit astrocyte apoptosis and proliferation (two features of astrogliosis), and apoptosis depends on TNF-α signaling. Brucella also infects and replicates in human endothelial cells, inducing the production of chemokines and IL-6, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules. The sustained inflammatory process derived from the longlasting infection of the endothelium may be important for the development of endocarditis. Therefore, while Brucella induces a low grade inflammation as compared to other pathogens, its prolonged intracellular persistence in infected tissues supports a long-lasting inflammatory response that mediates different pathways of tissue damage. In this context, approaches to avoid the invasion of host cells or limit the intracellular survival of the bacterium may be

  6. Genital infections mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  7. [Listeria monocytogenes infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Léna; Chuard, Christian

    2017-10-11

    Listeria monocytogenes infections are caused by food ingestion. They are not only transmitted by animal products, but also by secondarily contaminated fruits and vegetables. They preferentially affect pregnant women, patients of extreme ages and the immu-nocompromised, and manifest as a gastroenteritis, bacteremia, meningo-encephalitis or maternal-fetal infection. Diagnosis is achieved by culture of usually sterile sites. The preferred treatment is amoxicillin with or without gentamicin. For patients at risk, prevention is based on avoiding at-risk food or cooking it when possible.

  8. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  9. Dipylidium caninum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child. PMID:22674592

  10. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  11. CNS infections in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Søborg, Bolette; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    ), but equally high among Inuits in Greenland and Denmark (38.2 and 35.4, respectively). Mortality from CNS infections was 2 fold higher among Inuits (10.5%) than among non-Inuits (4.8%) with a fivefold higher case fatality rate in Inuit toddlers. CONCLUSION: Overall, Inuits living in Greenland and Denmark...... suffer from twice the rate of CNS infections compared with non-Inuits, and Inuit toddlers carried the highest risk of mortality. Further studies regarding risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, life style and socioeconomic factors are warranted....

  12. Atypical bacterial infections explained by a concomitant virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Hall, C B; Menegus, M A

    1985-09-01

    Because both viral and bacterial infections are common during early childhood, dual infections are not unexpected. However, the clinical manifestation of such combined infections may be, difficult to interpret, and they are often misdiagnosed as "atypical bacterial infection." Five patients with concomitant viral-bacterial infections are described. In all five cases, virus detection enabled the physicians to better understand an otherwise puzzling clinical presentation. In view of the recent progress in rapid viral diagnoses and the potential of antiviral drugs, the possibility of dual infection should be investigated more often.

  13. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  14. Vitamin C and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-01-01

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further. PMID:28353648

  15. Infections after refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Zeeshan; Farooq, Asim V; Huang, Andrew J W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the review is to provide a summary of the recent literature concerning infections after refractive surgery pertinent to each procedure category. New data from a large retrospective study suggest that the incidence of post-laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis infectious keratitis is declining. Additionally, recent case studies have reported viral, fungal, and Acanthamoeba pathogens. Corneal collagen cross-linking is emerging as an alternative therapeutic option for early stage post-LASIK infectious keratitis. Postoperative bandage contact lens used in patients undergoing surface ablation procedures may confer a higher risk of infection because of greater colonization rates in those individuals, such as healthcare providers, with relatively high risk of exposure to potential pathogens. In the setting of post-penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism, femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy procedures pose a risk of infectious keratitis and even endophthalmitis. Lastly, recent case reports of endophthalmitis after refractive lens procedures highlight the importance of postoperative monitoring for this sight threatening, albeit rare, complication. The risks and management of infections after surgical refractive procedures vary widely depending on the specific technique employed. As technology and treatment options continue to evolve with further research, we anticipate continued success in the management of postoperative infections after refractive surgery.

  16. Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernike, K.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Beer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects

  17. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  18. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, TS; van der Graaf, WTA; Tappero, JW; Asiedu, K

    1999-01-01

    After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli-ulcer disease (caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent people. Countries in which the disease is endemic have been identified, predominantly in areas of tropical rain forest; the

  19. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  1. (HLB) infected citrus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... sinuous rod like structures, 0.15 - 0.25 µm in diameter. They can be observed by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of infected trees (Moll and Martin, 1973). The aim of this study was to detect and identify Candidatus. Liberibacter asiaticus using PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to ...

  2. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathogenesis of Rhinovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Turner, Ronald B.; Braciale, Thomas; Heymann, Peter W.; Borish, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Summary Since its discovery in 1956, rhinovirus (RV) has been recognized as the most important virus producing the common cold syndrome. Despite its ubiquity, little is known concerning the pathogenesis of RV infections, and some of the research in this area has led to contradictions regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of RV-induced illness. In this article, we discuss the pathogenesis of this virus as it relates to RV-induced illness in the upper and lower airway, an issue of considerable interest in view of the minimal cytopathology associated with RV infection. We endeavor to explain why many infected individuals exhibit minimal symptoms or remain asymptomatic, while others, especially those with asthma, may have severe, even life-threatening, complications (sequelae). Finally, we discuss the immune responses to RV in the normal and asthmatic host focusing on RV infection and epithelial barrier integrity and maintenance as well as the impact of the innate and adaptive immune responses to RV on epithelial function. PMID:22542099

  4. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know - 한국어 (Korean) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Salmonella Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por salmonela: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  5. Haemophilus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Haemophilus Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones por Haemophilus: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español ( ...

  6. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Bacterial Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones bacterianas: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ...

  7. Wound Infections PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  8. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente; Claramonte, Xavier; Armero, Yolanda; Sidani, Nisreen; Kanj-Sharara, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Raglio, Annibale; Goglio, Antonio; Gnecchi, Fabrizio; Suter, Fredy; Valsecchi, Grazia; Rizzi, Marco; Ravasio, Veronica; Hoen, Bruno; Chirouze, Catherine; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Bernard, Yvette; Casey, Anna; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Elliot, Tom; Patel, Mukesh; Dismukes, William; Pan, Angelo; Caros, Giampiero; Tribouilloy, Amel Brahim Mathiron Christophe; Goissen, Thomas; Delahaye, Armelle; Delahaye, Francois; Vandenesch, Francois; Vizzotti, Carla; Nacinovich, Francisco M.; Marin, Marcelo; Trivi, Marcelo; Lombardero, Martin; Cortes, Claudia; Casabe, Jose Horacio; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Commerford, Anita; Hansa, Cass; Deetlefs, Eduan; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Commerford, Patrick; Wray, Dannah; Steed, Lisa L.; Cantey, Robert; Morris, Arthur; Holland, David; Murdoch, David; Graham, Katherine; Read, Kerry; Raymond, Nigel; Bridgman, Paul; Troughton, Richard; Lang, Selwyn; Chambers, Stephen; Kotsanas, Despina; Korman, Tony M.; Peterson, Gail; Purcell, Jon; Southern, Paul M.; Shah, Manisha; Bedimo, Roger; Reddy, Arjun; Levine, Donald; Dhar, Gaurav; Hanlon-Feeney, Alanna; Hannan, Margaret; Kelly, Sinead; Wang, Andrew; Cabell, Christopher; Woods, Christopher; Sexton, Daniel J.; Benjamin, Danny; Corey, G. Ralph; McDonald, Jay R.; Federspiel, Jeff; Engemann, John J.; Barth Reller, L.; Drew, Laura; Caram, L. B.; Stryjewski, Martin; Morpeth, Susan; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Fowler, Vance; Chu, Vivian; Mazaheri, Bahram; Neuerburg, Carl; Naber, Christoph; Athan, Eugene; Henry, Margaret; Harris, Owen; Alestig, Eric; Olaison, Lars; Wikstrom, Lotta; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K.; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Chaiworramukkun, Jaruwan; Pachirat, Orathai; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Suwanich, Tewan; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Premru, Manica Muella; Logar, Mateja; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Orezzi, Christina; Klein, John; Bouza, Emilio; Moreno, Mar; Rodriguez-Creixems, Marta; Marin, Mercedes; Fernandez, Miguel; Munoz, Patricia; Fernandez, Rocio; Ramallo, Victor; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Habib, Gilbert; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Kulichenko, Vadim P.; Butkevich, O. M.; Lion, Christine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Alla, Francois; Coyard, Helene; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Larussi, Diana; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Francoise Tripodi, Marie; Utili, Riccardo; Sampath Kumar, A.; Sharma, Gautam; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Street, Alan; Eisen, Damon Peter; McBryde, Emma Sue; Grigg, Leeanne; Abrutyn, Elias; Michelet, Christian; Tattevin, Pierre; Yves Donnio, Pierre; Fortes, Claudio Querido; Edathodu, Jameela; Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Font, Bernat; Raimon Guma, Joan; Cereceda, M.; Oyonarte, Miguel J.; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Garcia, Patricia; Braun Jones, Sandra; Isabel de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ley Woon, Lok; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Rees, David; Kornecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Dever, Robyn; Post, Jeffey; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzzane; Harkness, John; Fenely, Michael; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilewitz, Jacob; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Dragulescu, Stefan; Forno, Davide; Cecchi, Enrico; de Rosa, Francesco; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Wiesbauer, Franz; Gattringer, Rainer; Deans, Greg; Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic; Barsic, Bruno; Klinar, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  9. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has far reaching implications on patient morbidity and ... was complicated by a SSI had a 2-11% higher risk of death. In those patients who died, 75% was directly .... genital and uninfected urinary tract is not entered. In addition, clean wounds are primarily closed ...

  10. Oral fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common oral fungal infection diagnosed in humans. Candidiasis may result from immune system dysfunction or as a result of local or systemic medical treatment. Because oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection, topical treatment methods are the first line of therapy, especially for the pseudomembranous and erythematous variants. Patients with dental prostheses should also be advised to disinfect the prosthesis routinely during the candidal treatment period, because the prosthesis may serve as a source of reinfection. Additionally, patients should be advised that oral hygiene aids, such as toothbrushes and denture brushes, may also be contaminated and should be discarded or disinfected. A disinfecting solution of equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and water may be used. Likewise, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution may be used asa disinfecting solution for dental prostheses and oral hygiene aids. Occasionally the clinician encounters a more resistant form of oral candidiasis such as the hyperplastic variant or a variant that does not respond to topical therapy. Appropriate systemic therapy should be employed for the treatment of these infections. Additionally, a biopsy should be undertaken in individuals with the hyperplastic variant of Candida because there is some degree of risk for malignant transformation. Deep fungal infections should be managed in association with appropriate medical specialists to rule out other systemic involvement. The dental health care provider plays an important part in the diagnosis and management of fungal disease, and therefore clinicians should be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms or oral fungal disease.

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...

  12. Repeated Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... he/she have ear tubes?What are the dangers of my child’s repeated infections?Should my child ... affect you or your baby through your breast milk.December 2017December 2017familydoctor.org editorial staffHip Problems in ...

  13. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    of the respondents or other identifying information were not included in the questionnaires. The knowledge section had 7 sexually transmitted infection symptoms for grading knowledge, namely lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, penile discharge, itching of the vagina, burning pain on urination, genital ulcers/sores ...

  14. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  15. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toilet training or spend time in a child care center. People who live or work with small children also are at higher risk of developing giardia infection. People without access to safe drinking water. Giardiasis is rampant wherever sanitation is inadequate or ...

  16. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  17. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  18. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in

  19. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  20. Herpes simplex virus-1 infection or Simian virus 40-mediated immortalization of corneal cells causes permanent translocation of NLRP3 to the nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate into the potential involvement of pyrin containing 3 gene (NLRP3, a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors with cytosolic pattern recognition, in the host defense of corneas against viruses. METHODS: The herpes viral keratitis model was utilized in BALB/c mice with inoculation of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1. Corneal tissues removed during therapy of patients with viral keratitis as well as a Simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line were also examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect NLRP3 in these subjects, focusing on their distribution in tissue or cells. Western blot was used to measure the level of NLRP3 and another two related molecules in NLPR3 inflammasome, namely caspase-1 and IL-1β. RESULTS: The NLRP3 activation induced by HSV-1 infection in corneas was accompanied with redistribution of NLRP3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in both murine and human corneal epithelial cells. Furthermore, in the SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells, NLRP3 was exclusively located in the nucleus, and treatment of the cells with high concentration of extracellular potassium (known as an inhibitor of NLRP3 activation effectively drove NLRP3 back to the cytoplasm as reflected by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. CONCLUSION: It is proposed that herpes virus infection activates and causes redistribution of NLRP3 to nuclei. Whether this NLRP3 translocation occurs with other viral infections and in other cell types merit further study.

  1. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED...... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...... and 39 pocket infections) were recorded during the study period. Median follow-up time was 26 (IQR 9-41) months, 30 day and 12 month mortality were 4% and 14%, respectively. There was no long-term difference in mortality between patients with pocket vs. systemic infection (p = 0.48). During follow...

  2. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.

  3. EBV Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eligio, Pizzigallo; Delia, Racciatti; Valeria, Gorgoretti

    2010-01-01

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpes viruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS) aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA), really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.). However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious). Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse. Thanks to both

  4. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  5. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... this page: About CDC.gov . Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients Patients and Caregivers Prepare: Watch Out for Fever ...

  6. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder infection called cystitis (say: ... harmful bacteria keep spreading. From the bladder, they may head into one of the ureters and climb ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...

  11. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research HIV Infection and Cancer Risk On This Page Do people ... being linked to an increased risk of cancer, HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of dying ...

  12. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  13. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... 16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America ...

  14. A Multi-Omic View of Host-Pathogen-Commensal Interplay in Salmonella-Mediated Intestinal Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Li, Jie; Sanford, James A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Jones, Marcus B.; Peterson, Christine; Peterson, Scott N.; Frank, Bryan C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Brown, Joseph N.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-06-26

    The potential for commensal microorganisms indigenous to a host (the ‘microbiome’ or ‘microbiota’) to alter infection outcome by influencing host-pathogen interplay is largely unknown. We used a multi-omics “systems” approach, incorporating proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and metagenomics, to explore the molecular interplay between the murine host, the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), and commensal gut microorganisms during intestinal infection with S. Typhimurium. We find proteomic evidence that S. Typhimurium thrives within the infected 129/SvJ mouse gut without antibiotic pre-treatment, inducing inflammation and disrupting the intestinal microbiome (e.g., suppressing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes while promoting growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus). Alteration of the host microbiome population structure was highly correlated with gut environmental changes, including the accumulation of metabolites normally consumed by commensal microbiota. Finally, the less characterized phase of S. Typhimurium’s lifecycle was investigated, and both proteomic and glycomic evidence suggests S. Typhimurium may take advantage of increased fucose moieties to metabolize fucose while growing in the gut. The application of multiple omics measurements to Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation provides insights into complex molecular strategies employed during pathogenesis between host, pathogen, and the microbiome.

  15. SIV Infection Facilitates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Xian, Qiao-Yang; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Xin; Bao, Rong; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jin-Biao; Tang, Zhi-Jiao; Guo, De-yin; Qin, Chuan; Li, Jie-Liang; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Thus, it is necessary to understand the pathogenetic interactions between M.tb and HIV infection. In this study, we examined M.tb and/or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Chinese rhesus macaques. While there was little evidence that M.tb enhanced SIV infection of macaques, SIV could facilitate M.tb infection as demonstrated by X-rays, pathological and microbiological findings. Chest X-rays showed that co-infected animals had disseminated lesions in both left and right lungs, while M.tb mono-infected animals displayed the lesions only in right lungs. Necropsy of co-infected animals revealed a disseminated M.tb infection not only in the lungs but also in the extrapulmonary organs including spleen, pancreas, liver, kidney, and heart. The bacterial counts in the lungs, the bronchial lymph nodes, and the extrapulmonary organs of co-infected animals were significantly higher than those of M.tb mono-infected animals. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that two of three co-infected animals had lower levels of M.tb specific IFN-γ and IL-22 in PBMCs than M.tb mono-infected animals. These findings suggest that Chinese rhesus macaque is a suitable and alternative non-human primate model for SIV/M.tb coinfection studies. The impairment of the specific anti-TB immunity is likely to be a contributor of SIV-mediated enhancement M.tb infection. PMID:28133458

  16. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  17. Nosocomial infections and staff hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroudi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.

  18. Infection imaging in nuclear medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Regardless of advances in medicine, infection continues to play a major role in patients' morbidity and mortality. Nuclear medicine techniques have an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of harbouring infection. Many different agents may be used in an attempt to image infection. ere are ...

  19. [Opportunistic infections and sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilloux, Y; Bernard, C; Lortholary, O; Kerever, S; Lelièvre, L; Gerfaud-Valentin, M; Broussolle, C; Valeyre, D; Sève, P

    2017-05-01

    Opportunistic infections (OI) are uncommon in sarcoidosis (1 to 10%) and mostly occur in patients with previously diagnosed disease or can rarely be the presenting manifestation. The most common OIs are, in descending order: aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and mycobacterial infections. Treatment with corticosteroids is the most frequent risk factor for OI occurrence during sarcoidosis but immunosuppressive drugs and therapy with anti-TNFα are also risk factors. Overall, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome are identical to that occur in other conditions complicated with the occurrence of OIs. However, some atypical presentations of OIs can mimic sarcoidosis exacerbation and misdiagnosis may lead clinicians to increase immunosuppression, causing worsening of the OI. The meticulous collection of patient's history along with factors differentiating OI from sarcoidosis exacerbation is key factor to optimally manage these patients. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

  1. Transfusion-transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodd Roger Y

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens.

  2. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  3. Esophageal infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj C; Caicedo, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    Infectious esophagitis generally occurs in patients with impaired immunity. Although methods to suppress the immune system evolve, the potential infectious consequences are poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious esophagitis. Minimal pediatric data, including a few case reports and series, involve infectious esophagitis. Esophageal infections are usually caused by the following microbes, in order starting with the most common: Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Uncommon risk factors in these and other reports include epidural triamcinolone and oral budesonide in addition to more common risk factors such as HIV infection, chemotherapeutic agents, and transplant immunosuppressive medications. Rare reports involve immunocompetent patients and treatment of these patients is controversial. Understanding of infectious esophagitis is growing, and risk factors, diagnosis, and treatments are evolving.

  4. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  5. Third molar infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  6. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  7. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  8. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  9. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  10. Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  11. Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmali Maamouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a relatively common disorder among infants in Iran. Bacterial infection and jaundice may be associated with higher morbidity. Previous studies have reported that jaundice may be one of the signs of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate, presentation time, severity of jaundice, signs and complications of infection within neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.   Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran. We prospectively evaluated 1763 jaundiced newborns. We Finally found 434 neonates who were categorized into two groups.131 neonates as case group (Blood or/and Urine culture positive or sign of pneumonia and 303 neonates with idiopathic jaundice as control group. Demographic data including prenatal, intrapartum, postnatal events and risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Biochemical markers including bilirubin level, urine and blood cultures were determined at the request of the clinicians.   Results: Jaundice presentation time, age on admission, serum bilirubin value and hospitalization period were reported significantly higher among case group in comparison with control group (p

  12. Vaccines against mucosal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2012-06-01

    There remains a great need to develop vaccines against many of the pathogens that infect mucosal tissues or have a mucosal port of entry. Parenteral vaccination may protect in some instances, but usually a mucosal vaccination route is necessary. Mucosal vaccines also have logistic advantages over injectable vaccines by being easier to administer, having less risk of transmitting infections and potentially being easier to manufacture. Still, however, only relatively few vaccines for human use are available: oral vaccines against cholera, typhoid, polio, and rotavirus, and a nasal vaccine against influenza. For polio, typhoid and influenza, in which the pathogens reach the blood stream, there is also an injectable vaccine alternative. A problem with available oral live vaccines is their reduced immunogenicity when used in developing countries; for instance, the efficacy of rotavirus vaccines correlates closely with the national per capita income. Research is needed to define the impact of factors such as malnutrition, aberrant intestinal microflora, concomitant infections, and preexisting immunity as well as of host genetic factors on the immunogenicity of these vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  14. IL-17 and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y; Puel, A

    2014-10-01

    IL-17 immunity has been shown to be essential for mucocutaneous protection against Candida albicans in mice and humans. However, mice with defective IL-17 immunity display broader susceptibility, as they are also prone to infections with diverse infectious agents at various sites. Humans with genetic defects affecting their IL-17 immunity usually suffer from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC): recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and mucosae with C. albicans, with or without other clinical signs. Most patients with autosomal dominant (AD) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to STAT3 deficiency or AD STAT1 gain-of-function display impaired IL-17-producing T-cell development, and CMC is one of their principal clinical manifestations. Similarly, patients with autosomal recessive (AR) autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by AIRE deficiency have high levels of neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F and/or IL-22 and present CMC as their only infectious disease. Finally, CMC is the main clinical phenotype observed in patients with inborn errors specifically affecting IL-17 immunity. Indeed, patients with AD IL-17F deficiency or AR IL-17RA or ACT1 deficiency display CMC and, to a lesser extent, superficial staphylococcal diseases. Candida infection was recently reported in psoriasis patients treated with anti-IL-17A antibodies. Careful monitoring for CMC is thus important during anti-IL-17 treatment.

  15. Predisposing factors endorsing Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Fatima, Zeeshan; Hameed, Saif

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which is involved in infections ranging from superficial, mucosal to systemic candidiasis. It is the fourth most leading cause of death in nosocomial infections. Candidal infections are increasing at an alarming rate due to poor clinical management in hospital settings, more use of antibiotics, increased drug resistance, immunosuppression and host-pathogen related factors. There are various predisposing factors which can be immunologic or non-immunologic in origin that make a person susceptible to such infections. This review article establishes the need to understand the various predisposing factors leading to Candidal infections and discusses them on a common platform.

  16. Latest opportunistic infection prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, R

    1998-01-01

    Although people with HIV are living longer than ever before, they continue to suffer from infections that are associated with low T4-cell counts. The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have updated the guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections, including their positions on when prophylaxis is indicated. Summaries are given for preventing the following infections: cytomegalovirus (CMV), cryptosporidiosis, fungal infections, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes-related infections, mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), streptococcal pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis.

  17. Immune- and Nonimmune-Compartment-Specific Interferon Responses Are Critical Determinants of Herpes Simplex Virus-Induced Generalized Infections and Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Zachary M; Pasieka, Tracy Jo; Parker, George A; Leib, David A

    2016-12-01

    The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras of IFN-αβγR(-/-) (AG129) and wild-type (WT; 129SvEv) mice to probe the underlying IFN-dependent mechanisms that control HSV-1 pathogenesis. After infection, WT mice with either IFN-αβγR(-/-) or WT marrow exhibited comparable survival, while IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice with WT marrow had a significant survival advantage over their counterparts with IFN-αβγR(-/-) marrow. Furthermore, using bioluminescent imaging to maximize data acquisition, we showed that the transfer of IFN-competent hematopoietic cells controlled HSV-1 replication and damage in the livers of IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice. Consistent with this, the inability of IFN-αβγR(-/-) immune cells to control liver infection in IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice manifested as profoundly elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, indicative of severe liver damage. In contrast, IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice receiving WT marrow exhibited only modest elevations of AST and ALT levels. These studies indicate that IFN responsiveness of the immune system is a major determinant of viral tropism and damage during visceral HSV infections. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is an incurable viral infection with the most significant morbidity and mortality occurring in neonates and patients with compromised immune systems. Severe pathologies from HSV include the

  18. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  19. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Yeast Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginal yeast infection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Yeast Infections updates ... gram stain Thrush Vaginal yeast infection Related Health Topics Fungal Infections Vaginitis National Institutes of Health The ...